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1

Assessing exposure to diesel exhaust particles: a case study.  

PubMed

The assessment of the vehicular contributions to urban pollution levels is of particular importance given the current interest in the possible adverse health effects. This study focused on human exposure to diesel-engine-derived particulate matter. Diesel vehicles are known to emit fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and have therefore received considerable attention. In this study, the physical (mass and number concentration, and size distribution) and chemical (PAHs) properties were investigated at a major bus interchange in Singapore, influenced only by diesel exhausts. Number concentration and size distribution of particles were determined in real time, while the mass concentrations of PM2.5, and PAHs were measured during operating and nonoperating hours. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs increased by a factor of 2.34 and 5.18, respectively, during operating hours. The average number concentration was also elevated by a factor of 5.07 during operating hours. This increase in the concentration of PM2.5 particles and their chemical constituents during operating hours was attributable to diesel emissions from in-use buses based on the particle size analysis, correlation among PAHs, and the commonly used PAHs diagnostic ratios. To evaluate the potential health threat due inhalation of air pollutants released from diesel engines, the incremental lifetime cancer risk was also calculated for a maximally exposed individual. The findings indicate that the air quality at the bus interchange poses adverse health effects. PMID:16982530

See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Yang, Tzuo Sern; Karthikeyan, Sathrugnan

2006-11-01

2

Diesel Exhaust Particle Exposure In Vitro Alters Monocyte Differentiation and Function  

PubMed Central

Air pollution by diesel exhaust particles is associated with elevated mortality and increased hospital admissions in individuals with respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During active inflammation monocytes are recruited to the airways and can replace resident alveolar macrophages. We therefore investigated whether chronic fourteen day exposure to low concentrations of diesel exhaust particles can alter the phenotype and function of monocytes from healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocytes were purified from the blood of healthy individuals and people with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in the presence or absence of diesel exhaust particles and their phenotypes studied through investigation of their lifespan, cytokine generation in response to Toll like receptor agonists and heat killed bacteria, and expression of surface markers. Chronic fourteen day exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages to concentrations of diesel exhaust particles >10 µg/ml caused mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction, and a gradual loss of cells over time both in healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease individuals. Chronic exposure to lower concentrations of diesel exhaust particles impaired CXCL8 cytokine responses to lipopolysaccharide and heat killed E. coli, and this phenotype was associated with a reduction in CD14 and CD11b expression. Chronic diesel exhaust particle exposure may therefore alter both numbers and function of lung macrophages differentiating from locally recruited monocytes in the lungs of healthy people and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Chaudhuri, Nazia; Jary, Hannah; Lea, Simon; Khan, Naimat; Piddock, Katie C.; Dockrell, David H.; Donaldson, Ken; Duffin, Rodger; Singh, Dave

2012-01-01

3

NASAL RESPONSES IN ASTHMATIC AND NONASTHMATIC SUBJECTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Asthma rates have been increasing world-wide, and exposure to diesel exhaust particles may be implicated in this increase. Additionally DEP may also play a role in the increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient airborne PM exposure. Two types of nasal responses hav...

4

Nasal responses in asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects following exposure to diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Asthma rates have been increasing worldwide, and exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may be implicated in this increase. DEP may also play a role in the increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure. Two types of nasal responses have been reported for human subjects nasally instilled with one type of DEP: alterations in cytokines responses, and an increase in immunoglobulin E (IgE) production. Since DEP composition can vary depending on several factors, including fuel composition and engine load, the ability of another DEP particle and ozone-treated DEP to alter nasal IgE and cytokine production was examined. Nonasthmatic and asthmatic subjects were intranasally instilled with 300 microg NIST 1650 DEP per nostril, NIST 1650 DEP previously exposed to ozone (ozDEP; 300 microg/nostril), or vehicle. Subjects underwent nasal lavage before DEP exposure, and 4 and 96 h after exposure. Nasal cell populations and soluble mediators in the nasal lavage fluid were characterized. Total cell number, cell types, cell viability, concentrations of soluble mediators (including interleukin [IL]-8, IL-6, IgE, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) were not altered by either DEP or ozDEP exposure. NO levels were not altered by either particle exposure. These findings suggest that DEP can be relatively noninflammatory and nontoxic, and that the physicochemical characteristics of DEP need to be considered when assessing the health effects of exposure to diesel exhaust. PMID:16864550

Kongerud, Johny; Madden, Michael C; Hazucha, Milan; Peden, David

2006-08-01

5

Effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on postnatal development, behavior, genotoxicity and inflammation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiological studies indicate that particulate air pollution constitutes a hazard for human health. Recent studies suggest that diesel exhaust possesses endocrine activity and therefore may affect reproductive outcome. This study in mice aimed to investigate whether exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; NIST 2975) would affect gestation, postnatal development, activity, learning and memory, and biomarkers of transplacental

Karin S Hougaard; Keld A Jensen; Pernille Nordly; Camilla Taxvig; Ulla Vogel; Anne T Saber; Håkan Wallin

2008-01-01

6

Effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on postnatal development, behavior, genotoxicity and inflammation in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Results from epidemiological studies indicate that particulate air pollution constitutes a hazard for human health. Recent studies suggest that diesel exhaust possesses endocrine activity and therefore may affect reproductive outcome. This study in mice aimed to investigate whether exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; NIST 2975) would affect gestation, postnatal development, activity, learning and memory, and biomarkers of transplacental toxicity. Pregnant mice (C57BL/6; BomTac) were exposed to 19 mg/m3 DEP (~1·106 particles/cm3; mass median diameter ? 240 nm) on gestational days 9–19, for 1 h/day. Results Gestational parameters were similar in control and diesel groups. Shortly after birth, body weights of DEP offspring were slightly lower than in controls. This difference increased during lactation, so by weaning the DEP exposed offspring weighed significantly less than the control progeny. Only slight effects of exposure were observed on cognitive function in female DEP offspring and on biomarkers of exposure to particles or genotoxic substances. Conclusion In utero exposure to DEP decreased weight gain during lactation. Cognitive function and levels of biomarkers of exposure to particles or to genotoxic substances were generally similar in exposed and control offspring. The particle size and chemical composition of the DEP and differences in exposure methods (fresh, whole exhaust versus aged, resuspended DEP) may play a significant role on the biological effects observed in this compared to other studies.

