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1

Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 healthy never smoking subjects; air, diluted diesel exhaust, and diluted diesel exhaust filtered with a ceramic particle trap. The exposures were given for 1 hour in randomised order about 3 weeks apart. The diesel exhaust exposure apperatus has previously been carefully developed and evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 24 hours after exposures and the lavage fluids from the bronchial and bronchoalveolar region were analysed for cells and soluble components. RESULTS: The particle trap reduced the mean steady state number of particles by 50%, but the concentrations of the other measured compounds were almost unchanged. It was found that diesel exhaust caused an increase in neutrophils in airway lavage, together with an adverse influence on the phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the diesel exhaust was found to be able to induce a migration of alveolar macrophages into the airspaces, together with reduction in CD3+CD25+ cells. (CD = cluster of differentiation) The use of the specific ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe was not sufficient to completely abolish these effects when interacting with the exhaust from an idling vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that exposure to diesel exhaust may induce neutrophil and alveolar macrophage recruitment into the airways and suppress alveolar macrophage function. The particle trap did not cause significant reduction of effects induced by diesel exhaust compared with unfiltered diesel exhaust. Further studies are warranted to evaluate more efficient treatment devices to reduce adverse reactions to diesel exhaust in the airways.   PMID:10492649

Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A.; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M. C.; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

1999-01-01

2

Prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles and effect on the male reproductive system in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles may reduce sperm production in adulthood. We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the male reproductive system and assessed endocrine disruption and regulation of aquaporin expression as possible mechanisms of action. Dams inhaled 20mg\\/m3 of diesel exhaust particle standard reference material 2975 (SRM2975) or clean air for 1h\\/day

Jette Gjerke Hemmingsen; Karin Sørig Hougaard; Chris Talsness; Anja Wellejus; Steffen Loft; Håkan Wallin; Peter Møller

2009-01-01

3

NASAL RESPONSES IN ASTHMATIC AND NONASTHMATIC SUBJECTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Asthma rates have been increasing world-wide, and exposure to diesel exhaust particles may be implicated in this increase. Additionally DEP may also play a role in the increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient airborne PM exposure. Two types of nasal responses hav...

4

Diesel exhaust particles cause increased levels of DNA deletions after transplacental exposure in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major source of air-borne pollution and are linked to increased risk of disease including lung cancer. Here we investigated effects of exposure to DEP on the frequency of DNA deletions, levels of oxidative DNA damage and DNA adduct formation during embryonic development in mice. Pregnant dams were orally exposed to various doses of DEP

Ramune Reliene; Alexandra Hlavacova; Brinda Mahadevan; William M. Baird; Robert H. Schiestl

2005-01-01

5

Effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on postnatal development, behavior, genotoxicity and inflammation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiological studies indicate that particulate air pollution constitutes a hazard for human health. Recent studies suggest that diesel exhaust possesses endocrine activity and therefore may affect reproductive outcome. This study in mice aimed to investigate whether exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; NIST 2975) would affect gestation, postnatal development, activity, learning and memory, and biomarkers of transplacental

Karin S Hougaard; Keld A Jensen; Pernille Nordly; Camilla Taxvig; Ulla Vogel; Anne T Saber; Håkan Wallin

2008-01-01

6

Diesel and biodiesel exhaust particle effects on rat alveolar macrophages with in vitro exposure.  

PubMed

Combustion emissions from diesel engines emit particulate matter which deposits within the lungs. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) encounter the particles and attempt to engulf the particles. Emissions particles from diesel combustion engines have been found to contain diverse biologically active components including metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons which cause adverse health effects. However little is known about AM response to particles from the incorporation of biodiesel. The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity in Wistar Kyoto rat AM of biodiesel blend (B20) and low sulfur petroleum diesel (PDEP) exhaust particles. Particles were independently suspended in media at a range of 1-500?gmL(-1). Results indicated B20 and PDEP initiated a dose dependent increase of inflammatory signals from AM after exposure. After 24h exposure to B20 and PDEP gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) increased. B20 exposure resulted in elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release at lower particle concentrations compared to PDEP. B20 and PDEP demonstrated similar affinity for sequestration of PGE2 at high concentrations, suggesting detection is not impaired. Our data suggests PGE2 release from AM is dependent on the chemical composition of the particles. Particle analysis including measurements of metals and ions indicate B20 contains more of select metals than PDEP. Other particle components generally reduced by 20% with 20% incorporation of biodiesel into original diesel. This study shows AM exposure to B20 results in increased production of PGE2in vitro relative to diesel. PMID:24268344

Bhavaraju, Laya; Shannahan, Jonathan; William, Aaron; McCormick, Robert; McGee, John; Kodavanti, Urmila; Madden, Michael

2014-06-01

7

Dietary exposure to diesel exhaust particles and oxidatively damaged DNA in young oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with high levels of oxidized DNA in lung cells, whereas long-term oral DEP exposure appears to induce the DNA repair system with concomitant unaltered levels of oxidized DNA in the colon and liver of rats. Here we studied the generation of oxidatively damaged DNA in young wild type (WT) and

Lotte Risom; Peter Møller; Marianne Dybdahl; Ulla Vogel; Håkan Wallin; Steffen Loft

2007-01-01

8

Effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on postnatal development, behavior, genotoxicity and inflammation in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Results from epidemiological studies indicate that particulate air pollution constitutes a hazard for human health. Recent studies suggest that diesel exhaust possesses endocrine activity and therefore may affect reproductive outcome. This study in mice aimed to investigate whether exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; NIST 2975) would affect gestation, postnatal development, activity, learning and memory, and biomarkers of transplacental toxicity. Pregnant mice (C57BL/6; BomTac) were exposed to 19 mg/m3 DEP (~1·106 particles/cm3; mass median diameter ? 240 nm) on gestational days 9–19, for 1 h/day. Results Gestational parameters were similar in control and diesel groups. Shortly after birth, body weights of DEP offspring were slightly lower than in controls. This difference increased during lactation, so by weaning the DEP exposed offspring weighed significantly less than the control progeny. Only slight effects of exposure were observed on cognitive function in female DEP offspring and on biomarkers of exposure to particles or genotoxic substances. Conclusion In utero exposure to DEP decreased weight gain during lactation. Cognitive function and levels of biomarkers of exposure to particles or to genotoxic substances were generally similar in exposed and control offspring. The particle size and chemical composition of the DEP and differences in exposure methods (fresh, whole exhaust versus aged, resuspended DEP) may play a significant role on the biological effects observed in this compared to other studies. PMID:18331653

Hougaard, Karin S; Jensen, Keld A; Nordly, Pernille; Taxvig, Camilla; Vogel, Ulla; Saber, Anne T; Wallin, Håkan

2008-01-01

9

Diesel Exhaust Particle Exposure Causes Redistribution of Endothelial Tube VE-Cadherin  

PubMed Central

Whether diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) potentially have a direct effect on capillary endothelia was examined by following the adherens junction component, vascular endothelial cell cadherin (VE-cadherin). This molecule is incorporated into endothelial adherens junctions at the cell surface, where it forms homodimeric associations with adjacent cells and contributes to the barrier function of the vasculature (Dejana et al., 2008; Venkiteswaran et al., 2002; Villasante et al., 2007). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were pre-formed into capillary-like tube networks in vitro were exposed to DEPs for 24 hr. After exposure, the integrity of VE-cadherin in adherens junctions was assessed by immunofluorescence analysis, and demonstrated that increasing concentrations of DEPs caused increasing redistribution of VE-cadherin away from the cell-cell junctions toward intracellular locations. Since HUVEC tube networks are three-dimensional structures, whether particles entered the endothelial cells or tubular lumens was also examined. The data indicate that translocation of the particles does occur. The results, obtained in a setting that removes the confounding effects of inflammatory cells or blood components, suggest that if DEPs encounter alveolar capillaries in vivo, they may be able to directly affect the endothelial cell-cell junctions. PMID:20887764

Chao, Ming-Wei; Kozlosky, John; Po, Iris P.; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Svoboda, Kathy K. H.; Cooper, Keith; Laumbach, Robert; Gordon, Marion K.

2010-01-01

10

Diesel exhaust particle exposure causes redistribution of endothelial tube VE-cadherin.  

PubMed

Whether diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) potentially have a direct effect on capillary endothelia was examined by following the adherens junction component, vascular endothelial cell cadherin (VE-cadherin). This molecule is incorporated into endothelial adherens junctions at the cell surface, where it forms homodimeric associations with adjacent cells and contributes to the barrier function of the vasculature (Dejana et al., 2008; Venkiteswaran et al., 2002; Villasante et al., 2007). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were pre-formed into capillary-like tube networks in vitro were exposed to DEPs for 24h. After exposure, the integrity of VE-cadherin in adherens junctions was assessed by immunofluorescence analysis, and demonstrated that increasing concentrations of DEPs caused increasing redistribution of VE-cadherin away from the cell-cell junctions toward intracellular locations. Since HUVEC tube networks are three-dimensional structures, whether particles entered the endothelial cells or tubular lumens was also examined. The data indicate that translocation of the particles does occur. The results, obtained in a setting that removes the confounding effects of inflammatory cells or blood components, suggest that if DEPs encounter alveolar capillaries in vivo, they may be able to directly affect the endothelial cell-cell junctions. PMID:20887764

Chao, Ming-Wei; Kozlosky, John; Po, Iris P; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Svoboda, Kathy K H; Cooper, Keith; Laumbach, Robert J; Gordon, Marion K

2011-01-11

11

Protective Effect of Curcumin on Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Effects Induced by Repeated Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that single dose exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP) causes lung inflammation and peripheral thrombotic events. Here, we exposed mice with repeated doses of DEP (15µg\\/animal) every 2nd day for 6 days (a total of 4

Abderrahim Nemmar; Deepa Subramaniyan; Badreldin H. Ali

2012-01-01

12

Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

13

Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of inherited DNA sequence mutations arising in the germline (i.e., sperm or egg) of mice exposed in utero to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) via maternal inhalation compared to unexposed controls was investigated in this study. Previous work has shown that particulate air pollutants (PAPs) from industrial environments cause DNA damage and mutations in the sperm of adult male

Caitlin Ritz; Wojciech Ruminski; Karin S. Hougaard; Håkan Wallin; Ulla Vogel; Carole L. Yauk

2011-01-01

14

Time Course of Gene Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Rat Lung after Diesel Exhaust Particle Exposure  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) at three concentrations (5, 35, and 50 mg/kg body weight) were instilled into rats intratracheally. We studied gene expression at 1, 7, and 30 days postexposure in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in lung tissue. Using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we measured the mRNA levels of eight genes [interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10, iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), MIP-2 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2), TGF-?1 (transforming growth factor-?1), and TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor-?)] in BAL cells and four genes [IL-6, ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor), and RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted)] in lung tissue. In BAL cells on day 1, high-dose exposure induced a significant up-regulation of IL-1?, iNOS, MCP-1, and MIP-2 but no change in IL-6, IL-10, TGF-?1, and TNF-? mRNA levels. There was no change in the mRNA levels of IL-6, RANTES, ICAM-1, and GM-CSF in lung tissue. Nitric oxide production and levels of MCP-1 and MIP-2 were increased in the 24-hr culture media of alveolar macrophages (AMs) obtained on day 1. IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-2 levels were also elevated in the BAL fluid. BAL fluid also showed increases in albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. The cellular content in BAL fluid increased at all doses and at all time periods, mainly due to an increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro studies in AMs and cultured lung fibroblasts showed that lung fibroblasts are a significant source of IL-6 and MCP-1 in the lung. PMID:15866772

Rao, K. Murali Krishna; Ma, Jane Y. C.; Meighan, Terence; Barger, Mark W.; Pack, Donna; Vallyathan, Val

2005-01-01

15

BIOMARKERS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project is to examine the detectability of some chemical components of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in human urine following controlled human diesel exposures (IRB-approved). Ultimately, and upon validation, we propose to apply these components as biomarke...

16

Altered human monocyte\\/macrophage function after exposure to diesel exhaust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between immune defense mechanisms and environmental pollutants has been a focus of intensive research during\\u000a the last decade. In animal experiments, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have been shown to exert adjuvant effects on the IgE\\u000a response against aeroantigens and to compromise broncho-pulmonary immune defense. Important target cells are monocytes\\/alveolar\\u000a macrophages which display the important functions of phagocytosis, antigenpresentation

Peter Thomas; Julia Maerker; Wolfgang Riedel; Bernhard Przybilla

1995-01-01

17

Protective Effect of Curcumin on Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Effects Induced by Repeated Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice  

PubMed Central

Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that single dose exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP) causes lung inflammation and peripheral thrombotic events. Here, we exposed mice with repeated doses of DEP (15µg/animal) every 2nd day for 6 days (a total of 4 exposures), and measured several cardiopulmonary endpoints 48 h after the end of the treatments. Moreover, the potential protective effect of curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric) on DEP-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity was assessed. DEP exposure increased macrophage and neutrophil numbers, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF ?) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and enhanced airway resistance to methacoline measured invasively using Flexivent. DEP also significantly increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and TNF ? concentrations, systolic blood pressure (SBP) as well as the pial arteriolar thrombosis. It also significantly enhanced the plasma D-dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Pretreatment with curcumin by oral gavage (45 mg/kg) 1h before exposure to DEP significantly prevented the influx of inflammatory cells and the increase of TNF ? in BAL, and the increased airway resistance caused by DEP. Likewise, curcumin prevented the increase of SBP, CRP, TNF ?, D-dimer and PAI-1. The thrombosis was partially but significantly mitigated. In conclusion, repeated exposure to DEP induced lung and systemic inflammation characterized by TNF? release, increased SBP, and accelerated coagulation. Our findings indicate that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that prevents the release of TNF? and protects against the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of DEP. PMID:22745783

Nemmar, Abderrahim; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Ali, Badreldin H.

2012-01-01

18

Protective effect of curcumin on pulmonary and cardiovascular effects induced by repeated exposure to diesel exhaust particles in mice.  

PubMed

Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that single dose exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP) causes lung inflammation and peripheral thrombotic events. Here, we exposed mice with repeated doses of DEP (15 µg/animal) every 2(nd) day for 6 days (a total of 4 exposures), and measured several cardiopulmonary endpoints 48 h after the end of the treatments. Moreover, the potential protective effect of curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric) on DEP-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity was assessed. DEP exposure increased macrophage and neutrophil numbers, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF ?) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and enhanced airway resistance to methacoline measured invasively using Flexivent. DEP also significantly increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and TNF ? concentrations, systolic blood pressure (SBP) as well as the pial arteriolar thrombosis. It also significantly enhanced the plasma D-dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Pretreatment with curcumin by oral gavage (45 mg/kg) 1 h before exposure to DEP significantly prevented the influx of inflammatory cells and the increase of TNF ? in BAL, and the increased airway resistance caused by DEP. Likewise, curcumin prevented the increase of SBP, CRP, TNF ?, D-dimer and PAI-1. The thrombosis was partially but significantly mitigated. In conclusion, repeated exposure to DEP induced lung and systemic inflammation characterized by TNF? release, increased SBP, and accelerated coagulation. Our findings indicate that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that prevents the release of TNF? and protects against the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of DEP. PMID:22745783

Nemmar, Abderrahim; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Ali, Badreldin H

2012-01-01

19

Exposure of Brown Norway Rats to Diesel Exhaust Particles Prior to Ovalbumin (OVA) Sensitization Elicits IgE Adjuvant Activity but Attenuates OVA-Induced Airway Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) during the sensiti- zation process has been shown to increase antigen-specific IgE production and aggravate allergic airway inflammation in human and animal models. In this study, we evaluated the effect of short- term DEP exposure on ovalbumin (OVA)-mediated responses using a post-sensitization model. Brown Norway rats were first exposed to filtered air or DEP

Caroline C. Dong; Xuejun J. Yin; Jane Y. C. Ma; Lyndell Millecchia; Mark W. Barger; Jenny R. Roberts; Xing-Dong Zhang; James M. Antonini; Joseph K. H. Ma

2005-01-01

20

Airway resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress following exposure to diesel exhaust particle in angiotensin II-induced hypertension in mice.  

PubMed

Exposure to particulate matter is a risk factor for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. Here, we compared the impact of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on airway resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in normal mice, or mice made hypertensive by implanting osmotic minipump infusing angiotensin II. On day 13 after the onset of infusion, angiotensin II induced significant increase in heart rate (P<0.05) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.0001). On the same day, mice were intratracheally instilled with either DEP (15 ?g/mouse) or saline. Twenty-four hour later, the measurement of airway reactivity to methacholine (0-10mg/ml) in vivo by a forced oscillation technique showed a significant and dose dependent increase in airway resistance in normotensive mice exposed to DEP compared to those exposed to saline. In hypertensive mice, there was no difference in airway resistance in DEP versus saline exposed mice. However, following exposure to DEP, airway resistance significantly increased in normotensive versus hypertensive mice. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis showed a significant increase in macrophage numbers in normotensive mice exposed to DEP compared to those exposed to saline, and to hypertensive mice exposed to DEP. Neutrophil numbers were significantly increased in both normotensive and hypertensive mice exposed to DEP compared with their respective control groups. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased following DEP exposure in both normotensive and hypertensive mice compared to their respective controls. However, total proteins, a marker for increase of epithelial permeability, and malondialdehyde, a reflection of lipid peroxidation, were only increased in normotensive mice exposed to DEP. Therefore, our data suggest that DEP do not aggravate airway resistance and inflammation in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice. On the contrary, at the dose of DEP and time point investigated, airway resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress are increased in normotensive compared to hypertensive mice. PMID:22214961

Nemmar, Abderrahim; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Zia, Shaheen; Yasin, Javed; Ali, Badreldin H

2012-02-26

21

Diesel and biodiesel exhaust particle effects on rat alveolar machrophages with in vitro exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

We conducted in vitro exposures of Wistar rat alveolar macrophages (AM) to compare and contrast the toxicity of particulate matter (PM) produced in combustion of biodiesel blend (B20) and petroleum diesel (PDEP). The PM contain detectable levels of transition metals and ions howe...

22

Allergic Susceptibility Associated with Diesel Exhaust Particle Exposure: Clear as Mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to elevated levels of particulate air pollution from motor vehicles is frequently associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular conditions, lung cancer, and nonmalignant respiratory illnesses (e.g., asthma, bronchitis, respiratory tract infections). It appears, however, that less attention has been paid to the potential role of road traffic fumes in the induction of allergic conditions. Laboratory studies in

Riccardo Polosa; Sundeep Salvi; Giuseppe U. di Maria

2002-01-01

23

Pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles induces airway inflammation and cytokine expression in NC\\/Nga mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several studies have reported that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) affect cardiorespiratory health in animals and humans, the effect of DEP on animal models with spontaneous allergic disorders has been far less intensively studied. The Nc\\/Nga mouse is known to be a typical animal model for human atopic dermatitis (AD). In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated

Ken-ichiro Inoue; Hirohisa Takano; Rie Yanagisawa; Takamichi Ichinose; Akinori Shimada; Toshikazu Yoshikawa

2005-01-01

24

Detailed diesel exhaust characteristics including particle surface area and lung deposited dose for better understanding of health effects in human chamber exposure studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several diesel exhaust (DE) characteristics, comprising both particle and gas phase, recognized as important when linking with health effects, are not reported in human chamber exposure studies. In order to understand effects of DE on humans there is a need for better characterization of DE when performing exposure studies. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify detailed DE characteristics during human chamber exposure. Additionally to compare to reported DE properties in conducted human exposures. A wide battery of particle and gas phase measurement techniques have been used to provide detailed DE characteristics including the DE particles (DEP) surface area, fraction and dose deposited in the lungs, chemical composition of both particle and gas phase such as NO, NO2, CO, CO2, volatile organic compounds (including aldehydes, benzene, toluene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eyes, nose and throat irritation effects were determined. Exposure conditions with PM1 (<1 ?m) mass concentration 280 ?g m-3, number concentration 4 × 105 cm-3 and elemental to total carbon fraction of 82% were generated from a diesel vehicle at idling. When estimating the lung deposited dose it was found that using the size dependent effective density (in contrast to assuming unity density) reduced the estimated respiratory dose by 132% by mass. Accounting for agglomerated structure of DEP prevented underestimation of lung deposited dose by surface area by 37% in comparison to assuming spherical particles. Comparison of DE characteristics reported in conducted chamber exposures showed that DE properties vary to a great extent under the same DEP mass concentration and engine load. This highlights the need for detailed and standardized approach for measuring and reporting of DE properties. Eyes irritation effects, most probably caused by aldehydes in the gas phase, as well as nose irritation were observed at exposure levels below current occupational exposure limit values given for exhaust fumes. Reporting detailed DE characteristics that include DEP properties (such as mass and number concentration, size resolved information, surface area, chemical composition, lung deposited dose by number, mass and surface) and detailed gas phase including components known for their carcinogenic and irritation effect (e.g. aldehydes, benzene, PAHs) can help in determination of key parameters responsible for observed health effects and comparison of chamber exposure studies.

Wierzbicka, Aneta; Nilsson, Patrik T.; Rissler, Jenny; Sallsten, Gerd; Xu, Yiyi; Pagels, Joakim H.; Albin, Maria; Österberg, Kai; Strandberg, Bo; Eriksson, Axel; Bohgard, Mats; Bergemalm-Rynell, Kerstin; Gudmundsson, Anders

2014-04-01

25

Disruption of the integrity and function of brain microvascular endothelial cells in culture by exposure to diesel engine exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a by-product of diesel engine exhaust (DEE), are known to produce pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects, thereby leading to oxidative stress-induced damage. Given the key role of DEPs in inducing oxidative stress, we investigated the role of DEPs in disrupting the integrity and function of immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVEC). To study this, HBMVEC cells were exposed to media containing three different concentrations of DEPs or plain media for 24h. Those exposed to DEPs showed significantly higher oxidative stress than the untreated group, as indicated by the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. DEPs also induced oxidative stress-related disruption of the HBMVEC cells monolayer, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance. Taken together, these data suggest that DEPs induce cell death and disrupt the function and integrity of HBMVEC cells, indicating a potential role of DEPs in neurotoxicities. PMID:23542817

Tobwala, Shakila; Zhang, Xinsheng; Zheng, Youyou; Wang, Hsiu-Jen; Banks, William A; Ercal, Nuran

2013-06-20

26

Pulmonary exposure to particles from diesel exhaust, urban dust or single-walled carbon nanotubes and oxidatively damaged DNA and vascular function in apoE(-/-) mice.  

PubMed

This study compared the oxidative stress level and vasomotor dysfunction after exposure to urban dust, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). DEP and SWCNT increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured endothelial cells and acellullarly, whereas the exposure to urban dust did not generate ROS. The apoE(-/-) mice, which were exposed twice to 0.5 mg/kg of the particles by intratracheal (i.t.) instillation, had unaltered acetylcholine-elicited vasorelaxation in aorta segments. There was unaltered pulmonary expression level of Vcam-1, Icam-1, Hmox-1 and Ogg1. The levels of oxidatively damaged DNA were unchanged in lung tissue. The exposure to SWCNT significantly increased the expression of Ccl-2 in the lung tissue of the mice. The exposure to DEP and SWCNT was associated with elevated ROS production in cultured cells, whereas i.t. instillation of the same particles had no effect on biomarkers of pulmonary oxidative stress and dilatory dysfunction in the aorta. PMID:23148895

Vesterdal, Lise K; Jantzen, Kim; Sheykhzade, Majid; Roursgaard, Martin; Folkmann, Janne K; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

2014-02-01

27

Particle exposures and infections.  

PubMed

Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Cigarette smoking, burning of biomass, dust storms, mining, agricultural work, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), wood stoves, traffic-related emissions, gas stoves, and ambient air pollution are all particle-related exposures associated with an increased risk for respiratory infections. In addition, cigarette smoking, burning of biomass, dust storms, mining, and ETS can result in an elevated risk for tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infections, and meningitis. One of the mechanisms for particle-related infections includes an accumulation of iron by surface functional groups of particulate matter (PM). Since elevations in metal availability are common to every particle exposure, all PM potentially contributes to these infections. Therefore, exposures to wood stove emissions, diesel exhaust, and air pollution particles are predicted to increase the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infections, and meningitis, albeit these elevations are likely to be small and detectable only in large population studies. Since iron accumulation correlates with the presence of surface functional groups and dependent metal coordination by the PM, the risk for infection continues as long as the particle is retained. Subsequently, it is expected that the cessation of exposure will diminish, but not totally reverse, the elevated risk for infection. PMID:24488331

Ghio, A J

2014-06-01

28

Exposure to High-Dose Diesel Exhaust Particles Induces Intracellular Oxidative Stress and Causes Endothelial Apoptosis in Cultured In Vitro Capillary Tube Cells.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest a direct correlation between exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and the onset of vascular permeability, presumably through the disruption of the adherens junctions. This would lead to deleterious effects on vasculature, such as acute myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis. Although the mechanism remains unclear, we demonstrate DEP-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, which may be a central cause of the above vascular disorders. In vitro capillary-like HUVEC tube cells are used in this study and show that acute DEP exposure stimulates ATP depletion, followed by depolarization of their actin cytoskeleton, which sequentially inhibits PI3K/Akt activity and induces endothelial apoptosis. These events are accompanied by induction of p53/Mdm2 feedback regulation at 10 µg/mL DEP and produce 20 % cell apoptosis. Nevertheless, 100 µg/mL DEP augments tube cell apoptosis up to 70 % but disrupts the p53 negative regulator Mdm2. Addition of N-acetylcysteine provides substantial protection against the cytotoxic effects of DEP. In summary, exposure to a low dose of DEP actin triggers cytoskeleton depolarization, reduces PI3K/Akt activity, and induces a p53/Mdm2 feedback loop, and a high dose causes apoptosis by depleting Mdm2. PMID:25488805

Tseng, Chia-Yi; Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Chang, Yu-Jung; Chang, Jing-Fen; Chao, Ming-Wei

2014-12-01

29

Prenatal and early-life exposure to high-level diesel exhaust particles leads to increased locomotor activity and repetitive behaviors in mice.  

PubMed

Abundant evidence indicates that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, limited knowledge is available concerning these contributing factors. An epidemiology study reported a link between increased incidence of autism and living closely to major highways, suggesting a possible role for pollutants from highway traffic. We investigated whether maternal exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) negatively affects fetal development leading to autism-like phenotype in mice. Female mice and their offspring were exposed to DEP during pregnancy and nursing. Adult male offspring were then tested for behaviors reflecting the typical symptoms of ASD patients. Compared to control mice, DEP-exposed offspring exhibited higher locomotor activity, elevated levels of self-grooming in the presence of an unfamiliar mouse, and increased rearing behaviors, which may be relevant to the restricted and repetitive behaviors seen in ASD patients. However, the DEP-exposed mice did not exhibit deficits in social interactions or social communication which are the key features of ASD. These results suggest that early life exposure to DEP could have an impact on mouse development leading to observable changes in animal behaviors. Further studies are needed to reveal other environmental insults and genetic factors that would lead to animal models expressing key phenotypes of the autism spectrum disorders. PMID:23495194

Thirtamara Rajamani, Keerthi; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Bolden, Crystal; Willis, Daniel; Hoffman, Carol; Zelikoff, Judith; Chen, Lung-Chi; Gu, Howard

2013-08-01

30

Respiratory Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles Decreases the Spleen IgM Response to a T Cell-Dependent Antigen in Female B6C3F1 Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the systemic immunotoxic potential of respira- tory exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in this study. Female B6C3F1 mice (8 weeks old) were exposed to increasing concentrations of DEP intratracheally, 3 times every two weeks, and sacrificed 2 or 4 weeks after the first exposure. The systemic toxicity and immune status in mice were evaluated. Mice exposed to

H.-M. Yang; L. Butterworth; A. E. Munson; B. Jean

2003-01-01

31

Estimation of the diesel exhaust exposures of railroad workers. II. National and historical exposures  

SciTech Connect

The diesel exhaust exposures of railroad workers in thirteen job groups from four railroads in the United States were used to estimate U.S. national average exposures with a linear statistical model which accounts for the significant variability in exposure caused by climate, the differences among railroads and the uneven distribution of railroad workers across climatic regions. Personal measurements of respirable particulate matter, adjusted to remove the contribution of cigarette smoke particles, were used as a marker for diesel exhaust. The estimated national means of adjusted respirable particulate matter (ARP) averaged 10 micrograms/m3 lower than the simple means for each job group, reflecting the climatic differences between the northern railroads studied and the distribution of railroad workers nationally. Limited historical records, including some industrial hygiene data, were used to evaluate past diesel exhaust exposures, which were estimated to be approximately constant from the 1950's to 1983.

Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J.; Hammond, S.K.; Schenker, M.B.; Garshick, E.; Speizer, F.E.

1988-01-01

32

Vascular and Cardiac Impairments in Rats Inhaling Ozone and Diesel Exhaust Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Background -Mechanisms of cardiovascular injuries from exposure to gas and particulate air pollutants are unknown. Objective -We hypothesized that episodic exposure of rats to ozone or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) will cause differential cardiovascular impairments, which will b...

33

Repeated exposure to low-dose diesel exhaust after allergen challenge exaggerates asthmatic responses in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn conjunction with allergens, diesel exhaust particles act as an adjuvant to enhance IgE responses, inducing expression of cytokines\\/chemokines and adhesion molecules, and increasing airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). As most studies were designed to expose animals to diesel exhaust throughout the periods of both sensitization and allergen challenge, it remains unclear whether diesel exhaust (DE) exposure exaggerates airway responses in asthmatic

Aki Matsumoto; Kumiko Hiramatsu; Yingji Li; Arata Azuma; Shoji Kudoh; Hajime Takizawa; Isamu Sugawara

2006-01-01

34

Prenatal allergen and diesel exhaust exposure and their effects on allergy in adult offspring mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have suggested that prenatal exposure to either allergens or air pollution may increase the risk for the development of allergic immune responses in young offspring. However, the effects of prenatal environmental exposures on adult offspring have not been well-studied. We hypothesized that combined prenatal exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) allergen and diesel exhaust particles will be

Lin Corson; Huaijie Zhu; Chunli Quan; Gabriele Grunig; Manisha Ballaney; Ximei Jin; Frederica P Perera; Phillip H Factor; Lung-Chi Chen; Rachel L Miller

2010-01-01

35

Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Traffic emissions including diesel engine exhaust are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated impaired vascular function after inhalation of exhaust generated by a diesel engine under idling conditions. Objectives To assess the vascular and fibrinolytic effects of exposure to diesel exhaust generated during urban-cycle running conditions that mimic ambient 'real-world' exposures. Methods In a randomised double-blind crossover study, eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 250 ?g/m3) or filtered air for one hour during intermittent exercise. Diesel exhaust was generated during the urban part of the standardized European Transient Cycle. Six hours post-exposure, vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function was assessed during venous occlusion plethysmography with intra-arterial agonist infusions. Measurements and Main Results Forearm blood flow increased in a dose-dependent manner with both endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine and bradykinin) and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside and verapamil) vasodilators. Diesel exhaust exposure attenuated the vasodilatation to acetylcholine (P < 0.001), bradykinin (P < 0.05), sodium nitroprusside (P < 0.05) and verapamil (P < 0.001). In addition, the net release of tissue plasminogen activator during bradykinin infusion was impaired following diesel exhaust exposure (P < 0.05). Conclusion Exposure to diesel exhaust generated under transient running conditions, as a relevant model of urban air pollution, impairs vasomotor function and endogenous fibrinolysis in a similar way as exposure to diesel exhaust generated at idling. This indicates that adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation occur over different running conditions with varying exhaust composition and concentrations as well as physicochemical particle properties. Importantly, exposure to diesel exhaust under ETC conditions was also associated with a novel finding of impaired of calcium channel-dependent vasomotor function. This implies that certain cardiovascular endpoints seem to be related to general diesel exhaust properties, whereas the novel calcium flux-related effect may be associated with exhaust properties more specific for the ETC condition, for example a higher content of diesel soot particles along with their adsorbed organic compounds. PMID:20653945

2010-01-01

36

Effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust on dopaminergic system in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust (DE) is composed of particles and gaseous compounds. It has been reported that DE causes pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. We have previously reported that fetal exposure to DE had deleterious effects to the reproductive system of mice offspring. However, there is still little known about the effects of prenatal exposure to DE to the central nervous system (CNS).

Satoshi Yokota; Keisuke Mizuo; Nozomu Moriya; Shigeru Oshio; Isamu Sugawara; Ken Takeda

2009-01-01

37

Estimation of the diesel exhaust exposures of railroad workers. I. Current exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of a series of epidemiological studies of railroad workers, measurements were made to characterize workers' exposures to diesel exhaust. Since diesel exhaust is not a single compound, an exposure marker was sought. The personal exposures to respirable particulate matter (RPM) of over 530 workers in 39 common jobs were measured in four U.S. railroads over a three-year

Susan R. Woskie; Thomas J. Smith; S. Katharine Hammond; Marc B. Schenker; Eric Garshick; Frank E. Speizer

1988-01-01

38

BEHAVIORAL ALTERATIONS DUE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Several experiments examining the effects of diesel exhaust on the behavior of rats are reported. Animals were exposed either as adults or neonates. The spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA), measured in standard running wheel cages, of adult rats exposed for 8 h/day, 7 days/week ...

39

Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

2014-08-01

40

GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple relationship between number and mass emissions was not observed. Data were collected on-road to compare weekday with weekend air quality around the Twin Cities area. This portion of the study resulted in the development of a method to apportion the Diesel and SI contribution to on-road aerosol.

Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

2003-08-24

41

DIFFERENTIAL CARDIAC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR) TO DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is linked to increases in cardiovascular effects. This is enhanced in individuals with pre-existing disease. Animal models of cardiovascular disease are used to study this susceptibility. The heart is rich in mitochondria, which produce ...

42

NASAL RESPONSES OF ASTHMATIC AND NON-ASTHMATIC VOLUNTEERS TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Asthma rates have been increasing world-wide, and exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may be implicated in this increase. Additionally DEP may also play a role in the increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient airborne PM exposure. Two types of nasal respons...

43

In utero exposure to a low concentration of diesel exhaust affects spontaneous locomotor activity and monoaminergic system in male mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that suspended particulate matter (SPM) causes detrimental health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and that diesel exhaust particles from automobiles is a major contributor to SPM. It has been reported that neonatal and adult exposure to diesel exhaust damages the central nervous system (CNS) and induces behavioral alteration. Recently, we have focused on

Tomoharu Suzuki; Shigeru Oshio; Mari Iwata; Hisayo Saburi; Takashi Odagiri; Tadashi Udagawa; Isamu Sugawara; Masakazu Umezawa; Ken Takeda

2010-01-01

44

Diesel exhaust particles induce endothelial dysfunction in apoE ?\\/? mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Particulate air pollution can aggravate cardiovascular disease by mechanisms suggested to involve translocation of particles to the bloodstream and impairment of endothelial function, possibly dependent on present atherosclerosis. Aim: We investigated the effects of exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in vivo and ex vivo on vasomotor functions in aorta from apoE?\\/? mice with slight atherosclerosis and from normal

Christian S. Hansen; Majid Sheykhzade; Peter Møller; Janne Kjaergaard Folkmann; Ole Amtorp; Thomas Jonassen; Steffen. Loft

2007-01-01

45

DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE INCREASES SEVERITY OF AN ONGOING INFLUENZA INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have shown that air pollutants including diesel exhaust (DE) alter host defense responses, resulting in decreased resistance to respiratory infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on the severity of an ongoing influenza in...

46

Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Enhances the Generation of Vascular Microparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: In the study of the health impacts of traffic-related air pollution, diesel exhaust is a pollutant of particular interest, since it is a major source of particulate matter (PM). Epidemiological studies associate exposure to ambient levels of PM with cardiovascular m...

47

INHIBITION OF TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY INITIATES RECEPTOR SIGNALING IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to particulate matter is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of PM in urban areas and may contribute to PM toxicity through a mechanism involving pulmonary inflammation. Expression of inf...

48

Estimation of the diesel exhaust exposures of railroad workers. II. National and historical exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diesel exhaust exposures of railroad workers in thirteen job groups from four railroads in the United States were used to estimate U.S. national average exposures with a linear statistical model which accounts for the significant variability in exposure caused by climate, the differences among railroads and the uneven distribution of railroad workers across climatic regions. Personal measurements of respirable

Susan R. Woskie; Thomas J. Smith; S. Katharine Hammond; Marc B. Schenker; Eric Garshick; Frank E. Speizer

1988-01-01

49

Health effects of subchronic inhalation exposure to gasoline engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Gasoline engine emissions are a ubiquitous source of exposure to complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) and non-PM pollutants; yet their health hazards have received little study in comparison with those of diesel emissions. As a component of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) multipollutant research program, F344 and SHR rats and A/J, C57BL/6, and BALBc mice were exposed 6 h/day, 7 days/week for 1 week to 6 months to exhaust from 1996 General Motors 4.3-L engines burning national average fuel on a simulated urban operating cycle. Exposure groups included whole exhaust diluted 1:10, 1:15, or 1:90, filtered exhaust at the 1:10 dilution, or clean air controls. Evaluations included organ weight, histopathology, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, cardiac electrophysiology, micronuclei in circulating cells, DNA methylation and oxidative injury, clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the lung, and development of respiratory allergic responses to ovalbumin. Among the 120 outcome variables, only 20 demonstrated significant exposure effects. Several statistically significant effects appeared isolated and were not supported by related variables. The most coherent and consistent effects were those related to increased red blood cells, interpreted as likely to have resulted from exposure to 13-107 ppm carbon monoxide. Other effects supported by multiple variables included mild lung irritation and depression of oxidant production by alveolar macrophages. The lowest exposure level caused no significant effects. Because only 6 of the 20 significant effects appeared to be substantially reversed by PM filtration, the majority of effects were apparently caused by non-PM components of exhaust. PMID:18800271

Reed, M D; Barrett, E G; Campen, M J; Divine, K K; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Seagrave, J C; Mauderly, J L; Seilkop, S K; Swenberg, J A

2008-10-01

50

REAL-TIME AND INTEGRATED MEASUREMENT OF POTENTIAL HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PARTICLE-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) FROM AIRCRAFT EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Real-time monitors and low-volume air samplers were used to measure the potential human exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations during various flight-related and ground-support activities of C-130H aircraft at an Air National Guard base. Three...

51

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 ?g/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 ?g/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 ?g/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

2010-01-01

52

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE-INDUCED EPITHELIAL TOXICITY IS MODULATED BY UV-IRRADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways affecting nearly 20 million individuals in the U.S alone. Asthmatic symptoms can be exacerbated by environmental insults like exposure to particulate matter (PM). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) account for a significant por...

53

Thymic involution produced by diesel exhaust particles and their constituents in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies suggest that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute to an increase in allergic diseases. To assess the effects of DEP on the central immune system, mice were exposed to DEP by intraperitoneal (IP) administration. Exposure to DEP resulted in severe thymic involution accompanied by a reduction in the number of thymocytes, especially in cortical CD4CD8 double positive and double

Shuhei Tomita; Shin-Ichi Maekawa; Mustafizur Rahman; Fumi Saito; Ryoichi Kizu; Keiko Tohi; Tomoo Ueno; Hiroshi Nakase; Frank J. Gonzalez; Kazuichi Hayakawa; Takashi Korenaga; Yousuke Takahama

2006-01-01

54

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis  

PubMed Central

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: Personal?exposure=urban?background+work?site?background+personal?activity To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

SHEESLEY, REBECCA J.; SCHAUER, JAMES J.; GARSHICK, ERIC; LADEN, FRANCINE; SMITH, THOMAS J.; BLICHARZ, ANDREW P.; DEMINTER, JEFFREY T.

2008-01-01

55

Symptoms in Response to Controlled Diesel Exhaust More Closely Reflect Exposure Perception Than True Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust (DE) exposures are very common, yet exposure-related symptoms haven’t been rigorously examined. Objective Describe symptomatic responses to freshly generated and diluted DE and filtered air (FA) in a controlled human exposure setting; assess whether such responses are altered by perception of exposure. Methods 43 subjects participated within three double-blind crossover experiments to order-randomized DE exposure levels (FA and DE calibrated at 100 and/or 200 micrograms/m3 particulate matter of diameter less than 2.5 microns), and completed questionnaires regarding symptoms and dose perception. Results For a given symptom cluster, the majority of those exposed to moderate concentrations of diesel exhaust do not report such symptoms. The most commonly reported symptom cluster was of the nose (29%). Blinding to exposure is generally effective. Perceived exposure, rather than true exposure, is the dominant modifier of symptom reporting. Conclusion Controlled human exposure to moderate-dose diesel exhaust is associated with a range of mild symptoms, though the majority of individuals will not experience any given symptom. Blinding to DE exposure is generally effective. Perceived DE exposure, rather than true DE exposure, is the dominant modifier of symptom reporting. PMID:24358296

Carlsten, Chris; Oron, Assaf P.; Curtiss, Heidi; Jarvis, Sara; Daniell, William; Kaufman, Joel D.

2013-01-01

56

Obese mice are resistant to eosinophilic airway inflammation induced by diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Particulate matter can exacerbate respiratory diseases such as asthma. Diesel exhaust particles are the substantial portion of ambient particulate matter with a <2.5 µm diameter in urban areas. Epidemiological data indicate increased respiratory health effects of particulate matter in obese individuals; however, the association between obesity and diesel exhaust particle-induced airway inflammation remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the differences in susceptibility to airway inflammation induced by exposure to diesel exhaust particles between obese mice (db/db) and lean mice (db/+m). Female db/db and db/+m mice were intratracheally administered diesel exhaust particles or vehicle every 2 weeks for a total of seven times. The cellular profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histological changes in the lungs were assessed and the lungs and serum were analyzed for the generation of cytokines, chemokines and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Diesel exhaust particle exposure-induced eosinophilic infiltration in db/+m mice accompanied by T-helper 2 cytokine, chemokine and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in the lungs. In contrast, it induced mild neutrophilic airway inflammation accompanied by elevated cytokines and chemokines in db/db mice. The lungs of db/db mice exhibited decreased expression of eosinophil activators/chemoattractants such as interleukin-5, interleukin-13 and eotaxin compared with those of db/+m mice. In addition, serum eotaxin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were significantly higher in db/db mice than in db/+m mice. In conclusion, obesity can affect susceptibility to diesel exhaust particle-induced airway inflammation, which is possibly due to differences in local and systemic inflammatory responses between lean and obese individuals. PMID:24105835

Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa

2014-06-01

57

Exposure to diesel exhaust during fetal period affects behavior and neurotransmitters in male offspring mice.  

PubMed

Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the onset of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are major components of ambient PM. We first reported DEP in the central nervous system of offspring utilizing maternal inhalation to diesel exhaust (DE). In addition, we found that the effects of maternal exposure to DE reduced spontaneous motor activity. However, it is still unknown whether maternal exposure to DE affects higher order behavioral function. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of fetal exposure to DE on motor coordination, impulsive behavior and monoaminergic systems in various brain regions. The results of the rotating rod test showed that DE-exposed mice displayed decreased time on the rota rod compared to control mice. However, no changes were detected between the two groups in the hanging test. Furthermore, the cliff avoidance test revealed that DE-exposed mice spent more time in the corner and fell off an inverted glass beaker compared to control mice. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that noradrenaline turnover in the cerebellum was decreased by prenatal exposure to DE, and was significantly increased in the hypothalamus. Dopamine and serotonin levels in various brain regions were also changed by prenatal exposure to DE. Our study found that prenatal exposure to DE alters motor coordination, impulsive behavior and related monoamine levels. Therefore, the present study underscores the role of behavioral changes related to monoamine in response to maternal inhalation of DE. PMID:23358136

Yokota, Satoshi; Moriya, Nozomu; Iwata, Mari; Umezawa, Masakazu; Oshio, Shigeru; Takeda, Ken

2013-02-01

58

Infant leukemia and paternal exposure to motor vehicle exhaust fumes  

SciTech Connect

The children of fathers who work in gas stations, automobile or truck repair, and aircraft maintenance appear to be at increased risk for acute leukemia during their first year of life. The odds ratio was found to be about 2.5 overall, but risk appears to be greater for female offspring. A decline in sex ratio was observed for the three decades of the study, with the lowest ratio observed from 1969 through 1978. These preliminary findings suggest that exposure to one or more of the components of exhaust fumes might be of etiologic importance for this malignancy. The limitations of this investigation are discussed.

Vianna, N.J.; Kovasznay, B.; Polan, A.; Ju, C.

1984-09-01

59

Space shuttle exhausted aluminum oxide: A measured particle size distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum oxide (A2O3) particles were collected from the space shuttle exhaust plume immediately following the launch of STS-34 on October 18, 1989. A2O3 samples were obtained at 2.4, 3.0, 3.2, and 7.4 km in altitude. The samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy to develop particle size distributions. There were no indications that the particle size distribution changed as a

W. R. Cofer; G. C. Purgold; E. L. Winstead; R. A. Edahl

1991-01-01

60

Carbon nanotubes among diesel exhaust particles: real samples or contaminants?  

PubMed

During three separate studies involving characterization of diesel particulate matter carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were found among diesel exhaust particles sampled onto transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. During these studies, samples were collected from three different diesel engines at normal operating conditions with or without an iron catalyst (introduced as ferrocene) in the fuel. This paper is to report the authors' observation of CNTs among diesel exhaust particles, with the intent to stimulate awareness and further discussion regarding the formation mechanisms of CNTs during diesel combustion. PMID:24282972

Jung, Heejung S; Miller, Art; Park, Kihong; Kittelson, David B

2013-10-01

61

Role of energetic particles in heat and particle exhaust in a poloidal divertor RFP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a closed poloidal divertor experiment in the STE-2 reversed field pinch (RFP), heat and particle exhaust into the RFP divertor region has been demonstrated. The exhaust efficiency, however, was lower than expected from equilibrium flux surface geometry near the divertor throat. In addition, indications of enhanced plasma-wall interaction (PWI) have also been observed. Particle orbit calculations have been carried

S. Masamune; M. Iida; N. Oda; M. Awazu; K. Fujitsuka; K. Ohta; H. Oshiyama

1997-01-01

62

The Differential Oxidative Properties of Diesel Exhaust Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) accounts for a significant percentage of particulate matter (PM) released into the atmosphere and are associated with adverse pulmonary effects. Due to their extremely small size and high surface area, DEP can adsorb toxic substances, thus potentia...

