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1

Effect of exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the susceptibility of the lung to infection.  

PubMed Central

There are at least three mechanisms by which alveolar macrophages play a critical role in protecting the lung from bacterial or viral infections: production of inflammatory cytokines that recruit and activate lung phagocytes, production of antimicrobial reactive oxidant species, and production of interferon (an antiviral agent). In this article we summarize data concerning the effect of exposure to diesel exhaust particles on these alveolar macrophage functions and the role of adsorbed organic chemicals compared to the carbonaceous core in the toxicity of diesel particles. In vitro exposure of rat alveolar macrophages to diesel exhaust particles decreased the ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial product] to stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Methanol extract exhibited this potential but methanol-washed diesel particles did not. Exposure of rats to diesel exhaust particles by intratracheal instillation also decreased LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1 production from alveolar macrophages. In contrast, carbon black did not exhibit this inhibitory effect. Exposure of rats to diesel exhaust particles by inhalation decreased the ability of alveolar macrophages to produce antimicrobial reactive oxidant species in response to zymosan (a fungal component). In contrast, exposure to coal dust increased zymosan-stimulated oxidant production. In vivo exposure to diesel exhaust particles but not to carbon black decreased the ability of the lungs to clear bacteria. Inhalation exposure of mice to diesel exhaust particles but not to coal dust depressed the ability of the lung to produce the antiviral agent interferon and increased viral multiplication in the lung. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to diesel exhaust particles increases the susceptibility of the lung to infection by depressing the antimicrobial potential of alveolar macrophages. This inhibitory effect appears to be due to adsorbed organic chemicals rather than the carbonaceous core of the diesel particles.

Castranova, V; Ma, J Y; Yang, H M; Antonini, J M; Butterworth, L; Barger, M W; Roberts, J; Ma, J K

2001-01-01

2

Exposure to Particles, Elemental Carbon and Nitrogen Dioxide in Workers Exposed to Motor Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the personal exposure to diesel and petrol exhaust fumes in occupations when exposure is prevalent and\\/or high. We also investi- gated the correlation between the five particle fractions (particles with an aerodynamic diam- eter <1 mm (PM1), particles with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 mm (PM2.5), particles in size 0.1-10 mm,

MARIE LEWNE ´; NILS PLATO; PER GUSTAVSSON

2007-01-01

3

Diesel and biodiesel exhaust particle effects on rat alveolar macrophages with in vitro exposure.  

PubMed

Combustion emissions from diesel engines emit particulate matter which deposits within the lungs. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) encounter the particles and attempt to engulf the particles. Emissions particles from diesel combustion engines have been found to contain diverse biologically active components including metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons which cause adverse health effects. However little is known about AM response to particles from the incorporation of biodiesel. The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity in Wistar Kyoto rat AM of biodiesel blend (B20) and low sulfur petroleum diesel (PDEP) exhaust particles. Particles were independently suspended in media at a range of 1-500?gmL(-1). Results indicated B20 and PDEP initiated a dose dependent increase of inflammatory signals from AM after exposure. After 24h exposure to B20 and PDEP gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) increased. B20 exposure resulted in elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release at lower particle concentrations compared to PDEP. B20 and PDEP demonstrated similar affinity for sequestration of PGE2 at high concentrations, suggesting detection is not impaired. Our data suggests PGE2 release from AM is dependent on the chemical composition of the particles. Particle analysis including measurements of metals and ions indicate B20 contains more of select metals than PDEP. Other particle components generally reduced by 20% with 20% incorporation of biodiesel into original diesel. This study shows AM exposure to B20 results in increased production of PGE2in vitro relative to diesel. PMID:24268344

Bhavaraju, Laya; Shannahan, Jonathan; William, Aaron; McCormick, Robert; McGee, John; Kodavanti, Urmila; Madden, Michael

2014-06-01

4

Allergic susceptibility associated with diesel exhaust particle exposure: clear as mud.  

PubMed

Exposure to elevated levels of particulate air pollution from motor vehicles is frequently associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular conditions, lung cancer, and nonmalignant respiratory illnesses (e.g., asthma, bronchitis, respiratory tract infections). It appears, however, that less attention has been paid to the potential role of road traffic fumes in the induction of allergic conditions. Laboratory studies in humans and animals have shown that particulate toxic pollutants-particularly diesel exhaust particulates-can enhance allergic inflammation and can induce allergic immune responses. Most of these immune responses are mediated by the carbon core of diesel exhaust particulates. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene) are major chemical components of diesel exhaust particulates, and they have enhanced the production of immunoglobulin E. Although several large epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between exposure to motor vehicle traffic emissions and allergic symptoms and reduced lung function, the evidence for the development of allergic sensitization from diesel exhaust particulates is less abundant than for the aforementioned associations. Recent comparisons of the prevalence of hay fever, as well as positive skin-prick tests, between citizens of former West and East Germany and between Hong Kong and China civilians, have demonstrated marked differences. Crucial variations in the level of particulate air pollution from motor vehicles in these countries may account for the observed increased prevalence of atopy. Although road-traffic pollution from automobile exhausts may be a risk factor for atopic sensitization, the evidence in support of this view remains conflictive. Some investigators have reported a clear association between the prevalence of allergy and road-traffic-related air pollution, whereas such a difference was not observed in other studies. Most discrepancies have been related to important variations in study design and methodology. In addition, inasmuch as exposure to ambient particles differs substantially in worldwide urban environments, perhaps qualitative-rather than quantitative-variations in particulate air pollution at different locations account for differences in the prevalence and/or severity of respiratory allergies. PMID:12507171

Polosa, Riccardo; Salvi, Sundeep; Di Maria, Giuseppe U

2002-01-01

5

Proteomic Analysis of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Effect of Acute Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) is characterized by lung injury and inflammation, with significant increases in the numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and alveolar macrophages. This influx of cellular infiltrates is associated with the activation of multiple genes, including cytokines and chemokines, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Objective The pathogenesis of the lung injury is not fully understood, but alterations in the presence or abundance of a number of proteins in the lung have been observed. Our objective in this study was to further characterize these changes and to ask whether additional changes could be discerned using modern proteomic techniques. Methods The present study investigates global alterations in the proteome of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid taken from rats 1, 7, or 30 days after exposure to 5, 35, or 50 mg/kg of animal weight of DEPs. Results Analysis by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry identified two distinct peaks that appeared as an acute response postexposure at all doses in all animals. We identified these two peaks, with mass to charge ratios (m/z) of 9,100 and 10,100, as anaphylatoxin C3a and calgranulin A by additional mass spectral investigation using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Conclusions With this approach, we found a number of inflammatory response proteins that may be associated with the early phases of inflammation in response to DEP exposure. Further studies are warranted to determine whether serum levels of these proteins could be markers of diesel exhaust exposure in workers.

Lewis, John A.; Rao, K. Murali Krishna; Castranova, Vince; Vallyathan, Val; Dennis, William E.; Knechtges, Paul L.

2007-01-01

6

Reduction of exposure to ultrafine particles by kitchen exhaust hoods: the effects of exhaust flow rates, particle size, and burner position.  

PubMed

Cooking stoves, both gas and electric, are one of the strongest and most common sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes. UFP have been shown to be associated with adverse health effects such as DNA damage and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. This study investigates the effectiveness of kitchen exhaust hoods in reducing indoor levels of UFP emitted from a gas stove and oven. Measurements in an unoccupied manufactured house monitored size-resolved UFP (2 nm to 100 nm) concentrations from the gas stove and oven while varying range hood flow rate and burner position. The air change rate in the building was measured continuously based on the decay of a tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride, SF(6)). The results show that range hood flow rate and burner position (front vs. rear) can have strong effects on the reduction of indoor levels of UFP released from the stove and oven, subsequently reducing occupant exposure to UFP. Higher range hood flow rates are generally more effective for UFP reduction, though the reduction varies with particle diameter. The influence of the range hood exhaust is larger for the back burner than for the front burner. The number-weighted particle reductions for range hood flow rates varying between 100 m(3)/h and 680 m(3)/h range from 31% to 94% for the front burner, from 54% to 98% for the back burner, and from 39% to 96% for the oven. PMID:22750181

Rim, Donghyun; Wallace, Lance; Nabinger, Steven; Persily, Andrew

2012-08-15

7

Protective Effect of Curcumin on Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Effects Induced by Repeated Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that single dose exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP) causes lung inflammation and peripheral thrombotic events. Here, we exposed mice with repeated doses of DEP (15µg\\/animal) every 2nd day for 6 days (a total of 4

Abderrahim Nemmar; Deepa Subramaniyan; Badreldin H. Ali

2012-01-01

8

Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

9

Time Course of Gene Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Rat Lung after Diesel Exhaust Particle Exposure  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) at three concentrations (5, 35, and 50 mg/kg body weight) were instilled into rats intratracheally. We studied gene expression at 1, 7, and 30 days postexposure in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in lung tissue. Using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we measured the mRNA levels of eight genes [interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10, iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), MIP-2 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2), TGF-?1 (transforming growth factor-?1), and TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor-?)] in BAL cells and four genes [IL-6, ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor), and RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted)] in lung tissue. In BAL cells on day 1, high-dose exposure induced a significant up-regulation of IL-1?, iNOS, MCP-1, and MIP-2 but no change in IL-6, IL-10, TGF-?1, and TNF-? mRNA levels. There was no change in the mRNA levels of IL-6, RANTES, ICAM-1, and GM-CSF in lung tissue. Nitric oxide production and levels of MCP-1 and MIP-2 were increased in the 24-hr culture media of alveolar macrophages (AMs) obtained on day 1. IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-2 levels were also elevated in the BAL fluid. BAL fluid also showed increases in albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. The cellular content in BAL fluid increased at all doses and at all time periods, mainly due to an increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro studies in AMs and cultured lung fibroblasts showed that lung fibroblasts are a significant source of IL-6 and MCP-1 in the lung.

Rao, K. Murali Krishna; Ma, Jane Y. C.; Meighan, Terence; Barger, Mark W.; Pack, Donna; Vallyathan, Val

2005-01-01

10

Allergic Susceptibility Associated with Diesel Exhaust Particle Exposure: Clear as Mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to elevated levels of particulate air pollution from motor vehicles is frequently associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular conditions, lung cancer, and nonmalignant respiratory illnesses (e.g., asthma, bronchitis, respiratory tract infections). It appears, however, that less attention has been paid to the potential role of road traffic fumes in the induction of allergic conditions. Laboratory studies in

Riccardo Polosa; Sundeep Salvi; Giuseppe U. di Maria

2002-01-01

11

Anacardic acids from cashew nuts ameliorate lung damage induced by exposure to diesel exhaust particles in mice.  

PubMed

Anacardic acids from cashew nut shell liquid, a Brazilian natural substance, have antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and modulate immune responses and angiogenesis. As inflammatory lung diseases have been correlated to environmental pollutants exposure and no reports addressing the effects of dietary supplementation with anacardic acids on lung inflammation in vivo have been evidenced, we investigated the effects of supplementation with anacardic acids in a model of diesel exhaust particle- (DEP-) induced lung inflammation. BALB/c mice received an intranasal instillation of 50? ? g of DEP for 20 days. Ten days prior to DEP instillation, animals were pretreated orally with 50, 150, or 250?mg/kg of anacardic acids or vehicle (100? ? L of cashew nut oil) for 30 days. The biomarkers of inflammatory and antioxidant responses in the alveolar parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and pulmonary vessels were investigated. All doses of anacardic acids ameliorated antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased vascular adhesion molecule in vessels. Animals that received 50?mg/kg of anacardic acids showed decreased levels of neutrophils and tumor necrosis factor in the lungs and BALF, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that AAs supplementation has a potential protective role on oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs. PMID:23533495

Carvalho, Ana Laura Nicoletti; Annoni, Raquel; Torres, Larissa Helena Lobo; Durão, Ana Carolina Cardoso Santos; Shimada, Ana Lucia Borges; Almeida, Francine Maria; Hebeda, Cristina Bichels; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino Santos; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Martins, Milton Arruda; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W; Marcourakis, Tania; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Mauad, Thais

2013-01-01

12

Anacardic Acids from Cashew Nuts Ameliorate Lung Damage Induced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice  

PubMed Central

Anacardic acids from cashew nut shell liquid, a Brazilian natural substance, have antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and modulate immune responses and angiogenesis. As inflammatory lung diseases have been correlated to environmental pollutants exposure and no reports addressing the effects of dietary supplementation with anacardic acids on lung inflammation in vivo have been evidenced, we investigated the effects of supplementation with anacardic acids in a model of diesel exhaust particle- (DEP-) induced lung inflammation. BALB/c mice received an intranasal instillation of 50??g of DEP for 20 days. Ten days prior to DEP instillation, animals were pretreated orally with 50, 150, or 250?mg/kg of anacardic acids or vehicle (100??L of cashew nut oil) for 30 days. The biomarkers of inflammatory and antioxidant responses in the alveolar parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and pulmonary vessels were investigated. All doses of anacardic acids ameliorated antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased vascular adhesion molecule in vessels. Animals that received 50?mg/kg of anacardic acids showed decreased levels of neutrophils and tumor necrosis factor in the lungs and BALF, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that AAs supplementation has a potential protective role on oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs.

Carvalho, Ana Laura Nicoletti; Annoni, Raquel; Torres, Larissa Helena Lobo; Durao, Ana Carolina Cardoso Santos; Shimada, Ana Lucia Borges; Almeida, Francine Maria; Hebeda, Cristina Bichels; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino Santos; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Martins, Milton Arruda; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Owen, Robert W.; Marcourakis, Tania; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Mauad, Thais

2013-01-01

13

Diesel Exhaust Exposure, Wheezing and Sneezing  

PubMed Central

The rising incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries is unexplained. Exposure to traffic related air pollutants may be an important cause of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Experimental evidence from human studies suggests that diesel exhaust particles, constituents of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), may act to enhance IgE mediated aeroallergen sensitization and Th2 directed cytokine responses. To date, epidemiologic investigations indicate that children living in close proximity to heavily travelled roads are more likely to be atopic and wheeze. The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort study was initiated to test the hypothesis that early high exposure to traffic related air pollutants is associated with early aeroallergen sensitization and allergic respiratory phenotypes. Using an exposure cohort design, more than 700 infants born to atopic parents were recruited at age 1 living either less than 400 meters (high traffic pollutant exposure) or greater than 1,500 meters (low exposure) from a major road. Children were medically evaluated and underwent skin prick testing with aeroallergen at screening, and re-evaluated sequentially at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. In this study, both proximity and land use regression (LUR) models of traffic air pollutant exposure have been assessed. Proximity to stop and go traffic with large concentrations of bus and truck traffic predicted persistent wheezing during infancy. The LUR model estimated elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT) as a proxy for diesel exhaust particulate exposure. High ECAT was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 as well as persistent wheezing at age 3. High mold exposure predicted a well defined asthma phenotype at age 7.

2012-01-01

14

Disruption of the integrity and function of brain microvascular endothelial cells in culture by exposure to diesel engine exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a by-product of diesel engine exhaust (DEE), are known to produce pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects, thereby leading to oxidative stress-induced damage. Given the key role of DEPs in inducing oxidative stress, we investigated the role of DEPs in disrupting the integrity and function of immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVEC). To study this, HBMVEC cells were exposed to media containing three different concentrations of DEPs or plain media for 24h. Those exposed to DEPs showed significantly higher oxidative stress than the untreated group, as indicated by the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. DEPs also induced oxidative stress-related disruption of the HBMVEC cells monolayer, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance. Taken together, these data suggest that DEPs induce cell death and disrupt the function and integrity of HBMVEC cells, indicating a potential role of DEPs in neurotoxicities. PMID:23542817

Tobwala, Shakila; Zhang, Xinsheng; Zheng, Youyou; Wang, Hsiu-Jen; Banks, William A; Ercal, Nuran

2013-06-20

15

Detailed diesel exhaust characteristics including particle surface area and lung deposited dose for better understanding of health effects in human chamber exposure studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several diesel exhaust (DE) characteristics, comprising both particle and gas phase, recognized as important when linking with health effects, are not reported in human chamber exposure studies. In order to understand effects of DE on humans there is a need for better characterization of DE when performing exposure studies. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify detailed DE characteristics during human chamber exposure. Additionally to compare to reported DE properties in conducted human exposures. A wide battery of particle and gas phase measurement techniques have been used to provide detailed DE characteristics including the DE particles (DEP) surface area, fraction and dose deposited in the lungs, chemical composition of both particle and gas phase such as NO, NO2, CO, CO2, volatile organic compounds (including aldehydes, benzene, toluene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eyes, nose and throat irritation effects were determined. Exposure conditions with PM1 (<1 ?m) mass concentration 280 ?g m?3, number concentration 4 × 105 cm?3 and elemental to total carbon fraction of 82% were generated from a diesel vehicle at idling. When estimating the lung deposited dose it was found that using the size dependent effective density (in contrast to assuming unity density) reduced the estimated respiratory dose by 132% by mass. Accounting for agglomerated structure of DEP prevented underestimation of lung deposited dose by surface area by 37% in comparison to assuming spherical particles. Comparison of DE characteristics reported in conducted chamber exposures showed that DE properties vary to a great extent under the same DEP mass concentration and engine load. This highlights the need for detailed and standardized approach for measuring and reporting of DE properties. Eyes irritation effects, most probably caused by aldehydes in the gas phase, as well as nose irritation were observed at exposure levels below current occupational exposure limit values given for exhaust fumes. Reporting detailed DE characteristics that include DEP properties (such as mass and number concentration, size resolved information, surface area, chemical composition, lung deposited dose by number, mass and surface) and detailed gas phase including components known for their carcinogenic and irritation effect (e.g. aldehydes, benzene, PAHs) can help in determination of key parameters responsible for observed health effects and comparison of chamber exposure studies.

Wierzbicka, Aneta; Nilsson, Patrik T.; Rissler, Jenny; Sallsten, Gerd; Xu, Yiyi; Pagels, Joakim H.; Albin, Maria; Österberg, Kai; Strandberg, Bo; Eriksson, Axel; Bohgard, Mats; Bergemalm-Rynell, Kerstin; Gudmundsson, Anders

2014-04-01

16

Markers of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust and Cigarette Smoke in Railroad Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of combustion gases, vapors and particles, and personal exposure can be estimated indirectly only. Quantitative estimates of exposure were developed for thirteen job groups in a large epidemiologic study of mortality among railroad workers. Three possible markers of exhaust exposure were developed. The first index was the concentration of respirable particles because this was

S. KATHARINE HAMMOND; THOMAS J. SMITH; SUSAN R. WOSKIE; BRIAN P. LEADERER; NANCY BETTINGER

1988-01-01

17

Particle exposures and infections.  

PubMed

Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Cigarette smoking, burning of biomass, dust storms, mining, agricultural work, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), wood stoves, traffic-related emissions, gas stoves, and ambient air pollution are all particle-related exposures associated with an increased risk for respiratory infections. In addition, cigarette smoking, burning of biomass, dust storms, mining, and ETS can result in an elevated risk for tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infections, and meningitis. One of the mechanisms for particle-related infections includes an accumulation of iron by surface functional groups of particulate matter (PM). Since elevations in metal availability are common to every particle exposure, all PM potentially contributes to these infections. Therefore, exposures to wood stove emissions, diesel exhaust, and air pollution particles are predicted to increase the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infections, and meningitis, albeit these elevations are likely to be small and detectable only in large population studies. Since iron accumulation correlates with the presence of surface functional groups and dependent metal coordination by the PM, the risk for infection continues as long as the particle is retained. Subsequently, it is expected that the cessation of exposure will diminish, but not totally reverse, the elevated risk for infection. PMID:24488331

Ghio, A J

2014-06-01

18

Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

19

Prenatal and early-life exposure to high-level diesel exhaust particles leads to increased locomotor activity and repetitive behaviors in mice.  

PubMed

Abundant evidence indicates that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, limited knowledge is available concerning these contributing factors. An epidemiology study reported a link between increased incidence of autism and living closely to major highways, suggesting a possible role for pollutants from highway traffic. We investigated whether maternal exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) negatively affects fetal development leading to autism-like phenotype in mice. Female mice and their offspring were exposed to DEP during pregnancy and nursing. Adult male offspring were then tested for behaviors reflecting the typical symptoms of ASD patients. Compared to control mice, DEP-exposed offspring exhibited higher locomotor activity, elevated levels of self-grooming in the presence of an unfamiliar mouse, and increased rearing behaviors, which may be relevant to the restricted and repetitive behaviors seen in ASD patients. However, the DEP-exposed mice did not exhibit deficits in social interactions or social communication which are the key features of ASD. These results suggest that early life exposure to DEP could have an impact on mouse development leading to observable changes in animal behaviors. Further studies are needed to reveal other environmental insults and genetic factors that would lead to animal models expressing key phenotypes of the autism spectrum disorders. PMID:23495194

Thirtamara Rajamani, Keerthi; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Bolden, Crystal; Willis, Daniel; Hoffman, Carol; Zelikoff, Judith; Chen, Lung-Chi; Gu, Howard

2013-08-01

20

Real-time and integrated measurement of potential human exposure to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aircraft exhaust.  

PubMed

We used real-time monitors and low-volume air samplers to measure the potential human exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations during various flight-related and ground-support activities of C-130H aircraft at an Air National Guard base. We used three types of photoelectric aerosol sensors (PASs) to measure real-time concentrations of particle-bound PAHs in a break room, downwind from a C-130H aircraft during a four-engine run-up test, in a maintenance hangar, in a C-130H aircraft cargo bay during cargo-drop training, downwind from aerospace ground equipment (AGE), and in a C-130H aircraft cargo bay during engine running on/off (ERO) loading and backup exercises. Two low-volume air samplers were collocated with the real-time monitors for all monitoring events except those in the break room and during in-flight activities. Total PAH concentrations in the integrated-air samples followed a general trend: downwind from two AGE units > ERO-loading exercise > four-engine run-up test > maintenance hangar during taxi and takeoff > background measurements in maintenance hangar. Each PAH profile was dominated by naphthalene, the alkyl-substituted naphthalenes, and other PAHs expected to be in the vapor phase. We also found particle-bound PAHs, such as fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene in some of the sample extracts. During flight-related exercises, total PAH concentrations in the integrated-air samples were 10-25 times higher than those commonly found in ambient air. Real-time monitor mean responses generally followed the integrated-air sample trends. These monitors provided a semiquantitative temporal profile of ambient PAH concentrations and showed that PAH concentrations can fluctuate rapidly from a baseline level < 20 to > 4,000 ng/m(3) during flight-related activities. Small handheld models of the PAS monitors exhibited potential for assessing incidental personal exposure to particle-bound PAHs in engine exhaust and for serving as a real-time dosimeter to indicate when respiratory protection is advisable. PMID:11017890

Childers, J W; Witherspoon, C L; Smith, L B; Pleil, J D

2000-09-01

21

Inflammatory effects on human lung epithelial cells after exposure to diesel exhaust micron sub particles (PM?.?) and pollen allergens.  

PubMed

Asthma is currently defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway. Several evidence indicate that vehicle emissions in cities is correlated with the allergic respiratory diseases. In the present study, we evaluated in the A549 cells the production and release of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 after treatment with sub-micron PM(1.0) particles (PM(1.0)), Parietaria officinalis (ALL), and PM(1.0) + ALL together. Our data demonstrated that PM(1.0) + ALL together exhibited the greatest capacity to induce A549 cells to enhance the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 compared with the only PM(1.0) or ALL treatment. Interestingly, IL-13 that is necessary for allergen-induced airway hyper responsiveness, is increased in cells treated with PM(1.0) + ALL together, but is higher expressed when the cells are treated only with the allergen. Our data support the hypothesis that the urban environment damage the acinar lung units and activates cells of the immune system. PMID:22230069

Mazzarella, G; Esposito, V; Bianco, A; Ferraraccio, F; Prati, M V; Lucariello, A; Manente, L; Mezzogiorno, A; De Luca, A

2012-02-01

22

Exhaust particle removing system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust particle removing system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a filter disposed in an engine exhaust passage for trapping particles suspended in exhaust gas; (b) a burner for burning off the particles deposited on the filter; (c) means for sensing the pressure in the exhaust passage at a point upstream of the filter; (d) means

Shinzawa

1986-01-01

23

Estimation of the diesel exhaust exposures of railroad workers. II. National and historical exposures  

SciTech Connect

The diesel exhaust exposures of railroad workers in thirteen job groups from four railroads in the United States were used to estimate U.S. national average exposures with a linear statistical model which accounts for the significant variability in exposure caused by climate, the differences among railroads and the uneven distribution of railroad workers across climatic regions. Personal measurements of respirable particulate matter, adjusted to remove the contribution of cigarette smoke particles, were used as a marker for diesel exhaust. The estimated national means of adjusted respirable particulate matter (ARP) averaged 10 micrograms/m3 lower than the simple means for each job group, reflecting the climatic differences between the northern railroads studied and the distribution of railroad workers nationally. Limited historical records, including some industrial hygiene data, were used to evaluate past diesel exhaust exposures, which were estimated to be approximately constant from the 1950's to 1983.

Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J.; Hammond, S.K.; Schenker, M.B.; Garshick, E.; Speizer, F.E.

1988-01-01

24

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES INDUCE ABERRANT ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL DIRECTED CELL MOVEMENT BY DISRUPTION OF POLARITY MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following inj...

25

Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust aerosol particle and ion measurements.  

PubMed

Heavy duty EURO 4 diesel engine exhaust particle and ion size distributions were measured atthetailpipe using dynamometer testing. Measurements of particle volatility and electrical charge were undertaken to clarify diesel exhaust nucleation mode characteristics with different exhaust after-treatment systems. Nucleation mode particle volatility and charging probability were dependent on exhaust after-treatment particles were volatile and uncharged when the engine was equipped with diesel particulate filter and partly volatile and partly charged in exhaust without any after-treatment or with an oxidation catalyst only. The absence of charged particles in the nucleation mode of diesel particulate filtered exhaust excludes the ion mediated process as a nucleation particle formation mechanism. PMID:19209601

Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Virtanen, Annele; Schuck, Tanja J; Pirjola, Liisa; Hämeri, Kaarle; Kulmala, Markku; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Keskinen, Jorma

2009-01-01

26

Occupational diesel exhaust exposure as a risk factor for COPD  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD, occupational exposures have emerged as an important risk factor, especially in nonsmokers. In this review we assess the state of the literature on the association of COPD with a specific occupational exposure, diesel exhaust. Recent Findings A large body of literature links general occupational exposures to dust and fumes with an increased risk of COPD, particularly in nonsmokers. Few studies, however, have explicitly examined the role of occupational diesel exhaust exposures to COPD risk. Suggestive recent findings link occupational diesel exposures to an increased risk of COPD, Summary The available literature directly examining the effects of occupational diesel exhaust on risk of COPD is quite small, but does suggest that increasing exposures are associated with increasing risk. Additional research, with more advanced exposure metrics is needed to fully elucidate this association.

Hart, Jaime E; Eisen, Ellen A; Laden, Francine

2013-01-01

27

Markers of exposure to diesel exhaust and cigarette smoke in railroad workers  

SciTech Connect

Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of combustion gases, vapors and particles, and personal exposure can be estimated indirectly only. Quantitative estimates of exposure were developed for thirteen job groups in a large epidemiologic study of mortality among railroad workers. Three possible markers of exhaust exposure were developed. The first index was the concentration of respirable particles because this was simple and inexpensive to measure precisely. Major positive interference, however, was found from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and inorganic respirable particles from other emission sources. Composited job group samples were analyzed for particulate nicotine so the ETS component could be subtracted from the respirable particle concentration. This produced a second exposure index, the adjusted respirable particle concentrations. Since there are nondiesel sources of particles in some work areas, a third marker was sought. Diesel exhaust particles have a relatively high content of dichloromethane extractable matter, but inorganic particles have a low extractable content. Therefore, the air concentration of extractable mass was used as a third marker of diesel exposures. The extractable matter also was corrected for the contribution of ETS. The advantages and limitations of these three markers are of interest. In general, considerable caution should be used in the development and application of markers; their use requires detailed knowledge of the nature and sources of exposure in a given setting.

Hammond, S.K.; Smith, T.J.; Woskie, S.R.; Leaderer, B.P.; Bettinger, N.

1988-10-01

28

Route of exposure alters inflammation and lung function responses to diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Mice are commonly used in studies investigating the effects of diesel exhaust exposure on respiratory health. A plethora of studies in this field has resulted in a range of exposure protocols, from inhalation of diesel exhaust, to the administration (via various routes) of diesel exhaust particles in solution. Objective: In this study, we compared the physiological consequences of short-term exposure to diesel exhaust via inhalation to those due to exposure to the same diesel exhaust particles suspended in solution and delivered intranasally. Materials and methods: Adult BALB/c mice were exposed to diesel exhaust via inhalation for 2 hours per day for 8 days. A representative, simultaneous sample of particles was collected and a second group of mice then exposed to them suspended in saline. A low and a high-dose were studied, with these matched based on respiratory parameters. Six and twenty-four hours after the last exposure we measured bronchoalveolar inflammation, lung volume, lung function and the amount of elemental carbon in alveolar macrophages. Results: Exposure via either route elicited pulmonary inflammation and changes in lung function. We identified significant differences in response between the two routes of exposure, with mice exposed via inhalation generally displaying more realistic dose-response relationships. Mice exposed via intranasal instillation responded more variably, with little influence of dose. Conclusions: Our results suggest that selection of the route of exposure is of critical importance in studies such as this. Further, inhalation exposure, while more methodologically difficult, resulted in responses more akin to those seen in humans. PMID:24862975

Larcombe, Alexander N; Phan, Jennifer A; Kicic, Anthony; Perks, Kara L; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Mullins, Benjamin J

2014-06-01

29

BEHAVIORAL ALTERATIONS DUE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Several experiments examining the effects of diesel exhaust on the behavior of rats are reported. Animals were exposed either as adults or neonates. The spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA), measured in standard running wheel cages, of adult rats exposed for 8 h/day, 7 days/week ...

30

NASAL RESPONSES OF ASTHMATIC AND NON-ASTHMATIC VOLUNTEERS TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Asthma rates have been increasing world-wide, and exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may be implicated in this increase. Additionally DEP may also play a role in the increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient airborne PM exposure. Two types of nasal respons...

31

Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust Particle Sampling Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project obj...

A. Kasper D. Zarling D. B. Kittelson H. Burtscher J. J. Schauer J. P. Johnson U. Baltensperger W. F. Watts

2003-01-01

32

Are urinary PAHs biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?  

PubMed

Abstract Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 PAHs from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary PAH levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary PAH levels. We conclude that urinary PAHs are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106-276?µg/m(3). PMID:24754404

Lu, Sixin S; Sobus, Jon R; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M

2014-06-01

33

INHIBITION OF TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY INITIATES RECEPTOR SIGNALING IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to particulate matter is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of PM in urban areas and may contribute to PM toxicity through a mechanism involving pulmonary inflammation. Expression of inf...

34

DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE INCREASES SEVERITY OF AN ONGOING INFLUENZA INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have shown that air pollutants including diesel exhaust (DE) alter host defense responses, resulting in decreased resistance to respiratory infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on the severity of an ongoing influenza in...

35

Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Enhances the Generation of Vascular Microparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: In the study of the health impacts of traffic-related air pollution, diesel exhaust is a pollutant of particular interest, since it is a major source of particulate matter (PM). Epidemiological studies associate exposure to ambient levels of PM with cardiovascular m...

36

Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man  

PubMed Central

Introduction Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. Methods In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 350 ?g/m3) or filtered air for one hour during moderate exercise. Arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry at the radial artery for pulse wave analysis (PWA), as well as at the femoral and carotid arteries for pulse wave velocity (PWV). PWA was performed 10, 20 and 30 min, and carotid-femoral PWV 40 min, post-exposure. Augmentation pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIx) and time to wave reflection (Tr) were calculated. Results Blood pressure, AP and AIx were generally low reflecting compliant arteries. In comparison to filtered air, diesel exhaust exposure induced an increase in AP of 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.02) and in AIx of 7.8% (p = 0.01), along with a 16 ms reduction in Tr (p = 0.03), 10 minutes post-exposure. Conclusion Acute exposure to diesel exhaust is associated with an immediate and transient increase in arterial stiffness. This may, in part, explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with air pollution exposure. If our findings are confirmed in larger cohorts of susceptible populations, this simple non-invasive method of assessing arterial stiffness may become a useful technique in measuring the impact of real world exposures to combustion derived-air pollution.

Lundback, Magnus; Mills, Nicholas L; Lucking, Andrew; Barath, Stefan; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E; Sandstrom, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders

2009-01-01

37

Effects of exposure to vehicle exhaust on health.  

PubMed

Exposure to combustion engine exhaust and its effect on crews of roll-on roll-off ships and car ferries and on bus garage staff were studied. The peak concentrations recorded for some of the substances studied were as follows: total particulates (diesel only) 1.0 mg/m3, benzene (diesel) 0.3 mg/m3, formaldehyde (gasoline and diesel) 0.8 mg/m3, and nitrogen dioxide (diesel) 1.2 mg/m3. The highest observed concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 30 ng/m3 from gasoline and diesel exhaust. In an experimental study volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust diluted with air to achieve a nitrogen dioxide concentration of 3.8 mg/m3. Pulmonary function was affected during a workday of occupational exposure to engine emissions, but it normalized after a few days with no exposure. The impairment of pulmonary function was judged to have no appreciable, adverse, short-term impact on individual work capacity. In the experimental exposure study, no effect on pulmonary function was observed. Analyses of urinary mutagenicity and thioether excretion showed no sign of exposure to genotoxic compounds among the occupationally exposed workers or among the subjects in the experimental study. PMID:2448871

Ulfvarson, U; Alexandersson, R; Aringer, L; Svensson, E; Hedenstierna, G; Hogstedt, C; Holmberg, B; Rosén, G; Sorsa, M

1987-12-01

38

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE-INDUCED EPITHELIAL TOXICITY IS MODULATED BY UV-IRRADIATION -- NCSU  

EPA Science Inventory

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways affecting nearly 20 million individuals in the U.S alone. Asthmatic symptoms can be exacerbated by environmental insults like exposure to particulate matter (PM). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) account for a portion of PM...

39

Health effects of subchronic inhalation exposure to gasoline engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Gasoline engine emissions are a ubiquitous source of exposure to complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) and non-PM pollutants; yet their health hazards have received little study in comparison with those of diesel emissions. As a component of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) multipollutant research program, F344 and SHR rats and A/J, C57BL/6, and BALBc mice were exposed 6 h/day, 7 days/week for 1 week to 6 months to exhaust from 1996 General Motors 4.3-L engines burning national average fuel on a simulated urban operating cycle. Exposure groups included whole exhaust diluted 1:10, 1:15, or 1:90, filtered exhaust at the 1:10 dilution, or clean air controls. Evaluations included organ weight, histopathology, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, cardiac electrophysiology, micronuclei in circulating cells, DNA methylation and oxidative injury, clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the lung, and development of respiratory allergic responses to ovalbumin. Among the 120 outcome variables, only 20 demonstrated significant exposure effects. Several statistically significant effects appeared isolated and were not supported by related variables. The most coherent and consistent effects were those related to increased red blood cells, interpreted as likely to have resulted from exposure to 13-107 ppm carbon monoxide. Other effects supported by multiple variables included mild lung irritation and depression of oxidant production by alveolar macrophages. The lowest exposure level caused no significant effects. Because only 6 of the 20 significant effects appeared to be substantially reversed by PM filtration, the majority of effects were apparently caused by non-PM components of exhaust. PMID:18800271

Reed, M D; Barrett, E G; Campen, M J; Divine, K K; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Seagrave, J C; Mauderly, J L; Seilkop, S K; Swenberg, J A

2008-10-01

40

Retention modeling of diesel exhaust particles in rats and humans  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to predict the lung burden in rats and humans of diesel exhaust particles from automobile emissions by means of a mathematical model. The authors previously developed a model to predict the deposition of diesel exhaust particles in the lungs of these species. In this study, the clearance and retention of diesel exhaust particles deposited in the lung are examined. A diesel particle is composed of a carbonaceous core (soot) and adsorbed organics. These materials can be removed from the lung after deposition by two mechanisms: (1) mechanical clearance, provided by mucociliary transport in the ciliated airways as well as macrophage phagocytosis and migration in the nonciliated airways, and (2) clearance by dissolution. To study the clearance of diesel exhaust particles from the lung, they used a compartmental model consisting of four anatomical compartments: nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, alveolar, and the lung-associated lymph node compartments. They also assumed a particle model made up of material components according to the characteristics of clearance: (1) a carbonaceous core of about 80 percent of particle mass, (2) slowly cleared organics of about 10 percent of particle mass, and (3) fast-cleared organics accounting for the remaining 10 percent of particle mass. The kinetic equations of the retention model were first developed for Fischer-344 rats. The transport rates of each material component of diesel exhaust particles (soot, slowly cleared organics, and fast-cleared organics) were derived using available experimental data and several mathematical approximations. The lung burden results calculated from the model showed that although the organics were cleared at nearly constant rates, the alveolar clearance rate of diesel soot decreased with increasing lung burden. This is consistent with existing experimental observations.

Yu, C.P.; Yoon, K.J. (Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo, Amherst (United States))

1991-05-01

41

Obese mice are resistant to eosinophilic airway inflammation induced by diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Particulate matter can exacerbate respiratory diseases such as asthma. Diesel exhaust particles are the substantial portion of ambient particulate matter with a <2.5?µm diameter in urban areas. Epidemiological data indicate increased respiratory health effects of particulate matter in obese individuals; however, the association between obesity and diesel exhaust particle-induced airway inflammation remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the differences in susceptibility to airway inflammation induced by exposure to diesel exhaust particles between obese mice (db/db) and lean mice (db/+m). Female db/db and db/+m mice were intratracheally administered diesel exhaust particles or vehicle every 2?weeks for a total of seven times. The cellular profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histological changes in the lungs were assessed and the lungs and serum were analyzed for the generation of cytokines, chemokines and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Diesel exhaust particle exposure-induced eosinophilic infiltration in db/+m mice accompanied by T-helper 2 cytokine, chemokine and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in the lungs. In contrast, it induced mild neutrophilic airway inflammation accompanied by elevated cytokines and chemokines in db/db mice. The lungs of db/db mice exhibited decreased expression of eosinophil activators/chemoattractants such as interleukin-5, interleukin-13 and eotaxin compared with those of db/+m mice. In addition, serum eotaxin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were significantly higher in db/db mice than in db/+m mice. In conclusion, obesity can affect susceptibility to diesel exhaust particle-induced airway inflammation, which is possibly due to differences in local and systemic inflammatory responses between lean and obese individuals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24105835

Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa

2014-06-01

42

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis  

PubMed Central

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: Personal?exposure=urban?background+work?site?background+personal?activity To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples.

SHEESLEY, REBECCA J.; SCHAUER, JAMES J.; GARSHICK, ERIC; LADEN, FRANCINE; SMITH, THOMAS J.; BLICHARZ, ANDREW P.; DEMINTER, JEFFREY T.

2008-01-01

43

Symptoms in Response to Controlled Diesel Exhaust More Closely Reflect Exposure Perception Than True Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust (DE) exposures are very common, yet exposure-related symptoms haven’t been rigorously examined. Objective Describe symptomatic responses to freshly generated and diluted DE and filtered air (FA) in a controlled human exposure setting; assess whether such responses are altered by perception of exposure. Methods 43 subjects participated within three double-blind crossover experiments to order-randomized DE exposure levels (FA and DE calibrated at 100 and/or 200 micrograms/m3 particulate matter of diameter less than 2.5 microns), and completed questionnaires regarding symptoms and dose perception. Results For a given symptom cluster, the majority of those exposed to moderate concentrations of diesel exhaust do not report such symptoms. The most commonly reported symptom cluster was of the nose (29%). Blinding to exposure is generally effective. Perceived exposure, rather than true exposure, is the dominant modifier of symptom reporting. Conclusion Controlled human exposure to moderate-dose diesel exhaust is associated with a range of mild symptoms, though the majority of individuals will not experience any given symptom. Blinding to DE exposure is generally effective. Perceived DE exposure, rather than true DE exposure, is the dominant modifier of symptom reporting.

Carlsten, Chris; Oron, Assaf P.; Curtiss, Heidi; Jarvis, Sara; Daniell, William; Kaufman, Joel D.

2013-01-01

44

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis.  

PubMed

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Smith, Thomas J; Blicharz, Andrew P; Deminter, Jeffrey T

2009-02-01

45

Mutagenicity of Diesel and Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Mutagenicity Of Diesel And Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles E Mutlua,b' SH Warrenb, PP Matthewsb, CJ Kingb, B Prestonc, MD Haysb, DG Nashb,ct, WP Linakb, MI Gilmourb, and DM DeMarinib aUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC bU.S. Environmental Agency, Research Triangle Pa...

46

EFFECT OF OZONE ON DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations have been associated with mortality and morbidity. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are present in ambient urban air PM. Coexisting with DEP (and PM) is ozone (O(3)), which has the potential to react with some components of DEP. Some r...

47

Divertor Particle Exhaust and Wall Inventory on D3-D  

SciTech Connect

Many tokamaks achieve optimum plasma performance by achieving low recycling; various wall conditioning techniques including helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC) are routinely applied to help achieve low recycling. Many of these techniques allow strong, transient wall pumping, but they may not be effective for long-pulse tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), Tore Supra Continu, and JT-60SU. Continuous particle exhaust using an in-situ pumping scheme may be effective for wall inventory control in such devices. Recent particle balance experiments on the Tore Supra and D3-D tokamaks demonstrated that the wall particle inventory could be reduced during a given discharge by use of continuous particle exhaust. In this paper the authors report the first results of wall inventory control and good performance with the in-situ D3-D cryopump, replacing the HeGDC normally applied between discharges.

Jackson, G.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

1995-06-01

48

Divertor particle exhaust and wall inventory on DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Many tokamaks achieve optimum plasma performance by achieving low recycling; various wall conditioning techniques including helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC) are routinely applied to help achieve low recycling. Many of these techniques allow strong, transient wall pumping, but they may not be effective for long-pulse tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), Tore Supra Continu, and JT-60SU. Continuous particle exhaust using an in-situ pumping scheme may be effective for wall inventory control in such devices. Recent particle balance experiments on the Tore Supra and DIII-D tokamaks demonstrated that the wall particle inventory could be reduced during a given discharge by use of continuous particle exhaust. In this paper we report the first results of wall inventory control and good performance with the in-situ DIII-D cryopump, replacing the HeGDC normally applied between discharges.

Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge Associated Univ., TN (United States); Wade, M.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-06-01

49

Divertor particle exhaust and wall inventory on DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Many tokamaks achieve optimum plasma performance by achieving low recycling; various wall conditioning techniques including helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC) are routinely applied to help achieve low recycling. Many of these techniques allow strong, transient wall pumping, but they may not be effective for long-pulse tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), Tore Supra Continu, and JT-60SU. Continuous particle exhaust using an in-situ pumping scheme may be effective for wall inventory control in such devices. Recent particle balance experiments on the Tore Supra and DIII-D tokamaks demonstrated that the wall particle inventory could be reduced during a given discharge by use of continuous particle exhaust. In this paper the authors report the first results of wall inventory control and good performance with the in-situ DIII-D cryopump, replacing the HeGDC normally applied between discharges.