Hougaard, Karin S; Jensen, Keld A; Nordly, Pernille; Taxvig, Camilla; Vogel, Ulla; Saber, Anne T; Wallin, Hakan

2008-01-01

7

Cellular Response to Diesel Exhaust Particles Strongly Depends on the Exposure Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro exposure to aerosols at the air-liquid interface (ALI) preserves the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosol particles. Although frequently described as being a more physi- ologic exposure method, ALI exposure has not been directly compared with conventional in vitro exposures where the particles are suspended in medium. We exposed immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o) to aerosolized diesel

Amara L. Holder; Donald Lucas; Regine Goth-Goldstein; Catherine P. Koshland

2008-01-01

8

Time Course of Gene Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Rat Lung after Diesel Exhaust Particle Exposure  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) at three concentrations (5, 35, and 50 mg/kg body weight) were instilled into rats intratracheally. We studied gene expression at 1, 7, and 30 days postexposure in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in lung tissue. Using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we measured the mRNA levels of eight genes [interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10, iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), MIP-2 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2), TGF-?1 (transforming growth factor-?1), and TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor-?)] in BAL cells and four genes [IL-6, ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor), and RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted)] in lung tissue. In BAL cells on day 1, high-dose exposure induced a significant up-regulation of IL-1?, iNOS, MCP-1, and MIP-2 but no change in IL-6, IL-10, TGF-?1, and TNF-? mRNA levels. There was no change in the mRNA levels of IL-6, RANTES, ICAM-1, and GM-CSF in lung tissue. Nitric oxide production and levels of MCP-1 and MIP-2 were increased in the 24-hr culture media of alveolar macrophages (AMs) obtained on day 1. IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-2 levels were also elevated in the BAL fluid. BAL fluid also showed increases in albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. The cellular content in BAL fluid increased at all doses and at all time periods, mainly due to an increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro studies in AMs and cultured lung fibroblasts showed that lung fibroblasts are a significant source of IL-6 and MCP-1 in the lung.

Rao, K. Murali Krishna; Ma, Jane Y. C.; Meighan, Terence; Barger, Mark W.; Pack, Donna; Vallyathan, Val

2005-01-01

9

TRPV4-Mediated Calcium Influx into Human Bronchial Epithelia upon Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles  

PubMed Central

Background Human respiratory epithelia function in airway mucociliary clearance and barrier function and have recently been implicated in sensory functions. Objective We investigated a link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms underlying Ca2+ influx into human airway epithelia elicited by diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Methods and Results Using primary cultures of human respiratory epithelial (HRE) cells, we determined that these cells possess proteolytic signaling machinery, whereby proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activates Ca2+-permeable TRPV4, which leads to activation of human respiratory disease–enhancing matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), a signaling cascade initiated by diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a globally relevant air pollutant. Moreover, we observed ciliary expression of PAR-2, TRPV4, and phospholipase-C?3 in human airway epithelia and their DEP-enhanced protein–protein complex formation. We also found that the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)–predisposing TRPV4P19S variant enhances Ca2+ influx and MMP 1 activation, providing mechanistic linkage between man-made air pollution and human airway disease. Conclusion DEP evoked protracted Ca2+ influx via TRPV4, enhanced by the COPD-predisposing human genetic polymorphism TRPV4P19S. This mechanism reprograms maladaptive inflammatory and extracellular-matrix–remodeling responses in human airways. The novel concept of air pollution–responsive ciliary signal transduction from PAR-2 to TRPV4 in human respiratory epithelia will accelerate rationally targeted therapies, possibly via the inhalatory route.

Li, Jinju; Kanju, Patrick; Patterson, Michael; Chew, Wei-Leong; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Gilmour, Ian; Oliver, Tim; Yasuda, Ryohei; Ghio, Andrew; Simon, Sidney A.; Liedtke, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

10

QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF TRUCKING INDUSTRY WORKERS' EXPOSURES TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a case-control mortality study of trucking industry workers, exposures to diesel aerosol were measured among the four major presumably exposed job groups (road drivers, local drivers, dock workers, and mechanics) in the industry. Eight industrial hygiene surveys were conducted during both warm and cold weather at eight U.S. terminals and truck repair shops. A single-stage personal impactor

D. D. Zaebst; D. E. Clapp; L. M. Blade; D. A. Marlow; K. Steenland; R. W. Hornung; D. Scheutzle; J. Butler

1991-01-01

11

Anacardic Acids from Cashew Nuts Ameliorate Lung Damage Induced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice  

PubMed Central

Anacardic acids from cashew nut shell liquid, a Brazilian natural substance, have antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and modulate immune responses and angiogenesis. As inflammatory lung diseases have been correlated to environmental pollutants exposure and no reports addressing the effects of dietary supplementation with anacardic acids on lung inflammation in vivo have been evidenced, we investigated the effects of supplementation with anacardic acids in a model of diesel exhaust particle- (DEP-) induced lung inflammation. BALB/c mice received an intranasal instillation of 50??g of DEP for 20 days. Ten days prior to DEP instillation, animals were pretreated orally with 50, 150, or 250?mg/kg of anacardic acids or vehicle (100??L of cashew nut oil) for 30 days. The biomarkers of inflammatory and antioxidant responses in the alveolar parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and pulmonary vessels were investigated. All doses of anacardic acids ameliorated antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased vascular adhesion molecule in vessels. Animals that received 50?mg/kg of anacardic acids showed decreased levels of neutrophils and tumor necrosis factor in the lungs and BALF, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that AAs supplementation has a potential protective role on oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs.