63

Mutagenicity of Diesel and Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Mutagenicity Of Diesel And Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles E Mutlua,b' SH Warrenb, PP Matthewsb, CJ Kingb, B Prestonc, MD Haysb, DG Nashb,ct, WP Linakb, MI Gilmourb, and DM DeMarinib aUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC bU.S. Environmental Agency, Research Triangle Pa...

64

Divertor particle exhaust and wall inventory on DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Many tokamaks achieve optimum plasma performance by achieving low recycling; various wall conditioning techniques including helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC) are routinely applied to help achieve low recycling. Many of these techniques allow strong, transient wall pumping, but they may not be effective for long-pulse tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), Tore Supra Continu, and JT-60SU. Continuous particle exhaust using an in-situ pumping scheme may be effective for wall inventory control in such devices. Recent particle balance experiments on the Tore Supra and DIII-D tokamaks demonstrated that the wall particle inventory could be reduced during a given discharge by use of continuous particle exhaust. In this paper we report the first results of wall inventory control and good performance with the in-situ DIII-D cryopump, replacing the HeGDC normally applied between discharges.

Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge Associated Univ., TN (United States); Wade, M.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-06-01

65

Divertor particle exhaust and wall inventory on DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Many tokamaks achieve optimum plasma performance by achieving low recycling; various wall conditioning techniques including helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC) are routinely applied to help achieve low recycling. Many of these techniques allow strong, transient wall pumping, but they may not be effective for long-pulse tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), Tore Supra Continu, and JT-60SU. Continuous particle exhaust using an in-situ pumping scheme may be effective for wall inventory control in such devices. Recent particle balance experiments on the Tore Supra and DIII-D tokamaks demonstrated that the wall particle inventory could be reduced during a given discharge by use of continuous particle exhaust. In this paper the authors report the first results of wall inventory control and good performance with the in-situ DIII-D cryopump, replacing the HeGDC normally applied between discharges.

Maingi, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States); Jackson, G.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Wade, M.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Hogan, J.T.; Klepper, C.C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Haas, G. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Max Planck Inst. for Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

1995-09-01

66

Divertor Particle Exhaust and Wall Inventory on D3-D  

SciTech Connect

Many tokamaks achieve optimum plasma performance by achieving low recycling; various wall conditioning techniques including helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC) are routinely applied to help achieve low recycling. Many of these techniques allow strong, transient wall pumping, but they may not be effective for long-pulse tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), Tore Supra Continu, and JT-60SU. Continuous particle exhaust using an in-situ pumping scheme may be effective for wall inventory control in such devices. Recent particle balance experiments on the Tore Supra and D3-D tokamaks demonstrated that the wall particle inventory could be reduced during a given discharge by use of continuous particle exhaust. In this paper the authors report the first results of wall inventory control and good performance with the in-situ D3-D cryopump, replacing the HeGDC normally applied between discharges.

Jackson, G.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

1995-06-01

67

Occupational exposure assessment of highway toll station workers to vehicle engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Toll station workers are occupationally exposed to vehicle engine exhaust, a complex mixture of different chemical substances, including carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, a study was carried out on attendants of two highway toll stations to describe their occupational exposure to vehicle engine exhaust, based on a worst-case scenario approach. Personal sampling was conducted during the day shift for all attendants, testing for three groups of chemical substances: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acrolein). Concentrations of total PAH, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and formaldehyde content varied between 97.60-336.08 ng/m3, 5.01-40.52 ?g/m3, and 0.06-19.13 ?g/m3, respectively. No clear relationships could be established between exposure levels and the number of vehicles. Furthermore, no differences were found between truck versus car lanes, or inside versus outside the tollbooth. Not all the detected VOCs were related to vehicle exhaust; some were consistent with the use of cleaning products. The measured concentrations were far below the established occupational exposure limits, but tended to be higher than values reported for outdoor urban environments. There are very few international studies assessing occupational exposures among toll station workers, and this is the first such study to be conducted in Spain. The results suggest that further, more detailed studies are necessary to characterize exposure properly, and ones which include other airborne pollutants, such as ultrafine particles. The comparison of the results to other similar studies was difficult, since no data related to some important exposure determinants have been provided. Therefore, it is recommended that these determinants be considered in future studies. PMID:25411914

Belloc-Santaliestra, Miriam; van der Haar, Rudolf; Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia

2015-01-01

68

Oxidatively damaged DNA and inflammation in the liver of dyslipidemic ApoE ?\\/? mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to air pollution particles is associated with cardiovascular diseases, whereas the role in the initiation of atherosclerosis is unresolved. Atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease that also involves oxidative stress. Here we investigated effects of oxidative stress elicited by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in the aorta, liver, and lung of dyslipidemic ApoE?\\/?

Janne Kjærsgaard Folkmann; Lotte Risom; Christian Stevns Hansen; Steffen Loft; Peter Møller

2007-01-01

69

Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. Methods In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. Results The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Conclusion Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient conditions. On a per breath basis, however, the mass of particulate matter inhaled is large compared to the mass inhaled at ambient conditions. Finally, it was determined that children, infants, or people breathing at heights similar to that of a passing vehicle's tailpipe may be exposed to higher concentrations of particulate matter than those breathing at higher locations, such as adults standing up. PMID:19331669

2009-01-01

70

Identification of Surrogate Measures of Diesel Exhaust Exposure in a Controlled Chamber Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) has been associated with acute cardiopulmonary and vascular responses, chronic noncancer health effects, and respiratory cancers in humans. To better understand DE exposures and eventually their related health effects, we established a controlled c...

71

Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

72

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES SUPRESS LPS-STIMULATED PRODUCTION OF PGE2 IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGES: ROLE OF P38 MAPK AND ERK PATHWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have reported association between exposure to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, which include respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) compose a significant fraction of PM in some areas. Alveolar m...

73

Sulfuric Acid and Soot Particle Formation in Aircraft Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of CN counts, Ames wire impactor size analyses and optical particle counter data in aircraft exhaust results in a continuous particle size distribution between 0.01 micrometer and 1 micrometer particle radius sampled in the exhaust of a Boeing 757 research aircraft. The two orders of magnitude size range covered by the measurements correspond to 6-7 orders of magnitude particle concentration. CN counts and small particle wire impactor data determine a nucleation mode, composed of aircraft-emitted sulfuric acid aerosol, that contributes between 62% and 85% to the total aerosol surface area and between 31% and 34% to its volume. Soot aerosol comprises 0.5% of the surface area of the sulfuric acid aerosol. Emission indices are: EIH2SO4 = 0.05 g/kgFUEL and (0.2-0.5) g/kgFUEL (for 75 ppmm and 675 ppmm fuel-S, respectively), 2.5E4particles/kgFUEL (for 75 and 675 ppmm fuel-S). The sulfur (gas) to H2SO4 (particle) conversion efficiency is between 10% and 25%.

Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Verma, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Howard, S. D.; Vay, S.; Kinne, S. A.; Baumgardner, D.; Dermott, P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Goodman, J.; Gore, Waren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

74

Myocardial infarction and occupational exposure to motor exhaust: a population-based case-control study in Sweden.  

PubMed

There is a well-established association between particulate urban air pollution and cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated the risk associated with occupational exposure to particles from motor exhaust. This study investigated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) after occupational exposure to motor exhaust, using elemental carbon (EC) as a marker of exposure. A population-based case-control study of first-time non-lethal MI was conducted among Swedish citizens in ages 45-70 living in Stockholm County 1992-1994, including 1,643 cases and 2,235 controls. Working histories and data on potential confounders were collected by questionnaire and medical examination. The exposure to EC was assessed through a job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We investigated various exposure metrics: intensity, cumulative exposure and years since exposure. There was an exposure-response relation between the highest average exposure intensity during the work history and the risk of MI when adjusting for smoking and alcohol drinking (p for trend 0.034), with an OR of 1.30 (95% CI 0.99-1.71) in the highest tertile of exposure compared to the unexposed. An exposure-response pattern was observed in the analysis of years since exposure cessation among formerly exposed. Additional adjustments for markers of the metabolic syndrome reduced ORs and trends to non-significant levels, although this might be an over-adjustment since the metabolic syndrome may be part of the causal pathway. Occupational exposure to motor exhaust was associated with a moderately increased risk of MI. PMID:24981789

Ilar, Anna; Lewné, Marie; Plato, Nils; Hallqvist, Johan; Alderling, Magnus; Bigert, Carolina; Hogstedt, Christer; Gustavsson, Per

2014-07-01

75

Laser-induced incandescence measurements of particles in aeroengine exhausts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) has been demonstrated as a non-intrusive technique for measurement of particle concentration in the exhausts of aero-engines on sea level test beds as part of a European Union collaborative program (AEROJET) aimed at replacing gas sampling rakes behind development engines with non-intrusive instrumentation. Currently emissions of CO, NOx, unburned hydrocarbon, and smoke from aero-engines must be shown to be less than internationally specified limits. Measurements are made on development engines on sea level test beds by applying a number of standard analytical methods to extracted exhaust gas samples. The hardware required for exhaust gas sampling is heavy and complex and is expensive to build and install. As a result, only the minimum number of emissions tests are conducted during an engine development program, and emissions data is only available to combustion engineers late in the program. Hence, there is a need for more versatile and less costly non-intrusive measurement techniques. Molecular species can be measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while LII is a promising smoke measuring technique. The development of an LII system specifically designed for exhaust applications is described.

Black, John D.

1999-09-01

76

Susceptibility of inflamed ariway and alveolar epithelial cells to injury induced by diesel exhaust particles of varying organic carbon content  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to traffic-related ambient air pollution, such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is associated with adverse health outcomes, especially in individuals with preexisting inflammatory respiratory diseases. Using an analogous in vitro system to model both the healthy and a...

77

Nitrogen dioxide and ultrafine particles dominate the biological effects of inhaled diesel exhaust treated by a catalyzed diesel particulate filter.  

PubMed

We studied the impact of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) on the toxicity of diesel exhaust. Rats inhaled exhaust from a Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine, with and without DPF after-treatment, or HEPA-filtered air for 4h, on 1 day (single exposure) and 3 days (repeated exposures). Biological effects were assessed after 2h (single exposure) and 20h (single and repeated exposures) recovery in clean air. Concentrations of pollutants were (1) untreated exhaust (-DPF), nitric oxide (NO), 43 ppm; nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 4 ppm; carbon monoxide (CO), 6 ppm; hydrocarbons, 11 ppm; particles, 3.2×10(5)/cm(3), 60-70nm mode, 269 ?g/m(3); (2) treated exhaust (+DPF), NO, 20 ppm; NO2, 16 ppm; CO, 1 ppm; hydrocarbons, 3 ppm; and particles, 4.4×10(5)/cm(3), 7-8nm mode, 2 ?g/m(3). Single exposures to -DPF exhaust resulted in increased neutrophils, total protein and the cytokines, growth-related oncogene/keratinocyte chemoattractant, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lung lavage fluid, as well as increased gene expression of interleukin-6, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, metallothionein 2A, tumor necrosis factor-?, inducible nitric oxide synthase, glutathione S-transferase A1, heme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase 2, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 in the lung, and ET- 1 in the heart. Ratio of bigET-1 to ET-1 peptide increased in plasma in conjunction with a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression in the lungs after exposure to diesel exhaust, suggesting endothelial dysfunction. Rather than reducing toxicity, +DPF exhaust resulted in heightened injury and inflammation, consistent with the 4-fold increase in NO2 concentration. The ratio of bigET-1 to ET-1 was similarly elevated after -DPF and +DPF exhaust exposures. Endothelial dysfunction, thus, appeared related to particle number deposited, rather than particle mass or NO2 concentration. The potential benefits of particulate matter reduction using a catalyzed DPF may be confounded by increase in NO2 emission and release of reactive ultrafine particles. PMID:23897985

Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Thomson, Errol M; Kumarathasan, Prem; Guénette, Josée; Rosenblatt, Debbie; Chan, Tak; Rideout, Greg; Vincent, Renaud

2013-10-01

78

Heavy exposure to diesel exhaust linked to lung cancer death in miners  

Cancer.gov

In a study of non-metal miners in the United States, federal government scientists reported that heavy exposure to diesel exhaust increased risk of death from lung cancer. The research, all part of the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study, was designed to evaluate cancer risk from diesel exhaust, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer, among 12,315 workers at eight non-metal mining facilities.

79

Characterisation of lightly oxidised organic aerosol formed from the photochemical aging of diesel exhaust particles  

E-print Network

The oxidative aging of the semivolatile fraction of diesel exhaust aerosol is studied in order to better understand the influence of oxidation reactions on particle chemical composition. Exhaust is sampled from an idling ...

Kroll, Jesse

80

Evaluation of the potential health effects of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in underground coal mines  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the effects of exposure to diesel exhaust and solvent extracts of diesel exhaust on bacterial/cell cultures, animals, and humans were reviewed in relation to the potential for adverse health effects of exposures in underground coal mines. The composition of diesel exhaust was delineated and areas for additional studies of possible health effects were identified. Studies have demonstrated that some of the components of diesel exhaust cause mutations in microorganisms and cancer in animals. Health effects ranging from eye irritation to respiratory disease in humans have been reported. According to the authors, NIOSH cannot definitively affirm or condemn the use of diesel equipment in underground-mining operations at this time. Exposures should be kept below the Mine Safety and Health Administration standards, or NIOSH recommended exposure limits.

Not Available

1986-03-24

81

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

82

Effects of ultrafine diesel exhaust particles on oxidative stress generation and dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells.  

PubMed

A major constituent of urban air pollution is diesel exhaust, a complex mixture of gases, chemicals, and particles. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of a fatal stroke, cause cerebrovascular damage, and induce neuroinflammation and oxidative stress that may trigger neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. The specific aim of this study was to determine whether ultrafine diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), the particle component of exhaust from diesel engines, can induce oxidative stress and effect dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells. After 24 h exposure to DEPs of 200 nm or smaller, cell viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO(2)) generation, and levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)), were evaluated. Results indicated cell viability was not significantly changed by DEP exposure. However, ROS showed dramatic dose-dependent changes after DEP exposure (2.4 fold increase compared to control at 200 ?g/mL). NO(2) levels were also dose-dependently increased after DEP exposure. Although not in a dose-dependent manner, upon DEP exposure, intracellular DA levels were increased while DOPAC and HVA levels decreased when compared to control. Results suggest that ultrafine DEPs lead to dopamine accumulation in the cytoplasm of PC-12 cells, possibly contributing to ROS formation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate this mechanism. PMID:24705343

Kim, Yong-Dae; Lantz-McPeak, Susan M; Ali, Syed F; Kleinman, Michael T; Choi, Young-Sook; Kim, Heon

2014-05-01

83

Factors and Trends Affecting the Identification of a Reliable Biomarker for Diesel Exhaust Exposure.  

PubMed

The monitoring of human exposures to diesel exhaust continues to be a vexing problem for specialists seeking information on the potential health effects of this ubiquitous combustion product. Exposure biomarkers have yielded a potential solution to this problem by providing a direct measure of an individual's contact with key components in the exhaust stream. Spurred by the advent of new, highly sensitive, analytical methods capable of detecting substances at very low levels, there have been numerous attempts at identifying a stable and specific biomarker. Despite these new techniques, there is currently no foolproof method for unambiguously separating diesel exhaust exposures from those arising from other combustion sources. Diesel exhaust is a highly complex mixture of solid, liquid, and gaseous components whose exact composition can be affected by many variables, including engine technology, fuel composition, operating conditions, and photochemical aging. These factors together with those related to exposure methodology, epidemiological necessity, and regulatory reform can have a decided impact on the success or failure of future research aimed at identifying a suitable biomarker of exposure. The objective of this review is to examine existing information on exposure biomarkers for diesel exhaust and to identify those factors and trends that have had an impact on the successful identification of metrics for both occupational and community settings. The information will provide interested parties with a template for more thoroughly understanding those factors affecting diesel exhaust emissions and for identifying those substances and research approaches holding the greatest promise for future success. PMID:25170242

Morgott, David A

2014-08-01

84

BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)--a study in underground mining.  

PubMed

Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil shale mine in Estonia were compared with surface workers. Personal exposures to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (NP) were some eight times higher underground than on the surface. Underground miners were also occupationally exposed to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as indicated by excretion of urinary metabolites of benzene and pyrene. In addition, increased O(6)-alkylguanine DNA adducts were detected in the white blood cells of underground workers, suggesting higher exposure to nitroso-compounds. However, no differences between underground and surface workers were observed in the levels of other bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results. PMID:12191893

Scheepers, P T J; Coggon, D; Knudsen, L E; Anzion, R; Autrup, H; Bogovski, S; Bos, R P; Dahmann, D; Farmer, P; Martin, E A; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Neumann, H G; Poole, J; Schmidt-Ott, A; Seiler, F; Volf, J; Zwirner-Baier, I

2002-08-01

85

Exacerbation of allergic inflammation in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles prior to viral infection.  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Viral infections and exposure to oxidant air pollutants are two ofthe most important inducers ofasthma exacerbation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust increases the susceptibility to influenza virus infections both in epithelial ce...

86

Exposure to submicron particles (PM1.0) from diesel exhaust and pollen allergens of human lung epithelial cells induces morphological changes of mitochondria tonifilaments and rough endoplasmic reticulum.  

PubMed

In recent literature, little has been said regarding the morphological changes that occur in lung cells after treatment with particles and nanoparticles. Using an in vitro model of type-II lung epithelium (A549), we studied the effects of submicron particles (PM1.0), Parietaria officinalis (ALL), and PM1.0 + ALL together. To date several biochemical effects have been described, instead few data exist in literature regarding morphological events following these treatments, in particular we focused on the morphological changes and distribution of mitochondria, tonifilaments and rough endoplasmic reticulum, using a transmission electron microscopic (TEM) approach. After exposure to PM1.0 particles (PM1.0), Parietaria officinalis as allergen, and PM1.0 with P. officinalis, changes in the cytoplasmic area were observed, such as damage to mitochondria and morphological alterations of the tonifilaments and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The data obtained strongly support the hypothesis that cells in contact with submicron particles (PM1.0), or P. officinalis, undergo alteration of their metabolism. PMID:24982222

Mazzarella, Gennaro; Lucariello, Angela; Bianco, Andrea; Calabrese, Cecilia; Thanassoulas, Theodoros; Savarese, Leonilde; Fiumarella, Angelamaria; Esposito, Vincenzo; DE Luca, Antonio

2014-01-01

87

Control of Nitrous Oxide Exposure in Dental Operatories Using Local Exhaust Ventilation  

PubMed Central

An experimental portable local exhaust ventilation system was installed in three dental operatories where nitrous oxide was used routinely. Standard methods of exhaust ventilation design used in industry to control exposures to toxic airborne substances were applied to the dental operatory setting. The concentration of nitrous oxide in the dentists' breathing zones was measured before and after installation to determine the efficiency of the system in reducing occupational exposures. Results indicate that placement of the exhaust opening and exhaust air flow rate are important in determining the degree of control achieved. After the system had been installed in one operatory, peak exposures declined from over 600 parts per million (ppm) to less than 70 ppm: the time-weighted average exposure was below the NIOSH recommended level of 25 ppm. A permanently installed local exhaust ventilation system modeled after the portable one used in this pilot study may be feasible for most operatories and should not interfere with dental procedures. The results suggest that nitrous oxide exposures can be greatly reduced if dental operatories are equipped with local exhaust ventilation. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 7 PMID:3465259

Jacobs, David E.; Middendorf, Paul J.

1986-01-01

88

Exposure of commuters to volatile aromatic hydrocarbons from petrol exhaust.  

PubMed

Twenty-two volatile aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in the air of an automobile during commuting. Sampling was made on Tenax cartridges and laboratory determinations were carried out using thermal desorption combined with temperature-programmed capillary gas chromatography. Selected hydrocarbons representative of petrol exhaust were determined in the automobile and in an electric commuter train during eight parallel commuter trips. In the automobile, the concentrations of benzene were 35-70 micrograms/m3 and those of total aromatic hydrocarbons 200-400 micrograms/m3. The petrol exhaust levels were 5-10 times higher in the automobile than in the compartment of the commuter train. PMID:1721725

Löfgren, L; Persson, K; Strömvall, A M; Petersson, G

1991-10-15

89

Retrospective cohort study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust exposure in railroad workers  

SciTech Connect

The risk of lung cancer as a result of exposure to diesel exhaust from railroad locomotives was assessed in a cohort of 55,407 white male railroad workers 40 to 64 yr of age in 1959 who had started railroad service 10 to 20 years earlier. The cohort was traced until the end of 1980, and death certificates were obtained for 88% of 19,396 deaths; 1694 lung cancer cases were identified. Yearly railroad job from 1959 to death or retirement was available from the Railroad Retirement Board, and served as an index of diesel exhaust exposure. Directly standardized rates and a proportional hazards model were used to calculate the relative risk of lung cancer based on work in a job with diesel exhaust exposure beginning in 1959. A relative risk of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.11, 1.89) for lung cancer was obtained in the group of workers 40 to 44 yr of age in 1959, the group with the longest possible duration of diesel exposure. The cohort was selected to minimize the effect of past railroad asbestos exposure, and analysis with workers with possible asbestos exposure excluded resulted in a similarly elevated risk. Workers with 20 yr or more elapsed since 1959, the effective start of diesel exposure for the cohort, had the highest relative risk. These results taken in conjunction with other reported results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to diesel exhaust results in a small but significantly elevated risk for lung cancer.

Garshick, E.; Schenker, M.B.; Munoz, A.; Segal, M.; Smith, T.J.; Woskie, S.R.; Hammond, S.K.; Speizer, F.E.

1988-04-01

90

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure Monitoring Surveys and Development of Exposure Groups  

PubMed Central

Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 ?g m?3 at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 ?g m?3 at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 ?g m?3 across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 ?g m?3, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 ?g m?3 by facility, an ?2- to 3-fold difference. The average NO and NO2 levels underground ranged from 0.20 to 1.49 parts per million (ppm) and from 0.10 to 0.60 ppm, respectively, and were ?10 times higher than levels on the surface, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.11 ppm and from 0.01 to 0.06 ppm, respectively. The ROC, NO, and NO2 concentrations underground were correlated with the REC levels (r = 0.62, 0.71, and 0.62, respectively). A total of 80% of the underground jobs were assigned an exposure estimate based on measurements taken for the specific job title or for other jobs with a similar percentage of time spent in the major underground work areas. The average REC exposure levels by facility were from 15 to 64 times higher underground than on the surface. The large contrast in exposure levels measured underground versus on the surface, along with the differences between the mining facilities and between underground jobs within the facilities resulted in a wide distribution in the exposure estimates for evaluation of exposure–response relationships in the epidemiologic analyses. PMID:20876232

Coble, Joseph B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T.; Attfield, Michael

2010-01-01

91

Gene Expression Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Mice Induced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Are Dependent on Animal Rearing Environment  

PubMed Central

There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m3, 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust. PMID:23940539

Yokota, Satoshi; Hori, Hiroshi; Umezawa, Masakazu; Kubota, Natsuko; Niki, Rikio; Yanagita, Shinya; Takeda, Ken

2013-01-01

92

Gene expression changes in the olfactory bulb of mice induced by exposure to diesel exhaust are dependent on animal rearing environment.  

PubMed

There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m(3), 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust. PMID:23940539

Yokota, Satoshi; Hori, Hiroshi; Umezawa, Masakazu; Kubota, Natsuko; Niki, Rikio; Yanagita, Shinya; Takeda, Ken

2013-01-01

93

AN ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICLE SIZER{trademark} SPECTROMETER FOR TRANSIENT EMISSION PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

There has been increased interest in obtaining size distribution data during transient engine operation where both particle size and total number concentrations can change dramatically. Traditionally, the measurement of particle emissions from vehicles has been a compromise based on choosing between the conflicting needs of high time resolution or high particle size resolution for a particular measurement. Currently the most common technique for measuring submicrometer particle sizes is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPSTM) system. The SMPS system gives high size resolution but requires an aerosol to be stable over a long time period to make a particle size distribution measurement. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is commonly used for fast time response measurements but is limited to measuring total concentration only. This paper describes a new instrument, the Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM (EEPSTM) spectrometer, which has high time resolution and a reasonable size resolution. The EEPS was designed specifically for measuring engine exhaust and, like the SMPS system, uses a measurement based on electrical mobility. Particles entering the instrument are charged to a predictable level, then passed through an annular space where they are repelled outward by the voltage from a central column. When the particles reach electrodes on the outer cylindrical (a column of rings), they create a current that is measured by an electrometer on one or more of the rings. The electrometer currents are measured multiple times per second to give high time resolution. A sophisticated realtime inversion algorithm converts the currents to particle size and concentration for immediate display.

Johnson, T: Caldow, R; Pucher, A Mirme, A Kittelson, D

2003-08-24

94

AN ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICLE SIZERTM SPECTROMETER FOR TRANSIENT EMISSION PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

There has been increased interest in obtaining size distribution data during transient engine operation where both particle size and total number concentrations can change dramatically. Traditionally, the measurement of particle emissions from vehicles has been a compromise based on choosing between the conflicting needs of high time resolution or high particle size resolution for a particular measurement. Currently the most common technique for measuring submicrometer particle sizes is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPSTM) system. The SMPS system gives high size resolution but requires an aerosol to be stable over a long time period to make a particle size distribution measurement. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is commonly used for fast time response measurements but is limited to measuring total concentration only. This paper describes a new instrument, the Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM (EEPSTM) spectrometer, which has high time resolution and a reasonable size resolution. The EEPS was designed specifically for measuring engine exhaust and, like the SMPS system, uses a measurement based on electrical mobility. Particles entering the instrument are charged to a predictable level, then passed through an annular space where they are repelled outward by the voltage from a central column. When the particles reach electrodes on the outer cylindrical (a column of rings), they create a current that is measured by an electrometer on one or more of the rings. The electrometer currents are measured multiple times per second to give high time resolution. A sophisticated realtime inversion algorithm converts the currents to particle size and concentration for immediate display.

Johnson, T; Caldow, R; Pucher, A; Mirme, A; Kittelson, D

2003-08-24

95

Exposure to Inhalable, Respirable, and Ultrafine Particles in Welding Fume  

PubMed Central

This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m?3 for inhalable and 1.29 mg m?3 for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m?3). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements exposure to welding fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging. PMID:22539559

Pesch, Beate

2012-01-01

96

Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume.  

PubMed

This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements exposure to welding fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging. PMID:22539559

Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas

2012-07-01

97

Nrf2 is closely related to allergic airway inflammatory responses induced by low-dose diesel exhaust particles in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently reported that disruption of nuclear erythroid 2 P45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) enhances susceptibility to airway inflammatory responses induced by low-dose diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in mice. C57BL\\/6 Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2?\\/?) mice and wild-type (Nrf2+\\/+) mice were further exposed to low-dose DEP for 7h\\/day, 5days\\/week, for a maximum of 8weeks. After exposure to DEP for 5weeks, allergic airway

Ying Ji Li; Hajime Takizawa; Arata Azuma; Tadashi Kohyama; Yasuhiro Yamauchi; Satoru Takahashi; Masayuki Yamamoto; Tomoyuki Kawada; Shoji Kudoh; Isamu Sugawara

2010-01-01

98

Fetal exposure to diesel exhaust affects X-chromosome inactivation factor expression in mice.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown effects of diesel exhaust (DE) on the central nervous system, but the mechanism is unclear. Fetal mice were exposed to whole DE (contains gases and particles) in an inhalation chamber, and cerebrum gene expression changes were examined by gene assay (microarray and quantitative real-time PCR). By microarray, upregulation of Xist, B-raf and Drwms2 were detected. Especially, mRNA expression of Xist was increased in a concentration-dependent manner in male and female mice. Xist (X-inactive specific transcript) is a major effector of the X-inactivation process, and X-linked genes are highly expressed in brain tissue and consistent with a role in brain developments. By quantitative real-time PCR, Tsix (crucial noncoding antisense partner of Xist) and other X-linked genes (Mecp2, Hprt1, and Sts) were examined; Tsix was upregulated, and other X-linked genes were unaffected in the male and female mice. Our findings suggest that exposure to DE increases Xist and Tsix gene expression in utero without influencing X-linked gene expression. An examination of Xist gene expression changes may provide an important biomarker for DE-induced effects. The possibility of avoiding X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) mechanisms by minimizing exposure to DE is expected. PMID:23535403

Kumamoto, Takayuki; Tsukue, Naomi; Takano, Hirohisa; Takeda, Ken; Oshio, Shigeru

2013-01-01

99

Exacerbation of allergic inflammation in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles prior to viral infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Viral infections and exposure to oxidant air pollutants are two of the most important inducers of asthma exacerbation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust increases the susceptibility to influenza virus infections both in epithelial cells in vitro and in mice in vivo. Therefore, we examined whether in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to oxidant

Ilona Jaspers; Patricia A Sheridan; Wenli Zhang; Luisa E Brighton; Kelly D Chason; Xiaoyang Hua; Stephen L Tilley

2009-01-01

100

RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLAMMOGENIC AND MUTAGENIC EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES: A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust particulate matter (DEP) is a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant derived from mobile and stationary diesel fuel combustion. Exposure to DEP is associated with carcinogenic and immunotoxic effects in humans and experimental animals. At the cellular level, these heal...

101

Inhibition of catalase activity in vitro by diesel exhaust particles  

SciTech Connect

The effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the activity of catalase, an intracellular anti-oxidant, was investigated because H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is a cytotoxic oxidant, and catalase released from alveolar cells is an important antioxidant in the epithelial lining fluid in the lung. DEP inhibited the activity of bovine liver catalase dose-dependently, to 25-30% of its original value. The inhibition of catalase by DEP was observed only in the presence of anions such as Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, or thiocyanate. Other anions, such as CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}} or SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and cations such as K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, or Fe{sup 2+}, did not affect the activity of catalase, even in the presence of DEP extract. Catalase from guinea pig alveolar cells and catalase from red blood cells were also inhibited by DEP extracts, as was catalase from bovine liver. These results suggest that DEP taken up in the lung and located on alveolar spaces might cause cell injury by inhibiting the activity of catalase in epithelial lining fluid, enhancing the toxicity of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated from cells in addition to that of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} generated by the chemical reaction of DEP with oxygen. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Mori, Yoki; Murakami, Sumika; Sagae, Toshiyuki [Health Sciences Univ. of Hokkaido (Japan)] [and others] [Health Sciences Univ. of Hokkaido (Japan); and others

1996-02-09

102

Diesel exhaust particles induce endothelial dysfunction in apoE{sup -/-} mice  

SciTech Connect

Background: Particulate air pollution can aggravate cardiovascular disease by mechanisms suggested to involve translocation of particles to the bloodstream and impairment of endothelial function, possibly dependent on present atherosclerosis. Aim: We investigated the effects of exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in vivo and ex vivo on vasomotor functions in aorta from apoE{sup -/-} mice with slight atherosclerosis and from normal apoE{sup +/+} mice. Methods: DEP 0, 0.5 or 5 mg/kg bodyweight in saline was administered i.p. The mice were sacrificed 1 h later and aorta ring segments were mounted on wire myographs. Segments from unexposed mice were also incubated ex vivo with 0, 10 and 100 {mu}g DEP/ml before measurement of vasomotor functions. Results: Exposure to 0.5 mg/kg DEP in vivo caused a decrease in the endothelium-dependent acetylcholine elicited vasorelaxation in apoE{sup -/-} mice, whereas the response was enhanced in apoE{sup +/+} mice. No significant change was observed after administration of 5 mg/kg DEP. In vivo DEP exposure did not affect constriction induced by K{sup +} or phenylephrine. In vitro exposure to 100 {mu}g DEP/ml enhanced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and attenuated phenylephrine-induced constriction. Vasodilation induced by sodium nitroprusside was not affected by any DEP exposure. Conclusion: Exposure to DEP has acute effect on vascular functions. Endothelial dysfunction possibly due to decreased NO production as suggested by decreased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation and unchanged sodium nitroprusside response can be induced by DEP in vivo only in vessels of mice with some atherosclerosis.

Hansen, Christian S. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 5, Building 5B, 2nd Floor, 1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sheykhzade, Majid [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Denmark); Moller, Peter [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 5, Building 5B, 2nd Floor, 1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Folkmann, Janne Kjaergaard [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 5, Building 5B, 2nd Floor, 1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Amtorp, Ole [Department of Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jonassen, Thomas [Department of Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Loft, Steffen [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 5, Building 5B, 2nd Floor, 1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark)]. E-mail: s.loft@pubhealth.ku.dk

2007-02-15

103

Effects of exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust on adrenocortical function in adult male mice.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NR-DE) on adrenocortical function, seven-week-old male mice were divided into four groups and exposed to either whole NR-DE at low (41.73 ?g/m(3), 8.21 × 10(5) particles/cm3), high (152.01 ?g/m3, 1.80 × 10(6) particles/cm3) concentrations, filtered diesel exhaust (F-DE) or clean air for 8 weeks (5 h/day, 5 days/week). After 8 weeks of exposure, the animals were euthanized under pentobarbital anesthesia and the blood samples were collected to detect serum progesterone and corticosterone. In addition, adrenal glands were excised, and adrenal cells were cultured in the absence or presence of rat adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (10(-15) to 10(-10)M) for 4 h. There were no significant differences in the body weight, absolute and relative adrenal gland weight among the groups. Serum concentration of corticosterone and progesterone was not changed significantly. Administration of ACTH resulted in a dose-dependent increase in corticosterone and progesterone release in mice-exposed to low-concentration NR-DE and clean air. Moreover, corticosterone and progesterone concentrations in adrenal cells increased significantly in mice-exposed to low-concentration NR-DE basal and administrated with ACTH (10(-15) to 10(-11)M for corticosterone; 10(-14) to 10(-11)M for progesterone) compared with the control mice. In contrast, the concentration of corticosterone and progesterone decreased significantly in mice-exposed to high-concentration NR-DE or F-DE basal and administrated with ACTH (10(-12) to 10(-10)M for corticosterone; 10(-15) to 10(-10)M for progesterone) compared with the control mice. These results suggest that exposure to NR-DE or F-DE may disrupt adrenocortical function in adult male mice. PMID:22260943

Li, ChunMei; Li, Xuezheng; Suzuki, Akira K; Fujitani, Yuji; Jigami, Junko; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

2012-03-25

104

Health effects of exposure to automobile exhaust--V. exposure of toll booth operators to automobile exhaust.  

PubMed

The exposures of automobile toll booth collectors in the Boston area to selected air contaminants were monitored during the four seasons from 1972 to 1974. The highest carbon monoxide concentrations were found at the in-city toll booths and the highest lead levels at the surburban booths. Biological monitoring for carbon monoxide and lead exposure were closely related to airborne contaminant levels. The study supports the need for environmental control for toll booths located at busy highway and tunnels. PMID:68672

Burgess, W A; Diberardinis, L; Speizer, F E

1977-04-01

105

Penetration of diesel exhaust particles through commercially available dust half masks.  

PubMed

Half masks are certified by the competent, national institutions--National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the respective European national institutions applying common European regulations. However, certification testing is conducted with particles of NaCl, paraffin oil, or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and at the constant flow rate, whereas particles commonly found in workplaces may differ in size, shape, and morphology from these particles. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate filtration efficiency of commercially available filtering facepiece half masks under the condition of exposure to diesel fumes. In this study, we focused on the particulate phase [diesel exhaust particles (DEP)] of three (petroleum diesel, ecodiesel, and biodiesel) diesel fuel combustion types. Two types of European standard-certified half masks, FFP2 and FFP - Filtering Facepiece, and three types of popular diesel fuels were tested. The study showed that the filtration efficiencies for each examined half mask and for each of diesel exhaust fumes were lower than the minimum filtration efficiency required for the standard test aerosols by the European standards. For FFP2 and FFP3 particulate half masks, standard minimum filtration efficiency is 94 and 99%, respectively, whereas 84-89% of mass of DEP from various fuels were filtered by the tested FFP2 and only 75-86% by the FFP3. The study indicated that DEP is more penetrating for these filters than the standard salt or paraffin oil test aerosols. The study also showed that the most penetrating DEP are probably in the 30- to 300-nm size range, regardless of the fuel type and the half-mask model. Finally, the pressure drops across both half masks during the 80-min tests remained below an acceptable maximum of breathing resistance-regardless of the fuel types. The respiratory system, during 40-min test exposures, may be exposed to 12-16mg of DEP if a FFP2 or FFP3 particulate half mask is used. To conclude, commercially available half masks may not ensure a sufficient level of protection of the respiratory tract against diesel exhaust fumes. PMID:23104683

Penconek, Agata; Dr??yk, Paulina; Moskal, Arkadiusz

2013-04-01

106

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: IV. Estimating Historical Exposures to Diesel Exhaust in Underground Non-metal Mining Facilities  

PubMed Central

We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a component of DE) levels were estimated based on REC data from monitoring surveys conducted in 1998–2001 as part of the DEMS investigation. These values were adjusted for underground workers by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration trends in the mines derived from models of historical CO (another DE component) measurements and DE determinants such as engine horsepower (HP; 1 HP = 0.746 kW) and mine ventilation. CO was chosen to estimate historical changes because it was the most frequently measured DE component in our study facilities and it was found to correlate with REC exposure. Databases were constructed by facility and year with air sampling data and with information on the total rate of airflow exhausted from the underground operations in cubic feet per minute (CFM) (1 CFM = 0.0283 m3 min?1), HP of the diesel equipment in use (ADJ HP), and other possible determinants. The ADJ HP purchased after 1990 (ADJ HP1990+) was also included to account for lower emissions from newer, cleaner engines. Facility-specific CO levels, relative to those in the DEMS survey year for each year back to the start of dieselization (1947–1967 depending on facility), were predicted based on models of observed CO concentrations and log-transformed (Ln) ADJ HP/CFM and Ln(ADJ HP1990+). The resulting temporal trends in relative CO levels were then multiplied by facility/department/job-specific REC estimates derived from the DEMS surveys personal measurements to obtain historical facility/department/job/year-specific REC exposure estimates. The facility-specific temporal trends of CO levels (and thus the REC estimates) generated from these models indicated that CO concentrations had been generally greater in the past than during the 1998–2001 DEMS surveys, with the highest levels ranging from 100 to 685% greater (median: 300%). These levels generally occurred between 1970 and the early 1980s. A comparison of the CO facility-specific model predictions with CO air concentration measurements from a 1976–1977 survey external to the modeling showed that our model predictions were slightly lower than those observed (median relative difference of 29%; range across facilities: 49 to –25%). In summary, we successfully modeled past CO concentration levels using selected determinants of DE exposure to derive retrospective estimates of REC exposure. The results suggested large variations in REC exposure levels both between and within the underground operations of the facilities and over time. These REC exposure estimates were in a plausible range and were used in the investigation of exposure–response relationships in epidemiologic analyses. PMID:20876235

Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Lubin, Jay H.; Portengen, Lützen; Blair, Aaron; Attfield, Michael D.; Silverman, Debra T.

2010-01-01

107

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.  

PubMed

We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a component of DE) levels were estimated based on REC data from monitoring surveys conducted in 1998-2001 as part of the DEMS investigation. These values were adjusted for underground workers by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration trends in the mines derived from models of historical CO (another DE component) measurements and DE determinants such as engine horsepower (HP; 1 HP = 0.746 kW) and mine ventilation. CO was chosen to estimate historical changes because it was the most frequently measured DE component in our study facilities and it was found to correlate with REC exposure. Databases were constructed by facility and year with air sampling data and with information on the total rate of airflow exhausted from the underground operations in cubic feet per minute (CFM) (1 CFM = 0.0283 m³ min?¹), HP of the diesel equipment in use (ADJ HP), and other possible determinants. The ADJ HP purchased after 1990 (ADJ HP????(+)) was also included to account for lower emissions from newer, cleaner engines. Facility-specific CO levels, relative to those in the DEMS survey year for each year back to the start of dieselization (1947-1967 depending on facility), were predicted based on models of observed CO concentrations and log-transformed (Ln) ADJ HP/CFM and Ln(ADJ HP????(+)). The resulting temporal trends in relative CO levels were then multiplied by facility/department/job-specific REC estimates derived from the DEMS surveys personal measurements to obtain historical facility/department/job/year-specific REC exposure estimates. The facility-specific temporal trends of CO levels (and thus the REC estimates) generated from these models indicated that CO concentrations had been generally greater in the past than during the 1998-2001 DEMS surveys, with the highest levels ranging from 100 to 685% greater (median: 300%). These levels generally occurred between 1970 and the early 1980s. A comparison of the CO facility-specific model predictions with CO air concentration measurements from a 1976-1977 survey external to the modeling showed that our model predictions were slightly lower than those observed (median relative difference of 29%; range across facilities: 49 to -25%). In summary, we successfully modeled past CO concentration levels using selected determinants of DE exposure to derive retrospective estimates of REC exposure. The results suggested large variations in REC exposure levels both between and within the underground operations of the facilities and over time. These REC exposure estimates were in a plausible range and were used in the investigation of exposure-response relationships in epidemiologic analyses. PMID:20876235

Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Lubin, Jay H; Portengen, Lützen; Blair, Aaron; Attfield, Michael D; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

2010-10-01

108

Systemic immunotoxicity in AJ mice following 6-month whole body inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these studies was to determine the effects of subchronic diesel exposure on indicators of systemic immunity in mice. AJ mice were exposed daily for 6 months (6 h\\/day) to atmospheres containing one of four concentrations (30, 100, 300, and 1000 ?g\\/m3) of diluted diesel exhaust (DE) in whole body exposure chambers. The effects of DE were compared

Scott W Burchiel; Fredine T Lauer; Jacob D McDonald; Matthew D Reed

2004-01-01

109

Generation and characterization of diesel exhaust in a facility for controlled human exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

An idling medium-duty diesel truck operated on ultralow sulfur diesel fuel was used as an emission source to generate diesel exhaust for controlled human exposure. Repeat tests were conducted on the Federal Test Procedure using a chassis dynamometer to demonstrate the reproducibi...

110

ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

111

EFFECT OF SHORT TERM DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE ON NASAL RESPONSES TO INFLUENZA IN ALLERGIC RHINITICS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: Recently published data suggest that diesel exhaust (DE) has special impact on allergic inflammation, suppressing Th1 and augmenting Th2 responses to allergen via oxidant stress effects on airway cells. Exposures to particulate air pollutants including DE are also a...

112

Effects Of Combinations of Ozone and Diesel Exhaust Exposures On Blood, Cardiac, And Lung Endpoints  

EPA Science Inventory

Human subjects were exposed to combinations of 300 ppb ozone (03) and 300 ug/m3 diesel exhaust (DE) to examine if synergistic effects were observed. Subjects received either filtered air (FA), 03, DE, or DE+03 on Day 1, followed by only 03 exposures on Day 2, and a follow-up on D...

113

Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Aggravates Nasal Allergic Reaction in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) (1) and exposure to diesel ex- haust (DE) induce nasal mucosal hyperresponsiveness to hista- mine. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether or not exposing guinea pigs to DE aggravates the nasal allergic reac- tion induced by repeated nasal administration of ovalbumin (OVA). Guinea pigs were exposed to filtered air or to DE (DE con-

TAKAHIRO KOBAYASHI

114

The generation of diesel exhaust particle aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric particles.  

PubMed

The influence of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the lungs and heart is currently a topic of great interest in inhalation toxicology. Epidemiological data and animal studies have implicated airborne particulate matter and DEP in increased morbidity and mortality due to a number of cardiopulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and lung cancer. The pathogeneses of these diseases are being studied using animal models and cell culture techniques. Real-time exposures to freshly combusted diesel fuel are complex and require significant infrastructure including engine operations, dilution air, and monitoring and control of gases. A method of generating DEP aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric DEP would be a desirable and useful alternative. Metered dose inhaler technology was adopted to generate aerosols from suspensions of DEP in the propellant hydrofluoroalkane 134a. Inertial impaction data indicated that the particle size distributions of the generated aerosols were trimodal, with count median aerodynamic diameters less than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy of deposited particles showed tightly aggregated particles, as would be expected from an evaporative process. Chemical analysis indicated that there were no major changes in the mass proportion of 2 specific aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene) in the particles resulting from the aerosolization process. PMID:19337412

Cooney, Daniel J; Hickey, Anthony J

2008-01-01

115

Pulmonary Exposure to Particles during Pregnancy Causes Increased Neonatal Asthma Susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal immune responses can promote allergy development in offspring, as shown in a model of increased susceptibility to asthma in babies of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and -challenged mother mice. We investigated whether inflammatory responses to air pollution particles (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or control ''inert'' titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are enhanced during pregnancy and whether exposure to particles can cause increased

Alexey V. Fedulov; Adriana Leme; Zhiping Yang; Morten Dahl; Robert Lim; Thomas J. Mariani; Lester Kobzik

116

Validation of the Dynamic Direct Exposure Method for Toxicity Testing of Diesel Exhaust In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust emission is a major health concern because of the complex nature of its gaseous content (e.g., NO2, NO, CO, and CO2) and high concentration of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5??m which allows for deeper penetration into the human pulmonary system upon inhalation. The aim of this research was to elucidate the potential toxic effects of diesel exhaust on a human pulmonary-based cellular system. Validation of a dynamic direct exposure method for both laboratory (230?hp Volvo truck engine) and field (Volkswagen Passat passenger car) diesel engines, at idle mode, was implemented. Human pulmonary type II epithelial cells (A549) grown on porous membranes were exposed to unmodified diesel exhaust at a low flow rate (37.5?mL/min). In parallel, diesel emission sampling was also conducted using real-time air monitoring techniques. Induced cellular effects were assessed using a range of in vitro cytotoxicity assays (MTS, ATP, and NRU). Reduction of cell viability was observed in a time-dependent manner following 30–60?mins of exposure with NRU as the most sensitive assay. The results suggest that the dynamic direct exposure method has the potential to be implemented for both laboratory- and field-based in vitro toxicity studies of diesel exhaust emissions. PMID:23986878

Hayes, Amanda; Bakand, Shahnaz

2013-01-01

117

New exposure system to evaluate the toxicity of (scooter) exhaust emissions in lung cells in vitro.  