Maingi, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States); Jackson, G.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Wade, M.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Hogan, J.T.; Klepper, C.C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Haas, G. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Max Planck Inst. for Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

1995-09-01

50

Diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer: a case-control study  

SciTech Connect

The presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the particulate phase of diesel engine exhaust has raised questions concerning potential carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust exposure. A case-control study was conducted of 502 male lung cancer cases and 502 controls without tobacco-related diseases to investigate the association of occupational diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. Diesel exhaust exposure was appraised by job title. The results show no association between diesel exhaust exposure and risk of lung cancer. They do, however, show the strong association between smoking and lung cancer and as such highlight the importance of smoking information in studies of occupational effect on lung cancer risk.

Hall, N.E.L.; Wynder, E.L.

1984-06-01

51

Estimation of the diesel exhaust exposures of railroad workers. I. Current exposures  

SciTech Connect

As a part of a series of epidemiological studies of railroad workers, measurements were made to characterize workers' exposures to diesel exhaust. Since diesel exhaust is not a single compound, an exposure marker was sought. The personal exposures to respirable particulate matter (RPM) of over 530 workers in 39 common jobs were measured in four U.S. railroads over a three-year period. Significant amounts of cigarette smoke (20-90%) were found in many of these samples. Therefore, the respirable particulate concentration, adjusted to remove the fraction of cigarette smoke (ARP), was chosen as a marker of diesel exhaust exposures. The geometric mean exposures to ARP ranged from 17 micrograms/m3 for clerks to 134 micrograms/m3 for locomotive shop workers. Significant interrailroad variations were observed in some job groups indicating that the different facilities, equipment, and work practices found among the railroads can affect a worker's exposure to diesel exhaust. Climate was also found to have a significant effect on exposure in some job groups.

Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J.; Hammond, S.K.; Schenker, M.B.; Garshick, E.; Speizer, F.E.

1988-01-01

52

Space Shuttle exhausted aluminum oxide - A measured particle size distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aluminum oxide (A2O3) particles were collected from the Space Shuttle exhaust plume immediately following the launch of STS-34 on October 18, 1989. A2O3 samples were obtained at 2.4, 3.0, 3.2, and 7.4 km in altitude. The samples were analyzed using SEM to develope particle size distributions. There were no indications that the particle size distribution changed as a function of altitude. The particle number concentrations per cubic meter of air sampled for the four collections was found to fit an exponential expression.

Cofer, W. R., III; Purgold, G. C.; Edahl, R. A.; Winstead, E. L.

1991-01-01

53

Infant leukemia and paternal exposure to motor vehicle exhaust fumes  

SciTech Connect

The children of fathers who work in gas stations, automobile or truck repair, and aircraft maintenance appear to be at increased risk for acute leukemia during their first year of life. The odds ratio was found to be about 2.5 overall, but risk appears to be greater for female offspring. A decline in sex ratio was observed for the three decades of the study, with the lowest ratio observed from 1969 through 1978. These preliminary findings suggest that exposure to one or more of the components of exhaust fumes might be of etiologic importance for this malignancy. The limitations of this investigation are discussed.

Vianna, N.J.; Kovasznay, B.; Polan, A.; Ju, C.

1984-09-01

54

Sustained Effect of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust Particles on T-Lymphocyte-Mediated Immune Responses Against Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) suppresses pulmonary host defense against bacterial in- fection. The present study was carried out to characterize whether DEP exposure exerts a sustained effect in which inhaled DEP increase the susceptibility of the lung to bacterial infection occurring at a later time. Brown Norway rats were exposed to filtered air or

Xuejun J. Yin; Caroline C. Dong; Jane Y. C. Ma; James M. Antonini; Jenny R. Roberts; Mark W. Barger; Joseph K. H. Ma

2005-01-01

55

Sulfuric Acid and Soot Particle Formation in Aircraft Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of CN counts, Ames wire impactor size analyses and optical particle counter data in aircraft exhaust results in a continuous particle size distribution between 0.01 micrometer and 1 micrometer particle radius sampled in the exhaust of a Boeing 757 research aircraft. The two orders of magnitude size range covered by the measurements correspond to 6-7 orders of magnitude particle concentration. CN counts and small particle wire impactor data determine a nucleation mode, composed of aircraft-emitted sulfuric acid aerosol, that contributes between 62% and 85% to the total aerosol surface area and between 31% and 34% to its volume. Soot aerosol comprises 0.5% of the surface area of the sulfuric acid aerosol. Emission indices are: EIH2SO4 = 0.05 g/kgFUEL and (0.2-0.5) g/kgFUEL (for 75 ppmm and 675 ppmm fuel-S, respectively), 2.5E4particles/kgFUEL (for 75 and 675 ppmm fuel-S). The sulfur (gas) to H2SO4 (particle) conversion efficiency is between 10% and 25%.

Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Verma, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Howard, S. D.; Vay, S.; Kinne, S. A.; Baumgardner, D.; Dermott, P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Goodman, J.; Gore, Waren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

56

Biodiesel versus diesel: a pilot study comparing exhaust exposures for employees at a rural municipal facility.  

PubMed

Many organizations interested in renewable, domestic energy have switched from petroleum diesel to biodiesel blends for use in transportation and heavy-duty equipment. Although considerable evidence exists on the negative health effects of petroleum diesel exhaust exposures in occupational settings, there has been little research examining biodiesel exposures. Working collaboratively with a local municipality, concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and other air toxics were measured at a recycling facility in southwestern New Hampshire while heavy equipment operated first on petroleum diesel and then on a B20 blend (20% soy-based biodiesel/80% petroleum diesel). This pilot study used a combination of established industrial hygiene and environmental air monitoring methods to estimate occupational exposure profiles to PM and air toxics from combustion of petroleum diesel and biodiesel. Results indicate that B20 use dramatically reduces work area respirable particle, PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and formaldehyde levels compared with petroleum diesel. Some volatile organic compound concentrations were higher for petroleum diesel and others were higher for the B20 blend. Overall, this study suggests that biodiesel blends reduce worker exposure to and health risk from petroleum diesel exhaust, but additional exposure research is recommended. PMID:20863048

Traviss, Nora; Thelen, Brett Amy; Ingalls, Jaime Kathryn; Treadwell, Melinda Dawn

2010-09-01

57

Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. Methods In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. Results The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Conclusion Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient conditions. On a per breath basis, however, the mass of particulate matter inhaled is large compared to the mass inhaled at ambient conditions. Finally, it was determined that children, infants, or people breathing at heights similar to that of a passing vehicle's tailpipe may be exposed to higher concentrations of particulate matter than those breathing at higher locations, such as adults standing up.

2009-01-01

58

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES SUPRESS LPS-STIMULATED PRODUCTION OF PGE2 IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGES: ROLE OF P38 MAPK AND ERK PATHWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have reported association between exposure to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, which include respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) compose a significant fraction of PM in some areas. Alveolar m...

59

Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

60

Elemental Carbon-Based Method for Monitoring Occupational Exposures to Particulate Diesel Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust has been classified a probable human carcinogen, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that employers reduce workers' exposures. Because diesel exhaust is a chemically complex mixture containing thousands of compounds, some measure of exposure must be selected. Previously used methods involving gravimetry or analysis of the soluble organic fraction of diesel soot

M. E. Birch; R. A. Cary

1996-01-01

61

*Assessing differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-l in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-l activation results in the upregulat...

62

Myocardial infarction and occupational exposure to motor exhaust: a population-based case-control study in Sweden.  

PubMed

There is a well-established association between particulate urban air pollution and cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated the risk associated with occupational exposure to particles from motor exhaust. This study investigated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) after occupational exposure to motor exhaust, using elemental carbon (EC) as a marker of exposure. A population-based case-control study of first-time non-lethal MI was conducted among Swedish citizens in ages 45-70 living in Stockholm County 1992-1994, including 1,643 cases and 2,235 controls. Working histories and data on potential confounders were collected by questionnaire and medical examination. The exposure to EC was assessed through a job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We investigated various exposure metrics: intensity, cumulative exposure and years since exposure. There was an exposure-response relation between the highest average exposure intensity during the work history and the risk of MI when adjusting for smoking and alcohol drinking (p for trend 0.034), with an OR of 1.30 (95 % CI 0.99-1.71) in the highest tertile of exposure compared to the unexposed. An exposure-response pattern was observed in the analysis of years since exposure cessation among formerly exposed. Additional adjustments for markers of the metabolic syndrome reduced ORs and trends to non-significant levels, although this might be an over-adjustment since the metabolic syndrome may be part of the causal pathway. Occupational exposure to motor exhaust was associated with a moderately increased risk of MI. PMID:24981789

Ilar, Anna; Lewné, Marie; Plato, Nils; Hallqvist, Johan; Alderling, Magnus; Bigert, Carolina; Hogstedt, Christer; Gustavsson, Per

2014-07-01

63

[Experimental study on characteristics of biodiesel exhausted particle].  

PubMed

A particle emission experiment of a direct-injection turbocharged diesel engine with biodiesel and diesel was carried out. A pump of 80 L/min and fiber glass filters with diameter of 90 mm was used to sample engine particles in exhaust pipe. The size distribution, soluble organic fraction (SOF) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of particles were analyzed by a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and GC-MS. The results indicate that the volume weighted size distribution of biodiesel particle is single-peak and its median diameter d(0.5) and mean diameter d32 are decreased with the increasing speed. At the high speed the d32 and d(0.5) of biodiesel are larger than those of diesel, and quite the contrary at the low speed. SOF mass concentration and mass percentage of biodiesel are 12.3 - 31.5 mg/m3 and 38.2% - 58.0% respectively, which are much higher than those of diesel. The total PAHs emission concentration of biodiesel is 2.9 - 4.7 microg/m3 lower than that of diesel as much as 29.1% - 92.4%. PMID:17891981

Ge, Yun-shan; He, Chao; Han, Xiu-kun; Wu, Si-jin; Lu, Xiao-ming

2007-07-01

64

Effects of ultrafine diesel exhaust particles on oxidative stress generation and dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells.  

PubMed

A major constituent of urban air pollution is diesel exhaust, a complex mixture of gases, chemicals, and particles. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of a fatal stroke, cause cerebrovascular damage, and induce neuroinflammation and oxidative stress that may trigger neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. The specific aim of this study was to determine whether ultrafine diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), the particle component of exhaust from diesel engines, can induce oxidative stress and effect dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells. After 24h exposure to DEPs of 200nm or smaller, cell viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO2) generation, and levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)), were evaluated. Results indicated cell viability was not significantly changed by DEP exposure. However, ROS showed dramatic dose-dependent changes after DEP exposure (2.4 fold increase compared to control at 200?g/mL). NO2 levels were also dose-dependently increased after DEP exposure. Although not in a dose-dependent manner, upon DEP exposure, intracellular DA levels were increased while DOPAC and HVA levels decreased when compared to control. Results suggest that ultrafine DEPs lead to dopamine accumulation in the cytoplasm of PC-12 cells, possibly contributing to ROS formation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate this mechanism. PMID:24705343

Kim, Yong-Dae; Lantz-McPeak, Susan M; Ali, Syed F; Kleinman, Michael T; Choi, Young-Sook; Kim, Heon

2014-05-01

65

Exacerbation of allergic inflammation in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles prior to viral infection  

PubMed Central

Background Viral infections and exposure to oxidant air pollutants are two of the most important inducers of asthma exacerbation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust increases the susceptibility to influenza virus infections both in epithelial cells in vitro and in mice in vivo. Therefore, we examined whether in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to oxidant air pollutants enhances the susceptibility to respiratory virus infections, which in turn leads to increased virus-induced exacerbation of asthma. Ovalbumin-sensitized (OVA) male C57BL/6 mice were instilled with diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or saline and 24 hours later infected with influenza A/PR/8. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours post-infection and analyzed for markers of lung injury, allergic inflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results Exposure to DEP or infection with influenza alone had no significant effects on markers of injury or allergic inflammation. However, OVA-sensitized mice that were exposed to DEP and subsequently infected with influenza showed increased levels of eosinophils in lung lavage and tissue. In addition Th2-type cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, and markers of eosinophil chemotaxis, such as CCL11 and CCR3, were increased in OVA-sensitized mice exposed to DEP prior to infection with influenza. These mice also showed increased levels of IL-1?, but not IL-10, RANTES, and MCP-1 in lung homogenates. Conclusion These data suggest that in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to diesel exhaust could enhance virus-induced exacerbation of allergic inflammation.

Jaspers, Ilona; Sheridan, Patricia A; Zhang, Wenli; Brighton, Luisa E; Chason, Kelly D; Hua, Xiaoyang; Tilley, Stephen L

2009-01-01

66

Exacerbation of allergic inflammation in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles prior to viral infection.  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Viral infections and exposure to oxidant air pollutants are two ofthe most important inducers ofasthma exacerbation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust increases the susceptibility to influenza virus infections both in epithelial ce...

67

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

68

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

69

BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)--a study in underground mining.  

PubMed

Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil shale mine in Estonia were compared with surface workers. Personal exposures to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (NP) were some eight times higher underground than on the surface. Underground miners were also occupationally exposed to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as indicated by excretion of urinary metabolites of benzene and pyrene. In addition, increased O(6)-alkylguanine DNA adducts were detected in the white blood cells of underground workers, suggesting higher exposure to nitroso-compounds. However, no differences between underground and surface workers were observed in the levels of other bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results. PMID:12191893

Scheepers, P T J; Coggon, D; Knudsen, L E; Anzion, R; Autrup, H; Bogovski, S; Bos, R P; Dahmann, D; Farmer, P; Martin, E A; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Neumann, H G; Poole, J; Schmidt-Ott, A; Seiler, F; Volf, J; Zwirner-Baier, I

2002-08-01

70

Control of Nitrous Oxide Exposure in Dental Operatories Using Local Exhaust Ventilation  

PubMed Central

An experimental portable local exhaust ventilation system was installed in three dental operatories where nitrous oxide was used routinely. Standard methods of exhaust ventilation design used in industry to control exposures to toxic airborne substances were applied to the dental operatory setting. The concentration of nitrous oxide in the dentists' breathing zones was measured before and after installation to determine the efficiency of the system in reducing occupational exposures. Results indicate that placement of the exhaust opening and exhaust air flow rate are important in determining the degree of control achieved. After the system had been installed in one operatory, peak exposures declined from over 600 parts per million (ppm) to less than 70 ppm: the time-weighted average exposure was below the NIOSH recommended level of 25 ppm. A permanently installed local exhaust ventilation system modeled after the portable one used in this pilot study may be feasible for most operatories and should not interfere with dental procedures. The results suggest that nitrous oxide exposures can be greatly reduced if dental operatories are equipped with local exhaust ventilation. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 7

Jacobs, David E.; Middendorf, Paul J.

1986-01-01

71

BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONSE TO CONTROLLED DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE IN HUMAN SUBJECTS  

PubMed Central

Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. We examined whether exposure to diesel exhaust increased blood pressure in human subjects. We analyzed data from 45 nonsmoking subjects, age 18–49 in double-blinded, crossover exposure studies, randomized to order. Each subject was exposed to diesel exhaust, maintained at 200 ?g/m3 of fine particulate matter, and filtered air for 120 minutes on days separated by at least two weeks. We measured blood pressure pre-exposure, at 30-minute intervals during exposure, and 3, 5, 7 and 24 hours from exposure initiation, and analyzed changes from pre-exposure values. Compared with filtered air, systolic blood pressure increased at all points measured during and after diesel exhaust exposure; the mean effect peaked between 30 and 60 minutes after exposure initiation (3.8 mmHg [95% CI: ?0.4, 8.0] and 5.1 mmHg [95% CI: 0.7, 9.5] respectively). Sex and metabolic syndrome did not modify this effect. Combining readings between 30 and 90 minutes, diesel exhaust exposure resulted in a 4.4 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure, adjusted for participant characteristics and exposure perception (95% CI: 1.1, 7.7, p=0.0009). There was no significant effect on heart rate or diastolic pressure. Diesel exhaust inhalation was associated with a rapid, measurable increase in systolic, but not diastolic, blood pressure in young nonsmokers, independent of perception of exposure. This controlled trial in humans confirms findings from observational studies. The effect may be important on a population basis given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

Cosselman, Kristen E.; Krishnan, Ranjini; Oron, Assaf P.; Jansen, Karen; Peretz, Alon; Sullivan, Jeffrey H.; Larson, Timothy V.; Kaufman, Joel D.

2013-01-01

72

Identification of surrogate measures of diesel exhaust exposure in a controlled chamber study.  

PubMed

Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) has been associated with acute cardiopulmonary and vascular responses, chronic noncancer health effects, and respiratory cancers in humans. To better understand DE exposures and eventually their related health effects, we established a controlled chamber experiment wherein human volunteer subjects were exposed to approximately 100 microg/m3 DE. In general, human exposure assessment for DE is based on ambient air measurements of surrogates such as elemental carbon (EC) or total organic carbon (OC) collected on filters. As specific health effect mechanisms and dose-response are obscured bythe complex composition of DE, the linkage from exposure to internal dose can presumably be improved by use of specific biomarkers and metabolites in blood, breath, or urine. Because EC and OC are not suitable as biomarkers, in this study, we focus on identifying compounds that are demonstrated indicators of DE and can also be found in biological fluids. We measured an assortment of volatile, semivolatile, and particle-bound aromatic compounds in the chamber air and report their airborne concentrations in DE and purified air, as well as the estimated values of the corresponding exposure ratios (mean DE air concentration:mean purified air concentration). These estimated exposure ratios were used to identify naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) as potentially useful surrogates for DE exposure that could also serve as biomarkers. Estimated mean levels of Nap and Phe associated with the nominal 100 microg/m3 DE were 2600 and 765 ng/m3 with estimated exposure ratios of 252 and 92.4, respectively. Nap levels were significantly correlated with OC and total particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); Phe levels were significantly correlated with total volatile + semivolatile PAHs. These results suggest that Nap and Phe may be particularly useful surrogates for DE concentrations. While Nap and Phe are not validated here as internal biomarkers of DE exposure, we are currently assessing human biological specimens collected during this study and will discuss those results in ensuing papers. PMID:19192804

Sobus, Jon R; Pleil, Joachim D; Madden, Michael C; Funk, William E; Hubbard, Heidi F; Rappaport, Stephen M

2008-12-01

73

Rosmarinic acid inhibits lung injury induced by diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may be involved in recent increases in lung diseases. DEP has been shown to generate reactive oxygen species. Intratracheal instillation of DEP induces lung inflammation and edema in mice. Rosmarinic acid is a naturally occurring polyphenol with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effects of rosmarinic acid on lung injury induced by intratracheal administration of DEP (500 microg/body) in mice. Oral supplementation with administration of rosmarinic acid (2 mg/body for 3 d) inhibited DEP-induced lung injury, which was characterized by neutrophil sequestration and interstitial edema. DEP enhanced the lung expression of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), interleukin-1beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, which was inhibited by treatment with rosmarinic acid. DEP enhanced expression of iNOS mRNA and formation of nitrotyrosine and 8-OHdG in the lung, which was also inhibited by rosmarinic acid. These results suggest that rosmarinic acid inhibits DEP-induced lung injury by the reduction of proinflammatory molecule expression. Antioxidative activities of rosmarinic acid may also contribute to its protective effects. PMID:12684091

Sanbongi, Chiaki; Takano, Hirohisa; Osakabe, Naomi; Sasa, Naoko; Natsume, Midori; Yanagisawa, Rie; Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Kato, Yoji; Osawa, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

2003-04-15

74

Diesel exhaust but not ozone increases fraction of exhaled nitric oxide in a randomized controlled experimental exposure study of healthy human subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a promising non-invasive index of airway inflammation that may be used to assess respiratory effects of air pollution. We evaluated FENO as a measure of airway inflammation after controlled exposure to diesel exhaust or ozone. Methods Healthy volunteers were exposed to either diesel exhaust (particle concentration 300 ?g/m3) and filtered air for one hour, or ozone (300 ppb) and filtered air for 75 minutes. FENO was measured in duplicate at expiratory flow rates of 10, 50, 100 and 270 mL/s before, 6 and 24 hours after each exposure. Results Exposure to diesel exhaust increased FENO at 6 hours compared with air at expiratory flow rates of 10 mL/s (p?=?0.01) and at 50 mL/s (p?=?0.011), but FENO did not differ significantly at higher flow rates. Increases in FENO following diesel exhaust were attenuated at 24 hours. Ozone did not affect FENO at any flow rate or time point. Conclusions Exposure to diesel exhaust, but not ozone, increased FENO concentrations in healthy subjects. Differences in the induction of airway inflammation may explain divergent responses to diesel exhaust and ozone, with implications for the use of FENO as an index of exposure to air pollution.

2013-01-01

75

Toxicity of prolonged exposure to ethanol and gasoline autoengine exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

A comparative chronic inhalation exposure study was performed to investigate the potential health effects of gasoline and ethanol engine exhaust fumes. Test atmospheres of gasoline and ethanol exhaust were given to Wistar rats and Balb C mice housed in inhalation chambers for a period of 5 weeks. Gas concentration and physical parameters were continually monitored during the exposure period. Several biological parameters were assessed after the exposure including pulmonary function, mutagenicity, and hematological, biochemical, and morphological examinations. The results demonstrated that the chronic toxicity of the gasoline-fueled engine is significantly higher than that of the ethanol engine.

Massad, E.; Saldiva, P.H.; Saldiva, C.D.; Caldeira, M.P.; Cardoso, L.M.; de Morais, A.M.; Calheiros, D.F.; da Silva, R.; Boehm, G.M.

1986-08-01

76

Biodiesel versus Diesel: A Pilot Study Comparing Exhaust Exposures for Employees at a Rural Municipal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organizations interested in renewable, domestic energy have switched from petroleum diesel to biodiesel blends for use in transportation and heavy-duty equipment. Although considerable evidence exists on the negative health effects of petroleum diesel exhaust exposures in occupational settings, there has been little research examining biodiesel exposures. Working collaboratively with a local municipality, concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and other

Nora Traviss; Brett Amy Thelen; Jaime Kathryn Ingalls; Melinda Dawn Treadwell; Vladimir Vukovic; Paulo Tabares-Velasco; Jelena Srebric; James Blando; Donald Schill; Mary Cruz; Lin Zhang; Junfeng Zhang; A. Abhishek; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim Keener; Y. Yang; Pat Rasmussen; H. Gardner; Jianjun Niu; Qian Tan; Guo Huang; Yanpeng Cai; Barbara George; Donald Whitaker; Robert Gilliam; Jenise Swall; Ronald Williams; Barron Henderson; Harvey Jeffries; Byeong-Uk Kim; William Vizuete; Donna Jones

2010-01-01

77

Gene Expression Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Mice Induced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Are Dependent on Animal Rearing Environment  

PubMed Central

There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m3, 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust.

Yokota, Satoshi; Hori, Hiroshi; Umezawa, Masakazu; Kubota, Natsuko; Niki, Rikio; Yanagita, Shinya; Takeda, Ken

2013-01-01

78

Studies of diesel engine particle emissions during transient operations using an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer  

SciTech Connect

Diesel engine particle emissions during transient operations, including emissions during FTP transient cycles and during active regenerations of a NOx adsorber, were studied using a fast Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS). For both fuels tested, a No. 2 certification diesel and a low sulfur diesel (BP-15), high particle concentrations and emission rates were mainly associated with heavy engine acceleration, high speed, and high torque during transient cycles. Averaged over the FTP transient cycle, the particle number concentration during tests with the certification fuel was 1.2e8/cm3, about four times the particle number concentration observed during tests using the BP-15 fuel. The effect of each engine parameter on particle emissions was studied. During tests using BP-15, the particle number emission rate was mainly controlled by the engine speed and torque, whereas for Certification fuel, the engine acceleration also had a strong effect on number emission rates. The effects of active regenerations of a diesel NOx adsorber on particle emissions were also characterized for two catalyst regeneration strategies: Delayed Extended Main (DEM) and Post 80 injection (Post80). Particle volume concentrations observed during DEM regenerations were much higher than those during Post80 regenerations, and the minimum air to fuel ratio achieved during the regenerations had little effect on particle emission for both strategies. This study provides valuable information for developing strategies that minimize the particle formation during active regenerations of NOx adsorbers.

Wang, Jian [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Domingo, Norberto [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL

2006-01-01

79

Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume.  

PubMed

This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements exposure to welding fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging. PMID:22539559

Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas

2012-07-01

80

Biological Responses to Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEPs) Depend on the Physicochemical Properties of the DEPs  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are the main components of ambient particulate materials, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-PAHs, heavy metals, and gaseous materials. Many epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies have shown that ambient particles, including DEPs, are associated with respiratory disorders, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and lung cancer. However, the relationship between the biological response to DEPs and their chemical composition remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the physicochemical properties of DEPs before toxicological studies, and then administered a single intratracheal instillation of DEPs to mice. The mice were then killed 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after DEP exposure to observe the biological responses induced by DEPs over time. Our findings suggest that DEPs engulfed into cells induced a Th2-type inflammatory response followed by DNA damage, whereas DEPs not engulfed into cells induced a Th1-type inflammatory response. Further, the physicochemical properties, including surface charge, particle size, and chemical composition, of DEPs play a crucial role in determining the biological responses to DEPs. Consequently, we suggest that the biological response to DEPs depend on cell-particle interaction and the physicochemical properties of the particles.

Park, Eun-Jung; Roh, Jinkyu; Kang, Min-Sung; Kim, Soo Nam; Kim, Younghun; Choi, Sangdun

2011-01-01

81

Size and critical supersaturation for condensation of jet engine exhaust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ measurements of jet engine exhaust from a Sabreliner were made by instruments on board the NCAR Electra during a brief period of coordinated flying. Particle size distribution and critical supersaturation spectra were monitored before, during, and after the encounter with the jet exhaust plume by a condensation nucleus counter, an active scattering aerosol spectrometer probe (ASASP), and a

Marc Pitchford; James G. Hudson; John Hallett

1991-01-01

82

The generation of diesel exhaust particle aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric particles  

PubMed Central

The influence of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the lungs and heart is currently a topic of great interest in inhalation toxicology. Epidemiological data and animal studies have implicated airborne particulate matter and DEP in increased morbidity and mortality due to a number of cardiopulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and lung cancer. The pathogeneses of these diseases are being studied using animal models and cell culture techniques. Real-time exposures to freshly combusted diesel fuel are complex and require significant infrastructure including engine operations, dilution air, and monitoring and control of gases. A method of generating DEP aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric DEP would be a desirable and useful alternative. Metered dose inhaler technology was adopted to generate aerosols from suspensions of DEP in the propellant hydrofluoroalkane 134a. Inertial impaction data indicated that the particle size distributions of the generated aerosols were trimodal, with count median aerodynamic diameters less than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy of deposited particles showed tightly aggregated particles, as would be expected from an evaporative process. Chemical analysis indicated that there were no major changes in the mass proportion of 2 specific aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene) in the particles resulting from the aerosolization process.

Cooney, Daniel J; Hickey, Anthony J

2008-01-01

83

Anti-androgenic activity of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our continuing studies on nitrophenol derivatives as vasodilators in diesel exhaust particles, we have reported that nitrophenols in diesel exhaust particles possess not only vasodilatory activity but also estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, as well as anti-androgenic activity in vitro. Our efforts here were focused on the in vitro and in vivo anti-androgenic activity of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol;

ChunMei Li; Shinji Taneda; Akira K. Suzuki; Chie Furuta; Gen Watanabe; Kazuyoshi Taya

2006-01-01

84

Elemental carbon-based method for occupational monitoring of particulate diesel exhaust: methodology and exposure issues.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust has been classified a probable human carcinogen, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that employers reduce workers' exposures. Because diesel exhaust is a chemically complex mixture containing thousands of compounds, some measure of exposure must be selected. Previously used methods involving gravimetry or analysis of the soluble organic fraction of diesel soot lack adequate sensitivity and selectivity for low-level determination of particulate diesel exhaust; a new analytical approach was therefore needed. In this paper, results of investigation of a thermal-optical technique for the analysis of the carbonaceous fraction of particulate diesel exhaust are discussed. With this technique, speciation of organic and elemental carbon is accomplished through temperature and atmosphere control and by an optical feature that corrects for pyrolytically generated carbon, or "char,' which is formed during the analysis of some materials. The thermal-optical method was selected because the instrument has desirable design features not present in other carbon analysers. Although various carbon types are determined by the method, elemental carbon is the superior marker of diesel particulate matter because elemental carbon constitutes a large fraction of the particulate mass, it can be quantified at low levels and its only significant source in most workplaces is the diesel engine. Exposure-related issues and sampling methods for particulate diesel exhaust also are discussed. PMID:8831275

Birch, M E; Cary, R A

1996-09-01

85

The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition  

SciTech Connect

Detailed exhaust emission data have been taken from a Cummins N-14 single cylinder research engine in which the oil consumption was varied by different engine modifications. Low sulfur fuel was used, and oil consumption was varied by modifying the intake valve stem seals, the exhaust valve stem seals, the oil control ring and combinations of these modifications. Detailed measurements of exhaust gas particle size distributions and chemical composition were made for the various oil consumption configurations for a range of engine loads and speeds. The particulate mass was measured with TEOM and traditional gravimetric filter methods. Filter data for EC/OC, sulfates and trace metals have been taken and analyzed. The trace metals in the particulate mass serve as the basis for assessing oil consumption at the different operating conditions. The data indicate that the oil consumption for the steady state testing done here was approximately an order of magnitude below oil consumption values cited in the literature. We did measure changes in the details of the chemical composition of the particulate for the different engine operating conditions, but it did not correlate with changes in the oil consumption. Furthermore, the data indicate that the particle size distribution is not strongly impacted by low level oil consumption variations observed in this work.

Stetter, J; Forster, N; Ghandhi, J; Foster, D

2003-08-24

86

Sample characterization of automobile and forklift diesel exhaust particles and comparative pulmonary toxicity in mice.  

PubMed Central

Two samples of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) predominate in health effects research: an automobile-derived DEP (A-DEP) sample and the National Institute of Standards Technology standard reference material (SRM 2975) generated from a forklift engine. A-DEPs have been tested extensively for their effects on pulmonary inflammation and exacerbation of allergic asthmalike responses. In contrast, SRM 2975 has been tested thoroughly for its genotoxicity. In the present study, we combined physical and chemical analyses of both DEP samples with pulmonary toxicity testing in CD-1 mice to compare the two materials and to make associations between their physicochemical properties and their biologic effects. A-DEPs had more than 10 times the amount of extractable organic material and less than one-sixth the amount of elemental carbon compared with SRM 2975. Aspiration of 100 micro g of either DEP sample in saline produced mild acute lung injury; however, A-DEPs induced macrophage influx and activation, whereas SRM 2975 enhanced polymorphonuclear cell inflammation. A-DEPs stimulated an increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha, macrophage inhibitory protein-2, and the TH2 cytokine IL-5, whereas SRM 2975 only induced significant levels of IL-6. Fractionated organic extracts of the same quantity of DEPs (100 micro g) did not have a discernable effect on lung responses and will require further study. The disparate results obtained highlight the need for chemical, physical, and source characterization of particle samples under investigation. Multidisciplinary toxicity testing of diesel emissions derived from a variety of generation and collection conditions is required to meaningfully assess the health hazards associated with exposures to DEPs. Key words: automobile, diesel exhaust particles, forklift, mice, pulmonary toxicity, SRM 2975.

Singh, Pramila; DeMarini, David M; Dick, Colin A J; Tabor, Dennis G; Ryan, Jeff V; Linak, William P; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Gilmour, M Ian

2004-01-01

87

Acute Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Increases IL8 and GRO- a Production in Healthy Human Airways  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) for 1 h induced a marked leukocytic infiltration in the airways of healthy human volunteers involving neutrophils, lym- phocytes, and mast cells along with increases in several inflammatory mediators. We hypothesized that the leukocyte infiltration and the various inflammatory responses induced by DE were mediated by enhanced chemokine and

SUNDEEP S. SALVI; CHARLOTTA NORDENHALL; ANDERS BLOMBERG; BERTIL RUDELL; JAMSHID POURAZAR; FRANK J. KELLY; SUSAN WILSON; THOMAS SANDSTRÖM; STEPHEN T. HOLGATE; ANTHONY J. FREW

2000-01-01

88

Generation and characterization of diesel exhaust in a facility for controlled human exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

An idling medium-duty diesel truck operated on ultralow sulfur diesel fuel was used as an emission source to generate diesel exhaust for controlled human exposure. Repeat tests were conducted on the Federal Test Procedure using a chassis dynamometer to demonstrate the reproducibi...

89

EFFECT OF SHORT TERM DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE ON NASAL RESPONSES TO INFLUENZA IN ALLERGIC RHINITICS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: Recently published data suggest that diesel exhaust (DE) has special impact on allergic inflammation, suppressing Th1 and augmenting Th2 responses to allergen via oxidant stress effects on airway cells. Exposures to particulate air pollutants including DE are also a...

90

In-vehicle Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Vehicular Exhaust: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside

M. El-Fadel; L. Abi-Esber

2009-01-01

91

Test-methods on the test-bench: a comparison of complete exhaust and exhaust particle extracts for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment.  

PubMed

With the growing number of new exhaust after-treatment systems, fuels and fuel additives for internal combustion engines, efficient and reliable methods for detecting exhaust genotoxicity and mutagenicity are needed to avoid the widespread application of technologies with undesirable effects toward public health. In a commonly used approach, organic extracts of particulates rather than complete exhaust is used for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment, which may reduce the reliability of the results. In the present study, we assessed the mutagenicity and the genotoxicity of complete diesel exhaust compared to an organic exhaust particle extract from the same diesel exhaust in a bacterial and a eukaryotic system, that is, a complex human lung cell model. Both, complete exhaust and organic extract were found to act mutagenic/genotoxic, but the amplitudes of the effects differed considerably. Furthermore, our data indicate that the nature of the mutagenicity may not be identical for complete exhaust and particle extracts. Because in addition, differences between the responses of the different biological systems were found, we suggest that a comprehensive assessment of exhaust toxicity is preferably performed with complete exhaust and with biological systems representative for the organisms and organs of interest (i.e., human lungs) and not only with the Ames test. PMID:24697289

Steiner, Sandro; Heeb, Norbert V; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

2014-05-01

92

THE DUAL EFFECT OF THE PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON THE ALTERATION OF PULMONARY IMMUNE\\/INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES AND METABOLIC ENZYMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is an environmental and occupational health concern. This review examines the cellular actions of the organic and the particulate components of DEP in the development of various lung diseases. Both the organic and the particulate components cause oxidant lung injury. The particulate component is known to induce alveolar epithelial damage, alter thiol levels in

Jane Y. C. Ma; Joseph K. H. Ma

2002-01-01

93

Autocrine ligands of the epithelial growth factor receptor mediate inflammatory responses to diesel exhaust particles  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity. Acute exposure leads to increased IL-8 expression and airway neutrophilia, however the mechanism of this response is unknown. Objectives: As cigarette smoke-induced IL-8 expression by epithelial cells involves transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we studied the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on IL-8 release and the role of the EGFR. Methods Primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) were exposed to DEPs or carbon black. IL-8 and EGFR ligand expression (transforming growth factor alpha (TGF?), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, and amphiregulin (AR)) were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. Results DEP, but not carbon black, caused a dose-dependent increase in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and IL-8 expression, however above 50 ?g/ml there was an increase in cytotoxicity. At 50 ?g/ml, DEPs stimulated transcription and release of IL-8 and EGFR ligands. IL-8 release was blocked by EGFR neutralizing antibodies, an EGFR-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor and by the metalloprotease inhibitor, GM6001, which blocks EGFR ligand shedding. Neutralizing antibodies to AR, TGF? and heparin-binding (HB)-EGF reduced DEP-induced IL-8 by >50%. Conclusion Expression of IL-8 in response to DEPs is dependent on EGFR activation and that autocrine production of EGFR ligands makes a substantial contribution to this response. Capsule Summary: This study identifies a mechanism whereby diesel particles stimulates IL-8 release from bronchial epithelial cells. This mechanism may help to explain the recruitment of neutrophils into the airways of people exposed to particulate air pollution.

2014-01-01

94

DECREASED PRODUCTION OF SURFACTANT PROTEINS AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE INCREASES SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), termed collectins, enhance the opsonization of foreign particles and pathogens by phagocytic cells. Inhaled pollutants such as diesel exhaust (DE) have a possible role in suppressing the production of surfactant proteins whic...

95

Markers of exposure to diesel exhaust in railroad workers. Research report  

SciTech Connect

The study measured the exposure of railroad workers to diesel exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke by using personal air samples taken over two consecutive work shifts. Urine samples were collected from 87 subjects at the end of the study work shifts and were analyzed for markers of cigarette smoking (nicotine, cotinine) and for mutagenicity, using a sensitive microsuspension assay (Salmonella strain TA98 with or without S9 enzyme). Among smokers, a dose-response relationship was observed between urinary mutagenicity and the number of cigarettes smoked on the study day. After cigarette smoking was controlled for, no association was present between diesel exhaust exposure and urinary mutagenicity. Among nonsmokers, detectable concentrations of mutagens were present in the urine, but no association could be found between markers of diesel exhaust or environmental tobacco smoke and urinary mutagenicity. It was concluded that the mutagens associated with the levels of exposure to diesel exhaust or environmental tobacco smoke in the study were undetectable in the urine.

Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y.; Hammond, S.K.; Smith, T.J.

1990-01-01

96

Pulmonary Exposure to Particles during Pregnancy Causes Increased Neonatal Asthma Susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal immune responses can promote allergy development in offspring, as shown in a model of increased susceptibility to asthma in babies of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and -challenged mother mice. We investigated whether inflammatory responses to air pollution particles (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or control ''inert'' titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are enhanced during pregnancy and whether exposure to particles can cause increased

Alexey V. Fedulov; Adriana Leme; Zhiping Yang; Morten Dahl; Robert Lim; Thomas J. Mariani; Lester Kobzik

97

Driver exposure to combustion particles in the U.S. Trucking industry.  

PubMed

A large study of combustion particle exposures for drivers of diesel-powered trucks was conducted in collaboration with an epidemiologic study of lung cancer outcomes for workers in the trucking industry. Three components of diesel exhaust combustion particles (PM(2.5), elemental carbon, and organic carbon) were measured inside the driver cabs of diesel-powered trucks from 36 different trucking terminals across the United States between 2001 and 2005. In-cab particle exposures for drivers assigned to both short and long distance trips were observed, as well as information on the smoking status of the driver, truck characteristics such as age and model, and weather conditions during the sampling session. This article summarizes these findings and describes the relationship between exhaust particles and various determinants of exposure. The results suggest that in-cab particle exposures are positively related to smoking, ambient particle concentrations, truck age, and open windows, with other significant modifying factors such as weather. This study represents the largest and most comprehensive exposure assessment of drivers in the trucking industry, encompassing a 4-year period of observations on diesel and exhaust particle exposures nationwide. The results are relevant not only to the occupational group of truck drivers being examined but also to the general population that live, commute, or work within proximity to diesel-fueled traffic or trucking terminals. PMID:17885912

Davis, M E; Smith, T J; Laden, F; Hart, J E; Blicharz, A P; Reaser, P; Garshick, E

2007-11-01

98

Chemical and mutagenic characteristics of diesel-exhaust particles from different diesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential for increased use of a wide variety of diesel fuels has increased the importance of studies to determine whether the nitrogen content of different fuels affects the chemical and mutagenic characteristics of the particles produced during combustion. In this study, the exhaust particles from five diesel fuels with various nitrogen and aromatic hydrocarbon contents were examined. The fuels

D. S. Sklarew; R. A. Pelroy; S. P. Downey; R. H. Jungers; J. Lewtas

1981-01-01

99

Can toxicogenomics provide information on the bioreactivity of diesel exhaust particles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologists have linked increased cardio-respiratory hospital admissions, morbidity and mortality rates and increases in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns (PM10) concentrations (Anderson et al., 1991). PM10 consist of a heterogeneous mixture of particles that include minerals, metal oxides, sea salt, biological components and soot. In urban locations, soot, especially ultrafine diesel exhaust particles (DEP), accounts

Lucy J. Reynolds; Roy J. Richards

2001-01-01

100

Retention modeling of diesel-exhaust particles in rats and humans. Research report, Apr 87-Apr 90  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to predict the lung burden in rats and humans of diesel exhaust particles using a mathematical model. To study clearance, the authors used a compartmental model consisting of the nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, alveolar, and lung-associated lymph node compartments. The authors assumed a particle model made up of material components according to the characteristics of clearance: (1) a carbonaceous core or soot (80 percent of particle mass), (2) slowly cleared organics (10 percent of particle mass), and (3) fast-cleared organics (10 percent of particle mass). Kinetic equations of the retention model were first developed for rats. The lung burden calculations showed that although the organics were cleared at nearly constant rates, the alveolar clearance rate of soot decreased with increasing lung burden. At low lung burdens, the alveolar clearance rate was controlled by macrophage migration to the mucociliary escalator, whereas at high lung burdens, the clearance rate was determined principally by transport to the lymphatics. The retention model for rats was extrapolated to humans of different age groups. The reduction in the mechanical clearance in adult humans caused by exposure to high concentrations of diesel exhaust was much less than that observed in rats. The reduction in children was greater than that in adults. The authors combined the retention and deposition models to compute the accumulated mass of diesel soot and associated organics in various compartments of the human lung under different exposure conditions. The lung burdens of both soot and the associated organics were much higher in humans than in rats for the same period of exposure. Reductions in clearance caused by excessive lung burdens would not occur in humans if the exposure concentration were below 0.05 mg/cu m.

Yu, C.P.; Yoon, K.J.

1991-01-01

101

Diesel exhaust particle-induced airway responses are augmented in obese Rats.  

PubMed

Air pollutants and obesity are important factors that contribute to asthma. The aim of this study was to assess the airway responsiveness and inflammation in Otsuka-Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) obese rats and Long Evans Tokushima-Otsuka (LETO) nonobese rats exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima fatty rats and LETO rats were exposed intranasally to DEP and then challenged with aerosolized DEP on days 6 to 8. Body plethysmography, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and histology were performed. Enhanced pause (Penh) was measured as an indicator of airway resistance on day 9 and samples were collected on day 10. After exposure to DEP, the OLETF group exhibited a greater increase in Penh compared to that in the LETO group. Moreover, the BAL fluid in mice showed an increase in the total and differential cell counts in the DEP-exposed OLETF group compared to that in the DEP-exposed LETO group. Histological assessment of lung tissue from each group revealed that the DEP-exposed OLETF group tended to have increased inflammatory cell infiltrations in the prebronchial area. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, coactivator 1? messenger RNA was observed in the lungs of obese rats compared to that in nonobese rats following DEP exposure. These data indicate that the DEP-exposed OLETF group had increased airway responses and inflammation compared to the DEP-exposed LETO group, indicating that diesel particulates and obesity may be co-contributors to asthma. PMID:24536021

Moon, Kuk-Young; Park, Moo-Kyun; Leikauf, George D; Park, Choon-Sik; Jang, An-Soo

2014-01-01

102

Biophysical Assessment of Single Cell Cytotoxicity: Diesel Exhaust Particle-Treated Human Aortic Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a major source of traffic-related air pollution, has become a serious health concern due to its adverse influences on human health including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. To elucidate the relationship between biophysical properties (cell topography, cytoskeleton organizations, and cell mechanics) and functions of endothelial cells exposed to DEPs, atomic force microscope (AFM) was applied to analyze the toxic effects of DEPs on a model cell line from human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were also applied to further explore DEP-induced cytotoxicity in HAECs. Results revealed that DEPs could negatively impair cell viability and alter membrane nanostructures and cytoskeleton components in a dosage- and a time-dependent manner; and analyses suggested that DEPs-induced hyperpolarization in HAECs appeared in a time-dependent manner, implying DEP treatment would lead to vasodilation, which could be supported by down-regulation of cell biophysical properties (e.g., cell elasticity). These findings are consistent with the conclusion that DEP exposure triggers important biochemical and biophysical changes that would negatively impact the pathological development of cardiovascular diseases. For example, DEP intervention would be one cause of vasodilation, which will expand understanding of biophysical aspects associated with DEP cytotoxicity in HAECs.