Carvalho, Ana Laura Nicoletti; Annoni, Raquel; Torres, Larissa Helena Lobo; Durao, Ana Carolina Cardoso Santos; Shimada, Ana Lucia Borges; Almeida, Francine Maria; Hebeda, Cristina Bichels; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino Santos; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Martins, Milton Arruda; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Owen, Robert W.; Marcourakis, Tania; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Mauad, Thais

2013-01-01

12

Effect of short-term exposure to diesel exhaust particles and carboxylic acids on mitochondrial membrane disruption in airway epithelial cells  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Diesel exhaust has been shown to induce adverse pulmonary health effects; however, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are still unclear. Previous studies have imlplicated mitochondrial dysfunction in the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP). DEP contain...

13

Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

14

Power and particle exhaust in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The status of power and particle exhaust research in tokamaks is reviewed in the light of ITER requirements. There is a sound basis for ITER`s nominal design positions; important directions for further research are identified.

Stambaugh, R.D.

1998-01-01

15

Vascular and Cardiac Impairments in Rats Inhaling Ozone and Diesel Exhaust Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Background -Mechanisms of cardiovascular injuries from exposure to gas and particulate air pollutants are unknown. Objective -We hypothesized that episodic exposure of rats to ozone or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) will cause differential cardiovascular impairments, which will b...

16

DNA damage and cytotoxicity in type II lung epithelial (A549) cell cultures after exposure to diesel exhaust and urban street particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution particles has been acknowledged to be associated with excess generation of oxidative damage to DNA in experimental model systems and humans. The use of standard reference material (SRM), such as SRM1650 and SRM2975, is advantageous because experiments can be reproduced independently, but exposure to such samples may not mimic the effects observed after exposure to

Pernille Høgh Danielsen; Steffen Loft; Peter Møller

2008-01-01

17

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES INDUCE ABERRANT ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL DIRECTED CELL MOVEMENT BY DISRUPTION OF POLARITY MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following inj...

18

Pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of traffic-related particulate matter: 4-week exposure of rats to roadside and diesel engine exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Traffic-related particulate matter (PM) may play an important role in the development of adverse health effects, as documented extensively in acute toxicity studies. However, rather little is known about the impacts of prolonged exposure to PM. We hypothesized that long-term exposure to PM from traffic adversely affects the pulmonary and cardiovascular system through exacerbation of an inflammatory response. To examine this hypothesis, Fisher F344 rats, with a mild pulmonary inflammation at the onset of exposure, were exposed for 4 weeks, 5 days/week for 6?h a day to: (a) diluted diesel engine exhaust (PM(DEE)), or: (b) near roadside PM (PM(2.5)). Ultrafine particulates, which are largely present in diesel soot, may enter the systemic circulation and directly or indirectly trigger cardiovascular effects. Hence, we assessed the effects of traffic-related PM on pulmonary inflammation and activity of procoagulants, vascular function in arteries, and cytokine levels in the heart 24?h after termination of the exposures. No major adverse health effects of prolonged exposure to traffic-related PM were detected. However, some systemic effects due to PM(DEE) exposure occurred including decreased numbers of white blood cells and reduced von Willebrand factor protein in the circulation. In addition, lung tissue factor activity is reduced in conjunction with reduced lung tissue thrombin generation. To what extent these alterations contribute to thrombotic effects and vascular diseases remains to be established. In conclusion, prolonged exposure to traffic-related PM in healthy animals may not be detrimental due to various biological adaptive response mechanisms. PMID:21126152

Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Totlandsdal, Annike I; Kilinç, Evren; Boere, A John F; Fokkens, Paul H B; Leseman, Daan L A C; Sioutas, Constantinos; Schwarze, Per E; Spronk, Henri M; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Miller, Mark R; Cassee, Flemming R

2010-12-01

19

Particle Size Measurements in Solid Propellant Rocket Exhaust Plumes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Particle sizing interferometer measurement of particle size distributions, velocity and number density in samples of rocket propellant exhaust is described. Signal visibility and scattered intensity for individual particles was measured for a nominal size...

K. E. Harwell W. M. Farmer

1978-01-01

20

GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple relationship between number and mass emissions was not observed. Data were collected on-road to compare weekday with weekend air quality around the Twin Cities area. This portion of the study resulted in the development of a method to apportion the Diesel and SI contribution to on-road aerosol.

Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

2003-08-24

21

Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Traffic emissions including diesel engine exhaust are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated impaired vascular function after inhalation of exhaust generated by a diesel engine under idling conditions. Objectives To assess the vascular and fibrinolytic effects of exposure to diesel exhaust generated during urban-cycle running conditions that mimic ambient 'real-world' exposures. Methods In a randomised double-blind crossover study, eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 250 ?g/m3) or filtered air for one hour during intermittent exercise. Diesel exhaust was generated during the urban part of the standardized European Transient Cycle. Six hours post-exposure, vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function was assessed during venous occlusion plethysmography with intra-arterial agonist infusions. Measurements and Main Results Forearm blood flow increased in a dose-dependent manner with both endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine and bradykinin) and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside and verapamil) vasodilators. Diesel exhaust exposure attenuated the vasodilatation to acetylcholine (P < 0.001), bradykinin (P < 0.05), sodium nitroprusside (P < 0.05) and verapamil (P < 0.001). In addition, the net release of tissue plasminogen activator during bradykinin infusion was impaired following diesel exhaust exposure (P < 0.05). Conclusion Exposure to diesel exhaust generated under transient running conditions, as a relevant model of urban air pollution, impairs vasomotor function and endogenous fibrinolysis in a similar way as exposure to diesel exhaust generated at idling. This indicates that adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation occur over different running conditions with varying exhaust composition and concentrations as well as physicochemical particle properties. Importantly, exposure to diesel exhaust under ETC conditions was also associated with a novel finding of impaired of calcium channel-dependent vasomotor function. This implies that certain cardiovascular endpoints seem to be related to general diesel exhaust properties, whereas the novel calcium flux-related effect may be associated with exhaust properties more specific for the ETC condition, for example a higher content of diesel soot particles along with their adsorbed organic compounds.