PubMed

A constantly growing number of scooters produce an increasing amount of potentially harmful emissions. Due to their engine technology, two-stroke scooters emit huge amounts of adverse substances, which can induce adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. The aim of this study was to develop a system to expose a characterized triple cell coculture model of the human epithelial airway barrier, to freshly produced and characterized total scooter exhaust emissions. In exposure chambers, cell cultures were exposed for 1 and 2 h to 1:100 diluted exhaust emissions and in the reference chamber to filtered ambient air, both controlled at 5% CO(2), 85% relative humidity, and 37 degrees C. The postexposure time was 0-24 h. Cytotoxicity, used to validate the exposure system, was significantly increased in exposed cell cultures after 8 h postexposure time. (Pro-) inflammatory chemo- and cytokine concentrations in the medium of exposed cells were significantly higher at the 12 h postexposure time point. It was shown that the described exposure system (with 2 h exposure duration, 8 and 24 h postexposure time, dilution of 1:100, flow of 2 L/min as optimal exposure conditions) can be used to evaluate the toxic potential of total exhaust emissions. PMID:20230045

Müller, Loretta; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas C R; Gehr, Peter; Burtscher, Heinz; Morin, Jean-Paul; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

2010-04-01

118

Exhaust particles of modern gasoline vehicles: A laboratory and an on-road study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle technology development and upcoming particle emission limits have increased the need for detailed analyses of particle emissions of vehicles using gasoline direct injection (GDI) techniques. In this paper the particle emission characteristics of modern GDI passenger cars were studied in a laboratory and on the road, with the focus on exhaust particle number emissions, size distributions, volatility and morphology. Both during acceleration and steady conditions the number size distribution of nonvolatile exhaust particles consisted of two modes, one with mean particle size below 30 nm and the other with mean particle size approximately 70 nm. Results indicate that both of these particles modes consisted of soot but with different morphologies. Both in laboratory and on the road, significant emissions of exhaust particles were observed also during decelerations conducted by engine braking. These particles are most likely originating from lubricant oil ash components. The semivolatile nucleation particles were observed in the laboratory experiments at high engine load conditions. Thus, in general, the study indicates that a modern gasoline vehicle can emit four distinctive types of exhaust particles. The differences in particle characteristics and formation should be taken into account in the development of emission control strategies and technologies and, on the other hand, in the assessment of the impact of particle emissions on environment and human health.

Karjalainen, Panu; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Lähde, Tero; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

2014-11-01

119

Sample characterization of automobile and forklift diesel exhaust particles and comparative pulmonary toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Two samples of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) predominate in health effects research: an automobile-derived DEP (A-DEP) sample and the National Institute of Standards Technology standard reference material (SRM 2975) generated from a forklift engine. A-DEPs have been tested extensively for their effects on pulmonary inflammation and exacerbation of allergic asthmalike responses. In contrast, SRM 2975 has been tested thoroughly for its genotoxicity. In the present study, we combined physical and chemical analyses of both DEP samples with pulmonary toxicity testing in CD-1 mice to compare the two materials and to make associations between their physicochemical properties and their biologic effects. A-DEPs had more than 10 times the amount of extractable organic material and less than one-sixth the amount of elemental carbon compared with SRM 2975. Aspiration of 100 micro g of either DEP sample in saline produced mild acute lung injury; however, A-DEPs induced macrophage influx and activation, whereas SRM 2975 enhanced polymorphonuclear cell inflammation. A-DEPs stimulated an increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha, macrophage inhibitory protein-2, and the TH2 cytokine IL-5, whereas SRM 2975 only induced significant levels of IL-6. Fractionated organic extracts of the same quantity of DEPs (100 micro g) did not have a discernable effect on lung responses and will require further study. The disparate results obtained highlight the need for chemical, physical, and source characterization of particle samples under investigation. Multidisciplinary toxicity testing of diesel emissions derived from a variety of generation and collection conditions is required to meaningfully assess the health hazards associated with exposures to DEPs. Key words: automobile, diesel exhaust particles, forklift, mice, pulmonary toxicity, SRM 2975. PMID:15175167

Singh, Pramila; DeMarini, David M; Dick, Colin A J; Tabor, Dennis G; Ryan, Jeff V; Linak, William P; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Gilmour, M Ian

2004-06-01

120

Sample characterization of automobile and forklift diesel exhaust particles and comparative pulmonary toxicity in mice.  

PubMed Central

Two samples of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) predominate in health effects research: an automobile-derived DEP (A-DEP) sample and the National Institute of Standards Technology standard reference material (SRM 2975) generated from a forklift engine. A-DEPs have been tested extensively for their effects on pulmonary inflammation and exacerbation of allergic asthmalike responses. In contrast, SRM 2975 has been tested thoroughly for its genotoxicity. In the present study, we combined physical and chemical analyses of both DEP samples with pulmonary toxicity testing in CD-1 mice to compare the two materials and to make associations between their physicochemical properties and their biologic effects. A-DEPs had more than 10 times the amount of extractable organic material and less than one-sixth the amount of elemental carbon compared with SRM 2975. Aspiration of 100 micro g of either DEP sample in saline produced mild acute lung injury; however, A-DEPs induced macrophage influx and activation, whereas SRM 2975 enhanced polymorphonuclear cell inflammation. A-DEPs stimulated an increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha, macrophage inhibitory protein-2, and the TH2 cytokine IL-5, whereas SRM 2975 only induced significant levels of IL-6. Fractionated organic extracts of the same quantity of DEPs (100 micro g) did not have a discernable effect on lung responses and will require further study. The disparate results obtained highlight the need for chemical, physical, and source characterization of particle samples under investigation. Multidisciplinary toxicity testing of diesel emissions derived from a variety of generation and collection conditions is required to meaningfully assess the health hazards associated with exposures to DEPs. Key words: automobile, diesel exhaust particles, forklift, mice, pulmonary toxicity, SRM 2975. PMID:15175167

Singh, Pramila; DeMarini, David M; Dick, Colin A J; Tabor, Dennis G; Ryan, Jeff V; Linak, William P; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Gilmour, M Ian

2004-01-01

121

DECREASED PRODUCTION OF SURFACTANT PROTEINS AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE INCREASES SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), termed collectins, enhance the opsonization of foreign particles and pathogens by phagocytic cells. Inhaled pollutants such as diesel exhaust (DE) have a possible role in suppressing the production of surfactant proteins whic...

122

Personal Exposure to Ultrafine Particles and Oxidative DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from vehicle exhaust has been related to risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and cancer, even though exposure assessment is difficult. We studied personal exposure in terms of number concentrations of UFPs in the breathing zone, using portable instruments in six 18-hr periods in 15 healthy nonsmoking subjects. Exposure contrasts of outdoor pollution were achieved by bicycling in traffic for 5 days and in the laboratory for 1 day. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed as strand breaks and oxidized purines in mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood the morning after exposure measurement. Cumulated outdoor and cumulated indoor exposures to UFPs each were independent significant predictors of the level of purine oxidation in DNA but not of strand breaks. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter with an aero-dynamic diameter of ?10 ?m (PM10), nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or number concentration of UFPs at urban background or busy street monitoring stations was not a significant predictor of DNA damage, although personal UFP exposure was correlated with urban background concentrations of CO and NO2, particularly during bicycling in traffic. The results indicate that biologic effects of UFPs occur at modest exposure, such as that occurring in traffic, which supports the relationship of UFPs and the adverse health effects of air pollution. PMID:16263500

Vinzents, Peter S.; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Mette; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Hertel, Ole; Jensen, Finn Palmgren; Schibye, Bente; Loft, Steffen

2005-01-01

123

The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition  

SciTech Connect

Detailed exhaust emission data have been taken from a Cummins N-14 single cylinder research engine in which the oil consumption was varied by different engine modifications. Low sulfur fuel was used, and oil consumption was varied by modifying the intake valve stem seals, the exhaust valve stem seals, the oil control ring and combinations of these modifications. Detailed measurements of exhaust gas particle size distributions and chemical composition were made for the various oil consumption configurations for a range of engine loads and speeds. The particulate mass was measured with TEOM and traditional gravimetric filter methods. Filter data for EC/OC, sulfates and trace metals have been taken and analyzed. The trace metals in the particulate mass serve as the basis for assessing oil consumption at the different operating conditions. The data indicate that the oil consumption for the steady state testing done here was approximately an order of magnitude below oil consumption values cited in the literature. We did measure changes in the details of the chemical composition of the particulate for the different engine operating conditions, but it did not correlate with changes in the oil consumption. Furthermore, the data indicate that the particle size distribution is not strongly impacted by low level oil consumption variations observed in this work.

Stetter, J; Forster, N; Ghandhi, J; Foster, D

2003-08-24

124

Effects of exposure to nanoparticle-rich or -depleted diesel exhaust on allergic pathophysiology in the murine lung.  

PubMed

Although it has been shown that exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is linked to the induction or exacerbation of respiratory disorders, the major components responsible have not been fully identified. We examined the effects of airway exposure to nanoparticle-rich DE (NR-DE) or DE without particles on allergic pulmonary inflammation in mice. We also investigated the cellular responses to intratracheal instillation of NR-DE particles (NR-DEP). ICR mice inhaled one of four different mixtures (control air, low-concentration DE, high-concentration DE, and high-concentration DE without particles) for 8 weeks in the presence or absence of repeated intratracheal administration of ovalbumin (OVA). In a separate study, NR-DEP and/or OVA were repeatedly administrated intratracheally to mice. High-concentration NR-DE or DE without particles substantially exacerbated OVA-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation. This exacerbation was concomitant with increases in lung levels of Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and of chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Furthermore, in the presence of allergen, both DE without particles and high-concentration NR-DE strongly enhanced the production and release of myeloperoxidase into the alveolar spaces. Repeated administration of NR-DEP did not substantially affect the allergic asthma. These results strongly suggest that gaseous compounds in NR-DE aggravate murine allergic airway inflammation, mainly via amplification of the Th2 response. PMID:23358138

Tanaka, Michitaka; Aoki, Yasunobu; Takano, Hirohisa; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Sone, Yuka; Kiyono, Masako; Ichinose, Takamichi; Itoh, Tomoo; Inoue, Ken-ichiro

2013-02-01

125

Test-methods on the test-bench: a comparison of complete exhaust and exhaust particle extracts for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment.  

PubMed

With the growing number of new exhaust after-treatment systems, fuels and fuel additives for internal combustion engines, efficient and reliable methods for detecting exhaust genotoxicity and mutagenicity are needed to avoid the widespread application of technologies with undesirable effects toward public health. In a commonly used approach, organic extracts of particulates rather than complete exhaust is used for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment, which may reduce the reliability of the results. In the present study, we assessed the mutagenicity and the genotoxicity of complete diesel exhaust compared to an organic exhaust particle extract from the same diesel exhaust in a bacterial and a eukaryotic system, that is, a complex human lung cell model. Both, complete exhaust and organic extract were found to act mutagenic/genotoxic, but the amplitudes of the effects differed considerably. Furthermore, our data indicate that the nature of the mutagenicity may not be identical for complete exhaust and particle extracts. Because in addition, differences between the responses of the different biological systems were found, we suggest that a comprehensive assessment of exhaust toxicity is preferably performed with complete exhaust and with biological systems representative for the organisms and organs of interest (i.e., human lungs) and not only with the Ames test. PMID:24697289

Steiner, Sandro; Heeb, Norbert V; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

2014-05-01

126

The Effect of Local Exhaust Ventilation Controls on Dust Exposures During Concrete Cutting and Grinding Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effectiveness of commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities. Work activities were performed by union-sponsored apprentices and included tuck-point grinding, surface grinding, paver block and brick cutting (masonry saw), and concrete block cutting (hand-held saw). In a randomized block design, implemented under

Gerry A. Croteau; Steven E. Guffey; Mary Ellen Flanagan; Noah S. Seixas

2002-01-01

127

Autocrine ligands of the epithelial growth factor receptor mediate inflammatory responses to diesel exhaust particles  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity. Acute exposure leads to increased IL-8 expression and airway neutrophilia, however the mechanism of this response is unknown. Objectives: As cigarette smoke-induced IL-8 expression by epithelial cells involves transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we studied the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on IL-8 release and the role of the EGFR. Methods Primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) were exposed to DEPs or carbon black. IL-8 and EGFR ligand expression (transforming growth factor alpha (TGF?), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, and amphiregulin (AR)) were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. Results DEP, but not carbon black, caused a dose-dependent increase in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and IL-8 expression, however above 50 ?g/ml there was an increase in cytotoxicity. At 50 ?g/ml, DEPs stimulated transcription and release of IL-8 and EGFR ligands. IL-8 release was blocked by EGFR neutralizing antibodies, an EGFR-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor and by the metalloprotease inhibitor, GM6001, which blocks EGFR ligand shedding. Neutralizing antibodies to AR, TGF? and heparin-binding (HB)-EGF reduced DEP-induced IL-8 by >50%. Conclusion Expression of IL-8 in response to DEPs is dependent on EGFR activation and that autocrine production of EGFR ligands makes a substantial contribution to this response. Capsule Summary: This study identifies a mechanism whereby diesel particles stimulates IL-8 release from bronchial epithelial cells. This mechanism may help to explain the recruitment of neutrophils into the airways of people exposed to particulate air pollution. PMID:24555532

2014-01-01

128

Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Enhances Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Repeated intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles and ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in mice. However, the effects of daily inhalation of diesel exhaust may differ from the effects of direct instillation. Methods: Therefore, mice were exposed to diesel exhaust by inhalation 12 h per day for 3 months. Before the diesel exhaust exposure, ovalbumin was injected intraperitoneally

Yuichi Miyabara; Takamichi Ichinose; Hirohisa Takano; Masaru Sagai

1998-01-01

129

Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from…

Mazer, Mary E.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Lamanna, Beth F.; Davison, Jean

2014-01-01

130

Cardiovascular Responses of Largemouth Bass to Exhaustive Exercise and Brief Air Exposure over a Range of Water Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the effects of exhaustive exercise and brief air exposure on the cardiovascular function of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides at four water temperatures (13, 17, 21, and 25°C). We used Doppler flow probes to monitor cardiac output and its components (i.e., stroke volume and heart rate) while we manually chased fish to exhaustion to simulate angling,

Steven J. Cooke; Kenneth G. Ostrand; Christopher M. Bunt; Jason F. Schreer; David H. Wahl; David P. Philipp

2003-01-01

131

Diesel exhaust particle induction of IL17A contributes to severe asthma  

PubMed Central

Background IL-17A has been implicated in severe forms of asthma. However, the factors that promote IL-17A production during the pathogenesis of severe asthma remain undefined. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of traffic related air pollution and are implicated in asthma pathogenesis and exacerbation. Objective To determine the mechanism by which DEP exposure impacts asthma severity using human and mouse studies. Methods Balb/c mice were challenged with DEP +/? house dust mite extract (HDM). Airway inflammation and function, BALF cytokine levels, and flow cytometry of lung T cells were assessed. The impact of DEP exposure on frequency of asthma symptoms and serum cytokine levels was determined in children with allergic asthma. Results In mice, exposure to DEP alone did not induce asthma. DEP and HDM co-exposure markedly enhanced AHR compared to HDM alone and generated a mixed Th2 and Th17 response, including IL-13+IL-17A+ double producing T-cells. IL-17A neutralization prevented DEP-induced exacerbation of AHR. Among 235 high DEP-exposed children with allergic asthma, 32.2% had more frequent asthma symptoms over a 12 month period, compared to only 14.2% in the low DEP-exposed group (p=0.002). Additionally, high DEP-exposed children with allergic asthma had nearly six times higher serum IL-17A levels compared with low DEP-exposed children. Conclusions Expansion of Th17 cells contributes to DEP-mediated exacerbation of allergic asthma. Neutralization of IL-17A may be a useful potential therapeutic strategy to counteract the asthma promoting effects of traffic related air pollution especially in highly exposed severe allergic asthmatics. PMID:24060272

Brandt, Eric B.; Kovacic, Melinda Butsch; Lee, Gerald B.; Gibson, Aaron M.; Acciani, Thomas H.; Le Cras, Timothy D.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Budelsky, Alison L.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

2013-01-01

132

Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence shows a strong association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south Taiwan. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south Taiwan in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south Taiwan, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south Taiwan populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south Taiwan compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.

Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun

2014-03-01

133

Diesel exhaust particle-induced airway responses are augmented in obese rats.  

PubMed

Air pollutants and obesity are important factors that contribute to asthma. The aim of this study was to assess the airway responsiveness and inflammation in Otsuka-Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) obese rats and Long Evans Tokushima-Otsuka (LETO) nonobese rats exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima fatty rats and LETO rats were exposed intranasally to DEP and then challenged with aerosolized DEP on days 6 to 8. Body plethysmography, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and histology were performed. Enhanced pause (Penh) was measured as an indicator of airway resistance on day 9 and samples were collected on day 10. After exposure to DEP, the OLETF group exhibited a greater increase in Penh compared to that in the LETO group. Moreover, the BAL fluid in mice showed an increase in the total and differential cell counts in the DEP-exposed OLETF group compared to that in the DEP-exposed LETO group. Histological assessment of lung tissue from each group revealed that the DEP-exposed OLETF group tended to have increased inflammatory cell infiltrations in the prebronchial area. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, coactivator 1? messenger RNA was observed in the lungs of obese rats compared to that in nonobese rats following DEP exposure. These data indicate that the DEP-exposed OLETF group had increased airway responses and inflammation compared to the DEP-exposed LETO group, indicating that diesel particulates and obesity may be co-contributors to asthma. PMID:24536021

Moon, Kuk-Young; Park, Moo-Kyun; Leikauf, George D; Park, Choon-Sik; Jang, An-Soo

2014-01-01

134

Diesel Exhaust Exposure and the Risk of Lung Cancer—A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence  

PubMed Central

To critically evaluate the association between diesel exhaust (DE) exposure and the risk of lung cancer, we conducted a systematic review of published epidemiological evidences. To comprehensively identify original studies on the association between DE exposure and the risk of lung cancer, literature searches were performed in literature databases for the period between 1970 and 2013, including bibliographies and cross-referencing. In total, 42 cohort studies and 32 case-control studies were identified in which the association between DE exposures and lung cancer was examined. In general, previous studies suffer from a series of methodological limitations, including design, exposure assessment methods and statistical analysis used. A lack of objective exposure information appears to be the main problem in interpreting epidemiological evidence. To facilitate the interpretation and comparison of previous studies, a job-exposure matrix (JEM) of DE exposures was created based on around 4,000 historical industrial measurements. The values from the JEM were considered during interpretation and comparison of previous studies. Overall, neither cohort nor case-control studies indicate a clear exposure-response relationship between DE exposure and lung cancer. Epidemiological studies published to date do not allow a valid quantification of the association between DE and lung cancer. PMID:24473109

Sun, Yi; Bochmann, Frank; Nold, Annette; Mattenklott, Markus

2014-01-01

135

Examination of cytokines and metals in exhaled breath condensate and lung lavage fluids after diesel exhaust exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology studies link human exposure to ambient air pollution with the development and exacerbation of cardiopulmonary disease. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant source of ambient air pollution, and thus may contribute to adverse pulmonary health effects. Previous human re...

136

Diesel exhaust particles modulate vascular endothelial cell permeability: implication of ZO-1 expression.  

PubMed

Exposure to air pollutants increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Recent toxicity studies revealed that ultra-fine particles (UFP, d(p)<100-200 nm), the major portion of particulate matter (PM) by numbers in the atmosphere, induced atherosclerosis. In this study, we posited that variations in chemical composition in diesel exhausted particles (DEP) regulated endothelial cell permeability to a different extent. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to well-characterized DEP (d(p)<100 nm) emitted from a diesel engine in either idling mode (DEP1) or in urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) (DEP2). Horse Radish Peroxidase-Streptavidin activity assay showed that DEP2 increased endothelial permeability to a greater extent than DEP1 (control=0.077+/-0.005, DEP1=0.175+/-0.003, DEP2=0.265+/-0.006, n=3, p<0.01). DEP2 also down-regulated tight junction protein, Zonular Occludin-1 (ZO-1), to a greater extent compared to DEP1. LDH and caspase-3 activities revealed that DEP-mediated increase in permeability was not due to direct cytotoxicity, and DEP-mediated ZO-1 down-regulation was not due to a decrease in ZO-1 mRNA. Hence, our findings suggest that DEP1 vs. DEP2 differentially influenced the extent of endothelial permeability at the post-translational level. This increase in endothelium permeability is implicated in inflammatory cell transmigration into subendothelial layers with relevance to the initiation of atherosclerosis. PMID:20576493

Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffrey; Yu, Fei; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

2010-09-01

137

Diesel exhaust particles modulate vascular endothelial cell permeability: Implication of ZO-1 Expression  

PubMed Central

Exposure to air pollutants increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Recent toxicity studies revealed that ultra fine particles (UFP, dp<100–200 nm), the major portion of particulate matter (PM) by numbers in the atmosphere, induced atherosclerosis. In this study, we posited that variations in chemical composition in diesel exhausted particles (DEP) regulated endothelial cell permeability to a different extent. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to well-characterized DEP (dp<100 nm) emitted from a diesel engine in either idling mode (DEP1) or in urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) (DEP2). Horse Radish Peroxidase-Streptavidin activity assay showed that DEP2 increased endothelial permeability to a greater extent than DEP1 (Control=0.077± 0.005, DEP1=0.175±0.003, DEP2=0.265±0.006, n=3, p<0.01). DEP2 also down-regulated tight junction protein, Zonular Occludin-1 (ZO-1), to a greater extent compared to DEP1. LDH and caspase-3 activities revealed that DEP-mediated increase in permeability was not due to direct cytotoxicity, and DEP-mediated ZO-1 down-regulation was not due to a decrease in ZO-1 mRNA. Hence, our findings suggest that DEP1 versus DEP2 differentially influenced the extent of endothelial permeability at the post-translational level. This increase in endothelium permeability is implicated in inflammatory cell transmigration into subendothelial layers with relevance to the initiation of atherosclerosis. PMID:20576493

Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffrey; Yu, Fei; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

2010-01-01

138

A comparative study on the ultrafine particle episodes induced by vehicle exhaust: A crude oil refinery and ship emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the contribution of vehicle exhausts, ships and an oil refinery emission to the ambient air concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) is presented. It is based on a data set of particle number coarser than 2.5 nm (N), black carbon (BC), gaseous pollutants (NOx, SO2, CO and O3), PM2.5 and PM10 measured from 2008 to 2010 in the ambient air of Santa Cruz de Tenerife City, where a previous study found an association between hospitalizations due to heart failure and exposure to UFPs in the ambient air. The observed relationship between N, BC and gaseous pollutants allowed segregating UFP concentrations in a set of components linked to each source. It was found that vehicle exhausts contribute to the background of UFPs, whereas high UFP episodes were due to the emissions of the refinery and ships. The concentration of UFP linked to vehicle exhaust emissions maximized in the morning (07:00-09:00 GMT, 5000-25,000 cm- 3 = 25th-75th percentile), whereas those linked to ship (15,000-45,000 cm- 3) and refinery (25,000-95,000 cm- 3) emissions maximized in the 10:00-17:00 GMT period due to the effects of meteorology and photochemistry. It was found that the UFP concentrations were more sensitive to the fresh emissions of the three sources than PM2.5, which was mostly linked to aged fine particles (0.1-1 ?m) of the urban background. BC was the better tracer of vehicle exhaust emissions. It was concluded that the simultaneous monitoring of UFP, BC and PM2.5 is a suitable strategy of tracing aerosol pollutants of different nature (fresh vs. aged) and from different sources.

González, Yenny; Rodríguez, Sergio

2013-02-01

139

Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract attenuates nasal allergic response to diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

The generation of oxidative stress by ambient air pollution particles contributes to the development of allergic sensitization and asthma, as demonstrated by intranasal challenge with well-characterized diesel exhaust particle (DEP) suspensions in humans. This effect is due to the presence of redox active organic chemicals in DEP, and can be suppressed by antioxidants and inducers of phase II enzymes in animals. In this communication, we determined whether the administration of a standardized broccoli sprout extract (BSE), which contains a reproducible amount of the sulforaphane (SFN) precursor, glucoraphanin, could be used to suppress the nasal inflammatory response in human subjects challenged with 300 ?g of an aqueous DEP suspension (equivalent to daily PM exposure levels on a Los Angeles freeway). SFN is capable of inducing an antioxidant and phase II response via activation of the nuclear transcription factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Previous studies have shown that 70-90% SFN delivered by BSE is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted in humans. An initial intranasal challenge with DEP in 29 human subjects was used to characterize the magnitude of the inflammatory response. Following a 4 week washout, a BSE that delivers a reproducible and standardized dose of 100 ?mol SFN in mango juice was administered daily for four days. The nasal DEP challenge was repeated and lavage fluid collected to perform white blood cell (WBC) counts. The average nasal WBC increased by 66% over the initial screening levels and by 85% over the control levels 24 hours after DEP exposure. However, total cell counts decreased by 54% when DEP challenge was preceded by daily BSE administration for 4 days (p < 0.001). Since the SFN dose in these studies is equivalent to the consumption of 100-200 g broccoli, our study demonstrates the potential preventive and therapeutic potential of broccoli or broccoli sprouts rich in glucoraphanin for reducing the impact of particulate pollution on allergic disease and asthma. PMID:24287881

Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Wong, Angela M; Lee, Tsz Ying Amy; Thames, Gail; Krak, Michael; Zhang, Yanjun; Nel, Andre

2014-01-01

140

Effects of nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust particles on IL-17 production in vitro.  

PubMed

It has been shown that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) disrupt immune systems, presenting as exacerbating effects on allergic manifestations (e.g., allergic asthma). To date, the impact of nano-level DEP on health has not been fully elucidated. Our institute (the National Institute for Environmental Studies) established an 'environmental nanoparticle exposure system applied in animals' in 2005 and, since then, the health effects of exposures to these types of agents have been explored. The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro effects of nanoparticle-rich DEP (NRDEP) on primary splenocytes from atopy-prone hosts. NC/Nga mouse-derived splenic mononuclear cells were co-cultured with NRDEP (0-50 µg/ml); thereafter, cell viability/proliferation was evaluated via a WST-1 assay, production/release of interleukin (IL)-17A in the culture supernatants by ELISA, and expression of ROR?t (retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-?t) in cell lysates by Western blot analyses. The results indicated that NRDEP reduced cell viability/proliferation in a dose-related manner-significantly so at a level of 50 µg/ml NRDEP. In contrast, up to 10 µg NRDEP/ml increased ROR?t expression in the splenocytes and subsequent IL-17A production/release by the cells in a dose-dependent manner with an overall trend (with significance vs 1 µg NRDEP/ml and 10 µg NRDEP/ml for IL-17A); 50 µg NRDEP/ml tended to inhibit the transcription factor expression and cytokine production/release. These results suggest that NRDEP can activate naïve splenic mononuclear cells from atopy-prone animals in terms of ROR?t and IL-17A induction (T(H)17 response). PMID:22299717

Nakamura, Ryosuke; Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Kiyono, Masako; Hirano, Seishiro; Takano, Hirohisa

2012-01-01

141

Exacerbation of thrombotic events by diesel exhaust particle in mouse model of hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several epidemiological studies have shown that acute exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and that these effects are especially exacerbated among individuals with pre-existing compromised cardiovascular function such as hypertension. This study was undertaken to determine the cardiovascular effect of diesel exhaust on TO mice made hypertensive by implanting osmotic minipump infusing

Abderrahim Nemmar; Shaheen Zia; Deepa Subramaniyan; Mohamed A. Fahim; Badreldin H. Ali

2011-01-01

142

Effects of particle exhaust on neutral compression ratios in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, neutral particles in DIII-D are studied via their compression in the plenum and via particle exhaust. The compression of gas in the plena is examined in terms of the magnetic field configuration and wall conditions. DIII-D compression ratios are observed in the range from 1 to {ge} 1,000. Particle control ultimately depends on the exhaust of neutrals via plenum or wall pumping. Wall pumping or outgassing is calculated by means of a detailed particle balance throughout individual discharges, and its effect on particle control is discussed. It is demonstrated that particle control through wall conditioning leads to lower normalized densities. A two-region model shows that the gas compression ratio (C{sub div} = divertor plenum neutral pressure/torus neutral pressure) can be interpreted in relation to gas flows in the torus and divertor including the pumping speed of the plenum cryopumps, plasma pumping, and the pumping or outgassing of the walls.

Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Greenfield, C.M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1998-08-01

143

The diesel exhaust in miners study: I. Overview of the exposure assessment process.  

PubMed

This report provides an overview of the exposure assessment process for an epidemiologic study that investigated mortality, with a special focus on lung cancer, associated with diesel exhaust (DE) exposure among miners. Details of several components are provided in four other reports. A major challenge for this study was the development of quantitative estimates of historical exposures to DE. There is no single standard method for assessing the totality of DE, so respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of DE, was selected as the primary surrogate in this study. Air monitoring surveys at seven of the eight study mining facilities were conducted between 1998 and 2001 and provided reference personal REC exposure levels and measurements for other agents and DE components in the mining environment. (The eighth facility had closed permanently prior to the surveys.) Exposure estimates were developed for mining facility/department/job/year combinations. A hierarchical grouping strategy was developed for assigning exposure levels to underground jobs [based on job titles, on the amount of time spent in various areas of the underground mine, and on similar carbon monoxide (CO, another DE component) concentrations] and to surface jobs (based on the use of, or proximity to, diesel-powered equipment). Time trends in air concentrations for underground jobs were estimated from mining facility-specific prediction models using diesel equipment horsepower, total air flow rates exhausted from the underground mines, and, because there were no historical REC measurements, historical measurements of CO. Exposures to potentially confounding agents, i.e. respirable dust, silica, radon, asbestos, and non-diesel sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, also were assessed. Accuracy and reliability of the estimated REC exposures levels were evaluated by comparison with several smaller datasets and by development of alternative time trend models. During 1998-2001, the average measured REC exposure level by facility ranged from 40 to 384 ?g m?³ for the underground workers and from 2 to 6 ?g m?³ for the surface workers. For one prevalent underground job, 'miner operator', the maximum annual REC exposure estimate by facility ranged up to 685% greater than the corresponding 1998-2001 value. A comparison of the historical CO estimates from the time trend models with 1976-1977 CO measurements not used in the modeling found an overall median relative difference of 29%. Other comparisons showed similar levels of agreement. The assessment process indicated large differences in REC exposure levels over time and across the underground operations. Method evaluations indicated that the final estimates were consistent with those from alternative time trend models and demonstrated moderate to high agreement with external data. PMID:20876233

Stewart, Patricia A; Coble, Joseph B; Vermeulen, Roel; Schleiff, Patricia; Blair, Aaron; Lubin, Jay; Attfield, Michael; Silverman, Debra T

2010-10-01

144

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: I. Overview of the Exposure Assessment Process  

PubMed Central

This report provides an overview of the exposure assessment process for an epidemiologic study that investigated mortality, with a special focus on lung cancer, associated with diesel exhaust (DE) exposure among miners. Details of several components are provided in four other reports. A major challenge for this study was the development of quantitative estimates of historical exposures to DE. There is no single standard method for assessing the totality of DE, so respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of DE, was selected as the primary surrogate in this study. Air monitoring surveys at seven of the eight study mining facilities were conducted between 1998 and 2001 and provided reference personal REC exposure levels and measurements for other agents and DE components in the mining environment. (The eighth facility had closed permanently prior to the surveys.) Exposure estimates were developed for mining facility/department/job/year combinations. A hierarchical grouping strategy was developed for assigning exposure levels to underground jobs [based on job titles, on the amount of time spent in various areas of the underground mine, and on similar carbon monoxide (CO, another DE component) concentrations] and to surface jobs (based on the use of, or proximity to, diesel-powered equipment). Time trends in air concentrations for underground jobs were estimated from mining facility-specific prediction models using diesel equipment horsepower, total air flow rates exhausted from the underground mines, and, because there were no historical REC measurements, historical measurements of CO. Exposures to potentially confounding agents, i.e. respirable dust, silica, radon, asbestos, and non-diesel sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, also were assessed. Accuracy and reliability of the estimated REC exposures levels were evaluated by comparison with several smaller datasets and by development of alternative time trend models. During 1998–2001, the average measured REC exposure level by facility ranged from 40 to 384 ?g m?3 for the underground workers and from 2 to 6 ?g m?3 for the surface workers. For one prevalent underground job, ‘miner operator’, the maximum annual REC exposure estimate by facility ranged up to 685% greater than the corresponding 1998–2001 value. A comparison of the historical CO estimates from the time trend models with 1976–1977 CO measurements not used in the modeling found an overall median relative difference of 29%. Other comparisons showed similar levels of agreement. The assessment process indicated large differences in REC exposure levels over time and across the underground operations. Method evaluations indicated that the final estimates were consistent with those from alternative time trend models and demonstrated moderate to high agreement with external data. PMID:20876233

Stewart, Patricia A.; Coble, Joseph B.; Vermeulen, Roel; Schleiff, Patricia; Blair, Aaron; Lubin, Jay; Attfield, Michael; Silverman, Debra T.

2010-01-01

145

Modeling Particle Exposure in US Trucking Terminals  

PubMed Central

Multi-tiered sampling approaches are common in environmental and occupational exposure assessment, where exposures for a given individual are often modeled based on simultaneous measurements taken at multiple indoor and outdoor sites. The monitoring data from such studies is hierarchical by design, imposing a complex covariance structure that must be accounted for in order to obtain unbiased estimates of exposure. Statistical methods such as structural equation modeling (SEM) represent a useful alternative to simple linear regression in these cases, providing simultaneous and unbiased predictions of each level of exposure based on a set of covariates specific to the exposure setting. We test the SEM approach using data from a large exposure assessment of diesel and combustion particles in the US trucking industry. The exposure assessment includes data from 36 different trucking terminals across the United States sampled between 2001 and 2005, measuring PM2.5 and its elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) components, by personal monitoring, and sampling at two indoor work locations and an outdoor “background” location. Using the SEM method, we predict: 1) personal exposures as a function of work related exposure and smoking status; 2) work related exposure as a function of terminal characteristics, indoor ventilation, job location, and background exposure conditions; and 3) background exposure conditions as a function of weather, nearby source pollution, and other regional differences across terminal sites. The primary advantage of SEMs in this setting is the ability to simultaneously predict exposures at each of the sampling locations, while accounting for the complex covariance structure among the measurements and descriptive variables. The statistically significant results and high R2 values observed from the trucking industry application supports the broader use of this approach in exposure assessment modeling. PMID:16856739

Davis, ME; Smith, TJ; Laden, F; Hart, JE; Ryan, LM; Garshick, E

2007-01-01

146

The effect of local exhaust ventilation controls on dust exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effectiveness of commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities. Work activities were performed by union-sponsored apprentices and included tuck-point grinding, surface grinding, paver block and brick cutting (masonry saw), and concrete block cutting (hand-held saw). In a randomized block design, implemented under controlled field conditions, three ventilation rates (0, 30, and 75 cfm) were tested for each tool. Each ventilation treatment was replicated three times in random order for a total of nine 15-min work sessions per study subject. With the exception of the hand-held saw, the use of LEV resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in respirable dust exposure. Mean exposure levels for the 75 cfm treatments were less than that of the 30 cfm treatments; however, differences between these two treatments were only significant for paver block cutting (p < 0.01). Although exposure reduction was significant (70-90% at the low ventilation rate and 80-95% reduction at the high ventilation rate), personal respirable dust [corrected] exposures remained very high: 1.4-2.8 x PEL (permissible exposure limit) at the low ventilation rate and 0.9-1.7 x PEL at the high ventilation rate. Exposure levels found under actual field conditions would likely be lower due to the intermittent nature of most job tasks. Despite incomplete control LEV has merit, as it would reduce the risk of workers developing disease, allow workers to use a lower level of respiratory protection, protect workers during short duration work episodes reduce exposure to nearby workers, and reduce clean-up associated dust exposures. PMID:12486779

Croteau, Gerry A; Guffey, Steven E; Flanagan, Mary Ellen; Seixas, Noah S

2002-01-01

147

A source-independent empirical correction procedure for the fast mobility and engine exhaust particle sizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) provide size distributions for 6-560 nm particles with a time resolution suitable for characterizing transient particle sources; however, the accuracy of these instruments can be source dependent, due to influences of particle morphology. The aim of this study was to develop a source-independent correction protocol for the FMPS and EEPS. The correction protocol consists of: (1) broadening the >80 nm size range of the distribution to account for under-sizing by the FMPS and EEPS; (2) applying an existing correction protocol in the 8-93 nm size range; and (3) dividing each size bin by the ratio of total concentration measured by the FMPS or EEPS and a water-based Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) as a surrogate scaling factor to account for particle morphology. Efficacy of the correction protocol was assessed for three sources: urban ambient air, diluted gasoline direct injection engine exhaust, and diluted diesel engine exhaust. Linear regression against a reference instrument, the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), before and after applying the correction protocol demonstrated that the correction ensured agreement within 20%.

Zimmerman, Naomi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wang, Jonathan M.; Ramos, Manuel; Wallace, James S.; Evans, Greg J.

2015-01-01

148

Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood  

E-print Network

Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke Elsa Nielsen, Marianne Dybdahl HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES FROM WOOD SMOKE 7 HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS 8 Human non-cancer health effects from exposure to particles from wood smoke 8 Human carcinogenic effects from exposure to particles from

149

120 maternal exposure to diesel engine exhaust during pregnancy affects early embryo development in a rabbit model.  

PubMed

Airborne pollution has been associated with various adverse effects on human reproductive health, especially intrauterine growth retardation and early pregnancy loss. However, few studies have analysed its effect on early development. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have been shown to alter blastocyst formation when diluted in embryo culture medium (2010 Toxicol Sci. 117, 200-208), but no data are available concerning the effect of maternal inhalation of diesel exhaust on early embryo development. Our study has been designed to answer this question using rabbit as a model and DEP doses mimicking daily exposure to traffic in large European cities. New Zealand female rabbits were superovulated by means of 5 subcutaneous administration of pFSH for 3 days before mating, followed 10 to 12h later by an intravenous administration of 30IU of hCG at the time of mating (natural mating). Dams were exposed to a representative air pollution mixture; that is, diluted diesel engine exhaust (1mgm(-3); N=14) or clean air (N = 12), for 1h every morning and afternoon, from Day 3 to Day 6 post-coitum (dpc). At 6 dpc, in vivo-developed embryos were collected from uteri perfused with PBS and counted; their diameter was measured on pictures using ImageJ software (NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA). Another group of female rabbits was exposed to the same inhalation conditions from 3 to 27 dpc without superovulation treatment. Measures by ultrasound were performed on these dams at 7 dpc. Data were analysed by Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA, including dams as cofactor. At 6 dpc, number of embryos per dams was higher in exposed group compared with control (P<0.05). In contrast, embryo diameter was significantly lower in the DEP exposed group compared with the clean air exposed group (P<0.01). Gene expression analysis is being performed in these embryos. At 7 dpc, ultrasound measurements evidenced a decrease in embryo diameter, perimeter, and volume in the exposed group compared with control (P<0.01, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively). These data indicate that repeated exposure to airborne pollution even for daily short periods affects early development. Consequences of maternal DEP exposure on feto-placental development are under investigation. PMID:25472169

Valentino, S; Dahirel, M; Mourier, E; Archilla, C; Richard, C; Daniel, N; Maulny, L; Peynot, N; Canon, E; Slama, R; Cassee, F; Tarrade, A; Duranthon, V; Chavatte-Palmer, P

2014-12-01

150

EFFECT OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN NASAL LAVAGE CELLS AND DNA ADDUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall aim of this study is to determine (using a nasal challenge model) the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on nasal responses including induction of inflammation, immune changes and DNA damage. We are also examining how treatment of DEP with ozone (oz-DEP)modify ...

151

NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION.  

EPA Science Inventory

NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION. M.L. Block1,2, X. Wu1, P. Zhong1, G. Li1, T. Wang1, J.S. Hong1 & B.Veronesi.2 1The Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, RTP, NC and 2 National Health and Envi...

152

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN A MURINE MUCOSAL SENSITIZATION MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies in humans and animals have shown diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can act as an immunological adjuvant to enhance the development of allergic lung disease and this effect is influenced by the chemical composition of the DEP. The adjuvancy of NIST SRM 2975 (NDEP) generated...

153

Enhancement of allergic inflammation by the interaction between diesel exhaust particles and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that fossil fuel combustion products act as adjuvants in the immune system and may lead to enhancement of allergic inflammation. Through this mechanism, particulate air pollutants may be an important contributor to the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In this communication we focus on the role of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) in

Andre E. Nel; David Diaz-Sanchez; David Ng; Timothy Hiura; Andrew Saxon

1998-01-01

154

Biological effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP). III. Pathogenesis of asthma like symptoms in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, reversible airway constriction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness are important pathogenic features of asthma. We found that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) instilled intratracheally and repeatedly to mice (once\\/week for 16 weeks) caused marked infiltration of inflammatory cells, proliferation of goblet cells, increased mucus secretion, respiratory resistance, and airway constriction. Eosinophils in the submucosa of the proximal bronchi

Masaru Sagai; Akiko Furuyama; Takamichi Ichinose

1996-01-01

155

SAMPLE CHARACTERIZATION OF AUTOMOBILE AND FORKLIFT DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES AND COMPARATIVE PULMONARY TOXICITY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Two samples of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) predominate in DEP health effects research: an automobile-source DEP (A-DEP) sample and the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM 2975) generated from a forklift engine...

156

BIOASSAY-DIRECTED FRACTIONAL AND SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY OF AUTOMOBILE AND FORKLIFT DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Many pulmonary toxicity studies of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have used an automobile-generated sample (A-DEP) whose mutagenicity has not been reported. In contrast, rnany inutagenicity studies of DEP have used a forklift-generated sample (SRM ...

157

EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN MACROPHAGE RESPONSIVENESS TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN MACROPHAGE RESPONSIVENESS TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE S. Mundandhara1 and M.C. Madden2, 1UNC Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, 2US EPA, NHEERL, Human Studies Division, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Epidemiologica...

158

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE COMPOSITION AND THE METHOD OF SONICATION INFLUENCE THE ADJUVANCY EFFECT AND TARC PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous reports have shown diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can act as an immunological adjuvant in asthma. Recent interest has focused on thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) as an important modulator of this effect. This study evaluated the adjuvancy effects of thr...

159

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES AS ADJUVANTS IN ALLERGIC AIRWAY DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Description: Studies have shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) worsen respiratory diseases including allergic asthma. The adjuvant effects of DEP in the airways have been widely reported; however, the precise determinants and mechanisms of these effects are ill-defined. S...

160

Variability in Bioreactivity Linked to Changes in Size and Zeta Potential of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Human  

E-print Network

the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEPVariability in Bioreactivity Linked to Changes in Size and Zeta Potential of Diesel Exhaust) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (EnviroxTM ). We attempted to examine

Garfunkel, Eric

161

Tracking the pathway of diesel exhaust particles from the nose to the brain by X-ray florescence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies have shown that exposure to nano-sized particles (< 50 nm) result in their translocation to the central nervous system through the olfactory nerve. Translocation commonly occurs via inhalation, ingestion and skin uptake. Little information is available on the specific pathway of cellular localization of nano-sized particles in the olfactory bulb. The nano-sized particles entrance into the postsynaptics cell is of particular interest because the mitral cell projects to the central nucleus of the amygdala and the piriform cortex. Therefore, our objective in this follow-up study has been to determine whether or not the mitral cells project nano-sized particles to the brain. Nano-sized particles in this study were generated using diesel exhaust. Lab mice were exposed for a period of 4 weeks. We employed synchrotron radiation (SPring-8, Japan) to determine the concentration levels of metal in the olfactory neuron pathway. Metal levels were assayed by mapping, using X-ray fluorescence analysis. The major metal components measured in the filter that collected the inhaled diesel exhaust particles were calcium, copper, iron, nickel and zinc. Our studies reveal an increase in the amount of nano-sized particles in the glomerular layer as well as in the neurons in the olfactory epithelium. Higher levels of nickel and iron were found in the olfactory epithelium's lamina propria mucosae in comparison to that in the control group. Higher levels of iron also were observed in the glomerular layer. Our studies do not clarify the specifics of metal adhesion and detachment. This remains to be one of the key issues requiring further clarification.

Matsui, Yasuto; Sakai, Nobumitsu; Tsuda, Akira; Terada, Yasuko; Takaoka, Masaki; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Uchiyama, Iwao

2009-08-01

162

Eugenol attenuates pulmonary damage induced by diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Environmentally relevant doses of inhaled diesel particles elicit pulmonary inflammation and impair lung mechanics. Eugenol, a methoxyphenol component of clove oil, presents in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Our aim was to examine a possible protective role of eugenol against lung injuries induced by diesel particles. Male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups. Mice received saline (10 ?l in; CTRL group) or 15 ?g of diesel particles DEP (15 ?g in; DIE and DEUG groups). After 1 h, mice received saline (10 ?l; CTRL and DIE groups) or eugenol (164 mg/kg; EUG and DEUG group) by gavage. Twenty-four hours after gavage, pulmonary resistive (?P1), viscoelastic (?P2) and total (?Ptot) pressures, static elastance (Est), and viscoelastic component of elastance (?E) were measured. We also determined the fraction areas of normal and collapsed alveoli, amounts of polymorpho- (PMN) and mononuclear cells in lung parenchyma, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Est, ?P2, ?Ptot, and ?E were significantly higher in the DIE than in the other groups. DIE also showed significantly more PMN, airspace collapse, and apoptosis than the other groups. However, no beneficial effect on lipid peroxidation was observed in DEUG group. In conclusion, eugenol avoided changes in lung mechanics, pulmonary inflammation, and alveolar collapse elicited by diesel particles. It attenuated the activation signal of caspase-3 by DEP, but apoptosis evaluated by TUNEL was avoided. Finally, it could not avoid oxidative stress as indicated by malondialdehyde. PMID:22194320

Zin, Walter A; Silva, Ana G L S; Magalhães, Clarissa B; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Riva, Douglas R; Lima, Crystianne C; Leal-Cardoso, Jose H; Takiya, Christina M; Valença, Samuel S; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Faffe, Débora S

2012-03-01

163

Diesel exhaust particles induce the over expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in alvelor machrophage and failed to induce apoptosis through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10), including diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been reported to induce lung injury and exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alveolar macrophages play a major role in the lung's response to inhaled particles and...