Wu, Yangzhe; Yu, Tian; Gilbertson, Timothy A.; Zhou, Anhong; Xu, Hao; Nguyen, Kytai Truong

2012-01-01

103

Diesel exhaust particles modulate vascular endothelial cell permeability: Implication of ZO-1 Expression  

PubMed Central

Exposure to air pollutants increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Recent toxicity studies revealed that ultra fine particles (UFP, dp<100–200 nm), the major portion of particulate matter (PM) by numbers in the atmosphere, induced atherosclerosis. In this study, we posited that variations in chemical composition in diesel exhausted particles (DEP) regulated endothelial cell permeability to a different extent. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to well-characterized DEP (dp<100 nm) emitted from a diesel engine in either idling mode (DEP1) or in urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) (DEP2). Horse Radish Peroxidase-Streptavidin activity assay showed that DEP2 increased endothelial permeability to a greater extent than DEP1 (Control=0.077± 0.005, DEP1=0.175±0.003, DEP2=0.265±0.006, n=3, p<0.01). DEP2 also down-regulated tight junction protein, Zonular Occludin-1 (ZO-1), to a greater extent compared to DEP1. LDH and caspase-3 activities revealed that DEP-mediated increase in permeability was not due to direct cytotoxicity, and DEP-mediated ZO-1 down-regulation was not due to a decrease in ZO-1 mRNA. Hence, our findings suggest that DEP1 versus DEP2 differentially influenced the extent of endothelial permeability at the post-translational level. This increase in endothelium permeability is implicated in inflammatory cell transmigration into subendothelial layers with relevance to the initiation of atherosclerosis.

Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffrey; Yu, Fei; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

2010-01-01

104

Ultrafine particle size distributions measured in aircraft exhaust plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast-response measurements of particle size distributions were made for the first time in the near-field plume of a Boeing 737-300 aircraft burning fuel with fuel sulfur (S) contents (FSCs) of 56 and 2.6 ppmm, as well as in fresh and dissipating contrails from the same aircraft, using nine particle counters operating in parallel. Nonsoot particles were present in high concentrations,

Charles A. Brock; Franz Schröder; Bernd Kärcher; Andreas Petzold; Reinhold Busen; Markus Fiebig

2000-01-01

105

Nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles promote the growth of MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) cause many adverse health problems, and reports indicate increased risk of breast cancer in men and women through exposure to gasoline and vehicle exhaust. However, DEPs include vast numbers of compounds, and the specific compound(s) responsible for these actions are not clear. We recently isolated two nitrophenols from DEPs-3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol; PNMC) and 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP)-and showed that they had estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. Here, we tried to clarify the involvement of these two nitrophenols in promoting the growth of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. First, comet assay was used to detect the genotoxicity of PNMC and PNMPP in a CHO cell line. At all doses tested, PNMC and PNMPP showed negative genotoxicity, indicating that they had no tumor initiating activity. Next, the estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used to assess cell proliferation. Proliferation of MCF-7 cells was stimulated by PNMC, PNMPP, and estradiol-17{beta} and the anti-estrogens 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182,780 inhibited the proliferation. To further investigate transcriptional activity through the estrogen receptor, MCF-7 cells were transfected with a receptor gene that allowed expression of luciferase enzyme under the control of the estrogen regulatory element. PNMC and PNMPP induced luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner at submicromolar concentrations. ICI 182,780 inhibited the luciferase activity induced by PNMC and PNMPP. These results clearly indicate that PNMC and PNMPP do not show genotoxicity but act as tumor promoters in an estrogen receptor {alpha}-predominant breast cancer cell line.

Furuta, Chie [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Suzuki, Akira K. [Environmental Nanotoxicology Section, Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Gen [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li, ChunMei; Taneda, Shinji [Environmental Nanotoxicology Section, Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-8506 (Japan); Taya, Kazuyoshi [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)], E-mail: taya@cc.tuat.ac.jp

2008-08-01

106

Differential pulmonary retention of diesel exhaust particles in Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats have been used for understanding the mechanisms of variations in susceptibility to airborne pollutants. We examined the lung burden of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) following inhalation of diesel engine exhaust (DEE) in both strains. The kinetics of clearance was also examined after single intratracheal (IT) instillation of DEP. Lungs were analyzed for DEP elemental carbon (EC) after exposure to DEE (0, 500, or 2000 microg/m(3) 4 h/day, 5 days/week x 4 weeks). SH rats had 16% less DEP-EC at 500 and 32% less at 2000 microg/m(3) in the lungs, despite having 50% higher than the average minute volume. No strain-related differences were noted in number of alveolar macrophages or their average DEP load as evident from examining cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The kinetics of DEP clearance from lungs of male WKY and SH rats was studied following a single instillation at 0.0 or 8.33 mg/kg of DEP standard reference material (SRM 2975) from the National Institute of Standards Technology. SH rats cleared 60% DEP over 112 days while minimal clearance occurred from the lungs of WKY. The pattern of DEP-induced inflammatory response assessed by BALF analysis was similar in both strains, although the overall protein leak was slightly greater in SH rats. A time-dependent accumulation of DEP occurred in tracheal lymph nodes of both strains (SH > WKY). Thus, SH rats may clear DEP more efficiently from their lungs than normotensive WKY rats, with a small contribution of more effective lymphatic drainage. PMID:19635756

Saxena, Rajiv K; Gilmour, M Ian; Schladweiler, Mette C; McClure, Michael; Hays, Michael; Kodavanti, Urmila P

2009-10-01

107

Case-control study of diesel exhaust exposure and bladder cancer  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between bladder cancer and employment in occupations involving exposure to diesel exhaust was examined using data from a hospital-based case-control study of men aged 20 to 80 years in 18 hospitals in six US cities, from January 1981 to May 1983. In this analysis, 194 cases and 582 controls were compared according to occupation, smoking history, alcohol and coffee consumption, and various demographic variables. No difference was found in the proportion of bladder cancer cases employed in occupations with exposure to diesel exhaust compared to controls. This relationship did not change after taking smoking habits into account. Bladder cancer cases were significantly more likely to be current smokers of cigarettes than were controls.

Wynder, E.L.; Dieck, G.S.; Hall, N.E.L.; Lahti, H.

1985-08-01

108

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles and oxidative DNA damage.  

PubMed

Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from vehicle exhaust has been related to risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and cancer, even though exposure assessment is difficult. We studied personal exposure in terms of number concentrations of UFPs in the breathing zone, using portable instruments in six 18-hr periods in 15 healthy nonsmoking subjects. Exposure contrasts of outdoor pollution were achieved by bicycling in traffic for 5 days and in the laboratory for 1 day. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed as strand breaks and oxidized purines in mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood the morning after exposure measurement. Cumulated outdoor and cumulated indoor exposures to UFPs each were independent significant predictors of the level of purine oxidation in DNA but not of strand breaks. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of < or = 10 microm (PM10), nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or number concentration of UFPs at urban background or busy street monitoring stations was not a significant predictor of DNA damage, although personal UFP exposure was correlated with urban background concentrations of CO and NO2, particularly during bicycling in traffic. The results indicate that biologic effects of UFPs occur at modest exposure, such as that occurring in traffic, which supports the relationship of UFPs and the adverse health effects of air pollution. PMID:16263500

Vinzents, Peter S; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Mette; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Hertel, Ole; Jensen, Finn Palmgren; Schibye, Bente; Loft, Steffen

2005-11-01

109

Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract attenuates nasal allergic response to diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

The generation of oxidative stress by ambient air pollution particles contributes to the development of allergic sensitization and asthma, as demonstrated by intranasal challenge with well-characterized diesel exhaust particle (DEP) suspensions in humans. This effect is due to the presence of redox active organic chemicals in DEP, and can be suppressed by antioxidants and inducers of phase II enzymes in animals. In this communication, we determined whether the administration of a standardized broccoli sprout extract (BSE), which contains a reproducible amount of the sulforaphane (SFN) precursor, glucoraphanin, could be used to suppress the nasal inflammatory response in human subjects challenged with 300 ?g of an aqueous DEP suspension (equivalent to daily PM exposure levels on a Los Angeles freeway). SFN is capable of inducing an antioxidant and phase II response via activation of the nuclear transcription factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Previous studies have shown that 70-90% SFN delivered by BSE is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted in humans. An initial intranasal challenge with DEP in 29 human subjects was used to characterize the magnitude of the inflammatory response. Following a 4 week washout, a BSE that delivers a reproducible and standardized dose of 100 ?mol SFN in mango juice was administered daily for four days. The nasal DEP challenge was repeated and lavage fluid collected to perform white blood cell (WBC) counts. The average nasal WBC increased by 66% over the initial screening levels and by 85% over the control levels 24 hours after DEP exposure. However, total cell counts decreased by 54% when DEP challenge was preceded by daily BSE administration for 4 days (p < 0.001). Since the SFN dose in these studies is equivalent to the consumption of 100-200 g broccoli, our study demonstrates the potential preventive and therapeutic potential of broccoli or broccoli sprouts rich in glucoraphanin for reducing the impact of particulate pollution on allergic disease and asthma. PMID:24287881

Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Wong, Angela M; Lee, Tsz Ying Amy; Thames, Gail; Krak, Michael; Zhang, Yanjun; Nel, Andre

2014-01-01

110

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the

Rebecca J Sheesley; James J Schauer; Eric Garshick; Francine Laden; Thomas J Smith; Andrew P Blicharz; Jeffrey T Deminter

2009-01-01

111

Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: We undertook a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between occupational diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. METHODS: Thirty of 47 studies initially identified as potentially relevant met specified inclusion criteria. We extracted or calculated 39 independent estimates of relative risk and derived pooled estimates of risk for all studies and for numerous study subsets by using a random-effects model. We also examined interstudy heterogeneity by using linear metaregressions. RESULTS: There was substantial heterogeneity in the pooled risk estimates for all studies combined and for most subsets. Several factors consistent with higher study quality, however, contributed to increased pooled estimates of risk and lower heterogeneity, including (1) adjustment for confounding by cigarette smoking and other covariates, (2) having a lower likelihood of selection bias, and (3) having increased study power. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides quantitative support for prior qualitative reviews that have ascribed an etiologic role to occupational diesel exhaust exposure in lung cancer induction. Among study populations most likely to have had substantial exposure to diesel exhaust, the pooled smoking-adjusted relative risk was 1.47 (95% confidence interval = 1.29, 1.67).

Lipsett, M; Campleman, S

1999-01-01

112

Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from…

Mazer, Mary E.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Lamanna, Beth F.; Davison, Jean

2014-01-01

113

Cardiovascular Responses of Largemouth Bass to Exhaustive Exercise and Brief Air Exposure over a Range of Water Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the effects of exhaustive exercise and brief air exposure on the cardiovascular function of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides at four water temperatures (13, 17, 21, and 25°C). We used Doppler flow probes to monitor cardiac output and its components (i.e., stroke volume and heart rate) while we manually chased fish to exhaustion to simulate angling,

Steven J. Cooke; Kenneth G. Ostrand; Christopher M. Bunt; Jason F. Schreer; David H. Wahl; David P. Philipp

2003-01-01

114

Examination of cytokines and metals in exhaled breath condensate and lung lavage fluids after diesel exhaust exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology studies link human exposure to ambient air pollution with the development and exacerbation of cardiopulmonary disease. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant source of ambient air pollution, and thus may contribute to adverse pulmonary health effects. Previous human re...

115

CULTURE CONDITIONS AFFECT HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL RESPONSE TO DIESEL PARTICLE EXPOSURE IN VITRO  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant that may contribute to the health effects of particulate matter inhalation. In vitro studies have shown that DEP exposure induces pro-inflammatory proteins in human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) with varying...

116

Diesel exhaust particles modify natural killer cell function and cytokine release  

PubMed Central

Background Natural killer (NK) cells are an important lymphocyte population in the nasal mucosa and play important roles in linking the innate and the adaptive immune response. Their two main functions are direct cell-mediated cytotoxicity and the release of cytokines. They are important during viral infections and cancer. Due to their location in the nasal mucosa, NK cells are likely exposed to inhaled pollutants, such as diesel exhaust. Whether and how exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) affects NK cell function in the context of viral infections has not been investigated. Methods NK cells were isolated from peripheral blood obtained from normal healthy volunteers and subsequently stimulated with the viral mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pI:C), DEP, or pI:C+DEP for 18 hours. NK cells were subsequently analyzed for changes in surface marker expression, cytokine production, gene expression changes, and cytotoxic function using flow cytometry, ELISA, qRT-PCR, and cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay, respectively. Results Stimulation of NK cells with pI:C and pI:C+DEP, but not DEP alone, increased the release of IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFN-? and TNF-?. As compared to pI:C alone or pI:C+DEP, the release of IL-1?, IL-8 and TNF-? was significantly lower after DEP stimulation alone. Stimulation with pI:C alone increased the gene and protein expression of granzyme B and perforin, which was completely blunted by adding DEP. Addition of DEP further reduced CD16 expression in pI:C stimulated cells. Similarly, cell-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly reduced by the addition of DEP. Conclusions In the context of viral infection, DEP potentially reduces NK cells' ability to kill virus-infected host cells, in spite of normal cytokine levels, and this may increase susceptibility to viral infections . This reduction in the potential ability of NK cells to kill virus-infected host cells may increase the susceptibility to viral infections after DEP exposure.

2013-01-01

117

EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSIVENESS TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of diesel exhaust particles on human alveolar macrophage responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide S. Mundandhara1 , S. Becker2 and M. Madden2, 1UNC Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, 2US EPA, NHEERL, HSD, Chapel Hill, NC, US Epidemiological...

118

EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN MACROPHAGE RESPONSIVENESS TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN MACROPHAGE RESPONSIVENESS TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE S. Mundandhara1 and M.C. Madden2, 1UNC Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, 2US EPA, NHEERL, Human Studies Division, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Epidemiologica...

119

BIOASSAY-DIRECTED FRACTIONAL AND SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY OF AUTOMOBILE AND FORKLIFT DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Many pulmonary toxicity studies of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have used an automobile-generated sample (A-DEP) whose mutagenicity has not been reported. In contrast, rnany inutagenicity studies of DEP have used a forklift-generated sample (SRM ...

120

EFFECT OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN NASAL LAVAGE CELLS AND DNA ADDUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall aim of this study is to determine (using a nasal challenge model) the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on nasal responses including induction of inflammation, immune changes and DNA damage. We are also examining how treatment of DEP with ozone (oz-DEP)modify ...

121

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES AS ADJUVANTS IN ALLERGIC AIRWAY DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Description: Studies have shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) worsen respiratory diseases including allergic asthma. The adjuvant effects of DEP in the airways have been widely reported; however, the precise determinants and mechanisms of these effects are ill-defined. S...

122

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE COMPOSITION AND THE METHOD OF SONICATION INFLUENCE THE ADJUVANCY EFFECT AND TARC PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous reports have shown diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can act as an immunological adjuvant in asthma. Recent interest has focused on thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) as an important modulator of this effect. This study evaluated the adjuvancy effects of thr...

123

Synergistic Production of Lung Free Radicals by Diesel Exhaust Particles and Endotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested the hypothesis that free radicals were involved in the pathogenesis of lung injury caused by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Intratra- cheal coinstillation of DEP and LPS in rat lungs resulted in synergistic enhancement of free radical generation in the lungs. The radical metabolites were characterized as lipid-derived by electron spin resonance (ESR).

Toyoko Arimoto; Maria B. Kadiiska; Keizo Sato; Jean Corbett; Ronald P. Mason

2004-01-01

124

Enhancement of allergic inflammation by the interaction between diesel exhaust particles and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that fossil fuel combustion products act as adjuvants in the immune system and may lead to enhancement of allergic inflammation. Through this mechanism, particulate air pollutants may be an important contributor to the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In this communication we focus on the role of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) in

Andre E. Nel; David Diaz-Sanchez; David Ng; Timothy Hiura; Andrew Saxon

1998-01-01

125

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN A MURINE MUCOSAL SENSITIZATION MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies in humans and animals have shown diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can act as an immunological adjuvant to enhance the development of allergic lung disease and this effect is influenced by the chemical composition of the DEP. The adjuvancy of NIST SRM 2975 (NDEP) generated...

126

NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION.  

EPA Science Inventory

NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION. M.L. Block1,2, X. Wu1, P. Zhong1, G. Li1, T. Wang1, J.S. Hong1 & B.Veronesi.2 1The Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, RTP, NC and 2 National Health and Envi...

127

Photothermal Laser Deflection, an Innovative Technique to Measure Particles in Exhausts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Photothermal Laser Deflection (PLD) is an analytical technique to measure in real-time the mass concentration of particles and gaseous exhaust pollutants in a variety of combustion devices (e.g., gas turbine engines and rockets). PLD uses a pump laser to ...

C. F. Hess

1993-01-01

128

Effect of AC Electrostatic Precipitator on Removal Diesel Exhaust Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collection of low resistive particulate matter (PM) generated from automobile and marine diesel engines or diesel generators have been known to be difficult by the conventional electrostatic precipitators (ESP). The collection efficiency for two types ESPs such as conventional DC energized ESP (DC ESP) and rectangular-AC-waveform energized ESP (AC ESP) were investigated. The low resistive PMs agglomerate like a pearl-chain on the collection plate in DC ESP, so that these are detached from the collection plate by electrostatic repulsion force and wind force. The pearl-chain particles are changed the shape, which is such a spherical, by AC ESP. Therefore, the particle re-entrainment is suppressed by AC ESP.

Kawakami, Hitomi; Zukeran, Akinori; Yasumoto, Koji; Kubojima, Masaki; Ehara, Yoshiyasu; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

129

Quantification of 1-aminopyrene in human urine after a controlled exposure to diesel exhaust  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant source of air pollution that has been linked to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many components in DE, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are present in the environment from other sources. 1-Nitropyrene appears to be a more specific marker of DE exposure. 1-Nitropyrene is partially metabolized to 1-aminopyrene and excreted in urine. We developed a practical, sensitive method for measuring 1-aminopyrene in human urine using a HPLC-fluorescence technique. We measured 1-aminopyrene concentrations in spot urine samples collected prior to and during 24 h following the start of 1 h controlled exposures to DE (target concentration 300 ?g m?3 as PM10) and clean air control. Time-weighted-average concentrations of urinary 1-aminopyrene were significantly greater following the DE exposure compared to the control (median 138.7 ng g?1 creatinine vs. 21.7 ng g?1 creatinine, p < 0.0001). Comparing DE to control exposures, we observed significant increases in 1-aminopyrine concentration from pre-exposure to either first post-exposure void or peak spot urine concentration following exposure (p = 0.027 and p = 0.0026, respectively). Large inter-individual variability, in both the concentration of urinary 1-aminopyrene and the time course of appearance in the urine following the standardized exposure to DE, suggests the need to explore subject variables that may affect conversion of inhaled 1-nitropyrene to urinary excretion of 1-aminopyrene.

Laumbach, Robert; Tong, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Stern, Alan; Fiedler, Nancy; Kipen, Howard; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Lioy, Paul

2014-01-01

130

Exposure assessment of PM2.5 and urinary 8-OHdG for diesel exhaust emission inspector.  

PubMed

Animal studies have shown exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) to induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) and increase levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyquanosine (8-OHdG). Controversial results have been obtained regarding the effects of workplace exposure on urinary 8-OHdG level. This study assessed concentrations of environmental PM(2.5) in DEP (DEP(2.5)), personal DEP(2.5) and urinary 8-OHdG of diesel engine exhaust emission inspector (inspector) at a diesel vehicle emission inspection station (inspection station). The analysis specifically focuses on the factors that influence inspector urinary 8-OHdG. Repeated-measures study design was used to sample for five consecutive days. A total of 25 environmental PM(2.5) measurements were analyzed at 5 different locations by using a dichotomous sampler, and a total of 55 personal PM(2.5) measurements were analyzed from inspectors by using PM(2.5) personal sampler. During the sampling period, a total of 110 pre- and post-work urine samples from inspectors, and 32 samples from the control group were collected. Following age and sex matching between the inspectors and the control group, levels of urinary 8-OHdG were analyzed. Environmental and personal concentrations of DEP(2.5) were 107.25+/-39.76 (mean+/-SD) and 155.96+/-75.70 microg/m(3), respectively. Also, the concentration of urinary 8-OHdG differed significantly between inspector and control non-smokers, averaging 14.05+/-12.71 and 6.58+/-4.39 microg/g creatinine, respectively. Additionally, urinary 8-OHdG concentrations were associated with diesel exposure after controlling for smoking and cooking at home. Compared with the control group, the inspector displayed significantly increased levels of urinary 8-OHdG. Diesel exhaust is the single pollutant involved in the exposure of DEP(2.5) at the inspection station, as confirmed by the final results. PMID:19896169

Lee, Mei-Wen; Chen, Mei-Lien; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Yin, Xin-Jie; Mao, I-Fang

2010-01-01

131

Resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest during accidental hypothermia due to exhaustion and exposure.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old boy with accidental hypothermia and cardiopulmonary arrest due to exhaustion and exposure was resuscitated after warming measures -- hot wet towels, hot water bottles, and hot water enemas and gastric lavage -- had increased his rectal temperature from 25.2 to 28.0 degrees C. Despite prolonged cardiopulmonary arrest, recovery was almost complete, with no evident cerebral damage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures should not be abandoned until the body temperature is more than 30 degrees C, because the prognosis in cases of accidental hypothermia without associated disease is excellent if cardiac function can be re-established. PMID:880528

Bristow, G; Smith, R; Lee, J; Auty, A; Tweed, W A

1977-08-01

132

Resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest during accidental hypothermia due to exhaustion and exposure.  

PubMed Central

A 16-year-old boy with accidental hypothermia and cardiopulmonary arrest due to exhaustion and exposure was resuscitated after warming measures -- hot wet towels, hot water bottles, and hot water enemas and gastric lavage -- had increased his rectal temperature from 25.2 to 28.0 degrees C. Despite prolonged cardiopulmonary arrest, recovery was almost complete, with no evident cerebral damage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures should not be abandoned until the body temperature is more than 30 degrees C, because the prognosis in cases of accidental hypothermia without associated disease is excellent if cardiac function can be re-established. Images FIG. 1

Bristow, G.; Smith, R.; Lee, J.; Auty, A.; Tweed, W. A.

1977-01-01

133

Diesel exhaust particles induce the over expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in alvelor machrophage and failed to induce apoptosis through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10), including diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been reported to induce lung injury and exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alveolar macrophages play a major role in the lung's response to inhaled particles and...

134

Toll like receptor-3 priming alters diesel exhaust particle-induced cytokine responses in human bronchial epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Inflammation is considered central in the pathology of health effects from airborne particulate matter (PM). Preexisting inflammatory disorders, such as asthma, but also pulmonary infections, appear to be a risk factor of adverse health effects from PM exposure. Thus, to assess whether and how preexisting inflammation may sensitize lung cells toward additional proinflammatory effects of PM, human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were primed with the highly proinflammatory Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand, Poly I:C, prior to exposure with diesel exhaust particles (DEP). DEP-exposure alone induced increased gene-expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CXCL8 (IL-8) but did not affect expression of CCL5 (RANTES), while TLR3-priming alone induced expression of IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL5. DEP-exposure exacerbated IL-6 and CXCL8 responses in TLR3-primed cells, while TLR3-induced CCL5 was suppressed by DEP. TLR3-priming and DEP-exposure resulted in possible additive effects on p38 phosphorylation and I?B-degradation, while DEP rather suppressed ERK and JNK-activation. However, TLR3-priming elicited a considerable increase in p65-phosphorylation at serine 536 which is known to enhance the transcriptional activity of NF-?B. DEP-exposure was unable to induce p65-phosphorylation. Thus TLR3-priming may affect susceptibility toward DEP by activating both shared and complementing pathways required for optimal expression of proinflammatory genes such as IL-6 and CXCL8. The study underscores that primed "sick" cells may be more susceptible toward effects of particle-exposure and respond both stronger and differently compared to unprimed "healthy" cells. PMID:24709138

Bach, Nicolai S; Låg, Marit; Øvrevik, Johan

2014-07-01

135

Sickness Response Symptoms among Healthy Volunteers after Controlled Exposures to Diesel Exhaust and Psychological Stress  

PubMed Central

Background: Interactions between acute exposures to environmental chemical contaminants and psychological stress may be important in situations where they are likely to co-occur, ranging in intensity from daily urban living to participation in war. Modification of symptomatic responses by stress may play a role in medically unexplained symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposures. Objectives: We hypothesized that the combination of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and acute psychological stress would cause sickness responses in healthy volunteers. Moreover, these responses would be greater in individuals with self-reported prior chemical odor intolerance. Methods: One hundred adult subjects underwent 1-hr exposures to diluted DE and clean air control. Half of the subjects performed a public-speaking stressor task during the exposures. Subjects completed questionnaires to determine their Chemical Odor Intolerance Index score. Plasma cortisol, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and the severity of 35 symptoms were measured at time points before and after the exposures. Results: Subjects exposed to DE demonstrated small but statistically significant increases in severity for several symptom categories, including sickness response and upper respiratory, central nervous system, and total symptoms. The psychological stressor did not increase symptom severity independently or via interaction with DE. Subjects with prior self-reported chemical intolerance had more severe sickness response symptoms from DE. Conclusions: These results suggest that exposure to DE can cause acute sickness response symptoms and that these symptoms are also associated with increased levels of self-reported chemical intolerance. The results did not confirm our hypothesis that an acute stressor would increase sickness response symptom severity during the exposure.

Kipen, Howard M.; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Lin; Lioy, Paul J.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Gong, Jing; Kusnecov, Alexander; Fiedler, Nancy

2011-01-01

136

Pseudoelectret filter for micrometer-sized particles in exhaust gases at 210°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pseudoelectret fibers developed at the Applied Electrostatics Research Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, have been used to build an unlimited-life high-efficiency filter for micron-sized particles entrained in up to 300°C hot exhaust gas. This pseudoelectret filter has considerable advantages when compared to mechanical or conventional electret-type filters. In a comparable unblinded mechanical filter, the pressure drop

Ion I. Inculet; G. S. Peter Castle; Mircea Slanina; Mihai Duca

2002-01-01

137

Estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of 4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-nitrophenol (PNP) isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been identified as a vasodilator. PNP is also a known degradation product of the insecticide parathion. We used uterotrophic and Hershberger assays to study the estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of PNP in-vivo. In ovariectomized immature female rats injected subcutaneously with 1, 10, or 100 mg\\/kg PNP daily for 7 days, significant (P<0.05)

ChunMei Li; Shinji Taneda; Akira K.. Suzuki; Chie Furuta; Gen Watanabe; Kazuyoshi Taya

2006-01-01

138

MUTAGENICITY OF DIESEL-EXHAUST PARTICLE EXTRACTS COLLECTED UNDER SMOG-CHAMBER CONDITIONS USING THE 'SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM' TEST SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to detect the effect that different environmental conditions have upon diesel-exhaust organics. In this study, diesel-exhaust was injected into the Calspan smog chamber under different conditions, and the resulting particles were collected upon Pallflex gla...

139

Effects of diesel exhaust particles and carbon black on induction of dust mite allergy in brown norway rats.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) components of air pollution have been associated with mortality and health risks in susceptible populations including asthmatics. More than a decade of PM research has demonstrated that these effects do not occur indiscriminately and are related to particle size, surface area, and chemical composition. Experimental evidence in rodents indicates that inhaled or instilled diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) increase lung injury, inflammation, and allergic airway responses, and that ultra-fine carbon black (UFCB) particles cause more pulmonary inflammation than fine carbon black (FCB) particles in a dose-dependent manner. Our preliminary work determined that a dose of 100 mug of FCB, UFCB, or DEPs (NIST SRM 2975) was sufficient to enhance pulmonary inflammation in Brown Norway (BN) rats 24 hours after intratracheal (IT) instillation of the particles. In the current investigation, we sought to compare, on a mass basis, the effects of a 100 mug dose of these particles on allergic sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) antigen. Immediate airway responses (IAR) to HDM challenge and a battery of proinflammatory, allergic, and acute injury responses in the lung were then measured two and seven days post-challenge. DEPs exposure increased 8 of 10 responses including IAR and levels of IL-4, IL-13, TNFalpha, total protein, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). UFCB and FCB significantly enhanced 4 of 10 and 2 of 10 of these responses compared to saline, respectively. Among other responses that were not statistically elevated with particle treatment, mean values for FCB were higher than for UFCB. Particles administered prior to challenge rather than prior to sensitization did not significantly enhance any of these responses above levels of saline controls. We conclude that on a mass basis, DEPs had the greatest potential to enhance allergic induction, indicating that chemical composition is more important than particle size in determining potency for this health effect. PMID:18958658

Singh, Pramila; Madden, Michael; Gilmour, M Ian

2005-01-01

140

Polycyclic nitroarenes (nitro-PAHs) as biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust contains numerous genotoxic carcinogens. It is essentially unknown to which extent this source contributes to the total load of these chemicals in humans. One possible approach to the problem is to find suitable biomarkers. To this end five polycyclic mononitroarenes (nitro-PAH) were selected and methods developed to determine the sulfinic acid-type hemoglobin adducts they form in vivo. The nitro-PAHs are: 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, 9-nitrophenanthrene, and 6-nitrochrysene. Hydrolysis of the hemoglobin adducts yields the respective arylamines which were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The detection limit was 0.01-0.08 pmol/g Hb. Blood samples were analyzed from 29 bus garage workers, occupationally exposed to diesel exhaust, and from 20 urban hospital workers and 14 rural council workers as controls. Hb adducts above the detection limit were found in most blood samples. The most abundant cleavage products were 1-aminopyrene and 2-aminofluorene with levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.68 pmol/g Hb. However, there was no significant difference between the groups for 1-nitropyrene and 2-nitrofluorene supporting the conclusion that both are widespread environmental contaminants resulting in significant background exposures. A significant difference on a group from individuals from urban and rural areas was found only if all five adducts were added, this may indicate an additional exposure from traffic. The new specific nitro-PAH Hb adducts are proposed to be used as biomarkers to trace the sources and to identify above-background exposures. PMID:10224330

Zwirner-Baier, I; Neumann, H G

1999-04-26

141

[Characterization of airborne particles and exposure assessment].  

PubMed

The Authors draw the attention on the critical topics of the occupational exposure assessment according to the criteria of the UNI EN 689/1997: air sampling strategy to characterize spatial and time variability of pollutant concentrations. They present a preliminary scheme to identify the sources and the chemical agents in the workplace and lead into discussion of critical topics on sampling strategy, instruments and analysis for the measurement, the particle size distribution and the chemical characterization of inorganic particles (silica, ultrafine particles), organic (wood dusts) and fibers (asbestos, synthetic fibres). PMID:17144412

Bartolucci, G B; Cottica, D

2006-01-01

142

Nrf2 Is a Protective Factor against Oxidative Stresses Induced by Diesel Exhaust Particle in Allergic Asthma  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have shown that air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust particle (DEP), are implicated in the increased incidence of allergic airway disorders. In vitro studies of molecular mechanisms have focused on the role of reactive oxygen species generated directly and indirectly by the exposure to DEP. Antioxidants effectively reduce the allergic inflammatory effects induced by DEP both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, Nrf2 is a transcription factor essential for the inducible and/or constitutive expression of phase II and antioxidant enzymes. Disruption of Nrf2 enhances susceptibility to airway inflammatory responses and exacerbation of allergic inflammation induced by DEP in mice. Host responses to DEP are regulated by a balance between antioxidants and proinflammatory responses. Nrf2 may be an important protective factor against oxidative stresses induced by DEP in airway inflammation and allergic asthma and is expected to contribute to chemoprevention against DEP health effects in susceptible individuals.

Kawada, Tomoyuki; Azuma, Arata

2013-01-01

143

Influence of experimental type 1 diabetes on the pulmonary effects of diesel exhaust particles in mice.  

PubMed

Epidemiologically, exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality, and diabetics are especially vulnerable to effects of particles. This study was carried out to determine the respiratory effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP; 0.4mg/kg) on mice rendered diabetic by the injection of streptozotocin or vehicle (control). Four weeks following induction of diabetes, the animals were intratracheally instilled (i.t.) with DEP (0.4mg/kg) or saline. 24h later, the measurement of airway reactivity to methacholine in vivo by a forced oscillation technique showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in airway resistance in non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP versus non-diabetic mice exposed to saline. Similarly, the airway resistance was significantly increased in diabetic mice exposed to DEP versus diabetic mice exposed to saline. Nevertheless, there was no difference in the airway resistance between diabetic and non-diabetic mice after i.t. administration of DEP. Following DEP administration there were neutrophil polymorphs infiltration of pulmonary interalveolar septae and the alveolar spaces with many macrophages containing DEP in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice. Interestingly, apoptotic cells were only found in the examined lung sections from diabetic mice exposed to DEP. Total proteins and albumin concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, markers for increase of epithelial permeability, were significantly increased in diabetic mice exposed to DEP compared to saline-treated diabetic and DEP-treated non diabetic mice. Superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione concentration in BAL were significantly decreased in diabetic mice exposed to DEP compared to saline-treated diabetic and DEP-treated non diabetic mice. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) concentrations were significantly increased in diabetic mice exposed to DEP compared to saline-treated diabetic and DEP-treated non diabetic mice. We conclude that, at the dose and time point investigated, DEP equally increased airway resistance and caused infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung of both diabetic and non-diabetic mice. However, the occurrence of oxidative stress, the presence lung apoptotic cells and the increase of total proteins, albumin and TNF? in BAL fluid were only seen in DEP-exposed diabetic mice suggesting an increased respiratory susceptibility to particulate air pollution. PMID:23147376

Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Yasin, Javed; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Ali, Badreldin H

2013-02-27

144

Oxidative stress generated damage to DNA by gastrointestinal exposure to insoluble particles.  

PubMed

There is growing concern that gastrointestinal exposure to particles is associated with increased risk of toxicity to internal organs and carcinogenicity. The mechanism of action is related to particle-induced oxidative stress and oxidation of DNA. Observations from animal models indicate that gastrointestinal exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), fullerenes C60, carbon black, titanium dioxide and diesel exhaust particles generates oxidized DNA base lesions in organs such as the bone marrow, liver and lung. Oral exposure to nanosized carbon black has also been associated with increased level of lipid peroxidation derived exocyclic DNA adducts in the liver, suggesting multiple pathways of oxidative stress for particle-generated damage to DNA. At equal dose, diesel exhaust particles (SRM2975) generated larger levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in rat liver than carbon black (Printex 90) did, whereas exposure to fullerenes C60 and SWCNT was the least potent. This ranking of samples was also observed for oxidatively damaged DNA in cultured cells. The extent of translocation from the gut is largely unresolved. However, there is evidence indicating that gastrointestinal exposure to particulate matter is associated with oxidative damage to DNA and this might be associated with increased risk of cancer. PMID:22292440

Møller, P; Folkmann, J K; Danielsen, P H; Jantzen, K; Loft, S

2012-07-01

145

Effects of concentrated ambient particles and diesel engine exhaust on allergic airway disease in Brown Norway rats.  

PubMed

Increased concentrations of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm) are associated with increases in emergency room visits and hospitalizations of asthmatic patients. Emissions from local stationary combustion sources (e.g., coal-burning power plants) or mobile motor vehicles (e.g., diesel-powered trucks) have been identified as potential contributors to the development or exacerbation of allergic airway disease. In the present study, a rodent model of allergic airway disease was used to study the effects of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) or diesel engine exhaust (DEE) on the development of allergic airway disease in rats sensitized to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). The overall objective of our project was to understand the effects of PM2.5 on the development of OVA-induced allergic airway disease. Our specific aims were to test the following hypotheses: (1) exposure to CAPs during OVA challenge enhances epithelial remodeling of the airway and inflammation in rats previously sensitized to the allergen; and (2) exposure to DEE during OVA sensitization, or during OVA challenge, exacerbates epithelial remodeling of the airway and inflammation in rats. In the DEE studies, Brown Norway (BN) rats were sensitized with three daily intranasal (IN) instillations of 0.5% OVA, and then two weeks later were challenged with IN OVA or saline for 3 consecutive days. Rats were exposed to DEE diluted to mass concentrations of 30 or 300 microg/m3 diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) or to filtered air during either the sensitization or challenge periods. For the CAPs studies, the same OVA sensitization and challenge rat model was used but exposures to Detroit, Michigan, CAPs were limited to the OVA challenge period. Two separate 3-day CAPs exposures were conducted (week 1, high mean mass concentration = 595 microg/m3; week 2, low mean mass concentration = 356 microg/m3) during OVA challenge. In both the DEE and CAPs studies, rats were killed 24 hours after the last OVA challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and analyzed for cellularity and secreted mediators, and lungs and nose were processed for histopathologic examination and morphometric analysis of intraepithelial mucosubstances (IM). The results of our animal inhalation studies in the southwest (SW) Detroit community, an area with elevated ambient PM2.5 concentrations, suggested that, during allergen challenge, exposure to CAPs that were predominantly associated with emissions from combustion sources markedly enhanced the OVA-induced allergic airway disease, which was characterized by an increased infiltration in the lungs of eosinophilic and lymphocytic inflammation, increased IM in conducting airways, and increased concentrations in BALF of mucin-specific proteins and inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that urban airborne PM2.5 derived from stationary combustion sources (e.g., refineries, coal-burning power plants, waste-treatment plants) may enhance the development of human allergic airway diseases like childhood asthma. Previous animal inhalation studies in this community have also suggested that these fine, ambient combustion-derived particles may also exacerbate preexisting allergic airway disease. In contrast to our CAPs studies in Detroit, the controlled DEE exposures of allergen-sensitized BN rats, during either allergen sensitization or challenge periods, caused only a few mild modifications in the character of the allergen-induced disease. This finding contrasts with other reported studies that indicate that DEPs at relatively higher exposure doses do enhance allergic airway disease in some rodent models. The reasons for these disparities between studies likely reflect differences in exposure dose, animal models, the timing of exposures to the allergens and DEP exposures, the methods of allergen sensitization and challenge, or physicochemical differences among DEEs. PMID:20198910

Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Kaminski, Norbert E; Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald J; McDonald, Jacob D; Barrett, Edward G

2009-11-01

146

Bioreactivity of carbon black and diesel exhaust particles to primary Clara and type II epithelial cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To begin to elucidate the mechanisms of particle toxicity to the lung, the bioreactivity of four carbon black (CB) and diesel exhaust particles ((DEPs), a surrogate for particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter < 10 microns (PM10), were examined with primary cultures of Clara and type II epithelial cells. METHODS: The particles were extensively characterised by surface chemistry, size, and

S. A. Murphy; K. A. BeruBe; R. J. Richards

1999-01-01

147

Carcinogenic risk of hot-particle exposures.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that spatially non-uniform radiation exposures, such as those from small radioactive particles ('hot particles'), may be very much more carcinogenic than when the same amount of energy is deposited uniformly throughout a tissue volume. This review provides a brief summary of in vivo and in vitro experimental findings, and human epidemiology data, which can be used to evaluate the veracity of this suggestion. Overall, this supports the contrary view and indicates that average dose, as advocated by the ICRP, is likely to provide a reasonable estimate of carcinogenic risk (within a factor of approximately +/- 3). There are few human data with which to address this issue. The limited data on lung cancer mortality following occupational inhalation of plutonium aerosols, and the incidence of liver cancer and leukaemia due to thorotrast administration for clinical diagnosis, do not appear to support a significant enhancement factor. Very few animal studies, including mainly lung and skin exposures, provide any indication of a hot-particle enhancement for carcinogenicity. Some recent in vitro malignant transformation experiments provide evidence foran enhanced cell transformation for hot-particle exposures but, properly interpreted, the effect is modest. Few studies extend below absorbed doses of approximately 0.1 Gy. PMID:12729416

Charles, M W; Mill, A J; Darley, P J

2003-03-01

148

Novel object recognition ability in female mice following exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Recently, our laboratory reported that exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) for 3 months impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning ability and up-regulated the expressions of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of female mice. However, whether NRDE affects the hippocampus-dependent non-spatial learning ability and the mechanism of NRDE-induced neurotoxicity was unknown. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, middle-dose NRDE (M-NRDE, 47 ?g/m{sup 3}), high-dose NRDE (H-NRDE, 129 ?g/m{sup 3}), or filtered H-NRDE (F-DE) for 3 months. We then investigated the effect of NRDE exposure on non-spatial learning ability and the expression of genes related to glutamate neurotransmission using a novel object recognition test and a real-time RT-PCR analysis, respectively. We also examined microglia marker Iba1 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus using immunohistochemical analyses. Mice exposed to H-NRDE or F-DE could not discriminate between familiar and novel objects. The control and M-NRDE-exposed groups showed a significantly increased discrimination index, compared to the H-NRDE-exposed group. Although no significant changes in the expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits were observed, the expression of glutamate transporter EAAT4 was decreased and that of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 was increased in the hippocampus of H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the expression levels in control mice. We also found that microglia activation was prominent in the hippocampal area of the H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the other groups. These results indicated that exposure to NRDE for 3 months impaired the novel object recognition ability. The present study suggests that genes related to glutamate metabolism may be involved in the NRDE-induced neurotoxicity observed in the present mouse model. -- Highlights: ? The effects of nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. ? We investigated the effect of exposure to nanoparticles on learning behavior. ? We found that exposure to nanoparticles impaired novel object recognition ability.

Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin, E-mail: tin.tin.win.shwe@nies.go.jp [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16?2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305?8506 (Japan)] [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16?2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305?8506 (Japan); Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro [Center for Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16?2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305?8506 (Japan)] [Center for Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16?2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305?8506 (Japan)

2012-08-01

149

Short-term exposure of rodents to diesel exhausts: usefulness for studies of genotoxic and immunotoxic effects.  

PubMed

An exposure facility was tested with regard to the information obtainable from short-term animal experiments for the assessment of health hazards from automotive engine exhausts. Indicators of immunotoxicity and genotoxicity were studied in guinea pigs and mice, respectively, exposed for 2 weeks, 8 h/day, to ten times diluted exhausts from a one-cylinder research diesel engine running at constant load. Regulated and non-regulated pollutants were determined. Besides increased number of lavageable cells in the airways, exposed guinea pigs exhibited, after immunization and challenge to ovalbumin, reduced leukotrienes B4 and C4 in lavage fluid and reduced anti-ovalbumin IgG in serum. Absence of increased CYP1A activity indicated that the exposure was below the threshold for induction of these enzymes. Instead a certain reduction of this activity indicated interaction with active enzyme sites. In vivo doses of some reactive metabolites of low molecular mass were measured by adducts to hemoglobin. Doses from aliphatic epoxides were low, in accordance with low hydrocarbon levels in the exhaust. The levels of hemoglobin adducts from aldehydes showed no clearcut influences of exposure. Genetic effects determined by DNA fingerprint analysis were indicated. It is concluded that repeated dose inhalation exposure of small numbers of animals is a useful mode of exposure for studying parameters that may elucidate toxic effects of air pollutants emitted from automotive engines, with a possibility to evaluate engine and fuel with regard to health hazards. PMID:10227576

Nilsen, A; Trønnes, T; Westerholm, R; Rannug, U; Nilsen, O G; Helleberg, H; Kautiainen, A; Hedenskog, M; Törnqvist, M

1999-03-01

150

A comparison of genotoxicity of automotive exhaust particles from laboratory and environmental sources.  