2010-01-01

22

Relationship between particle mass and mobility for diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

We used the aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM) to measure the mass of mobility-classified diesel exhaust particles. This information enabled us to determine the effective density and fractal dimension of diesel particles as a function of engine load. We found that the effective density decreases as particle size increases. TEM images showed that this occurs because particles become more highly agglomerated as size increases. Effective density and fractal dimension increased somewhat as engine load decreased. TEM images suggest that this occurs because these particles contain more condensed fuel and/or lubricating oil. Also, we observed higher effective densities when high-sulfur EPA fuel (approximately 360 ppm S) was used than for Fischer-Tropsch fuel (approximately 0 ppm S). In addition, the effective density provides the relationship between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters. The relationship between these diameters enables us to intercompare, in terms of a common measure of size, mass distributions measured with the scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a MOUDI impactor without making any assumptions about particle shape or density. We show that mass distributions of diesel particles measured with the SMPS-APM are in good agreement with distributions measured with a MOUDI and a nano-MOUDI for particles larger than approximately 60 nm. However, significantly more mass and greater variation were observed by the nano-MOUDI for particles smaller than 40 nm than by the SMPS-APM. PMID:12630475

Park, Kihong; Cao, Feng; Kittelson, David B; McMurry, Peter H

2003-02-01

23

Occupational diesel exhaust exposure as a risk factor for COPD  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD, occupational exposures have emerged as an important risk factor, especially in nonsmokers. In this review we assess the state of the literature on the association of COPD with a specific occupational exposure, diesel exhaust. Recent Findings A large body of literature links general occupational exposures to dust and fumes with an increased risk of COPD, particularly in nonsmokers. Few studies, however, have explicitly examined the role of occupational diesel exhaust exposures to COPD risk. Suggestive recent findings link occupational diesel exposures to an increased risk of COPD, Summary The available literature directly examining the effects of occupational diesel exhaust on risk of COPD is quite small, but does suggest that increasing exposures are associated with increasing risk. Additional research, with more advanced exposure metrics is needed to fully elucidate this association.

Hart, Jaime E; Eisen, Ellen A; Laden, Francine

2013-01-01

24

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter

Anjoeka Pronk; Joseph Coble; Patricia A Stewart

2009-01-01

25

NASAL RESPONSES OF ASTHMATIC AND NON-ASTHMATIC VOLUNTEERS TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Asthma rates have been increasing world-wide, and exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may be implicated in this increase. Additionally DEP may also play a role in the increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient airborne PM exposure. Two types of nasal respons...

26

Exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds and health risk assessment for diesel-exhaust exposed workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWorkers' exposure to diesel exhaust in a bus depot, a truck repair workshop and an underground tunnel was determined by the measuring of elemental carbon (EC) and 15 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) proposed by the US Department of Health and Human Services\\/National Toxicology Program (NTP). Based on these concentration data, the genotoxic PAC contribution to the diesel-exhaust particle (DEP)

J.-J. Sauvain; T. Vu Duc; M. Guillemin

2003-01-01

27

Concordance in Genomic Changes Between Mouse Lungs and Human Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed to Diesel Exhaust Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Human and animal toxicity studies have shown that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or their constituents affect multiple biological processes including immune and inflammatory pathways, mutagenesis and in some cases carcinogenesis. This study compared genomic changes by...

28

Prenatal allergen and diesel exhaust exposure and their effects on allergy in adult offspring mice  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple studies have suggested that prenatal exposure to either allergens or air pollution may increase the risk for the development of allergic immune responses in young offspring. However, the effects of prenatal environmental exposures on adult offspring have not been well-studied. We hypothesized that combined prenatal exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) allergen and diesel exhaust particles will be associated with altered IgE production, airway inflammation, airway hyperreactivity (AHR), and airway remodeling of adult offspring. Methods Following sensitization via the airway route to A. fumigatus and mating, pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to additional A. fumigatus and/or diesel exhaust particles. At age 9-10 weeks, their offspring were sensitized and challenged with A. fumigatus. Results We found that adult offspring from mice that were exposed to A. fumigatus or diesel exhaust particles during pregnancy experienced decreases in IgE production. Adult offspring of mice that were exposed to both A. fumigatus and diesel exhaust particles during pregnancy experienced decreases in airway eosinophilia. Conclusion These results suggest that, in this model, allergen and/or diesel administration during pregnancy may be associated with protection from developing systemic and airway allergic immune responses in the adult offspring.

2010-01-01

29

The Involvement of Superoxide and Nitric Oxide in Inflammation-Enhanced Diesel Exhaust Particle Cytotoxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Thirty-four million Americans have asthma, a chronic inflammatory lung disease. Although the mechanisms are unclear, epidemiologic studies show that exposure of asthmatics to air pollutants, like diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is more likely to result in adverse health effects....

30

Biophysical Assessment of Single Cell Cytotoxicity: Diesel Exhaust Particle-Treated Human Aortic Endothelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a major source of traffic-related air pollution, has become a serious health concern due to its adverse influences on human health including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. To elucidate the relationship between biophysical properties (cell topography, cytoskeleton organizations, and cell mechanics) and functions of endothelial cells exposed to DEPs, atomic force microscope (AFM) was applied

Yangzhe Wu; Tian Yu; Timothy A. Gilbertson; Anhong Zhou; Hao Xu; Kytai Truong Nguyen

2012-01-01

31

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE-INDUCED EPITHELIAL TOXICITY IS MODULATED BY UV-IRRADIATION -- NCSU  

EPA Science Inventory

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways affecting nearly 20 million individuals in the U.S alone. Asthmatic symptoms can be exacerbated by environmental insults like exposure to particulate matter (PM). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) account for a portion of PM...

32

REAL-TIME AND INTEGRATED MEASUREMENT OF POTENTIAL HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PARTICLE-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) FROM AIRCRAFT EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Real-time monitors and low-volume air samplers were used to measure the potential human exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations during various flight-related and ground-support activities of C-130H aircraft at an Air National Guard base. Three...

33

Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Enhances the Generation of Vascular Microparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: In the study of the health impacts of traffic-related air pollution, diesel exhaust is a pollutant of particular interest, since it is a major source of particulate matter (PM). Epidemiological studies associate exposure to ambient levels of PM with cardiovascular m...

34

Markers of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Railroad Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study measured the exposure of railroad workers to diesel exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke by using personal air samples taken over two consecutive work shifts. Urine samples were collected from 87 subjects at the end of the study work shifts a...