164

Impact of selective catalytic reduction on exhaust particle formation over excess ammonia events.  

PubMed

The introduction of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment to meet stringent diesel NOx emission standards around the world increases exhaust ammonia. Further to the direct air quality and health implications of ammonia, this may also lead to particle formation in the exhaust. In this study, an ammonia SCR system was examined with respect to its impact on both solid and total exhaust particle number and size distribution, downstream of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Fuel post-injection was conducted in some tests to investigate the effect of ammonia during active DPF regeneration. On average, the post-DPF solid >23 nm and total <23 nm particle number emissions were increased by 129% (range 80-193%) and by 67% (range 26-136%), respectively, when 100 ppm ammonia level was induced downstream of the SCR catalyst. This is a typical level during ammonia overdosing, often practiced for efficient NOx control. Ammonia did not have a significant additional effect on the high particle concentrations measured during DPF regeneration. Based on species availability and formation conditions, sulfate, nitrate, and chloride salts with ammonium are possible sources of the new particles formed. Ammonia-induced particle formation corresponds to an environmental problem which is not adequately addressed by current regulations. PMID:25167537

Amanatidis, Stavros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Giechaskiel, Barouch; Bergmann, Alexander; Samaras, Zissis

2014-10-01

165

CONTROLLED EXPOSURES OF HUMAN VOLUNTEERS TO DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST: BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Combustion of diesel fuel contributes to ambient air pollutant fine particulate matter (PM) and gases. Fine PM exposure has been associated with increased mortality due to adverse cardiac events, and morbidity, such as increased hospitalization for asthma symptoms and lung infect...

166

Effect of AC Electrostatic Precipitator on Removal Diesel Exhaust Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collection of low resistive particulate matter (PM) generated from automobile and marine diesel engines or diesel generators have been known to be difficult by the conventional electrostatic precipitators (ESP). The collection efficiency for two types ESPs such as conventional DC energized ESP (DC ESP) and rectangular-AC-waveform energized ESP (AC ESP) were investigated. The low resistive PMs agglomerate like a pearl-chain on the collection plate in DC ESP, so that these are detached from the collection plate by electrostatic repulsion force and wind force. The pearl-chain particles are changed the shape, which is such a spherical, by AC ESP. Therefore, the particle re-entrainment is suppressed by AC ESP.

Kawakami, Hitomi; Zukeran, Akinori; Yasumoto, Koji; Kubojima, Masaki; Ehara, Yoshiyasu; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

167

Toll like receptor-3 priming alters diesel exhaust particle-induced cytokine responses in human bronchial epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Inflammation is considered central in the pathology of health effects from airborne particulate matter (PM). Preexisting inflammatory disorders, such as asthma, but also pulmonary infections, appear to be a risk factor of adverse health effects from PM exposure. Thus, to assess whether and how preexisting inflammation may sensitize lung cells toward additional proinflammatory effects of PM, human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were primed with the highly proinflammatory Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand, Poly I:C, prior to exposure with diesel exhaust particles (DEP). DEP-exposure alone induced increased gene-expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CXCL8 (IL-8) but did not affect expression of CCL5 (RANTES), while TLR3-priming alone induced expression of IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL5. DEP-exposure exacerbated IL-6 and CXCL8 responses in TLR3-primed cells, while TLR3-induced CCL5 was suppressed by DEP. TLR3-priming and DEP-exposure resulted in possible additive effects on p38 phosphorylation and I?B-degradation, while DEP rather suppressed ERK and JNK-activation. However, TLR3-priming elicited a considerable increase in p65-phosphorylation at serine 536 which is known to enhance the transcriptional activity of NF-?B. DEP-exposure was unable to induce p65-phosphorylation. Thus TLR3-priming may affect susceptibility toward DEP by activating both shared and complementing pathways required for optimal expression of proinflammatory genes such as IL-6 and CXCL8. The study underscores that primed "sick" cells may be more susceptible toward effects of particle-exposure and respond both stronger and differently compared to unprimed "healthy" cells. PMID:24709138

Bach, Nicolai S; Låg, Marit; Øvrevik, Johan

2014-07-01

168

Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide-Mediated Lung Inflammation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Wild-Type and iNOS-Deficient Mice Exposed to Diesel Exhaust Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary responses to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) exposure are mediated through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by alveolar macrophages (AM). The current study examined the differential roles of ROS and NO in DEP-induced lung injury using C57B\\/6J wild-type (WT) and inducible NO synthase knockout (iNOS KO) mice. Mice exposed by pharyngeal aspiration to DEP

Hongwen Zhao; Joseph K. Ma; Mark W. Barger; Robert R. Mercer; Lyndell Millecchia; Diane Schwegler-Berry; Vince Castranova; Jane Y. Ma

2009-01-01

169

In vitro evaluation of the tumor-promoting potential of diesel-exhaust-particle extracts  

SciTech Connect

Diesel-exhaust-particle extracts at nontoxic doses were evaluated in BALB/c mouse embryo 3T3 cells and Chinese hamster V-79 lung cells for their ability to mimic the actions of the known tumor promoter tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). The extracts were tested in a two-stage model of carcinogenesis in 3T3 cells and found to marginally promote the occurrence of transformed foci over a concentration range of 2-10 ..mu..g/ml. The particle extracts also caused a loss of cell-surface fibronectin and produced an increased saturation density of 3T3 cells. Using V-79 cells, the extracts were found to inhibit metabolic cooperation between cells. Based on these results, it was concluded that diesel-exhaust particles contain compounds that act as weak tumor promoters. 29 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Zamora, P.O.; Gregory, R.E.; Brooks, A.L.

1983-01-01

170

Effects of Exposure to Nanoparticle-rich Diesel Exhaust on Pregnancy in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pollutants from burning of diesel fuel are hazardous to human health. Nanoparticles in diesel exhaust potentially have profound impact on fetal development and maternal endocrine function during pregnancy due to their ability to penetrate deeply into the body. To investigate the effects of nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NR-DE) on pregnancy, pregnant rats were exposed to NR-DE, filtered diesel exhaust (F-DE) or clean air for 19 days of gestation. Relative weights of maternal liver and spleen to body weight were significantly lower in the NR-DE and F-DE groups than those in the control group. The serum concentration of maternal progesterone was significantly lower, while those of luteinizing hormone (LH) and corticosterone were significantly higher in the NR-DE and F-DE groups than those in the control group. The serum concentration of estradiol-17? was significantly higher in the F-DE group than that in the control group. The levels of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and LH receptor mRNA in the corpus luteum were significantly lower in the NR-DE and F-DE groups than those in the control. In fetuses, body weight and crown-rump length were significantly greater and shorter, respectively, in both males and females in the NR-DE and F-DE groups than those in the control group. These results demonstrate that exposure of pregnant rats to NR-DE and F-DE suppresses the function of corpora lutea and stimulates the function of the adrenal cortex, suggesting a risk of spontaneous abortion associated with maternal hormonal changes. PMID:23257834

LI, ChunMei; LI, Xuezheng; SUZUKI, Akira K.; ZHANG, Yonghui; FUJITANI, Yuji; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; WATANABE, Gen; TAYA, Kazuyoshi

2012-01-01

171

Prenatal diesel exhaust exposure disrupts the DNA methylation profile in the brain of mouse offspring.  

PubMed

Prenatal diesel exhaust (DE) exposure is associated with detrimental health effects in offspring. Although previous reports suggest that DE exposure affects the brain of offspring in the developmental period, the molecular events associated with the health effects have largely remained unclear. We hypothesized that the DNA methylation state would be disrupted by prenatal DE exposure. In the present study, the authors examined the genome-wide DNA methylation state of the gene promoter and bioinformatically analyzed the obtained data to identify the molecular events related to disrupted DNA methylation. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to DE (DEP; 0.1 mg/m3) in an inhalation chamber on gestational days 0-16. Brains were collected from 1-day-old and 21-day-old offspring. The genomewide DNA methylation state of the brain genome was analyzed by methylation-specific DNA immunoprecipitation and subsequent promoter tiling array analysis. The genes in which the DNA methylation level was affected by prenatal DE exposure were bioinformatically categorized using Gene Ontology (GO). Differentially methylated DNA regions were detected in all chromosomes in brains collected from both 1-day-old and 21-day-old offspring. Altered DNA methylation was observed independently of the presence of CpG island. Bioinformatic interpretation using GO terms showed that differentially methylated genes with CpG islands in their promoter were commonly enriched in neuronal differentiation and neurogenesis. The results suggest that prenatal DE exposure causes genome-wide disruption of DNA methylation in the brain. Disrupted DNA methylation would disturb neuronal development in the developmental period and may be associated with health and disease in later life. PMID:25560391

Tachibana, Ken; Takayanagi, Kohei; Akimoto, Ayame; Ueda, Kouji; Shinkai, Yusuke; Umezawa, Masakazu; Takeda, Ken

2015-01-01

172

Differential proinflammatory responses induced by diesel exhaust particles with contrasting PAH and metal content.  

PubMed

Exposure to diesel engine exhaust particles (DEPs), representing a complex and variable mixture of components, has been linked with cellular production and release of several types of mediators related to pulmonary inflammation. A key challenge is to identify the specific components, which may be responsible for these effects. The aim of this study was to compare the proinflammatory potential of two DEP-samples with contrasting contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. The DEP-samples were compared with respect to their ability to induce cytotoxicity, expression and release of proinflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-8), activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and expression of CYP1A1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. In addition, dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid assays were performed in order to examine the oxidative potential of the PM samples. The DEP-sample with the highest PAH and lowest metal content was more potent with respect to cytotoxicity and expression and release of proinflammatory mediators, CYP1A1 and HO-1 expression and MAPK activation, than the DEP-sample with lower PAH and higher metal content. The DEP-sample with the highest PAH and lowest metal content also possessed a greater oxidative potential. The present results indicate that the content of organic components may be determinant for the proinflammatory effects of DEP. The findings underscore the importance of considering the chemical composition of particulate matter-emissions, when evaluating the potential health impact and implementation of air pollution regulations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 188-196, 2015. PMID:23900936

Totlandsdal, Annike I; Låg, Marit; Lilleaas, Edel; Cassee, Flemming; Schwarze, Per

2015-02-01

173

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: V. Evaluation of the Exposure Assessment Methods  

PubMed Central

Exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), was assessed for an epidemiologic study investigating the association between DE and mortality, particularly from lung cancer, among miners at eight mining facilities from the date of dieselization (1947–1967) through 1997. To provide insight into the quality of the estimates for use in the epidemiologic analyses, several approaches were taken to evaluate the exposure assessment process and the quality of the estimates. An analysis of variance was conducted to evaluate the variability of 1998–2001 REC measurements within and between exposure groups of underground jobs. Estimates for the surface exposure groups were evaluated to determine if the arithmetic means (AMs) of the REC measurements increased with increased proximity to, or use of, diesel-powered equipment, which was the basis on which the surface groups were formed. Estimates of carbon monoxide (CO) (another component of DE) air concentrations in 1976–1977, derived from models developed to predict estimated historical exposures, were compared to 1976–1977 CO measurement data that had not been used in the model development. Alternative sets of estimates were developed to investigate the robustness of various model assumptions. These estimates were based on prediction models using: (i) REC medians rather AMs, (ii) a different CO:REC proportionality than a 1:1 relation, and (iii) 5-year averages of historical CO measurements rather than modeled historical CO measurements and DE-related determinants. The analysis of variance found that in three of the facilities, most of the between-group variability in the underground measurements was explained by the use of job titles. There was relatively little between-group variability in the other facilities. The estimated REC AMs for the surface exposure groups rose overall from 1 to 5 ?g m?3 as proximity to, and use of, diesel equipment increased. The alternative estimates overall were highly correlated (?0.9) with the primary set of estimates. The median of the relative differences between the 1976–1977 CO measurement means and the 1976–1977 estimates for six facilities was 29%. Comparison of estimated CO air concentrations from the facility-specific prediction models with historical CO measurement data found an overall agreement similar to that observed in other epidemiologic studies. Other evaluations of components of the exposure assessment process found moderate to excellent agreement. Thus, the overall evidence suggests that the estimates were likely accurate representations of historical personal exposure levels to DE and are useful for epidemiologic analyses.

Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Blair, Aaron; Schleiff, Patricia; Lubin, Jay H.; Attfield, Mike; Silverman, Debra T.

2012-01-01

174

Diesel Exhaust Particles Enhance Antigen-induced Airway Inflammation and Local Cytokine Expression in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experimental studies have suggested that nasal instillation of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can enhance nasal IgE response and cytokine production. However, there is no experimental evi- dence for the relation of DEP to allergic asthma. We investigated the effects of DEP inoculated in- tratracheally on antigen-induced airway inflammation, local expression of cytokine proteins, and antigen-specific immunoglobulin production in mice.

HIROHISA TAKANO; TOSHIKAZU YOSHIKAWA; TAKAMICHI ICHINOSE; YUICHI MIYABARA; KOICHI IMAOKA; MASARU SAGAI

1997-01-01

175

Effect of Diesel Exhaust Particle Extracts on Induction of Oral Tolerance in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extracts on oral tolerance in mice. For this examination, a single DEP sample was consecutively extracted with hexane (HEX- DEP), benzene (BEN-DEP), dichloromethane (DIC-DEP), methanol (MET-DEP), and 1 M ammonia (AMM-DEP). Resi- dues unextracted (UNE-DEP) with the last extraction solvent 1 M ammonia were also used to test their ability to

Shin Yoshino; Hideyuki Hayashi; Shinji Taneda; Hirohisa Takano; Masaru Sagai; Yoki Mori

2002-01-01

176

Ym1 and Ym2 expression in a mouse model exposed to diesel exhaust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chitinase may play a role in regulating allergic diseases. Objective: We stud- ied the role of chitinase in a mouse model exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Mice were exposed to intranasal DEP (0.6 mg\\/mL) for 5 days and challenged with aerosolized DEP (6 mg\\/m3) on days 6-8. Enhanced pause (Penh), as an airway obstruction marker, was measured on

Hyun-Mi Song; An-Soo Jang; Mi-Hyun Ahn; Hajime Takizawa; Shin-Hwa Lee; Ji-Hee Kwon; Young-Mok Lee; TaiYoun Rhim; Choon-Sik Park

2008-01-01

177

Nrf2 Is a Protective Factor against Oxidative Stresses Induced by Diesel Exhaust Particle in Allergic Asthma  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have shown that air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust particle (DEP), are implicated in the increased incidence of allergic airway disorders. In vitro studies of molecular mechanisms have focused on the role of reactive oxygen species generated directly and indirectly by the exposure to DEP. Antioxidants effectively reduce the allergic inflammatory effects induced by DEP both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, Nrf2 is a transcription factor essential for the inducible and/or constitutive expression of phase II and antioxidant enzymes. Disruption of Nrf2 enhances susceptibility to airway inflammatory responses and exacerbation of allergic inflammation induced by DEP in mice. Host responses to DEP are regulated by a balance between antioxidants and proinflammatory responses. Nrf2 may be an important protective factor against oxidative stresses induced by DEP in airway inflammation and allergic asthma and is expected to contribute to chemoprevention against DEP health effects in susceptible individuals. PMID:23738037

Kawada, Tomoyuki; Azuma, Arata

2013-01-01

178

Nrf2 is a protective factor against oxidative stresses induced by diesel exhaust particle in allergic asthma.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown that air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust particle (DEP), are implicated in the increased incidence of allergic airway disorders. In vitro studies of molecular mechanisms have focused on the role of reactive oxygen species generated directly and indirectly by the exposure to DEP. Antioxidants effectively reduce the allergic inflammatory effects induced by DEP both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, Nrf2 is a transcription factor essential for the inducible and/or constitutive expression of phase II and antioxidant enzymes. Disruption of Nrf2 enhances susceptibility to airway inflammatory responses and exacerbation of allergic inflammation induced by DEP in mice. Host responses to DEP are regulated by a balance between antioxidants and proinflammatory responses. Nrf2 may be an important protective factor against oxidative stresses induced by DEP in airway inflammation and allergic asthma and is expected to contribute to chemoprevention against DEP health effects in susceptible individuals. PMID:23738037

Li, Ying-Ji; Kawada, Tomoyuki; Azuma, Arata

2013-01-01

179

Occupational Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Mitigation by Push-Pull Local Exhaust Ventilation in Printing Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Mitigation by Local Exhaust Ventilation in Printing Plants: Michael K.H. LEUNG et al. The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong—The extensive use of multiple organic solvents in offset lithographic printing causing high emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indeed poses a serious risk to printing workers' health. In this study, indoor air quality

Michael K. H. Leung; Chun-Ho Liu; Alan H. S. Chan

2005-01-01

180

Influence of experimental type 1 diabetes on the pulmonary effects of diesel exhaust particles in mice.  

PubMed

Epidemiologically, exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality, and diabetics are especially vulnerable to effects of particles. This study was carried out to determine the respiratory effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP; 0.4mg/kg) on mice rendered diabetic by the injection of streptozotocin or vehicle (control). Four weeks following induction of diabetes, the animals were intratracheally instilled (i.t.) with DEP (0.4mg/kg) or saline. 24h later, the measurement of airway reactivity to methacholine in vivo by a forced oscillation technique showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in airway resistance in non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP versus non-diabetic mice exposed to saline. Similarly, the airway resistance was significantly increased in diabetic mice exposed to DEP versus diabetic mice exposed to saline. Nevertheless, there was no difference in the airway resistance between diabetic and non-diabetic mice after i.t. administration of DEP. Following DEP administration there were neutrophil polymorphs infiltration of pulmonary interalveolar septae and the alveolar spaces with many macrophages containing DEP in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice. Interestingly, apoptotic cells were only found in the examined lung sections from diabetic mice exposed to DEP. Total proteins and albumin concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, markers for increase of epithelial permeability, were significantly increased in diabetic mice exposed to DEP compared to saline-treated diabetic and DEP-treated non diabetic mice. Superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione concentration in BAL were significantly decreased in diabetic mice exposed to DEP compared to saline-treated diabetic and DEP-treated non diabetic mice. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) concentrations were significantly increased in diabetic mice exposed to DEP compared to saline-treated diabetic and DEP-treated non diabetic mice. We conclude that, at the dose and time point investigated, DEP equally increased airway resistance and caused infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung of both diabetic and non-diabetic mice. However, the occurrence of oxidative stress, the presence lung apoptotic cells and the increase of total proteins, albumin and TNF? in BAL fluid were only seen in DEP-exposed diabetic mice suggesting an increased respiratory susceptibility to particulate air pollution. PMID:23147376

Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Yasin, Javed; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Ali, Badreldin H

2013-02-27

181

Differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-1 in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-1 activation results in the upregulation of genes involved in promoting inflammation in airway epithelial cells, a principal target of inhaled DEP. IL-8 is a proinflammatory chemokine expressed by the airway epithelium in response to environmental pollutants. The mechanism by which DEP exposure induces IL-8 expression is not well understood. In the current study, we sought to determine whether DEP with varying organic content induces IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells, as well as, to develop a method to rapidly evaluate the upstream mechanism(s) by which DEP induces IL-8 expression. Exposure to DEP with varying organic content differentially induced IL-8 expression and IL-8 promoter activity human airway epithelial cells. Mutational analysis of the IL-8 promoter was also performed using recombinant human cell lines expressing reporters linked to the mutated promoters. Treatment with a low organic-containing DEP stimulated IL-8 expression by a mechanism that is predominantly NFkB-dependent. In contrast, exposure to high organic-containing DEP induced IL-8 expression independently of NFkB through a mechanism that requires AP-1 activity. Our study reveals that exposure to DEP of varying organic content induces proinflammatory gene expression through multiple specific mechanisms in human airway epithelial cells. The approaches used in the present study demonstrate the utility of a promoter-reporter assay ensemble for identifying transcriptional pathways activated by pollutant exposure.

Tal, Tamara L. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Simmons, Steven O. [Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Silbajoris, Robert; Dailey, Lisa [Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Cho, Seung-Hyun [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Research Participation Program, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge (United States); Ramabhadran, Ram [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Linak, William [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Reed, William; Bromberg, Philip A. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Samet, James M., E-mail: samet.james@epa.go [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States)

2010-02-15

182

Capture efficiency of cooking-related fine and ultrafine particles by residential exhaust hoods.  

PubMed

Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking-generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m(3) chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80%. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38% for low (51-68 l/s) and 54-72% for high (109-138 l/s) settings. CEs for 0.3-2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3-11% on low and 16-70% on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80% both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles. PMID:24750219

Lunden, M M; Delp, W W; Singer, B C

2015-02-01

183

Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods  

SciTech Connect

Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

2014-06-05

184

Novel object recognition ability in female mice following exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

Recently, our laboratory reported that exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) for 3 months impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning ability and up-regulated the expressions of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of female mice. However, whether NRDE affects the hippocampus-dependent non-spatial learning ability and the mechanism of NRDE-induced neurotoxicity was unknown. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, middle-dose NRDE (M-NRDE, 47 ?g/m(3)), high-dose NRDE (H-NRDE, 129 ?g/m(3)), or filtered H-NRDE (F-DE) for 3 months. We then investigated the effect of NRDE exposure on non-spatial learning ability and the expression of genes related to glutamate neurotransmission using a novel object recognition test and a real-time RT-PCR analysis, respectively. We also examined microglia marker Iba1 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus using immunohistochemical analyses. Mice exposed to H-NRDE or F-DE could not discriminate between familiar and novel objects. The control and M-NRDE-exposed groups showed a significantly increased discrimination index, compared to the H-NRDE-exposed group. Although no significant changes in the expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits were observed, the expression of glutamate transporter EAAT4 was decreased and that of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 was increased in the hippocampus of H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the expression levels in control mice. We also found that microglia activation was prominent in the hippocampal area of the H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the other groups. These results indicated that exposure to NRDE for 3 months impaired the novel object recognition ability. The present study suggests that genes related to glutamate metabolism may be involved in the NRDE-induced neurotoxicity observed in the present mouse model. PMID:22659509

Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro

2012-08-01

185

Biological activity of particle exhaust emissions from light-duty diesel engines.  

PubMed

Whole diesel exhaust has been classified recently as a probable carcinogen, and several genotoxicity studies have found particulate exhaust to be clearly mutagenic. Moreover, genotoxicity of diesel particulate is greatly influenced by fuel nature and type of combustion. In order to obtain an effective environmental pollution control, combustion processes using alternative fuels are being analyzed presently. The goal of this study is to determine whether the installation of exhaust after treatment-devices on two light-duty, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve-equipped diesel engines (1930 cc and 2500 cc) can reduce the mutagenicity associated with particles collected during U.S.A. and European driving cycles. Another interesting object was to compare the ability of alternative biodiesel and conventional diesel fuels to reduce the mutagenic activity associated with collected particles from two light duty diesel engines (both 1930 cc) during the European driving cycle. SOF mutagenicity was assayed using the Salmonella/microsome test (TA 98 and TA 100 strains, +/- S9 fraction). In the first part of our study, the highest mutagenicity was revealed by TA98 strain without enzymatic activation, suggesting a direct-acting mutagenicity prevalence in diesel particulate. The 2500 cc engine revealed twofold mutagenic activity compared with the 1930 cc engine (both EGR valve equipped), whereas an opposite result was found in particulate matter amount. The use of a noncatalytic ceramic trap produced a decrease of particle mutagenic activity in the 2500 cc car, whereas an enhancement in the 1930 cc engine was found. The catalytic converter and the electrostatic filter installed on the 2500 cc engine yielded a light particle amount and an SOF mutagenicity decrease. A greater engine stress was obtained using European driving cycles, which caused the strongest mutagenicity/km compared with the U.S.A. cycles. In the second part of the investigation, even though a small number of assays were available, exhaust emission generation by biodiesel fuel seemed to yield a smaller environmental impact than that of the referenced diesel fuel. The results point out the usefulness of mutagenicity testing in the research of both newer, more efficient automotive aftertreatment devices and less polluting fuels. PMID:9275990

Carraro, E; Locatelli, A L; Ferrero, C; Fea, E; Gilli, G

1997-01-01

186

Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) and nanoparticle exposures: what do DEP human clinical studies tell us about potential human health hazards of nanoparticles?  

PubMed

Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly tested in cellular and laboratory-animal experiments for hazard potential, but there is a lack of health effects data for humans exposed to ENPs. However, human data for another source of nanoparticle (NP) exposure are available, notably for the NPs contained in diesel exhaust particulate (DEP). Studies of human volunteers exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) in research settings report DEP-NP number concentrations (i.e., >10(6) particles/cm(3)) that exceed number concentrations reported for worst-case exposure conditions for workers manufacturing and handling ENPs. Recent human DE exposure studies, using sensitive physiological instrumentation and well-characterized exposure concentrations and durations, suggest that elevated DE exposures from pre-2007 engines may trigger short-term changes in, for example, lung and systemic inflammation, thrombogenesis, vascular function, and brain activity. Considerable uncertainty remains both as to which DE constituents underlie the observed responses (i.e., DEP NPs, DEP mass, DE gases), and as to the implications of the observed short-term changes for the development of disease. Even so, these DE human clinical data do not give evidence of a unique toxicity for NPs as compared to other small particles. Of course, physicochemical properties of toxicological relevance may differ between DEP NPs and other NPs, yet overall, the DE human clinical data do not support the idea that elevated levels of NPs per se (at least in the DEP context) must be acutely toxic by virtue of their nano-sized nature alone. PMID:20462394

Hesterberg, Thomas W; Long, Christopher M; Lapin, Charles A; Hamade, Ali K; Valberg, Peter A

2010-07-01

187

Novel object recognition ability in female mice following exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Recently, our laboratory reported that exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) for 3 months impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning ability and up-regulated the expressions of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of female mice. However, whether NRDE affects the hippocampus-dependent non-spatial learning ability and the mechanism of NRDE-induced neurotoxicity was unknown. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, middle-dose NRDE (M-NRDE, 47 ?g/m{sup 3}), high-dose NRDE (H-NRDE, 129 ?g/m{sup 3}), or filtered H-NRDE (F-DE) for 3 months. We then investigated the effect of NRDE exposure on non-spatial learning ability and the expression of genes related to glutamate neurotransmission using a novel object recognition test and a real-time RT-PCR analysis, respectively. We also examined microglia marker Iba1 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus using immunohistochemical analyses. Mice exposed to H-NRDE or F-DE could not discriminate between familiar and novel objects. The control and M-NRDE-exposed groups showed a significantly increased discrimination index, compared to the H-NRDE-exposed group. Although no significant changes in the expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits were observed, the expression of glutamate transporter EAAT4 was decreased and that of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 was increased in the hippocampus of H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the expression levels in control mice. We also found that microglia activation was prominent in the hippocampal area of the H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the other groups. These results indicated that exposure to NRDE for 3 months impaired the novel object recognition ability. The present study suggests that genes related to glutamate metabolism may be involved in the NRDE-induced neurotoxicity observed in the present mouse model. -- Highlights: ? The effects of nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. ? We investigated the effect of exposure to nanoparticles on learning behavior. ? We found that exposure to nanoparticles impaired novel object recognition ability.

Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin, E-mail: tin.tin.win.shwe@nies.go.jp [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16?2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305?8506 (Japan)] [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16?2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305?8506 (Japan); Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro [Center for Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16?2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305?8506 (Japan)] [Center for Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16?2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305?8506 (Japan)

2012-08-01

188

Performance of deterministic workplace exposure assessment models for various contaminant source, air inlet, and exhaust locations.  

PubMed

Contaminant concentration estimates from simple models were compared with concentration fields obtained by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations for various room and source configurations under steady-state conditions. Airflow and contaminant distributions in a 10 x 3 x 7-m room with a single contaminant source on a 1-m high table were simulated using CFD for steady, isothermal conditions. For a high wall jet inlet, simulations were performed for nine room air exhaust locations and eight source locations. For a ceiling diffuser inlet the impact of two exhaust locations and eight source locations were investigated. Because CFD treats determinants of contaminant transport explicitly and agreed well with experimental results, it was used as the standard for comparison. Parameters of the one- and two-zone completely mixed models (CM-1 and CM-2) and the uniform turbulent diffusivity model (UD) were determined from CFD simulation results. Concentration estimates from these were compared with CFD results in the breathing zone (BZ) plane (1.5 m above the floor) for the entire BZ, the source "near field," and the source "far field." In the near field the mean percentage difference between the model concentration estimates and the CFD results for all room configurations were -21.9, 32.3, and 126% for the CM-1, CM-2, and UD models, respectively, with standard deviations of 26.8, 111, and 103%. In the far field the mean percentage difference between the model estimates and CFD results were -4.8, -2.3, and -36.3%. The CM-1 model had generally the best performance for applications such as occupational epidemiology for the conditions and configurations studied. However, CM-1 tended to underestimate the near field concentration; thus, CM-2 was judged to be better in the near field when underestimation is undesirable, such as when determining compliance with occupational exposure limits. The agreement of CM-2 estimates with CFD results in the near field was more variable than that of the CM-1. The UD model performed poorly on average in both near and far fields, and the difficulty in accurately estimating the turbulent diffusivity presents a significant impediment to UD model use for exposure estimation. PMID:12486773

Feigley, Charles E; Bennett, James S; Khan, Jamil; Lee, Eungyoung

2002-01-01

189

Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Particles Does Not Affect Vascular Function in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We previously demonstrated that exposure to dilute diesel exhaust causes vascular dysfunction in humans. Objectives We conducted a study to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter causes vascular dysfunction. Methods Twelve male patients with stable coronary heart disease and 12 age-matched volunteers were exposed to concentrated ambient fine and ultrafine particles (CAPs) or filtered air for 2 hr using a randomized, double-blind cross-over study design. We measured peripheral vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function, and inflammatory variables—including circulating leukocytes, serum C-reactive protein, and exhaled breath 8-isoprostane and nitrotyrosine—6–8 hr after both exposures. Results Particulate concentrations (mean ± SE) in the exposure chamber (190 ± 37 ?g/m3) were higher than ambient levels (31 ± 8 ?g/m3) and levels in filtered air (0.5 ± 0.4 ?g/m3; p < 0.001). Chemical analysis of CAPs identified low levels of elemental carbon. Exhaled breath 8-isoprostane concentrations increased after exposure to CAPs (16.9 ± 8.5 vs. 4.9 ± 1.2 pg/mL, p < 0.05), but markers of systemic inflammation were largely unchanged. Although there was a dose-dependent increase in blood flow and plasma tissue plasminogen activator release (p < 0.001 for all), CAPs exposure had no effect on vascular function in either group. Conclusions Despite achieving marked increases in particulate matter, exposure to CAPs—low in combustion-derived particles—did not affect vasomotor or fibrinolytic function in either middle-aged healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. These findings contrast with previous exposures to dilute diesel exhaust and highlight the importance of particle composition in determining the vascular effects of particulate matter in humans. PMID:18560524

Mills, Nicholas L.; Robinson, Simon D.; Fokkens, Paul H. B.; Leseman, Daan L. A. C.; Miller, Mark R.; Anderson, David; Freney, Evelyn J.; Heal, Mathew R.; Donovan, Robert J.; Blomberg, Anders; Sandström, Thomas; MacNee, William; Boon, Nicholas A.; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E.; Cassee, Flemming R.

2008-01-01

190

Diesel exhaust particles and allergenicity of pollen grains of Lilium martagon.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles are considered as the most important parts of air pollutants. Diesel exhaust particles have been shown to express both adjuvant activity for sensitization against common allergens and enhancing effects on allergic symptoms in sensitized individuals. In this research, pollen grains of Lilium martagon that are known as a non-allergic substance were collected and exposed to DEP 5 and 10 days. The allergy potency of different pollen extracts were compared by means of skin test, as well as analyses blood eosinophil numbers and IgE levels in the treated animals. Normal and DEP-exposed pollen grains were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Pollen extracts were also studied by SDS-PAGE for DEP-induced changes in protein profiles. Allergic bands were also studied and checked by using immunoblotting method. The results of the investigated allergy tests showed that DEP-exposed pollen grains are effective in inducing allergic symptoms. According to our microscopic observations, organic substances that exist in the DEP, mediate agglomeration of particles on the pollen surface. In appropriate conditions, water-soluble components of DEP may induce changes that affect the release of pollen proteins. SDS-PAGE showed protein profiles of pollen grains were changed and some new bands appeared in DEP-exposed pollen grains. Immunoblotting studies showed a new band in DEP-exposed pollen grains that react strongly with anti-IgE, but there is no allergenic band in normal pollen grains. On the other hand, diesel exhaust particles can carry pollen allergen molecules, induce new proteins (allergens), and also act as adjuvant for allergens. PMID:17597207

Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Kouhkan, Fatemeh

2008-03-01

191

Pulmonary Exposure to Particles during Pregnancy Causes Increased Neonatal Asthma Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Maternal immune responses can promote allergy development in offspring, as shown in a model of increased susceptibility to asthma in babies of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and -challenged mother mice. We investigated whether inflammatory responses to air pollution particles (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or control “inert” titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are enhanced during pregnancy and whether exposure to particles can cause increased neonatal susceptibility to asthma. Pregnant BALB/c mice (or nonpregnant controls) received particle suspensions intranasally at Day 14 of pregnancy. Lung inflammatory responses were evaluated 48 hours after exposure. Offspring of particle- or buffer-treated mothers were sensitized and aerosolized with OVA, followed by assays of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and allergic inflammation (AI). Nonpregnant females had the expected minimal response to “inert” TiO2. In contrast, pregnant mice showed robust and persistent acute inflammation after both TiO2 and DEP. Genomic profiling identified genes differentially expressed in pregnant lungs exposed to TiO2. Neonates of mothers exposed to TiO2 (and DEP, but not PBS) developed AHR and AI, indicating that pregnancy exposure to both “inert” TiO2 and DEP caused increased asthma susceptibility in offspring. We conclude that (1) pregnancy enhances lung inflammatory responses to otherwise relatively innocuous inert particles; and (2) exposures of nonallergic pregnant females to inert or toxic environmental air particles can cause increased allergic susceptibility in offspring. PMID:17656681

Fedulov, Alexey V.; Leme, Adriana; Yang, Zhiping; Dahl, Morten; Lim, Robert; Mariani, Thomas J.; Kobzik, Lester

2008-01-01

192

Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in suscep...

193

Extract of motorcycle exhaust particles induced macrophages apoptosis by calcium-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Large survey and experiments have reported that environment pollutants from fossil fuel combustion would cause immune system deleterious by enhancement of allergic reaction and damage to respiratory tract. In this study, we reported that the extract of motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP) might affect the immune system by inducing cell apoptosis on macrophages. The motorcycle exhaust particles were collected from a two-stoke engine and their cytotoxic effect on macrophages was investigated. We found MEP is cytotoxic and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells, murine peritoneal macrophage, and rat alveolar macrophage. Pretreatment with mitochondria permeability transition inhibitor (cyclosporin A), intracellular (BAPTA-AM) and extracellular (EGTA) Ca(2+) chelator, and antioxidants (NAC, GSH, catalase, SOD) attenuated the MEP-induced cell apoptosis, and BAPTA-AM was the most effective one. Utilized Fura-2/AM loaded RAW 264.7 cells to directly detect the change of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), we found that MEP could induce a sustained increase of [Ca(2+)](i). The raise of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by MEP could be completely blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA-AM, however, only partially inhibited by the extracellular Ca(2+) chelator, EGTA. These results suggested that both influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and release of Ca(2+) from the internal storage were involved. We also found that MEP caused a decrease of mitochondria membrane potential and an increase of oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, we found that the particles, collected from the motorcycle exhaust, contain chemicals that will induce apoptosis of macrophage in calcium-dependent manner. PMID:12482235

Lee, Chen-Chen; Kang, Jaw-Jou

2002-12-01

194

Diesel exhaust particles impair endothelial progenitor cells, compromise endothelial integrity, reduce neoangiogenesis, and increase atherogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of the harmful cardiovascular effects of small particulate matter are incompletely understood. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) predict outcome of patients with vascular disease. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on EPC and on the associated vascular damage in mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to DEP. 2 ?g DEP/day was applicated intranasally for 3 weeks. Exposure to DEP reduced DiLDL/lectin positive EPC to 58.4 ± 5.6% (p < 0.005). Migratory capacity was reduced to 65.8 ± 3.9% (p < 0.0001). In ApoE(-/-) mice, DEP application reduced the number of EPC to 75.6 ± 6.4% (p < 0.005) and EPC migration to 58.5 ± 6.8% (p < 0.005). Neoangiogenesis was reduced to 39.5 ± 14.6% (p < 0.005). Atherogenesis was profoundly increased by DEP treatment (157.7 ± 18.1% vs. controls, p < 0.05). In cultured human EPC, DEP (0.1-100 ?g/mL) reduced migratory capacity to 25 ± 2.6% (p < 0.001). The number of colony-forming units was reduced to 8.8 ± 0.9% (p < 0.001) and production of reactive oxygen species was elevated by DEP treatment (p < 0.001). Furthermore, DEP treatment increased apoptosis of EPC (to 266 ± 62% of control, p < 0.05). In a blood-brain barrier model, DEP treatment impaired endothelial cell integrity during oxygen-glucose deprivation (p < 0.001). Diesel exhaust particles impair endothelial progenitor cell number and function in vivo and in vitro. The reduction in EPC was associated with impaired neoangiogenesis and a marked increase in atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:23584878

Pöss, Janine; Lorenz, Dominik; Werner, Christian; Pavlikova, Valerie; Gensch, Christoph; Speer, Thimoteus; Alessandrini, Francesca; Berezowski, Vincent; Kuntz, Mélanie; Mempel, Martin; Endres, Matthias; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

2013-09-01

195

Separation and characterization of alkyltrimethylbenzene derivatives in diesel exhaust particles (DEP).  

PubMed

In our continuing studies on estrogenic compounds in diesel exhaust particles (DEP), we have reported the systematic separation of alkyldibenzothiophenes from the estrogenic hexane fraction of DEP. In this study, another estrogenic fraction was further isolated and characterized. DEP were roughly fractionated by successive extraction with hexane, benzene, dichloromethane, methanol, 1 M ammonia and 1 M HCl. The hexane extract, which exhibited estrogenic activity, was further fractionated by column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). From one of the obtained fractions that showed estrogenic activity, three alkyltrimethylbenzenes were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PMID:15750584

Taneda, Shinji; Mori, Yoki; Sakushima, Akiyo; Kamata, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Seki, Koh-ichi; Sakata, Masakatsu; Yoshino, Shin; Yamaki, Kouya; Sagai, Masaru; Suzuki, Akira K

2004-01-01

196

New method for time-resolved diesel engine exhaust particle mass measurement.  

PubMed

The Dekati mass monitor (DMM; Dekati Ltd., Finland), a relatively new real-time mass measurement instrument, was investigated in this project. In contrast to the existing gravimetric filter method also used as a standard for regulation purposes, this instrument provides second-by-second data on mass concentration in the engine exhaust gas. The principle of the DMM is based on particle charging, inertial and electrical size classification, and electrical detection of aerosol particles. This study focuses on the instrument's practical performance. Details on calibration and the theory of operation will be published elsewhere. The exhaust emissions of two heavy-duty engines complying with the Euro III emission standard were measured on a dynamic engine test bench. We looked atthe particle number and mass emissions of the engines in different transient test cycles and steady-state conditions. The ability to follow transient test cycles and the response times of the DMM were investigated. The aerosol mass concentration measured by the DMM was compared with the mass concentration obtained by the standard gravimetric filter method with Teflon-coated glass fiber filters. The total mass concentration (integral over the whole cycle) measured by the DMM is about 20% higher than that measured by the standard gravimetric filter method. The total mass concentration from the DMM was also compared with the volume concentration calculated from the electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measurements. Correlations were made with other particle measuring systems. The DMM correlates very well with the particulate mass (R2 = 0.95) and exhibits good linearity and repeatability. The response time to a well-defined change in exhaust concentration was observed to be fast and stable. The DMM was able to follow transient test cycles and provides good results on a second-by-second basis. The instrument used in this study was still under development, and there is therefore no complete scientific background reference for the DMM. This study therefore focuses more on the measurements than on the scientific background. The measurements have shown thatthe DMM is an adequate instrument for measuring the mass concentration of engine exhaust, with results comparable to those from the standard gravimetric filter method. In addition, the DMM provides real-time second-by-second data of the mass concentration during transient test cycles. PMID:15575290

Lehmann, U; Niemelä, V; Mohr, M

2004-11-01

197

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RABBITS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rabbit fetuses. The pregnant does were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation cham...

198

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RATS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rat fetuses. The dams were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation chambers on days...

199

Gene expression profiling of candidate genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells for predicting toxicity of diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

To validate gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as a surrogate for monitoring tissue expression, this study using RT-PCR-based TaqMan low-density array (TLDA) was initiated to investigate similarities in the mRNA expression of target genes altered by exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) in freshly prepared PBMCs and in lungs. Adult Wistar rats were treated transtracheally with a single dose of 7.5 or 15 or 30mg/kg DEPs and sacrificed 24h later. Blood and lungs were immediately taken out and processed for RT-PCR. DEP treatment induced similar patterns of increase in the expression of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-responsive cytochrome P450s, the phase II enzymes, and their associated transcription factors in both lungs and PBMCs, at all doses. Similar to that seen in lungs, a dose-dependent increase was observed in the expression of genes involved in inflammation, such as cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, in PBMCs. The expression of various genes involved in DNA repair and apoptosis was also increased in a dose-dependent manner in PBMCs and lungs. The present TLDA data indicating similarities in the responsiveness of candidate genes involved in the toxicity of DEPs between PBMCs and lungs after exposure to DEPs demonstrate that expression profiles of genes in PBMCs could be used as a surrogate for monitoring the acute toxicity of fine and ultrafine particulate matter present in vehicular emissions. PMID:24216475

Srivastava, Ankita; Sharma, Amit; Yadav, Sanjay; Flora, Swaran J S; Dwivedi, Uppendra N; Parmar, Devendra

2014-02-01

200

Characterization of diesel particles: effects of fuel reformulation, exhaust aftertreatment, and engine operation on particle carbon composition and volatility.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles are the major constituent of urban carbonaceous aerosol being linked to a large range of adverse environmental and health effects. In this work, the effects of fuel reformulation, oxidation catalyst, engine type, and engine operation parameters on diesel particle emission characteristics were investigated. Particle emissions from an indirect injection (IDI) and a direct injection (DI) engine car operating under steady-state conditions with a reformulated low-sulfur, low-aromatic fuel and a standard-grade fuel were analyzed. Organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of the particles were quantified by a thermal-optical transmission analysis method and particle size distributions measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The particle volatility characteristics were studied with a configuration that consisted of a thermal desorption unit and an SMPS. In addition, the volatility of size-selected particles was determined with a tandem differential mobility analyzer technique. The reformulated fuel was found to produce 10-40% less particulate carbon mass compared to the standard fuel. On the basis of the carbon analysis, the organic carbon contributed 27-61% to the carbon mass of the IDI engine particle emissions, depending on the fuel and engine operation parameters. The fuel reformulation reduced the particulate organic carbon emissions by 10-55%. In the particles of the DI engine, the organic carbon contributed 14-26% to the total carbon emissions, the advanced engine technology, and the oxidation catalyst, thus reducing the OC/EC ratio of particles considerably. A relatively good consistency between the particulate organic fraction quantified with the thermal optical method and the volatile fraction measured with the thermal desorption unit and SMPS was found. PMID:15180069

Alander, Timo J A; Leskinen, Ari P; Raunemaa, Taisto M; Rantanen, Leena

2004-05-01

201

Analysis of mid-tropospheric Space Shuttle exhausted aluminum oxide particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aluminum oxide particles from the exhaust of the Space Shuttle were collected immediately after the launch of the SEPEX mission and during the descent over the altitude interval of 7.6-4.6 km. The SEM examination revealed that the particles were spherical and ranged in diameter from about 0.1 micron to 10 microns. Results from the energy dispersive analysis (by an X-ray method) and of the particle chemistry (by electron spectroscopy) confirmed that the particles were predominantly composed of aluminum and oxygen. The particle size distribution of the Al2O3 was bimodal, with one observed peak centered near 2.0 microns; the other distribution mode centered at a diameter of less than 0.3 micron, but could not be accurately located. A mass median diameter was slightly less than 2 microns. Evaluation of ice nucleation activity revealed only a small fraction (about 1 ppm) of active ice nuclei among the Al2O3 particulates.

Cofer, Wesley R., III; Lala, G. Garland; Wightman, James P.