PubMed

This research (1) ranked the genotoxicity of methylene chloride extracts of laboratory and environmentally collected particles and (2) evaluated the role of collection location and sample composition on genotoxic potency. Samples of exhaust from a spark-ignition automobile, light-duty diesel automobile, and a heavy-duty diesel engine operated in a laboratory on a dynamometer were studied, as well as samples taken in a highway tunnel and outside the same tunnel. The tunnel samples were collected 30 m inside or 56 m outside the exit portal at times when between 70%-95% of the traffic consisted of diesel trucks. In the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, each extract produced a dose-dependent increase in mutagenicity in strain TA-98 without addition of liver S-9 fraction. Extracts from two tunnel samples collected 1 yr apart, and extracts of particles collected outside the tunnel had similar mutagenic activity. The order of mutagenic activity per microgram of extract in TA-98 without S-9 from the lowest to the highest was environmental sample less than or equal to tunnel less than heavy-duty diesel less than light-duty diesel less than spark ignition. Addition of S-9 or testing in Salmonella strains resistant to the mutagenicity of nitroaromatic compounds (TA-98 NR and TA-98 1,8-DNP6) decreased the mutagenic response. With cell killing, sister chromatid exchanges, and mutations as endpoints in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), the order of potency was tunnel less than light-duty less than spark-ignition samples. All three extracts induced a similar amount of mitotic delay per microgram with or without S-9. Enhanced chromosome aberration frequency was detected only in cells exposed to extracts from spark-ignition exhaust. The data indicated that genotoxic activity was detected in each particle extract, that the potency ranking was similar using different genetic endpoints, and that the magnitude of the genotoxic potency was similar. PMID:6207015

Brooks, A L; Li, A P; Dutcher, J S; Clark, C R; Rothenberg, S J; Kiyoura, R; Bechtold, W E; McClellan, R O

1984-01-01

151

Filterable redox cycling activity: a comparison between diesel exhaust particles and secondary organic aerosol constituents.  

PubMed

The redox activity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) collected from a light-duty diesel passenger car engine was examined using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. DEP was highly redox-active, causing DTT to decay at a rate of 23-61 pmol min(-1) ?g(-1) of particle used in the assay, which was an order of magnitude higher than ambient coarse and fine particulate matter (PM) collected from downtown Toronto. Only 2-11% of the redox activity was in the water-soluble portion, while the remainder occurred at the black carbon surface. This is in contrast to redox-active secondary organic aerosol constituents, in which upward of 90% of the activity occurs in the water-soluble fraction. The redox activity of DEP is not extractable by moderately polar (methanol) and nonpolar (dichloromethane) organic solvents, and is hypothesized to arise from redox-active moieties contiguous with the black carbon portion of the particles. These measurements illustrate that "Filterable Redox Cycling Activity" may therefore be useful to distinguish black carbon-based oxidative capacity from water-soluble organic-based activity. The difference in chemical environment leading to redox activity highlights the need to further examine the relationship between activity in the DTT assay and toxicology measurements across particles of different origins and composition. PMID:23470039

McWhinney, Robert D; Badali, Kaitlin; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

2013-04-01

152

Comparative effects of inhaled diesel exhaust and ambient fine particles on inflammation, atherosclerosis, and vascular dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Ambient air PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m in diameter) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the underlying mechanisms affecting CVDs are unknown. The authors investigated whether subchronic inhalation of concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAPs), whole diesel exhaust (WDE), or diesel exhaust gases (DEGs) led to exacerbation of atherosclerosis, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and vascular dysfunction; and whether DEG interactions with CAPs alter cardiovascular effects. ApoE?/? mice were simultaneously exposed via inhalation for 5 hours/day, 4 days/week, for up to 5 months to one of five different exposure atmospheres: (1) filtered air (FA); (2) CAPs (105 ?g/m3); (3) WDE (DEP = 436 ?g/m3); (4) DEG (equivalent to gas levels in WDE group); and (5) CAPs+DEG (PM2.5: 113 ?g/m3; with DEG equivalent to WDE group). After 3 and 5 months, lung lavage fluid and blood sera were analyzed, and atherosclerotic plaques were quantified by ultrasound imaging, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stain), and en face Sudan IV stain. Vascular functions were assessed after 5 months of exposure. The authors showed that (1) subchronic CAPs, WDE, and DEG inhalations increased serum vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 levels and enhanced phenylephrine (PE)-induced vasoconstriction; (2) for plaque exacerbation, CAPs > WDE > DEG = FA, thus PM components (not present in WDE) were responsible for plaque development; (3) atherosclerosis can exacerbated through mechanistic pathways other than inflammation and vascular dysfunction; and (4) although there were no significant interactions between CAPs and DEG on plaque exacerbation, it is less clear whether the effects of CAPs on vasomotor dysfunction and pulmonary/systemic inflammation were enhanced by the DEG coexposure.

Quan, Chunli; Sun, Qinghua; Lippmann, Morton; Chen, Lung-Chi

2011-01-01

153

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RABBITS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rabbit fetuses. The pregnant does were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation cham...

154

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RATS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rat fetuses. The dams were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation chambers on days...

155

Particle exhaust schemes in the DIII-D advanced divertor configuration  

SciTech Connect

For density control in long-pulse operation, the open divertor on the DIII-D tokamak will be equipped with a baffled chamber and a pumping system. The throat of the baffle chamber is sized to provide optimal pumping for the typical plasma equilibrium configuration. Severe limitations on the toroidal conductance of this baffle chamber require the use of in-vessel pumping to achieve the desired particle exhaust of about 25 Torr{center dot}l/s. Two separate pumping schemes are considered: an array of titanium getter modules based on the design developed by the Tore Supra team and a cryocondensation pump. The merits and demerits of each scheme are analyzed, and the design considerations introduced by the tokamak environment are brought out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

1989-01-01

156

Enhancement of allergic inflammation by the interaction between diesel exhaust particles and the immune system.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that fossil fuel combustion products act as adjuvants in the immune system and may lead to enhancement of allergic inflammation. Through this mechanism, particulate air pollutants may be an important contributor to the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In this communication we focus on the role of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) in skewing the immune response towards IgE production and induction of allergic inflammation. We review experimental studies in animals and humans showing that DEPs enhance IgE production by a variety of mechanisms, including effects on cytokine and chemokine production, as well as activation of macrophages and other mucosal cell types. We discuss metabolic and cellular activation pathways linked to chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in DEPs and demonstrate how these molecular events may impact cytokine, chemokine, and accessory molecule expression in the immune system. PMID:9802360

Nel, A E; Diaz-Sanchez, D; Ng, D; Hiura, T; Saxon, A

1998-10-01

157

Variability in bioreactivity linked to changes in size and zeta potential of diesel exhaust particles in human immune cells.  

PubMed

Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IFN-?, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (-37 to -41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties. PMID:24825358

Sarkar, Srijata; Zhang, Lin; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Strickland, Pamela A Ohman; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lioy, Paul J; Tetley, Teresa D; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alex; Schwander, Stephan

2014-01-01

158

Variability in Bioreactivity Linked to Changes in Size and Zeta Potential of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Human Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IFN-?, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (?37 to ?41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties.

Sarkar, Srijata; Zhang, Lin; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Strickland, Pamela A. Ohman.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alex; Schwander, Stephan

2014-01-01

159

Hard metal exposures. Part 1: Observed performance of three local exhaust ventilation systems.  

PubMed

Not every ventilation system performs as intended; much can be learned when they do not. The purpose of this study was to compare observed initial performance to expected levels for three saw-reconditioning shop ventilation systems and to characterize the changes in performance of the systems over a one-year period. These three local exhaust ventilation systems were intended to control worker exposures to cobalt, cadmium, and chromium during wet grinding, dry grinding, and welding/brazing activities. Prior to installation the authors provided some design guidance based on Industrial Ventilation, a Manual of Recommended Practice. However, the authors had limited influence on the actual installation and operation and no line authority for the systems. In apparent efforts to cut costs and to respond to other perceived needs, the installed systems deviated from the specifications used in pressure calculations in many important aspects, including adding branch ducts, use of flexible ducts, the choice of fans, and the construction of some hoods. After installation of the three systems, ventilation measurements were taken to determine if the systems met design specifications, and worker exposures were measured to determine effectiveness. The results of the latter will be published as a companion article. The deviations from design and maintenance failures may have adversely affected performance. From the beginning to the end of the study period the distribution of air flow never matched the design specifications for the systems. The observed air flows measured within the first month of installation did not match the predicated design air flows for any of the systems, probably because of the differences between the design and the installed system. Over the first year of operation, hood air flow variability was high due to inadequate cleaning of the sticky process materials which rapidly accumulated in the branch ducts. Poor distribution of air flows among branch ducts frequently produced individual hood air flows that were far below specified design levels even when the total air flow through that system was more than adequate. To experienced practitioners, it is not surprising that deviations from design recommendations and poor maintenance would be associated with poor system performance. Although commonplace, such experiences have not been documented in peer-reviewed publications to date. This publication is a first step in providing that documentation. PMID:10750277

Guffey, S E; Simcox, N; Booth, D W; Hibbard, R; Stebbins, A

2000-04-01

160

Whole and Particle-Free Diesel Exhausts Differentially Affect Cardiac Electrophysiology, Blood Pressure, and Autonomic Balance in Heart Failure-Prone Rats  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies strongly link short-term exposures to vehicular traffic and particulate matter (PM) air pollution with adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, especially in those with preexisting CV disease. Diesel engine exhaust is a key contributor to urban ambient PM and gaseous pollutants. To determine the role of gaseous and particulate components in diesel exhaust (DE) cardiotoxicity, we examined the effects of a 4-h inhalation of whole DE (wDE) (target PM concentration: 500 µg/m3) or particle-free filtered DE (fDE) on CV physiology and a range of markers of cardiopulmonary injury in hypertensive heart failure–prone rats. Arterial blood pressure (BP), electrocardiography, and heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic balance, were monitored. Both fDE and wDE decreased BP and prolonged PR interval during exposure, with more effects from fDE, which additionally increased HRV triangular index and decreased T-wave amplitude. fDE increased QTc interval immediately after exposure, increased atrioventricular (AV) block Mobitz II arrhythmias shortly thereafter, and increased serum high-density lipoprotein 1 day later. wDE increased BP and decreased HRV root mean square of successive differences immediately postexposure. fDE and wDE decreased heart rate during the 4th hour of postexposure. Thus, DE gases slowed AV conduction and ventricular repolarization, decreased BP, increased HRV, and subsequently provoked arrhythmias, collectively suggesting parasympathetic activation; conversely, brief BP and HRV changes after exposure to particle-containing DE indicated a transient sympathetic excitation. Our findings suggest that whole- and particle-free DE differentially alter CV and autonomic physiology and may potentially increase risk through divergent pathways.

Farraj, Aimen K.

2012-01-01

161

Bioassay-Directed Fractionation and Sub-fractionation for Mutagenicity and Chemical Analysis of Diesel Exhaust Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Several types of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have been used for toxicology studies, including a high-organic automobile DEP (A-DEP) from Japan, and a low-organic forklift DEP developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (N-DEP). However, these DEPs were no...

162

Analysis of Particle and Vapour Phase PAHs from the Personal Air Samples of Bus Garage Workers Exposed to Diesel Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of particle and vapour phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from the diesel exhaust compounds in bus garage work were measured in winter and in summer. Five personal air samples were collected from the breathing zones of 22 garage workers every other day of consecutive weeks. Control samples (n = 22) were collected from office workers in Helsinki.

L. KUUSIMAKI; KIMMO PELTONEN; PERTTI MUTANEN; KIRSTI SAVELA

2003-01-01

163

Antiandrogenic activity of extracts of diesel exhaust particles emitted from diesel-engine truck under different engine loads and speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the alteration of androgenic and antiandrogenic activities by diesel engine conditions, we collected diesel exhaust particles (DEP) samples emitted from a diesel-engine truck under different conditions of engine loads and vehicle speeds, and DEP extract (DEPE) samples were prepared from each. The androgenic and antiandrogenic activities of the DEPE samples were examined using a prostate specific antigen (PSA)

Kazumasa Okamura; Ryoichi Kizu; Akira Toriba; Tsuyoshi Murahashi; Atsushi Mizokami; Kerry L. Burnstein; Carolyn M. Klinge; Kazuichi Hayakawa

2004-01-01

164

Airborne Concentrations of PM2.5 and Diesel Exhaust Particles on Harlem Sidewalks: A Community-Based Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residents of the dense urban core neighborhoods of New York City (NYC) have expressed increas- ing concern about the potential human health impacts of diesel vehicle emissions. We measured concentrations of particulate matter ? 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on sidewalks in Harlem, NYC, and tested whether spatial variations in concentra- tions were related

Patrick L. Kinney; Maneesha Aggarwal; Mary E. Northridge; Nicole A. H. Janssen; Peggy Shepard

2000-01-01

165

Exposure to volatile organic compounds for individuals with occupations associated with potential exposure to motor vehicle exhaust and\\/or gasoline vapor emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers who work near volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source(s), motor vehicle exhausts and\\/or gasoline vapor emissions, are suspected to be exposed to highly-elevated VOC levels during their work-time. This study confirmed this suspicion and evaluated the work-time exposure VOCs for traffic police officers, parking garage attendants, service station attendants, roadside storekeepers and underground storekeepers, by measuring the concentrations of six

Wan-Kuen Jo; Ki-Berm Song

2001-01-01

166

Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (<0.5-5 ?m) are abundant upstream of the DPF and are ash-free or contain notably little attached ash. Post-DPF soot agglomerates are very few, typically large (>1-5 ?m, exceptionally 13 ?m), rarely <0.5 ?m, and contain abundant ash carried mostly from inside the DPF. The ash that reaches the atmosphere also occurs as separate aggregates ca. 0.2-2 ?m in size consisting of sintered primary phases, ca. 20-400 nm large. Insoluble particles of these sizes may harm the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The DPF probably promotes breakout of large soot agglomerates (mostly ash-bearing) by favoring sintering. Noble metals detached from the DOC coating may reach the ambient air. Finally, very few agglomerates of Fe-oxide nanoparticles form newly from engine wear and escape into the atmosphere. PMID:24274188

Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

2013-12-17

167

A cryocondensation pump for particle exhaust in the D3-D tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For particle exhaust in the advanced divertor configuration of the D3-D tokamak, a cryopump with a pumping speed of approximately 50,000 I/s for D2 is being designed. The location of the pump inside the tokamak presents several technical challenges, viz., proximity to the high temperature plasma, intense pulsed magnetic fields (2T), electromagnetic forces that result when the plasma current of up to 3 MA abruptly collapses due to MHD instabilities, the requirement for the pump to be compatible with the tokamak wall conditioning glow discharge procedure, severe space limitations in and around the tokamak, restrictions imposed on the allowed materials, and the high degree of reliability needed for the application. A concentric coaxial loop with forced convection flow of two-phase (primarily liquid) helium is selected as the cryocondensation surface. The helium loop will be surrounded by a liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shield, which will be protected from energetic particles emanating from the divertor stroke region. This configuration will permit pumping at pressures of several mTorr, for pulse durations of 5 s, and regeneration of the pump between tokamak discharges. This paper describes the details of the design and the operating scenario of the cryopump.

Menon, M. M.; Owen, L. W.; Smith, J. P.; Schaubel, K. M.; Mahdavi, M. A.; Baxi, C. B.; Luxon, J.; Schaffer, M. J.

168

Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species during Interaction of Diesel Exhaust Particle Components with NADPH-Cytochrome p450 Reductase and Involvement of the Bioactivation in the DNA Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) after intratracheal injection, was suppressed by pretreatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) modified with polyethylene glycol (Sagai et al. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 14: 37–47; 1993), the possibility that superoxide could be enzymatically and continuously generated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP), was examined. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH) oxidation was stimulated during interaction

Yoshito Kumagai; Toyoko Arimoto; Masaru Shinyashiki; Nobuhiro Shimojo; Yumi Nakai; Toshikazu Yoshikawa; Masaru Sagai

1997-01-01

169

Evaluation of an exposure assessment used in epidemiological studies of diesel exhaust and lung cancer in underground mines.  

PubMed

NIOSH/NCI (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and National Cancer Institute) developed exposure estimates for respirable elemental carbon (REC) as a surrogate for exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) for different jobs in eight underground mines by year beginning in the 1940s-1960s when diesel equipment was first introduced into these mines. These estimates played a key role in subsequent epidemiological analyses of the potential relationship between exposure to DE and lung cancer conducted in these mines. We report here on a reanalysis of some of the data from this exposure assessment. Because samples of REC were limited primarily to 1998-2001, NIOSH/NCI used carbon monoxide (CO) as a surrogate for REC. In addition, because CO samples were limited, particularly in the earlier years, they used the ratio of diesel horsepower (HP) to the mine air exhaust rate as a surrogate for CO. There are considerable uncertainties connected with each of these surrogate-based steps. The estimates of HP appear to involve considerable uncertainty, although we had no data upon which to evaluate the magnitude of this uncertainty. A sizable percentage (45%) of the CO samples used in the HP to CO model was below the detection limit which required NIOSH/NCI to assign CO values to these samples. In their preferred REC estimates, NIOSH/NCI assumed a linear relation between C0 and REC, although they provided no credible support for that assumption. Their assumption of a stable relationship between HP and CO also is questionable, and our reanalysis found a statistically significant relationship in only one-half of the mines. We re-estimated yearly REC exposures mainly using NIOSH/NCI methods but with some important differences: (i) rather than simply assuming a linear relationship, we used data from the mines to estimate the CO-REC relationship; (ii) we used a different method for assigning values to nondetect CO measurements; and (iii) we took account of statistical uncertainty to estimate bounds for REC exposures. This exercise yielded significantly different exposure estimates than estimated by NIOSH/NCI. However, this analysis did not incorporate the full range of uncertainty in REC exposures because of additional uncertainties in the assumptions underlying the modeling and in the underlying data (e.g. HP and mine exhaust rates). Estimating historical exposures in a cohort is generally a very difficult undertaking. However, this should not prevent one from recognizing the uncertainty in the resulting estimates in any use made of them. PMID:22594934

Crump, Kenny; Van Landingham, Cynthia

2012-08-01

170

Lung cancer in heavy equipment operators and truck drivers with diesel exhaust exposure in the construction industry  

PubMed Central

Background: Several studies indicate that truck drivers have an increased risk of lung cancer, but few studies have examined lung cancer risk in heavy equipment operators. Workers in both occupations are exposed to diesel exhaust. Aims: To examine the incidence and mortality from lung cancer among truck drivers and among drivers of heavy vehicles. Methods: A computerised register of Swedish construction workers participating in health examinations between 1971 and 1992 was used. Male truck drivers (n = 6364) and drivers of heavy construction vehicles (n = 14 364) were selected as index groups; carpenters/electricians constituted the reference group (n = 119 984). Results: Operators of heavy construction equipment experienced no increased risk of lung cancer compared to risk among the carpenter/electrician referents (61 cases v 70.1 expected). However, a significant inverse trend risk with increasing use of cabins was apparent. Truck drivers had increased risks of cancer of the lung (61 cases v 47.3 expected) and prostate (124 cases v 99.7 expected), although only mortality for lung cancer was significantly increased. Comparisons with the general population showed similar results. Conclusion: Results are consistent with those of previous studies suggesting that heavy equipment operators with potential exposure to diesel exhaust may have little or no increased risk of lung cancer, although the use of cabins seemed to decrease the risk of lung cancer. The results for truck drivers are also consistent with previous reports of increased lung cancer risk among truck drivers exposed to diesel exhaust, as well as recent reports linking diesel exhaust exposure to prostate cancer.

Jarvholm, B; Silverman, D

2003-01-01

171

Adjuvant activity of various diesel exhaust and ambient particles in two allergic models.  

PubMed

In the framework of an EU study entitled "Respiratory Allergy and Inflammation Due to Ambient Particles" (RAIAP), various collected particulate matter samples were to be tested for their adjuvant potency in two animal models of allergy. A pollen allergy model in the Brown Norway (BN) rat and an ovalbumin model in the BALB/c mouse were used in this study to compare the discriminatory value of these two models and to evaluate them for later studies of collected RAIAP-samples. Two different sources of diesel exhaust particles (DEP I and DEP II ), a residual oil fly ash source (ROFA), and two sources of ambient particles (Ottawa dust, EHC-93, and road tunnel dust, RTD) were tested. Rats were sensitized intratracheally with Timothy grass pollen (Phleum pratense, 200 microl, 10 mg/ml) on d 0, challenged on d 21, and examined on d 25. Mice were sensitized intranasally at d 0 and 14, challenged intranasally at d 35, 38, and 41 (50 microl, 0.4 mg ovalbumin/ml), and examined at d 42. Particulate matter (PM) was administered either during the sensitization phase only or during the sensitization and challenge phases (for mice only) or during the challenge phase only. In the pollen model, only DEP I, but not DEP II, ROFA, EHC-93, and RTD, stimulated the immunoglobulin (Ig) E and IgG1 response in serum to pollen allergens. In addition to this adjuvant effect noted, no other biomarkers in lung or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed adjuvant activity in the pollen model. In the BAL of BN rats exposed to a combination of pollen and PM, the percentages of eosinophilic granulocytes were decreased compared to the BAL of BN rats immunized with pollen only. In the ovalbumin model, the IgE levels in serum were increased in mice after coexposure to ovalbumin and PM (including DEPI, DEPII, ROFA, EHC-93, and RTD) in the sensitization phase but not after coexposure during the challenge phase only. The inflammatory response was greater in the lung, predominantly the influx of eosinophilic granulocytes, as was observed by both histopathological examination and BAL analysis. In addition, BAL levels of inflammatory interleukin (IL)-4 were increased. Based on the IgE antibody response to ovalbumin, the ovalbumin model ranked the adjuvant capacity of the particles in the following order: RTD > ROFA > EHC-93 > DEPI > DEPII. In conclusion, the ovalbumin model is a sensitive system to detect adjuvant activity of airborne particles, whereas the pollen-induced allergy model in rat was less sensitive. PMID:12857633

Steerenberg, P A; Withagen, C E T; Dormans, J A M A; van Dalen, W J; van Loveren, H; Casee, F R

2003-08-01

172

A review of commuter exposure to ultrafine particles and its health effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine particles (UFPs, <100 nm) are produced in large quantities by vehicular combustion and are implicated in causing several adverse human health effects. Recent work has suggested that a large proportion of daily UFP exposure may occur during commuting. However, the determinants, variability and transport mode-dependence of such exposure are not well-understood. The aim of this review was to address these knowledge gaps by distilling the results of 'in-transit' UFP exposure studies performed to-date, including studies of health effects. We identified 47 exposure studies performed across 6 transport modes: automobile, bicycle, bus, ferry, rail and walking. These encompassed approximately 3000 individual trips where UFP concentrations were measured. After weighting mean UFP concentrations by the number of trips in which they were collected, we found overall mean UFP concentrations of 3.4, 4.2, 4.5, 4.7, 4.9 and 5.7 × 10 4 particles cm -3 for the bicycle, bus, automobile, rail, walking and ferry modes, respectively. The mean concentration inside automobiles travelling through tunnels was 3.0 × 10 5 particles cm -3. While the mean concentrations were indicative of general trends, we found that the determinants of exposure (meteorology, traffic parameters, route, fuel type, exhaust treatment technologies, cabin ventilation, filtration, deposition, UFP penetration) exhibited marked variability and mode-dependence, such that it is not necessarily appropriate to rank modes in order of exposure without detailed consideration of these factors. Ten in-transit health effects studies have been conducted and their results indicate that UFP exposure during commuting can elicit acute effects in both healthy and health-compromised individuals. We suggest that future work should focus on further defining the contribution of in-transit UFP exposure to total UFP exposure, exploring its specific health effects and investigating exposures in the developing world.

Knibbs, Luke D.; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Morawska, Lidia

2011-05-01

173

Synergistic production of lung free radicals by diesel exhaust particles and endotoxin.  

PubMed

The present study tested the hypothesis that free radicals were involved in the pathogenesis of lung injury caused by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Intratracheal coinstillation of DEP and LPS in rat lungs resulted in synergistic enhancement of free radical generation in the lungs. The radical metabolites were characterized as lipid-derived by electron spin resonance (ESR). The free radical generation was paralleled by a synergistic increase in total protein and by infiltration of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of the lungs. Experiments with NADP-reduced (NADPH) oxidase and iNOS knockout mice showed that NADPH oxidase and iNOS did not contribute to free radical generation. However, pretreatment with the macrophage toxicant GdCl(3), the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor allopurinol, and the Fe(III) chelator Desferal resulted in a marked decrease in free radical generation, lung inflammation, and lung injury. These effects were concomitant with the inhibition of XO activity in BAL, suggesting that the activated macrophages and the activity of XO contributed to the generation of free radicals caused by DEP and LPS. This is the first demonstration that DEP and LPS work synergistically to enhance free radical generation in lungs, mediated by the activation of local XO. PMID:15477498

Arimoto, Toyoko; Kadiiska, Maria B; Sato, Keizo; Corbett, Jean; Mason, Ronald P

2005-02-15

174

Oxidation of proximal protein sulfhydryls by phenanthraquinone, a component of diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain quinones that are capable of catalyzing the generation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems, resulting in induction of oxidative stress. In the present study, we explored sulfhydryl oxidation by phenanthraquinone, a component of DEP, using thiol compounds and protein preparations. Phenanthraquinone reacted readily with dithiol compounds such as dithiothreitol (DTT), 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL), and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS), resulting in modification of the thiol groups, whereas minimal reactivities of this quinone with monothiol compounds such as GSH, 2-mercaptoethanol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine were seen. The modification of DTT dithiol caused by phenanthraquinone proceeded under anaerobic conditions but was accelerated by molecular oxygen. Phenanthraquinone was also capable of modifying thiol groups in pulmonary microsomes from rats and total membrane preparation isolated from bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), but not bovine serum albumin (BSA), which has a Cys34 as a reactive monothiol group. A comparison of the thiol alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) with that of phenanthraquinone indicates that the two mechanisms of thiol modification are distinct. Studies revealed that thiyl radical intermediates and reactive oxygen species were generated during interaction of phenanthraquinone with DTT. From these findings, it is suggested that phenanthraquinone-mediated destruction of protein sulfhydryls appears to involve the oxidation of presumably proximal thiols and the reduction of molecular oxygen. PMID:11952333

Kumagai, Yoshito; Koide, Sachie; Taguchi, Keiko; Endo, Akiko; Nakai, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Shimojo, Nobuhiro

2002-04-01

175

EFFECT OF DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE ON MUCOSAL SENSITIZATION TO OVALBUMIN ANTIGEN.  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies in humans and animals have shown that diesel exhaust (DE) can act as an immunological adjuvant to increase the severity of Type I hypersensitivity immune responses. The mechanism by which DE causes these effects is unknown but thought to be associated with lung in...

176

Bioassay-directed fractionation and salmonella mutagenicity of automobile and forklift diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed Central

Many pulmonary toxicity studies of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have used an automobile-generated sample (A-DEPs) whose mutagenicity has not been reported. In contrast, many mutagenicity studies of DEPs have used a forklift-generated sample (SRM 2975) that has been evaluated in only a few pulmonary toxicity studies. Therefore, we evaluated the mutagenicity of both DEPs in Salmonella coupled to a bioassay-directed fractionation. The percentage of extractable organic material (EOM) was 26.3% for A-DEPs and 2% for SRM 2975. Most of the A-EOM (~55%) eluted in the hexane fraction, reflecting the presence of alkanes and alkenes, typical of uncombusted fuel. In contrast, most of the SRM 2975 EOM (~58%) eluted in the polar methanol fraction, indicative of oxygenated and/or nitrated organics derived from combustion. Most of the direct-acting, base-substitution activity of the A-EOM eluted in the hexane/dichloromethane (DCM) fraction, but this activity eluted in the polar methanol fraction for the SRM 2975 EOM. The direct-acting frameshift mutagenicity eluted across fractions of A-EOM, whereas > 80% eluted only in the DCM fraction of SRM 2975 EOM. The A-DEPs were more mutagenic than SRM 2975 per mass of particle, having 227 times more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-type and 8-45 more nitroarene-type mutagenic activity. These differences were associated with the different conditions under which the two DEP samples were generated and collected. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the health effects of DEPs requires the evaluation of DEP standards for a variety of end points, and our results highlight the need for multidisciplinary studies on a variety of representative samples of DEPs.

DeMarini, David M; Brooks, Lance R; Warren, Sarah H; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Gilmour, M Ian; Singh, Pramila

2004-01-01

177

Diesel exhaust particles in the lung aggravate experimental acute renal failure.  

PubMed

Inhaled particles are associated with pulmonary and extrapulmonary effects. Also, acute renal failure (ARF) is associated with increased mortality, related to pulmonary complications. Here, we tested the possible potentiating effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in an animal model of ARF induced by a single ip injection of cisplatin (CP, 6 mg/kg) in rats. Six days later, the rats were intratracheally instilled with either DEP (0.5 or 1 mg/kg) or saline (control) and renal, systemic, and pulmonary variables were studied 24 h thereafter. CP increased the serum concentrations of urea and creatinine and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in renal cortex. CP caused renal tubular necrosis; increased urine volume, protein concentrations, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity; and decreased urine osmolality. The combination of DEP and CP aggravated the CP-induced effects on serum urea and creatinine, urine NAG activity, and renal GSH. The arterial O(2) saturation and PO(2) were significantly decreased in CP + DEP versus CP + saline and CP + DEP versus DEP. The number of platelets was reduced in DEP compared to saline-treated rats and CP + DEP versus DEP alone or CP + saline. Increases in macrophage and neutrophils numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage were found in DEP versus saline group and CP + DEP versus CP. Histopathological changes in lungs of DEP-treated rats were aggravated by the combination of CP + DEP. These included marked interstitial cell infiltration and congestion. We conclude that the presence of DEP in the lung aggravated the renal, pulmonary, and systemic effects of CP-induced ARF. PMID:19797351

Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Zia, Shaheen; Yasin, Javed; Al Husseni, Isehaq; Ali, Badreldin H

2010-01-01

178

Exposure-Response Estimates for Diesel Engine Exhaust and Lung Cancer Mortality Based on Data from Three Occupational Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen. Objective: We derived a meta-exposure–response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimated lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Results: We estimated a lnRR of 0.00098 (95% CI: 0.00055, 0.0014) for lung cancer mortality with each 1-?g/m3-year increase in cumulative EC based on a linear meta-regression model. Corresponding lnRRs for the individual studies ranged from 0.00061 to 0.0012. Estimated numbers of excess lung cancer deaths through 80 years of age for lifetime occupational exposures of 1, 10, and 25 ?g/m3 EC were 17, 200, and 689 per 10,000, respectively. For lifetime environmental exposure to 0.8 ?g/m3 EC, we estimated 21 excess lung cancer deaths per 10,000. Based on broad assumptions regarding past occupational and environmental exposures, we estimated that approximately 6% of annual lung cancer deaths may be due to DEE exposure. Conclusions: Combined data from three U.S. occupational cohort studies suggest that DEE at levels common in the workplace and in outdoor air appear to pose substantial excess lifetime risks of lung cancer, above the usually acceptable limits in the United States and Europe, which are generally set at 1/1,000 and 1/100,000 based on lifetime exposure for the occupational and general population, respectively. Citation: Vermeulen R, Silverman DT, Garshick E, Vlaanderen J, Portengen L, Steenland K. 2014. Exposure-response estimates for diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality based on data from three occupational cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 122:172–177;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306880

Silverman, Debra T.; Garshick, Eric; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lutzen; Steenland, Kyle

2013-01-01

179

Vacuum cleaner emissions as a source of indoor exposure to airborne particles and bacteria.  

PubMed

Vacuuming can be a source of indoor exposure to biological and nonbiological aerosols, although there are few data that describe the magnitude of emissions from the vacuum cleaner itself. We therefore sought to quantify emission rates of particles and bacteria from a large group of vacuum cleaners and investigate their potential determinants, including temperature, dust bags, exhaust filters, price, and age. Emissions of particles between 0.009 and 20 ?m and bacteria were measured from 21 vacuums. Ultrafine (<100 nm) particle emission rates ranged from 4.0 × 10(6) to 1.1 × 10(11) particles min(-1). Emission of 0.54-20 ?m particles ranged from 4.0 × 10(4) to 1.2 × 10(9) particles min(-1). PM(2.5) emissions were between 2.4 × 10(-1) and 5.4 × 10(3) ?g min(-1). Bacteria emissions ranged from 0 to 7.4 × 10(5) bacteria min(-1) and were poorly correlated with dust bag bacteria content and particle emissions. Large variability in emission of all parameters was observed across the 21 vacuums, which was largely not attributable to the range of determinant factors we assessed. Vacuum cleaner emissions contribute to indoor exposure to nonbiological and biological aerosols when vacuuming, and this may vary markedly depending on the vacuum used. PMID:22084932

Knibbs, Luke D; He, Congrong; Duchaine, Caroline; Morawska, Lidia

2012-01-01

180

Impact of experimental type 1 diabetes mellitus on systemic and coagulation vulnerability in mice acutely exposed to diesel exhaust particles  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological evidence indicates that diabetic patients have increased susceptibility to adverse cardiovascular outcomes related to acute increases in exposures to particulate air pollution. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Methods To evaluate the possible mechanisms underlying these actions, we assessed the systemic effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in control mice, and mice with streptozotocin–induced type 1 diabetes. Four weeks following induction of diabetes, the animals were intratracheally instilled (i.t.) with DEP (0.4 mg/kg) or saline, and several cardiovascular endpoints were measured 24 h thereafter. Results DEP caused leukocytosis and a significant increase in plasma C-reactive protein and 8-isoprostane concentrations in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. The arterial PO2 as well as the number of platelets and the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles assessed in vivo were significantly decreased following the i.t. instillation of DEP in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. Both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase activities, as well as the plasma concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor and von Willebrand factor were significantly increased in DEP-exposed diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or DEP-exposed non-diabetic mice. The in vitro addition of DEP (0.25-1 ?g/ml) to untreated mouse blood significantly and dose-dependently induced in vitro platelet aggregation, and these effects were exacerbated in blood of diabetic mice. Conclusion This study has shown that systemic and coagulation events are aggravated by type 1 diabetes in mice, acutely exposed to DEP and has described the possible mechanisms for these actions that may also be relevant to the exacerbation of cardiovascular morbidity accompanying particulate air pollution in diabetic patients.

2013-01-01

181

Whole and particle-free diesel exhausts differentially affect cardiac electrophysiology, blood pressure, and autonomic balance in heart failure-prone rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies strongly link short-term exposures to vehicular traffic and particulate matter (PM) air pollution with adverse cardiovascular events, especially in those with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Diesel engine exhaust (DE) is a key contributor to urban ambien...

182

Roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Adjuvant Activity of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an imbalance in Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are thought to induce Th2-dominated IgE and IgG1 production. However, the roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subtypes in the increased immune responses to antigen in mice exposed to DEP are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 mAb abrogated the

Hidekazu Fujimaki; Naoya Ui; Hiroko Ushio; Keiko Nohara; Tomohiko Endo

2001-01-01

183

Involvement of oxidative stress in motorcycle exhaust particle-induced DNA damage and inhibition of intercellular communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the motorcycle exhaust particle (MEP)-induced genotoxic and non-genotoxic activity in mammalian cell systems. Initially, the capability of MEP to induce ROS was evaluated by using 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) to detect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A five-fold increase in H2O2 was observed in Chinese hamster lung V79 and human

Min-Liang Kuo; Shiou-Hwa Jee; Ming-Hong Chou; Tzuu-Huei Ueng

1998-01-01

184

Diesel exhaust particles directly induce activated mast cells to degranulate and increase histamine levels and symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ability of combustion products, such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), to modulate the immune system has now been firmly established. DEPs can synergize with allergen at the human upper respiratory mucosa to enhance allergen-specific IgE production, initiate a TH2 cytokine environment, and even promote primary allergic sensitization. Experiments suggest that these effects result from the initial activation of

David Diaz-Sanchez; Marisol Penichet-Garcia; Andrew Saxon

2000-01-01

185

The influence of occupational exposure to pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil on prostate cancer: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the relation between exposure to pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil in relation to prostate cancer incidence in a large prospective study. Methods: This cohort study was conducted among 58 279 men in the Netherlands. In September 1986, cohort members (55–69 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on potential cancer risk factors, including job history. Follow up for prostate cancer incidence was established by linkage to cancer registries until December 1995 (9.3 years of follow up). The analyses included 1386 cases of prostate cancer and 2335 subcohort members. A blinded case-by-case expert exposure assessment was carried out to assign cases and subcohort members a cumulative probability of exposure for each potential carcinogenic exposure. Results: In multivariate analyses there was a significant negative association for pesticides (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.95) when comparing the highest tertile of exposure to pesticides with no exposure. No association was found for occupational exposure to PAHs (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.31), diesel exhaust (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.06), metal dust (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.40), metal fumes (RR 1.11; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.54), or mineral oil (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.48) when comparing the highest tertile of exposure with no exposure. In subgroup analysis, with respect to tumour invasiveness and morphology, null results were found for occupational exposure to pesticides, PAH, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil. Conclusions: These results suggest a negative association between occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer. For other carcinogenic exposures results suggest no association between occupational exposure to PAHs, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, or mineral oil and prostate cancer.

Boers, D; Zeegers, M; Swaen, G; Kant, I.; van den Brandt, P A

2005-01-01

186

Exposure to heavy charged particles affects thermoregulation in rats  

SciTech Connect

Rats exposed to 0.1-5 Gy of heavy particles ({sup 56}Fe, {sup 40}Ar, {sup 20}Ne or {sup 4}He) showed dose-dependent changes in body temperature. Lower doses of all particles produced hyperthermia, and higher doses of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 56}Fe produced hypothermia. Of the four HZE particles, {sup 56}Fe particles were the most potent and {sup 4}He particles were the least potent in producing changes in thermoregulation. The {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar particles produced an intermediate level of change in body temperature. Significantly greater hyperthermia was produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 20}Ne, {sup 40}Ar and {sup 56}Fe particles than by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays. Pretreating rats with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin attenuated the hyperthermia produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles, indicating that prostaglandins mediate {sup 56}Fe-particle-induced hyperthermia. The hypothermia produced by exposure to 5 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles is mediated by histamine and can be attenuated by treatment with the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine. 15 refs., 4 figs.

Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Joseph, J.A.; Harris, A.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rabin, B.M. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)]|[Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1994-09-01

187

EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

188

Gluthathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione-S-transfera...

189

Rat lung tumors induced by exposure to selected poorly soluble nonfibrous particles.  

PubMed

Rodent bioassays have been used to assess the carcinogenicity of several inhaled, poorly soluble, nonfibrous particles that vary in toxicity and carcinogenic potency. There is substantial published information from chronic inhalation bioassays of diesel exhaust, carbon black, titanium dioxide, talc, and coal dust. This review summarizes data from studies with exposures for 2 yr or more using these 5 materials. The review has four objectives: (1) to summarize the current information available from these bioassays concerning exposure-dose-carcinogenic response in rats, (2) to summarize the pathologic and phenotypic features of the neoplastic response in rats, (3) to examine possible strain- and gender-related differences, and (4) to compare the neoplastic responses of rat to those of other species exposed to these materials. PMID:10715619

Nikula, K J

2000-01-01

190

A comparison of sampling and analytical methods for assessing occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in a railroad work environment  

SciTech Connect

Methods of assessing occupational exposure to diesel exhaust were evaluated in a railroad work environment. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH{reg_sign})-recommended elemental carbon and respirable combustible dust methods of sampling and analysis for assessing diesel exhaust were included in the study. A total of 215 personal and area samples were collected using both size-selective and non-size-selective samplers. The results demonstrate that the elemental carbon method is suitable for the railroad environment and the respirable combustible dust method is not. All elemental carbon concentrations measured were below the proposed ACG1H Threshold Limit Value (TLV{reg_sign}) of 0.15 mg/m{sup 3}. The concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) were also found to be below their respective TLVs. There is no correlation between elemental carbon or respirable combustible dust and the oxides of nitrogen. The elemental carbon as fraction of total carbon is about 13%, except for onboard locomotives where it is about 24%. Comparison of elemental carbon and respirable combustible dust measurements showed consistent relationships for most sampling locations with respirable combustible dust concentrations 12 to 53 times higher than the elemental carbon levels.

Verma, D.K.; Shaw, L.; Julian, J.; Smolynec, K.; Wood, C.; Shaw, D.

1999-10-01

191

Vehicle exhaust exposure in an incident case-control study of adult asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate whether traffic-related air pollution exposure at home increases the risk of asthma in adults and to compare two commonly used exposure variables and differences between urban and rural living. Incident cases of asthma and matched controls of subjects aged 20-60 yrs were recruited in Lulea û, Sweden. In total 203 cases

L. Modig; B. Jarvholm; E. Ronnmark; L. Nystrom; B. Lundback; C. Andersson; B. Forsberg

2006-01-01

192

Isolation and Quantitative Estimation of Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black Particles Ingested by Lung Epithelial Cells and Alveolar Macrophages In Vitro  

EPA Science Inventory

A new procedure for isolating and estimating ingested carbonaceous diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or carbon black (CB) particles by lung epithelial cells and macrophages is described. Cells were incubated with DEP or CB to examine cell-particle interaction and ingestion. After va...

193

Shielding from solar particle event exposures in deep space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical composition and intensities of solar particle event exposures of sensitive astronaut tissues are examined under conditions approximating an astronaut in deep space. Response functions for conversion of particle fluence into dose and dose equivalent averaged over organ tissues are used to establish significant fluence levels and the expected dose and dose rates of the most important events from

John W Wilson; F. A Cucinotta; J. L Shinn; L. C Simonsen; R. R Dubey; W. R Jordan; T. D Jones; C. K Chang; M. Y Kim

1999-01-01

194

Biomonitoring of diesel exhaust-exposed workers. DNA and hemoglobin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as markers of exposure.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust-exposed workers have been shown to have an increased risk of lung cancer. A battery of biomarkers were evaluated for their ability to assess differences in exposure to genotoxic compounds in bus garage workers and mechanics and controls. Lymphocyte DNA adducts were analyzed using the 32P-postlabelling method with butanol and P1 enrichment procedures. Hydroxyethylvaline (HOEtVal) adducts in hemoglobin were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) in urine determined using HPLC analysis. The exposed workers had significantly higher levels of all three biomarkers compared to the controls. Total DNA adduct levels were 0.84 fmol/micrograms DNA vs 0.26 in controls (butanol) and 0.65 fmol/micrograms DNA vs. 0.08 (P1 nuclease). Median HOEtVal adduct level in exposed workers was 33.3 pmol/g hemoglobin vs. 22.1 in controls. HOEtVal adducts correlated with HPU but not with DNA adducts. The levels of HPU in urine were 0.11 micromol/mol creatinine compared to 0.05 in controls. All three assays applied were sensitive enough to evaluate a low level of exposure to environmental pollutants, with postlabelling and GC-MS as the most sensitive assays. The study indicated that skin absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might be an important factor to consider when studying PAH exposure from air pollution sources. PMID:8685917

Nielsen, P S; Andreassen, A; Farmer, P B; Ovrebø, S; Autrup, H

1996-07-01

195

REDUCING DIESEL NOX AND SOOT EMISSIONS VIA PARTICLE-FREE EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel engines play an important role in the United States economy for power generation and transportation. However, NOx and soot emissions from both stationary and mobile diesel engines are a major contributor to air pollution. Many engine modifications and exhaust-after-t...