M. B. Schenker S. J. Samuels N. Y. Kado S. K. Hammond T. J. Smith

1990-01-01

35

DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE INCREASES SEVERITY OF AN ONGOING INFLUENZA INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have shown that air pollutants including diesel exhaust (DE) alter host defense responses, resulting in decreased resistance to respiratory infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on the severity of an ongoing influenza in...

36

Exposure to traffic exhausts and oxidative DNA damage  

PubMed Central

Aims: To assess the relations between exposure to traffic exhausts and indicators of oxidative DNA damage among highway toll station workers. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 47 female highway toll station workers exposed to traffic exhausts and 27 female office workers as a reference group. Exposure assessment was based on average and cumulative traffic density and a biomarker of exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG). Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was used as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) was measured as an indicator of oxidative stress related to traffic exhaust exposure. Results: The mean concentration of urinary 8-OHdG was substantially higher among the exposed non-smokers (13.6 µg/g creatinine) compared with the reference non-smokers (7.3 µg/g creatinine; difference 6.3, 95% CI 3.0 to 9.6). The mean concentration of NO among the exposed (48.0 µmol/l) was also higher compared with the reference non-smokers (37.6 µmol/l; difference 10.4, 95% CI –0.4 to 21.2). In linear regression adjusting for confounding, a change in log(8-OHdG) was statistically significantly related to a unit change in log(1-OHPG) (ß = 0.372, 95% CI 0.081 to 0.663). Conclusions: Results indicate that exposure to traffic exhausts increases oxidative DNA damage. Urinary 8-OHdG is a promising biomarker of traffic exhaust induced oxidative stress.

Lai, C; Liou, S; Lin, H; Shih, T; Tsai, P; Chen, J; Yang, T; Jaakkola, J; Strickland, P

2005-01-01

37

Real-Time and Integrated Measurement of Potential Human Exposure to Particle-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Aircraft Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used real-time monitors and low-volume air samplers to measure the potential human expo- sure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations during various flight- related and ground-support activities of C-130H aircraft at an Air National Guard base. We used three types of photoelectric aerosol sensors (PASs) to measure real-time concentrations of particle- bound PAHs in a break room, downwind

Jeffrey W. Childers; Carlton L. Witherspoon; Leslie B. Smith; Joachim D. Pleil

38

Diesel exhaust particles modulate vascular endothelial cell permeability: Implication of ZO-1 expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to air pollutants increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Recent toxicity studies revealed that ultra-fine particles (UFP, dp<100–200nm), the major portion of particulate matter (PM) by numbers in the atmosphere, induced atherosclerosis. In this study, we posited that variations in chemical composition in diesel exhausted particles (DEP) regulated endothelial cell permeability to a different extent. Human aortic endothelial cells

Rongsong Li; Zhi Ning; Jeffrey Cui; Fei Yu; Constantinos Sioutas; Tzung Hsiai

2010-01-01

39

Health effects of subchronic inhalation exposure to gasoline engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Gasoline engine emissions are a ubiquitous source of exposure to complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) and non-PM pollutants; yet their health hazards have received little study in comparison with those of diesel emissions. As a component of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) multipollutant research program, F344 and SHR rats and A/J, C57BL/6, and BALBc mice were exposed 6 h/day, 7 days/week for 1 week to 6 months to exhaust from 1996 General Motors 4.3-L engines burning national average fuel on a simulated urban operating cycle. Exposure groups included whole exhaust diluted 1:10, 1:15, or 1:90, filtered exhaust at the 1:10 dilution, or clean air controls. Evaluations included organ weight, histopathology, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, cardiac electrophysiology, micronuclei in circulating cells, DNA methylation and oxidative injury, clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the lung, and development of respiratory allergic responses to ovalbumin. Among the 120 outcome variables, only 20 demonstrated significant exposure effects. Several statistically significant effects appeared isolated and were not supported by related variables. The most coherent and consistent effects were those related to increased red blood cells, interpreted as likely to have resulted from exposure to 13-107 ppm carbon monoxide. Other effects supported by multiple variables included mild lung irritation and depression of oxidant production by alveolar macrophages. The lowest exposure level caused no significant effects. Because only 6 of the 20 significant effects appeared to be substantially reversed by PM filtration, the majority of effects were apparently caused by non-PM components of exhaust. PMID:18800271

Reed, M D; Barrett, E G; Campen, M J; Divine, K K; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Seagrave, J C; Mauderly, J L; Seilkop, S K; Swenberg, J A

2008-10-01

40

Divertor particle exhaust and wall inventory on DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Many tokamaks achieve optimum plasma performance by achieving low recycling; various wall conditioning techniques including helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC) are routinely applied to help achieve low recycling. Many of these techniques allow strong, transient wall pumping, but they may not be effective for long-pulse tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), Tore Supra Continu, and JT-60SU. Continuous particle exhaust using an in-situ pumping scheme may be effective for wall inventory control in such devices. Recent particle balance experiments on the Tore Supra and DIII-D tokamaks demonstrated that the wall particle inventory could be reduced during a given discharge by use of continuous particle exhaust. In this paper we report the first results of wall inventory control and good performance with the in-situ DIII-D cryopump, replacing the HeGDC normally applied between discharges.

Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge Associated Univ., TN (United States); Wade, M.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-06-01

41

Divertor particle exhaust and wall inventory on DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Many tokamaks achieve optimum plasma performance by achieving low recycling; various wall conditioning techniques including helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC) are routinely applied to help achieve low recycling. Many of these techniques allow strong, transient wall pumping, but they may not be effective for long-pulse tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), Tore Supra Continu, and JT-60SU. Continuous particle exhaust using an in-situ pumping scheme may be effective for wall inventory control in such devices. Recent particle balance experiments on the Tore Supra and DIII-D tokamaks demonstrated that the wall particle inventory could be reduced during a given discharge by use of continuous particle exhaust. In this paper the authors report the first results of wall inventory control and good performance with the in-situ DIII-D cryopump, replacing the HeGDC normally applied between discharges.