1987-01-01

202

Exposure to Traffic-related Particles and Endotoxin during Infancy Is Associated with Wheezing at Age 3 Years  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Murine models demonstrate a synergistic production of reactive oxygen species on coexposure to diesel exhaust particles and endotoxin. Objectives: It was hypothesized that coexposure to traffic-related particles and endotoxin would have an additive effect on persistent wheezing during early childhood. Methods: Persistent wheezing at age 36 months was assessed in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study, a high-risk birth cohort. A time-weighted average exposure to traffic-related particles was determined by applying a land-use regression model to the homes, day cares, and other locations where children spent time from birth through age 36 months. Indoor levels of endotoxin were measured from dust samples collected before age 12 months. The relationship between dichotomized (particle and endotoxin exposure and persistent wheezing, controlling for potential covariates, was examined. Measurements and Main Results: Persistent wheezing at age 36 months was significantly associated with exposure to increased levels of traffic-related particles before age 12 months (OR = 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–2.87). Coexposure to endotoxin had a synergistic effect with traffic exposure on persistent wheeze (OR = 5.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.89–18.13) after adjustment for significant covariates. Conclusions: The association between traffic-related particle exposure and persistent wheezing at age 36 months is modified by exposure to endotoxin. This finding supports prior toxicological studies demonstrating a synergistic production of reactive oxygen species after coexposure to diesel exhaust particles and endotoxin. The effect of early versus later exposure to traffic-related particles, however, remains to be studied because of the high correlation between exposure throughout the first 3 years of life. PMID:19745206

Ryan, Patrick H.; Bernstein, David I.; Lockey, James; Reponen, Tiina; Levin, Linda; Grinshpun, Sergey; Villareal, Manuel; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.; Burkle, Jeff; LeMasters, Grace

2009-01-01

203

Comparative effects of inhaled diesel exhaust and ambient fine particles on inflammation, atherosclerosis, and vascular dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Ambient air PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m in diameter) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the underlying mechanisms affecting CVDs are unknown. The authors investigated whether subchronic inhalation of concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAPs), whole diesel exhaust (WDE), or diesel exhaust gases (DEGs) led to exacerbation of atherosclerosis, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and vascular dysfunction; and whether DEG interactions with CAPs alter cardiovascular effects. ApoE?/? mice were simultaneously exposed via inhalation for 5 hours/day, 4 days/week, for up to 5 months to one of five different exposure atmospheres: (1) filtered air (FA); (2) CAPs (105 ?g/m3); (3) WDE (DEP = 436 ?g/m3); (4) DEG (equivalent to gas levels in WDE group); and (5) CAPs+DEG (PM2.5: 113 ?g/m3; with DEG equivalent to WDE group). After 3 and 5 months, lung lavage fluid and blood sera were analyzed, and atherosclerotic plaques were quantified by ultrasound imaging, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stain), and en face Sudan IV stain. Vascular functions were assessed after 5 months of exposure. The authors showed that (1) subchronic CAPs, WDE, and DEG inhalations increased serum vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 levels and enhanced phenylephrine (PE)-induced vasoconstriction; (2) for plaque exacerbation, CAPs > WDE > DEG = FA, thus PM components (not present in WDE) were responsible for plaque development; (3) atherosclerosis can exacerbated through mechanistic pathways other than inflammation and vascular dysfunction; and (4) although there were no significant interactions between CAPs and DEG on plaque exacerbation, it is less clear whether the effects of CAPs on vasomotor dysfunction and pulmonary/systemic inflammation were enhanced by the DEG coexposure. PMID:20462391

Quan, Chunli; Sun, Qinghua; Lippmann, Morton; Chen, Lung-Chi

2011-01-01

204

Particle exposure in a baroque church during Sunday Masses.  

PubMed

Particle concentrations were measured in a Baroque church during five Sunday Masses. The highest particle number and mass concentrations were observed when both candles and the incense were burned. They were respectively 16.8 and 14.3 times higher than outdoors for submicron particles. The exposure to particles experienced by the churchgoers, especially priests and church workers who participated in several Masses on that day, was considerably higher than the exposure experienced at the same time outdoors. PMID:23972742

Polednik, Bernard

2013-10-01

205

Evaluation of an exposure assessment used in epidemiological studies of diesel exhaust and lung cancer in underground mines.  

PubMed

NIOSH/NCI (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and National Cancer Institute) developed exposure estimates for respirable elemental carbon (REC) as a surrogate for exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) for different jobs in eight underground mines by year beginning in the 1940s-1960s when diesel equipment was first introduced into these mines. These estimates played a key role in subsequent epidemiological analyses of the potential relationship between exposure to DE and lung cancer conducted in these mines. We report here on a reanalysis of some of the data from this exposure assessment. Because samples of REC were limited primarily to 1998-2001, NIOSH/NCI used carbon monoxide (CO) as a surrogate for REC. In addition, because CO samples were limited, particularly in the earlier years, they used the ratio of diesel horsepower (HP) to the mine air exhaust rate as a surrogate for CO. There are considerable uncertainties connected with each of these surrogate-based steps. The estimates of HP appear to involve considerable uncertainty, although we had no data upon which to evaluate the magnitude of this uncertainty. A sizable percentage (45%) of the CO samples used in the HP to CO model was below the detection limit which required NIOSH/NCI to assign CO values to these samples. In their preferred REC estimates, NIOSH/NCI assumed a linear relation between C0 and REC, although they provided no credible support for that assumption. Their assumption of a stable relationship between HP and CO also is questionable, and our reanalysis found a statistically significant relationship in only one-half of the mines. We re-estimated yearly REC exposures mainly using NIOSH/NCI methods but with some important differences: (i) rather than simply assuming a linear relationship, we used data from the mines to estimate the CO-REC relationship; (ii) we used a different method for assigning values to nondetect CO measurements; and (iii) we took account of statistical uncertainty to estimate bounds for REC exposures. This exercise yielded significantly different exposure estimates than estimated by NIOSH/NCI. However, this analysis did not incorporate the full range of uncertainty in REC exposures because of additional uncertainties in the assumptions underlying the modeling and in the underlying data (e.g. HP and mine exhaust rates). Estimating historical exposures in a cohort is generally a very difficult undertaking. However, this should not prevent one from recognizing the uncertainty in the resulting estimates in any use made of them. PMID:22594934

Crump, Kenny; Van Landingham, Cynthia

2012-08-01

206

Evaluation of an exposure assessment used in epidemiological studies of diesel exhaust and lung cancer in underground mines  

PubMed Central

NIOSH/NCI (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and National Cancer Institute) developed exposure estimates for respirable elemental carbon (REC) as a surrogate for exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) for different jobs in eight underground mines by year beginning in the 1940s—1960s when diesel equipment was first introduced into these mines. These estimates played a key role in subsequent epidemiological analyses of the potential relationship between exposure to DE and lung cancer conducted in these mines. We report here on a reanalysis of some of the data from this exposure assessment. Because samples of REC were limited primarily to 1998–2001, NIOSH/NCI used carbon monoxide (CO) as a surrogate for REC. In addition, because CO samples were limited, particularly in the earlier years, they used the ratio of diesel horsepower (HP) to the mine air exhaust rate as a surrogate for CO. There are considerable uncertainties connected with each of these surrogate-based steps. The estimates of HP appear to involve considerable uncertainty, although we had no data upon which to evaluate the magnitude of this uncertainty. A sizable percentage (45%) of the CO samples used in the HP to CO model was below the detection limit which required NIOSH/NCI to assign CO values to these samples. In their preferred REC estimates, NIOSH/NCI assumed a linear relation between C0 and REC, although they provided no credible support for that assumption. Their assumption of a stable relationship between HP and CO also is questionable, and our reanalysis found a statistically significant relationship in only one-half of the mines. We re-estimated yearly REC exposures mainly using NIOSH/NCI methods but with some important differences: (i) rather than simply assuming a linear relationship, we used data from the mines to estimate the CO—REC relationship; (ii) we used a different method for assigning values to nondetect CO measurements; and (iii) we took account of statistical uncertainty to estimate bounds for REC exposures. This exercise yielded significantly different exposure estimates than estimated by NIOSH/NCI. However, this analysis did not incorporate the full range of uncertainty in REC exposures because of additional uncertainties in the assumptions underlying the modeling and in the underlying data (e.g. HP and mine exhaust rates). Estimating historical exposures in a cohort is generally a very difficult undertaking. However, this should not prevent one from recognizing the uncertainty in the resulting estimates in any use made of them. PMID:22594934

Crump, Kenny; Van Landingham, Cynthia

2012-01-01

207

Alteration of pulmonary immunity to Listeria monocytogenes by diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). I. Effects of DEPs on early pulmonary responses.  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) aggravate pulmonary bacterial infection by both innate and cell-mediated immune mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of DEP exposure on the functions of alveolar macrophages (AMs) and lymphocytes from lung-draining lymph nodes using a rat Listeria monocytogenes infection model. In the present study, we focused on the effects of DEP exposure on AM functions, including phagocytic activity and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The Listeria infection model was characterized by an increase in neutrophil count, albumin content, and acellular lactate dehydrogenase activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid at 3 and 7 days postinfection. Short-term DEP inhalation (50 and 100 mg/m(3), 4 hr) resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of lung clearance of Listeria, with the highest bacteria count occurring at day 3. This aggravated bacterial infection was consistent with the inhibitory effect of DEPs on macrophage functions. DEPs suppressed phagocytosis and Listeria-induced basal secretion of interleukin-1ss (IL-1ss) and IL-12 by AMs in a dose-dependent manner. The amount of IL-1ss and IL-12 in the BAL fluid was also reduced by DEP exposure. In addition, DEPs decreased Listeria-induced lipopolysaccharide-stimulated secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1ss, and IL-12 from AMs. These results suggest that DEPs retard bacterial clearance by inhibiting AM phagocytosis and weaken the innate immunity by inhibiting AM secretion of IL-1ss and TNF-alpha. DEPs may also suppress cell-mediated immunity by inhibiting AM secretion of IL-12, a key cytokine for the initiation of T helper type 1 cell development in Listeria infection. PMID:12417481

Yin, Xue-Jun; Schafer, Rosana; Ma, Jane Y C; Antonini, James M; Weissman, David D; Siegel, Paul D; Barger, Mark W; Roberts, Jenny R; Ma, Joseph K-H

2002-01-01

208

Whole and Particle-Free Diesel Exhausts Differentially Affect Cardiac Electrophysiology, Blood Pressure, and Autonomic Balance in Heart Failure–Prone Rats  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies strongly link short-term exposures to vehicular traffic and particulate matter (PM) air pollution with adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, especially in those with preexisting CV disease. Diesel engine exhaust is a key contributor to urban ambient PM and gaseous pollutants. To determine the role of gaseous and particulate components in diesel exhaust (DE) cardiotoxicity, we examined the effects of a 4-h inhalation of whole DE (wDE) (target PM concentration: 500 µg/m3) or particle-free filtered DE (fDE) on CV physiology and a range of markers of cardiopulmonary injury in hypertensive heart failure–prone rats. Arterial blood pressure (BP), electrocardiography, and heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic balance, were monitored. Both fDE and wDE decreased BP and prolonged PR interval during exposure, with more effects from fDE, which additionally increased HRV triangular index and decreased T-wave amplitude. fDE increased QTc interval immediately after exposure, increased atrioventricular (AV) block Mobitz II arrhythmias shortly thereafter, and increased serum high-density lipoprotein 1 day later. wDE increased BP and decreased HRV root mean square of successive differences immediately postexposure. fDE and wDE decreased heart rate during the 4th hour of postexposure. Thus, DE gases slowed AV conduction and ventricular repolarization, decreased BP, increased HRV, and subsequently provoked arrhythmias, collectively suggesting parasympathetic activation; conversely, brief BP and HRV changes after exposure to particle-containing DE indicated a transient sympathetic excitation. Our findings suggest that whole- and particle-free DE differentially alter CV and autonomic physiology and may potentially increase risk through divergent pathways. PMID:22543275

Farraj, Aimen K.

2012-01-01

209

Cellular response to the deposition of diesel exhaust particle aerosols onto human lung cells grown at the air-liquid interface by inertial impaction.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of disease resulting from exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is often studied using cultured lung cells. Frequently, researchers expose cells to DEP by spiking a suspension of particles in liquid onto the apical surface. This is not representative of in vivo exposure, where aerosols are deposited onto cell surfaces at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Inertial impaction provides an opportunity to deliver high doses of particles with aerodynamic diameters>?1 ?m to the surface of cells in seconds in a reproducible and predictable manner. A custom device was constructed to deposit DEP aerosols onto the surface of Calu-3 and A549 cells grown at the ALI. The pro-inflammatory and toxic cellular response to exposure to the deposited DEP aerosols was measured and compared to the response of cells exposed to DEP as suspensions. Calu-3 cells showed evidence of an oxidative stress response for both exposure types, while there was strong evidence to suggest that the method of aerosol delivery was harmful to the A549 cells. PMID:21756993

Cooney, Daniel J; Hickey, Anthony J

2011-12-01

210

Particle exhaust schemes in the DIII-D advanced divertor configuration  

SciTech Connect

For density control in long-pulse operation, the open divertor on the DIII-D tokamak will be equipped with a baffled chamber and a pumping system. The throat of the baffle chamber is sized to provide optimal pumping for the typical plasma equilibrium configuration. Severe limitations on the toroidal conductance of this baffle chamber require the use of in-vessel pumping to achieve the desired particle exhaust of about 25 Torr{center dot}l/s. Two separate pumping schemes are considered: an array of titanium getter modules based on the design developed by the Tore Supra team and a cryocondensation pump. The merits and demerits of each scheme are analyzed, and the design considerations introduced by the tokamak environment are brought out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

1989-01-01

211

Variability in Bioreactivity Linked to Changes in Size and Zeta Potential of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Human Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IFN-?, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (?37 to ?41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties. PMID:24825358

Sarkar, Srijata; Zhang, Lin; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Strickland, Pamela A. Ohman.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alex; Schwander, Stephan

2014-01-01

212

Variability in bioreactivity linked to changes in size and zeta potential of diesel exhaust particles in human immune cells.  

PubMed

Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IFN-?, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (-37 to -41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties. PMID:24825358

Sarkar, Srijata; Zhang, Lin; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Strickland, Pamela A Ohman; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lioy, Paul J; Tetley, Teresa D; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alex; Schwander, Stephan

2014-01-01

213

Effect of vitamin C and iron chelation on diesel exhaust particle and carbon black induced oxidative damage and cell adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Exposure to particulate matter is associated with oxidative stress and risk of cardiovascular diseases. We investigated if vitamin C and desferrioxamine (iron chelator) altered the levels of oxidative stress and expression of cell adhesion molecules upon exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and carbon black in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that the particles were only slightly cytotoxic in the high concentration ranges. Particle-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was attenuated by vitamin C administration or iron chelation and particularly when combined (p<0.001). Only desferrioxamine protected the DNA from oxidative damage in terms of strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sensitive sites induced by carbon black (p<0.01). Carbon black and small sized DEP generated from an Euro4 engine increased the surface expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, whereas DEP from an engine representing an old combustion type engine (SRM2975) with larger particles did not affect the expression of cell adhesion molecules. These effects were also attenuated by desferrioxamine but not vitamin C. The study shows that exposure to carbon black and DEP in HUVECs can generate both oxidative stress and expression of cell surface adhesion molecules and that these effects can in part be attenuated by vitamin C and desferrioxamine. PMID:21421028

Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Roursgaard, Martin; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Loft, Steffen; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Møller, Peter

2011-06-24

214

Inflammation-related effects of diesel engine exhaust particles: studies on lung cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust and its particles (DEP) have been under scrutiny for health effects in humans. In the development of these effects inflammation is regarded as a key process. Overall, in vitro studies report similar DEP-induced changes in markers of inflammation, including cytokines and chemokines, as studies in vivo. In vitro studies suggest that soluble extracts of DEP have the greatest impact on the expression and release of proinflammatory markers. Main DEP mediators of effects have still not been identified and are difficult to find, as fuel and engine technology developments lead to continuously altered characteristics of emissions. Involved mechanisms remain somewhat unclear. DEP extracts appear to comprise components that are able to activate various membrane and cytosolic receptors. Through interactions with receptors, ion channels, and phosphorylation enzymes, molecules in the particle extract will trigger various cell signaling pathways that may lead to the release of inflammatory markers directly or indirectly by causing cell death. In vitro studies represent a fast and convenient system which may have implications for technology development. Furthermore, knowledge regarding how particles elicit their effects may contribute to understanding of DEP-induced health effects in vivo, with possible implications for identifying susceptible groups of people and effect biomarkers. PMID:23509760

Schwarze, P E; Totlandsdal, A I; Låg, M; Refsnes, M; Holme, J A; Øvrevik, J

2013-01-01

215

Inflammation-Related Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust Particles: Studies on Lung Cells In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust and its particles (DEP) have been under scrutiny for health effects in humans. In the development of these effects inflammation is regarded as a key process. Overall, in vitro studies report similar DEP-induced changes in markers of inflammation, including cytokines and chemokines, as studies in vivo. In vitro studies suggest that soluble extracts of DEP have the greatest impact on the expression and release of proinflammatory markers. Main DEP mediators of effects have still not been identified and are difficult to find, as fuel and engine technology developments lead to continuously altered characteristics of emissions. Involved mechanisms remain somewhat unclear. DEP extracts appear to comprise components that are able to activate various membrane and cytosolic receptors. Through interactions with receptors, ion channels, and phosphorylation enzymes, molecules in the particle extract will trigger various cell signaling pathways that may lead to the release of inflammatory markers directly or indirectly by causing cell death. In vitro studies represent a fast and convenient system which may have implications for technology development. Furthermore, knowledge regarding how particles elicit their effects may contribute to understanding of DEP-induced health effects in vivo, with possible implications for identifying susceptible groups of people and effect biomarkers. PMID:23509760

Schwarze, P. E.; Totlandsdal, A. I.; Låg, M.; Refsnes, M.; Holme, J. A.; Øvrevik, J.

2013-01-01

216

Serum protein oxidation by diesel exhaust particles: effects on oxidative stress and inflammatory response in vitro.  

PubMed

Considerable evidence shows a key role for protein modification in the adverse effects of chemicals; however, the interaction of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with proteins and the resulting biological activity remains unclear. DEP and carbon black (CB) suspensions with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used to elucidate the biological effects of air pollutants. The DEP and CB samples were then divided into suspensions and supernatants. Two important goals of the interaction of DEP with BSA were as follows: (1) understanding BSA modification by particles and (2) investigating the effects of particles bound with BSA and the corresponding supernatants on cellular oxidative stress and inflammation. We observed significant free amino groups production was caused by DEP. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we observed that BSA was significantly oxidised by DEP in the supernatants and that the peptides ETYGDMADCCEK, MPCTEDYLSLILNR and TVMENFVAFVDK, derived BSA-DEP conjugates, were also oxidised. In A549 cells, DEP-BSA suspensions and the corresponding supernatants reduced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) production and increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels when compared to DEP solutions without BSA. Our findings suggest that oxidatively modified forms of BSA caused by DEP could lead to oxidative stress and the activation of inflammation. PMID:24161433

Chiang, Ling-Ling; Chen, Hao-Cheng; Lee, Chun-Nin; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Tzu-Tao; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Wang, Liang-Shun; Lee, Wei-Hua; Lin, Lian-Yu; Tseng, Hsiu-Er; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

2013-11-25

217

Exposure-Response Estimates for Diesel Engine Exhaust and Lung Cancer Mortality Based on Data from Three Occupational Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen. Objective: We derived a meta-exposure–response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimated lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Results: We estimated a lnRR of 0.00098 (95% CI: 0.00055, 0.0014) for lung cancer mortality with each 1-?g/m3-year increase in cumulative EC based on a linear meta-regression model. Corresponding lnRRs for the individual studies ranged from 0.00061 to 0.0012. Estimated numbers of excess lung cancer deaths through 80 years of age for lifetime occupational exposures of 1, 10, and 25 ?g/m3 EC were 17, 200, and 689 per 10,000, respectively. For lifetime environmental exposure to 0.8 ?g/m3 EC, we estimated 21 excess lung cancer deaths per 10,000. Based on broad assumptions regarding past occupational and environmental exposures, we estimated that approximately 6% of annual lung cancer deaths may be due to DEE exposure. Conclusions: Combined data from three U.S. occupational cohort studies suggest that DEE at levels common in the workplace and in outdoor air appear to pose substantial excess lifetime risks of lung cancer, above the usually acceptable limits in the United States and Europe, which are generally set at 1/1,000 and 1/100,000 based on lifetime exposure for the occupational and general population, respectively. Citation: Vermeulen R, Silverman DT, Garshick E, Vlaanderen J, Portengen L, Steenland K. 2014. Exposure-response estimates for diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality based on data from three occupational cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 122:172–177;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306880 PMID:24273233

Silverman, Debra T.; Garshick, Eric; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lützen; Steenland, Kyle

2013-01-01

218

In Vitro Exposures in Diesel Exhaust Atmospheres: Resuspension of PM from Filters Verses Direct Deposition of PM from Air  

PubMed Central

One of the most widely used in vitro particulate matter (PM) exposures methods is the collection of PM on filters, followed by resuspension in a liquid medium, with subsequent addition onto a cell culture. To avoid disruption of equilibria between gases and PM, we have developed a direct in vitro sampling and exposure method (DSEM) capable of PM-only exposures. We hypothesize that the separation of phases and post-treatment of filter-collected PM significantly modifies the toxicity of the PM compared to direct deposition, resulting in a distorted view of the potential PM health effects. Controlled test environments were created in a chamber that combined diesel exhaust with an urban-like mixture. The complex mixture was analyzed using both the DSEM and concurrently-collected filter samples. The DSEM showed that PM from test atmospheres produced significant inflammatory response, while the resuspension exposures at the same exposure concentration did not. Increasing the concentration of resuspended PM sixteen times was required to yield measurable IL-8 expression. Chemical analysis of the resuspended PM indicated a total absence of carbonyl compounds compared to the test atmosphere during the direct-exposures. Therefore, collection and resuspension of PM into liquid modifies its toxicity and likely leads to underestimating toxicity. PMID:22834915

Lichtveld, Kim M.; Ebersviller, Seth M.; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Vizuete, William; Jaspers, Ilona; Jeffries, Harvey E.

2012-01-01

219

NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS DUE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE DURING THE NEONATAL LIFE OF THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was designed to assess the effects of diesel exhaust on the development of the nervous system in rats as measurably somatosensory and visual evoked potentials (SEPs an VEPs, respectively). SEPs, elicited by 1 mamp, 0.5 msec pulses delivered to the tibial nerve at the t...

220

INTERFERENCE OF ANIMAL SOURCE AMMONIA WITH EXPOSURE CHAMBER ATMOSPHERES CONTAINING ACID PARTICULATE FROM AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was designed to test the effect of animal source ammonia on some component concentrations in test atmospheres produced to measure the health effects of pollutants in the exhaust emissions of gasoline-powered engines equipped with oxidative catalyst converters. The dominan...

221

Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Response after Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel Exhaust  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodiesel (BD) is an advanced fuel produced from renewable domestic sources. The broad uses of BD in different industries including mining may lead to potential health effects. We hypothesized that the toxicity of biodiesel exhaust (BDE) is dependent at least on three major mecha...

222

EFFECT OF DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE ON MUCOSAL SENSITIZATION TO OVALBUMIN ANTIGEN.  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies in humans and animals have shown that diesel exhaust (DE) can act as an immunological adjuvant to increase the severity of Type I hypersensitivity immune responses. The mechanism by which DE causes these effects is unknown but thought to be associated with lung in...

223

Concentrations of ultrafine particles at a highway toll collection booth and exposure implications for toll collectors.  

PubMed

Research regarding the magnitude of ultrafine particle levels at highway toll stations is limited. This study measured ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles at a highway toll station from October 30 to November 1 and November 5 to November 6, 2008. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure ultrafine particle concentrations at a ticket/cash tollbooth. Levels of hourly average ultrafine particles at the tollbooth were about 3-6 times higher than those in urban backgrounds, indicating that a considerable amount of ultrafine particles are exhausted from passing vehicles. A bi-modal size distribution pattern with a dominant mode at about <6 nm and a minor mode at about 40 nm was observed at the tollbooth. The high amounts of nanoparticles in this study can be attributed to gas-to-particle reactions in fresh fumes emitted directly from vehicles. The influences of traffic volume, wind speed, and relative humidity on ultrafine particle concentrations were also determined. High ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles existed under low wind speed, low relative humidity, and high traffic volume. Although different factors account for high ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles at the tollbooth, measurements indicate that toll collectors who work close to traffic emission sources have a high exposure risk. PMID:21071066

Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Huang, Cheng-Hsiung; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn

2010-12-15

224

Involvement of superoxide and nitric oxide on airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness induced by diesel exhaust particles in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated that chronic intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in the mouse, and that these effects were partially reversed by the administration of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In the present study, we have investigated the involvement of superoxide in DEP-induced airway response by analyzing the localization and activity of two enzymes: (1) a

Heung-Bin Lim; Takamichi Ichinose; Yuichi Miyabara; Hirohisa Takano; Yoshito Kumagai; Nobuhiro Shimojyo; J. L Devalia; Masaru Sagai

1998-01-01

225

Airborne Concentrations of PM2.5 and Diesel Exhaust Particles on Harlem Sidewalks: A Community-Based Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residents of the dense urban core neighborhoods of New York City (NYC) have expressed increas- ing concern about the potential human health impacts of diesel vehicle emissions. We measured concentrations of particulate matter ? 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on sidewalks in Harlem, NYC, and tested whether spatial variations in concentra- tions were related

Patrick L. Kinney; Maneesha Aggarwal; Mary E. Northridge; Nicole A. H. Janssen; Peggy Shepard

2000-01-01

226

Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species during Interaction of Diesel Exhaust Particle Components with NADPH-Cytochrome p450 Reductase and Involvement of the Bioactivation in the DNA Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) after intratracheal injection, was suppressed by pretreatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) modified with polyethylene glycol (Sagai et al. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 14: 37–47; 1993), the possibility that superoxide could be enzymatically and continuously generated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP), was examined. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH) oxidation was stimulated during interaction

Yoshito Kumagai; Toyoko Arimoto; Masaru Shinyashiki; Nobuhiro Shimojo; Yumi Nakai; Toshikazu Yoshikawa; Masaru Sagai

1997-01-01

227

Reducing Silica and Dust Exposures in Construction During Use of Powered Concrete-Cutting Hand Tools: Efficacy of Local Exhaust Ventilation on Hammer Drills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete cutting in construction is a major source of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To reduce exposures, local exhaust ventilation (LEV) may be integrated into the hand tools used in concrete cutting. Volunteers from the New England Laborers Training Center participated in a field study focused on the use of LEV on concrete-cutting hammer drills. A randomized block design field

S. Shepherd; S. R. Woskie; C. Holcroft; M. Ellenbecker

2008-01-01

228

Biological effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP). II. Acute toxicity of DEP introduced into lung by intratracheal instillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histopathological examination and cytological analyses in bronchial alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were performed to clarify the acute toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) introduced into the lung of ICR mice by intratracheal instillation. Activated charcoal (Norit) was intratracheally administered as a control for non-oedemagenic carbon particles. After administration of two doses (0.4 mg or 0.8 mg per mouse) of DEP,

Takamichi Ichinose; Akiko Furuyama; Masaru Sagai

1995-01-01

229

Monitoring the inflammatory potential of exhaust particles from passenger cars in mice.  

PubMed

This study presents different research techniques linked together to improve our understanding of the particulate matter (PM) impacts on health. PM samples from the exhaust of different vehicles were collected by a versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES). Waterborne PM samples were collected with this technique, thus retaining the original physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles. PM samples originated from a gasoline Euro 3 car and two diesel cars complying with the Euro 2 and Euro 4 standards, respectively. The Euro 2 diesel car operated consecutively on fossil diesel and biodiesel. The Euro 4 car was also retrofitted with a diesel particle filter. In total, five vehicle configurations and an equal number of samples were examined. Each sample was intratracheally instilled to 10 mice at two different dose levels (50 and 100 ?L). The mice were analyzed 24 h after instillation for acute lung inflammation by bronchoalveolar lavage and also for hematological changes. Results show that a moderate but still significant inflammatory response is induced by PM samples, depending on the vehicle. Several organic and inorganic species, including benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, Mn, Fe, Cu, and heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as the reactive oxygen species content of the PM suspensions are correlated to the observed responses. The study develops conceptual dose-response functions for the different vehicle configurations. These demonstrate that inflammatory response is not directly proportional to the mass dose level of the administered PM and that the relative toxicity potency depends on the dosage level. PMID:21029033

Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Stoeger, Tobias; Cheung, Kalam; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Sioutas, Constantinos; Samaras, Zissis

2010-12-01

230

Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (<0.5-5 ?m) are abundant upstream of the DPF and are ash-free or contain notably little attached ash. Post-DPF soot agglomerates are very few, typically large (>1-5 ?m, exceptionally 13 ?m), rarely <0.5 ?m, and contain abundant ash carried mostly from inside the DPF. The ash that reaches the atmosphere also occurs as separate aggregates ca. 0.2-2 ?m in size consisting of sintered primary phases, ca. 20-400 nm large. Insoluble particles of these sizes may harm the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The DPF probably promotes breakout of large soot agglomerates (mostly ash-bearing) by favoring sintering. Noble metals detached from the DOC coating may reach the ambient air. Finally, very few agglomerates of Fe-oxide nanoparticles form newly from engine wear and escape into the atmosphere. PMID:24274188

Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

2013-12-17

231

Air pollution & the brain: Subchronic diesel exhaust exposure causes neuroinflammation and elevates early markers of neurodegenerative disease  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood. Objective We explored the central nervous system consequences of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and addressed the minimum levels necessary to elicit neuroinflammation and markers of early neuropathology. Methods Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to DE (992, 311, 100, 35 and 0 ?g PM/m3) by inhalation over 6 months. Results DE exposure resulted in elevated levels of TNF? at high concentrations in all regions tested, with the exception of the cerebellum. The midbrain region was the most sensitive, where exposures as low as 100 ?g PM/m3 significantly increased brain TNF? levels. However, this sensitivity to DE was not conferred to all markers of neuroinflammation, as the midbrain showed no increase in IL-6 expression at any concentration tested, an increase in IL-1? at only high concentrations, and a decrease in MIP-1? expression, supporting that compensatory mechanisms may occur with subchronic exposure. A?42 levels were the highest in the frontal lobe of mice exposed to 992 ?g PM/m3 and tau [pS199] levels were elevated at the higher DE concentrations (992 and 311 ?g PM/m3) in both the temporal lobe and frontal lobe, indicating that proteins linked to preclinical Alzheimer's disease were affected. ? Synuclein levels were elevated in the midbrain in response to the 992 ?g PM/m3 exposure, supporting that air pollution may be associated with early Parkinson's disease-like pathology. Conclusions Together, the data support that the midbrain may be more sensitive to the neuroinflammatory effects of subchronic air pollution exposure. However, the DE-induced elevation of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases was limited to only the higher exposures, suggesting that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation may precede preclinical markers of neurodegenerative disease in the midbrain. PMID:21864400

2011-01-01

232

Exposure to diesel exhaust up-regulates iNOS expression in ApoE knockout mice  

SciTech Connect

Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods: ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). iNOS expression in the blood vessels and heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. To examine iNOS activity, thoracic aortae were mounted in a wire myograph, and vasoconstriction stimulated by phenylephrine (PE) was measured with and without the presence of the specific inhibitor for iNOS (1400 W). NF-{kappa}B (p65) activity was examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B (p65) was determined by real-time PCR. Results: DE exposure significantly enhanced iNOS expression in the thoracic aorta (4-fold) and heart (1.5 fold). DE exposure significantly attenuated PE-stimulated vasoconstriction by {approx} 20%, which was partly reversed by 1400 W. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B was significantly augmented after DE exposure. NF-{kappa}B activity was enhanced 2-fold after DE inhalation, and the augmented NF-{kappa}B activity was positively correlated with iNOS expression (R{sup 2} = 0.5998). Conclusions: We show that exposure to DE increases iNOS expression and activity possibly via NF-{kappa}B-mediated pathway. We suspect that DE exposure-caused up-regulation of iNOS contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, which could ultimately lead to urban air pollution-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. - Highlights: > Exposed ApoE knockout mice (30-week) to diesel exhaust (DE) for 7 weeks. > Examine iNOS expression and activity in the blood vessels and heart. > DE exposure enhanced iNOS protein and mRNA expression in the aorta and heart. > iNOS activity was also increased after DE exposure. > This up-regulation of iNOS may contribute to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis.

Bai Ni [Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kido, Takashi [James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Rosenfeld, Michael E. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Breemen, Cornelis van [Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Eeden, Stephan F. van, E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca [James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2011-09-01

233

In utero and early life exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution increases adult susceptibility to heart failure in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is a global health concern, as exposure to PM2.5 has consistently been found to be associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although adult exposure to traffic related PM2.5, which is largely derived from diesel exhaust (DE), has been associated with increased cardiac hypertrophy, there are limited investigations into the potential effect of in utero and early life exposure on adult susceptibility to heart disease. In this study, we investigate the effect of in utero and early life exposure to DE on adult susceptibility to heart failure. Methods Female C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to either filtered air (FA) or DE for 3 weeks (?300 ?g/m3 PM2.5 for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week) and then introduced to male breeders for timed matings. Female mice were exposed to either FA or DE throughout pregnancy and until offspring were 3 weeks of age. Offspring were then transferred to either FA or DE for an additional 8 weeks of exposure. At 12 weeks of age, male offspring underwent a baseline echocardiographic assessment, followed by a sham or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery to induce pressure overload. Following sacrifice three weeks post surgery, ventricles were processed for histology to assess myocardial fibrosis and individual cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. mRNA from lung tissue was isolated to measure expression of inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF?. Results We observed that mice exposed to DE during in utero and early life development have significantly increased susceptibility to cardiac hypertrophy, systolic failure, myocardial fibrosis, and pulmonary congestion following TAC surgery compared to FA control, or adult DE exposed mice. In utero and early life DE exposure also strongly modified the inflammatory cytokine response in the adult lung. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution during in utero and early life development in mice increases adult susceptibility to heart failure. The results of this study may imply that the effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease in human populations may be strongly mediated through a ‘fetal origins’ of adult disease pathway. Further investigations on this potential pathway of disease are warranted. PMID:24279743

2013-01-01

234

Exposure to heavy charged particles affects thermoregulation in rats  

SciTech Connect

Rats exposed to 0.1-5 Gy of heavy particles ({sup 56}Fe, {sup 40}Ar, {sup 20}Ne or {sup 4}He) showed dose-dependent changes in body temperature. Lower doses of all particles produced hyperthermia, and higher doses of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 56}Fe produced hypothermia. Of the four HZE particles, {sup 56}Fe particles were the most potent and {sup 4}He particles were the least potent in producing changes in thermoregulation. The {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar particles produced an intermediate level of change in body temperature. Significantly greater hyperthermia was produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 20}Ne, {sup 40}Ar and {sup 56}Fe particles than by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays. Pretreating rats with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin attenuated the hyperthermia produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles, indicating that prostaglandins mediate {sup 56}Fe-particle-induced hyperthermia. The hypothermia produced by exposure to 5 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles is mediated by histamine and can be attenuated by treatment with the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine. 15 refs., 4 figs.

Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Joseph, J.A.; Harris, A.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rabin, B.M. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)]|[Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1994-09-01

235

The effect of diesel exhaust exposure on blood-brain barrier integrity and function in a murine model.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is associated with vascular-based disorders. To investigate the effect of DE on blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and integrity, 8-week-old BALB/c mice were randomized to DE in a cyclical treatment regimen over a 2-week period. Functional integrity of BBB was determined by considering brain parenchymal abundance of IgG within the hippocampal formation and cortex at 6?h and 24?h intervals following final exposure treatment. Neurovascular inflammation was expressed as the abundance of glial fibrillar acidic protein. Two doses of DE were studied and compared to air-only treated mice. Mice exposed to DE had substantially greater abundance of parenchymal IgG compared to control mice not exposed to DE. Increased parenchymal glial fibrillar acidic protein at 24?h post-DE exposure suggested heightened neurovascular inflammation. Our findings are proof-of-concept that inhalation of DE can compromise BBB function and support the broader contention that DE exposure may contribute to neurovascular disease risk. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24477878

Heidari Nejad, Sayeh; Takechi, Ryusuke; Mullins, Benjamin J; Giles, Corey; Larcombe, Alexander N; Bertolatti, Dean; Rumchev, Krassi; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Mamo, John

2015-01-01

236

Whole and particle-free diesel exhausts differentially affect cardiac electrophysiology, blood pressure, and autonomic balance in heart failure-prone rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies strongly link short-term exposures to vehicular traffic and particulate matter (PM) air pollution with adverse cardiovascular events, especially in those with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Diesel engine exhaust (DE) is a key contributor to urban ambien...

237

EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

238

Cacao liquor proanthocyanidins inhibit lung injury induced by diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), which generate reactive oxygen species, may be involved in the recent increase in the prevalence of lung diseases. Cacao liquor proanthocyanidins (CPs) are naturally occurring polyphenols with antioxidative activities. We carried out a study in mice to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of CPs on lung injury induced by intratracheal administration of DEPs (500 microg/body). Dietary supplementation with 1.0 percent CPs inhibited DEP-induced lung injury, characterized by neutrophil sequestration and edema. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that CPs prevented enhanced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 caused by DEPs in the lung injury. Numerous adducts of nitrotyrosine, N-(hexanonyl) lysine, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and 8-OHdG were also observed immunohistochemically in the lungs of mice treated with DEPs. However, these indicators of oxidative stress were barely visible in mice pretreated with CP supplementation. In addition, the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the lung was decreased by CP supplementation in the presence of DEPs. These results suggest that CPs inhibit DEP-induced lung injury by reducing oxidative stress, in association with a reduction in the expression of adhesion molecules. PMID:18547470

Yasuda, A; Takano, H; Osakabe, N; Sanbongi, C; Fukuda, K; Natsume, M; Yanagisawa, R; Inoue, K; Kato, Y; Osawa, T; Yoshikawa, T

2008-01-01

239

Interaction of diesel exhaust particles with human, rat and mouse erythrocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

Inhaled ultrafine (nano) particles can translocate into the bloodstream and interact with circulatory cells causing systemic and cardiovascular events. To gain more insight into this potential mechanism, we studied the interaction of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with human, rat and mouse erythrocytes in vitro. Incubation of erythrocytes with DEP (1, 10 or 100 ?g/ml) for 30 min caused the highest hemolytic effect (up to 38%) in rats, compared to small but significant hemolysis in mice (up to 2.5%) and humans (up to 0.7%). Transmission electron microscopy of erythrocytes revealed the presence of variable degrees of ultrafine (nano)-sized aggregates of DEP either internalized and/or adsorbed onto the erythrocytes in the three species. A significant amount of DEP was found in rat and mouse (but not human) erythrocytes. Lipid erythrocyte susceptibility to in vitro peroxidation measured by malondialdehyde showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in erythrocytes of rats, but not humans or mice. Unlike in human erythrocytes, total antioxidant status (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in rats were significantly and dose- dependently decreased. In mouse erythrocytes, DEP caused a decreased in SOD (at 10 ?g/ml) and TAS (at 100 ?g/ml) activities. In conclusion, DEP caused species-dependent erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative stress, and were either taken up and/or adsorbed onto the red blood cells. Rat (and to a lesser degree mouse) erythrocytes were susceptible to DEP. Human erythrocytes showed the highest resistance to the observed effects. These species difference should be noted when using rats and mice blood as models for humans. PMID:22415085

Nemmar, Abderrahim; Zia, Shaheen; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Al-Amri, Issa; Al Kindi, Mohammed A; Ali, Badreldin H

2012-01-01

240

Bioassay-directed fractionation and salmonella mutagenicity of automobile and forklift diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed Central

Many pulmonary toxicity studies of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have used an automobile-generated sample (A-DEPs) whose mutagenicity has not been reported. In contrast, many mutagenicity studies of DEPs have used a forklift-generated sample (SRM 2975) that has been evaluated in only a few pulmonary toxicity studies. Therefore, we evaluated the mutagenicity of both DEPs in Salmonella coupled to a bioassay-directed fractionation. The percentage of extractable organic material (EOM) was 26.3% for A-DEPs and 2% for SRM 2975. Most of the A-EOM (~55%) eluted in the hexane fraction, reflecting the presence of alkanes and alkenes, typical of uncombusted fuel. In contrast, most of the SRM 2975 EOM (~58%) eluted in the polar methanol fraction, indicative of oxygenated and/or nitrated organics derived from combustion. Most of the direct-acting, base-substitution activity of the A-EOM eluted in the hexane/dichloromethane (DCM) fraction, but this activity eluted in the polar methanol fraction for the SRM 2975 EOM. The direct-acting frameshift mutagenicity eluted across fractions of A-EOM, whereas > 80% eluted only in the DCM fraction of SRM 2975 EOM. The A-DEPs were more mutagenic than SRM 2975 per mass of particle, having 227 times more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-type and 8-45 more nitroarene-type mutagenic activity. These differences were associated with the different conditions under which the two DEP samples were generated and collected. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the health effects of DEPs requires the evaluation of DEP standards for a variety of end points, and our results highlight the need for multidisciplinary studies on a variety of representative samples of DEPs. PMID:15175166

DeMarini, David M; Brooks, Lance R; Warren, Sarah H; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Gilmour, M Ian; Singh, Pramila

2004-01-01

241

Dependence between nonvolatile nucleation mode particle and soot number concentrations in an EGR equipped heavy-duty Diesel engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust characteristics were studied with direct tailpipe sampling on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust particle size distributions, total particle mass, and gaseous emissions were measured with different load conditions without after-treatment. The measured particle size distributions were bimodal; distinctive accumulation and nucleation modes were detected for both volatile and dry particle samples. The condensing volatile compounds changed the characteristics of the nonvolatile nucleation mode while the soot/accumulation mode characteristics (concentration and diameter) were unchanged. A clear dependence between the soot and the nonvolatile nucleation mode number concentrations was detected. While the concentration of the soot mode decreased, the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration increased. The soot mode number concentration decrease was related to soot-NOx trade-off; the decrease of the exhaust gas recirculation rate decreased soot emission and increased NOx emission. Simultaneously detected increase of the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration may be caused by the decrease of the soot mode sink or by changed combustion characteristics. However, the total particle number concentration increased with decreasing soot mode number concentration. The proportion of the particle number concentration between the nonvolatile nucleation and soot mode followed the NO2:NO ratio linearly. While ratio NO2:NO increased the proportion of soot mode number concentration in total number concentration increased. Regardless of the mechanism that causes the balance between the soot mode and the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions, the changes in the particle number size distribution should be taken into account while the particle mass emissions are controlled with combustion optimization. PMID:20199020

Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Virtanen, Annele; Solla, Anu; Kytö, Matti; Söderström, Christer; Keskinen, Jorma

2010-04-15

242

Shielding from solar particle event exposures in deep space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical composition and intensities of solar particle event exposures of sensitive astronaut tissues are examined under conditions approximating an astronaut in deep space. Response functions for conversion of particle fluence into dose and dose equivalent averaged over organ tissues are used to establish significant fluence levels and the expected dose and dose rates of the most important events from

John W Wilson; F. A Cucinotta; J. L Shinn; L. C Simonsen; R. R Dubey; W. R Jordan; T. D Jones; C. K Chang; M. Y Kim

1999-01-01

243

Characterization of non-exhaust coarse and fine particles from on-road driving and laboratory measurements.  

PubMed

We investigated the physical and chemical properties of non-exhaust coarse and fine particles generated by on-road driving and in a laboratory setting using a mobile sampling system. The on-road driving and laboratory measurements performed under constant speed driving revealed that particles produced by tire wear had a size distribution in the range of 2-3 ?m, while roadway particles (RWPs) measured behind the front tire during on-road driving largely comprised crustal materials such as road surface wear particles and road dust as well as tire wear particles (TWPs). The mode diameters of particles obtained from on-road driving under cornering conditions were similar to those obtained under constant speed conditions, but with higher concentrations of crustal elements. Under braking conditions, the particulate matter (PM) concentrations of brake wear particles (BWPs) sampled near the brake pad increased significantly and were much higher than the concentration of RWPs during deceleration, indicating that BWPs are one of the main sources of non-exhaust emissions. In addition, BWPs observed from on-road and laboratory measurements had a broader PM size range (1-10 ?m) than RWPs. Size-segregated chemical analysis of PM samples indicated that the concentrations of Fe and Ca were highest in the coarse fraction emitted under constant speed and cornering conditions, while Fe, Ba, and Ti were most abundant in the fine fraction emitted during braking events. PMID:23664985

Kwak, Ji-hyun; Kim, Hongsuk; Lee, Janghee; Lee, Seokhwan

2013-08-01

244

A comparison of sampling and analytical methods for assessing occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in a railroad work environment  

SciTech Connect

Methods of assessing occupational exposure to diesel exhaust were evaluated in a railroad work environment. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH{reg_sign})-recommended elemental carbon and respirable combustible dust methods of sampling and analysis for assessing diesel exhaust were included in the study. A total of 215 personal and area samples were collected using both size-selective and non-size-selective samplers. The results demonstrate that the elemental carbon method is suitable for the railroad environment and the respirable combustible dust method is not. All elemental carbon concentrations measured were below the proposed ACG1H Threshold Limit Value (TLV{reg_sign}) of 0.15 mg/m{sup 3}. The concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) were also found to be below their respective TLVs. There is no correlation between elemental carbon or respirable combustible dust and the oxides of nitrogen. The elemental carbon as fraction of total carbon is about 13%, except for onboard locomotives where it is about 24%. Comparison of elemental carbon and respirable combustible dust measurements showed consistent relationships for most sampling locations with respirable combustible dust concentrations 12 to 53 times higher than the elemental carbon levels.

Verma, D.K.; Shaw, L.; Julian, J.; Smolynec, K.; Wood, C.; Shaw, D.