196

DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ISOKINETIC SAMPLING TRAIN FOR PARTICLE SIZE MEASUREMENTS USING EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A particulate sampling train has been constructed which satisfies the conflicting requirements of isokinetic sample extraction and constant flowrate through an inertial sizing device. Its design allows a variable fraction of the filtered exhaust gas to be added to the sample upst...

197

A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF UPTAKE OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES BY LUNG CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

While airborne particulates like diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) exert significant toxicological effects on lungs, quantitative estimation of accumulation of DEP inside lung cells has not been reported due to a lack of an accurate and quantitative technique for this purpose. I...

198

Estimates of particle formation and growth in coal-fired boiler exhaust—II. Theory and model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pre-existing model of plume particles is examined to determine its usefulness for simulating particle formation and growth in coal-fired, cyclone boiler exhaust. Of greatest interest are fine particles (diameters of 0.2-2 ?m) most likely to influence plume opacity. For the boiler examined, these particles consist primarily of water-sulfuric acid droplets formed from emitted SO 3. Theoretical consideration is given to nucleation in both homo- and bimolecular systems to allow comparison with the nucleation and growth formulations used in the plume particle model. Observations in plumes from a non-scrubbed boiler, under various operating conditions, are used to evaluate model performance. Model simulations were found to overestimate particle formation and growth rates and inaccurately reproduced observed particle size distributions. Some of this bias is likely due to the particle nucleation formulation in the model, but modeled growth processes also appear to be too fast. Current binary nucleation theory offers little reason to be optimistic that substantial model improvements can be made at this time.

Mueller, Stephen F.; Imhoff, Robert E.

199

Human visual response to nuclear particle exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments with accelerated helium ions were performed in an effort to localize the site of initial radiation interactions in the eye that lead to light flash observations by astronauts during spaceflight. The character and efficiency of helium ion induction of visual sensations depended on the state of dark adaptation of the retina; also, the same events were seen with different efficiencies and details when particle flux density changed. It was concluded that fast particles cause interactions in the retina, particularly in the receptor layer, and thus give rise to the sensations of light flashes, streaks, and supernovae.

Tobias, C. A.; Budinger, T. F.; Lyman, J. T.

1972-01-01

200

The Effect of In Utero Diesel Exhaust (DE) Exposure on Development of Allergic Inflammation in Offspring  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies have shown that pre-term birth weights and the incidence of asthma are increased in children born from mothers who live close to heavily trafficked roads and highways. In this study we examined the effect of inhalation DE exposure by pregnant mice on the subsequen...

201

PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO JP-8 JET FUEL VAPORS AND EXHAUST AT AIR FORCE BASES  

EPA Science Inventory

JP-8 jet fuel (similar to commercial/international jet A-1 fuel) is the standard military fuel for all types of vehicles, including the U.S. Air Force aircraft inventory. As such, JP-8 presents the most common chemical exposure in the Air Force, particularly for flight and gro...

202

Lung Particle Overload: Implications for Occupational Exposures to Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis, and even lung tumors developed in a number of chronic inhalation studies in rats with highly insoluble nonfibrous particles of low cytotoxicity. Concerns were expressed that these responses are due to excessive particulate lung burdens, and the term \\

G. Oberdorster

1995-01-01

203

Improvement of an efficient separation method for chemicals in diesel exhaust particles: analysis for nitrophenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, scope, and background  Diesel exhaust is believed to consist of thousands of organic constituents and is a major cause of urban pollution. We recently\\u000a reported that a systematic separation procedure involving successive solvent extractions, followed by repeated column chromatography,\\u000a resulted in the isolation of vasodilatory active nitrophenols. These findings indicated that the estimation of the amount\\u000a of nitrophenols in the

Yoichi Noya; Yusuke Mikami; Shinji Taneda; Yoki Mori; Akira K. Suzuki; Kazue Ohkura; Kouya Yamaki; Shin Yoshino; Koh-ichi Seki

2008-01-01

204

Gender analysis of musculoskeletal disorders and emotional exhaustion: interactive effects from physical and psychosocial work exposures and engagement in domestic work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between physical and psychosocial work exposures, engagement in domestic work and work-home imbalance in relation to symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders and emotional exhaustion in white- and blue-collar men and women. Three thousand employees from 21 companies were asked to answer a questionnaire on family structure, household and child care tasks,

Christina Ahlgren; Eva-Britt Malmgren Olsson; Christine Brulin

2012-01-01

205

Circulating factors induce coronary endothelial cell activation following exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust and nitrogen dioxide in humans: Evidence from a novel translational in vitro model**  

EPA Science Inventory

The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen di...

206

One versus five-days of exposure to varying concentrations of B100 soya biodiesel exhaust reveals a threshold concentration for increased sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia  

EPA Science Inventory

Although biodiesel (BD) is rapidly being considered as an alternative to diesel fuel, its health effects have not been thoroughly characterized. We previously used the aconitine challenge test to demonstrate that a single exposure to petroleum diesel exhaust (DE) increases the ri...

207

Prediction of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transport code analysis using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX is used to propagate an extrapolated particle spectrum based on GOES satellite measurements through the atmosphere to estimate aircrew radiation exposure for solar particle events. Comparison between code predictions and actual flight measurements made during ground level event (GLE) 60 and 65 are presented. Data from ground-level neutron monitoring stations around the world are also compared against the model predictions for various events. A computer code has been further developed implementing this methodology for routine aircrew exposure estimation from solar particle events to supplement those predictions from galactic cosmic radiation using the PCAIRE code in order to better determine the overall aircrew exposure at altitude.

Bennett, Les

208

Residential indoor and outdoor coarse particles and associated endotoxin exposures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that coarse particles (PM 10-2.5) have detrimental impacts upon health, especially for respiratory effects. There are limited data available for indoor residential exposures. Some data exist regarding the composition of this PM size fraction with emphasis on crustal elements and biological components. This study includes data from 146 homes sampled in Regina, Saskatchewan (SK) where 5-day integrated concurrent monitoring of indoor and outdoor coarse particles was conducted during the winter and summer of 2007. The coarse particle filters were subsequently analysed for endotoxin content to determine the contribution of this compound. Winter indoor geometric mean concentrations of coarse particles exceeded outdoor concentrations (3.73 ?g m -3 vs 2.49 ?g m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001); however the reverse was found in summer (4.34 ?g m -3 vs 8.82 ?g m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001). Linear regression indicated that winter predictors of indoor coarse particles were outdoor coarse particles, ventilation and presence of at least two or more occupants. During the summer, increased use of central air conditioning was associated with reduced coarse particles, while smoking and the presence of two or more occupants resulted in increased coarse particles. Endotoxin concentrations (EU ?g -1) were lower indoors than outdoors in both seasons. Spatial variability of ambient coarse particles was assessed to determine the suitability of using a single monitoring station within a city to estimate exposure. The coefficients of variation between homes sampled simultaneously and the central monitoring station were calculated (median COV in summer = 15% and winter = 24%) and showed significant variability by week, especially during the summer months, suggesting a single site may be insufficient for characterizing exposure. Future studies should consider daily measurements per home to understand shorter term exposures and day to day variability of these pollutants.

Wheeler, Amanda J.; Dobbin, Nina A.; Lyrette, Ninon; Wallace, Lance; Foto, Mark; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Kearney, Jill; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Harrison, Ian; Rispler, Kathleen; Héroux, Marie-Eve

2011-12-01

209

Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.  

PubMed

Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced mutagenic effects most effectively in the gas phase. Mutagenicity of particle extracts was less efficiently diminished. No significant differences of mutagenic effects were observed among the tested fuels. In conclusion, the benefits of the DOC concern regulated emissions except NO(X) as well as nonregulated emissions such as the mutagenicity of the exhaust. The reduction of mutagenicity was particularly observed in the condensates of the gas phase. This is probably due to better accessibility of gaseous mutagenic compounds during the passage of the DOC in contrast to the particle-bound mutagens. Concerning the particulate emissions DOC especially decreased ultrafine particles. PMID:22587467

Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

2012-06-01

210

Development of indigenous local exhaust ventilation system: reduction of welders exposure to welding fumes.  

PubMed

Two (portable and mobile) local exhaust ventilation (LEV) units were developed in collaboration with the Rural Technology Institute, Gandhinagar, India. Basically, each unit consists of three parts comprising an electric motor, a blower and a fume hood. In both units the motor is fixed in a rectangular iron frame in a foot-mount position and equipped compactly with a blower, which in turn is connected to a fume hood through a flexible hosepipe. The portable unit is light in weight (50 kg) and has a cone shaped metallic fume hood. The mobile unit, on the other hand, differs from the portable model with respect to its weight (150 kg), size, RPM, voltage requirement, hood shape and size, and has a motor enclosure. The efficiency of the portable and mobile units on trial bases was tested by measuring the manganese concentration as a reference metal in welding fumes generated by electric arc welding. The concentration of manganese (mean +/- SD) was 0.218 +/- 0.06 microg/m3 in the general environment. In the workplace area where joining of metal objects by welding was done, the concentration of manganese was found to be 0.63 +/- 0.09 and 3.75 +/- 0.56 microg/m3 at a distance of 5 m and 2 m away from the site of operation, respectively. In the breathing zone it was 22.16 +/- 20.90 microg/m3 which was reduced to 8.25 +/- 4.5 microg /m3 after application of a portable LEV showing about 63% removal of the manganese concentration from the breathing zone of the welder. In another experiment conducted with a mobile LEV unit for heavy-duty work, the concentration of manganese in the breathing zone without operating the mobile LEV was 70.06 +/- 37.38 microg /m3 but was lowered to 8.29 +/- 1.76 microg /m3 after operating the mobile LEV. This indicated an average removal of manganese content by about 88% from the breathing zone of the welder. In both the experiments locations of sample collection were similar. PMID:15308834

Zaidi, Shakeel; Sathawara, Natvarbhai; Kumar, Sunil; Gandhi, Sumitra; Parmar, Chimanlal; Saiyed, Habibullah

2004-07-01

211

Three-Dimensional Simulation of Exhaust Particle Dispersion and Concentration Fields in the Near-Wake Region of the Studied Ground Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the interaction effects of different vehicle speeds and exhaust tailpipe exit velocity and temperature conditions on the three-dimensional flow structure, exhaust particle dynamic behavior, formation and evolution processes (i.e., nucleation, coagulation, condensation, and dispersion), number and volume concentration, and nucleation rate fields in the near-wake region behind the studied ground vehicle in urban road microenvironment were

Y. H. Liu; Z. He; T. L. Chan

2011-01-01

212

Chrysotile asbestos exposure associated with removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) by mechanics: results of a simulation study.  

PubMed

For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were not detectable. PMID:16265462

Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C

2006-03-01

213

Lung oxidative metabolism after exposure to ambient particles.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the time course of the oxidative metabolism in mice lung after exposure to ambient particles (ROFA). Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (0.20 mg/kg). Animals were sacrificed 1 or 3 h after the exposure. Eighty percentage of increased oxygen consumption was observed in tissue cubes after 1 h of exposure. This observation was accompanied by an increased NADPH oxidase activity (40%) and mitochondrial oxygen consumption in state 3 (19%). NO production by lung homogenates was found to be increased by 43% after 3 h of exposure. Phospholipid oxidation in lung homogenates showed a 29% increase after 1 h of exposure, while a 30% increase in the carbonyl content was found only after 3 h of exposure. Our data show the relative importance of different sources of reactive oxygen species (NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial respiration) to the increased tissue oxygen consumption, oxidative damage and antioxidant status observed in an acute model of ROFA particles exposure. PMID:21856280

Magnani, Natalia D; Marchini, Timoteo; Tasat, Deborah R; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo A

2011-09-01

214

Acute effects of diesel exhaust particles and cisplatin on oxidative stress in cultured human kidney (HEK 293) cells, and the influence of curcumin thereon.  

PubMed

Particulate air pollution with particle diameters less than 2.5?m contribute to respiratory and extra-respiratory morbidity and mortality. We have recently reported the first in vivo experimental evidence that Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in the lung aggravated the renal, pulmonary, and systemic effects of cisplatin (CP)-induced acute renal failure in rats. This in vitro study sought to determine whether and to what extent does DEP exposure exacerbate the effects of CP-induced oxidative stress in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, and to examine if these effects could be mitigated/prevented with curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric). Cells viability, cysteine uptake and oxidative stress indices [glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase)] were evaluated in all study groups. DEP aggravated the CP- induced HEK-293 cells toxicity, as evidenced by decreasing cell viability and by inducing oxidative stress (GSH depletion, TAC impairment, and antioxidant enzymes inhibition). DEP, but not CP, significantly reduced cysteine uptake. Curcumin prevented the observed DEP and CP-induced cellular insults. These findings suggest that DEP augmented the CP-induced toxicity in HEK-293 cells. Curcumin exhibited a strong potential for protection against DEP and CP-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:24113306

Waly, Mostafa I; Ali, Badreldin H; Nemmar, Abderrahim

2013-12-01

215

EXACERBATION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO VARIOUS COMBUSTION SOURCE PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure of ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) has been shown to increase arterial plaque area and size. CAPs are a complex aerosol mixture consisting of wind-blown dust, emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, and secondary tr...

216

Estimates of particle formation and growth in coal-fired boiler exhaust—I. Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected in plumes from coal-fired cyclone boilers are examined to determine particle formation and growth. The emphasis is on fine particles (diameters of 0.2-2 m) most likely to influence plume opacity. For the boilers examined, these particles consist primarily of water-sulfuric acid droplets formed from emitted SO 3. Observations in plumes from SO 2-scrubbed and non-scrubbed boilers, under various operating conditions (with different coal types and SO 3 control methods), are used to interpret the influence of operating conditions on plume opacity. Results suggest that the plume particle size distribution is a complex function of boiler operating conditions. Particle concentrations in the critical size range affecting opacity do vary with the magnitude of SO 3 emissions, but absolute concentrations are generally less than expected. These data provide the basis for testing, as described in a companion paper, the performance of a plume particle model.

Mueller, Stephen F.; Imhoff, Robert E.

217

Involvement of sensory nerves and TRPV1 receptors in the rat airway inflammatory response to two environment pollutants: diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental chemical 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) is implicated in the exacerbation of airways diseases induced by exposure\\u000a to diesel exhaust particles (DEP), which involves a neurogenic-mediated mechanism. Plasma extravasation in trachea, main bronchus\\u000a and lung was measured as the local 125I-bovine albumin accumulation. RT-PCR quantification of TRPV1 and tachykinin (NK1 and NK2) receptor gene expression were investigated in main bronchus. Intratracheal

Aila Mirtes Teles; Yoshito Kumagai; Susan D. Brain; Simone A. Teixeira; Ana A. Varriano; Maria Alice A. G. Barreto; Wothan Tavares de Lima; Edson Antunes; Marcelo N. Muscará; Soraia K. P. Costa

2010-01-01

218

Organic extract of diesel exhaust particles stimulates expression of Ia and costimulatory molecules associated with antigen presentation in rat peripheral blood monocytes but not in alveolar macrophages  

SciTech Connect

We hypothesized that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in lung. The present study was designed to clarify the following about DEP: (1) whether it affects the expression of Ia and B7 molecules in alveolar macrophages (AM) as a mature cell or in peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) as an immature cell (2) if it affects the antigen-presenting (AP) activity of PBM (3) what component of DEP is responsible for the effects, and (4) whether the effect of DEP is related to oxidative stress. DEP was extracted with methylene chloride. Cells were exposed to whole DEP, organic extract, or residual particles for 24 h. Cell-surface molecules were measured by flow cytometry. AP activity was assessed by antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Whole DEP or organic extract significantly increased the expression of Ia and B7 molecules on PBM but not on AM. No significant effect of residual particles was observed. A low concentration of organic extract also increased the AP activity of PBM. When the induction of an antioxidative enzyme was assessed, heme oxygenase-1 protein was found to be significantly increased by exposure to whole DEP, and the organic extract was more effective than the residual particles. Furthermore, the organic extract-induced expression of Ia antigen on PBM was reduced by the addition of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that DEP may act on immature APC and enhance their AP activity and that the action contributing to oxidative stress may be mediated by organic compounds of DEP.

Koike, Eiko [Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) Research Project, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)]. E-mail: ekoike@nies.go.jp; Kobayashi, Takahiro [Environmental Health Sciences Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

2005-12-15

219

Exposure to dust and particle-associated 1-nitropyrene of drivers of diesel-powered equipment in underground mining.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted in two mines in order to determine the most suitable strategy for ambient exposure assessment in the framework of a European study aimed at validation of biological monitoring approaches for diesel exhaust (BIOMODEM). Exposure to dust and particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) was studied in 20 miners of black coal by the long wall method (Czech Republic) and in 20 workers in oil shale mining by the room and pillar method (Estonia). The study in the oil shale mine was extended to include 100 workers in a second phase (main study). In each mine half of the study population worked underground as drivers of diesel-powered trains (black coal) and excavators (oil shale). The other half consisted of workers occupied in various non-diesel production assignments. Exposure to diesel exhaust was studied by measurement of inhalable and respirable dust at fixed locations and by personal air sampling of respirable dust. The ratio of geometric mean inhalable to respirable dust concentration was approximately two to one. The underground/surface ratio of respirable dust concentrations measured at fixed locations and in the breathing zones of the workers was 2-fold or greater. Respirable dust was 2- to 3-fold higher in the breathing zone than at fixed sampling locations. The 1-NP content in these dust fractions was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and ranged from 0.003 to 42.2 ng/m(3) in the breathing zones of the workers. In mine dust no 1-NP was detected. In both mines 1-NP was observed to be primarily associated with respirable particles. The 1-NP concentrations were also higher underground than on the surface (2- to 3-fold in the coal mine and 10-fold or more in the oil shale mine). Concentrations of 1-NP in the breathing zones were also higher than at fixed sites (2.5-fold in the coal mine and 10-fold in the oil shale mine). For individual exposure assessment personal air sampling is preferred over air sampling at fixed sites. This study also suggests that particle-associated 1-NP much better reflects the ambient exposure to diesel exhaust particles than dust concentrations. Therefore, measurement of particle-associated 1-NP is preferred over measurement of dust concentrations by gravimetry, when linking ambient exposure to biomonitoring outcomes such as protein and DNA adducts and excretion of urinary metabolites of genotoxic substances. PMID:12855488

Scheepers, P T J; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Anzion, R; Dahmann, D; Poole, J; Bos, R P

2003-07-01

220

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ENHANCE INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIVITY BY INCREASING VIRUS ATTACHMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite vaccination and antiviral therapies, influenza infections continue to cause large scale morbidity and mortality every year. Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the incidence and severity of influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air polluta...

221

Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS.  

PubMed

Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment. Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. PMID:24913859

Dutouquet, C; Gallou, G; Le Bihan, O; Sirven, J B; Dermigny, A; Torralba, B; Frejafon, E

2014-09-01

222

Some aspects of the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pah) between particles and gas phase from diluted gasoline exhausts generated with the use of a dilution tunnel, and its validity for measurement in ambient air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) originating from diluted gasoline exhausts is compared with that of ambient air samples. The dilution technique used for sampling of vehicle exhausts generates particles with a PAH profile similar to that of ambient air particles. It is demonstrated that 2-4-ring PAH originating from gasoline-fueled vehicle exhausts are mainly in the gas phase in the urban street environment. In the case of diesel vehicles, a substantial part of the low molecular weight PAH are adsorbed on the exhaust particles.

Westerholm, Roger; Stenberg, Ulf; Alsberg, Tomas

223

Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

1978-01-01

224

Effects of dilution on fine particle mass and partitioning of semivolatile organics in diesel exhaust and wood smoke.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of dilution on fine particle mass emissions from a diesel engine and wood stove. Filter measurements were made simultaneously using three dilution sampling systems operating at dilution ratios ranging from 20:1 to 510:1. Denuders and backup filters were used to quantify organic sampling artifacts. For the diesel engine operating at low load and wood combustion, large decreases in fine particle mass emissions were observed with increases in dilution. For example, the PM2.5 mass emission rate from a diesel engine operating at low load decreased by 50% when the dilution ratio was increased from 20:1 to 350:1. Measurements of organic and elemental carbon indicate that the changes in fine particle mass with dilution are caused by changes in partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds. At low levels of dilution semivolatile species largely occur in the particle phase, but increasing dilution reduces the concentration of semivolatile species, shifting this material to the gas phase in order to maintain phase equilibrium. Emissions of elemental carbon do not vary with dilution. Organic sampling artifacts are shown to vary with dilution because of the combination of changes in partitioning coupled with adsorption of gas-phase organics by quartz filters. The fine particle mass emissions from the diesel engine operating at medium load did not vary with dilution because of the lower emissions of semivolatile material and higher emissions of elemental carbon. To measure partitioning of semivolatile materials under atmospheric conditions, partitioning theory indicates that dilution samplers need to be operated such that the diluted exhaust achieves atmospheric levels of dilution. Too little dilution can potentially overestimate the fine particle mass emissions, and too much dilution (with clean air) can underestimate them. PMID:16433346

Lipsky, Eric M; Robinson, Allen L

2006-01-01

225

DIESEL PARTICLE GENERATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND DIRECT ANIMAL EXPOSURE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation of diesel exhaust is associated with the development of asthma as well as other adverse health effects. Studies have also demonstrated that diesel exhaust induces pulmonary changes that worsen asthmatic responses to respiratory allergens. This paper describes the des...

226

The study of heat transfer for nanofluid with carbon nano particle in an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A carbon nanofluid was adapted to examine the characteristics of its cooling performance in an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler, compared with that of the usual working fluid water. After steady state, the heat transfer rate of water became nearly constant; however, that of the nanofluid showed a slight increase, suggesting that something happened to the nanofluid. The result shows that the cooling performance of the carbon nanofluid was a little better than that of water; however, its performance data improved with time while those of water were stable. It shows that assembly of the carbon nanoparticles changed with its circulation through the EGR cooler and the shape of the particle assembly depended on the dispersion method employed.

Kim, Seongsoo; Chung, Hanshik; Jeong, Hyomin; Lee, Byungho; Ochirkhuyag, Bayanjargal; Lee, Jehyun; Choi, Heekyu

2013-07-01

227

Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987–2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen–Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions – temperatures of 25–100 °C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1–600 ?g m?3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution can be used to quantitatively describe the gas-particle partitioning of the entire test fleet. This distribution is designed to be applied to quartz filter POA emission factors in order to update emissions inventories for use in chemical transport models.

May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

2013-10-01

228

Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1990, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recognized the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. In Canada, a Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular was issued by Transport Canada suggesting that action should be taken to manage such exposure. In anticipation of possible regulations on exposure of Canadian-based aircrew in the near future, an extensive study was carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada to measure the radiation exposure during commercial flights. The radiation exposure to aircrew is a result of a complex mixed-radiation field resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei are responsible for GCRs which consist of 90% protons, 9% alpha particles, and 1% heavy nuclei. While they have a fairly constant fluence rate, their interaction with the magnetic field of the Earth varies throughout the solar cycles, which has a period of approximately 11 years. SEPs are highly sporadic events that are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This type of exposure may be of concern to certain aircrew members, such as pregnant flight crew, for which the annual effective dose is limited to 1 mSv over the remainder of the pregnancy. The composition of SEPs is very similar to GCRs, in that they consist of mostly protons, some alpha particles and a few heavy nuclei, but with a softer energy spectrum. An additional factor when analysing SEPs is the effect of flare anisotropy. This refers to the way charged particles are transported through the Earth's magnetosphere in an anisotropic fashion. Solar flares that are fairly isotropic produce a uniform radiation exposure for areas that have similar geomagnetic shielding, while highly anisotropic events produce variable exposures at different locations on the Earth. Studies of neutron monitor count rates from detectors sharing similar geomagnetic shielding properties show a very different response during anisotropic events, leading to variations in aircrew radiation doses that may be significant for dose assessment. To estimate the additional exposure due to solar flares, a model was developed using a Monte-Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX. The model transports an extrapolated particle spectrum based on satellite measurements through the atmosphere using the MCNPX analysis. This code produces the estimated flux at a specific altitude where radiation dose conversion coefficients are applied to convert the particle flux into effective and ambient dose-equivalent rates. A cut-off rigidity model accounts for the shielding effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Comparisons were made between the model predictions and actual flight measurements taken with various types of instruments used to measure the mixed radiation field during Ground Level Enhancements 60 and 65. An anisotropy analysis that uses neutron monitor responses and the pitch angle distribution of energetic solar particles was used to identify particle anisotropy for a solar event in December 2006. In anticipation of future commercial use, a computer code has been developed to implement the radiation dose assessment model for routine analysis. Keywords: Radiation Dosimetry, Radiation Protection, Space Physics.

Al Anid, Hani Khaled

229

INHALATION OF OZONE AND DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP) INDUCES ACUTE AND REVERSIBLE CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES  

EPA Science Inventory

We have recently shown that episodic but not acute exposure to ozone or DEP induces vascular effects that are associated with the loss of cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acids (DEP 2.0 mg/m3 > ozone, 0.4 ppm). In this study we determined ozone and DEP-induced cardiac gen...

230

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL

2012-01-01

231

Real-time Characterization of Particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Aerosols and From Motor-Vehicles Exhausts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the spring of 2007 a diffusion charger (DC), a photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS), and a condensation particle counter (CPC) were operated a) in Wilmington (CA), an urban area near the Los Angeles port heavily influenced by a mix of industrial and gasoline- / diesel-fuelled vehicle emissions, and b) at the California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Test Laboratory (HDETL), a dynamometer testing facility in downtown Los Angeles (CA). During the dynamometer tests, we characterized the exhausts of several individual types of vehicles, equipped with different emission control technologies, and operated under different driving conditions. Information about the chemical composition, active surface area, and particle number concentration from the PAS, DC, and CPC were combined to identify the main chemical and physical characteristics of the studied aerosols. In particular, the ratio between the PAS and the DC signals (PAS/DC) provided a reliable measurement of the amount of particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (pPAH) per unit area of the active surface of the particles. This quantity may be directly related to the amount of pPAHs transported into the human respiratory tract. Plots of the PAS/DC ratio versus the average surface particle diameter (Dp; estimated by combining DC and CPC measurements) were then used to distinguish between the presence/absence of nuclei mode particles and the presence/absence of an adsorbed layer on accumulation mode particles, for both ambient and dynamometer-tests data. All results were then complemented with measurements of the particle size distribution (SMPS) and of the black carbon (BC) aerosol content to obtain further insights on the pPAHs emitted by motor-vehicles and other sources. Integrated 24-h filter samples were also collected in Wilmington, solvent extracted and analyzed by GC/MS to determine the relative concentrations of the 11 most abundant pPAHs found at the urban site. Finally, these results were used to establish correlations between the concentrations of each individual PAH species and the measured PAS signal (from fA to ? g/m3).

Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Sioutas, C.

2007-12-01

232

Sampling submicrometer particles suspended in near sonic and supersonic free jets. [from GTE exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerosols containing solid, spherical stearic acid particles with a mean diameter of 0.8 micron and a geometric standard deviation of 1.28 were sampled with small bore front-facing aspirating probes in near-sonic and supersonic unheated free jets. The results are compared to compute the sampling error associated with a high-speed jet sample.

Martone, J. A.; Daley, P. S.; Boubel, R. W.

1980-01-01

233

Comparison of the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel exhaust using a dilution tailpipe sampler and an in-plume sampler during on-road operation.  

PubMed

Originally constructed to develop gaseous emission factors for heavy-duty diesel trucks, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility has been modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentation. An electrical low-pressure impactor designed to continuously measure and record size distribution data was used to monitor the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel truck exhaust. For this study, which involved a high-mileage (900,000 mi) truck running at full load, samples were collected by two different methods. One sample was obtained directly from the exhaust stack using an adaptation of the University of Minnesota's air-ejector-based mini-dilution sampler. The second sample was pulled from the plume just above the enclosed trailer, at a point approximately 11 m from the exhaust discharge. Typical dilution ratios of about 300:1 were obtained for both the dilution and plume sampling systems. Hundreds of particle size distributions were obtained at each sampling location. These were compared both selectively and cumulatively to evaluate the performance of the dilution system in simulating real-world exhaust plumes. The data show that, in its current residence-time configuration, the dilution system imposes a statistically significant bias toward smaller particles, with substantially more nanoparticles being collected than from the plume sample. PMID:11002602

Brown, J E; Clayton, M J; Harris, D B; King, F G

2000-08-01

234

Endothelial-constitutive nitric oxide synthase exists in airways and diesel exhaust particles inhibit the effect of nitric oxide  

SciTech Connect

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are an important cause of air pollution and are thought to be responsible for some respiratory ailments, but the exact mechanism is not known. We evaluated whether DEP inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in bronchi as No is present in the exhaled air and has a physiological role in the respiratory tract. Aortic rings were also examined for comparison. We observed that acetylcholine (ACh) induced contraction of the bronchi was partially attenuated by the simultaneous release of NO. When bronchial rings were incubated either with N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA): an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) or with DEP, the contraction to ACh was abolished. The source of the NOS was the bronchial epithelium and this endothelial-constitutive NOS was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. DEP like L-NMA inhibited the ACh induced endothelium dependent relaxation in the aortic rings. The inhibition of NO release by DEP and L-NMA from bronchial and aortic rings was also confirmed by a selective NO electrode. We conclude that inhibition of NO availability by DEP may in part be responsible for the adverse respiratory effects seen by inhalation of these particles in polluted air. 27 refs., 6 figs.

Muto, Emiko; Hayashi, Toshio; Yamada, Kazuyoshi [Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others] [Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); and others

1996-12-31

235

Involvement of reactive oxygen species in the metabolic pathways triggered by diesel exhaust particles in human airway epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce a proinflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) characterized by the release of proinflammatory cytokines after activation of transduction pathways involving MAPK and the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Because cellular effects induced by DEP are prevented by antioxidants, they could be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using fluorescent probes, we detected ROS production in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells exposed to native DEP, organic extracts of DEP (OE-DEP), or several polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Carbon black particles mimicking the inorganic part of DEP did not increase ROS production. DEP and OE-DEP also induced the expression of genes for phase I [cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1)] and phase II [NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1)] xenobiotic metabolization enzymes, suggesting that DEP-adsorbed organic compounds become bioavailable, activate transcription, and are metabolized since the CYP1A1 enzymatic activity is increased. Because NQO-1 gene induction is reduced by antioxidants, it could be related to the ROS generated by DEP, most likely through the activation of the stress-sensitive Nrf2 transcription factor. Indeed, DEP induced the translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus and increased protein nuclear binding to the antioxidant responsive element. In conclusion, we show that DEP-organic compounds generate an oxidative stress, activate the Nrf2 transcription factor, and increase the expression of genes for phase I and II metabolization enzymes. PMID:12730081

Baulig, Augustin; Garlatti, Michèle; Bonvallot, Véronique; Marchand, Alexandre; Barouki, Robert; Marano, Francelyne; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

2003-09-01

236

Nasal instillation of nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust particles slightly affects emotional behavior and learning capability in rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, in order to reveal novel adverse effects of ultrafine particles (UFP) on the central nervous system, the effects of nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust particles (NRDEP; count mode diameter, 21.45 nm) on emotional behavior, learning capability and brain neurotransmitter levels were studied in rats by intranasal instillation (iNI). NRDEP (10 and 50 µg/rat) was instilled into 2-week old infant, male rats once a week for 4 weeks. Spontaneous motor activity measured was observed to be inverse to the dose level. In active avoidance tests using a shuttle box, NRDEP-treated animals showed a lower avoidance performance than control animals given air-instillation. The levels of dopamine and its metabolite (DOPAC) in the medial mammillary nucleus of the brain tended to be lower in the NRDEP-treated animals. From these results, although the effects of NRDEP by iNI on the emotionality and the brain neurotransmitter levels were not fully clear, the results obtained by avoidance testing suggested involvement of UFP in learning capability. PMID:21628955

Yokota, Syunji; Takashima, Hiromasa; Ohta, Ryo; Saito, Yoshiaki; Miyahara, Takashi; Yoshida, Yuka; Negura, Tsukasa; Senuma, Mika; Usumi, Kenji; Hirabayashi, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Takaho; Horiuchi, Shinji; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro; Fujimaki, Hidekazu

2011-06-01

237

Acute skin lesions due to localized ``hot particle`` radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small (<0.5 mm) discrete radioactive particles. Hanford mini-swine were exposed to localized doses from 0.2 to over 600 Gy (averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 70{mu}m depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit.

Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

1996-06-01

238

Nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles regulate steroidogenic gene expression and steroid synthesis in the human H295R adrenocortical cell line  

SciTech Connect

Studies of nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC) and 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP) have revealed that these chemicals possess estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity in vitro and in vivo and that PNMC accumulate in adrenal glands in vivo. However, the impacts of exposure to these compounds on adrenal endocrine disruption and steroidogenesis have not been investigated. To elucidate the non-receptor mediated effects of PNMC and PNMPP, we investigated the production of the steroid hormones progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, and estradiol-17{beta} and modulation of nine major enzyme genes involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones (CYP11A, CYP11B1, CYP17, CYP19, 17{beta}HSD1, 17{beta}HSD4, CYP21, 3{beta}HSD2, StAR) in human adrenal H295R cells supplied with cAMP. Exposure to 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -5} M PNMC and 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h decreased testosterone, cortisol, and estradiol-17{beta} levels and increased progesterone secretion. At 10{sup -5} M, PNMC with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP significantly stimulated expression of the 17{beta}HSD4 and significantly suppressed expression of 3{beta}HSD2. In comparison, 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} M PNMPP with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h decreased concentrations of estradiol-17{beta}, increased progesterone levels, but did not affect testosterone and cortisol secretion due to the significant suppression of CYP17 and the non-significant but obvious suppression of CYP19. Our results clarified steroidogenic enzymes as candidates responsible for the inhibition or stimulation for the production of steroid hormones in the steroidogenic pathway, thus providing the first experimental evidence for multiple mechanisms of disruption of endocrine pathways by these nitrophenols.

Furuta, Chie [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Noda, Shiho [Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li Chunmei; Suzuki, Akira K; Taneda, Shinji [Environmental Nanotoxicology Section, Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, Gen [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Taya, Kazuyoshi [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)], E-mail: taya@cc.tuat.ac.jp

2008-05-15

239

Cooperation of the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Cytochrome P450 1A1 in Mediating Lung Inflammation and Mutagenicity Induced by Diesel Exhaust Particles  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have been shown to activate oxidant generation by alveolar macrophages (AMs), alter xenobiotic metabolic pathways, and modify the balance of pro-antiinflammatory cytokines. In this study we investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in DEP-mediated and DEP organic extract (DEPE)-mediated inflammatory responses and evaluated the interaction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally (IT) instilled with saline, DEPs (35 mg/kg), or DEPEs (equivalent to 35 mg DEP/kg), with or without further treatment with an iNOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG; 100 mg/kg), by intraperitoneal injection 30 min before and 3, 6, and 9 hr after IT exposure. At 1 day postexposure, both DEPs and DEPEs induced iNOS expression and NO production by AMs. AG significantly lowered DEP- and DEPE-induced iNOS activity but not the protein level while attenuating DEPE- but not DEP-mediated pulmonary inflammation, airway damage, and oxidant generation by AMs. DEP or DEPE exposure resulted in elevated secretion of both interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10 by AMs. AG significantly reduced DEP- and DEPE-activated AMs in IL-12 production. In comparison, AG inhibited IL-10 production by DEPE-exposed AMs but markedly increased its production by DEP-exposed AMs, suggesting that NO differentially regulates the pro- and antiinflammatory cytokine balance in the lung. Both DEPs and DEPEs induced CYP1A1 expression. AG strongly inhibited CYP1A1 activity and lung S9 activity-dependent 2-aminoanthracene mutagenicity. These studies show that NO plays a major role in DEPE-induced lung inflammation and CYP-dependent mutagen activation but a lesser role in particulate-induced inflammatory damage.

Zhao, Hongwen; Barger, Mark W.; Ma, Joseph K.H.; Castranova, Vincent; Ma, Jane Y.C.

2006-01-01

240

Determination of elemental and ionic compositions for diesel exhaust particles by particle induced X-ray emission and ion chromatography analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to clarify the chemical characterization of PM2.5 and PM10 in diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Sampling of PM2.5 and PM10 in DEP was carried out in November 1999 using an automobile exhaust testing system at the National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory, with a diesel truck (engine type: direct injection, displacement: 7,961 cc, carrying weight: 2,020 kg, equivalent inertia weight: 5,600 kg) placed on a chassis dynamometer. Sampling conditions included idling, constant speed of 40 km/h, M-15 test pattern and 60%-revolution/40%-load of maximum power. Samples were collected on a polycarbonate membrane filter (Nuclepore, pore size: 0.8 microm) using a MiniVol Portable Air Sampler (Airmetrics Co., Inc.). The concentrations of several elemental and ionic species in the PM2.5 and PM10 samples were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and ion chromatography analysis. PIXE analysis of the PM2.5 and PM10 samples revealed 15 elements, of which Na, Mg, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn were found to be the major components. Ionic species were Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO4(2-), Na+, NH4+, K+ and Ca2+. Concentrations of elements and ionic species under the sampling condition of 60%-revolution/40%-load were highest in comparison with those of the other sampling conditions. The elemental and ionic species data were compared for PM2.5 and PM10; PM2.5 concentrations were 70% or more of PM10 concentrations for the majority of elements, and concentrations of ionic species in PM2.5 and PM10 were almost identical. PMID:12725386

Saitoh, Katsumi; Sera, Koichiro; Shirai, Tadashi; Sato, Tatsuji; Odaka, Matsuo

2003-04-01

241

Municipal waste incinerators: air and biological monitoring of workers for exposure to particles, metals, and organic compounds  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate occupational exposure to toxic pollutants at municipal waste incinerators (MWIs). Methods: Twenty nine male subjects working near the furnaces in two MWIs, and 17 subjects not occupationally exposed to combustion generated pollutants were studied. Individual air samples were taken throughout the shift; urine samples were collected before and after. Stationary air samples were taken near potential sources of emission. Results: Occupational exposure did not result in the infringement of any occupational threshold limit value. Atmospheric exposure levels to particles and metals were 10–100 times higher in MWIs than at the control site. The main sources were cleaning operations for particles, and residue transfer and disposal operations for metals. MWI workers were not exposed to higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons than workers who are routinely in contact with vehicle exhaust. The air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes were low and did not appear to pose any significant threat to human health. Only the measurement of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels would seem to be a reliable marker for the combustion of plastics. Urine metal levels were significantly higher at plant 1 than at plant 2 because of high levels of pollutants emanating from one old furnace. Conclusion: While biological monitoring is an easy way of acquiring data on long term personal exposure, air monitoring remains the only method that makes it possible to identify the primary sources of pollutant emission which need to be controlled if occupational exposure and environmental pollution are to be reduced.

Maitre, A; Collot-Fertey, D; Anzivino, L; Marques, M; Hours, M; Stoklov, M

2003-01-01

242

Individual dose and exposure of Italian children to ultrafine particles.  

PubMed

Time-activity patterns and the airborne pollutant concentrations encountered by children each day are an important determinant of individual exposure to airborne particles. This is demonstrated in this work by using hand-held devices to measure the real-time individual exposure of more than 100 children aged 8-11 years to particle number concentrations and average particle diameter, as well as alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited surface area concentration. A GPS-logger and activity diaries were also used to give explanation to the measurement results. Children were divided in three sample groups: two groups comprised of urban schools (school time from 8:30 am to 1:30 pm) with lunch and dinner at home, and the third group of a rural school with only dinner at home. The mean individual exposure to particle number concentration was found to differ between the three groups, ranging from 6.2 × 10(4)part.cm(-3) for children attending one urban school to 1.6 × 10(4)part.cm(-3) for the rural school. The corresponding daily alveolar deposited surface area dose varied from about 1.7 × 10(3)mm(2) for urban schools to 6.0 × 10(2)mm(2) for the rural school. For all of the children monitored, the lowest particle number concentrations are found during sleeping time and the highest were found during eating time. With regard to alveolar deposited surface area dose, a child's home was the major contributor (about 70%), with school contributing about 17% for urban schools and 27% for the rural school. An important contribution arises from the cooking/eating time spent at home, which accounted for approximately 20% of overall exposure, corresponding to more than 200 mm(2). These activities represent the highest dose received per time unit, with very high values also encountered by children with a fireplace at home, as well as those that spend considerable time stuck in traffic jams. PMID:23000716

Buonanno, G; Marini, S; Morawska, L; Fuoco, F C

2012-11-01

243

Sensitive and selective detection of urinary 1-nitropyrene metabolites following administration of a single intragastric dose of diesel exhaust particles (SRM 2975) to rats.  

PubMed

1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) has been proposed as a marker for exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Since the extent of the actual intake of 1-NP adsorbed on DEP will be relatively low, sensitive and selective methods are needed regarding human exposure assessment. Two analytical methods are presented for the assessment of 1-NP metabolites in urine of male Sprague-Dawley rats administered a single intragastric dose of native DEP (SRM 2975, 20 mg, 35.7 microgram of 1-NP/g). Enzymatically hydrolyzed urine was extracted using Blue Rayon. The extracts were analyzed directly, using HPLC with postcolumn on-line reduction and fluorescence detection (HPLC-Flu), or were processed further for GC/MS/MS analysis. Although sensitive to several metabolites, the HPLC-Flu method lacked selectivity for quantitation of some important metabolites in rat urinary extracts, and therefore seems suitable for screening purposes only. With regard to GC/MS/MS analysis, derivatization with heptafluorobutyrylimidazole (HFBI) yielded low limits of determination for hydroxy-1-aminopyrenes, hydroxy-N-acetyl-1-aminopyrenes (converted to derivatized hydroxy-1-aminopyrenes by the reagent), and 1-aminopyrene (1.8-9.2 fmol on the column). Derivatization of hydroxy-1-nitropyrenes yielded relatively high limits of determination, and therefore, hydroxy-1-nitropyrenes were reduced to hydroxy-1-aminopyrenes prior to derivatization with HFBI. Intragastric administration of DEP to rats resulted in urinary excretion of 6-hydroxy-N-acetyl-1-aminopyrene, 8-hydroxy-N-acetyl-1-aminopyrene, 6-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene, 8-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene, and 3-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene (7, 1.2, 1.6, 0.3, and 0.5% of the dose within 12 h, respectively). 1-Nitropyrene, N-acetyl-1-aminopyrene, and 3-, 6-, and 8-hydroxy-1-aminopyrene were not observed as urinary metabolites following administration of a single dose of DEP. The observed excretion pattern and urinary metabolite concentrations suggest that 1-NP present on unmodified DEP becomes bioavailable to a large extent and is metabolized in the same way as was previously observed following administration of pure 1-NP. The presented methods are promising for assessment of human exposure to 1-NP, e.g., following exposure to DEP, because of the possibility of analyzing large volumes of urine, the conversion of three types of metabolites to one (the amino metabolites), and the low detection limits that are achieved. PMID:9815201

van Bekkum, Y M; van den Broek, P H; Scheepers, P T; Bos, R P

1998-11-01

244

Concentrated ambient ultrafine particle exposure induces cardiac change in young healthy volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to ambient ultrafine particles has been associated with cardiopulmonary toxicity and mortality. Adverse effects specifically linked to ultrafine particles include loss of sympathovagal balance and altered hemostasis. To characterize the effects of ultrafine particles in ...