Maingi, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States); Jackson, G.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Wade, M.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Hogan, J.T.; Klepper, C.C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Haas, G. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Max Planck Inst. for Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

1995-09-01

42

Divertor Particle Exhaust and Wall Inventory on D3-D  

SciTech Connect

Many tokamaks achieve optimum plasma performance by achieving low recycling; various wall conditioning techniques including helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC) are routinely applied to help achieve low recycling. Many of these techniques allow strong, transient wall pumping, but they may not be effective for long-pulse tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), Tore Supra Continu, and JT-60SU. Continuous particle exhaust using an in-situ pumping scheme may be effective for wall inventory control in such devices. Recent particle balance experiments on the Tore Supra and D3-D tokamaks demonstrated that the wall particle inventory could be reduced during a given discharge by use of continuous particle exhaust. In this paper the authors report the first results of wall inventory control and good performance with the in-situ D3-D cryopump, replacing the HeGDC normally applied between discharges.

Jackson, G.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

1995-06-01

43

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

2009-03-11

44

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis  

PubMed Central

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: Personal?exposure=urban?background+work?site?background+personal?activity To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples.

SHEESLEY, REBECCA J.; SCHAUER, JAMES J.; GARSHICK, ERIC; LADEN, FRANCINE; SMITH, THOMAS J.; BLICHARZ, ANDREW P.; DEMINTER, JEFFREY T.

2008-01-01

45

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis.  

PubMed

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Smith, Thomas J; Blicharz, Andrew P; Deminter, Jeffrey T

2008-03-05

46

Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Traffic emissions including diesel engine exhaust are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated impaired vascular function after inhalation of exhaust generated by a diesel engine under idling conditions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the vascular and fibrinolytic effects of exposure to diesel exhaust generated during urban-cycle running conditions that mimic ambient 'real-world'

Stefan Barath; Nicholas L Mills; Magnus Lundbäck; Håkan Törnqvist; Andrew J Lucking; Jeremy P Langrish; Stefan Söderberg; Christoffer Boman; Roger Westerholm; Jakob Löndahl; Ken Donaldson; Ian S Mudway; Thomas Sandström; David E Newby; Anders Blomberg

2010-01-01

47

Thermoregulation during cold exposure after several days of exhaustive exercise.  

PubMed

This study examined the hypothesis that several days of exhaustive exercise would impair thermoregulatory effector responses to cold exposure, leading to an accentuated core temperature reduction compared with exposure of the same individual to cold in a rested condition. Thirteen men (10 experimental and 3 control) performed a cold-wet walk (CW) for up to 6 h (6 rest-work cycles, each 1 h in duration) in 5 degrees C air on three occasions. One cycle of CW consisted of 10 min of standing in the rain (5.4 cm/h) followed by 45 min of walking (1.34 m/s, 5.4 m/s wind). Clothing was water saturated at the start of each walking period (0.75 clo vs. 1.1 clo when dry). The initial CW trial (day 0) was performed (afternoon) with subjects rested before initiation of exercise-cold exposure. During the next 7 days, exhaustive exercise (aerobic, anaerobic, resistive) was performed for 4 h each morning. Two subsequent CW trials were performed on the afternoon of days 3 and 7, approximately 2.5 h after cessation of fatiguing exercise. For controls, no exhaustive exercise was performed on any day. Thermoregulatory responses and body temperature during CW were not different on days 0, 3, and 7 in the controls. In the experimental group, mean skin temperature was higher (P < 0.05) during CW on days 3 and 7 than on day 0. Rectal temperature was lower (P < 0.05) and the change in rectal temperature was greater (P < 0.05) during the 6th h of CW on day 3. Metabolic heat production during CW was similar among trials. Warmer skin temperatures during CW after days 3 and 7 indicate that vasoconstrictor responses to cold, but not shivering responses, are impaired after multiple days of severe physical exertion. These findings suggest that susceptibility to hypothermia is increased by exertional fatigue. PMID:11181604

Castellani, J W; Young, A J; Degroot, D W; Stulz, D A; Cadarette, B S; Rhind, S G; Zamecnik, J; Shek, P N; Sawka, M N

2001-03-01

48

Infant leukemia and paternal exposure to motor vehicle exhaust fumes.  

PubMed

The children of fathers who work in gas stations, automobile or truck repair, and aircraft maintenance appear to be at increased risk for acute leukemia during their first year of life. The odds ratio was found to be about 2.5 overall, but risk appears to be greater for female offspring. A decline in sex ratio was observed for the three decades of the study, with the lowest ratio observed from 1969 through 1978. These preliminary findings suggest that exposure to one or more of the components of exhaust fumes might be of etiologic importance for this malignancy. The limitations of this investigation are discussed. PMID:6207280

Vianna, N J; Kovasznay, B; Polan, A; Ju, C

1984-09-01

49

Exposure of human lung cells to native diesel motor exhaust--development of an optimized in vitro test strategy.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of native diesel motor exhaust on human lung cells in vitro, a new experimental concept was developed using an exposure device on the base of the cell cultivation system CULTEX (Patent No. DE19801763.PCT/EP99/00295) to handle the cells during a 1-h exposure period independent of an incubator and next to an engine test rig. The final experimental set-up allows the investigation of native (chemically and physically unmodified) diesel exhaust using short distances for the transportation of the gas to the target cells. The analysis of several atmospheric compounds as well as the particle concentration of the exhaust was performed by online monitoring in parallel. To validate the complete system we concentrated on the measurement of two distinct viability parameters after exposure to air and undiluted, diluted and filtered diesel motor exhaust generated under different engine operating conditions. Cell viability was not influenced by the exposure to clean air, whereas dose-dependent cytotoxicity was found contingent on the dosage of exhaust. Additionally, the quality of exhaust, represented by two engine operating conditions (idling, higher load), also showed well-distinguishable cytotoxicity. In summary, the experimental set-up allows research on biological effects of native engine emissions using short exposure times. PMID:11869881

Knebel, J W; Ritter, D; Aufderheide, M

2002-04-01

50

TOF-SIMS measurements of the exhaust particles emitted from gasoline and diesel engine vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtained the detailed compositional information of diesel and gasoline exhaust particles, and discussed the possibility of the classification into each emission source. The intensities of Ca + and hydrocarbons were relatively high in the TOF-SIMS spectrum of the gasoline exhaust particles. The secondary ions such as NH 4+ and Si(CH 3) 3+ were strongly detected from the diesel exhaust particles. From TOF-SIMS images of each type of exhaust particles, Ca + of the gasoline exhaust particles and Si(CH 3) 3+ of diesel exhaust particles were strongly detected from the large particles with diameter of 0.3 ?m. From these results, the exhaust particles collected in the atmosphere near the traffic route can be classified by their origin by using TOF-SIMS information.