1999-10-01

245

Diesel exhaust particles stimulate human airway epithelial cells to produce cytokines relevant to airway inflammation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that air pollution such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), one of the important air pollutants, may play a role in the increasing prevalence of allergic airway diseases. Objective: We studied the effect of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and its main component, DEPs, on the production of IL-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by human

Takayuki Ohtoshi; Hajime Takizawa; Hitoshi Okazaki; Shin Kawasaki; Naonobu Takeuchi; Ken Ohta; Koji Ito

1998-01-01

246

Roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Adjuvant Activity of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an imbalance in Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are thought to induce Th2-dominated IgE and IgG1 production. However, the roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subtypes in the increased immune responses to antigen in mice exposed to DEP are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 mAb abrogated the

Hidekazu Fujimaki; Naoya Ui; Hiroko Ushio; Keiko Nohara; Tomohiko Endo

2001-01-01

247

Manipulation of the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in airway inflammation induced by diesel exhaust particles in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in bronchial asthma that is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation has not yet been established. We investigated the effects of three different agents on eosinophilic airway inflammation induced by the intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in mice: l-Arginine, the substrate for NO synthases; l-NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a relatively selective

Hirohisa Takano; Heung-Bin Lim; Yuichi Miyabara; Takamichi Ichinose; Toshikazu Yoshikawa; Masaru Sagai

1999-01-01

248

Enhancement of antigen-induced eosinophilic inflammation in the airways of mast-cell deficient mice by diesel exhaust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to clarify the involvement of mast cells in the exacerbating effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) toward allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Airway inflammation by the infiltration of cosinophils with goblet cell proliferation and AHR, as well as by the production of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgE, in plasma were examined using mast cell-deficient

Takamichi Ichinose; Hirohisa Takano; Yuichi Miyabara; Kaori Sadakaneo; Masaru Sagai; Takayuki Shibamoto

2002-01-01

249

Roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Adjuvant Activity of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an imbalance in Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are thought to induce Th2-dominated IgE and IgG1 production. However, the roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subtypes in the increased immune responses to antigen in mice exposed to DEP are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 mAb abrogated the

Hidekazu Fujimaki; Naoya Ui; Hiroko Ushio; Keiko Nohara; Tomohiko Endo

2001-01-01

250

Human IgE production in hu-PBL-SCID mice injected with birch pollen and diesel exhaust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice with severe combined immunodeficiency were transplanted with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hu-PBL-SCID mice). The response to immunisation with birch pollen was used to study possible effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) on human IgE production in this human in vivo model. The adjuvants were well tolerated, as determined by the number of human cells in

Trude Elisabeth Steinsvik; Heidi Ormstad; Per Ivar Gaarder; Ingeborg S Aaberge; Unni Bjønness; Martinus Løvik

1998-01-01

251

In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur-containing fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of sulfur oxides on particle formation and contrails is investigated in the exhaust plumes of a twin-engine jet aircraft. Different fuels were used with sulfur mass fractions of 170 and 5500 ppm in the fuel, one lower than average, the other above the specification limit of standard Jet-A1 fuel. During various phases of the same flight, the two

U. Schumann; J. Ström; R. Busen; R. Baumann; K. Gierens; M. Krautstrunk; F. P. Schröder; J. Stingl

1996-01-01

252

Single Particle Source Profiles of Gasoline and Diesel Powered Vehicles, Biomass Burning and Coal Combustion Exhaust Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicular exhaust, biomass burning, and coal combustion are three significant aerosol sources that have local to global impacts on the earth's atmosphere. They may also contribute to health effects as they can emit carcinogenic species such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and trace metals including beryllium and vanadium. In these source characterization studies, combustion products were diluted to near ambient temperature and pressure using a two stage dilution source sampler. Diluted exhaust emissions were analyzed with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) obtaining real-time measurements of single particle size and chemical composition. In addition, samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), which was operated in a manner compatible with advanced chemical analysis techniques, for size segregated mass concentrations. Due to the importance of these particle sources to the atmosphere, differentiating these emissions from each other and other particle sources is essential. Since ATOFMS is a relatively new single particle analysis technique, source characterization experiments are needed to determine qualitative signatures of specific particulate sources for their ambient identification. ATOFMS single particle mass spectra will be discussed introducing chemically distinct single particle types emitted from these combustion sources. Numerous particle types are emitted from each source, as indicated by distinct chemical associations on the single particle level. Examples include, the chemical associations of vanadium with organic carbon (OC) in gasoline powered vehicle emissions, calcium with black carbon (BC) in diesel powered vehicle emissions, beryllium and boron with BC in coal combustion emissions, and potassium with OC from biomass burning emissions. Most importantly, the overall particle type distributions from each source differ significantly. Finally, complementary MOUDI mass distribution data will be used to determine the relative fractions of these particle types to the overall particulate mass emissions from these tests. These results will be presented in terms of single particle source profiles for these environmentally important combustion aerosol sources.

Suess, D. T.; Prather, K. A.; Schauer, J.; Cass, G. R.

2001-12-01

253

Protein kinase C-? mediates lung injury induced by diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) disrupt tight junctions (TJs) in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) via an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PKC)-? activation in DEP-induced lung injury. C57/bl6 mice were instilled intratracheally with 50 ?l of saline containing 100 ?g of DEPs or titanium dioxide (TiO2). Twenty-four hours later, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to assess neutrophil counts and protein concentrations. In addition, in vitro experiments were performed in primary rat and human AECs exposed to DEPs (50 ?g/cm(2)) for 3 hours. Transepithelial electrical conductance was measured, and TJ protein association was analyzed by immunoprecipitation. To determine whether the overexpression of antioxidants prevented DEP-induced lung injury, AECs and mice were infected with adenoviruses containing catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plasmids. In vivo, the overexpression of catalase and MnSOD prevented DEP-induced neutrophil recruitment. The inhibition of PKC-? activation also prevented DEP-induced neutrophil recruitment in vivo. In vitro, DEPs activated PKC-? in AECs, but not in alveolar macrophages. Using a specific myristolated PKC-? pseudosubstrate pepetide (PKC-? ps), we showed that PKC-? mediated the DEP-induced dissociation of occludin and zonula occludin-1 (ZO1) in rat and human AECs. In addition, the overexpression of constitutively active PKC-? induced the dissociation of occludin and ZO1 in AECs. DEP-induced TJ disruption occurs via PKC-?. TJ disruption seems to be in part responsible for DEP-induced lung injury. PMID:23221045

Caraballo, Juan C; Borcherding, Jennifer; Thorne, Peter S; Comellas, Alejandro P

2013-03-01

254

The Effect of In Utero Diesel Exhaust (DE) Exposure on Development of Allergic Inflammation in Offspring  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies have shown that pre-term birth weights and the incidence of asthma are increased in children born from mothers who live close to heavily trafficked roads and highways. In this study we examined the effect of inhalation DE exposure by pregnant mice on the subsequen...

255

PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO JP-8 JET FUEL VAPORS AND EXHAUST AT AIR FORCE BASES  

EPA Science Inventory

JP-8 jet fuel (similar to commercial/international jet A-1 fuel) is the standard military fuel for all types of vehicles, including the U.S. Air Force aircraft inventory. As such, JP-8 presents the most common chemical exposure in the Air Force, particularly for flight and gro...

256

Xenobiotic Particle Exposure and Microvascular Endpoints: A Call to Arms  

PubMed Central

Xenobiotic particles can be considered in two genres: air pollution particulate matter and engineered nanoparticles. Particle exposures can occur in the greater environment, the workplace, and our homes. The majority of research in this field has, justifiably, focused on pulmonary reactions and outcomes. More recent investigations indicate that cardiovascular effects are capable of correlating with established mortality and morbidity epidemiological data following particle exposures. While the preliminary and general cardiovascular toxicology has been defined, the mechanisms behind these effects, specifically within the microcirculation, are largely unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this review is several fold: first, a historical background on toxicological aspects of particle research is presented. Second, essential definitions, terminology, and techniques that may be unfamiliar to the microvascular scientist will be discussed. Third, the most current concepts and hypotheses driving cardiovascular research in this field will be reviewed. Lastly, potential future directions for the microvascular scientist will be suggested. Collectively speaking, microvascular research in the particle exposure field represents far more than a “niche”. The immediate demand for basic, translational, and clinical studies is high and diverse. Microvascular scientists at all career stages are strongly encouraged to expand their research interests to include investigations associated with particle exposures. PMID:21951337

Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; McCawley, Michael; Knuckles, Travis L.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

2011-01-01

257

One versus five-days of exposure to varying concentrations of B100 soya biodiesel exhaust reveals a threshold concentration for increased sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia  

EPA Science Inventory

Although biodiesel (BD) is rapidly being considered as an alternative to diesel fuel, its health effects have not been thoroughly characterized. We previously used the aconitine challenge test to demonstrate that a single exposure to petroleum diesel exhaust (DE) increases the ri...

258

Circulating factors induce coronary endothelial cell activation following exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust and nitrogen dioxide in humans: Evidence from a novel translational in vitro model**  

EPA Science Inventory

The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen di...

259

Gluthathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione-S-transfera...

260

Effects of ultrafine petrol exhaust particles on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress generation, DNA damage and inflammation in human A549 lung cells and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.  

PubMed

Air pollution has persistently been the major cause of respiratory-related illness and death. Environmental pollutants such as diesel and petrol exhaust particles (PEPs) are the major contributors to urban air pollution. The aim of the present study was to characterize and investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation induced by PEPs. Cultured type II epithelium cells (human A549 lung cells) and alveolar macrophages (murine RAW 264.7 cells) were exposed to control, vehicle control and to different concentrations of PEPs for up to 24h. Each treatment was evaluated by cell viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammatory parameters. Overall in vitro studies demonstrated that both cell lines showed similar patterns in response to the above studies induced by petrol exhaust nanoparticles (PENPs). Vehicle control showed no changes compared with the control. In both cell lines, significant changes at the dose of 20 and 50?g/mL (A549 cell lines) and 10and 20?g/mL (macrophages) for PENPs were found. The reactive oxygen species production in both cell lines shot up in minutes, reached the maximum within an hour and came down after 4h. Hence, exposure to PENPs resulted in dose-dependent toxicity in cultured A549 cells and RAW 264.7 cells and was closely correlated to increased oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation. PMID:25173103

Durga, Mohan; Nathiya, Soundararajan; Rajasekar, Abbu; Devasena, Thiyagarajan

2014-09-01

261

Prediction of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transport code analysis using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX is used to propagate an extrapolated particle spectrum based on GOES satellite measurements through the atmosphere to estimate aircrew radiation exposure for solar particle events. Comparison between code predictions and actual flight measurements made during ground level event (GLE) 60 and 65 are presented. Data from ground-level neutron monitoring stations around the world are also compared against the model predictions for various events. A computer code has been further developed implementing this methodology for routine aircrew exposure estimation from solar particle events to supplement those predictions from galactic cosmic radiation using the PCAIRE code in order to better determine the overall aircrew exposure at altitude.

Bennett, Les

262

Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:25045158

Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

2014-07-01

263

Charged particle radiation exposure of geocentric satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The near-earth radiation environment is characterized, summarizing published data on trapped and transient charged particles and their potential effects on hardware systems and the crews of manned missions. Topics examined include the role of the magnetosphere, the five radiation domains, cyclic and sporadic variations in the radiation environment, the potential effect of a high-altitude nuclear explosion, NASA empirical models for predicting trapped proton and electron fluxes, and the South Atlantic anomaly and the estimation of flux-free periods. Consideration is given to solar cosmic rays and heavy ions, Galactic cosmic rays, geomagnetic shielding, secondary radiation, the design of shielding systems, variables affecting dose evaluations, and ionizing-radiation doses. Extensive diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

Stassinopoulos, E. G.

1989-01-01

264

Exhaust Gas Catalysts for Heavy-Duty Applications: Influence of the Pd Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution on the Combustion of Natural Gas and Biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an experimental investigation concerning exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty diesel engines fuelled by natural gas or biogas is presented. Miniature monoliths, 2.5 wt% Pd\\/Al2O3, have been prepared, characterised and tested. Various methods have been used in order to obtain different palladium particle sizes, including incipient wetness and microemulsion technique. Crystallite sizes between 2 and 40 nm were

E. Pocoroba; L. J. Pettersson; J. Agrell; M. Boutonnet; K. Jansson

2001-01-01

265

Isolation and Quantitative Estimation of Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black Particles Ingested by Lung Epithelial Cells and Alveolar Macrophages In Vitro  

EPA Science Inventory

A new procedure for isolating and estimating ingested carbonaceous diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or carbon black (CB) particles by lung epithelial cells and macrophages is described. Cells were incubated with DEP or CB to examine cell-particle interaction and ingestion. After va...

266

Effects of exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust on 8-OHdG synthesis in the mouse asthmatic lung.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is associated with the induction and exacerbation of respiratory disorders; however, the impacts of DE containing mainly nanoparticles have been less studied. We have previously demonstrated that inhalation exposure to nanoparticle-rich DE (NR-DE) exacerbated allergic pulmonary inflammation, in the context of enhanced local expression of proinflammatory molecules. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a marker of oxidative damage, particularly in DNA. This study examined the effects of NR-DE on 8-OHdG synthesis in the lung in the presence or absence of an allergen. Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice were exposed by inhalation to four different gas compositions (control air, low-concentration DE, high-concentration DE and high-concentration DE without particulate matter) for 8 weeks, in the presence or absence of repetitive intratracheal administration of ovalbumin (OVA). Thereafter, we assessed the levels of 8-OHdG synthesis and expression in the lungs by means of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunohistochemistry. The EIA revealed that the level of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the high-concentration NR-DE-exposed and allergen-sensitized/stimulated group compared with that in the control air-exposed and allergen-treated group. The immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the level of immunoreactive 8-OHdG was higher in the NR-DE-exposed and allergen-treated lungs compared with that in the corresponding control air-exposed lungs. The results suggested that NR-DE exposure enhanced 8-OHdG formation in asthmatic lungs. This, at least in part, is involved in the NR-DE-mediated exacerbation of the allergic pathophysiology that was identified in our previous study. PMID:24137251

Tanaka, Michitaka; Takano, Hirohisa; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro; Ichinose, Takamichi; Shimada, Akinori; Inoue, Ken-Ichiro

2013-09-01

267

Diesel exhaust exposure enhances venoconstriction via uncoupling of eNOS  

SciTech Connect

Environmental air pollution is associated with adverse cardiovascular events, including increased hospital admissions due to heart failure and myocardial infarction. The exact mechanism(s) by which air pollution affects the heart and vasculature is currently unknown. Recent studies have found that exposure to air pollution enhances arterial vasoconstriction in humans and animal models. Work in our laboratory has shown that diesel emissions (DE) enhance vasoconstriction of mouse coronary arteries. Thus, we hypothesized that DE could enhance vasoconstriction in arteries and veins through uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). To test this hypothesis, we first bubbled DE through a physiological saline solution and exposed isolated mesenteric veins. Second, we exposed animals, whole body, to DE at 350 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for 4 h, after which mesenteric arteries and veins were isolated. Results from these experiments show that saline bubbled with DE as well as inhaled DE enhances vasoconstriction in veins but not arteries. Exposure to several representative volatile organic compounds found in the DE-exposed saline did not enhance arterial constriction. L-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME), an eNOS inhibitor, normalized the control vessels to the DE-exposed vessels implicating an uncoupling of eNOS as a mechanism for enhanced vasoconstriction. The principal conclusions of this research are 1) veins exhibit endothelial dysfunction following in vivo and ex vivo exposures to DE, 2) veins appear to be more sensitive to DE effects than arteries, and 3) DE components most likely induce endothelial dysfunction through the uncoupling of eNOS.

Knuckles, Travis L.; Lund, Amie K.; Lucas, Selita N. [Toxicology Division, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Campen, Matthew J. [Toxicology Division, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: mcampen@lrri.org

2008-08-01

268

Acute cardiovascular and inflammatory toxicity induced by inhalation of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Analysis of fuel emissions is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of mortality because of air pollution. The objective of this study is to assess cardiovascular and inflammatory toxicity of diesel and biodiesel particles. Mice were exposed to fuels for 1 h. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability, and blood pressure were obtained before exposure, as well as 30 and 60 min after exposure. After 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, and bone marrow were collected to evaluate inflammation. B100 decreased the following emission parameters: mass, black carbon, metals, CO, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds compared with B50 and diesel; root mean square of successive differences in the heart beat interval increased with diesel (p < 0.05) compared with control; low frequency increased with diesel (p < 0.01) and B100 (p < 0.05) compared with control; HR increased with B100 (p < 0.05) compared with control; mean corpuscular volume increased with B100 compared with diesel (p < 0.01), B50, and control (p < 0.001); mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased with B100 compared with B50 (p < 0.001) and control (p < 0.05); leucocytes increased with B50 compared with diesel (p < 0.05); platelets increased with B100 compared with diesel and control (p < 0.05); reticulocytes increased with B50 compared with diesel, control (p < 0.01), and B100 (p < 0.05); metamyelocytes increased with B50 and B100 compared with diesel (p < 0.05); neutrophils increased with diesel and B50 compared with control (p < 0.05); and macrophages increased with diesel (p < 0.01), B50, and B100 (p < 0.05) compared with control. Biodiesel was more toxic than diesel because it promoted cardiovascular alterations as well as pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:20385657

Brito, Jôse Mára; Belotti, Luciano; Toledo, Alessandra C; Antonangelo, Leila; Silva, Flávio S; Alvim, Débora S; Andre, Paulo A; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Rivero, Dolores H R F

2010-07-01

269

Tracking the pathway of diesel exhaust particles from the nose to the brain by X-ray florescence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that exposure to nano-sized particles (<50 nm) result in their translocation to the central nervous system through the olfactory nerve. Translocation commonly occurs via inhalation, ingestion and skin uptake. Little information is available on the specific pathway of cellular localization of nano-sized particles in the olfactory bulb. The nano-sized particles entrance into the postsynaptics cell is of particular

Yasuto Matsui; Nobumitsu Sakai; Akira Tsuda; Yasuko Terada; Masaki Takaoka; Hidekazu Fujimaki; Iwao Uchiyama

2009-01-01

270

CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLE EXPOSURES IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

TD-02-042 (U. KODAVANTI) GPRA # 10108 Cardiovascular Responses to Ultrafine Carbon Particle Exposures in Rats. V. Harder1, B. Lentner1, A. Ziesenis1, E. Karg1, L. Ruprecht1, U. Kodavanti2, A. Stampfl3, J. Heyder1, H. Schulz1 GSF- Institute for Inhalation Biology1, I...

271

EXACERBATION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO VARIOUS COMBUSTION SOURCE PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure of ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) has been shown to increase arterial plaque area and size. CAPs are a complex aerosol mixture consisting of wind-blown dust, emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, and secondary tr...

272

DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ISOKINETIC SAMPLING TRAIN FOR PARTICLE SIZE MEASUREMENTS USING EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A particulate sampling train has been constructed which satisfies the conflicting requirements of isokinetic sample extraction and constant flowrate through an inertial sizing device. Its design allows a variable fraction of the filtered exhaust gas to be added to the sample upst...

273

Interaction between soot particles and NOx during dielectric barrier discharge plasma remediation of simulated diesel exhaust  

E-print Network

in actual exhausts and may, through heterogeneous chemistry, affect the remediation process. In this article, a computational investigation of the effect of soot on the plasma chemistry of NOx removal in a simulated diesel. INTRODUCTION The use of atmospheric nonthermal plasma processing in tandem with selective catalytic reduction

Kushner, Mark

274

A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF UPTAKE OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES BY LUNG CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

While airborne particulates like diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) exert significant toxicological effects on lungs, quantitative estimation of accumulation of DEP inside lung cells has not been reported due to a lack of an accurate and quantitative technique for this purpose. I...

275

Inhalation of diesel exhaust induces acute arterial vasocontruction in healthy volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Diesel exhaust particles (DE) are a major contributor to PM in urban areas. Advanced age and certain polymorphisms are among...

276

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST (Final 2002)  

EPA Science Inventory

This assessment examined information regarding the possible health hazards associated with exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DE), which is a mixture of gases and particles. The assessment concludes that long-term (i.e., chronic) inhalation exposure is likely to pose a l...

277

Exposure to dust and particle-associated 1-nitropyrene of drivers of diesel-powered equipment in underground mining.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted in two mines in order to determine the most suitable strategy for ambient exposure assessment in the framework of a European study aimed at validation of biological monitoring approaches for diesel exhaust (BIOMODEM). Exposure to dust and particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) was studied in 20 miners of black coal by the long wall method (Czech Republic) and in 20 workers in oil shale mining by the room and pillar method (Estonia). The study in the oil shale mine was extended to include 100 workers in a second phase (main study). In each mine half of the study population worked underground as drivers of diesel-powered trains (black coal) and excavators (oil shale). The other half consisted of workers occupied in various non-diesel production assignments. Exposure to diesel exhaust was studied by measurement of inhalable and respirable dust at fixed locations and by personal air sampling of respirable dust. The ratio of geometric mean inhalable to respirable dust concentration was approximately two to one. The underground/surface ratio of respirable dust concentrations measured at fixed locations and in the breathing zones of the workers was 2-fold or greater. Respirable dust was 2- to 3-fold higher in the breathing zone than at fixed sampling locations. The 1-NP content in these dust fractions was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and ranged from 0.003 to 42.2 ng/m(3) in the breathing zones of the workers. In mine dust no 1-NP was detected. In both mines 1-NP was observed to be primarily associated with respirable particles. The 1-NP concentrations were also higher underground than on the surface (2- to 3-fold in the coal mine and 10-fold or more in the oil shale mine). Concentrations of 1-NP in the breathing zones were also higher than at fixed sites (2.5-fold in the coal mine and 10-fold in the oil shale mine). For individual exposure assessment personal air sampling is preferred over air sampling at fixed sites. This study also suggests that particle-associated 1-NP much better reflects the ambient exposure to diesel exhaust particles than dust concentrations. Therefore, measurement of particle-associated 1-NP is preferred over measurement of dust concentrations by gravimetry, when linking ambient exposure to biomonitoring outcomes such as protein and DNA adducts and excretion of urinary metabolites of genotoxic substances. PMID:12855488

Scheepers, P T J; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Anzion, R; Dahmann, D; Poole, J; Bos, R P

2003-07-01

278

Disruption of Nrf2 enhances susceptibility to airway inflammatory responses induced by low-dose diesel exhaust particles in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test our hypothesis that diesel exhaust particle (DEP)-induced oxidative stress and host antioxidant responses play a key role in the development of DEP-induced airway inflammatory diseases, C57BL\\/6 nuclear erythroid 2 P45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) knockout (Nrf2?\\/?) and wild-type mice were exposed to low-dose DEP for 7 h\\/day, 5 days\\/week, for 8 weeks. Nrf2?\\/? mice exposed to low-dose DEP showed significantly increased airway

Ying Ji Li; Hajime Takizawa; Arata Azuma; Tadashi Kohyama; Yasuhiro Yamauchi; Satoru Takahashi; Masayuki Yamamoto; Tomoyuki Kawada; Shoji Kudoh; Isamu Sugawara

2008-01-01

279

The role of exhaust ventilation systems in reducing occupational exposure to organic solvents in a paint manufacturing factory  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the successful design and implementation of several exhaust ventilation systems in a paint manufacturing factory. The ventilation systems were designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendations. The duct works, fans, and other parts were made and mounted by local manufacturers. The concentrations of toluene and xylene as the common solvents used in paint mixing factories were measured to evaluate the role of ventilation systems in controlling the organic solvents. Occupational exposure to toluene and xylene as the major pollutants was assessed with and without applying ventilation systems. For this purpose, samples were taken from breathing zone of exposed workers using personal samples. The samples were analyzed using Occupational Safety and Health Administration analytical method No.12. The samples were quantified using gas chromatography. The results showed that the ventilation systems successfully controlled toluene and xylene vapors in workplace, air well below the recommended threshold limit value of Iran (44.49 and 97.73 ppm, respectively). It was also discovered that benzene concentration in workplace air was higher than its allowable concentrations. This could be from solvents impurities that require more investigations. PMID:20040984

Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Karimi, Ali; Azari, Mansoor Rezazadeh

2008-01-01

280

The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives and the proinflammatory potential of fractionated extracts of diesel exhaust and wood smoke particles.  

PubMed

Exposure to combustion emissions, including diesel engine exhaust and wood smoke particles (DEPs and WSPs), has been associated with inflammatory responses. To investigate the possible role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-derivatives, the DEPs and WSPs methanol extracts were fractionated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and the fractions were analyzed for more than ?120 compounds. The pro-inflammatory effects of the fractionated extracts were characterized by exposure of bronchial epithelial lung cells (BEAS-2B). Both native DEPs and WSPs caused a concentration-dependent increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release and cytotoxicity. This is consistent with the finding of a rather similar total content of PAHs and PAH-derivatives. Yet, the samples differed in specific components, suggesting that different species contribute to the toxicological response in these two types of particles. The majority of the IL-6 release and cytotoxicity was induced upon exposure to the most polar (methanol) SPE fraction of extracts from both samples. In these fractions hydroxy-PAHs, carboxy-PAHs were observed along with nitro-amino-PAHs in DEP. However, the biological effects induced by the polar fractions could not be attributed only to the occurrence of PAH-derivatives. The present findings indicate a need for further characterization of organic extracts, beyond an extensive analysis of commonly suspected PAH and PAH-derivatives. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, to view the supplemental file. PMID:24345236

Totlandsdal, Annike I; Øvrevik, Johan; Cochran, Richard E; Herseth, Jan-Inge; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Låg, Marit; Schwarze, Per; Lilleaas, Edel; Holme, Jørn A; Kubátová, Alena

2014-01-01

281

BAS\\/BSCR27 Diesel exhaust particles promote atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution has been linked to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) accounts for a substantial proportion of urban air pollution but its effects on atherogenesis are unknown. We hypothesised that DEP will exacerbate plaque formation in a murine model of atherosclerosis.Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE) mice (10–12 weeks; n=16) were fed a ‘Western diet’ (21%

M. R. Miller; S. G. McLean; R. Duffin; C. A. Shaw; N. L. Mills; K. Donaldson; D. E. Newby; P. W. F. Hadoke

2010-01-01

282

DIESEL PARTICLE GENERATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND DIRECT ANIMAL EXPOSURE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation of diesel exhaust is associated with the development of asthma as well as other adverse health effects. Studies have also demonstrated that diesel exhaust induces pulmonary changes that worsen asthmatic responses to respiratory allergens. This paper describes the des...

283

Exploratory assessment of the risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to diesel exhaust based on a study in rats. Exploratory diesel risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

A request was made by the Mine Safety and Health Administration to assess quantitatively the risk of lung cancer among those occupationally exposed to diesel exhaust. The Armitage-Doll multistage model was adapted to fit both the cases of all tumors and malignant neoplasms alone. A number of assumptions were made to extend the risk estimates derived from the models of tumor response in rats to the risks for humans. These assumptions fell into three categories: those concerning the development of biologically equivalent doses for rats and humans, those relating external exposure to internal dose, and those concerning the scaling of age between rats and humans to account for the temporal aspects of exposure. Uncertainties in the study included the effects of exposure on lung clearance mechanisms, the deposition rates in humans, and the relevance of the exposure index limit. Based on the findings of the study the excess risk to miners of lung cancer at the upper range of the diesel particulate exposure reported, 1.5mg/cu m, was approximately 1.5 to 3 in 100. According to the authors, the results are consistent with previous recommendations by NIOSH that diesel exhaust should be regarded as a potential human carcinogen, and that efforts should be made to reduce exposures to the lowest feasible concentration.

Smith, R.; Stayner, L.

1990-08-29

284

Acute effects of diesel exhaust particles and cisplatin on oxidative stress in cultured human kidney (HEK 293) cells, and the influence of curcumin thereon.  

PubMed

Particulate air pollution with particle diameters less than 2.5?m contribute to respiratory and extra-respiratory morbidity and mortality. We have recently reported the first in vivo experimental evidence that Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in the lung aggravated the renal, pulmonary, and systemic effects of cisplatin (CP)-induced acute renal failure in rats. This in vitro study sought to determine whether and to what extent does DEP exposure exacerbate the effects of CP-induced oxidative stress in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, and to examine if these effects could be mitigated/prevented with curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric). Cells viability, cysteine uptake and oxidative stress indices [glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase)] were evaluated in all study groups. DEP aggravated the CP- induced HEK-293 cells toxicity, as evidenced by decreasing cell viability and by inducing oxidative stress (GSH depletion, TAC impairment, and antioxidant enzymes inhibition). DEP, but not CP, significantly reduced cysteine uptake. Curcumin prevented the observed DEP and CP-induced cellular insults. These findings suggest that DEP augmented the CP-induced toxicity in HEK-293 cells. Curcumin exhibited a strong potential for protection against DEP and CP-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:24113306

Waly, Mostafa I; Ali, Badreldin H; Nemmar, Abderrahim

2013-12-01

285

An investigation into the effect of a ceramic particle trap on the chemical mutagens in diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles and vapor phase samples were collected from the diluted (15:1) exhaust of a 10.4 L displacement medium-duty engine (Caterpillar 3208), operated under EPA steady-state cycle Modes 4 and 5 conditions for load (50 and 75 percent, respectively) and speed (1680 rpm). Baseline (uncontrolled) emissions were compared to the exhaust modified by the use of an uncatalyzed monolithic ceramic trap (Corning). The Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity bioassay (Ames Test) was used to direct the course of chemical analyses. Total particulate matter (TPM), soluble organic fraction (SOF) (from TPM), sulfate fraction (SO4) (from TPM), and solid fraction (SOL) (from particle) were determined from dilute exhaust particles collected on 47 mm Teflon-coated woven glass fiber filters. Coincidentally, particles were collected on 508 x 508 mm Teflon-coated non-woven glass fiber filters, and vapor-phase samples were collected on XAD-2 resin. The SOF and VOC for chemical and biological characterization were obtained by Soxhlet extraction of samples with dichloromethane (DCM). Hydrocarbon mass balances were developed to evaluate the efficiency of the sampling system. Use of the ceramic traps caused no change in engine total hydrocarbon (HC) levels at Mode 4 but decreases in TPM, SOF, and NO2 were noted. In terms of HC emissions only, the percentage of SOF was significantly reduced, but the percentage of VOC was unchanged. For Mode 5, the engine HC levels were significantly reduced but the proportions of HC components, i.e. the percentage of SOF and the percentage of VOC, did not change significantly. Engine emission levels of TPM, SOF, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were also significantly reduced at Mode 5. At both Modes 4 and 5, use of the ceramic particle traps caused an increase in the direct-acting (TA98) mutagenicity (revertants/microgram) of the SOF and a decrease in the activity of the VOC. The traps caused a 70 percent reduction of TPM at Mode 4 but only a 45 percent reduction in particulate-associated direct-acting mutagenicity on the basis of raw exhaust emissions (kRevertants/m3). At Mode 5 with the traps, there was an 85 percent reduction in TPM and only a 25 percent reduction in the activity of the SOF. The direct-acting mutagenicity of the VOC was reduced by use of the traps by 40 and 65 percent (kRevertants/m3) for Modes 4 and 5, respectively. In contrast, the indirect-acting mutagenicity of the Mode 4 VOC increased nearly 150 percent. Filter loading and reexposure experiments indicated that sampling artifacts did not contribute to the SOF mutagenicity at Mode 4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2484024

Bagley, S T; Dorie, L D; Leddy, D G; Johnson, J H

1987-01-01

286

HEMATOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR CARDIAC EFFECTS FOLLOWING PULMONARY EXPOSURE TO OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Hematological and Molecular Cardiac Effects Following Pulmonary Exposure to Oil Combustion Particles K. Dreher, R. Jaskot, and J. Richards. USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC Systemic health effects induced following pulmonary exposure to various combustion particles are...

287

CHARACTERIZING THE SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO MUTAGENIC AND CARCINOGENIC CHEMICALS IN AIRBORNE FINE PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Personal and ambient exposures to airborne fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and genotoxic activity has been studied in populations in the US, Japan, China, and the Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors used to collect fine particles were extracted f...

288

Organic extract of diesel exhaust particles stimulates expression of Ia and costimulatory molecules associated with antigen presentation in rat peripheral blood monocytes but not in alveolar macrophages  

SciTech Connect

We hypothesized that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in lung. The present study was designed to clarify the following about DEP: (1) whether it affects the expression of Ia and B7 molecules in alveolar macrophages (AM) as a mature cell or in peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) as an immature cell (2) if it affects the antigen-presenting (AP) activity of PBM (3) what component of DEP is responsible for the effects, and (4) whether the effect of DEP is related to oxidative stress. DEP was extracted with methylene chloride. Cells were exposed to whole DEP, organic extract, or residual particles for 24 h. Cell-surface molecules were measured by flow cytometry. AP activity was assessed by antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Whole DEP or organic extract significantly increased the expression of Ia and B7 molecules on PBM but not on AM. No significant effect of residual particles was observed. A low concentration of organic extract also increased the AP activity of PBM. When the induction of an antioxidative enzyme was assessed, heme oxygenase-1 protein was found to be significantly increased by exposure to whole DEP, and the organic extract was more effective than the residual particles. Furthermore, the organic extract-induced expression of Ia antigen on PBM was reduced by the addition of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that DEP may act on immature APC and enhance their AP activity and that the action contributing to oxidative stress may be mediated by organic compounds of DEP.

Koike, Eiko [Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) Research Project, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)]. E-mail: ekoike@nies.go.jp; Kobayashi, Takahiro [Environmental Health Sciences Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

2005-12-15

289

Prediction of the Size of Aluminum-Oxide Particles in Exhaust Plumes of Solid Rocket Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of coagulation and aerodynamic fragmentation of liquid particles of aluminum oxide in an accelerating gas flow in the Laval nozzle are analyzed. A formula obtained by an approximate analytical solution of equations of a two-phase flow is proposed to calculate the characteristic particle diameter at the nozzle exit. The limiting particle diameter in the nozzle throat calculated theoretically

O. B. Kovalev

2002-01-01

290

The effects of an open and closed divertor on particle exhaust during edge-localized mode suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations in DIII-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares the effects of divertor geometry on particle exhaust characteristics during the suppression of ELM using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on DIII-D. The subject is timely, particularly for ITER, because the combination of techniques to control or mitigate ELMs and control particle exhaust can provide confidence in the ability of an external pumping system to fully remove the particle exhaust. The differences between an open and closed divertor magnetic topology show a strong coupling of the perturbed strikepoint to the pumping manifold in closed divertor configurations, which can increase the particle exhaust by a factor of four. There is also an observed dependence on q95 in this configuration, which is a common feature of RMP ELM suppression. Neutral density in both the active and non-active divertors is seen to increase during the RMP in the ISS configuration, and edge plasma conditions (i.e. ne,sep and midplane profile of D?) are seen to increase in the closed divertor configuration. Finally, the pumping exhaust is also shown to have a strong dependence on local measurements of the recycling flux. These observations, when taken as a whole, point to a substantial change in the plasma edge conditions, i.e. near the LCFS, throughout the poloidal cross-section of the vacuum vessel. This is coincident with the application of the RMP affecting the pumping capability of the system.

Unterberg, E. A.; Schmitz, O.; Evans, T. E.; Maingi, R.; Brooks, N. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Mordijck, S.; Moyer, R. A.; Orlov, D. M.

2010-03-01

291

Acute skin lesions due to localized ``hot particle`` radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small (<0.5 mm) discrete radioactive particles. Hanford mini-swine were exposed to localized doses from 0.2 to over 600 Gy (averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 70{mu}m depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit.

Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

1996-06-01

292

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ENHANCE INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIVITY BY INCREASING VIRUS ATTACHMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite vaccination and antiviral therapies, influenza infections continue to cause large scale morbidity and mortality every year. Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the incidence and severity of influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air polluta...

293

Estimates of particle formation and growth in coal-fired boiler exhaust—I. Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected in plumes from coal-fired cyclone boilers are examined to determine particle formation and growth. The emphasis is on fine particles (diameters of 0.2-2 m) most likely to influence plume opacity. For the boilers examined, these particles consist primarily of water-sulfuric acid droplets formed from emitted SO 3. Observations in plumes from SO 2-scrubbed and non-scrubbed boilers, under various operating conditions (with different coal types and SO 3 control methods), are used to interpret the influence of operating conditions on plume opacity. Results suggest that the plume particle size distribution is a complex function of boiler operating conditions. Particle concentrations in the critical size range affecting opacity do vary with the magnitude of SO 3 emissions, but absolute concentrations are generally less than expected. These data provide the basis for testing, as described in a companion paper, the performance of a plume particle model.

Mueller, Stephen F.; Imhoff, Robert E.

294

Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS.  

PubMed

Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment. Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. PMID:24913859

Dutouquet, C; Gallou, G; Le Bihan, O; Sirven, J B; Dermigny, A; Torralba, B; Frejafon, E

2014-09-01

295

Enhanced human IgE production results from exposure to the aromatic hydrocarbons from diesel exhaust: Direct effects on B-cell IgE production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that air pollution, and particularly diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) may play a role in the increasing prevalence and severity of airway allergic disease. We show that the extract of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from DEPs (PAH-DEP) enhances human IgE production from purified B cells. Interleukin-4 plus CD40 monoclonal antibody–stimulated IgE production was enhanced 20% to 360%

Hiroshi Takenaka; Ke Zhang; David Diaz-Sanchez; Albert Tsien; Andrew Saxon

1995-01-01

296

Nanoparticles: a review of particle toxicology following inhalation exposure.  

PubMed

It is expected that the rapid expansion of nanotechnology will bring many potential benefits. However, initial investigations have demonstrated that nanomaterials may adversely affect human health and the environment. By increasing the application of nanoparticles, protection of the human respiratory system from exposure to airborne nanoparticles and ultrafine particulates has become an emerging health concern. Available research has demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient airborne particulates and ultrafine particles and various adverse heath effects including increased morbidity and mortality. Nanomaterial structures are more likely to be toxic than the same materials of conventional sized samples and can be inhaled more deeply into the lungs. While the respiratory tract is considered as the primary target organ for inhaled nanoparticles, recent research has demonstrated that extrapulmonary organs are also affected. The very small size distribution and large surface area of nanoparticles available to undergo reactions may play a significant role in nanotoxicity, yet very little is known about their interactions with biological systems. This review explores the possible underlying toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles following inhalational exposure. Nanoparticles differ from the same conventional material at a larger scale in physical, chemical and biological characteristics; therefore it is critical to recognize the potential risk of nanoparticle exposure using appropriate toxicity test methods. Current advances and limitations of toxicity assessment methods of nanoparticles are discussed highlighting the recent improvements of in vitro screening tools for the safety evaluation of the rapidly expanding area of nanotechnology. PMID:22260506

Bakand, Shahnaz; Hayes, Amanda; Dechsakulthorn, Finance

2012-01-01

297

Design and testing of electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system (EAVES): An alternative exposure system for particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Conventional in vitro exposure methods for cultured human lung cells rely on prior suspension of particles in a liquid medium; these have limitations for exposure intensity and may modify the particle composition. Here electrostatic precipitation was used as an effective method f...

298

Size distribution of unburned aluminum particles in solid propellant rocket motor exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The size distribution of particles of unburned aluminum exiting a solid propellant rocket chamber is calculated by extending a previously developed theoretical model. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional approximations to the chamber flow field are considered, but particle velocity lags are neglected. Results of the one-dimensional analysis differ from the more realistic two-dimensional results in that they predict a lower overall combustion efficiency and a most probable particle size which is always greater than zero. It is argued that these observations can be explained by the fact that the one-dimensional flow field allows many particles to pass through the chamber with a very short residence time.

Larson, R.S.

1986-06-01

299

Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987-2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions - temperatures of 25-100 °C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1-600 ?g m-3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution can be used to quantitatively describe the gas-particle partitioning of the entire test fleet. This distribution is designed to be applied to quartz filter POA emission factors in order to update emissions inventories for use in chemical transport models.

May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

2013-10-01

300

The Effect of Diesel Exhaust Particles on Cell Function and Release of Inflammatory Mediators from Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal studies have reported that diesel exhaust particles (DEP), which constitute an important fraction of particulate air pollution, lead to inflammation and\\/or damage of the airways. To investigate the mecha- nisms underlying DEP-induced airway disease in humans, we have cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) from surgically obtained bronchial explants and investigated the effects of purified DEP on the permeability

Hasan Bayram; Jagdish L. Devalia; Raymond J. Sapsford; Takayuki Ohtoshi; Yuichi Miyabara; Masaru Sagai; Robert J. Davies

301

Human exposure to large solar particle events in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whenever energetic solar protons produced by solar particle events traverse bulk matter, they undergo various nuclear and atomic collision processes which significantly alter the physical characteristics and biologically important properties of their transported radiation fields. These physical interactions and their effect on the resulting radiation field within matter are described within the context of a recently developed deterministic, coupled neutron-proton space radiation transport computer code (BRYNTRN). Using this computer code, estimates of human exposure in interplanetary space, behind nominal (2 g/sq cm) and storm shelter (20 g/sq cm) thicknesses of aluminum shielding, are made for the large solar proton event of August 1972. Included in these calculations are estimates of cumulative exposures to the skin, ocular lens, and bone marrow as a function of time during the event. Risk assessment in terms of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is discussed for these organs. Also presented are estimates of organ exposures for hypothetical, worst-case flare scenarios. The rate of dose equivalent accumulation places this situation in an interesting region of dose rate between the very low values of usual concern in terrestrial radiation environments and the high-dose-rate values prevalent in radiation therapy.

Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Curtis, S. B.

1992-01-01

302

Measurement of the light absorbing properties of diesel exhaust particles using a three-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel-exhaust particles (DEP) are one of the main anthropogenic sources of black carbon (BC) and organic matter (OM). Understanding the optical properties of DEP, including the enhancement of light absorption by BC due to coating and light absorption by OM, is important for evaluating the climate impact of DEP. In this study, a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (405, 532, and 781 nm) was used to investigate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of DEP emitted from a diesel engine vehicle running on a chassis dynamometer in transient driving mode (JE-05) and at a constant speed (either idling or driving at 70 km/h). Optical properties were measured after passing the diluted exhaust through a heater, set at 20, 47, or 300 °C (transient driving mode) or between 20 and 400 °C (constant driving mode). The OM accounted for, on average, ?40 and ?35% of the total mass concentration of DEP during the transient and constant driving modes, respectively. In transient driving mode, enhancements of scattering coefficients at 20 and 47 °C, and of the mass concentration of organics, were observed during the high-speed driving period (?80 km/h) corresponding to driving on a highway. No difference was observed in the absorption coefficients between heated and unheated particles at 781 nm for either the transient (including the high-speed driving period) or constant driving modes. These results indicate a lack of enhancement due to the lensing effect, possibly because the BC was mainly mixed externally with the OM or because it was located at the edges of particles under these experimental conditions. Contributions to total light absorption at 405 nm by the OM were estimated by comparing the wavelength dependence of the absorption coefficients with and without heating. A significant contribution by light-absorbing OM (20 ± 7%) to total light absorption at 405 nm was observed during the high-speed driving period of the JE-05 mode, while the contributions were small during other periods in the JE-05 mode (0 ± 8%) and the constant driving mode (idling: 4 ± 12%; driving at 70 km/h: 0 ± 16%).

Guo, Xuesong; Nakayama, Tomoki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tonokura, Kenichi; Matsumi, Yutaka

2014-09-01

303

Physicochemical characterisation of diesel exhaust particles: Factors for assessing biological activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A range of microscopy and analytical techniques have been used to investigate the physicochemical properties of diluted DEP that may be important in determining its biological activity. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated four basic categories of particle morphology: (1) "spherulites" [individual particles]; (2) "chains" or "clusters" of spherulites; (3) "spherules", [large bodies of spherulites]; (4) "flake-like bodies". Image analysis of TEM photomicrographs determined empirical morphological parameters (30 nm mean spherulite diameter, aspect ratio 1.5, mean particle area 0.078 ?m, equivalent spherical diameter 0.23 ?m, roundness 2.76) and derived parameters (0.313 ?m 2 surface area, 3.7 ?m 2 pg surface area per mass and 0.042 ?m 3 volume) of DEP. Distributions of the particle sizes by number showed 10.1% were ultrafine (<0.1 ?m), 89.5% fine (0.1-2.0 ?m), 0.4% coarse (>2.5 ?m), but distributions based on a mass value were different (0.01% ultrafine; 52.6% fine, 47.4% coarse). In contrast, impacted DEP contained 60.87% ultrafine, 39.13% fine and 0% coarse particles by number. Field emission scanning electron microscopy of spherulites revealed smooth surfaces and flocculated spherules with large surface areas. Electron probe X-ray micro-analysis demonstrated the presence of C, O, Na, Mg, K, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ca along with a range of metals (Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr), that were heterogeneous in distribution. Inductively coupled plasma mass and atomic emission spectrometry identified Mg, P, Ca, Cr, Mn, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ba, Na, Fe, S, and Si as the mobile sorbed metals readily removed during sonication in water from DEP suspensions. X-ray Diffraction confirmed previous observations of the presence of nanometer sized crystallites of disordered graphite. Comparison of microscopy and analytical results between sonicated and impacted DEP revealed a physicochemical difference that must be taken into account in any toxicological investigations.

Bérubé, K. A.; Jones, T. P.; Williamson, B. J.; Winters, C.; Morgan, A. J.; Richards, R. J.

304

The adjuvant activity of diesel exhaust particles and carbon black on systemic IgE production to ovalbumin in mice after intranasal instillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adjuvant activity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on systemic IgE production to ovalbumin (OA) was studied in mice after intranasal administration. The main purpose was to elucidate which part of the particles was responsible for the effect, the carbon core and\\/or the adsorbed organic substances. Female Balb\\/cA mice were immunized with OA either alone or in combination with DEP

Asbjørn Nilsen; Randi Hagemann; Ingvar Eide

1997-01-01

305

Treadmill stress test after diesel exhaust particulate exposure reveals a time-dependent shift from parasympathetic to sympathetic dominance  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies suggest that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a major trigger of acute cardiac events-including arrhythmia-especially in those with preexisting cardiac disease. Diesel exhaust (DE) contributes the majority of urban fine and ultrafine PM, and is thu...

306

Hypotension and AV block after diesel exhaust exposure in heart failure-prone rats: role of gaseous and particulate components  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute inhalations ofdiesel engine exhaust (DE) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been demonstrated to provoke adverse cardiac events in humans with preexisting heart disease. Electrophysiologic dysfunction and autonomic imbalance are among the mechanisms widely held to und...

307

Exposure to diesel exhaust up-regulates iNOS expression in ApoE knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Ni Bai; Takashi Kido; Terrance J. Kavanagh; Joel D. Kaufman; Michael E. Rosenfeld; Cornelis van Breemen; Stephan F. van Eeden

2011-01-01

308

Cytokine expression in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles by inhalation. Role of tumor necrosis factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution has been associated with lung and cardiovascular disease, for which lung inflammation may be a driving mechanism. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been suggested to have a key-role in particle-induced inflammation. We studied the time course of gene expression of inflammatory markers in the lungs of wild type mice and Tnf-\\/- mice after

Anne T Saber; Nicklas R Jacobsen; Jette Bornholdt; Sanna L Kjær; Marianne Dybdahl; Lotte Risom; Steffen Loft; Ulla Vogel; Håkan Wallin

2006-01-01

309

Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m3. The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 ?m. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide.