245

Alleviative effect of quercetin on germ cells intoxicated by 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol from diesel exhaust particles*  

PubMed Central

As a component of diesel exhaust particles, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol, PNMC) is also a metabolite of the insecticide fenitrothion and imposes hazardous effects on human health. In the present study, the alleviative effect of a common antioxidant flavonoid quercetin on mouse germ cells intoxicated by PNMC was investigated. Results showed that a single intraperitoneal injection of PNMC at 100 mg/kg induced severe testicular damage after one week. PNMC-treated mice showed a significant loss of germ cells (approximate 40% loss of round germ cells). PNMC caused an increase of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation, as well as a decrease in glutathione level, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Furthermore, treatment of PNMC increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL in germ cells. In addition, testicular caspase-3 activity was significantly up-regulated and germ cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the PNMC-treated mice. In contrast, combined administration of quercetin at 75 mg/kg significantly attenuated PNMC-induced testicular toxicity. These results indicate that the antioxidant quercetin displays a remarkable protective effect on PNMC-induced oxidative damage in mouse testes and may represent an efficient supplement to attenuate reproductive toxicity by environmental toxicants to ensure healthy sperm production.

Bu, Tong-liang; Jia, Yu-dong; Lin, Jin-xing; Mi, Yu-ling; Zhang, Cai-qiao

2012-01-01

246

Diesel exhaust particles up-regulate expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human bronchial epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may play an active role in the increased respiratory mortality and morbidity. We have shown that DEP augmented the production of inflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells in vitro. ICAM-1 has been shown to play an important role in the local accumulation of inflammatory cells. We studied the effect of DEP on ICAM-1 gene expression and surface expression in human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. DEP (5–50 ?g/ml) showed a stimulatory effect on ICAM-1 mRNA levels as evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated an increased ICAM-1 expression on the epithelial cell surfaces. The soluble form of ICAM-1 molecules was also increased by the stimulation of DEP. In vitro neutrophil attachment onto DEP-stimulated epithelial cells was augmented, which was partially blocked by anti-ICAM-1 neutralizing antibody. Finally, these events were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with anti-oxidants pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and N-acetyl cysteine, and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580. These findings suggested that DEP induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 gene, and this process might be largely dependent on oxidant-mediated NF-?B activation and p38-MAPK pathways.

Takizawa, H; Abe, S; Ohtoshi, T; Kawasaki, S; Takami, K; Desaki, M; Sugawara, I; Hashimoto, S; Azuma, A; Nakahara, K; Kudoh, S

2000-01-01

247

Alleviative effect of quercetin on germ cells intoxicated by 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol from diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

As a component of diesel exhaust particles, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol, PNMC) is also a metabolite of the insecticide fenitrothion and imposes hazardous effects on human health. In the present study, the alleviative effect of a common antioxidant flavonoid quercetin on mouse germ cells intoxicated by PNMC was investigated. Results showed that a single intraperitoneal injection of PNMC at 100 mg/kg induced severe testicular damage after one week. PNMC-treated mice showed a significant loss of germ cells (approximate 40% loss of round germ cells). PNMC caused an increase of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation, as well as a decrease in glutathione level, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Furthermore, treatment of PNMC increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL in germ cells. In addition, testicular caspase-3 activity was significantly up-regulated and germ cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the PNMC-treated mice. In contrast, combined administration of quercetin at 75 mg/kg significantly attenuated PNMC-induced testicular toxicity. These results indicate that the antioxidant quercetin displays a remarkable protective effect on PNMC-induced oxidative damage in mouse testes and may represent an efficient supplement to attenuate reproductive toxicity by environmental toxicants to ensure healthy sperm production. PMID:22467373

Bu, Tong-liang; Jia, Yu-dong; Lin, Jin-xing; Mi, Yu-ling; Zhang, Cai-qiao

2012-04-01

248

Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.  

PubMed

The emissions of exhaust gases (NO x , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6?×?10(3), 374, 1.2?×?10(3), and 5.6?×?10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7?×?10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67 %) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively. PMID:24497306

Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

2014-05-01

249

Design and testing of electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system (EAVES): An alternative exposure system for particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Conventional in vitro exposure methods for cultured human lung cells rely on prior suspension of particles in a liquid medium; these have limitations for exposure intensity and may modify the particle composition. Here electrostatic precipitation was used as an effective method f...

250

Hypotension and AV block after diesel exhaust exposure in heart failure-prone rats: role of gaseous and particulate components  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute inhalations ofdiesel engine exhaust (DE) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been demonstrated to provoke adverse cardiac events in humans with preexisting heart disease. Electrophysiologic dysfunction and autonomic imbalance are among the mechanisms widely held to und...

251

Treadmill stress test after diesel exhaust particulate exposure reveals a time-dependent shift from parasympathetic to sympathetic dominance  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies suggest that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a major trigger of acute cardiac events-including arrhythmia-especially in those with preexisting cardiac disease. Diesel exhaust (DE) contributes the majority of urban fine and ultrafine PM, and is thu...

252

Estimation of southern resident killer whale exposure to exhaust emissions from whale-watching vessels and potential adverse health effects and toxicity thresholds.  

PubMed

Southern resident killer whales in British Columbia and Washington are exposed to heavy vessel traffic. This study investigates their exposure to exhaust gases from whale-watching vessels by using a simple dispersion model incorporating data on whale and vessel behavior, atmospheric conditions, and output of airborne pollutants from the whale-watching fleet based on emissions data from regulatory agencies. Our findings suggest that current whale-watching guidelines are usually effective in limiting pollutant exposure to levels at or just below those at which measurable adverse health effects would be expected in killer whales. However, safe pollutant levels are exceeded under worst-case conditions and certain average-case conditions. To reduce killer whale exposure to exhaust we recommend: vessels position on the downwind side of whales, a maximum of 20 whale-watching vessels should be within 800 m at any given time, viewing periods should be limited, and current whale-watch guidelines and laws should be enforced. PMID:21276987

Lachmuth, Cara L; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G; Steyn, D Q; Milsom, William K

2011-04-01

253

Exposure to wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages.  

PubMed

Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized to be a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries were studded tires are used. In this work, we investigated the inflammatory effect of PM10 generated from the wear of studded tires on two different types of pavement. As comparison, we also investigated PM10 from a traffic-intensive street, a subway station, and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Human monocyte-derived macrophages, nasal epithelial cells (RPMI 2650), and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to the different types of particles, and the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha into the culture medium was measured. The results show a significant release of cytokines from macrophages after exposure for all types of particles. When particles generated from asphalt/granite pavement were compared to asphalt/quartzite pavement, the granite pavement had a significantly higher capacity to induce the release of cytokines. The granite pavement particles induced cytokine release at the same magnitude as the street particles did, which was higher than what particles from both a subway station and DEP did. Exposure of epithelial cells to PM10 resulted in a significant increase of TNF-alpha secreted from BEAS-2B cells for all types of particles used (DEP was not tested), and the highest levels were induced by subway particles. None of the particle types were able to evoke detectable cytokine release from RPMI 2650 cells. The results indicate that PM10 generated by the wear of studded tires on the street surface is a large contributor to the cytokine-releasing ability of particles in traffic-intensive areas and that the type of pavement used is important for the level of this contribution. Furthermore, the airway inflammatory potential of wear particles from tires and pavement might be of a greater magnitude than that of DEP. PMID:16608163

Lindbom, John; Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Dahl, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Anders; Swietlicki, Erik; Ljungman, Anders G

2006-04-01

254

Exhaust recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from internal combustion engine exhaust is described that is uncomplicated by moving parts, thus avoiding problems associated with prior-art recirculation systems. The system also results in preheating and improved mixing of the fuel-air mixture in the inlet header. A recycling duct receives the exhaust gases at a restricted

Waitzmann

1974-01-01

255

Exhaust recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust is described that provides for the reduction of recirculation during engine idling without the prior-art complexities of moving parts. The system also achieves preheating and improved mixing and carburetion of the fuel-air mixture in the inlet header. Exhaust gases are recycled by means of a swirl

Sarto

1974-01-01

256

Shielding from Solar Particle Event Exposures in Deep Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical composition and intensities of solar particle event exposures or sensitive astronaut tissues are examined under conditions approximating an astronaut in deep space. Response functions for conversion of particle fluence into dose and dose equivalent averaged over organ tissue, are used to establish significant fluence levels and the expected dose and dose rates of the most important events from past observations. The BRYNTRN transport code is used to evaluate the local environment experienced by sensitive tissues and used to evaluate bioresponse models developed for use in tactical nuclear warfare. The present results will help to the biophysical aspects of such exposure in the assessment of RBE and dose rate effects and their impact on design of protection systems for the astronauts. The use of polymers as shielding material in place of an equal mass of aluminum would prowide a large safety factor without increasing the vehicle mass. This safety factor is sufficient to provide adequate protection if a factor of two larger event than has ever been observed in fact occurs during the mission.

Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.; Dubey, R. R.; Jordan, W. R.; Jones, T. D.; Chang, C. K.; Kim, M. Y.

1999-01-01

257

Contamination and particle control system in immersion exposure tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-based immersion technology has overcome various obstacles and is approaching the mass production phase. Canon is in the process of developing an ArF immersion exposure tool, FPA-7000AS7 (NA>1.3), to meet both mass production of the 65nm HP and development of the 45nm HP, which starts in 2007. In the Canon immersion nozzle, there is little influence of vibration on the lens and the stage, and particle generation from the nozzle during treatment of the nozzle in the manufacturing process has successfully been prevented. We evaluated contamination due to leaching and cleaning technology with a test bench. Contamination due to PAG (Photo-acid Generator) leaching from resist to water could be completely eliminated by dipping it into a cleaning fluid. With periodic cleaning, it is possible to keep the projection lens clean and to prevent particle generation from the immersion nozzle. The defect was evaluated with FPA-6000AS4i (NA0.85) that had the same type of immersion nozzle as that of FPA-7000AS7. The level of defect density was stable in a continuous exposure process of 25 wafers with a developer-soluble topcoat. The defect density was 0.030/cm2 with a topcoat-less resist.

Kobayashi, Masamichi; Nakano, Hitoshi; Arakawa, Mikio; Tanabe, Masayuki; Toyoda, Koji; Chibana, Takahito; Matsuoka, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Youji

2007-03-01

258

Exposures to Solar Particle Events in Deep Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical composition and intensities of exposures to solar particle events of sensitive astronaut tissues are examined under conditions approximating an astronaut in space. Response functions for conversion of particle fluence into dose and dose equivalent are used to establish significant fluence levels and the expected dose and dose rates of the most important events from past observations. The BRYNTRN transport code is used to evaluate the local environment experienced by sensitive tissues and is used to evaluate bioresponse models developed for use in tactical nuclear warfare. The present results will help to clarify the biophysical aspects of such exposure in the assessment of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and dose rate effects and their impact on the design of protection systems for the astronauts. The use of polymers as shielding material in place of an equal mass of aluminum would provide a large safety factor without increasing the vehicle mass. This safety factor is sufficient to provide adequate protection if an event a factor of 2 larger than has ever been observed occurs during the mission.

Wilson, John W.; Shinn, Judy L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Dubey, R. R.; Jordan, W. R.; Jones, T. D.; Chang, C. K.; Kim, M. Y.

1997-10-01

259

Diesel Exhaust Particles Activate the Matrix-Metalloproteinase-1 Gene in Human Bronchial Epithelia in a ?-Arrestin-Dependent Manner via Activation of RAS  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are globally relevant air pollutants that exert a detrimental human health impact. However, mechanisms of damage by DEP exposure to human respiratory health and human susceptibility factors are only partially known. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been implied as an (etio)pathogenic factor in human lung and airway diseases such as emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic asthma, tuberculosis, and bronchial carcinoma and has been reported to be regulated by DEPs. Objective We elucidated the molecular mechanisms of DEPs’ up-regulation of MMP-1. Methods/Results Using permanent and primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells at air–liquid interface, we show that DEPs activate the human MMP-1 gene via RAS and subsequent activation of RAF-MEK-ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, which can be scaffolded by ?-arrestins. Short interfering RNA mediated ?-arrestin1/2 knockout eliminated formation, subsequent nuclear trafficking of phosphorylated ERK1/2, and resulting MMP-1 transcriptional activation. Transcriptional regulation of the human MMP-1 promoter was strongly influenced by the presence of the –1607GG polymorphism, present in 60–80% of humans, which led to striking up-regulation of MMP-1 transcriptional activation. Conclusion Our results confirm up-regulation of MMP-1 in response to DEPs in HBE and provide new mechanistic insight into how these epithelia, the first line of protection against environmental insults, up-regulate MMP-1 in response to DEP inhalation. These mechanisms include a role for the human –1607GG polymorphism as a susceptibility factor for an accentuated response, which critically depends on the ability of ?-arrestin1/2 to generate scaffolding and nuclear trafficking of phosphorylated ERK1/2.

Li, Jinju; Ghio, Andrew J.; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Brinckerhoff, Constance E.; Simon, Sidney A.; Liedtke, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

260

Diesel exhaust particles and carbon black have adjuvant activity on the local lymph node response and systemic IgE production to ovalbumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible adjuvant effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the response to the model allergen ovalbumin (OA) was studied in BALB\\/c mice using the popliteal lymph node (PLN) assay. In addition to changes in PLN weight, cell numbers and cell proliferation, specific serum IgE anti-OA antibody levels were measured. OA inoculated together with DEP into one hind footpad gave

Martinus Løvik; Ann-Kristin Høgseth; Per Ivar Gaarder; Randi Hagemann; Ingvar Eide

1997-01-01

261

Efficiency of a tool-mounted local exhaust ventilation system for controlling dust exposure during metal grinding operations.  

PubMed

In general, control of metal dust from hand-held disk grinders is difficult because such respirable dust tends to disperse in every direction around the grinding wheel and cannot be captured effectively by a conventional exhaust hood. The author described the application of a custom-made tool-mounted local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system attached to a hand-held disk grinder, and by laboratory experiments assessed its effectiveness at dust control. The effectiveness of the LEV for dust control was assessed by determining the respirable dust concentration around the grinding wheel during metal surface grinding with and without the use of the LEV. It was shown that the average respirable grinding dust concentration decreased from 7.73 mg/m(3) with the LEV off to 4.87 mg/m(3) with the LEV on, a mean dust generation reduction of about 37%. PMID:18212477

Ojima, Jun

2007-12-01

262

Effects of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles on the regulation of testicular function in immature male rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol, PNMC) isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the reproductive functions of male rats. Twenty-eight-day-old rats were injected subcutaneously with PNMC (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. The weights of the epididymis, seminal vesicle, and Cowper gland were significantly decreased in rats treated with 10 mg/kg PNMC. The plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were significantly increased by PNMC at 100 mg/kg. However, the plasma concentrations of testosterone and immunoreactive (ir)-inhibin were significantly decreased by PNMC at 100 mg/kg. The testosterone content of the testicles was significantly decreased in the group treated with 100 mg/kg PNMC compared with the control group. Furthermore, testicular concentration of ir-inhibin was significantly decreased by PNMC at 1 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg. To investigate the direct effects of PNMC on the secretion of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary gland, and on the secretion of testosterone from the testes, we exposed cultured anterior pituitary and interstitial Leydig cells to PNMC (10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) M) with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 10 nM) (for the LH and FSH tests) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 0.1 IU/mL) (for the testosterone test) for 24 hours. PNMC did not change either the basal or GnRH-stimulated levels of FSH and LH secretion. However, PNMC significantly inhibited both basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone production. These findings suggest that PNMC has a direct effect on the testes of immature male rats, causing a reduction in testosterone secretion. PMID:17021341

Li, Chunmei; Taneda, Shinji; Suzuki, Akira K; Furuta, Chie; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

2007-01-01

263

Airborne concentrations of PM(2.5) and diesel exhaust particles on Harlem sidewalks: a community-based pilot study.  

PubMed

Residents of the dense urban core neighborhoods of New York City (NYC) have expressed increasing concern about the potential human health impacts of diesel vehicle emissions. We measured concentrations of particulate matter [less than/equal to] 2.5 micro in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on sidewalks in Harlem, NYC, and tested whether spatial variations in concentrations were related to local diesel traffic density. Eight-hour (1000-1800 hr) air samples for PM(2.5 )and elemental carbon (EC) were collected for 5 days in July 1996 on sidewalks adjacent to four geographically distinct Harlem intersections. Samples were taken using portable monitors worn by study staff. Simultaneous traffic counts for diesel trucks, buses, cars, and pedestrians were carried out at each intersection on [Greater/equal to] 2 of the 5 sampling days. Eight-hour diesel vehicle counts ranged from 61 to 2,467 across the four sites. Mean concentrations of PM(2.5) exhibited only modest site-to-site variation (37-47 microg/m(3)), reflecting the importance of broader regional sources of PM(2.5). In contrast, EC concentrations varied 4-fold across sites (from 1.5 to 6 microg/m(3)), and were associated with bus and truck counts on adjacent streets and, at one site, with the presence of a bus depot. A high correlation (r = 0.95) was observed between EC concentrations measured analytically and a blackness measurement based on PM(2.5) filter reflectance, suggesting the utility of the latter as a surrogate measure of DEP in future community-based studies. These results show that local diesel sources in Harlem create spatial variations in sidewalk concentrations of DEP. The study also demonstrates the feasibility of a new paradigm for community-based research involving full and active partnership between academic scientists and community-based organizations. PMID:10706526

Kinney, P L; Aggarwal, M; Northridge, M E; Janssen, N A; Shepard, P

2000-03-01

264

Exposure to particle number, surface area and PM concentrations in pizzerias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to quantify exposure to particles emitted by wood-fired ovens in pizzerias. Overall, 15 microenvironments were chosen and analyzed in a 14-month experimental campaign. Particle number concentration and distribution were measured simultaneously using a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The surface area and mass distributions

G. Buonanno; L. Morawska; L. Stabile; A. Viola

2010-01-01

265

Personal Exposure to Ultrafine Particles in the Workplace: Exploring Sampling Techniques and Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, toxicological and epidemiological studies on health effects related to particle exposure suggest that 'ultrafine particles' (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of <100 nm) may cause severe health effects after inhalation. Although the toxicological mechanisms for these effects have not yet been explained, it is apparent that measuring exposures against mass alone is not sufficient. It is also necessary to

DERK H. BROUWER; JOSÉ H. J. GIJSBERS; MARC W. M. LURVINK

2004-01-01

266

Personal particle exposure monitoring using nephelometry during haze in Brunei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter using a portable nephelometer during the 1998 haze episode in Brunei Darussalam revealed significant differences in exposure patterns between different individuals depending on their activities, time, and location. Concentrations of airborne particles were monitored inside offices, homes, classrooms, motor vehicles, helicopters, and outdoors. Outdoor concentrations were considerably higher than those indoors mainly due to the widespread use of air-conditioning in Brunei. Most people in Brunei spend very little time outdoors, especially during severe haze episodes. There were considerable differences between measurements obtained with the personalDataRAM ® and fixed site monitoring using a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM ®) due to differences in the measurement principles of the two instruments.

Muraleedharan, T. R.; Radojevic, M.

267

Circulating Factors Induce Coronary Endothelial Cell Activation Following Exposure to Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Nitrogen Dioxide in Humans: Evidence From a Novel Translational In Vitro Model  

PubMed Central

The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Plasma samples were obtained from human volunteers exposed to 100 ?g/m3 DE or filtered air for 2 h. A second cohort was exposed to 500 ppb NO2 or filtered air in an identical protocol. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (hCAECs) were grown to confluence and treated for 24 h with a 10 or 30% (in media) mixture of plasma obtained before, immediately post or 24 h postexposure to pollutant exposures. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from hCAECs following the incubation and probed for intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased by plasma obtained at both timepoints following the NO2 exposures. VCAM-1 was significantly elevated in cells treated with plasma obtained 24 h following diesel exposure and at both timepoints following NO2 exposure. Interleukin-8 protein was elevated in the hCAEC supernatant when cells were incubated with plasma from NO2 exposures. These data indicate that proinflammatory circulating factors are elevated acutely following exposure to both DE and a primary component thereof, NO2. These functional translational assays offer novel approaches to assessing the cardiovascular risk associated with air pollution exposure.

Channell, Meghan M.; Paffett, Michael L.; Devlin, Robert B.; Madden, Michael C.; Campen, Matthew J.

2012-01-01

268

Circulating factors induce coronary endothelial cell activation following exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust and nitrogen dioxide in humans: evidence from a novel translational in vitro model.  

PubMed

The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Plasma samples were obtained from human volunteers exposed to 100 ?g/m(3) DE or filtered air for 2 h. A second cohort was exposed to 500 ppb NO(2) or filtered air in an identical protocol. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (hCAECs) were grown to confluence and treated for 24 h with a 10 or 30% (in media) mixture of plasma obtained before, immediately post or 24 h postexposure to pollutant exposures. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from hCAECs following the incubation and probed for intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased by plasma obtained at both timepoints following the NO(2) exposures. VCAM-1 was significantly elevated in cells treated with plasma obtained 24 h following diesel exposure and at both timepoints following NO(2) exposure. Interleukin-8 protein was elevated in the hCAEC supernatant when cells were incubated with plasma from NO(2) exposures. These data indicate that proinflammatory circulating factors are elevated acutely following exposure to both DE and a primary component thereof, NO(2). These functional translational assays offer novel approaches to assessing the cardiovascular risk associated with air pollution exposure. PMID:22331494

Channell, Meghan M; Paffett, Michael L; Devlin, Robert B; Madden, Michael C; Campen, Matthew J

2012-05-01

269

Monitoring exposure to airborne ultrafine particles in Lisbon, Portugal.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to contribute to the assessment of exposure levels of ultrafine particles (UFP) in the urban environment of Lisbon, Portugal, due to automobile traffic, by monitoring lung-deposited alveolar surface area (resulting from exposure to UFP) in a major avenue leading to the town centre during late Spring, as well as in indoor buildings facing it. This study revealed differentiated patterns for week days and weekends, consistent with PM(2.5) and PM(10) patterns currently monitored by air quality stations in Lisbon. The observed ultrafine particulate levels could be directly related with the fluxes of automobile traffic. During a typical week, UFP alveolar deposited surface area varied between 35.0 and 89.2 µm(2)/cm(3), which is comparable with levels reported for other towns such in Germany and United States. The measured values allowed the determination of the number of UFP per cm(3), which are comparable to levels reported for Madrid and Brisbane. In what concerns outdoor/indoor levels, we observed higher levels (32-63%) outdoor, which is somewhat lower than levels observed in houses in Ontario. PMID:22642291

Gomes, João Fernando Pereira; Bordado, João Carlos Moura; Albuquerque, Paula Cristina Silva

2012-06-01

270

Comparison of Algorithm-based Estimates of Occupational Diesel Exhaust Exposure to Those of Multiple Independent Raters in a Population-based Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Algorithm-based exposure assessments based on patterns in questionnaire responses and professional judgment can readily apply transparent exposure decision rules to thousands of jobs quickly. However, we need to better understand how algorithms compare to a one-by-one job review by an exposure assessor. We compared algorithm-based estimates of diesel exhaust exposure to those of three independent raters within the New England Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study, and identified conditions under which disparities occurred in the assessments of the algorithm and the raters. Methods: Occupational diesel exhaust exposure was assessed previously using an algorithm and a single rater for all 14 983 jobs reported by 2631 study participants during personal interviews conducted from 2001 to 2004. Two additional raters independently assessed a random subset of 324 jobs that were selected based on strata defined by the cross-tabulations of the algorithm and the first rater’s probability assessments for each job, oversampling their disagreements. The algorithm and each rater assessed the probability, intensity and frequency of occupational diesel exhaust exposure, as well as a confidence rating for each metric. Agreement among the raters, their aggregate rating (average of the three raters’ ratings) and the algorithm were evaluated using proportion of agreement, kappa and weighted kappa (?w). Agreement analyses on the subset used inverse probability weighting to extrapolate the subset to estimate agreement for all jobs. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) models were used to identify patterns in questionnaire responses that predicted disparities in exposure status (i.e., unexposed versus exposed) between the first rater and the algorithm-based estimates. Results: For the probability, intensity and frequency exposure metrics, moderate to moderately high agreement was observed among raters (?w = 0.50–0.76) and between the algorithm and the individual raters (?w = 0.58–0.81). For these metrics, the algorithm estimates had consistently higher agreement with the aggregate rating (?w = 0.82) than with the individual raters. For all metrics, the agreement between the algorithm and the aggregate ratings was highest for the unexposed category (90–93%) and was poor to moderate for the exposed categories (9–64%). Lower agreement was observed for jobs with a start year <1965 versus ?1965. For the confidence metrics, the agreement was poor to moderate among raters (?w = 0.17–0.45) and between the algorithm and the individual raters (?w = 0.24–0.61). CART models identified patterns in the questionnaire responses that predicted a fair-to-moderate (33–89%) proportion of the disagreements between the raters’ and the algorithm estimates. Discussion: The agreement between any two raters was similar to the agreement between an algorithm-based approach and individual raters, providing additional support for using the more efficient and transparent algorithm-based approach. CART models identified some patterns in disagreements between the first rater and the algorithm. Given the absence of a gold standard for estimating exposure, these patterns can be reviewed by a team of exposure assessors to determine whether the algorithm should be revised for future studies.

Friesen, Melissa C.

2013-01-01

271

Exposure to wood smoke particles produces an inflammation in healthy volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...

272

Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation and solar energetic particles.  

PubMed

Several investigations of the radiation field at aircraft altitudes have been undertaken during solar cycle 23 which occurred in the period 1993-2003. The radiation field is produced by the passage of galactic cosmic rays and their nuclear reaction products as well as solar energetic particles through the Earth's atmosphere. Galactic cosmic rays reach a maximum intensity when the sun is least active and are at minimum intensity during solar maximum period. During solar maximum an increased number of coronal mass ejections and solar flares produce high energy solar particles which can also penetrate down to aircraft altitudes. It is found that the very complicated field resulting from these processes varies with altitude, latitude and stage of solar cycle. By employing several active and passive detectors, the whole range of radiation types and energies were encompassed. In-flight data was obtained with the co-operation of many airlines and NASA. The EURADOS Aircraft Crew in-flight data base was used for comparison with the predictions of various computer codes. A brief outline of some recent studies of exposure to radiation in Earth orbit will conclude this contribution. PMID:17846031

O'Sullivan, D

2007-01-01

273

Glutathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype could aggravate DEP-induced airway inflammation in human subjects. Given the critical role airway epithelial cells play in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, we established the GSTM1 deficiency condition in primary bronchial epithelial cells from human volunteers with GSTM1 sufficient genotype (GSTM1+) using GSTM1 shRNA to determine whether GSTM1 deficiency could exaggerate DEP-induced expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-1? proteins. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying GSTM1 regulation of DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1? expression were also investigated. Methods IL-8 and IL-1? protein levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GSTM1 deficiency in primary human bronchial epithelial cells was achieved using lentiviral GSTM1 shRNA particles and verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of protein kinases was detected using immunoblotting. Results Exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (GSTM1+) to 25-100??g/ml DEP for 24?h significantly increased IL-8 and IL-1? protein expression. Knockdown of GSTM1 in these cells further elevated DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1? expression, implying that GSTM1 deficiency aggravated DEP-induced pro-inflammatory response. DEP stimulation induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, the downstream kinase of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), in GSTM1+ bronchial epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK kinase and PI3K activity blocked DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1? expression. DEP-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation could be increased by GSTM1 knockdown. In addition, pretreatment of HBEC with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine significantly inhibited DEP-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, and subsequent IL-8 and IL-1? expression. Conclusion GSTM1 regulates DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1? expression in primary human bronchial epithelial cells by modulation of ROS, ERK and Akt signaling.

2012-01-01

274

Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

M. Thornton; M. Tatur; D. Tomazic; P. Weber; C. Webb

2005-01-01

275

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE (DEP)-INDUCED ACTIV ATION OF STAT3 REQUIRES ACTIVITIES OF EGFR AND SRC IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

In vivo exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) elicits acute inflammatory responses in the lung characterized by inflammatory cell influx and elevated expression of mediators such as cytokines, and chemokines. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) protein...

276

Atmospheric scavenging exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

1977-01-01

277

UPREGULATION OF TISSUE FACTOR IN HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS FOLLOWING ULTRAFINE PARTICLE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology studies have linked the exposure to air pollutant particles with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but the mechanisms remain unknown. In our laboratory we have tested the hypothesis that the ultrafine fraction of ambient pollutant particles would cau...

278

UP-REGULATION OF TISSUE FACTOR IN HUMAN PULMONARY ARTERY ENDOTHELIAL CELLS AFTER ULTRAFINE PARTICLE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Epidemiology studies have linked exposure to pollutant particles to increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the ultrafine fraction of ambient pollutant particle...

279

Effect of prolonged exposure to diesel engine exhaust on proinflammatory markers in different regions of the rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The etiology and progression of neurodegenerative disorders depends on the interactions between a variety of factors including: aging, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility factors. Enhancement of proinflammatory events appears to be a common link in different neurological impairments, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Studies have shown a link between exposure to particulate matter

Miriam E Gerlofs-Nijland; Damien van Berlo; Flemming R Cassee; Roel PF Schins; Kate Wang; Arezoo Campbell

2010-01-01

280

Inflammatory response of lung cells exposed to whole, filtered, and hydrocarbon denuded diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

In vitro studies with the organic extracts of diesel particles have suggested that hydrocarbons such as PAH may play a role in an inflammatory response, but these have been limited by the possible artifacts introduced in the particle collection and processing. In this study, we avoid these artifacts and use an activated carbon denuder to remove hydrocarbons from the exhaust stream to investigate their role in the inflammatory response. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o) were exposed at the air-cell interface to diluted and aged exhaust from a diesel generator operated at partial and no load conditions. When particles were removed with a filter before cell exposure, exhaust gases accounted for almost half of the response compared to the whole exhaust. Removal of gas phase and a portion of the particle phase hydrocarbons with the denuder decreased the interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion to unexposed levels. PMID:17767946

Holder, Amara L; Lucas, Donald; Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Koshland, Catherine P

2007-11-01

281

Aconitine "challenge" test reveals a single whole-body exposure to diesel exhaust increases cardiac arrhythmia risk in hypertensive rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies demonstrate a significant association between cardiac electrical dysfunction, arrhythmias and air pollution exposure. Sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia has been used repeatedly to examine the factors that increase the risk of such cardiac electri...

282

LUNG CANCER IN RATS FROM PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF CARBONACEOUS PARTICLES: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN RISK ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

High incidences of lung cancers have been observed in a number of studies in which rats were chronically exposed by inhalation to high concentrations of diesel engine exhaust and carbon black particles. These particles have previously been viewed as being relatively innocuous compared with other particles such as benzo[a]pyrene that are carcinogenic because of specific chemical properties. Studies with mice

ROGER O. MCCLELLAN

1996-01-01

283

Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species and Heme Oxygenase1 in Modulation of Alveolar Macrophage-Mediated Pulmonary Immune Responses to Listeria monocytogenes by Diesel Exhaust Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have been shown to suppress alveolar macrophage (AM)-mediated pulmonary immune responses to Listeria monocytogenes in vivo. In this study, effects ofDEP-derivedreactiveoxygenspecies(ROS)andhemeoxygenase (HO)-1 on AM-mediated immune responses to L. monocytogenes were investigated. Brown Norway rats were intratracheally inocu- latedwith100,000L.monocytogenes,andAMwereisolatedat7days post-infection.ExposuretoDEPortheirorganicextract(eDEP),but not the washed DEP (wDEP) or carbon black, increased intracel- lularROSandHO-1expressioninAM.InductionofROSandHO-1 byeDEP waspartiallyreversedbya-naphthoflavone,acytochrome P450 1A1 inhibitor, and

Xuejun J. Yin; Jane Y. C. M; James M. Antonini; Vincent Castranova; Joseph K. H. M

2004-01-01

284

PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES IN BANSKA BYSTRICA, SLOVAKIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have associated adverse health impacts with ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM), though these studies have been limited in their characterization of personal exposure to PM. An exposure study of healthy nonsmoking adults and children was cond...

285

Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles  

EPA Science Inventory

CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

286

Prediction of frequency and exposure level of solar particle events.  

PubMed

For future space missions outside of the Earth's magnetic field, the risk of radiation exposure from solar particle events (SPEs) during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded vehicles is a major concern when designing radiation protection including determining sufficient shielding requirements for astronauts and hardware. While the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by solar modulation, SPE occurrences themselves are chaotic in nature. We report on a probabilistic modeling approach, where a cumulative expected occurrence curve of SPEs for a typical solar cycle was formed from a non-homogeneous Poisson process model fitted to a database of proton fluence measurements of SPEs that occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19-23) and those of large SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice. From the fitted model, we then estimated the expected frequency of SPEs at any given proton fluence threshold with energy >30 MeV (Phi(30)) during a defined space mission period. Analytic energy spectra of 34 large SPEs observed in the space era were fitted over broad energy ranges extending to GeV, and subsequently used to calculate the distribution of mGy equivalent (mGy-Eq) dose for a typical blood-forming organ (BFO) inside a spacecraft as a function of total Phi(30) fluence. This distribution was combined with a simulation of SPE events using the Poisson model to estimate the probability of the BFO dose exceeding the NASA 30-d limit of 250 mGy-Eq per 30 d. These results will be useful in implementing probabilistic risk assessment approaches at NASA and guidelines for protection systems for astronauts on future space exploration missions. PMID:19509510

Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Hayat, Matthew J; Feiveson, Alan H; Cucinotta, Francis A

2009-07-01

287

Long term effects of exposure to automobile exhaust on the pulmonary function of female adults in Tokyo, Japan  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the chronic effects of air pollution caused mainly by automobiles in healthy adult females. Methods: Respiratory symptoms were investigated in 5682 adult females who had lived in the Tokyo metropolitan area for three years or more in 1987; 733 of them were subjected to pulmonary function tests over eight years from 1987 to 1994. The subjects were divided into three groups by the level of air pollution they were exposed to during the study period. The concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and suspended particulate matter were the highest in group 1, and the lowest in group 3. Results: The prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in group 1 were higher than those in groups 2 and 3, except for wheezing. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant differences in persistent phlegm and breathlessness. The subjects selected for the analysis of pulmonary function were 94, 210, and 102 females in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The annual mean change of FEV1 in group 1 was the largest (-0.020 l/y), followed by that in group 2 (-0.015 l/y), and that in group 3 (-0.009 l/y). Testing for trends showed a significant larger decrease of FEV1 with the increase in the level of air pollution. Conclusions: The subjects living in areas with high levels of air pollution showed higher prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and a larger decrease of FEV1 compared with those living in areas with low levels of air pollution. Since the traffic density is larger in areas with high air pollution, the differences among the groups may reflect the effect of air pollution attributable to particulate matter found in automobile exhaust.

Sekine, K; Shima, M; Nitta, Y; Adachi, M

2004-01-01

288

Circulating factors induce coronary endothelial ceIl activation foIlowing exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust and nitrogen dioxide in humans :Evidence from a novel translational in vitro model  

EPA Science Inventory

The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen di...

289

Dietary modulation of the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On exploratory missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays composed of protons and heavy particles, such as 56Fe. Long-term exposure to these particles can cause cancer. However, there are significant uncertainties in the risk estimates for the probability of developing heavy particle-induced cancer, and in the amount of shielding needed to provide an adequate level of radiation protection. The results of this preliminary study, using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, show reduced tumorigenesis in rats maintained on diets containing blueberry or strawberry extract prior to exposure to 56Fe particles. Because the study was not initially designed to evaluate tumorigenesis following exposure to 56Fe particles, additional research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of strawberry and blueberry supplementation. However, the preliminary results presented in this study suggest that diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals can provide additional radiation protection on interplanetary voyages.

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.

290

COMPARISON OF THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL EXHAUST USING A DILUTION TAIL-PIPE SAMPLER AND IN-PLUME SAMPLER DURING ON-ROAD OPERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper compares the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel exhaust using a dilution tail-pipe sampler and an in-plume sampler during on-road operation. EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentat...

291

FINE PARTICLE EXPOSURE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED VENTRICULAR REPOLARIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has previously been associated with cardiac events, especially in older people with cardiovascular disease and in diabetics. This study examined the cardiac effects of short-term exposures to ambient PM2.5 in a prospective pane...

292

MicroRNA Expression in Response to Controlled Exposure to Diesel Exhaust: Attenuation by the Antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine in a Randomized Crossover Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Adverse health effects associated with diesel exhaust (DE) are thought to be mediated in part by oxidative stress, but the detailed mechanisms are largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and may respond to exposures such as DE. Objectives: We profiled peripheral blood cellular miRNAs in participants with mild asthma who were exposed to controlled DE with and without antioxidant supplementation. Methods: Thirteen participants with asthma underwent controlled inhalation of filtered air and DE in a double-blinded, randomized crossover study of three conditions: a) DE plus placebo (DEP), b) filtered air plus placebo (FAP), or c) DE with N-acetylcysteine supplementation (DEN). Total cellular RNA was extracted from blood drawn before exposure and 6 hr after exposure for miRNA profiling by the NanoString nCounter assay. MiRNAs significantly associated with DEP exposure and a predicted target [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2)] as well as antioxidant enzyme genes were assessed by reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for validation, and we also assessed the ability of N-acetylcysteine supplementation to block the effect of DE on these specific miRNAs. 8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured in plasma as a systemic oxidative stress marker. Results: Expression of miR-21, miR-30e, miR-215, and miR-144 was significantly associated with DEP. The change in miR-144 was validated by RT-qPCR. NRF2 and its downstream antioxidant genes [glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)] were negatively associated with miR-144 levels. Increases in miR-144 and miR-21 were associated with plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine 8-OHdG level and were blunted by antioxidant (i.e, DEN). Conclusions: Systemic miRNAs with plausible biological function are altered by acute moderate-dose DE exposure. Oxidative stress appears to mediate DE-associated changes in miR-144.

Yamamoto, Masatsugu; Singh, Amrit; Sava, Francesco; Pui, Mandy; Tebbutt, Scott J.

2013-01-01

293

Probe samples components of rocket engine exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water-cooled, cantilevered probe samples the exhaust plume of rocket engines to recover particles for examination. The probe withstands the stresses of a rocket exhaust plume environment for a sufficient period to obtain a useful sample of the exhaust components.

Schumacher, P. E.

1965-01-01

294

Effects of Exposure to Ultrafine Carbon Particles in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Asthma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We developed and validated a system for exposing people via a mouthpiece to carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) and assessed the deposition of UFP in the airways. We hypothesized that exposure to UFP causes airway inflammation, with activation of circulating...

M. W. Frampton M. J. Utell W. Zareba G. Oberdoerster C. Cox L. S. Huang P. E. Morrow F. E. H. Lee D. Chalupa L. M. Frasier D. M. Speers J. Stewart

2004-01-01

295

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle cabin air filters may result in further diminishing the biomedical effects of diesel exhaust in subjects exposed in traffic and workplaces.  

Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

1999-01-01

296

A single-particle characterization of a mobile Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System for exposure studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was used to investigate the size and chemical composition of fine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in the size range 0.2–2.6 ?m produced by a Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (VACES) contained within the Mobile Ambient Particle Concentrator Exposure Laboratory (MAPCEL). The data were collected during a study of human exposure to CAPs, in

Evelyn J Freney; Mathew R Heal; Robert J Donovan; Nicholas L Mills; Kenneth Donaldson; David E Newby; Paul HB Fokkens; Flemming R Cassee

2006-01-01

297

Large-scale time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (TR-DPIV) for measurement of high subsonic hot coaxial jet exhaust of a gas turbine engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a highly configurable triple digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) system is described, which is capable of acquiring both continuous, statistically independent measurements at up to 14 Hz and time-resolved PIV data at MHz rates. The system was used at QinetiQ's Noise Test Facility (NTF) as part of the EU-funded CoJeN programme to obtain measurements from high subsonic (Mach <= 0.9), hot (~500 °C), large (1/10th) scale coaxial jet flows at a standoff distance of ~1 m. High-resolution time-averaged velocity and turbulence data were obtained for complete coaxial engine exhaust plumes down to 4 m (20 jet diameters) from the nozzle exit in less than 1 h. In addition, the system allowed volumetric data to be obtained, enabling fast assessment of spatial alignment of nozzle configurations. Furthermore, novel six-frame time-series data-capture is demonstrated up to 330 kHz, used to calculate time-space correlations within the exhaust, allowing for study of spatio-temporal developments in the jet, associated with jet-noise production. The highly automated system provides synchronization triggers for simultaneous acquisition from different measurement systems (e.g. LDA) and is shown to be versatile, rugged, reliable and portable, operating remotely in a hostile environment. Data are presented for three operating conditions and two nozzle geometries, providing a database to be used to validate CFD models of coaxial jet flow.

Timmerman, B. H.; Skeen, A. J.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.; Graves, M. J.

2009-07-01

298

Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO(4); a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO(4) and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO(4) on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO(4), induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:23261976

Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen; Chang, Hui-Hsien; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

2013-02-01

299

Generation of reactive oxygen species during interaction of diesel exhaust particle components with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and involvement of the bioactivation in the DNA damage.  