Tomiyasu, B.; Owari, M.; Nihei, Y.

2006-07-01

51

Microscopic characterization of individual particles from multicomponent ship exhaust.  

PubMed

Particles sampled from the main and auxiliary ship diesel engine exhausts during a measurement campaign aboard a cargo ship are studied by SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. Cluster analysis (CA) is applied to characterize the particles by separating them into distinct groups of similar morphology and chemical composition, representative of the particle types in the exhaust from the main and auxiliary engines. Raman microspectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography provide the criteria for the clustering of a large data set of individual particles. To identify chemical and morphological features of heavy and distillate fuel oil-derived PM emissions, micromarkers discriminating between the different types of emitted particles are proposed. These micromarkers could enable the classification of multicomponent aerosols according to a source type. This characterization of complex multicomponent aerosols emitted by ship diesel engines improves the quantification of the contribution of shipping to ambient air particulates, and can help to identify a source type in apportionment studies. PMID:23090431

Popovicheva, Olga; Kireeva, Elena; Persiantseva, Natalia; Timofeev, Mikhail; Bladt, Henrike; Ivleva, Natalia P; Niessner, Reinhard; Moldanová, Jana

2012-10-23

52

Long-term clearance of inhaled diesel exhaust particles in rodents.  

PubMed

The fate of inhaled diesel exhaust particles was studied in male Fischer 344 rats and Hartley guinea pigs using radioactive diesel particles, tagged in the insoluble particulate core with 14C and generated from a single-cylinder diesel engine. The potential artifact of increased radioactivity due to the absorption of 14CO2 in the blood was minimized by passing the exhaust through a diffusion scrubber prior to its dilution and introduction into a nose-only exposure chamber. Disappearance of the inhaled 14CO2 from blood through the expired air and urine was rapid, indicating that a correction for the increased radioactivity was necessary only for tissue samples generated during the first day after the exposure. An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method was developed to determine the amount of blood and, thus, its contribution of 14CO2 activity in excised organs and tissues. Fischer rats exposed to diluted diesel exhaust at 2 particulate concentrations with similar total inhaled dose (7 mg/m3 for 45 min, and 2 mg/m3 for 140 min) had comparable deposition efficiencies and showed no significant difference in particle clearance for data measured up to 1 yr after the exposure. Long-term retention of inhaled diesel particles in Fischer rats, measured up to 330 d after the exposure, was analyzed as 3 clearance phases with half-times of 1 d, 6 d, and 80 d, respectively. In contrast, very little clearance was observed in guinea pigs between d 10 and d 432 after the exposure, and only the early clearance phase can be represented by a single exponential curve with a half-time of 1-2 d. PMID:6199508

Lee, P S; Chan, T L; Hering, W E

53

Evaluation of the effects of ozone oxidation on redox-cycling activity of two-stroke engine exhaust particles.  

PubMed

The effect of oxidation on the redox-cycling activity of engine exhaust particles is examined. Particles obtained from a two-stroke gasoline engine were oxidized in a flow tube with ozone on a one-minute time scale both in the presence and absence of substantial gas-phase exhaust components. Whereas ozone concentrations were high, the ozone exposures were approximately equivalent to 60 ppb ozone for 2-8 h. Oxidation led to substantial increases in redox-cycling of aqueous extracts of filtered particles, as measured using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Increases in redox activity when the entire exhaust was oxidized were primarily driven by deposition of redox-active secondary organic aerosol (SOA), resulting in an upper-limit DTT activity of 8.6 ± 2.0 pmol DTT consumed per min per microgram of particles, compared to 0.73 ± 0.60 pmol min(-1) ?g(-1) for fresh, unoxidized exhaust particles. Redox-cycling activity reached higher levels when VOC denuded exhaust was oxidized, with the highest DTT activity observed being 16.7 ± 1.6 pmol min(-1) ?g(-1) with no upper limit reached for the range of ozone exposures used in this study. Our results provide laboratory support for the hypothesis that the toxicity of engine combustion particles due to redox-cycling may increase as they age in the atmosphere. PMID:21341691

McWhinney, Robert D; Gao, Shawna S; Zhou, Shouming; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

2011-02-22

54

SUPPRESSION OF BASAL AND CYTOKINE INDUCED EXPRESSION OF ANTIGEN PRESENTATION MARKERS ON MOUSE LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) constitute a significant component of airborne particulates in urban environment. Exposure to DEP is known to enhance susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections. We hypothesized that DEP could partially exert its effect on disease susceptibili...

55

*Differential injury in healthy and cytokine-treated epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles involves interaction of superoxide and nitric oxide  

EPA Science Inventory

RATIONALE: Individuals with chronic pulmonary inflammation due to disease are more susceptible to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Increasing evidence suggests that these adverse...

56

Evaluation of an exposure setup for studying effects of diesel exhaust in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust is a common air pollutant and work exposure has been reported to cause discomfort and affect lung function. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental setup which would allow investigation of acute effects on symptoms and lung function in humans exposed to diluted diesel exhaust. Diluted diesel exhaust was fed from an idling lorry through

B. Rudell; T. Sandström; U. Hammarström; M.-L. Ledin; P. Hörstedt; N. Stjernberg

1994-01-01

57

Biodiesel versus diesel: a pilot study comparing exhaust exposures for employees at a rural municipal facility.  