Bellmann, B.; Creutzenberg, O.; Ernst, H.; Muhle, H.

2009-02-01

310

Alteration of pulmonary immunity to Listeria monocytogenes by diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). II. Effects of DEPs on T-cell-mediated immune responses in rats.  

PubMed Central

Previously, we showed that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) suppressed pulmonary clearance of Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) and inhibited the phagocytosis of alveolar macrophages and their response to Listeria in the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-12. In this report we examined the effects of DEPs and/or Listeria on T-cell development and secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. We exposed Brown Norway rats to clean air or DEPs at 50 or 100 mg/m3 for 4 hr by nose-only inhalation and inoculated with 100,000 Listeria. Lymphocytes in the lung-draining lymph nodes were isolated at 3 and 7 days postexposure, analyzed for CD4+ and CD8+ cells, and measured for cytokine production in response to concanavalin A or heat-killed L. monocytogenes. Listeria infection induced lymphocyte production of IL-6. At 7 days postinfection, lymphocytes from Listeria-infected rats showed significant increases in CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts and the CD8+/CD4+ ratio and exhibited increased production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 receptor expression compared with the noninfected control. These results suggest an immune response that involves the action of IL-6 on T-cell activation, yielding Listeria-specific CD8+ cells. DEP exposure alone enhanced lymphocyte production of both IL-2 and IL-6 but inhibited lymphocyte secretion of IFN-gamma. In rats exposed to 100 mg/m3 DEPs and Listeria, a 10-fold increase occurred in pulmonary bacterial count at 3 days postinfection when compared with the Listeria-only exposure group. The isolated lymphocytes showed a significant increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts and the CD8+/CD4+ ratio and exhibited increased IL-2 responsiveness and increased capacity in the secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-gamma. This T-cell immune response was sufficient to allow the Brown Norway rats to clear the bacteria at 7 days postinfection and overcome the down-regulation of the innate immunity by the acute DEP exposure. PMID:12676610

Yin, Xue-Jun; Schafer, Rosana; Ma, Jane Y C; Antonini, James M; Roberts, Jenny R; Weissman, David N; Siegel, Paul D; Ma, Joseph K H

2003-01-01

311

Comparison of Algorithm-based Estimates of Occupational Diesel Exhaust Exposure to Those of Multiple Independent Raters in a Population-based Case–Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Algorithm-based exposure assessments based on patterns in questionnaire responses and professional judgment can readily apply transparent exposure decision rules to thousands of jobs quickly. However, we need to better understand how algorithms compare to a one-by-one job review by an exposure assessor. We compared algorithm-based estimates of diesel exhaust exposure to those of three independent raters within the New England Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study, and identified conditions under which disparities occurred in the assessments of the algorithm and the raters. Methods: Occupational diesel exhaust exposure was assessed previously using an algorithm and a single rater for all 14 983 jobs reported by 2631 study participants during personal interviews conducted from 2001 to 2004. Two additional raters independently assessed a random subset of 324 jobs that were selected based on strata defined by the cross-tabulations of the algorithm and the first rater’s probability assessments for each job, oversampling their disagreements. The algorithm and each rater assessed the probability, intensity and frequency of occupational diesel exhaust exposure, as well as a confidence rating for each metric. Agreement among the raters, their aggregate rating (average of the three raters’ ratings) and the algorithm were evaluated using proportion of agreement, kappa and weighted kappa (?w). Agreement analyses on the subset used inverse probability weighting to extrapolate the subset to estimate agreement for all jobs. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) models were used to identify patterns in questionnaire responses that predicted disparities in exposure status (i.e., unexposed versus exposed) between the first rater and the algorithm-based estimates. Results: For the probability, intensity and frequency exposure metrics, moderate to moderately high agreement was observed among raters (?w = 0.50–0.76) and between the algorithm and the individual raters (?w = 0.58–0.81). For these metrics, the algorithm estimates had consistently higher agreement with the aggregate rating (?w = 0.82) than with the individual raters. For all metrics, the agreement between the algorithm and the aggregate ratings was highest for the unexposed category (90–93%) and was poor to moderate for the exposed categories (9–64%). Lower agreement was observed for jobs with a start year <1965 versus ?1965. For the confidence metrics, the agreement was poor to moderate among raters (?w = 0.17–0.45) and between the algorithm and the individual raters (?w = 0.24–0.61). CART models identified patterns in the questionnaire responses that predicted a fair-to-moderate (33–89%) proportion of the disagreements between the raters’ and the algorithm estimates. Discussion: The agreement between any two raters was similar to the agreement between an algorithm-based approach and individual raters, providing additional support for using the more efficient and transparent algorithm-based approach. CART models identified some patterns in disagreements between the first rater and the algorithm. Given the absence of a gold standard for estimating exposure, these patterns can be reviewed by a team of exposure assessors to determine whether the algorithm should be revised for future studies. PMID:23184256

Friesen, Melissa C.

2013-01-01

312

Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Questions & Answers  

Cancer.gov

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of exposure to diesel exhaust.

313

The role of MAC1 in diesel exhaust particle-induced microglial activation and loss of dopaminergic neuron function.  

PubMed

Increasing reports support that air pollution causes neuroinflammation and is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease/damage. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of urban air pollution, which has been linked to microglial activation and Parkinson's disease-like pathology. To begin to address how DEP may exert CNS effects, microglia and neuron-glia cultures were treated with either nanometer-sized DEP (< 0.22 ?M; 50 ?g/mL), ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 50 ?g/mL), or DEP extracts (eDEP; from 50 ?g/mL DEP), and the effect of microglial activation and dopaminergic (DA) neuron function was assessed. All three treatments showed enhanced ameboid microglia morphology, increased H2 O2 production, and decreased DA uptake. Mechanistic inquiry revealed that the scavenger receptor inhibitor fucoidan blocked DEP internalization in microglia, but failed to alter DEP-induced H2 O2 production in microglia. However, pre-treatment with the MAC1/CD11b inhibitor antibody blocked microglial H2 O2 production in response to DEP. MAC1(-/-) mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures were protected from DEP-induced loss of DA neuron function, as measured by DA uptake. These findings support that DEP may activate microglia through multiple mechanisms, where scavenger receptors regulate internalization of DEP and the MAC1 receptor is mandatory for both DEP-induced microglial H2 O2 production and loss of DA neuron function. PMID:23470120

Levesque, Shannon; Taetzsch, Thomas; Lull, Melinda E; Johnson, Jo Anne; McGraw, Constance; Block, Michelle L

2013-06-01

314

Alleviative effect of quercetin on germ cells intoxicated by 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol from diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

As a component of diesel exhaust particles, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol, PNMC) is also a metabolite of the insecticide fenitrothion and imposes hazardous effects on human health. In the present study, the alleviative effect of a common antioxidant flavonoid quercetin on mouse germ cells intoxicated by PNMC was investigated. Results showed that a single intraperitoneal injection of PNMC at 100 mg/kg induced severe testicular damage after one week. PNMC-treated mice showed a significant loss of germ cells (approximate 40% loss of round germ cells). PNMC caused an increase of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation, as well as a decrease in glutathione level, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Furthermore, treatment of PNMC increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL in germ cells. In addition, testicular caspase-3 activity was significantly up-regulated and germ cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the PNMC-treated mice. In contrast, combined administration of quercetin at 75 mg/kg significantly attenuated PNMC-induced testicular toxicity. These results indicate that the antioxidant quercetin displays a remarkable protective effect on PNMC-induced oxidative damage in mouse testes and may represent an efficient supplement to attenuate reproductive toxicity by environmental toxicants to ensure healthy sperm production. PMID:22467373

Bu, Tong-liang; Jia, Yu-dong; Lin, Jin-xing; Mi, Yu-ling; Zhang, Cai-qiao

2012-04-01

315

Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous and particulate matter from marine vessels gain increasing attention due to their significant contribution to the anthropogenic burden of the atmosphere, implying the change of the atmospheric composition and the impact on local and regional air quality and climate (Eyring et al., 2010). As ship emissions significantly affect air quality of onshore regions, this study deals with various aspects of gas and particulate plumes from marine traffic measured near the Elbe river mouth in northern Germany. In addition to a detailed investigation of the chemical and physical particle properties from different types of commercial marine vessels, we will focus on the chemistry of ship plumes and their changes while undergoing atmospheric processing. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe which is passed on average, daily by 30 ocean-going vessels reaching the port of Hamburg, the second largest freight port of Europe. During 5 days of sampling from April 25-30, 2011 170 commercial marine vessels were probed at a distance of about 1.5-2 km with high temporal resolution. Mass concentrations in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and number as well as PAH and black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM1 were measured; size distribution instruments covered the size range from 6 nm up to 32 ?m. The chemical composition of the non-refractory aerosol in the submicron range was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gas concentrations in the air and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of ship information for each vessel including speed, size, vessel type, fuel type, gross tonnage and engine power was recorded via Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. Although commercial marine vessels powered by diesel engines consume high-sulfur fuel, the chemical submicron aerosol fraction is mainly composed of hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) species. These include PAHs that are adsorbed onto the high number of ultrafine particles. Nevertheless, the chemical composition, typical particle sizes as well as emitted gaseous components vary substantially dependent on the engine or ship type, engine operation condition and fuel mixture. This results in cargo vessels compared to tankers, passenger ships and river boats being the largest polluters influencing the Elbe shipping lane areas by high amounts of NOx, SO2, CO2, PAH, BC and ultrafine particulate matter. The tropospheric ozone chemistry in this area is also substantially affected particularly due to the increasing number of Elbe-passing ships. As onshore regions can be influenced by aged shipping plumes, trajectory pathways and transportation times were examined. As a consequence of the plumes' aging, variations of the organic fraction of the mass spectral fingerprints were found. Eyring, V. et al. (2010), Atmospheric Environment, 44, 4735-4771.

Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

2011-12-01

316

Different exposure of infants and adults to ultrafine particles in the urban area of Barcelona.  

PubMed

Air pollutants have been linked with a number of adverse health effects. Children are especially sensitive, particularly when they get close to the exhaust emissions of the vehicles on the street. The objective of this study was to measure the different exposure of infants and adults to ultrafine particles (UFP) as a surrogate marker of air pollution and of risk of deleterious health effects. Two different portable P-TRAK® were used to measure simultaneously exposure to UFPs at different heights, one corresponding to the height of an infant in a stroller (0.55 m) and the other one to the height of the face of an adult pedestrian (1.70 m). Measurements were taken on three different streets with high traffic density in Barcelona, in 10 consecutive days during spring, with two sampling sessions of 1 h each day, moving afoot and taking into account temperature, humidity, and wind speed. Fifty-two thousand and eight (52,008) paired values were obtained, and the results showed about 10 % higher levels of UFP concentration at 0.55 m (48,198?±?25,296 pt/cm(3)) compared to 1.70 m (43,151?±?22,517 pt/cm(3)). Differences between working and nonworking days were observed. Concentration patterns and variation by days of the week and time periods were related to traffic intensity. This study revealed that infants transported by stroller in urban areas are more exposed to air pollution than walking adults. As infants are more vulnerable and UFP have more effects on their health, measures should be taken to protect this population when it is transported in the street. PMID:25433547

Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Canchucaja, Lizzeth; d'Orazzio, Valentina; Manich, Andrea; Joya, Xavier; Vall, Oriol

2015-01-01

317

ATTRIBUTION OF PARTICLE EXPOSURE AND RISK TO COMBUSTION SOURCE EMISSIONS BASED ON PERSONAL PAH EXPOSURE AND URINARY METABOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Personal airborne exposures to carcinogenic particulate PAH have been significantly correlated with exposure to respirable fine particle mass (PM 2.5) in several studies. All combustion sources emit PAH, however the relative concentrations of different PAH and other organic tr...

318

In Utero Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Air Pollution Promotes Adverse Intrauterine Conditions, Resulting in Weight Gain, Altered Blood Pressure, and Increased Susceptibility to Heart Failure in Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy promotes reduced birthweight, and the associated adverse intrauterine conditions may also promote adult risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the potential for in utero exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) air pollution, a major source of urban PM2.5, to promote adverse intrauterine conditions and influence adult susceptibility to disease. We exposed pregnant female C57Bl/6J mice to DE (?300 µg/m3 PM2.5, 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week) from embryonic day (E) 0.5 to 17.5. At E17.5 embryos were collected for gravimetric analysis and assessed for evidence of resorption. Placental tissues underwent pathological examination to assess the extent of injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oxidative stress. In addition, some dams that were exposed to DE were allowed to give birth to pups and raise offspring in filtered air (FA) conditions. At 10-weeks of age, body weight and blood pressure were measured. At 12-weeks of age, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart failure was then determined after transverse aortic constriction surgery. We found that in utero exposure to DE increases embryo resorption, and promotes placental hemorrhage, focal necrosis, compaction of labyrinth vascular spaces, inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress. In addition, we observed that in utero DE exposure increased body weight, but counterintuitively reduced blood pressure without any changes in baseline cardiac function in adult male mice. Importantly, we observed these mice to have increased susceptibility to pressure-overload induced heart failure, suggesting this in utero exposure to DE ‘reprograms’ the heart to a heightened susceptibility to failure. These observations provide important data to suggest that developmental exposure to air pollution may strongly influence adult susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. PMID:24533117

Weldy, Chad S.; Liu, Yonggang; Liggitt, H. Denny; Chin, Michael T.

2014-01-01

319

In utero exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution promotes adverse intrauterine conditions, resulting in weight gain, altered blood pressure, and increased susceptibility to heart failure in adult mice.  

PubMed

Exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM?.?) is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to PM?.? during pregnancy promotes reduced birthweight, and the associated adverse intrauterine conditions may also promote adult risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the potential for in utero exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) air pollution, a major source of urban PM?.?, to promote adverse intrauterine conditions and influence adult susceptibility to disease. We exposed pregnant female C57Bl/6J mice to DE (?300 µg/m³ PM?.?, 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week) from embryonic day (E) 0.5 to 17.5. At E17.5 embryos were collected for gravimetric analysis and assessed for evidence of resorption. Placental tissues underwent pathological examination to assess the extent of injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oxidative stress. In addition, some dams that were exposed to DE were allowed to give birth to pups and raise offspring in filtered air (FA) conditions. At 10-weeks of age, body weight and blood pressure were measured. At 12-weeks of age, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart failure was then determined after transverse aortic constriction surgery. We found that in utero exposure to DE increases embryo resorption, and promotes placental hemorrhage, focal necrosis, compaction of labyrinth vascular spaces, inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress. In addition, we observed that in utero DE exposure increased body weight, but counterintuitively reduced blood pressure without any changes in baseline cardiac function in adult male mice. Importantly, we observed these mice to have increased susceptibility to pressure-overload induced heart failure, suggesting this in utero exposure to DE 'reprograms' the heart to a heightened susceptibility to failure. These observations provide important data to suggest that developmental exposure to air pollution may strongly influence adult susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. PMID:24533117

Weldy, Chad S; Liu, Yonggang; Liggitt, H Denny; Chin, Michael T

2014-01-01

320

UP-REGULATION OF TISSUE FACTOR IN HUMAN PULMONARY ARTERY ENDOTHELIAL CELLS AFTER ULTRAFINE PARTICLE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Epidemiology studies have linked exposure to pollutant particles to increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the ultrafine fraction of ambient pollutant particle...

321

UPREGULATION OF TISSUE FACTOR IN HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS FOLLOWING ULTRAFINE PARTICLE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology studies have linked the exposure to air pollutant particles with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but the mechanisms remain unknown. In our laboratory we have tested the hypothesis that the ultrafine fraction of ambient pollutant particles would cau...

322

Diesel Exhaust Particles Activate the Matrix-Metalloproteinase-1 Gene in Human Bronchial Epithelia in a ?-Arrestin–Dependent Manner via Activation of RAS  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are globally relevant air pollutants that exert a detrimental human health impact. However, mechanisms of damage by DEP exposure to human respiratory health and human susceptibility factors are only partially known. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been implied as an (etio)pathogenic factor in human lung and airway diseases such as emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic asthma, tuberculosis, and bronchial carcinoma and has been reported to be regulated by DEPs. Objective We elucidated the molecular mechanisms of DEPs’ up-regulation of MMP-1. Methods/Results Using permanent and primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells at air–liquid interface, we show that DEPs activate the human MMP-1 gene via RAS and subsequent activation of RAF-MEK-ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, which can be scaffolded by ?-arrestins. Short interfering RNA mediated ?-arrestin1/2 knockout eliminated formation, subsequent nuclear trafficking of phosphorylated ERK1/2, and resulting MMP-1 transcriptional activation. Transcriptional regulation of the human MMP-1 promoter was strongly influenced by the presence of the –1607GG polymorphism, present in 60–80% of humans, which led to striking up-regulation of MMP-1 transcriptional activation. Conclusion Our results confirm up-regulation of MMP-1 in response to DEPs in HBE and provide new mechanistic insight into how these epithelia, the first line of protection against environmental insults, up-regulate MMP-1 in response to DEP inhalation. These mechanisms include a role for the human –1607GG polymorphism as a susceptibility factor for an accentuated response, which critically depends on the ability of ?-arrestin1/2 to generate scaffolding and nuclear trafficking of phosphorylated ERK1/2. PMID:19337515

Li, Jinju; Ghio, Andrew J.; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Brinckerhoff, Constance E.; Simon, Sidney A.; Liedtke, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

323

Effect of biodiesel on the particle size distribution in the exhaust of common-rail diesel engine and the mechanism of nanoparticle formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of biodiesel blends on the particle size distribution (PSD) of exhaust aerosol and the mechanism of nanoparticle formation\\u000a were investigated with a modern common rail light-duty diesel engine. The results showed that PSD of diesel included two modes:\\u000a nucleation mode (NM) and accumulation mode (CM). The criterion diameter of the two modes is 50 nm. Only CM was observed

XuSheng Zhang; Hui Zhao; ZongJie Hu; ZhiJun Wu; LiGuang Li

2009-01-01

324

Effect of diesel exhaust particles and their components on the allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 response in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased antigen-specific IgE expression is a hallmark of the allergic response in mice. IgG1 may also be involved. Co-injection of mice with diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and ovalbumin three times over a 2 week period lead to a rapid and marked elevation of ovalbumin-specific IgE, IgG1 and also IgG2a, compared with ovalbumin alone. When DEP were injected 1 day before

Yong Heo; Andrew Saxon; Oliver Hankinson

2001-01-01

325

Species- and sex-specific responses and recovery of wild, mature pacific salmon to an exhaustive exercise and air exposure stressor.  

PubMed

Despite the common mechanisms that underlie vertebrate responses to exhaustive exercise stress, the magnitude and the timecourse of recovery can be context-specific. Here, we examine how wild, adult male and female pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon respond to and recover from an exhaustive exercise and air exposure stressor, designed to simulate fisheries capture and handling. We follow gill tissue gene expression for genes active in cellular stress, cell maintenance, and apoptosis as well as plasma osmoregulatory, stress, and reproductive indices. The stressor initiated a major stress response as indicated by increased normalised expression of two stress-responsive genes, Transcription Factor JUNB and cytochrome C (pink salmon only). The stressor resulted in increased plasma ion cortisol, lactate, and depressed estradiol (sockeye salmon only). Gene expression and plasma variables showed a general recovery by 24h post-stressor. Species- and sex-specific patterns were observed in stress response and recovery, with pink salmon mounting a higher magnitude stress response for plasma variables and sockeye salmon exhibiting a higher and more variable gene expression profile. These results highlight species- and sex-specific responses of migrating Pacific salmon to simulated fisheries encounters, which contribute new knowledge towards understanding the consequences of fisheries capture-and-release. PMID:24607368

Donaldson, Michael R; Hinch, Scott G; Jeffries, Ken M; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Miller, Kristina M

2014-03-01

326

Diesel exhaust particles induce CYP1A1 and pro-inflammatory responses via differential pathways in human bronchial epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to diesel engine exhaust particles (DEPs) has been associated with several adverse health outcomes in which inflammation seems to play a key role. DEPs contain a range of different inorganic and organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During the metabolic activation of PAHs, CYP1A1 enzymes are known to play a critical role. In the present study we investigated the potential of a characterised sample of DEPs to induce cytotoxicity, to influence the expression of CYP1A1 and inflammation-related genes, and to activate intracellular signalling pathways, in human bronchial epithelial cells. We specifically investigated to what extent DEP-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 was regulated differentially from DEP-induced expression of CYP1A1. Results The cytotoxicity of the DEPs was characterised by a marked time- and concentration-dependent increase in necrotic cells at 4 h and above 200 ?g/ml (~ 30 ?g/cm2). DEP-induced DNA-damage was only apparent at high concentrations (? 200 ?g/ml). IL-6, IL-8 and COX-2 were the three most up-regulated genes by the DEPs in a screening of 20 selected inflammation-related genes. DEP-induced expression of CYP1A1 was detected at very low concentrations (0.025 ?g/ml), compared to the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and COX-2 (50-100 ?g/ml). A CYP1A1 inhibitor (?-naphthoflavone), nearly abolished the DEP-induced expression of IL-8 and COX-2. Of the investigated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the DEPs induced activation of p38. A p38 inhibitor (SB202190) strongly reduced DEP-induced expression of IL-6, IL-8 and COX-2, but only moderately affected the expression of CYP1A1. The DEPs also activated the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway, and suppression by siRNA tended to reduce the DEP-induced expression of IL-8 and COX-2, but not CYP1A1. Conclusion The present study indicates that DEPs induce both CYP1A1 and pro-inflammatory responses in vitro, but via differential intracellular pathways. DEP-induced pro-inflammatory responses seem to occur via activation of NF-?B and p38 and are facilitated by CYP1A1. However, the DEP-induced CYP1A1 response does not seem to involve NF-?B and p38 activation. Notably, the present study also indicates that expression of CYP1A1 may represent a particular sensitive biomarker of DEP-exposure. PMID:21162728

2010-01-01

327

Bioassay-directed fractionation and sub-fractionation for mutagenicity and chemical analysis of diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Several types of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have been used for toxicology studies, including a high-organic automobile DEP (A-DEP) from Japan, and a low-organic forklift DEP developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (N-DEP). However, these DEPs were not characterized extensively for chemical composition or sub-fractionated and tested extensively for mutagenicity. We collected a compressor-generated DEP (C-DEP) and characterized it by conducting bioassay-directed fractionation of the extractable organics in Salmonella and correlating the results by hierarchical clustering with the concentrations of 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Relative to A- and N-DEP, the mutagenic potency of C-DEP was intermediate in TA100 +S9 (PAH mutagenicity) but was lowest in TA98 -S9 (nitroarene mutagenicity). More than 50% of the mass of the extractable organics of C-DEP eluted in the nonpolar Fraction 1, and only ?20% eluted in the moderately polar Fractions 2 and 3. However, most of the mutagenicity eluted in Fractions 2 and 3, similar to A-DEP but different from N-DEP. HPLC-derived mutagrams of 62 sub-fractions per fraction confirmed that most of the mutagenicity was due to moderately polar compounds. The diagnostic strains identified a strong role for PAHs, nitroarenes, aromatic amines, and oxy-PAHs in the mutagenicity of C-DEP. Hierarchical clustering confirmed the importance of oxy-PAHs but not that of nitroarenes. To our knowledge this is the first use of hierarchical clustering to correlate chemical composition with the mutagenicity of a complex mixture. The chemical analysis and mutagenicity of C-DEP described here makes C-DEP suitable for additional toxicological studies. PMID:24105890

Mutlu, Esra; Warren, Sarah H; Matthews, Peggy P; King, Charly; Linak, William P; Kooter, Ingeborg M; Schmid, Judith E; Ross, Jeffrey A; Gilmour, M Ian; Demarini, David M

2013-12-01

328

Effects of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles on the regulation of testicular function in immature male rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol, PNMC) isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the reproductive functions of male rats. Twenty-eight-day-old rats were injected subcutaneously with PNMC (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. The weights of the epididymis, seminal vesicle, and Cowper gland were significantly decreased in rats treated with 10 mg/kg PNMC. The plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were significantly increased by PNMC at 100 mg/kg. However, the plasma concentrations of testosterone and immunoreactive (ir)-inhibin were significantly decreased by PNMC at 100 mg/kg. The testosterone content of the testicles was significantly decreased in the group treated with 100 mg/kg PNMC compared with the control group. Furthermore, testicular concentration of ir-inhibin was significantly decreased by PNMC at 1 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg. To investigate the direct effects of PNMC on the secretion of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary gland, and on the secretion of testosterone from the testes, we exposed cultured anterior pituitary and interstitial Leydig cells to PNMC (10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) M) with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 10 nM) (for the LH and FSH tests) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 0.1 IU/mL) (for the testosterone test) for 24 hours. PNMC did not change either the basal or GnRH-stimulated levels of FSH and LH secretion. However, PNMC significantly inhibited both basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone production. These findings suggest that PNMC has a direct effect on the testes of immature male rats, causing a reduction in testosterone secretion. PMID:17021341

Li, Chunmei; Taneda, Shinji; Suzuki, Akira K; Furuta, Chie; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

2007-01-01

329

Delayed exacerbation of acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmia by tracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

For understanding the relationship between the increased incidence of sudden cardiac death and air pollution, we examined the effects of intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmia in rats. The animals received 1 mg DEP 24-48 h before the ischemia/reperfusion (DEP-pretreated group, DEP-PRE), and were subjected to 3 successive brief ischemia/reperfusion (3 min ischemia followed by 5 min reperfusion) procedures. These were to make the animals tolerant to ischemia/reperfusion-related myocardial deterioration. Thereafter the animals were subjected to a 10-min ischemia followed by a 30-min reperfusion. In the experiments, an increased mortality was observed in the DEP-PRE group compared to the vehicle (0.05% Tween 80-PBS)-treated group. Forty-six percent of the animals in DEP-PRE died during the first 3-min reperfusion period. The animals of other groups were intratracheally instilled with DEP at the beginning of ischemia/reperfusion experiment, or were pretreated with polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (1000 IU kg(-1), iv). In these animals, incidences of both arrhythmia and mortality were similar to those in the animals treated with the vehicle. In experiments to investigate the effects of DEP on the biochemical and hematological parameters, neutrophil count was elevated by a higher dose (5 mg) of DEP at 24 h after the intratracheal instillation, and oxygen radical production, which was induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, was enhanced at 72 h. These results indicate that intratracheal DEP instillation exacerbates short-period ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmia. Delivery and activation of peripheral neutrophils and oxygen radicals produced in neutrophils might participate in this exacerbation. This is the first article that demonstrates the arrhythmogenicity of DEP using intratracheal instillation in rats. PMID:15371183

Yokota, Syunji; Furuya, Mami; Seki, Takayuki; Marumo, Hideki; Ohara, Naoki; Kato, Atsunaka

2004-05-01

330

Application of Novel Method to Measure Endogenous VOCs in Exhaled Breath Condensate Before and After Exposure to Diesel Exhaust  

EPA Science Inventory

Polar volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) such as aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols are byproducts of normal human metabolism and are present in exhaled breath and blood. Environmental exposures, individual activities, and disease states can perturb normal metabolic processes and ...

331

PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES IN BANSKA BYSTRICA, SLOVAKIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have associated adverse health impacts with ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM), though these studies have been limited in their characterization of personal exposure to PM. An exposure study of healthy nonsmoking adults and children was cond...

332

Atmospheric scavenging exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

1977-01-01

333

Operant responding following exposure to HZE particles and its relationship to particle energy and linear energy transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On exploratory class missions astronauts will be exposed to a variety of heavy particles (HZE particles) which differ in terms of particle energy and particle linear energy transfer. The present experiments were designed to evaluate how these physical characteristics of different particles affect cognitive performance, specifically operant responding. Following exposure to 28Si, 48Ti, 12C and 16O particles at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory rats were tested for their ability to respond appropriately to changes in reinforcement schedules using an operant task. The results showed that the effectiveness of different particles in disrupting cognitive performance, defined as the lowest dose that produced a performance decrement, varied as a function of the energy of the specific particle: for comparisons between different energies of the same particle ( e.g., 56Fe) the effectiveness of the particle was directly proportional to particle linear energy transfer, whereas for comparisons between different particles ( e.g., 56Fe and 16O) effectiveness was inversely proportional to particle linear energy transfer. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms that influence the effectiveness of different particles and energies and in terms of their implications for analyzing the possible risks to astronauts of decrements in cognitive performance following exposure to HZE particles on long-duration exploratory class missions.

Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

2011-07-01

334

Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

2005-08-25

335

Traffic generated non-exhaust particulate emissions from concrete pavement: A mass and particle size study for two-wheelers and small cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to understand the non-exhaust (NE) emission of particles from wear of summer tire and concrete pavement, especially for two wheelers and small cars. A fully enclosed laboratory-scale model was fabricated to simulate road tire interaction with a facility to collect particles in different sizes. A road was cast using the M-45 concrete mixture and the centrifugal casting method. It was observed that emission of large particle non exhaust emission (LPNE) as well as PM 10 and PM 2.5 increased with increasing load. The LPNE was 3.5 mg tire -1 km -1 for a two wheeler and 6.4 mg tire -1 km -1 for a small car. The LPNE can lead to water pollution through water run-off from the roads. The contribution of the PM 10 and PM 2.5 was smaller compared to the LPNE particles (less than 0.1%). About 32 percent of particle mass of PM 10 was present below 1 ?m. The number as well as mass size distribution for PM 10 was observed to be bi-modal with peaks at 0.3 ?m and 4-5 ?m. The NE emissions did not show any significant trend with change in tire pressure.

Aatmeeyata; Kaul, D. S.; Sharma, Mukesh

336

Reducing silica and dust exposures in construction during use of powered concrete-cutting hand tools: efficacy of local exhaust ventilation on hammer drills.  

PubMed

Concrete cutting in construction is a major source of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To reduce exposures, local exhaust ventilation (LEV) may be integrated into the hand tools used in concrete cutting. Volunteers from the New England Laborers Training Center participated in a field study focused on the use of LEV on concrete-cutting hammer drills. A randomized block design field experiment employing four workers measured the efficacy of four hood-vacuum source combinations compared with no LEV in reducing dust and silica exposures. Using four-stage personal cascade impactors (Marple 294) to measure dust exposure, a total of 18 personal samples were collected. Reductions of over 80% in all three biologically relevant size fractions of dust (inhalable, thoracic, and respirable) were obtained by using any combination of hood and vacuum source. This study found that respirable dust concentrations were reduced from 3.77 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.242 to 0.370 mg/m(3); thoracic dust concentrations from 12.5 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.774 to 1.23 mg/m(3); and inhalable dust concentration from 47.2 mg/m(3) to a range of 2.13 to 6.09 mg/m(3). Silica concentrations were reduced from 0.308 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.006 to 0.028 mg/m(3) in the respirable size fraction, from 0.821 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.043 to 0.090 mg/m(3) in the thoracic size fraction, and from 2.71 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.124 to 0.403 mg/m(3) in the inhalable size fraction. Reductions in dust concentrations while using the four LEV systems were not statistically significantly different from each other. PMID:19005968

Shepherd, S; Woskie, S R; Holcroft, C; Ellenbecker, M

2009-01-01

337

Dose profiles through the dermis for on and off-skin hot particle exposures  

E-print Network

reports measurements of depth-dose profiles for on- and off-skin hot particle exposures using radiochromic dye film. Dose profiles from both a "Co hot particle, and activated depleted uranium oxide microspheres were measured with the film. Exposures... were completed with the hot particle in contact with the film, with protective clothing interposed between the hot particle and the film, and with the hot particle suspended 1. 25 cm above the film. Doses were measured at depths from 70 to 400 ym...

Shaw, Kimberly Rochelle

2012-06-07

338

Circulating factors induce coronary endothelial ceIl activation foIlowing exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust and nitrogen dioxide in humans :Evidence from a novel translational in vitro model  

EPA Science Inventory

The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen di...

339

Part 3. Assessment of genotoxicity and oxidative stress after exposure to diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant diesel engines: report on 1- and 3-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.  

PubMed

Human health hazards due to diesel exhaust (DE*) exposure have been associated with both solvent and combustion components. In the past, diesel engine exhaust components have been linked to increased mutagenicity in cultures of Salmonella typhimurium and mammalian cells (Tokiwa and Ohnishi 1986). In addition, DE has been shown to increase both the incidence of tumors and the induction of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine adducts (8-OHdG) in ICR mice (Ichinose et al. 1997). Furthermore, DE is composed of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulates. One such PAH, 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), has been identified in DE and found in urban air. 3-NBA has been observed to induce micronucleus formation in DNA of human hepatoma cells (Lamy et al. 2004). The purpose of the current research, which is part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), a multidisciplinary program being carried out by the Health Effects Institute and the Coordinating Research Council, is to determine whether improvements in the engineering of heavy-duty diesel engines reduce the oxidative stress and genotoxic risk associated with exposure to DE components. To this end, the genotoxicity and oxidative stress of DE from an improved diesel engine was evaluated in bioassays of tissues from Wistar Han rats and C57BL/6 mice exposed to DE. Genotoxicity was measured as strand breaks using an alkaline-modified comet assay. To correlate possible DNA damage found by the comet assay, measurement of DNA-adduct formation was evaluated by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the levels of free 8-OHdG found in the serum of the animals exposed to DE. 8-OHdG is a specific modified base indicating an oxidative type of DNA damage to DNA nucleotides. In addition, a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to assess oxidative stress and damage in the form of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus region of the brains of DE-exposed animals. Results from the comet assay showed no significant differences in rats between the control and exposed groups (P = 0.53, low exposure; P = 0.92, medium exposure; P = 0.77, high exposure) after 1 month of DE exposure. There were no differences between sexes in the responses of rats to these exposures. Likewise, there were no significant differences found after 3 months of exposure. Similarly, no significant differences were found between the mice exposed for 1 and 3 months to DE, nor were any differences found between sexes. Measurements of 8-OHdG in both mice and rats showed no significant difference among DE exposure groups (P = 0.46, mice; P = 0.86, rats). In mice, measured 8-OHdG was lower in the 3-month group than the 1-month group. In rats, the inverse was true. In mice, no significant differences in the levels of lipid peroxidation, as measured by TBARS, were found between the controls and DE exposure groups (P = 0.92), nor were there any differences between sexes. In rats, comparisons between the control and low-exposure groups approached significance, but no significant differences were found between the other DE exposure groups. Additionally, in rats, there were no significant differences between the 1- and 3-month DE exposure groups. PMID:23156842

Hallberg, L M; Ward, J B; Hernandez, C; Ameredes, B T; Wickliffe, J K

2012-09-01

340

Influence of compressive strength and applied force in concrete on particles exposure concentrations during cutting processes.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to identify the influence of applied force (AF) and the compressive strength (CS) of concrete on particle exposure concentrations during concrete cutting processes. Five cutting conditions were selected with AF varied between 9.8 and 49 N and CS varied between 2500 and 6000 psi. For each selected cutting condition, the measured total dust concentrations (C(tot)) were used to further determine the corresponding three health-related exposure concentrations of the inhalable (C(inh)), thoracic (C(thor)), and respirable fraction (C(res)). Results show that particle size distribution was consistently in a bimodal form under all selected cutting conditions. An increase in CS resulted in an increase in coarse particle generations leading to an increase in the four measured particle exposure levels. An increase in AF resulted in an increase in exposure concentrations with a higher fraction of fine particles (i.e., C(tho) and C(res)) However, for particle exposure concentrations with a higher fraction of coarse particles (i.e., C(tot) and C(inh)), an increase in AF resulted in an initial increase, followed by a decrease in concentration. Finally, the above inferences were further confirmed through the use of fixed-effect models to determine the influence of both CS and AF on the four exposure concentrations. These results provide a reference for industries to initiate appropriate control strategies to reduce the exposure levels encountered by workers. PMID:21621248

Soo, Jhy-Charm; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chen, Ching-Hwa; Chen, Mei-Ru; Hsu, Hsin-I; Wu, Trong-Neng

2011-08-01

341

Dietary modulation of the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On exploratory missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays composed of protons and heavy particles, such as 56Fe. Long-term exposure to these particles can cause cancer. However, there are significant uncertainties in the risk estimates for the probability of developing heavy particle-induced cancer, and in the amount of shielding needed to provide an adequate level of radiation protection. The results of this preliminary study, using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, show reduced tumorigenesis in rats maintained on diets containing blueberry or strawberry extract prior to exposure to 56Fe particles. Because the study was not initially designed to evaluate tumorigenesis following exposure to 56Fe particles, additional research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of strawberry and blueberry supplementation. However, the preliminary results presented in this study suggest that diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals can provide additional radiation protection on interplanetary voyages.

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.

342

Airborne concentrations of PM(2.5) and diesel exhaust particles on Harlem sidewalks: a community-based pilot study.  

PubMed Central

Residents of the dense urban core neighborhoods of New York City (NYC) have expressed increasing concern about the potential human health impacts of diesel vehicle emissions. We measured concentrations of particulate matter [less than/equal to] 2.5 micro in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on sidewalks in Harlem, NYC, and tested whether spatial variations in concentrations were related to local diesel traffic density. Eight-hour (1000-1800 hr) air samples for PM(2.5 )and elemental carbon (EC) were collected for 5 days in July 1996 on sidewalks adjacent to four geographically distinct Harlem intersections. Samples were taken using portable monitors worn by study staff. Simultaneous traffic counts for diesel trucks, buses, cars, and pedestrians were carried out at each intersection on [Greater/equal to] 2 of the 5 sampling days. Eight-hour diesel vehicle counts ranged from 61 to 2,467 across the four sites. Mean concentrations of PM(2.5) exhibited only modest site-to-site variation (37-47 microg/m(3)), reflecting the importance of broader regional sources of PM(2.5). In contrast, EC concentrations varied 4-fold across sites (from 1.5 to 6 microg/m(3)), and were associated with bus and truck counts on adjacent streets and, at one site, with the presence of a bus depot. A high correlation (r = 0.95) was observed between EC concentrations measured analytically and a blackness measurement based on PM(2.5) filter reflectance, suggesting the utility of the latter as a surrogate measure of DEP in future community-based studies. These results show that local diesel sources in Harlem create spatial variations in sidewalk concentrations of DEP. The study also demonstrates the feasibility of a new paradigm for community-based research involving full and active partnership between academic scientists and community-based organizations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10706526

Kinney, P L; Aggarwal, M; Northridge, M E; Janssen, N A; Shepard, P

2000-01-01

343

FINE PARTICLE EXPOSURE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED VENTRICULAR REPOLARIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has previously been associated with cardiac events, especially in older people with cardiovascular disease and in diabetics. This study examined the cardiac effects of short-term exposures to ambient PM2.5 in a prospective pane...

344

Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB-responsive gene associated with loss of cell anchorage. There is also a range of aneuploidy amongst the transformed clones and ongoing chromosomal analysis by array-based comparative genomic hybridization has identified single or two copy loss of the tumor suppressor gene FHIT, in 8 of 15 transformed clones. This is accompanied by a 6-fold reduction, overall, in FHIT gene expression amongst the 15 clones under examination. Interestingly, in spite of these changes at the molecular level, when implanted subcutaneously into immune-compromised mice, the transformed clones from the HBEC3 KT cell line do not form tumors. This suggests that additional hits are required for oncogenesis, at least in a subcutaneous model, and/or, 2-D tissue culture models to not adequately reflect the underlying biology. We have therefore, begun to examine transformation in a 3-D tissue culture model, bronchocysts, where HBEC cells ultimately differentiate and stop cycling. We have shown that cells in 3-D have reduced gene expression of key DNA repair genes, and are less effective at repairing complex damage. We are now irradiating at dose rates as low as 0.2 cGy/min to test the notion of an inverse dose rate effect for carcinogenesis by HZE particles. In our early experiments we have shown that as the dose rate dropped from 20 cGy/min to 0.2 cGy/min, for the same total dose (0.25 and 0.50 Gy) an increasing percentage of bronchocysts become mis-shapen, suggesting that some cells within the cyst have de-differentiated and have reentered the cell cycle. We are now testing whether those cells are, in fact, cycling and wherther they are transformed by disaggregating the cyst and placing the cells into soft agar culture.

Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

2012-07-01

345

MicroRNA Expression in Response to Controlled Exposure to Diesel Exhaust: Attenuation by the Antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine in a Randomized Crossover Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Adverse health effects associated with diesel exhaust (DE) are thought to be mediated in part by oxidative stress, but the detailed mechanisms are largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and may respond to exposures such as DE. Objectives: We profiled peripheral blood cellular miRNAs in participants with mild asthma who were exposed to controlled DE with and without antioxidant supplementation. Methods: Thirteen participants with asthma underwent controlled inhalation of filtered air and DE in a double-blinded, randomized crossover study of three conditions: a) DE plus placebo (DEP), b) filtered air plus placebo (FAP), or c) DE with N-acetylcysteine supplementation (DEN). Total cellular RNA was extracted from blood drawn before exposure and 6 hr after exposure for miRNA profiling by the NanoString nCounter assay. MiRNAs significantly associated with DEP exposure and a predicted target [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2)] as well as antioxidant enzyme genes were assessed by reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for validation, and we also assessed the ability of N-acetylcysteine supplementation to block the effect of DE on these specific miRNAs. 8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured in plasma as a systemic oxidative stress marker. Results: Expression of miR-21, miR-30e, miR-215, and miR-144 was significantly associated with DEP. The change in miR-144 was validated by RT-qPCR. NRF2 and its downstream antioxidant genes [glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)] were negatively associated with miR-144 levels. Increases in miR-144 and miR-21 were associated with plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine 8-OHdG level and were blunted by antioxidant (i.e, DEN). Conclusions: Systemic miRNAs with plausible biological function are altered by acute moderate-dose DE exposure. Oxidative stress appears to mediate DE-associated changes in miR-144. PMID:23584289

Yamamoto, Masatsugu; Singh, Amrit; Sava, Francesco; Pui, Mandy; Tebbutt, Scott J.

2013-01-01

346

On-road and laboratory investigations on non-exhaust ultrafine particles from the interaction between the tire and road pavement under braking conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the physical and chemical characteristics of non-exhaust ultrafine particles from on-road driving and laboratory measurements using a mobile sampling vehicle. The on-road driving and laboratory measurements during constant speed conditions revealed no enhancement of ultrafine particles. Under braking events, the total number concentrations of tire particles (TPs) sampled 90 mm above the road surface was 6 times higher with broader mode diameters when compared to 40 mm above the road surface. In contrast to braking events, under cornering conditions, the total number concentrations of TPs sampled 40 mm above the road surface were 50 times higher relative to 90 mm above the road surface. From the morphological and elemental analyses, it is likely that the ultrafine particles generated from the interaction between the tire and the road surface under braking conditions might originated from sulfur-containing materials or anti-oxidants which are contained in TPs, and/or graphite and solid lubricants which are mainly present in brake particles (BPs). However, Zn which was a distinguishing elemental marker of tire wear particles didn't show in EDS spectra. Further research would be required as to the exact emission source of ultrafine particles.

Kwak, Jihyun; Lee, Sunyoup; Lee, Seokhwan

2014-11-01

347

Part 2. Assessment of genotoxicity after exposure to diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant diesel engines: report on 1- and 3-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.  

PubMed

Micronucleus (MN*) formation is a well-established endpoint in genetic toxicology; studies designed to examine MN formation in vivo have been conducted for decades. Conditions that cause double-strand breaks or disrupt the proper segregation of chromosomes during division result in an increase in MN frequency. Thus this endpoint is commonly employed in preclinical studies designed to assess the potential risks of human exposure to a myriad of chemical and physical agents, including inhaled diesel exhaust (DE). As part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) this investigation examined the potential of inhaled DE to induce chromosome damage in chronically exposed rodents. The ACES design included exposure of both rats and mice to DE derived from 2007-compliant heavy-duty engines. The exposure conditions consisted of air control and dilutions of DE resulting in three levels of exposure. At specified times, blood samples were collected, fixed, and shipped by the bioassay staff to Litron Laboratories for further processing and analysis. Significant improvements have been made to MN scoring by using objective, automated methods such as flow cytometry, which allows for the detection of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET), micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (MN-NCE), and reticulocytes (RETs) in peripheral blood samples from mice and rats. By using a simple staining procedure coupled with rapid and efficient analysis, many more cells were examined in less time than was possible in traditional, microscopy-based MN assays. Thus, for each sample, 20,000 RETs were scored for the presence of MN. In the chronic-exposure bioassay, blood samples were obtained from independent groups of exposed animals at specific time points throughout the course of the entire study. This automated method is supported by numerous regulatory guidelines and meets the requirements for an Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)-compliant assay for genotoxicity. Statistical approaches employed analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare effects of sex, exposure condition, and duration, as well as their interactions. This initial assessment of MN was performed on both mouse and rat blood samples from the 1-month and 3-month exposures. The data from mice demonstrate the well established, sex-based difference in MN-RET and MN-NCE frequencies regularly observed in this species, with females exhibiting slightly lower frequencies. There were no sex-based differences observed in rats. An examination of the mean frequencies across the exposure groups and durations of exposure did not show an appreciable induction of MN at the 1- or 3-month exposures in either species. Further statistical analyses did not reveal any significant exposure-related effects. An examination of the potential genotoxic effects of DE is clearly valuable as part of a large-scale chronic-exposure bioassay. The data and observations from the 1-and 3-month exposure studies will eventually be combined with the results from the 1- and 2-year exposure studies to provide a comprehensive examination of chronic exposure to DE in a rodent model. This examination of chromosome damage serves an important role in the context of the entire ACES bioassay, which was designed to assess the safety of diesel combustion engines. PMID:23156841

Bemis, Jeffrey C; Torous, Dorothea K; Dertinger, Stephen D

2012-09-01

348

EXPOSURE RELATIONSHIP OF PERSONAL EXPOSURE OF HIGH-RISK SUBPOPULATIONS TO AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF FINE PARTICLES.  

EPA Science Inventory

An association has been demonstrated between ambient particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) concentrations and human morbidity/mortality. However, little is known regarding the most important sources of PM exposure, interpersonal and intrapersonal variability in exposure, and the...