PubMed

Since the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) after intratracheal injection, was suppressed by pretreatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) modified with polyethylene glycol (Sagai et al. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 14: 37-47; 1993), the possibility that superoxide could be enzymatically and continuously generated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP), was examined. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH) oxidation was stimulated during interaction of a methanol extract of DEP with the Triton N-101 treated microsomal preparation of mouse lung whereas the cytosolic fraction was less active, suggesting that DEP contains substrates for NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (EC 1.6.2.4, P450 reductase) rather than DT-diaphorase. When purified P450 reductase was used as the enzyme source, the turnover value was enhanced approximately 260-fold. Quinones appeared to be served as substrate for P450 reductase because reaction was inhibited by addition of glutathione (GSH) to form those GSH adduct or pretreatment with NaBH4 to reduce those to the hydroxy compounds although a possibility of nitroarenes as the alternative substrates cannot be excluded. A methanol extract of DEP (37.5 micrograms) caused a significant formation of superoxide (3240 nmol/min/mg protein) in the presence of P450 reductase. Electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments revealed that hydroxyl radical was formed as well. The reactive species generated by DEP in the presence of P450 reductase caused DNA scission which was reduced in the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, or hydroxyl radical scavenging agents. Taken together, these results indicate that DEP components, probably quinoid or nitroaromatic structures, that appear to promote DNA damage through the redox cycling based generation of superoxide. PMID:8981040

Kumagai, Y; Arimoto, T; Shinyashiki, M; Shimojo, N; Nakai, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Sagai, M

1997-01-01

300

Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusion charger, an Aethalometer, and a continuous particle counter were used along with other real-time instruments to characterize the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (p-PAH) content, and the physical\\/chemical characteristics of aerosols collected a) in Wilmington (CA) near the Los Angeles port and close to 2 major freeways, and b) at a dynamometer testing facility in

A. Polidori; S. Hu; S. Biswas; R. J. Delfino; C. Sioutas

2007-01-01

301

Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusion charger, an Aethalometer, and a continuous particle counter were used along with other real-time instruments to characterize the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (p-PAH) content, and the physical\\/chemical characteristics of aerosols collected a) in Wilmington (CA) near the Los Angeles port and close to 2 major freeways, and b) at a dynamometer testing facility in

A. Polidori; S. Hu; S. Biswas; R. J. Delfino; C. Sioutas

2008-01-01

302

Comparison of the Effects of Exposure to Different Particles or Energies on Behavioral Responding in Rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On exploratory class missions, astronauts will be exposed to a variety of heavy particles which differ in terms of quality and energy. Previous research has shown that exposure to 56Fe particles (1 GeV/n) can disrupt performance on taste aversion (CTA) learning and on operant responding using an ascending fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. How exposure to different types of particles and different energies will affect performance remains to be established. Rats were exposed to 56Fe (1 GeV/n, 5 GeV/n), 48Ti (1.2 GeV/n)) or 28Si (600 MeV/n) using the AGS or NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following exposure, the rats were tested for the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced CTA. Compared to 1 GeV/n 56Fe, exposure to 5 GeV/n 56Fe particles required higher doses to disrupt the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced CTA. The dose-response curve for a 48Ti-induced disruption of CTA learning was similar to that produced by exposure to 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles, despite the difference in the LET of the two types of particles. In contrast the rats exposed to 28Si failed to show disruption of amphetamine-induced CTA learning, following exposure to 2.0-4.0 Gy. When tested on a ascending fixed-ratio operant task, the rats exposed to 5 GeV/n 56Fe, in contrast to the rats irradiated with 1 GeV/n 56Fe, did not show poorer performance than the non irradiated controls. These results show that the effects of exposure to heavy particles depend upon the specific particle, its energy, and the endpoint being tested. Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529

Rabin, B. M.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Joseph, J. A.; Carey, A.

303

TOTAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL (THEM) FOR RESPIRABLE SUSPENDED PARTICLES (RSP)  

EPA Science Inventory

A Total Human Exposure Model (THEM) has been developed that calculates 24-hour profiles using real human activity patterns and indoor air models derived from actual measurements of pollutants. HEM was designed for implementation on personal computers. urrently, the model uses the...

304

Particle damage and exposure analysis in HPGR crushing of selected copper ores for column leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mining operations, jaw and gyratory crushers are generally used for primary crushing, and cone crushers are used for secondary crushing. During the past decade, however, high-pressure grinding rolls (HPGR) are being considered due to potential processing benefits such as energy savings, improved exposure\\/liberation and particle weakening. At this time there is no detailed quantification of particle damage and downstream

Phanindra Kodali; Nikhil Dhawan; Tolga Depci; C. L. Lin; Jan D. Miller

2011-01-01

305

NEUROTROPHINS OPERATE AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT IN RESPONSES OF ALLERGIC MICE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP)  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF are linked to allergic responses. Treatment with anti-p75 (pan-neurotrophin receptor) prevents the increase in airflow obstruction caused by exposure to DEP in ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic mice (Toxicol Sci 84(S1):91, 2005). Our present goa...

306

Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention  

EPA Science Inventory

Background?Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective?1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

307

Exposure To An Organic PM Component Induces Inflammatory And Adaptive Gene Expression Through Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress  

EPA Science Inventory

RATIONALE. Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects including inflammatory responses in the lung. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a ubiquitous contributor to the fine and ultrafine PM burden in ambient air. Toxicological studi...

308

LIVE CELL IMAGING OF THE OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO AN ORGANIC PM COMPONENT  

EPA Science Inventory

RATIONALE. Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects, including inflammatory responses in the lung. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a ubiquitous contributor of the fine and ultrafine PM burden in ambient air. Toxicological stud...

309

Diet as a factor in behavioral radiation protection following exposure to heavy particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major risks associated with radiation exposures on deep space missions include carcinogenesis due to heavy-particle exposure of cancer-prone tissues and performance decrements due to neurological damage produced by heavy particles. Because exposure to heavy particles can cause oxidative stress, it is possible that antioxidants can be used to mitigate these risks (and possibly some health risks of microgravity). To assess the capacity of antioxidant diets to mitigate the effects of exposure to heavy particles, rats were maintained on antioxidant diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to exposure to 1.5 or 2.0 Gy of accelerated iron particles at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation rats were tested on a series of behavioral tasks: amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning, operant responding and spatial learning and memory. The results indicated that the performance of the irradiated rats maintained on the antioxidant diets was, in general, significantly better than that of the control animals, although the effectiveness of the diets ameliorating the radiation-induced deterioration in performance varied as a function of both the specific diet and the specific endpoint. In addition, animals fed antioxidant diets prior to exposure showed reduced heavy particle-induced tumorigenesis one year after exposure compared to the animals fed the control diet. These results suggest that antioxidant diets have the potential to serve as part of a system designed to provide protection to astronauts against the effects of heavy particles on exploratory missions outside the magnetic field of the earth.

Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James; Todd, Paul

2005-01-01

310

Dispersion of traffic-related exhaust particles near the Berlin urban motorway - estimation of fleet emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particle number size distributions of airborne particles (diameter range 10-500 nm) were collected over ten weeks at three sites in the vicinity of the A100 urban motorway in Berlin, Germany. The A100 carries about 180 000 vehicles on a weekday. The roadside particle distributions showed a number maximum between 20 and 60 nm clearly related to the motorway emissions. The average total number concentration at roadside was 28 000 cm-3 with a total range of 1200-168 000 cm-3. At distances of 80 and 400 m from the motorway the concentrations decreased to mean levels of 11 000 and 9000 cm-3, respectively. An obstacle-resolving dispersion model was applied to simulate the 3-D flow field and traffic tracer transport in the urban environment around the motorway. By inverse modelling, vehicle emission factors were derived that are representative of a fleet with a relative share of 6% lorry-like vehicles, and driving at a speed of 80 km h-1. Three different calculation approaches were compared, which differ in the choice of the experimental winds driving the flow simulation. The average emission factor per vehicle was 2.1 (±0.2) · 1014 km-1 for particle number and 0.077 (±0.01) · 1014 cm3 km-1 for particle volume. Regression analysis suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit 123 (±28) times more particle number than passenger car-like vehicles, and lorry-like vehicles account for about 91% of particulate number emissions on weekdays. Our work highlights the increasing applicability of 3-D flow models in urban microscale environments and their usefulness for determining traffic emission factors.

Birmili, W.; Alaviippola, B.; Hinneburg, D.; Knoth, O.; Tuch, T.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schacht, A.

2009-04-01

311

Dispersion of traffic-related exhaust particles near the Berlin urban motorway: estimation of fleet emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particle number size distributions of airborne particles (diameter range 10 500 nm) were measured over ten weeks at three sites in the vicinity of the A100 urban motorway in Berlin, Germany. The A100 carries about 180 000 vehicles on a weekday, and roadside particle size distributions showed a number maximum between 20 and 60 nm clearly related to the motorway emissions. The average total number concentration at roadside was 28 000 cm-3 with a total range between 1200 and 168 000 cm-3. At distances of 80 and 400 m from the motorway the concentrations decreased to mean levels of 11 000 and 9 000 cm-3, respectively. An obstacle-resolving dispersion model was applied to simulate the 3-D flow field and traffic tracer transport in the urban environment around the motorway. By inverse modelling, vehicle emission factors were derived, representative of a relative share of 6% lorry-like vehicles, and a driving speed of about 80 km h-1. Three different calculation approaches were compared, which differ in the choice of the experimental winds driving the flow simulation. The average emission factor per vehicle was 2.1(±0.2) · 1014 km-1 for particle number and 0.077(±0.01) · 1014 cm3 km-1 for particle volume. Regression analysis suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit 116 (± 21) times more particulate number than passenger car-like vehicles, and that lorry-like vehicles account for about 91% of particulate number emissions on weekdays. Our work highlights the increasing applicability of 3-D flow models in urban microscale environments and their usefulness in determining traffic emission factors.

Birmili, W.; Alaviippola, B.; Hinneburg, D.; Knoth, O.; Tuch, T.; Kleefeld-Borken, J.; Schacht, A.

2008-08-01

312

Genotoxic effects of carbon black particles, diesel exhaust particles, and urban air particulates and their extracts on a human alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) and a human monocytic cell line (THP-1).  

PubMed

The possible genotoxicity of small particulate matter has been under investigation for the last 10 years. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are considered as "probably carcinogenic" (IARC group 2A) and a number of studies show genotoxic effects of urban particulate matter (UPM). Carbon black (CB) is carcinogenic in rats. In this study the cytotoxic and genotoxic potency of these three particle types was investigated by exposing human cells (A549 and THP-1 cell lines) in vitro to CB, DEP (SRM 1650, NIST), and UPM (SRM 1648, NIST) for 48 hr. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the Alamar Blue assay, whereas genotoxicity was assessed using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The particles were characterized with regard to their mean diameter in tissue culture medium (CB 100 nm, DEP 400 nm, UPM 2 microm), their total carbon content (CB 99%, DEP 85%, UPM 15%), and their acid-soluble metal composition (UPM > CB approximately DEP). The concentrations ranged from 16 ng/ml to 16 microg/ml for cytotoxicity tests and from 16 ng/ml to 1.6 microg/ml for genotoxicity tests. In both assays, paraquat was used as a reference chemical. The CB, DEP, and UPM particles showed no significant cytotoxicity. However, all three particles were able to cause significant DNA damage, although to a different extent in the two cell lines. The genotoxicity of washed particles and dichloromethane extracts was also investigated. In THP-1 cells CB washed particles and DEP extracts caused significant DNA damage. This difference in effect may be related to differences in size, structure, and composition of the particles. These results suggest that CB, DEP, and UPM are able to cause DNA damage and, therefore, may contribute to the causation of lung cancer. More detailed studies on influence of size, structure, and composition of the particles are needed. PMID:11246222

Don Porto Carero, A; Hoet, P H; Verschaeve, L; Schoeters, G; Nemery, B

2001-01-01

313

Exhausting Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fume hood: You know what it is, but have you ever used it? And if a safety issue arose, would you know what to do? Unfortunately, fume hoods are frequently included in a science room just for show. Little thought is often given to how they should be used or maintained. It is important for science teachers to understand and regularly inspect fume hoods in their classrooms and laboratories. In this article, the author discusses a few considerations for design, inspection, use, and maintenance of fume hoods in a science lab and classroom. Read on for an "exhaustive" look at this safety device!

Mandt, Douglas

2009-01-01

314

ECG Parameters and Exposure to Carbon Ultrafine Particles in Young Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying the association between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are unknown. This study aimed to determine whether controlled exposure to elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) affects electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters describing heart rate variability; repolarization duration, morphology, and variability; and changes in the ST segment. Two separate controlled studies (12 subjects each) were performed using a crossover design, in which each subject was exposed to filtered air and carbon UFP for 2 hours. The first protocol involved 2 exposures to air and 10 µg/m3 (~ 2 × 106 particles/cm3, count median diameter ~25 nm, geometric standard deviation ~1.6), at rest. The second protocol included 3 exposures to air, 10, and 25 µg/m3 UFP (~ 7 × 106 particles/cm3), with repeated exercise. Each subject underwent a continuous digital 12-lead ECG Holter recording to analyze the above ECG parameters. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare tested parameters between exposures. The observed responses to UFP exposure were small and generally not significant, although there were trends indicating an increase in parasympathetic tone, which is most likely also responsible for trends toward ST elevation, blunted QTc shortening, and increased variability of T-wave complexity after exposure to UFP. Recovery from exercise showed a blunted response of the parasympathetic system after exposure to UFP in comparison to air exposure. In conclusion, transient exposure to 10–25 µg/m3 ultrafine carbon particles does not cause marked changes in ECG-derived parameters in young healthy subjects. However, trends are observed indicating that some subjects might be susceptible to air pollution, with a response involving autonomic modulation of the heart and repolarization of the ventricular myocardium.

Zareba, Wojciech; Couderc, Jean Philippe; Oberdorster, Gunter; Chalupa, David; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li-Shan; Peters, Annette; Utell, Mark J.; Frampton, Mark W.

2010-01-01

315

The influence of passenger activities on exposure to particles inside buses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated personal exposures to particles have been reported in buses, but the factors associated with these high exposures are uncertain, and the potential role of passenger activities within buses has not been quantified. To improve understanding of this factor we measured particle number concentrations in the range 0.3-15 ?m simultaneously inside and outside buses in the city of York (UK), while carefully noting passenger activities. We also developed a box model to simulate the effects of passenger activities, and parameterised this from independent studies with controlled passenger activities. The number concentrations inside buses were significantly higher than those outside in all size classes, and the inside/outside ratios increased with particle size. The model showed broad agreement with measured particle concentrations inside buses, and demonstrated, for particles in the range 3-15 ?m, that both re-suspension by passenger activities and deposition to the surface of the passengers had significant effects on concentrations. Hence, understanding of the effects of passenger activities on both particle deposition and re-suspension is essential to interpret exposure measurements inside buses. Exposure of regular commuters inside buses could be of potential health significance and needs further assessment.

Song, W. W.; Ashmore, M. R.; Terry, A. C.

2009-12-01

316

Exposure for ultrafine carbon particles at levels below detectable pulmonary inflammation affects cardiovascular performance in spontaneously hypertensive rats*  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Exposure to particulate matter is a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease but the related molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Previously we studied cardiovascular responses in healthy WKY rats following inhalation exposure to ultrafine carbon particles (UfCPs...

317

Toxicity of Engine Exhaust Gases Diesel-Bromochloromethane Fuel Blend.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A single cylinder diesel engine was used to generate exhaust gases formed during the combustion of diesel fuel containing five percent by vol bromochloromethane, as a fuel additive. An exhaust gas dilution system permitted exposure of selected animal spec...

A. A. Johnston K. Springer D. Johnson D. Boenig F. Newman

1975-01-01

318

Biopersistence of nonfibrous mineral particles in the respiratory tracts of subjects following occupational exposure.  

PubMed Central

Transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEMA) was used to analyze the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 262 subjects occupationally exposed (OE) to nonfibrous mineral particles (NFMP) and 42 controls not occupationally exposed to mineral dusts. OE subjects were divided into three groups according to the lapse of time since last exposure: < or = 1 year and < 10 years (E2), > or = 10 years (E3). The total BALF mineral particle concentration was significantly higher in OE patients than in controls and was closely related to the time lapse since last exposure to NFMP (median values for OE, 7.7 x 10(5) particles/ml; E1, 9 x 10(5) particles/ml; E2, 5 x 10(5) particles/ml; E3, 4.3 x 10(5) particles/ml; controls, 2 x 10(5) particles/ml). No statistical difference was observed for age and smoking habits between OE and control subjects. Concentrations of crystalline silica and metals (exogenous iron, aluminum, metallic alloys and other metals) were significantly higher in OE subjects than in controls, and even though these mineral concentrations decreased with increasing time since last occupational exposure, they still remained higher in the E3 group than in controls. Crystalline silica and metals were thus identified as biopersistent NFMP in the human lung using BALF ATEM method. This method is a useful tool in assessing occupational exposure to NFMP, even when a long period has elapsed since last exposure, and may be used in studying etiology of some respiratory diseases.

Pairon, J C; Billon-Galland, M A; Iwatsubo, Y; Bernstein, M; Gaudichet, A; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

1994-01-01

319

Mass distribution and concentrations of negative chemiions in the exhaust of a jet engine: Sulfuric acid concentrations and observation of particle growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of negative-ion composition and density have been made in the exhaust of a J85-GE-5H turbojet, at ground level, as part of the NASA-EXCAVATE campaign. The mass spectrometer was placed 3m from the exhaust plane of the engine. Measurements were done as a function of engine power in six steps from idle (50%) to military power (100%). Since the exhaust

Thomas M. Miller; John O. Ballenthin; A. A. Viggiano; Bruce E. Anderson; Chowen C. Wey

2005-01-01

320

Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ? To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ? ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ? PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ? The findings suggest that ELF has a protective role against PM. ? The synthetic ELF system could reduce the use of animals in PM-driven ROS testing.

Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-02-01

321

Frictional duality of metallic nanoparticles: Influence of particle morphology, orientation, and air exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contact area dependence of the interfacial friction experienced during the translation of antimony nanoparticles deposited on a graphite substrate is studied under different conditions using the tip of an atomic force microscope as a manipulation tool. In vacuum a dual behavior of the friction-area curves is found, characterized by the observation that some particles exhibit friction below the detection limit while other similarly sized particles showed constant shear stress values. Detailed investigations prove the reproducibility of this effect, revealing that neither the particle’s morphology nor their alignment relative to the substrate lattice influence the findings. In contrast, we observe that a temporary exposure to ambient air can lead to a drastic increase in the particle’s friction.

Dietzel, Dirk; Mönninghoff, Tristan; Herding, Carina; Feldmann, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Stegemann, Bert; Ritter, Claudia; Schwarz, Udo D.; Schirmeisen, André

2010-07-01

322

Influence of short-term exposure to ultrafine and fine particles on systemic inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily to monthly variations in fine particulate matter have been linked to systemic inflammatory responses. It has been hypothesized\\u000a that smaller particles resulting from combustion processes confer higher toxicity. We aim to analyze the association between\\u000a short-term exposure to ultrafine and fine particles and systemic inflammation. We use baseline data (2000–2003) of the Heinz\\u000a Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based cohort

Sabine HertelAnja; Anja Viehmann; Susanne Moebus; Klaus Mann; Martina Bröcker-Preuss; Stefan Möhlenkamp; Michael Nonnemacher; Raimund Erbel; Hermann Jakobs; Michael Memmesheimer; Karl-Heinz Jöckel; Barbara Hoffmann

2010-01-01

323

Exhaust emission control apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

Eng, J.W.

1991-09-24

324

Nanoparticle formation in the exhaust of vehicles running on ultra-low sulfur fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern of adverse health impacts from exposure to vehicle-emitted nanoparticles has been escalating over the past few years. In order to meet more stringent EPA emission standards for particle mass emissions, advanced exhaust after-treatment systems such as continuously regenerating diesel particle filters (CRDPFs) have to be employed on vehicles and fuel with ultra-low sulfur is to be used. Although

Hua Du; Fangqun Yu

2008-01-01

325

Effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging on object recognition memory in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to HZE particles produces changes in neurocognitive performance. These changes, including deficits in spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory and operant responding, are also observed in the aged organism. As such, it has been proposed that exposure to heavy particles produces "accelerated aging". Because aging is an ongoing process, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of exposure and the effects of aging, such that doses of HZE particles that do not affect the performance of younger organisms will affect the performance of organisms as they age. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that young rats that had been exposed to HZE particles would show a progressive deterioration in object recognition memory as a function of the age of testing. Rats were exposed to 12 C, 28 S or 48 Ti particles at the N.A.S.A. Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. HZE particle-induced changes in object recognition memory were tested using a standard procedure: rats were placed in an open field and allowed to interact with two identical objects for up to 30 sec; twenty-four hrs later the rats were again placed in the open field, this time containing one familiar and one novel object. Non-irradiated control animals spent significantly more time with the novel object than with the familiar object. In contrast, the rats that been exposed to heavy particles spent equal amounts of time with both the novel and familiar object. The lowest dose of HZE particles which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was determined three months and eleven months following exposure. The threshold dose needed to disrupt object recognition memory three months following irradiation varied as a function of the specific particle and energy. When tested eleven months following irradiation, doses of HZE particles that did not did not affect the performance of the younger rats did affect the performance of the older rats. For all particles the dose of radiation which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was lower when the rats were tested eleven months following irradiation than when the rats were tested 3 months following exposure.

Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Shannahan, Ryan; Hering, Kathleen

326

Exposure assessment of diesel bus emissions.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 mum emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station) and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform along with their breathing frequency. PMID:17159271

Yip, Maricela; Madl, Pierre; Wiegand, Aaron; Hofmann, Werner

2006-12-01

327

RESPIRABLE PARTICLES AND MISTS IN MOUSE PULMONARY INFECTIVITY MODEL. EFFECT OF CHRONIC OR INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of respirable-sized sulfuric acid mist or mixtures containing acid mist and carbon particles (A-C) on the susceptibility to bacterial and viral respiratory infection were studied in mice and hamsters. Both species showed mortalities upon single 3-hour exposure to 600 ...

328

High-Z Particle Cosmic-Ray Exposure of Apollo 8-14 Astronauts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On Apollo missions that individual astronauts' high Z particle exposure was measured by means of Lexan foils located in the passive dosimetry packs carried on the chest, thigh, and ankle of each astronaut. The report deals with measurements obtained on Ap...

E. V. Benton R. P. Henke

1972-01-01

329

Analysis of Exposure-Dose Variation of Inhaled Particles in Adult Subjects.  

EPA Science Inventory

Although internal dose is a key factor for determining the health risk of inhaled pollutant particles, available dose information is largely limited to young healthy adults under a few typical exposure conditions. Extrapolation of the limited dose information to different populat...

330

Exposure to concentrated coarse air pollution particles causes mild cardiopulmonary effects in young healthy adults  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: There is ample epidemiological and toxicological evidence that exposure to fme air pollution particles (PM2.5), which are primarily derived from combustion processes, can result in increased mortality and morbidity. There is less certainty as to the contribution of coa...

331

Human Exposure to Airborne Particles Containing Tantalum in Mining and Metallurgical Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the human incorporation of tantalum (Ta) using the ICRP 30 model and newly available data. The study was conducted at a pyrochlore mine and metallurgical plant located in the Brazilian state of Goiás. Workers’ exposure to thorium (Th), uranium (U), niobium (Nb), and Ta bearing particles was assessed during routine tasks during mining and the metallurgical processes

K. Moore Dias da Cunha; K. C. Dalia Pereira; J. R. D. Guimarães; C. Lima; J. E. C. Nascimento; R. Lima; A. A. Hecht; P. Ward

2012-01-01

332

Effect of detector exposure time on the apparent diffusion coefficient measured by single particle tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from simulation of Brownian motion of nanoparticles where we also take into account the averaging imposed by the exposure period E of the detector. The diffusion coefficient is estimated from the measured displacements of the particles over a prescribed delay time deltat. Results from free diffusion simulations show a clear dependency of the estimated diffusion coefficient on

Shahram Pouya; Manoochehr Koochesfahani; Richard di Liu

2008-01-01

333

Diesel exhaust in miners study: how to understand the findings?  

PubMed Central

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) is an outstanding epidemiological project on the association between occupational diesel exhaust exposures, measured as long-term respirable elemental carbon (REC) estimates, and lung cancer mortality in a large cohort of US miners. Two articles published recently (Attfield et al. (J Natl Cancer Inst Epub, [2012]), Silverman et al. (J Natl Cancer Inst Epub, [2012])) dsescribed the epidemiological findings. These papers are expected to have considerable impact on the evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of diesel exhaust and, furthermore, on occupational and environmental limit value discussions related to diesel motor emissions and particle exposures. DEMS found remarkable exposure-response relationships between REC exposure estimates and lung cancer mortality - conditional on a pronounced effect of surface vs. underground work on lung cancer risk. If this risk factor is ignored the estimated REC-lung cancer association is attenuated substantially. The authors relied on this risk factor in their main analyses. However, this factor “surface/underground work” remained unexplained. The factor lead the authors to introduce unusual cross-product terms of location and smoking in adjustment procedures and even caused the authors to hypothesize that high REC exposures are protective against lung cancer excess risks due to smoking. To understand the reliability of these conclusions, we should ask basic questions about the data collection process in DEMS: Did the mortality follow-up procedures suffer from errors like those that affected the NCI formaldehyde cohort study? Are the REC and/or smoking data reliable, and are these data collected/constructed in such a way that the procedures allow valid comparisons between surface and underground workers? Without clarifying the issues raised in this Commentary the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study remains to be difficult to interpret.

2012-01-01

334

Diesel exhaust in miners study: how to understand the findings?  

PubMed

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) is an outstanding epidemiological project on the association between occupational diesel exhaust exposures, measured as long-term respirable elemental carbon (REC) estimates, and lung cancer mortality in a large cohort of US miners. Two articles published recently (Attfield et al. (J Natl Cancer Inst Epub, 2012), Silverman et al. (J Natl Cancer Inst Epub, 2012)) dsescribed the epidemiological findings. These papers are expected to have considerable impact on the evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of diesel exhaust and, furthermore, on occupational and environmental limit value discussions related to diesel motor emissions and particle exposures. DEMS found remarkable exposure-response relationships between REC exposure estimates and lung cancer mortality - conditional on a pronounced effect of surface vs. underground work on lung cancer risk. If this risk factor is ignored the estimated REC-lung cancer association is attenuated substantially. The authors relied on this risk factor in their main analyses. However, this factor "surface/underground work" remained unexplained. The factor lead the authors to introduce unusual cross-product terms of location and smoking in adjustment procedures and even caused the authors to hypothesize that high REC exposures are protective against lung cancer excess risks due to smoking. To understand the reliability of these conclusions, we should ask basic questions about the data collection process in DEMS: Did the mortality follow-up procedures suffer from errors like those that affected the NCI formaldehyde cohort study? Are the REC and/or smoking data reliable, and are these data collected/constructed in such a way that the procedures allow valid comparisons between surface and underground workers? Without clarifying the issues raised in this Commentary the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study remains to be difficult to interpret. PMID:22676299

Morfeld, Peter

2012-01-01

335

An analytical approach for the prediction of gamma-to-alpha phase transformation of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles in the Space Shuttle ASRM and RSRM exhausts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analytical approach developed here utilizes the flow-field output from industry standard nozzle and plume codes as input into a particle phase conversion code which predicts the amount of gamma-to-alpha conversion in SRM exhausts. Sixty different cases were considered which varied such parameters as particle size, degree of undercooling, motor type, and altitude. On-centerline calculations were made for both the ASRM and RSRM at an altitude of 100,000 feet with particle sizes varying from 3.5 to 9.1 micron radius and undercooling varying from 0 to 20 percent. Additional calculations were made for the ASRM at 100,000 feet off centerline and at an altitude of 60,000 feet on centerline. The results indicate that significant amounts of metastable alumina will be present in ASRM and RSRM exhausts. Though not significant to motor performance, this may be important in such issues as environmental effects of rocket exhausts, plume radiative heating predictions, and particle size determination by laser scattering.

Oliver, S. M.; Moylan, B. E.

1992-01-01

336

Exposure to ozone alters regional function and particle dosimetry in the human lung  

SciTech Connect

Effects of experimental exposure to O[sub 3] (0.33 ppm) or filtered air on regional lung function were assessed in nine healthy male subjects. Immediately after 2-h chamber exposures, regional ventilation and particle dosimetry were measured by gamma camera imaging. The vertical distributions of a radiolabeled gas ([sup 133]Xe) and aerosol (3.5-[mu]m-diam insoluble [sup 99m]T[sub c]-tagged Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] particles) were quantified for upper, middle, and lower lung regions; distribution data were corrected for regional differences in lung volume and tissue attenuation. Indexes of mechanical function, inspiratory capacity, and mid-maximal expiratory flow rates were significantly reduced after O[sub 3], but functional residual capacity remained unchanged. Exposure to O[sub 3] significantly enhanced the fraction of respired aerosol retained by the lung and altered the distribution pattern of deposited aerosol by increasing particle deposition to the middle lung region (P < 0.05). Aerosol penetration indexes, i.e., ratio of particle deposition in central lung regions to that in peripheral lung regions, and particle retention 24 h postinhalation (an index of aerosol deposition within alveoli and slowly clearing bronchioles) indicated that particle filtration efficiency had increased for tracheobronchial and parenchymal lung regions. For seven of the nine subjects, regional ventilation after O[sub 3] was reduced by 14% to the lung base and enhanced by 8 and 6% to the upper and middle lung regions, respectively; these changes were significant (P < 0.02) compared with ventilation after filtered air. These data suggest that there is a vertical gradient in deposition for 3.5-[mu]m aerosol (particle burdens/unit lung volume are lowest for the lung apex and highest for the middle lung regions) and that O[sub 3] alters regional ventilation and particle filtration efficiency of the respiratory tract. 37 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Foster, W.M.; Silver, J.A.; Groth, M.L. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States) State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States))

1993-11-01

337

Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

338

Cognitive differences between male and female rats following exposure to 56Fe particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On exploratory class missions astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation (HZE particles) that are not experienced in low earth orbit. While it is likely that the crew will consist of both male and female astronauts, there has been little research on the effects of exposure to HZE particles on cognitive performance in female subjects. While previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance in male rats it remains to be established whether or not similar effects will occur with female subjects because estrogen may act as a neuroprotectant. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were obtained from Taconic Farms. Thirty mm segments of silastic tubing containing either 180 pg l7-estradiol/mL in sesame oil or vehicle alone were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Three days following surgery the rats were exposed to 56Fe particles (1000 MeV/n, 0-200 cGy) at the NSRL. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. The results indicated that the pattern of decrements in cognitive performance differed between male and female rats. In addition, for female rats, there were differences in performance as a function of the presence or absence of estradiol. In the vehicle implanted subjects exposure to 56Fe particles did not affect operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio schedule; whereas irradiation did disrupt responding in OVX animals given estradiol. These results suggest that estrogen may not be protective following exposure to HZE particles. This research was supported by Grant NNX08AM66G from NASA.

Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Luskin, Katharine; Long, Lauren; Joseph, James

339

Application of real-time particle sensors to help mitigate exposures of wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

High particulate exposures have been demonstrated to decrease lung function among firefighters. In this article, the authors demonstrated the feasibility of using small real-time particle sensors to inform wildland firefighters so they may make informed decisions on the use of personal respiratory protection. Using 1 mg/m3 as an indicator point for use of appropriately designed respiratory protection, such sensors could help prevent 16% to 74% of particulate exposure during prescribed burns when firefighters assess exposure as low or medium. Adherence to such a guideline for the use of respiratory protection would involve its deployment during 3% to 22% of individual 8-hour shifts. In addition, data-logging sensors would provide a valuable tool for tracking exposure to particulates among wildland firefighters for occupational health monitoring. PMID:16961007

Edwards, Rufus; Johnson, Michael; Dunn, Kevin H; Naeher, Luke P

2005-01-01

340

Variability in onset of ECG changes indicative of ischemia after exposure to whole vs filtered diesel exhaust in hypertensive rats. Insight on mechanism?  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gases including C02, O2, N02, CO, aldehydes, benzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as highly respirable particulate matter. DE is a significant component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, which its...

341

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: the influence of time-activity patterns.  

PubMed

Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) is deemed to be a major risk affecting human health. Therefore, airborne particle studies were performed in the recent years to evaluate the most critical micro-environments, as well as identifying the main UFP sources. Nonetheless, in order to properly evaluate the UFP exposure, personal monitoring is required as the only way to relate particle exposure levels to the activities performed and micro-environments visited. To this purpose, in the present work, the results of experimental analysis aimed at showing the effect of the time-activity patterns on UFP personal exposure are reported. In particular, 24 non-smoking couples (12 during winter and summer time, respectively), comprised of a man who worked full-time and a woman who was a homemaker, were analyzed using personal particle counter and GPS monitors. Each couple was investigated for a 48-h period, during which they also filled out a diary reporting the daily activities performed. Time activity patterns, particle number concentration exposure and the related dose received by the participants, in terms of particle alveolar-deposited surface area, were measured. The average exposure to particle number concentration was higher for women during both summer and winter (Summer: women 1.8 × 10(4) part. cm(-3); men 9.2 × 10(3) part. cm(-3); Winter: women 2.9 × 10(4) part. cm(-3); men 1.3 × 10(4) part. cm(-3)), which was likely due to the time spent undertaking cooking activities. Staying indoors after cooking also led to higher alveolar-deposited surface area dose for both women and men during the winter time (9.12 × 10(2) and 6.33 × 10(2) mm(2), respectively), when indoor ventilation was greatly reduced. The effect of cooking activities was also detected in terms of women's dose intensity (dose per unit time), being 8.6 and 6.6 in winter and summer, respectively. On the contrary, the highest dose intensity activity for men was time spent using transportation (2.8 in both winter and summer). PMID:24080417

Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Morawska, L

2014-01-15

342

Measurements and Modeling of Radiation Exposure Due to Solar Particle Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dose assessment procedures of cosmic radiation to aircraft crew are introduced in most of the European countries according the corresponding European directive and national regulations 96 29 Euratom However the radiation exposure due to solar particle events is still a matter of scientific research Several in-flight measurements were performed during solar storm conditions First models to estimate the exposure due to solar particle events were discussed previously Recently EURADOS European Radiation Dosimetry Group http www eurados org started to coordinate research activities in model improvements for dose assessment of solar particle events The coordinated research is a work package of the European research project CONRAD Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry on complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces Major aim of sub group B of that work package is the validation of models for dose assessment of solar particle events using data from neutron ground level monitors in-flight measurement results obtained during a solar particle event and proton satellite data The paper describes the current status of obtainable solar storm measurements and gives an overview of the existing models for dose assessment of solar particle events in flight altitudes

Beck, P.; Conrad Wp6-Sgb Team

343

Particle Exposure Assessment for Community Elderly (PEACE) in Tianjin, China: Mass concentration relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle Exposure Assessment for Community Elderly (PEACE) in Tianjin, China was to characterize personal PM10 exposure, and provide data support for an epidemiological study investigating potential health effects of PM pollution on Chinese elderly population. In this study, a total of 80 elderly participants were recruited for a two-consecutive-day personal exposure measurement, and simultaneously residential indoor, residential outdoor and community PM10 were monitored in the summer and winter of 2009. Personal PM10 concentrations were 192.8 ± 100.6 ?g m-3 in summer and 154.6 ± 105.4 ?g m-3 in winter. Modeled personal exposures were less than measured personal exposures while a high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.71 was obtained. Based on measured and modeled exposures, a mean personal cloud of 30.2 ?g m-3 was estimated in summer and 16.5 ?g m-3 in winter. Moderate correlation emerged between personal and community PM10 concentrations in summer (r = 0.39), and stronger correlation was found in winter (r = 0.82). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shown that smoking, cooking and cleaning activities did not produce significant effect on personal exposures. Further more, multivariate regression analysis performed in this study revealed that community PM10 level contributed most of personal PM10 exposure, 32% in summer and 64% in winter, respectively. The findings of this study indicated that PM10 personal exposures were considerably influenced by outdoor particulate matter rather than typical indoor sources, and ambient PM10 level measured at community monitoring sites may be used as a surrogate of personal exposure to PM10.

Zhou, Jian; Han, Bin; Bai, Zhipeng; You, Yan; Zhang, Jiefeng; Niu, Can; Liu, Yating; Zhang, Nan; He, Fei; Ding, Xiao; Lu, Bing; Hu, Yandi

2012-03-01

344

Diesel particle-induced transcriptional expression of P21 involves activation of EGFR, SRC, and STAT3  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse health outcomes such as inflammation, adjuvancy, and mutagenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which DEP inhalation exerts these effects are still largely unknown. We previously reported that expo...

345

Effects of Exposure to Heavy Particles on a Behavior Mediated by the Dopaminergic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of exposure to heavy particles on behaviors mediated by the central nervous system (CNS) are qualitatively different than the effects produced by exposure to other types of radiation. One behavior mediated by the CNS is the amphetamine-induced taste aversion, which is produced by pairing a novel tasting solution with injection of amphetamine. When the conditioning day is three days following irradiation, exposing rats to low doses of 56Fe particles (600 MeV/n or 1 GeV/n) eliminates the taste aversion produced by injection of amphetamine, which is dependent upon the integrity of the central dopaminergic system, but has no effect on the aversion produced by injection of lithium chloride which is mediated by the gastrointestinal system. In contrast to the effects obtained using heavy particles, exposing rats to 60Co gamma rays or to fission spectrum neutrons has no selective effect upon the acquisition of either amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced taste aversions. When the conditioning day occurs four months following exposure to 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles, there is an enhancement of the amphetamine-induced taste aversion. The implications of these findings for approaches to risk assessment are considered

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; McEwen, J.

346

A Novel System to Generate WTC Dust Particles for Inhalation Exposures  

PubMed Central

First Responders (FR) present at Ground Zero within the first 72-hr after the WTC (World Trade Center) collapse have progressively exhibited significant respiratory injury. The majority (>96%) of WTC dusts were >10 ?m and no studies have examined potential health effects of this size fraction. This study sought to develop a system to generate and deliver supercoarse (10–53 ?m) WTC particles to a rat model in a manner that mimicked FR exposure scenarios. A modified Fishing Line generator was integrated onto an intratracheal inhalation (ITIH) system that allowed for a bypassing of the nasal passages so as to mimic FR exposures. Dust concentrations were measured gravimetrically; particle size distribution was measured via elutriation. Results indicate that the system could produce dusts with 23 ?m MMAD at levels up to ? 1200 mg/m3. To validate system utility, F344 rats were exposed for 2-hr to ?100 mg WTC dust/m3. Exposed rats had significantly increased lung weight and levels of select tracer metals 1-hr post-exposure. Using this system, it is now possible to conduct relevant inhalation exposures to determine adverse WTC dusts impacts on the respiratory system. Furthermore, this novel integrated Fishing Line-ITIH system could potentially be used in the analyses of a wide spectrum of other dusts/pollutants of sizes previously untested or delivered to the lungs in ways that did not reflect realistic exposure scenarios.

Vaughan, Joshua M.; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Soukup, Joleen M.; Zelikoff, Judith; Ghio, Andrew; Peltier, Richard E.; Asgharian, Bahman; Chen, Lung-Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D.

2014-01-01

347

[Effects of long-term exposure to street traffic exhaust on the development of skin and respiratory tract diseases in children].  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of allergies can be stimulated by adjuvant effects--i.e. air pollutants such as NOx and particles from diesel engines as well as noise--the latter especially during night-time. During sleep, noise signals which are associated with danger (i.e. lorry noise) have the potential to trigger stress reactions even if the noise level is low. Increases of cortisol in the first half of the night seem to play an important role.--In a blind interview study, the combined effects of chronic exposure to traffic related air pollution and noise, upon the risk of skin and respiratory diseases in children were studied. All children between 5-12 years, who had consulted one of two participating pediatricians were included in the study. The pediatricians' diagnoses of 400 children were analysed together with their parents answers on the density of road traffic on their street and several confounding factors. Multiple regression analyses resulted in relative risks of asthma, chronic bronchitis and neurodermitis, which increased significantly with increasing traffic load. A comparison with the literature on such effects caused by air pollution alone, showed that traffic noise during the night might have an adjuvant effect on the pathogenesis of the mentioned diseases. PMID:14753026

Ising, Hartmut; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Henning; Lieber, Gert-Friedhelm; Weinhold, Hubertus; Eilts, Manfred

2003-01-01

348

MicroRNA-375 regulation of thymic stromal lymphopoietin by diesel exhaust particles and ambient particulate matter in human bronchial epithelial cells§  

PubMed Central

Air pollution contributes to acute exacerbations of asthma and the development of asthma in children and adults. Airway epithelial cells interface innate and adaptive immune responses and have been proposed to regulate much of the response to pollutants. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a pivotal cytokine linking innate and Th2 adaptive immune disorders and is upregulated by environmental pollutants, including ambient particulate matter (PM) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). We now show that DEP and ambient fine PM upregulate TSLP mRNA and hsa-miR-375 in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (pHBEC). Moreover, transfection of pHBEC with anti-hsa-miR-375 reduced TSLP mRNA in DEP but not TNF-? treated cells. In silico pathway evaluation suggested the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as one possible target of miR-375. DEP and ambient fine PM (3 ?g/cm2), down regulated AhR mRNA. Transfection of mimic-hsa-miR-375 resulted in a small downregulation of AhR mRNA compared to resting AhR mRNA. AhR mRNA was increased in pHBEC treated with DEP after transfection with anti-hsa-miR-375. Our data show that two pollutants, DEP and ambient PM, upregulate TSLP in human bronchial epithelial cells by a mechanism that includes hsa-miR-375 with complex regulatory effects on AhR mRNA. The absence of this pathway in TNF-?-treated cells suggests multiple regulatory pathways for TSLP expression in these cells.

Bleck, Bertram; Grunig, Gabriele; Chiu, Amanda; Liu, Mengling; Gordon, Terry; Kazeros, Angeliki; Reibman, Joan

2013-01-01

349

Increase of urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine in diesel exhaust emission inspector exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objectives of this study were to explore the factors influencing urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in\\u000a diesel engine exhaust emission inspectors (inspectors), the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure\\u000a and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), and the PAHs exposure levels in diesel vehicle emission inspection stations (inspection\\u000a stations).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-eight inspectors and a control group

Mei-Wen Lee; Mei-Lien Chen; Shih-Chun Candice Lung; Chung-Jung Tsai; Chao-Feng Steven Lai; Shang-Chun Yang; I-Fang Mao

350

Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions--I. Plant-insect interactions.  

PubMed

The effects of motor vehicle exhaust gas on Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and plant-insect interaction of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) was studied. The exhaust gas concentrations in the fumigation chambers were monitored and controlled by measuring the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) with a computer aided feedback system. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components (black carbon [BC], fine particles, VOCs and carbonyl compounds) in the chamber air were also measured. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings to a 2 and 3-week exhaust gas exposure and subsequent performance of spruce shoot aphid were studied using realistic exposure regimes; 50, 100 and 200 ppb NO(x). The feedback control system based on NO(x) concentrations proved an adequate and practical means for controlling the concentration of exhaust gases and studying plant responses in controlled environment chambers. The exhaust exposure resulted in increased concentrations of proline, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine and decreased concentration of arginine, serine, alanine and glycine in young needles. No changes in soluble N concentrations were observed. The results are interpreted as a stress response rather than use of NO(x) as a nitrogen source. No changes in total phenolics and only transient changes in some individual terpene concentrations were detected. The exhaust gas exposure stressed the exposed seedlings, but had no significant effect on N metabolism or the production of defence chemicals. Aphid performance was not significantly affected. Soluble N, secondary metabolism and aphid performance were not sensitive to exhaust gas exposure during shoot elongation in Norway spruce. PMID:15093012

Viskari, E L; Surakka, J; Pasanen, P; Mirme, A; Kössi, S; Ruuskanen, J; Holopainen, J K

2000-01-01

351

Exposure to wood dust and its particle size distribution in a rubberwood sawmill in Thailand.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study on wood dust exposure and respiratory health effects was conducted at one of the largest rubberwood sawmills in Thailand. All workers (N = 340) from all jobs on a day shift were recruited for personal sampling. Overall, the personal inhalable dust (n = 742) and respirable dust (n = 241) of full-shift samples were collected from 27 job titles. These data were used to classify workers into high, moderate, and low exposure groups based on the concentrations found in each job. Static samples were also collected to determine the particle size distribution. Geometric means (GM) are used to present the concentrations of the rubber wood dust. Inhalable dust concentrations were clearly high, ranging between 0.2 to 59.4 mg/m3 and with GM of 4.7 mg/m3. The GM of inhalable dust in each job title enabled classification of the workers into three exposure groups: (1) high exposure; >5 mg/m3, (2) moderate exposure; 2.0-5.0 mg/m3, and (3) low exposure; 0.18-1.9 mg/m3. Among the high exposure group, the highest GM inhalable dust concentrations were found in sawing green lumber (12.8 mg/m3) and cutting dry lumber (7.3 mg/m3). The respirable dust concentrations were generally low, in the range of 0.1 to 6.0 mg/m3 with a GM of 0.5 mg/m3. The largest percentage of dust in major operations belonged to the thoracic fraction; 50% cutoff diameter was smaller than 9 mum. The size distribution of wood dust indicated a high proportion in the large particle sizes. PMID:19444765

Saejiw, Nutjaree; Chaiear, Naesinee; Sadhra, Steven

2009-08-01

352

Regenerable diesel exhaust filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas filter assembly is described for removing particulates from the exhaust gas of an engine, comprising, in combination: a housing having an inlet pipe and an outlet pipe and defining an exhaust gas flow path between the inlet pipe and the outlet pipe, the inlet pipe being coupled to the engine to receive exhaust gas therefrom and the

Adiletta

1993-01-01

353

Assessment of Inter-Individual, Geographic, and Seasonal Variability in Estimated Human Exposure to Fine Particles  

PubMed Central

Health effects associated with ambient fine particle (PM2.5) exposure are typically estimated based on concentration-response (C-R) functions using area-wide concentration as an exposure surrogate. Persons 65 and older are particularly susceptible to adverse effects from PM2.5 exposure. Using a stochastic microenvironmental simulation model, distributions of daily PM2.5 exposures were estimated based on ambient concentration, air exchange rate, penetration factor, deposition rate, indoor emission sources, census data, and activity diary data, and compared for selected regions and seasons. Even though the selected subpopulation spends an average of over 20 hours per day indoors, the ratio of daily average estimated exposure to ambient concentration (Ea/C) is approximately 0.5. The daily average Ea/C ratio varies by a factor of 4 to 5 over a 95% frequency range among individuals, primarily from variability in air exchange rates. The mean Ea/C varies by 6 to 36% among selected NC, TX and NYC domains, and 15 to 34% among four seasons, as a result of regional differences in housing stock and seasonal differences in air exchange rates. Variability in Ea/C is a key factor that may help explain heterogeneity in C-R functions across cities and seasons. Priorities for improving exposure estimates are discussed.

Jiao, Wan; Frey, H. Christopher; Cao, Ye

2012-01-01

354

Correlation between car ownership and leukaemia: Is non-occupational exposure to benzene from petrol and motor vehicle exhaust a causative factor in leukaemia and lymphoma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is widespread agreement that many cancers have environmental causes we are often unable to see associations between specific cancers and exposure to environmental chemicals. One might also speulate that the more widespread, common-place and ‘normal’ a chemical exposure is perceived to be then the less likely it will be that the exposure is recognised, let alone be considered

S. P. Wolff

1992-01-01

355

Exposure to particle number, surface area and PM concentrations in pizzerias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to quantify exposure to particles emitted by wood-fired ovens in pizzerias. Overall, 15 microenvironments were chosen and analyzed in a 14-month experimental campaign. Particle number concentration and distribution were measured simultaneously using a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The surface area and mass distributions and concentrations, as well as the estimation of lung deposition surface area and PM 1 were evaluated using the SMPS-APS system with dosimetric models, by taking into account the presence of aggregates on the basis of the Idealized Aggregate (IA) theory. The fraction of inhaled particles deposited in the respiratory system and different fractions of particulate matter were also measured by means of a Nanoparticle Surface Area Monitor (NSAM) and a photometer (DustTrak DRX), respectively. In this way, supplementary data were obtained during the monitoring of trends inside the pizzerias. We found that surface area and PM 1 particle concentrations in pizzerias can be very high, especially when compared to other critical microenvironments, such as the transport hubs. During pizza cooking under normal ventilation conditions, concentrations were found up to 74, 70 and 23 times higher than background levels for number, surface area and PM 1, respectively. A key parameter is the oven shape factor, defined as the ratio between the size of the face opening in respect to the diameter of the semicircular oven door, and particular attention must also be paid to hood efficiency.

Buonanno, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.; Viola, A.

2010-10-01

356

Cytokine Production by Human Airway Epithelial Cells after Exposure to an Air Pollution Particle Is Metal-Dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the many epidemiological studies supporting the contention that ambient air pollution particles can adversely affect human health, there is no clear agreement as to a biologically plausible mechanism which can explain the acute mortality and morbidity associated with exposure to particles less than 10 ?m in size. We tested the hypothesis that metals present in an air pollution particle

Jacqueline D. Carter; Andrew J. Ghio; James M. Samet; Robert B. Devlin

1997-01-01

357

Interaction between age and exposure to 56Fe particles on behavior and neurochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles, which will be encountered on long-term space missions, can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks. This outcome has implications for an astronaut’s ability to successfully complete requirements associated with these missions. It has also been found that irradiation can lead to increases in oxidative stress, similar to that seen in the aging brain. Given that astronauts are often middle-aged or older it is important to determine if their age puts them at higher risk for the potentially hazardous effects of exposure to HZE particles. Therefore, we exposed young and old rats to either 1 or 2 Gy of 56Fe irradiation and evaluated performance in a spatial learning and memory task, in addition to examining levels of dopamine (DA) release from superfused striatal slices. Results indicated that exposure to 56Fe particles can produce alterations in behavior and neuronal signaling and that these alterations may be more apparent in older organisms, a finding which suggests that the aging brain may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of irradiation on performance. Therefore, age may be a factor for consideration in planning long-term missions into space.

Carey, Amanda N.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Rabin, Bernard M.; Joseph, James A.

358

Interaction Between Age and Exposure to 56Fe Particles on Behavior and Neurochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles and protons which will be encountered on long-term space missions can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks This outcome has implications for an astronaut s ability to successfully complete requirements associated with these missions It has also been found that irradiation can lead to increases in oxidative stress similar to that seen in the aging brain Given that astronauts are often middle-aged or older it is important to determine if their age puts them at higher risk for the potentially hazardous effects of exposure to HZE particles Therefore we exposed young and old rats to either 1 or 2Gy of 56 Fe irradiation and evaluated performance in a spatial learning and memory task in addition to examining levels of dopamine DA release from superfused striatal slices Results indicated that exposure to 56 Fe particles can produce alterations in behavior and signaling and that these alterations may be more apparent in older organisms which suggests that the aging brain may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of irradiation on performance Therefore age may be a factor for consideration in planning long-term missions into space Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529

Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

359

Proteomic identification of macrophage migration-inhibitory factor upon exposure to TiO2 particles.  

PubMed

Inhalation of particulate matter aggravates respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic airway diseases, but the mechanisms underlying this response remain poorly understood. We used a proteomics approach to examine this phenomenon. Treatment of epithelial cells with BSA-coated titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles altered 20 protein spots on the two-dimensional gel, and these were then analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. These proteins included defense-related, cell-activating, and cytoskeletal proteins implicated in the response to oxidative stress. The proteins were classified into four groups according to the time course of their expression patterns. For validation, RT-PCR was performed on extracts of in vitro TiO(2)-treated cells, and lung issues from TiO(2)-treated rats were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and enzyme immunoassay. TiO(2) treatment was found to increase the amount of mRNA for macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF). MIF was expressed primarily in epithelium and was elevated in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of TiO(2)-treated rats as compared with sham-treated rats. Carbon black and diesel exhaust particles also induced expression of MIF protein in the epithelial cells. PMID:17028300

Cha, Myung-Hwa; Rhim, TaiYoun; Kim, Kyung Hun; Jang, An-Soo; Paik, Young-Ki; Park, Choon-Sik

2007-01-01

360

Lung cancer risk from exposure to alpha particles and inhalation of other pollutants in rats  

SciTech Connect

The goal of these experiments is to establish a quantitative correlation between early DNA damage and cancer incidence in a way that would be helpful for assessing the carcinogenic risk of radon alone or in combination with specific indoor pollutants. Rat tracheal epithelium has been exposed in vivo to {sup 210}Po alpha particles in the presence and absence of NO{sub 2} or cigarette smoke. The major accomplishments so far are: the design and implementation of a tracheal implant to simulate radon alpha particle exposure, the measurement of DNA breaks in a small 7.0 mm segment of the trachea exposed to external x-irradiation, the measurement of the rate of repair of the x-ray induced tracheal DNA strand breaks, the measurement of DNA strand breaks following inhalation of cigarette smoke or NO{sub 2}, the measurement of tracheal DNA stand breaks following exposure to high doses {sup 210}Po alpha particle radiation, the assessment of the amount of mucous in the goblet cells and in the underlying mucous glands. So far we have been unable to detect DNA strand breaks in the tracheal epithelium as a result of exposure to NO{sub 2} cigarette smoke or {sup 210}Po alpha particles. We have developed a simple artificial' trachea consisting of rat tracheal epithelial cells growing on a basement membrane coated millipore filter. Experiments are proposed to utilize these artificial tracheas to eliminate the potential interference of increased mucous secretion and/or inflammation that can significantly affect the radiation dose from the alpha particles. 61 refs., 17 figs.

Burns, F.J.

1990-01-01

361

Human exposure to space radiation: role of primary and secondary particles.  

PubMed

Human exposure to space radiation implies two kinds of risk, both stochastic and deterministic. Shielding optimisation therefore represents a crucial goal for long-term missions, especially in deep space. In this context, the use of radiation transport codes coupled with anthropomorphic phantoms allows to simulate typical radiation exposures for astronauts behind different shielding, and to calculate doses to different organs. In this work, the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and two phantoms, a mathematical model and a voxel model, were used, taking the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) spectra from the model of Badhwar and O'Neill. The time integral spectral proton fluence of the August 1972 Solar Particle Event (SPE) was represented by an exponential function. For each aluminium shield thickness, besides total doses the contributions from primary and secondary particles for different organs and tissues were calculated separately. More specifically, organ-averaged absorbed doses, dose equivalents and a form of 'biological dose', defined on the basis of initial (clustered) DNA damage, were calculated. As expected, the SPE doses dramatically decreased with increasing shielding, and doses in internal organs were lower than in skin. The contribution of secondary particles to SPE doses was almost negligible; however it is of note that, at high shielding (10 g cm(-2)), most of the secondaries are neutrons. GCR organ doses remained roughly constant with increasing Al shielding. In contrast to SPE results, for the case of cosmic rays, secondary particles accounted for a significant fraction of the total dose. PMID:17151013

Trovati, S; Ballarini, F; Battistoni, G; Cerutti, F; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Gadioli, E; Garzelli, M V; Mairani, A; Ottolenghi, A; Paretzke, H G; Parini, V; Pelliccioni, M; Pinsky, L; Sala, P R; Scannicchio, D; Zankl, M

2006-01-01

362

Occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in an aviation base.  

PubMed

The occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in a high performance jet engine airport was investigated. Three spatial scales were considered: i) a downwind receptor site, ii) close to the airstrip, iii) personal monitoring. Particle number, surface area, mass concentrations and distributions were measured as well as inorganic and organic fractions, ionic fractions and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Particle number distribution measured at a receptor site presents a mode of 80 nm and an average total concentration of 6.5 × 10(3) part. cm(-3); the chemical analysis shows that all the elements may be attributed to long-range transport from the sea. Particle number concentrations in the proximity of the airstrip show short term peaks during the working day mainly related to takeoff, landing and pre-flight operations of jet engines. Personal exposure of workers highlights a median number concentration of 2.5 × 10(4) part. cm(-3) and 1.7 × 10(4) part. cm(-3) for crew chief and hangar operator. PMID:22771354

Buonanno, Giorgio; Bernabei, Manuele; Avino, Pasquale; Stabile, Luca

2012-11-01

363

Comparative biology approaches for charged particle exposures and cancer development processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative biology studies can provide useful information for the extrapolation of results be-tween cells in culture and the more complex environment of the tissue. In other circumstances, they provide a method to guide the interpretation of results obtained for cells from differ-ent species. We have considered several key cancer development processes following charged particle exposures using comparative biology approaches. Our particular emphases have been mutagenesis and genomic instability. Carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of mutations and most of htese mutations occur on autosomes. Two loci provide the greatest avenue for the consideration of charged particle-induced mutation involving autosomes: the TK1 locus in human cells and the APRT locus in mouse cells. Each locus can provide information on a wide variety of mutational changes, from small intragenic mutations through multilocus dele-tions and extensive tracts of mitotic recombination. In addition, the mouse model can provide a direct measurement of chromosome loss which cannot be accomplished in the human cell system. Another feature of the mouse APRT model is the ability to examine effects for cells exposed in vitro with those obtained for cells exposed in situ. We will provide a comparison of the results obtained for the TK1 locus following 1 GeV/amu Fe ion exposures to the human lymphoid cells with those obtained for the APRT locus for mouse kidney epithelial cells (in vitro or in situ). Substantial conservation of mechanisms is found amongst these three exposure scenarios, with some differences attributable to the specific conditions of exposure. A similar approach will be applied to the consideraiton of proton-induced autosomal mutations in the three model systems. A comparison of the results obtained for Fe ions vs. protons in each case will highlight LET-specificc differences in response. Another cancer development process that is receiving considerable interest is genomic instability. We have examined this process following exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing charged particles in human lymphoid cells and in human epithelial cells. A comparison of the results in these systems can reveal similari-ties and differences as a function of cell type and LET. Last, we will approach the question of the relevance of genomic instability in the context of charged particle mutagenesis. In many models, it has been difficult to link these two processes. We will present data regarding the mechanistic associations between these processes. Taken together, these studies will allow the definition of conserved pathways that are likely to contribute strongly to the cancer risks for astronauts exposed to charged particle radiations. Supported by NASA grant NNJ07HC721 to A. Kronenberg and NASA grant NNX10AC12G to M. Turker.

Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Sudo, Hiroko; Wiese, Claudia; Dan, Cristian; Turker, Mitchell

364

In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Pulmonary Risk Associated with Exposure to Combustion Generated Fine Particles  

PubMed Central

Strong correlations exist between exposure to PM2.5 and adverse pulmonary effects. PM2.5 consists of fine (?2.5 ?m) and ultrafine (?0.1 ?m) particles with ultrafine particles accounting for >70% of the total particles. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have recently been identified in airborne PM2.5. To determine the adverse pulmonary effects of EPFRs associated with exposure to elevated levels of PM2.5, we engineered 2.5 ?m surrogate EPFR-particle systems. We demonstrated that EPFRs generated greater oxidative stress in vitro, which was partly responsible for the enhanced cytotoxicity following exposure. In vivo studies using rats exposed to EPFRs containing particles demonstrated minimal adverse pulmonary effects. Additional studies revealed that fine particles failed to reach the alveolar region. Overall, our study implies qualitative differences between the health effects of PM size fractions.

Fahmy, Baher; Ding, Liren; You, Dahui; Lomnicki, Slawo; Dellinger, Barry; Cormier, Stephania A.

2009-01-01

365

Exhaust support system  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust support system is described for a midship engine rear wheel drive-type vehicle having a transversely mounted engine, which consists of: a first cylindrical exhaust device having an inlet opening at a first longitudinal end thereof and an outlet opening at a second longitudinal end thereof and a horizontal longitudinal centerline running therethrough; a first exhaust pipe having an inlet opening and an outlet opening, the inlet opening communicating with the engine and the outlet opening communicating with the first cylindrical exhaust device; a second cylindrical exhaust device having an inlet opening at a first longitudinal end thereof and an outlet opening at a second longitudinal end thereof, the second cylindrical exhaust device having a horizontal longitudinal centerline running therethrough and being provided in a substantially parallel relationship with the centerline of the first exhaust device, and the first cylindrical exhaust device is located alongside of the second exhaust device such that the longitudinal centerlines of the first and second exhaust devices are located in substantially adjacent horizontal planes; a second exhaust pipe communicating the outlet opening of the first exhaust device with the inlet opening of the second exhaust device; and a bracket means for securing the first exhaust pipe to the second exhaust device, the bracket means being made of at least one sheet of metal, the at least one sheet of metal being secured to an extending perpendicularly between an outer peripheral flange of the first exhaust pipe and an outer peripheral portion of the second exhaust device, the at least one sheet of metal having a substantially flat surface which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal longitudinal centerlines of the first and the second exhaust devices.

Teshima, H.

1986-06-24

366

Exposure to Ultrafine Particles from Ambient Air and Oxidative Stress-Induced DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Background Particulate matter, especially ultrafine particles (UFPs), may cause health effects through generation of oxidative stress, with resulting damage to DNA and other macromolecules. Objective We investigated oxidative damage to DNA and related repair capacity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during controlled exposure to urban air particles with assignment of number concentration (NC) to four size modes with average diameters of 12, 23, 57, and 212 nm. Design Twenty-nine healthy adults participated in a randomized, two-factor cross-over study with or without biking exercise for 180 min and with exposure to particles (NC 6169-15362/cm3) or filtered air (NC 91-542/cm3) for 24 hr. Methods The levels of DNA strand breaks (SBs), oxidized purines as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycolase (FPG) sites, and activity of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in PBMCs were measured by the Comet assay. mRNA levels of OGG1, nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X-type motif 1 (NUDT1), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Results Exposure to UFPs for 6 and 24 hr significantly increased the levels of SBs and FPG sites, with a further insignificant increase after physical exercise. The OGG1 activity and expression of OGG1, NUDT1, and HO1 were unaltered. There was a significant dose–response relationship between NC and DNA damage, with the 57-nm mode as the major contributor to effects. Concomitant exposure to ozone, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide had no influence. Conclusion Our results indicate that UFPs, especially the 57-nm soot fraction from vehicle emissions, causes systemic oxidative stress with damage to DNA and no apparent compensatory up-regulation of DNA repair within 24 hr.

Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Forchhammer, Lykke; M?ller, Peter; Simonsen, Jacob; Glasius, Marianne; Wahlin, Peter; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen

2007-01-01

367

THE INFLUENCE OF HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS ON PERSONAL PM EXPOSURE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FILTER-BASED AND CONTINUOUS PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM) exposure data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored 1998 Baltimore and 1999 Fresno PM Exposure Studies were analyzed to identify important microenvironments and activities that may lead to increased particle exposure for select elderly ...

368

Linking In-Vehicle Ultrafine Particle Exposures to On-Road Concentrations  

PubMed Central

For traffic-related pollutants like ultrafine particles (UFP, Dp < 100 nm), a significant fraction of overall exposure occurs within or close to the transit microenvironment. Therefore, understanding exposure to these pollutants in such microenvironments is crucial to accurately assessing overall UFP exposure. The aim of this study was to develop models for predicting in-cabin UFP concentrations if roadway concentrations are known, taking into account vehicle characteristics, ventilation settings, driving conditions and air exchange rates (AER). Particle concentrations and AER were measured in 43 and 73 vehicles, respectively, under various ventilation settings and driving speeds. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were used to identify and quantify the factors that determine inside-to-outside (I/O) UFP ratios and AERs across a full range of vehicle types and ages. AER was the most significant determinant of UFP I/O ratios, and was strongly influenced by ventilation setting (recirculation or outside air intake). Inclusion of ventilation fan speed, vehicle age or mileage, and driving speed explained greater than 79% of the variability in measured UFP I/O ratios.

Hudda, Neelakshi; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Knibbs, Luke D.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.; Fruin, Scott A.

2013-01-01

369

Linking in-vehicle ultrafine particle exposures to on-road concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For traffic-related pollutants like ultrafine particles (UFP), a significant fraction of overall exposure occurs within or close to the transit microenvironment. Therefore, understanding exposure to these pollutants in such microenvironments is crucial to accurately assessing overall UFP exposure. The aim of this study was to develop models for predicting in-cabin UFP concentrations if roadway concentrations are known, quantifying the effect of vehicle characteristics, ventilation settings, driving conditions and air exchange rates (AER). Particle concentrations and AER were measured in 43 and 73 vehicles, respectively, under various ventilation settings and driving speeds. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were used to identify and quantify the factors that determine inside-to-outside (I/O) UFP ratios and AERs across a full range of vehicle types and ages. AER was the most significant determinant of UFP I/O ratios, and was most strongly influenced by ventilation setting (recirculation or outside air intake). Further inclusion of ventilation fan speed, vehicle age or mileage, and driving speed explained greater than 79% of the variability in measured UFP I/O ratios.

Hudda, Neelakshi; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Knibbs, Luke D.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.; Fruin, Scott A.

2012-11-01

370

Some Behavioral Effects of Exposure to Low Doses of Fe-56 Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future missions in space (such as a mission to Mars) will involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth. As a result, astronauts will be exposed to radiation qualities and doses that differ from those experienced in low earth orbit, including exposure to heavy particles, such as Fe-56, which are a component of cosmic rays. Although the hazards of exposure to heavy particles are often minimized, they can affect neural functioning, and as a consequence, behavior. Unless the effects of exposure to cosmic rays can somehow be reduced, their effects on the brain throughout long duration flights could be disastrous. In the extreme case, it is possible that the effects of cosmic rays on space travelers could result in symptomatology resembling that of Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases or of advancing age, including significant cognitive and/or motor impairments. Because successful operations in space depend in part on the performance capabilities of astronauts, such impairments could jeopardize their ability to satisfy mission requirements, as well as have long-term consequences on the health of astronauts. As such, understanding the nature and extent of this risk may be vital to the effective performance and possibly the survival of astronauts during future missions in space.

Rabin, Bernard M.; Joseph, James A.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

1999-01-01

371

INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL AIR EXPOSURES TO PARTICLES, ELEMENTS, AND NICOTINE FOR 178 RESIDENTS OF RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Personal, indoor, and outdoor concentrations of inhalable particles and 15 elements were measured for a probability sample of 178 persons representing 139,000 nonsmoking residents of Riverside, California. ewly designed personal monitors were employed. ersonal exposures often exc...

372

Characterization of exposures to airborne nanoscale particles during friction stir welding of aluminum.  

PubMed

Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 microm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 microm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM(2.5) concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 microm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at approximately 30 and approximately 550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at approximately 4.0 x 10(5) particles cm(-3), whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm(-3), depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10-100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) microg m(-3); the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may exist, especially in larger scale industrial operations. PMID:20453001

Pfefferkorn, Frank E; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; McCarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D

2010-07-01

373

Characterization of Exposures to Airborne Nanoscale Particles During Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum  

PubMed Central

Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 ?m) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 ?m) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM2.5 concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 ?m) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at ?30 and ?550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at ?4.0 × 105 particles cm?3, whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm?3, depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10–100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) ?g m?3; the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may exist, especially in larger scale industrial operations.

Pfefferkorn, Frank E.; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; Mccarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M. Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D.

2010-01-01

374

Use of Nuclepore filters for ambient and workplace nanoparticle exposure assessment—Spherical particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclepore filter collection with subsequent electron microscopy analysis for nanoparticles was carried out to examine the feasibility of the method to assess the nanoparticle exposure. The number distribution of nanoparticles collected on the filter surface was counted visually and converted to the distribution in the air using existing filtration models for Nuclepore filters. To search for a proper model, this paper studied the overall penetrations of three different nanoparticles (PSL, Ag and NaCl), covering a wide range of particle sizes (20–800 nm) and densities (1.05–10.5 g cm?3), through Nuclepore filters with two different pore diameters (1 and 3 ?m) and different face velocities (2–15 cm s?1). The data were compared with existing particle deposition models and modified models proposed by this study, which delivered different results because of different deposition processes considered. It was found that a parameter associated with flow condition and filter geometry (density of fluid medium, particle density, filtration face velocity, filter porosity and pore diameter) should be taken into account to verify the applicability of the models. The data of the overall penetration were in very good agreement with the properly applied models. A good agreement of filter surface collection between the validated model and the SEM analysis was obtained, indicating a correct nanoparticle number distribution in the air can be converted from the Nuclepore filter surface collection and this method can be applied for nanoparticle exposure assessment.

Chen, Sheng-Chieh; Wang, Jing; Fissan, Heinz; Pui, David Y. H.

2013-10-01

375

Children exposure to atmospheric particles in indoor of Lisbon primary schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence continues to emerge showing that poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) can cause illness requiring absence from schools, and can cause acute health symptoms that decrease students' performance. Since children spend on average 7-11 h per weekday at school, the IAQ in classrooms is expected to play a key role in the assessment of the effects of their personal exposure to air pollution. Within this context the present study was conducted in order to fulfill three primary objectives 1) to measure the levels and the element composition of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10, in three primary schools placed in Lisbon, in order to assess the children exposure to these pollutants; 2) to study the relationship between indoor and outdoor atmospheric particles concentrations and 3) to investigate the sources of high aerosols concentrations in classrooms. In the studied classrooms, the concentrations of coarse particles significantly exceeded the ambient levels. Element concentrations suggested that the physical activity of students highly contributed to the re-suspension of sedimented particles. The high levels of CO 2 indicated that in these schools the ventilation was inadequate. This fact contributed to the establishment of poor IAQ.

Almeida, Susana Marta; Canha, Nuno; Silva, Ana; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Pegas, Priscilla; Alves, Célia; Evtyugina, Margarita; Pio, Casimiro Adrião

2011-12-01

376

Respiratory toxicity of repeated exposure to particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.  

PubMed

We compared the toxicity of subchronic exposure to equivalent masses of particles from sugar cane burning and traffic. BALB/c mice received 3 intranasal instillations/week during 1, 2 or 4 weeks of either distilled water (C1, C2, C4) or particles (15?g) from traffic (UP1, UP2, UP4) or biomass burning (BP1, BP2, BP4). Lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress were analyzed 24h after the last instillation. In all instances UP and BP groups presented worse pulmonary elastance, airway and tissue resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction and macrophage influx into the lungs than controls. UP4, BP2 and BP4 presented more alveolar collapse than UP1 and BP1, respectively. UP and BP had worse bronchial and alveolar lesion scores than their controls; BP4 had greater bronchial lesion scores than UP4. Catalase was higher in UP4 and BP4 than in C4. In conclusion, biomass particles were more toxic than those from traffic after repeated exposures. PMID:24280381

Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel S; Silva, Luiz F F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Zin, Walter A; Faffe, Débora S

2014-01-15

377

A Biopersistence Study following Exposure to Chrysotile Asbestos Alone or in Combination with Fine Particles  

PubMed Central

In designing a study to evaluate the inhalation biopersistence of a chrysotile asbestos that was used as a component of a joint-compound, a feasibility study was initiated to evaluate the short-term biopersistence of the chrysotile alone and of the chrysotile in combination witht the sanded reformulated joint-compound. Two groups of Wistar rats were exposed to either 7RF3 chrysotile (Group 2) or to 7RF3 chrysotile combined with aerosolized sanded joint-compound (Group 3). In addition, a control group was exposed to flltered-air. The chrysotile used in the Ready Mix joint compound is rapidly removed from the lung. The chrysotile alone exposure group had a clearance half-time of fibers L > 20 ?m of 2.2 days; in the chrysotile plus sanded exposure group the clearance half-time of fibers L > 20 ?m was 2.8 days. However, across all size ranges there was approximately an order of magnitude decrease in the mean number of fibers remaining in the lungs of Group 3 as compared to Group 2 despite similiar aerosol exposures. Histopathological examination showed that the chrysotile exposed lungs had the same appearance as the flltered-air controls. This study uniquely illustrates that additional concurrent exposure to an aerosol of the sanded joint-compound, with large numbers of fine-particles depositing in the lungs, accelerates the recruitment of macrophages, resulting in a tenfold decrease in the number of fibers remaining in the lung. The increased number of macrophages in the chrysotile/sanded joint exposure group was confirmed histologically, with this being the only exposure-related histological finding reported.

Bernstein, D. M.; Donaldson, K.; Decker, U.; Gaering, S.; Kunzendorf, P.; Chevalier, J.; Holm, S. E.

2008-01-01

378

Effluent sampling of Scout D and Delta launch vehicle exhausts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterization of engine-exhaust effluents (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) has been attempted by conducting field experiments monitoring the exhaust cloud from a Scout-Algol III vehicle launch and a Delta-Thor vehicle launch. The exhaust cloud particulate size number distribution (total number of particles as a function of particle diameter), mass loading, morphology, and elemental composition have been determined within limitations. The gaseous species in the exhaust cloud have been identified. In addition to the ground-based measurements, instrumented aircraft flights through the low-altitude, stabilized-exhaust cloud provided measurements which identified CO and HCI gases and Al2O3 particles. Measurements of the initial exhaust cloud during formation and downwind at several distances have established sampling techniques which will be used for experimental verification of model predictions of effluent dispersion and fallout from exhaust clouds.

Hulten, W. C.; Storey, R. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Woods, D. C.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

1974-01-01

379

Amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning in young and old F-344 rats following exposure to 56 Fe particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to 56Fe particles produces changes in dopaminergic function and in dopamine-dependent behaviors, including amphetamine-induced\\u000a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning. Because many of these changes are characteristic of the changes that accompany\\u000a the aging process, the present study was designed to determine whether or not there would be an interaction between age and\\u000a exposure to 56Fe particles in the disruption

K. L. Carrihill-Knoll; B. M. Rabin; B. Shukitt-Hale; J. A. Joseph; A. Carey

2007-01-01

380

Phenomenological in-situ TEM gas exposure studies of palladium particles on MgO at room temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been found that very small vapor-deposited catalytically active metal particles in the 1-2 nm size range on metal oxide substrates can undergo significant changes when they are exposed to gases such as oxygen or air, or even when allowed to 'anneal' at room temperature (RT) under vacuum conditions. The present investigation is concerned with continued in-situ gas exposures of as-deposited, 1 to 2 nm size palladium particles on MgO to air, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, CO, and water vapor at RT. It is found that the low-pressure exposure to various gases at RT can significantly affect small palladium particles supported on MgO surfaces. Exposure to oxygen for 3 min at 0.0002 m bar produces a considerable amount of coalescence, flattening of the particles, and some distinct crystallographic particle shapes.

Heinemann, K.; Poppa, H.; Osaka, T.

1983-01-01

381

Effects of diesel exposure on lung function and inflammation biomarkers from airway and peripheral blood of healthy volunteers in a chamber study  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to diesel exhaust causes inflammatory responses. Previous controlled exposure studies at a concentration of 300 ?g/m3 of diesel exhaust particles mainly lasted for 1 h. We prolonged the exposure period and investigated how quickly diesel exhaust can induce respiratory and systemic effects. Methods Eighteen healthy volunteers were exposed twice to diluted diesel exhaust (PM1 ~300 ?g/m3) and twice to filtered air (PM1 ~2 ?g/m3) for 3 h, seated, in a chamber with a double-blind set-up. Immediately before and after exposure, we performed a medical examination, spirometry, rhinometry, nasal lavage and blood sampling. Nasal lavage and blood samples were collected again 20 h post-exposure. Symptom scores and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were assessed before exposure, and at 15, 75, and 135 min of exposure. Results Self-rated throat irritation was higher during diesel exhaust than filtered air exposure. Clinical signs of irritation in the upper airways were also significantly more common after diesel exhaust exposure (odds ratio=3.2, p<0.01). PEF increased during filtered air, but decreased during diesel exhaust exposure, with a statistically significant difference at 75 min (+4 L/min vs. -10 L/min, p=0.005). Monocyte and total leukocyte counts in peripheral blood were higher after exposure to diesel exhaust than filtered air 20 h post-exposure, and a trend (p=0.07) towards increased serum IL-6 concentrations was also observed 20 h post-exposure. Conclusions Diesel exhaust induced acute adverse effects such as symptoms and signs of irritation, decreased PEF, inflammatory markers in healthy volunteers. The effects were first seen at 75 min of exposure.

2013-01-01

382

Neuronal stress following exposure to 56Fe particles and the effects of antioxidant-rich diets  

PubMed Central

Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication in critical regions of the brain [ 1]. These changes in neuronal function are similar to those seen in ageing [ 2, 3]. Although there is some recovery of function after exposure to 56Fe particles, particularly in changes observed 36 h following irradiation, long-term changes (75 days) have been observed, suggesting subcellular damage. Consequently, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by radiation could affect downstream events, such as changes in behavior and gene expression. Therefore, berry fruits high in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, such as blueberries and strawberries, may prevent the occurrence of neurochemical and behavioral changes that occur if fed prior to radiation [ 4]. Rats were exposed to 56Fe (1000 MeV/n; 1.5 Gy) particles at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory; other rats served as non-irradiated controls. The animals were fed either a control or a 2% blueberry or strawberry diet 8 weeks prior to radiation. Rats were then either euthanized at 36 h (short term) or 30 days following irradiation (long term). Before and after the irradiation, the animals were housed at USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston. The results of the experiments indicate that: (1) 56Fe exposure caused significant differential, neurochemical changes in critical regions of the brain, such as hippocampus, striatum, frontal cortex and cerebellum, particularly long term. (2) Neurochemical changes resulted in the disruption of autophagy, increased inflammation and increased oxidative stress protein markers. (3) Antioxidant-rich berry diets significantly reduced the accumulation of toxic cellular debris in critical regions of the brain, primarily at the 30 days post-irradiation time-point. (4) Susceptibility to inflammation, autophagy dysregulation, and oxidative stress were proportional to the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the respective brain regions. (5) Exposure to 56Fe radiation may cause the accumulation of disease-related proteins such as PHF-Tau, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Irradiation with 56Fe, which causes substantial build-up of toxic cellular debris in critical regions of the brain, may overwhelm the innate antioxidant enzyme defense system [ 5]. Therefore, berry diets high in antioxidants may be used to counter these damaging effects by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and activating neuronal housekeeping, in addition to boosting endogenous antioxidant enzymes. This paper was presented at the NASA Session at Heavy Ion in Therapy and Space Radiation Symposium 2013.

Poulose, Shibu M.; Bielinski, Donna; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

2014-01-01

383

The toxicity of particles from combustion processes  

SciTech Connect

The pulmonary toxicity of inhaled particles will depend on their size, solubility and inherent toxicity. Many combustion-derived particles, such as soot and fly ash, are of a respirable size and, being poorly soluble, are retained for prolonged periods in the lung. The acute toxicity of fly ash from coal combustion was compared to that of a known toxic particle, alpha-quartz, by exposures of rats to 35 mg/m{sup 3} of each type of particle for 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk for 4 wk. The acute pulmonary toxicity was measured by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One year after the exposures, fibrosis with granulomas was observed in the quartz-exposed rats, while little or no fibrosis developed in the fly-ash-exposed rats. The toxicity of soot from diesel exhaust was determined by chronic (30 mo) exposures of rats, 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk to exhaust containing 0.35, 3.5 or 7.0 mg/m{sup 3} soot. The two higher exposures caused persistent pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis and neoplasmas. Rats exposed to the lowest concentration demonstrated no toxic responses and there was no life shortening caused by any exposure. Ongoing comparative studies indicate that pure carbon black particles cause responses similar to those caused by diesel exhaust, indicating that much of the toxicity induced by the diesel soot results from the presence of the large lung burdens of carbonaceous particles.

Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.

1991-12-31

384

The toxicity of particles from combustion processes  

SciTech Connect

The pulmonary toxicity of inhaled particles will depend on their size, solubility and inherent toxicity. Many combustion-derived particles, such as soot and fly ash, are of a respirable size and, being poorly soluble, are retained for prolonged periods in the lung. The acute toxicity of fly ash from coal combustion was compared to that of a known toxic particle, alpha-quartz, by exposures of rats to 35 mg/m{sup 3} of each type of particle for 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk for 4 wk. The acute pulmonary toxicity was measured by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One year after the exposures, fibrosis with granulomas was observed in the quartz-exposed rats, while little or no fibrosis developed in the fly-ash-exposed rats. The toxicity of soot from diesel exhaust was determined by chronic (30 mo) exposures of rats, 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk to exhaust containing 0.35, 3.5 or 7.0 mg/m{sup 3} soot. The two higher exposures caused persistent pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis and neoplasmas. Rats exposed to the lowest concentration demonstrated no toxic responses and there was no life shortening caused by any exposure. Ongoing comparative studies indicate that pure carbon black particles cause responses similar to those caused by diesel exhaust, indicating that much of the toxicity induced by the diesel soot results from the presence of the large lung burdens of carbonaceous particles.

Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.

1991-01-01

385

Exposure Assessment for Atmospheric Ultrafine Particles (UFPs) and Implications in Epidemiologic Research  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic research has shown increases in adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes in relation to mass concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ?2.5 or ?10 ?m in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, respectively). In a companion article [Delfino RJ, Sioutas C, Malik S. 2005. Environ Health Perspect 113(8):934–946]), we discuss epidemiologic evidence pointing to underlying components linked to fossil fuel combustion. The causal components driving the PM associations remain to be identified, but emerging evidence on particle size and chemistry has led to some clues. There is sufficient reason to believe that ultrafine particles < 0.1 ?m (UFPs) are important because when compared with larger particles, they have order of magnitudes higher particle number concentration and surface area, and larger concentrations of adsorbed or condensed toxic air pollutants (oxidant gases, organic compounds, transition metals) per unit mass. This is supported by evidence of significantly higher in vitro redox activity by UFPs than by larger PM. Although epidemiologic research is needed, exposure assessment issues for UFPs are complex and need to be considered before undertaking investigations of UFP health effects. These issues include high spatial variability, indoor sources, variable infiltration of UFPs from a variety of outside sources, and meteorologic factors leading to high seasonal variability in concentration and composition, including volatility. To address these issues, investigators need to develop as well as validate the analytic technologies required to characterize the physical/chemical nature of UFPs in various environments. In the present review, we provide a detailed discussion of key characteristics of UFPs, their sources and formation mechanisms, and methodologic approaches to assessing population exposures.

Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.; Singh, Manisha

2005-01-01

386

Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combusion Exhaust Streams  

SciTech Connect

An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. The nitric oxide sensor has been used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based sensor measurements showed good agreement with the results from physical probe sampling of the combustion exhaust. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. Future planned modifications will lead to even faster response times at sensitivity levels at or below 1 ppm.

Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai

2003-09-24

387

Impairment of testicular function in adult male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) after a single administration of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC), a com- ponent of diesel exhaust, on reproductive function were investigated in adult male Japanese quail. The quail were treated with a single i.m. dose of PNMC (78, 103 or 135 mg\\/kg body weight), and trunk blood and testes were collected 1, 2 or 4 weeks later. Various levels of testicular atrophy were observed in

ChunMei Li; Shinji Takahashi; Shinji Taneda; Chie Furuta; Gen Watanabe; Akira K Suzuki; Kazuyoshi Taya

2006-01-01

388

Long-term changes in amphetamine-induced reinforcement and aversion in rats following exposure to 56Fe particle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposing rats to heavy particles produces alterations in the functioning of dopaminergic neurons and in the behaviors that depend upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system. Two of these dopamine-dependent behaviors include amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measure using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measured using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced aversion, measured using the conditioned taste aversion. Previous research has shown that exposing rats to 1.0 Gy of 1GeV/n 56Fe particles produced a disruption of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion 3 days following exposure, but produced an apparent enhancement of the aversion 112 days following exposure. The present experiments were designed to provide a further evaluation of these results by examining taste aversion learning 154 days following exposure to 1.0 Gy 56Fe particles and to establish the convergent validity of the taste aversion results by looking at the effects of exposure on the establishment of an amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference 3, 7, and 16 weeks following irradiation. The taste aversion results failed to confirm the apparent enhancement of the amphetamine-induced CTA observed in the prior experiment. However, exposure to 56Fe particles prevented the acquisition of amphetamine-induced place preference at all three-time intervals. The results are interpreted as indicating that exposure to heavy particles can produce long-term changes in behavioral functioning. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

2003-01-01

389

Long-term changes in amphetamine-induced reinforcement and aversion in rats following exposure to 56Fe particle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposing rats to heavy particles produces alterations in the functioning of dopaminergic neurons and in the behaviors that depend upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system. Two of these dopamine-dependent behaviors include amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measure using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measured using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced aversion, measured using the conditioned taste aversion. Previous research has shown that exposing rats to 1.0 Gy of 1GeV/n 56Fe particles produced a disruption of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion 3 days following exposure, but produced an apparent enhancement of the aversion 112 days following exposure. The present experiments were designed to provide a further evaluation of these results by examining taste aversion learning 154 days following exposure to 1.0Gy 56Fe particles and to establish the convergent validity of the taste aversion results by looking at the effects of exposure on the establishment of an amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference 3, 7, and 16 weeks following irradiation. The taste aversion results failed to confirm the apparent enhancement of the amphetamine-induced CTA observed in the prior experiment. However, exposure to 56Fe particles prevented the acquisition of amphetamine-induced place preference at all three-time intervals. The results are interpreted as indicating that exposure to heavy particles can produce long-term changes in behavioral functioning.

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

390

Mass distribution and concentrations of negative chemiions in the exhaust of a jet engine: Sulfuric acid concentrations and observation of particle growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of negative-ion composition and density have been made in the exhaust of a J85-GE-5H turbojet, at ground level, as part of the NASA-EXCAVATE campaign. The mass spectrometer was placed 3 m from the exhaust plane of the engine. Measurements were done as a function of engine power in six steps from idle (50%) to military power (100%). Since the exhaust velocity changes with power, this also corresponds to a time evolution for ion growth. At 100% power most of the ions are HSO 4- with minor amounts of HSO 4-(H 2O) n. With decreasing engine power the degree of hydration increases. In addition, ions with a 139-amu core dominate the spectra at lower engine power. The chemical identity of this ion is unknown. Observation of a small amount of NO 3- core ions in the high-power spectra allows the determination of H 2SO 4 concentrations, which turn out to be a fraction-of-a-percent of the total sulfur in the fuel. Combining the present data with several previous composition measurements allows one to observe ion evolution from bare ions to ions with masses >8000 amu. Ion densities are derived and appear consistent with previous measurements used in modeling studies indicating that ion nucleation is a probable mechanism for volatile aerosol formation.

Miller, Thomas M.; Ballenthin, John O.; Viggiano, A. A.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Wey, Chowen C.

391

Assessment of the mutagenic potential of ethanol auto engine exhaust gases by the Salmonella typhimurium microsomal mutagenesis assay, using a direct exposure method  

SciTech Connect

The mutagenic activity of the new Brazilian fuel, ethanol, was determined by employing the Salmonella typhimurium microsomal mutagenesis assay (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA104) and a direct exposure method. This methodology was first used to determine the mutagenic activity of gasoline, revealing mutagenic activity of base-pair substitution without any need for metabolic activation, indicating the presence of direct-action mutagens. Experiments with ethanol suggest an indirect mutagenic activity of the oxidant type. The exposure system was considered suitable for future studies of gaseous mixtures.

Lotfi, C.F.; Brentani, M.M.; Boehm, G.M. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

1990-08-01

392

Effect of cabin ventilation rate on ultrafine particle exposure inside automobiles.  

PubMed

We alternately measured on-road and in-vehicle ultrafine (<100 nm) particle (UFP) concentration for 5 passenger vehicles that comprised an age range of 18 years. A range of cabin ventilation settings were assessed during 301 trips through a 4 km road tunnel in Sydney, Australia. Outdoor air flow (ventilation) rates under these settings were quantified on open roads using tracer gas techniques. Significant variability in tunnel trip average median in-cabin/on-road (I/O) UFP ratios was observed (0.08 to approximately 1.0). Based on data spanning all test automobiles and ventilation settings, a positive linear relationship was found between outdoor air flow rate and I/O ratio, with the former accounting for a substantial proportion of variation in the latter (R(2) = 0.81). UFP concentrations recorded in-cabin during tunnel travel were significantly higher than those reported by comparable studies performed on open roadways. A simple mathematical model afforded the ability to predict tunnel trip average in-cabin UFP concentrations with good accuracy. Our data indicate that under certain conditions, in-cabin UFP exposures incurred during tunnel travel may contribute significantly to daily exposure. The UFP exposure of automobile occupants appears strongly related to their choice of ventila