349

Effect of isothermal dilution on emission factors of organic carbon and n-alkanes in the particle and gas phases of diesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the effect of isothermal dilution (30 °C) on emission factors (EFs) of semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds of heavy-duty diesel exhaust, we measured EFs for particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle phase, and EFs for n-alkanes in both the particle phase and the gas phase of exhaust produced under high-idle engine operating conditions at dilution ratios (DRs) ranging from 8 to 1027. The EC EFs did not vary with DR, whereas the OC EFs in the particle phase determined at DR = 1027 were 13% of the EFs determined at DR = 8, owing to evaporation of organic compounds. Using partitioning theory and n-alkane EFs measured at DR = 14 and 238, we calculated the distributions of compounds between the particle and gas phases at DR = 1760, which corresponds to the DR for tailpipe emissions as they move from the tailpipe to the roadside atmosphere. The gas-phase EF of a compound with a vapor pressure of 10-7 Pa was 0.01 ?g kg-1-fuel at DR = 14, and this value is 1/330 the value derived at DR = 1760. Our results suggest that the EFs of high-volatility compounds in the particle phase will be overestimated and that the EFs of low-volatility compounds in the gas phase will be underestimated if the estimates are derived from data obtained at the low DRs and they are applied to the real world. Therefore, extrapolation from EFs derived at low DR values to EFs at atmospherically relevant DRs will be a source of error in predictions of the concentrations of particulate matter and gas-phase precursors to secondary organic aerosols in air quality models.

Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Hasegawa, Shuich; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Furuyama, Akiko; Hirano, Seishiro; Takami, Akinori

2012-11-01

350

LIVE CELL IMAGING OF THE OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO AN ORGANIC PM COMPONENT  

EPA Science Inventory

RATIONALE. Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects, including inflammatory responses in the lung. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a ubiquitous contributor of the fine and ultrafine PM burden in ambient air. Toxicological stud...

351

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle cabin air filters may result in further diminishing the biomedical effects of diesel exhaust in subjects exposed in traffic and workplaces.   PMID:10450238

Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

1999-01-01

352

Comparison of the Effects of Exposure to Different Particles or Energies on Behavioral Responding in Rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On exploratory class missions, astronauts will be exposed to a variety of heavy particles which differ in terms of quality and energy. Previous research has shown that exposure to 56Fe particles (1 GeV/n) can disrupt performance on taste aversion (CTA) learning and on operant responding using an ascending fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. How exposure to different types of particles and different energies will affect performance remains to be established. Rats were exposed to 56Fe (1 GeV/n, 5 GeV/n), 48Ti (1.2 GeV/n)) or 28Si (600 MeV/n) using the AGS or NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following exposure, the rats were tested for the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced CTA. Compared to 1 GeV/n 56Fe, exposure to 5 GeV/n 56Fe particles required higher doses to disrupt the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced CTA. The dose-response curve for a 48Ti-induced disruption of CTA learning was similar to that produced by exposure to 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles, despite the difference in the LET of the two types of particles. In contrast the rats exposed to 28Si failed to show disruption of amphetamine-induced CTA learning, following exposure to 2.0-4.0 Gy. When tested on a ascending fixed-ratio operant task, the rats exposed to 5 GeV/n 56Fe, in contrast to the rats irradiated with 1 GeV/n 56Fe, did not show poorer performance than the non irradiated controls. These results show that the effects of exposure to heavy particles depend upon the specific particle, its energy, and the endpoint being tested. Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529

Rabin, B. M.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Joseph, J. A.; Carey, A.

353

TOTAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL (THEM) FOR RESPIRABLE SUSPENDED PARTICLES (RSP)  

EPA Science Inventory

A Total Human Exposure Model (THEM) has been developed that calculates 24-hour profiles using real human activity patterns and indoor air models derived from actual measurements of pollutants. HEM was designed for implementation on personal computers. urrently, the model uses the...

354

Neuronal stress following exposure to 56Fe particles and the effects of antioxidant-rich diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication in critical regions of the brain, similar to those seen in aging....

355

Dietary modulation of the effects of exposure to 56FE particles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On exploratory missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays composed of protons and heavy particles, such as 56Fe. Long-term exposure to these particles can cause cancer and other age-related diseases, due to increases in oxidative stress. However, there are signif...

356

Analysis results of micron-sized particles captured by space material exposure experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space material exposure experiments were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and the Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). MPAC is a passive experiment designed to evaluate the dust (micrometeoroid and space debris) environment and to capture particle residues for subsequent chemical analysis. We found many unexpected micron-sized particles that did not make impact with hypervelocity. The diameter of these particles is in the order of micrometers. It is difficult to analyze these particles because they are too small to handle from aerogels. Also, their colorless and transparent nature prevents us from handling them after extraction. In final paper, I present the analysis results of this micron-sized particles

Kimoto, Yugo

357

Dietary modulation of the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

On exploratory missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays composed of protons and heavy particles, such as 56Fe. Long-term exposure to these particles can cause cancer. However, there are significant uncertainties in the risk estimates for the probability of developing heavy particle-induced cancer, and in the amount of shielding needed to provide an adequate level

B. M. Rabin; J. A. Joseph; B. Shukitt-Hale; A. N. Carey

2007-01-01

358

Diet as a factor in behavioral radiation protection following exposure to heavy particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major risks associated with radiation exposures on deep space missions include carcinogenesis due to heavy-particle exposure of cancer-prone tissues and performance decrements due to neurological damage produced by heavy particles. Because exposure to heavy particles can cause oxidative stress, it is possible that antioxidants can be used to mitigate these risks (and possibly some health risks of microgravity). To assess the capacity of antioxidant diets to mitigate the effects of exposure to heavy particles, rats were maintained on antioxidant diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to exposure to 1.5 or 2.0 Gy of accelerated iron particles at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation rats were tested on a series of behavioral tasks: amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning, operant responding and spatial learning and memory. The results indicated that the performance of the irradiated rats maintained on the antioxidant diets was, in general, significantly better than that of the control animals, although the effectiveness of the diets ameliorating the radiation-induced deterioration in performance varied as a function of both the specific diet and the specific endpoint. In addition, animals fed antioxidant diets prior to exposure showed reduced heavy particle-induced tumorigenesis one year after exposure compared to the animals fed the control diet. These results suggest that antioxidant diets have the potential to serve as part of a system designed to provide protection to astronauts against the effects of heavy particles on exploratory missions outside the magnetic field of the earth.

Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James; Todd, Paul

2005-01-01

359

Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.

Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.

2010-12-01

360

In-cabin commuter exposure to ultrafine particles on Los Angeles freeways.  

PubMed

Worldwide people are exposed to toxic ultrafine particles (UFP, with diameters (dp) less than 100 nm) and nanoparticles (NP, dp < 50 nm) under a variety of circumstances. To date, very limited information is available on human exposure to freshly emitted UFP and NP while traveling on major roads and freeways. We report in-cabin and outdoor measurements of particle number concentration and size distributions while driving three vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured under different vehicle ventilation settings. When the circulation fan was set to on, with substantial external air intake, outside changes in particle counts caused corresponding in-cabin changes approximately 30-60 s later, indicating an maximal air exchange rate of about 120-60 h(-1). Maximum in-cabin protection (approximately 85%) was obtained when both fan and recirculation were on. In-cabin and outdoor particle size distributions in the 7.9-217 nm range were observed to be mostly bimodal, with the primary peak occurring at 10-30 nm and the secondary at 50-70 nm. The vehicle's manufacture-installed particle filter offered an in-cabin protection of about 50% for particles in the 7-40 nm size range and 20-30% for particles in the 40 to approximately 200 nm size range. For an hour daily commute exposure, the in-vehicle microenvironment contributes approximately 10-50% of people's daily exposure to UFP from traffic. PMID:17438754

Zhu, Yifang; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu; Hinds, William C; Miguel, Antonio H

2007-04-01

361

Large-scale time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (TR-DPIV) for measurement of high subsonic hot coaxial jet exhaust of a gas turbine engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a highly configurable triple digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) system is described, which is capable of acquiring both continuous, statistically independent measurements at up to 14 Hz and time-resolved PIV data at MHz rates. The system was used at QinetiQ's Noise Test Facility (NTF) as part of the EU-funded CoJeN programme to obtain measurements from high subsonic (Mach <= 0.9), hot (~500 °C), large (1/10th) scale coaxial jet flows at a standoff distance of ~1 m. High-resolution time-averaged velocity and turbulence data were obtained for complete coaxial engine exhaust plumes down to 4 m (20 jet diameters) from the nozzle exit in less than 1 h. In addition, the system allowed volumetric data to be obtained, enabling fast assessment of spatial alignment of nozzle configurations. Furthermore, novel six-frame time-series data-capture is demonstrated up to 330 kHz, used to calculate time-space correlations within the exhaust, allowing for study of spatio-temporal developments in the jet, associated with jet-noise production. The highly automated system provides synchronization triggers for simultaneous acquisition from different measurement systems (e.g. LDA) and is shown to be versatile, rugged, reliable and portable, operating remotely in a hostile environment. Data are presented for three operating conditions and two nozzle geometries, providing a database to be used to validate CFD models of coaxial jet flow.

Timmerman, B. H.; Skeen, A. J.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.; Graves, M. J.

2009-07-01

362

Mortality Risk Associated with Short-Term Exposure to Traffic Particles and Sulfates  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have shown that airborne particles are associated with increased risk of death, but attention has more recently focused on the differential toxicity of particles from different sources. Geographic information system (GIS) approaches have recently been used to improve exposure assessment, particularly for traffic particles, but only for long-term exposure. Objectives We analyzed approximately 100,000 deaths from all, cardiovascular, and respiratory causes for the years 1995–2002 using a case–crossover analysis. Methods Estimates of exposure to traffic particles were geocoded to the address of each decedent on the day before death and control days, with these estimates derived from a GIS-based exposure model incorporating deterministic covariates, such as traffic density and meteorologic factors, and a smooth function of latitude and longitude. Results We estimate that an IQR increase in traffic particle exposure on the day before death is associated with a 2.3% increase [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2 to 3.4%] in all-cause mortality risk. Stroke deaths were particularly elevated (4.4%; 95% CI, ?0.2 to 9.3%), as were diabetes deaths (5.7%; 95% CI, ?1.7 to 13.7%). Sulfate particles are spatially homogeneous, and using a central monitor, we found that an IQR increase in sulfate levels on the day before death is associated with a 1.1% (95% CI, 0.1 to 2.0%) increase in all-cause mortality risk. Conclusions Both traffic and powerplant particles are associated with increased deaths in Boston, with larger effects for traffic particles. PMID:17520063

Maynard, Dan; Coull, Brent A.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Schwartz, Joel

2007-01-01

363

Exposure for ultrafine carbon particles at levels below detectable pulmonary inflammation affects cardiovascular performance in spontaneously hypertensive rats*  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Exposure to particulate matter is a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease but the related molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Previously we studied cardiovascular responses in healthy WKY rats following inhalation exposure to ultrafine carbon particles (UfCPs...

364

Exposure and dose assessment to particle components among an elderly population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People spend the majority of their time indoors and the composition and toxicity of indoor particles is very complex and present significant differences comparing with outdoor aerosols. Consequently, ambient particles cannot represent a real exposure. The aim of this work was to determine the daily exposure and the daily inhaled dose to particle components of elders living in Elderly Care Centers. A questionnaire was applied to 193 institutionalized elders in order to achieve their daily time pattern and to define the micro-environments where PM10 and its components (carbonaceous components and trace elements) were assessed. Daily exposure was calculated by integrating the elder's time spend in each micro-environment and the concentration of the pollutants for the period of interest. This parameter, together with the inhalation rate and the standard body weight, were used to calculate the daily inhaled dose. PM10 daily exposure and daily inhaled dose ranged between 11 - 16 ?g m-3 and 20 × 10-3 - 28 × 10-3 ?g kg-1, respectively. This work not only allowed a fully quantification of the magnitude of the elders exposure, but also showed that the assessment of the integrated exposure to PM components is determinant to accomplish the dose inhaled by elders living in ECCs.

Almeida-Silva, M.; Almeida, S. M.; Pegas, P. N.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C. A.; Wolterbeek, H. T.

2015-02-01

365

Biopersistence of nonfibrous mineral particles in the respiratory tracts of subjects following occupational exposure.  

PubMed Central

Transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEMA) was used to analyze the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 262 subjects occupationally exposed (OE) to nonfibrous mineral particles (NFMP) and 42 controls not occupationally exposed to mineral dusts. OE subjects were divided into three groups according to the lapse of time since last exposure: < or = 1 year and < 10 years (E2), > or = 10 years (E3). The total BALF mineral particle concentration was significantly higher in OE patients than in controls and was closely related to the time lapse since last exposure to NFMP (median values for OE, 7.7 x 10(5) particles/ml; E1, 9 x 10(5) particles/ml; E2, 5 x 10(5) particles/ml; E3, 4.3 x 10(5) particles/ml; controls, 2 x 10(5) particles/ml). No statistical difference was observed for age and smoking habits between OE and control subjects. Concentrations of crystalline silica and metals (exogenous iron, aluminum, metallic alloys and other metals) were significantly higher in OE subjects than in controls, and even though these mineral concentrations decreased with increasing time since last occupational exposure, they still remained higher in the E3 group than in controls. Crystalline silica and metals were thus identified as biopersistent NFMP in the human lung using BALF ATEM method. This method is a useful tool in assessing occupational exposure to NFMP, even when a long period has elapsed since last exposure, and may be used in studying etiology of some respiratory diseases. PMID:7882949

Pairon, J C; Billon-Galland, M A; Iwatsubo, Y; Bernstein, M; Gaudichet, A; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

1994-01-01

366

A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 1: Road dust loading and suspension modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of particle mass in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. In this paper, Part 1, the road dust sub-model of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described. The model provides a generalised process based formulation of the non-exhaust emissions, with emphasis on the contribution of road wear, suspension, surface dust loading and the effect of road surface moisture (retention of wear particles and suspended emissions). The model is intended for use as a tool for air quality managers to help study the impact of mitigation measures and policies. We present a description of the road dust sub-model and apply the model to two sites in Stockholm and Copenhagen where seven years of data with surface moisture measurements are available. For the site in Stockholm, where studded tyres are in use, the model predicts the PM10 concentrations very well with correlations (R2) in the range of R2 = 0.76-0.91 for daily mean PM10. The model also reproduces well the impact of a reduction in studded tyres at this site. For the site in Copenhagen the correlation is lower, in the range 0.44-0.51. The addition of salt is described in the model and at both sites this leads to improved correlations due to additional salt emissions. For future use of the model a number of model parameters, e.g. wear factors and suspension rates, still need to be refined. The effect of sanding on PM10 emissions is also presented but more information will be required before this can be confidently applied for management applications.

Denby, B. R.; Sundvor, I.; Johansson, C.; Pirjola, L.; Ketzel, M.; Norman, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Omstedt, G.

2013-10-01

367

Increased Transcription of Immune and Metabolic Pathways in Naive and Allergic Mice Exposed to Diesel Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust (DE) has been shown to enhance allergic sensitization in animals following high-dose instillation or chronic inhalation exposure scenarios. The purpose of this study was to determine if short-term exposures to diluted DE enhance allergic immune responses to antigen, and identify possible mechanisms using microarray technology. BALB\\/c mice were exposed to filtered air or diluted DE to yield particle

Tina Stevens; Quentin T. Krantz; William P. Linak; Susan Hester; M. Ian Gilmour

2008-01-01

368

Effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) on immune responses: contributions of particulate versus organic soluble components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure on innate, cellular and humoral pulmonary immunity was studied using high-dose, acute-exposure rat, mouse, and cell culture models. DEP consists of a complex mixture of petrochemical-derived organics adsorbed onto elemental carbon particles. DEP is a major component of particulate urban air pollution and a health concern in both urban and occupational environments.

Paul D. Siegel; Rajiv K. Saxena; Q. B. Saxena; Joseph K. H. Ma; Jane Y. C. Ma; Xue-Jun Yin; Vincent Castranova; Nabil Al-Humadi; Daniel M. Lewis

2004-01-01

369

MODELING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS USING A DRIFT-FLUX MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed a drift-flux model for particle movements in turbulent indoor airflows. To account for the process of particle deposition at solid boundaries in the numerical model, a semi-empirical deposition model was adopted in which the size- dependent deposition characteristics were well resolved. After validation against the experimental data, the drift-flux model was used to investigate human exposures to

Gao Naiping; Niu Jianlei

2007-01-01

370

NEUROTROPHINS OPERATE AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT IN RESPONSES OF ALLERGIC MICE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP)  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF are linked to allergic responses. Treatment with anti-p75 (pan-neurotrophin receptor) prevents the increase in airflow obstruction caused by exposure to DEP in ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic mice (Toxicol Sci 84(S1):91, 2005). Our present goa...

371

The exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particle emissions from concrete mixing, drilling and cutting activities.  

PubMed

Building activities generate coarse (PM10?10?m), fine (PM2.5?2.5?m) and ultrafine particles (<100nm) making it necessary to understand both the exposure levels of operatives on site and the dispersion of ultrafine particles into the surrounding environment. This study investigates the release of particulate matter, including ultrafine particles, during the mixing of fresh concrete (incorporating Portland cement with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag, GGBS or Pulverised Fuel Ash, PFA) and the subsequent drilling and cutting of hardened concrete. Particles were measured in the 5-10,000nm size range using a GRIMM particle spectrometer and a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50). The mass concentrations of PM2.5-10 fraction contributed ?52-64% of total mass released. The ultrafine particles dominated the total particle number concentrations (PNCs); being 74, 82, 95 and 97% for mixing with GGBS, mixing with PFA, drilling and cutting, respectively. Peak values measured during the drilling and cutting activities were 4 and 14 times the background. Equivalent emission factors were calculated and the total respiratory deposition dose rates for PNCs for drilling and cutting were 32.97±9.41×10(8)min(-1) and 88.25±58.82×10(8)min(-1). These are a step towards establishing number and mass emission inventories for particle exposure during construction activities. PMID:25068443

Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant; Mulheron, Mike

2014-08-30

372

Effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging on object recognition memory in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to HZE particles produces changes in neurocognitive performance. These changes, including deficits in spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory and operant responding, are also observed in the aged organism. As such, it has been proposed that exposure to heavy particles produces "accelerated aging". Because aging is an ongoing process, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of exposure and the effects of aging, such that doses of HZE particles that do not affect the performance of younger organisms will affect the performance of organisms as they age. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that young rats that had been exposed to HZE particles would show a progressive deterioration in object recognition memory as a function of the age of testing. Rats were exposed to 12 C, 28 S or 48 Ti particles at the N.A.S.A. Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. HZE particle-induced changes in object recognition memory were tested using a standard procedure: rats were placed in an open field and allowed to interact with two identical objects for up to 30 sec; twenty-four hrs later the rats were again placed in the open field, this time containing one familiar and one novel object. Non-irradiated control animals spent significantly more time with the novel object than with the familiar object. In contrast, the rats that been exposed to heavy particles spent equal amounts of time with both the novel and familiar object. The lowest dose of HZE particles which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was determined three months and eleven months following exposure. The threshold dose needed to disrupt object recognition memory three months following irradiation varied as a function of the specific particle and energy. When tested eleven months following irradiation, doses of HZE particles that did not did not affect the performance of the younger rats did affect the performance of the older rats. For all particles the dose of radiation which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was lower when the rats were tested eleven months following irradiation than when the rats were tested 3 months following exposure.

Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Shannahan, Ryan; Hering, Kathleen

373

Assessment of Two Portable Real-Time Particle Monitors Used in Nanomaterial Workplace Exposure Evaluations  

PubMed Central

Background Nanoparticle emission assessment technique was developed to semi-quantitatively evaluate nanomaterial exposures and employs a combination of filter based samples and portable real-time particle monitors, including a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an optical particle counter (OPC), to detect nanomaterial releases. This laboratory study evaluated the results from CPC and OPC simultaneously measuring a polydisperse aerosol to assess their variability and accuracy. Methods and Results Two CPCs and two OPCs were used to evaluate a polydisperse sodium chloride aerosol within an enclosed chamber. The measurement results for number concentration versus time were compared between paired particle monitors of the same type, and to results from the Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) which was widely used to measure concentration of size-specific particles. According to analyses by using the Bland-Altman method, the CPCs displayed a constant mean percent difference of ?3.8% (95% agreement limits: ?9.1 to 1.6%; range of 95% agreement limit: 10.7%) with the chamber particle concentration below its dynamic upper limit (100,000 particles per cubic centimeter). The mean percent difference increased from ?3.4% to ?12.0% (range of 95% agreement limits: 7.1%) with increasing particle concentrations that were above the dynamic upper limit. The OPC results showed the percent difference within 15% for measurements in particles with size ranges of 300 to 500 and 500 to 1000 regardless of the particle concentration. Compared with SMPS measurements, the CPC gave a mean percent difference of 22.9% (95% agreement limits: 10.5% to 35.2%); whereas the measurements from OPC were not comparable. Conclusions This study demonstrated that CPC and OPC are useful for measuring nanoparticle exposures but the results from an individual monitor should be interpreted based upon the instrument's technical parameters. Future research should challenge these monitors with particles of different sizes, shapes, or composition, to determine measurement comparability and accuracy across various workplace nanomaterials. PMID:25148239

Liu, Yuewei; Beaucham, Catherine C.; Pearce, Terri A.; Zhuang, Ziqing

2014-01-01

374

Part 1. Biologic responses in rats and mice to subchronic inhalation of diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant engines: report on 1-, 3-, and 12-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.  

PubMed

The Health Effects Institute and its partners conceived and funded a program to characterize the emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines compliant with the 2007 and 2010 on-road emissions standards in the United States and to evaluate indicators of lung toxicity in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to diesel exhaust (DE*) from 2007-compliant engines. The preliminary hypothesis of this Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was that 2007-compliant on-road diesel emissions ". . . will not cause an increase in tumor formation or substantial toxic effects in rats and mice at the highest concentration of exhaust that can be used . . . although some biological effects may occur." This hypothesis is being tested at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) by exposing rats by chronic inhalation as a carcinogenicity bioassay, measuring indicators of pulmonary toxicity in rats after 1, 3, 12, and 24-30 months of exposure (final time point depends on the survival of animals), and measuring similar indicators of pulmonary toxicity in mice after 1 and 3 months of exposure. This report provides results of exposures through 3 months in rats and mice. Emissions from a 2007-compliant, 500-horsepower-class engine and aftertreatment system operated on a variable-duty cycle were used to generate the animal inhalation test atmospheres. Four treatment groups were exposed to one of three concentrations (dilutions) of exhaust combined with crankcase emissions, or to clean air as a negative control. Dilutions of exhaust were set to yield average integrated concentrations of 4.2, 0.8, and 0.1 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exposure atmospheres were analyzed by daily measurements of key components and periodic detailed physical-chemical characterizations. Exposures were conducted 16 hr/dy (overnight), 5 dy/wk. Rats were evaluated for hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung cell proliferation, and histopathology after 1 month of exposure, and the same indicators plus pulmonary function after 3 months. Mice were evaluated for BAL, lung cell proliferation, and respiratory tract histopathology after 1 month of exposure, and the same indicators plus hematology and serum chemistry after 3 months. Samples from both species were collected for ancillary studies performed by investigators who were not at LRRI and were funded separately. Exposures were accomplished as planned, with average integrated exposure concentrations within 20% of the target dilutions. The major components were the gaseous inorganic compounds, nitrogen monoxide (NO), NO2, and carbon monoxide (CO). Minor components included low concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM) and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs). There were no exposure-related differences in mortality or clinically evident morbidity. Among the more than 100 biologic response variables evaluated, the majority showed no significant difference from control as a result of exposure to DE. There was evidence of early lung changes in the rats, accompanied by a number of statistically significant increases in inflammatory and oxidative stress indicators, and some evidence of subtle changes in pulmonary function. In general, statistically significant effects were observed only at the highest exposure level. The mice did not have the same responses as the rats, but did have small but statistically significant increases in lavage neutrophils and the cytokine IL-6 at 1 month (but not at 3 months). These findings suggest that the rats were more sensitive than mice to the subchronic exposures. PMID:23156840

Mcdonald, Jacob D; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Gigliotti, Andrew; Miller, Rodney A; Seilkop, Steve; Mauderly, Joe L; Seagrave, JeanClare; Chow, Judith; Zielinska, Barbara

2012-09-01

375

Interaction between age and exposure to 56Fe particles on behavior and neurochemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles, which will be encountered on long-term space missions, can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks. This outcome has implications for an astronaut's ability to successfully complete requirements associ...

376

Cognitive effects of partial and whole body exposures to 160 particles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When rats and mice are exposed to HZE particles at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effect of exposure to space radiation on cognitive performance, there may be differences in the amount of tissue that is irradiated: some experimenters irra...

377

RESPIRABLE PARTICLES AND MISTS IN MOUSE PULMONARY INFECTIVITY MODEL. EFFECT OF CHRONIC OR INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of respirable-sized sulfuric acid mist or mixtures containing acid mist and carbon particles (A-C) on the susceptibility to bacterial and viral respiratory infection were studied in mice and hamsters. Both species showed mortalities upon single 3-hour exposure to 600 ...

378

Influence of compressive strength and applied force in concrete on particles exposure concentrations during cutting processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to identify the influence of applied force (AF) and the compressive strength (CS) of concrete on particle exposure concentrations during concrete cutting processes. Five cutting conditions were selected with AF varied between 9.8 and 49N and CS varied between 2500 and 6000psi. For each selected cutting condition, the measured total dust concentrations (Ctot) were

Jhy-Charm Soo; Perng-Jy Tsai; Ching-Hwa Chen; Mei-Ru Chen; Hsin-I Hsu; Trong-Neng Wu

2011-01-01

379

Combined air pollution particle and ozone exposure increases airway responsiveness in mice.  

PubMed

We investigated whether coexposure to inhaled ambient particles and ozone affects airway responsiveness (AR, measured as enhanced pause, Penh) and allergic inflammation (AI) in a murine model of asthma. Ovalbumin-sensitized mice were challenged with either ovalbumin ("asthmatic") or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) aerosols for 3 successive days. Immediately after daily challenge, mice were exposed for 5 h to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), or 0.3 ppm ozone, or both, or neither (n > or = 61/group, 12 experiments). Exposure to CAPs alone or coexposure to CAPs + O(3) caused an increase in Penh in both normal and "asthmatic" mice. These responses were transient and small, increasing approximately 0.9% per 100-microg/m(3) increase in CAPs. Analysis of the effects of particle composition on AR revealed an association between the AlSi particle fraction and increased AR in "asthmatic" mice exposed to ozone and particles. No effects of pollutants on AI were noted. We conclude that (1) particle exposure causes an immediate, short-lived (<24 h) increase in AR in mice; (2) these responses are small; and (3) changes in AR may be correlated with specific elements within the particle mixture. PMID:12028808

Goldsmith, Carroll-Ann W; Ning, YaoYu; Qin, Guozhong; Imrich, Amy; Lawrence, Joy; Murthy, G G Krishna; Catalano, Paul J; Kobzik, Lester

2002-04-01

380

Assessment of cigarette smoke particle deposition within the Vitrocell® exposure module using quartz crystal microbalances  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette smoking is a cause of a variety of serious diseases, and to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke in vitro, whole smoke exposure systems can be used. One of the main challenges of the different whole smoke exposure systems that are commercially available is that they dilute and deliver smoke in different ways, limiting/restricting the cross-comparison of biological responses. This is where dosimetry – dose quantification – can play a key role in data comparison. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology has been put forward as one such tool to quantify smoke particle deposition in vitro, in real-time. Results Using four identical QCMs, installed into the Vitrocell® mammalian 6/4 CF Stainless exposure module, we were able to quantify deposited smoke particle deposition, generated and diluted by a Vitrocell® VC 10 Smoking Robot. At diluting airflows 0.5-4.0 L/min and vacuum flow rate 5 ml/min/well through the exposure module, mean particle deposition was in the range 8.65?±?1.51 ?g/cm2-0.72?±?0.13 ?g/cm2. Additionally, the effect of varying vacuum flow rate on particle deposition was assessed from 5 ml/min/well - 100 ml/min/well. Mean deposited mass for all four airflows tested per vacuum decreased as vacuum rate was increased: mean deposition was 3.79, 2.75, 1.56 and 1.09 ?g/cm2 at vacuum rates of 5, 10, 50 and 100 ml/min/well respectively. Conclusions QCMs within the Vitrocell® exposure module have demonstrated applicability at defining particle dose ranges at various experimental conditions. This tool will prove useful for users of the Vitrocell® system for dose–response determination and QC purposes. PMID:23497606

2013-01-01

381

Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute phase responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in humans. In this study we test the hypothesis

Anne T Saber; Sabina Halappanavar; Janne K Folkmann; Jette Bornholdt; Anne Mette Z Boisen; Peter Møller; Andrew Williams; Carole Yauk; Ulla Vogel; Steffen Loft; Håkan Wallin

2009-01-01

382

Estimates of Carrington-class solar particle event radiation exposures on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation exposure estimates for crew members on the surface of Mars are made for solar particle event proton radiation environments comparable to the Carrington event of 1859. We assume that the proton energy distributions for these Carrington-type events are similar to those measured for other, more recent large events. The fluence levels of these hypothetical events are normalized to the value for the Carrington event, as reported from measurements in ice core data. In this work, we use the BRYNTRN radiation transport code, originally developed at NASA Langley Research Center, and the Computerized Anatomical Male and Female human geometry models to estimate exposures for aluminum shield areal densities similar to those provided by a spacesuit, a surface lander, and a permanent habitat located at various altitudes in the Mars atmosphere. Comparisons of the predicted organ exposures with current NASA Permissible Exposure Limits are made.

Townsend, L. W.; Pourarsalan, M.; Hall, M. I.; Anderson, J. A.; Bhatt, S.; Delauder, N.; Adamczyk, A. M.

2011-09-01

383

Validation of modelling the radiation exposure due to solar particle events at aircraft altitudes.  

PubMed

Dose assessment procedures for cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew have been introduced in most European countries in accordance with the corresponding European directive and national regulations. However, the radiation exposure due to solar particle events is still a matter of scientific research. Here we describe the European research project CONRAD, WP6, Subgroup-B, about the current status of available solar storm measurements and existing models for dose estimation at flight altitudes during solar particle events leading to ground level enhancement (GLE). Three models for the numerical dose estimation during GLEs are discussed. Some of the models agree with limited experimental data reasonably well. Analysis of GLEs during geomagnetically disturbed conditions is still complex and time consuming. Currently available solar particle event models can disagree with each other by an order of magnitude. Further research and verification by on-board measurements is still needed. PMID:18838437

Beck, P; Bartlett, D T; Bilski, P; Dyer, C; Flückiger, E; Fuller, N; Lantos, P; Reitz, G; Rühm, W; Spurny, F; Taylor, G; Trompier, F; Wissmann, F

2008-01-01

384

Simulated restaurant cook exposure to emissions of PAHs, mutagenic aldehydes, and particles from frying bacon.  

PubMed

This study investigated the exposure of cooks to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), higher mutagenic aldehydes, total particles, and ultrafine particles during cooking. Experiments were performed by pan frying fresh and smoked bacon on both electric and gas stoves, and with the gas alone. Detailed analyses of PAHs were performed, with analyses of the levels of 32 different PAHs. A TSI-3939 scanning mobility particle sizer system was used to measure the ultrafine particles. The results showed that total PAHs were in the range of 270-300 ng/m(3) air. However, the smoked bacon experiment showed a somewhat different PAH pattern, whereby retene constituted about 10% of the total PAHs, which is a level similar to that of the abundant gas phase constituent phenanthrene. The reason for the elevated retene emissions is unknown. The total cancer risk, expressed as toxic equivalency factors, showed a somewhat higher risk on the electric stove (p < 0.05) compared with the gas stove. Levels of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal were between 34 and 54 ?g/m(3) air. The level of total particles was between 2.2 and 4.2 mg/m(3). Frying on a gas stove caused a statistically significant higher amount of ultrafine particles compared with frying on an electric stove. Large variations in the mobility diameter at peak particle concentration were found (74.4 nm-153.5 nm). The highest mobility diameter was found for frying on an electric stove. The gas flame itself showed a maximum production of 19.5-nm-sized particles and could not be the explanation for the difference between frying on the gas stove and frying on the electric stove. No single indicator for the exposure to cooking fume could be selected. Each compound should be measured independently to provide a comprehensive characterization of the cooking exposure. PMID:23343415

Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Strandberg, Bo; Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Johansen, Arve; Svendsen, Kristin

2013-01-01

385

Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ? To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ? ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ? PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ? The findings suggest that ELF has a protective role against PM. ? The synthetic ELF system could reduce the use of animals in PM-driven ROS testing.

Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-02-01

386

MURINE PULMONARY MACROPHAGE EXPRESSION AND PRODUCTION OF TNFA AND MIP-2 AFTER EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP) AND EXTRACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEP constitute an important fraction of particulate air pollution and have been shown to cause inflammation of the airways. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory cytokine response of alveolar macrophages exposed to DEP and DEP-extracts. A murine alveolar macr...

387

Pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles induce airway inflammation and cytokine expression in NC\\/Nga mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

All values are in pg\\/total BAL supernatants. Results are mean ± SEM n number of animals BAL fluid from mice were obtained 24 hours after the last administration of vehicle or DEP. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1a levels in the BAL supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays *P<0.05 versus vehicle group,**P<0.01 versus vehicle

Ken-ichiro Inoue; Hirohisa Takano; Rie Yanagisawa; Takamichi Ichinose; Akinori Shimada; Toshikazu Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

388

Indoor exposure to radiation in the case of an outdoorrelease  

SciTech Connect

This report quantifies the effectiveness of ''sheltering in place'' in a commercial building in the event of an outdoor radiological release. The indoor exposure to airborne particles is calculated by solving the mass balance equation that accounts for the loss of particles due to deposition, filtration and exhaust. Quantitative estimates of shelter-inplace effectiveness are provided for typical commercial buildings.

Price, Phillip N.; Jayaraman, Buvana

2006-06-01

389

Cognitive differences between male and female rats following exposure to 56Fe particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On exploratory class missions astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation (HZE particles) that are not experienced in low earth orbit. While it is likely that the crew will consist of both male and female astronauts, there has been little research on the effects of exposure to HZE particles on cognitive performance in female subjects. While previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance in male rats it remains to be established whether or not similar effects will occur with female subjects because estrogen may act as a neuroprotectant. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were obtained from Taconic Farms. Thirty mm segments of silastic tubing containing either 180 pg l7-estradiol/mL in sesame oil or vehicle alone were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Three days following surgery the rats were exposed to 56Fe particles (1000 MeV/n, 0-200 cGy) at the NSRL. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. The results indicated that the pattern of decrements in cognitive performance differed between male and female rats. In addition, for female rats, there were differences in performance as a function of the presence or absence of estradiol. In the vehicle implanted subjects exposure to 56Fe particles did not affect operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio schedule; whereas irradiation did disrupt responding in OVX animals given estradiol. These results suggest that estrogen may not be protective following exposure to HZE particles. This research was supported by Grant NNX08AM66G from NASA.

Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Luskin, Katharine; Long, Lauren; Joseph, James

390

P3G-2 Effect of Ultrasound Exposure in Standing Wave Sound Field on Isoelectric Point of Nanometer Sized Diamond Particles for Abrasive Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported the improvement of dispersion on nanometer sized diamond particles to obtain abrasive agents for precision polishing by ultrasound exposure. The diamond particles aggregated to the particles with size of a few microns. Zeta potential on the diamond particles was increased to absolute value of 35 mV by ultrasound exposure. Furthermore, average particle size of the particles was decreased

Takeyoshi UCHIDA; Tsuneo KIKUCHI; Norimichi KAWASHIMA; Shinichi TAKEUCHI

2007-01-01

391

IN VIVO EVIDENCE OF FREE RADICAL FORMATION IN THE RAT LUNG AFTER EXPOSURE TO AN EMISSION SOURCE AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to air pollution particles can be associated with increased human morbidity and mortality. The mechanism(s) of lung injury remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that lung exposure to oil fly ash (an emission source air pollution particle) causes in vivo free radical ...

392

Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

... from a site? Reference Section 1. What is environmental exposure? Environmental exposure occurs when you contact a ... of Page 4. Will I get sick from environmental exposure? Being exposed does not mean you will ...

393

A novel system to generate WTC dust particles for inhalation exposures.  

PubMed

First responders (FRs) present at Ground Zero within the critical first 72?h after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse have progressively exhibited significant respiratory injury. The majority (>96%) of WTC dusts were >10??m and no studies have examined potential health effects of this size fraction. This study sought to develop a system to generate and deliver supercoarse (10-53??m) WTC particles to a rat model in a manner that mimicked FR exposure scenarios. A modified Fishing Line generator was integrated onto an intratracheal inhalation (ITIH) system that allowed for a bypassing of the nasal passages so as to mimic FR exposures. Dust concentrations were measured gravimetrically; particle size distribution was measured via elutriation. Results indicate that the system could produce dusts with 23??m mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) at levels up to ?1200?mg/m(3). To validate system utility, F344 rats were exposed for 2?h to ?100?mg WTC dust/m(3). Exposed rats had significantly increased lung weight and levels of select tracer metals 1?h after exposure. Using this system, it is now possible to conduct relevant inhalation exposures to determine adverse WTC dusts impacts on the respiratory system. Furthermore, this novel integrated Fishing Line-ITIH system could potentially be used in the analyses of a wide spectrum of other dusts/pollutants of sizes previously untested or delivered to the lungs in ways that did not reflect realistic exposure scenarios. PMID:24220216

Vaughan, Joshua M; Garrett, Brittany J; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Soukup, Joleen M; Zelikoff, Judith T; Ghio, Andrew; Peltier, Richard E; Asgharian, Bahman; Chen, Lung-Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D

2014-01-01

394

A Novel System to Generate WTC Dust Particles for Inhalation Exposures  

PubMed Central

First Responders (FR) present at Ground Zero within the first 72-hr after the WTC (World Trade Center) collapse have progressively exhibited significant respiratory injury. The majority (>96%) of WTC dusts were >10 ?m and no studies have examined potential health effects of this size fraction. This study sought to develop a system to generate and deliver supercoarse (10–53 ?m) WTC particles to a rat model in a manner that mimicked FR exposure scenarios. A modified Fishing Line generator was integrated onto an intratracheal inhalation (ITIH) system that allowed for a bypassing of the nasal passages so as to mimic FR exposures. Dust concentrations were measured gravimetrically; particle size distribution was measured via elutriation. Results indicate that the system could produce dusts with 23 ?m MMAD at levels up to ? 1200 mg/m3. To validate system utility, F344 rats were exposed for 2-hr to ?100 mg WTC dust/m3. Exposed rats had significantly increased lung weight and levels of select tracer metals 1-hr post-exposure. Using this system, it is now possible to conduct relevant inhalation exposures to determine adverse WTC dusts impacts on the respiratory system. Furthermore, this novel integrated Fishing Line-ITIH system could potentially be used in the analyses of a wide spectrum of other dusts/pollutants of sizes previously untested or delivered to the lungs in ways that did not reflect realistic exposure scenarios. PMID:24220216

Vaughan, Joshua M.; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Soukup, Joleen M.; Zelikoff, Judith; Ghio, Andrew; Peltier, Richard E.; Asgharian, Bahman; Chen, Lung-Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D.

2014-01-01

395

Improving estimation of indoor exposure to inhalable particles for children in the first year of life.  

PubMed

There is growing scientific evidence linking early childhood exposure to environmental agents with asthma and other illnesses that may not appear until later in life. Unfortunately the direct measurement of personal exposures of children in the first year of life is not possible by existing methodologies. This study developed and evaluated a new methodology to better assess exposure of children to inhalable particles in the first year of life while involved in floor play in the home. We constructed the Pre-Toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler. Two series of measurements of inhalable particles were carried out. One collected filter samples of airborne inhalable particles and a second used a real-time total particle mass concentration monitor. Samples were collected for seven residential locations. Duplicate samples were collected with PIPER 20 cm above the floor and from an identical stationary monitor positioned at a height of 110 cm. The mean observed airborne inhalable particle concentrations measured by PIPER was 98.6 microg/ m3, whereas simultaneously collected stationary samples mean concentration was 49.8 microg/m3. The average observed ratio of PIPER samples to stationary samples was 2.4. A paired t test comparison of the two sampling methods indicated a statistically significant higher level of inhalable particle concentration measured by PIPER in comparison with the fixed sampler (P < 0.0001). Peak concentrations as measured by a real-time monitor were in excess of 3600 microg/m3. The results suggest that children playing on the floor are exposed to a higher concentration of total inhalable particles than previous methodologies estimate. PMID:17824283

Shalat, Stuart L; Lioy, Paul J; Schmeelck, Kathleen; Mainelis, Gediminas

2007-08-01

396

Diesel particle-induced transcriptional expression of P21 involves activation of EGFR, SRC, and STAT3  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse health outcomes such as inflammation, adjuvancy, and mutagenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which DEP inhalation exerts these effects are still largely unknown. We previously reported that expo...

397

Rat lung inflammatory responses after in vivo and in vitro exposure to various stone particles.  

PubMed

Rat lung alveolar macrophages and type 2 cells were exposed for 20 h in vitro to various stone particles with differing contents of metals and minerals (a type of mylonite, gabbro, feldspar, and quartz). The capability to induce the release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) was investigated. We found marked differences in potency between the various particles, with mylonite being most potent overall, followed by gabbro, and with feldspar and quartz having an approximately similar order of lower potency. The results also demonstrated differences in cytokine release pattern between the two cell types. For all particle types including quartz, type 2 cells showed the most marked increase in MIP-2 and IL-6 secretion, whereas the largest increase in TNF-alpha release was observed in macrophages. To investigate possible correlations between in vitro and in vivo inflammatory responses, rats were instilled with the same types of particles and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected after 20 h. The results demonstrated a correlation between the in vitro cytokine responses and the number of neutrophilic cells in the BAL fluid. The BAL fluid also showed a strong MIP-2 response to mylonite. However, this was the only particle type to give a significant cytokine response in the BAL fluid. We further examined whether a similar graded inflammatory response would be continued in type 2 cells and alveolar macrophages isolated from the exposed animals. Again a differential cytokine release pattern was observed between type 2 cells and macrophages, although the order of potency between particle types was altered. In conclusion, various stone particles caused differential inflammatory responses after both in vitro and in vivo exposure, with mylonite being the most potent stone particle. The results suggest the alveolar type 2 cell to be an important participant in the inflammatory response following exposure to particles. PMID:11498806

Becher, R; Hetland, R B; Refsnes, M; Dahl, J E; Dahlman, H J; Schwarze, P E

2001-09-01

398

Effects of Exposure to Heavy Particles on a Behavior Mediated by the Dopaminergic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of exposure to heavy particles on behaviors mediated by the central nervous system (CNS) are qualitatively different than the effects produced by exposure to other types of radiation. One behavior mediated by the CNS is the amphetamine-induced taste aversion, which is produced by pairing a novel tasting solution with injection of amphetamine. When the conditioning day is three days following irradiation, exposing rats to low doses of 56Fe particles (600 MeV/n or 1 GeV/n) eliminates the taste aversion produced by injection of amphetamine, which is dependent upon the integrity of the central dopaminergic system, but has no effect on the aversion produced by injection of lithium chloride which is mediated by the gastrointestinal system. In contrast to the effects obtained using heavy particles, exposing rats to 60Co gamma rays or to fission spectrum neutrons has no selective effect upon the acquisition of either amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced taste aversions. When the conditioning day occurs four months following exposure to 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles, there is an enhancement of the amphetamine-induced taste aversion. The implications of these findings for approaches to risk assessment are considered

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; McEwen, J.

399

Characterization of diesel exhaust in a chronic inhalation study.  

PubMed

We describe characterization of the exposure atmosphere in a life-span study of rats and mice exposed to chronic inhalation of diluted diesel exhaust. Diesel exhaust was generated by one of two General Motors 1980 Model, 5.7-liter V8 diesel engines connected to an eddy current dynamometer/flywheel system and operated on the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle. Animals were exposed 7 hours/day, 5 days/week to exhaust at particle concentrations of approximately 7000, 3500, and 350 micrograms/m3 or to clean air. Throughout the 24-month study, the mean particle mass concentration remained within 5% of the target values. Measured gas concentrations of CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and hydrocarbons were roughly proportional to the dilution ratio. A combination of a Lovelace Multijet cascade impactor followed by a parallel flow diffusion battery gave mass median diameters of 0.23 to 0.26 microns averaged over complete cycles and geometric standard deviations larger than 4. The aerosol concentration profile was associated with the operating cycle. The measured diesel particle size was similar to previously reported values of particles released to the atmosphere from the same model engine. PMID:6206709

Cheng, Y S; Yeh, H C; Mauderly, J L; Mokler, B V

1984-08-01

400

Characterization of diesel exhaust in a chronic inhalation study  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe characterization of the exposure atmosphere in a life-span study of rats and mice exposed to chronic inhalation of diluted diesel exhaust. Diesel exhaust was generated by one of two General Motors 1980 Model, 5.7-liter V8 diesel engines connected to an eddy current dynamometer/flywheel system and operated on the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle. Animals were exposed 7 hours/day, 5 days/week to exhaust at particle concentrations of approximately 7000, 3500, and 350 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ or to clean air. Throughout the 24-month study, the mean particle mass concentration remained within 5% of the target values. Measured gas concentrations of CO, CO/sub 2/, NO, NO/sub 2/, and hydrocarbons were roughly proportional to the dilution ratio. A combination of a Lovelace Multijet cascade impactor followed by a parallel flow diffusion battery gave mass median diameters of 0.23 to 0.26 ..mu..m averaged over complete cycles and geometric standard deviations larger than 4. The aerosol concentration profile was associated with the operating cycle. The measured diesel particle size was similar to previously reported values of particles released to the atmosphere from the same model engine. 30 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

Cheng, Y.S.; Yeh, H.C.; Mauderly, J.L.; Mokler, B.V.

1984-08-01