PubMed

Many organizations interested in renewable, domestic energy have switched from petroleum diesel to biodiesel blends for use in transportation and heavy-duty equipment. Although considerable evidence exists on the negative health effects of petroleum diesel exhaust exposures in occupational settings, there has been little research examining biodiesel exposures. Working collaboratively with a local municipality, concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and other air toxics were measured at a recycling facility in southwestern New Hampshire while heavy equipment operated first on petroleum diesel and then on a B20 blend (20% soy-based biodiesel/80% petroleum diesel). This pilot study used a combination of established industrial hygiene and environmental air monitoring methods to estimate occupational exposure profiles to PM and air toxics from combustion of petroleum diesel and biodiesel. Results indicate that B20 use dramatically reduces work area respirable particle, PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and formaldehyde levels compared with petroleum diesel. Some volatile organic compound concentrations were higher for petroleum diesel and others were higher for the B20 blend. Overall, this study suggests that biodiesel blends reduce worker exposure to and health risk from petroleum diesel exhaust, but additional exposure research is recommended. PMID:20863048

Traviss, Nora; Thelen, Brett Amy; Ingalls, Jaime Kathryn; Treadwell, Melinda Dawn

2010-09-01

58

*Assessing differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-l in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-l activation results in the upregulat...

59

Exposure to diesel exhaust particulates induces cardiac dysfunction and remodeling.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in urban residents, predisposing them to the development of several cardiovascular stresses, including myocardial infarctions, arrhythmias, thrombosis, and heart failure. DEP contain a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We hypothesize that exposure to DEP elicits ventricular remodeling through the activation of the AHR pathway, leading to ventricular dilation and dysfunction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by nose-only nebulization to DEP (SRM 2975, 0.2 mg/ml) or vehicle for 20 min/day × 5 wk. DEP exposure resulted in eccentric left ventricular dilation (8% increased left ventricular internal diameter at diastole and 23% decreased left ventricular posterior wall thickness at diastole vs. vehicle), as shown by echocardiograph assessment. Histological analysis using Picrosirius red staining revealed that DEP reduced cardiac interstitial collagen (23% decrease vs. vehicle). Further assessment of cardiac function using a pressure-volume catheter indicated impaired diastolic function (85% increased end-diastolic pressure and 19% decreased Tau vs. vehicle) and contractility (57 and 48% decreased end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and maximum change in pressure over time vs. end-diastolic volume compared with vehicle, respectively) in the DEP-exposed animals. Exposure to DEP significantly increased cardiac expression of AHR (19% increase vs. vehicle). In addition, DEP significantly decreased the cardiac expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1?, the competitive pathway to the AHR, and vascular endothelial growth factor, a downstream mediator of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (26 and 47% decrease vs. vehicle, respectively). These findings indicate that exposure to DEP induced left ventricular dilation by loss of collagen through an AHR-dependent mechanism. PMID:23887904

Bradley, Jessica M; Cryar, Kipp A; El Hajj, Milad C; El Hajj, Elia C; Gardner, Jason D

2013-07-25

60

Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. Methods In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. Results The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Conclusion Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient conditions. On a per breath basis, however, the mass of particulate matter inhaled is large compared to the mass inhaled at ambient conditions. Finally, it was determined that children, infants, or people breathing at heights similar to that of a passing vehicle's tailpipe may be exposed to higher concentrations of particulate matter than those breathing at higher locations, such as adults standing up.

2009-01-01

61

Allergic inflammation in the human lower respiratory tract affected by exposure to diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

To improve understanding of human health risks from exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP*), we tested whether immunologic effects previously observed in the human nose also occur in the lower airways. Our overall hypothesis was that cell influx and production of cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin E (IgE), and other mediators, which would be measurable in sputum and blood, occur in people with asthma after realistic controlled exposures to diesel exhaust (DE). In Phase 1 we tested for direct effects of DE in subjects with clinically undifferentiated mild asthma. In Phase 2 we tested whether DE exposure would exacerbate response to inhaled cat allergen in subjects with both asthma and cat sensitivity. The exposure facility was a controlled-environment chamber supplied with DE from an idling medium-duty truck with ultra-low-sulfur fuel and no catalytic converter. We exposed volunteers for 2 hours with intermittent exercise to exhaust with DEP mass concentration near 100 microg/m3. Exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) near 0.35 ppm (similar to its concentration in DE) and to filtered air (FA) served as controls. Blood was drawn before exposure on day 1 and again the next morning (day 2). Sputum was induced only on day 2. Bronchial reactivity was measured -1 hour after exposure ended. Supplementary endpoints included measures of blood coagulation status, cardiopulmonary physiology, and symptoms. Each phase employed 15 subjects with asthma; 3 subjects participated in both phases. In Phase 1, airway reactivity was measured with inhaled methacholine; in Phase 2, with inhaled cat allergen. We found little biologic response to DE exposure compared with exposure to control atmospheres. In Phase 1, interleukin 4 (IL-4) in sputum showed an estimated 1.7-fold increase attributable to DE exposure, which was close to statistical significance; airway resistance increased modestly but significantly on day 2 after DE exposure; and nonspecific symptom scores increased significantly during DE exposure. In Phase 2, indicators of airway inflammation in sputum showed a possibly meaningful response: polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and eosinophils increased after DE exposure, whereas macrophages decreased. IgE in sputum and the bronchoconstrictive response to cat allergen varied significantly between atmospheres, but not in patterns consistent with our primary hypothesis. Symptom score changes relatable to DE exposure were smaller than those in Phase 1 and not statistically significant. Controlled exposures, lasting 2 hours with intermittent exercise, to diluted DE at a particle mass concentration of 100 microg/m3 did not evoke clear and consistent lower-airway or systemic immunologic or inflammatory responses in mildly asthmatic subjects, with or without accompanying challenge with cat allergen. Likewise, these DE exposures did not significantly increase nonspecific or allergen-specific bronchial reactivity. A few isolated statistically significant or near-significant changes were observed during and after DE exposure, including increases in nonspecific symptoms (e.g., headache, nausea) suggestive of subtle, rapid-onset systemic effects. It is possible the lower respiratory tract is more resistant than the nose to adjuvant effects of diesel particles on allergic inflammation, so that no meaningful effects occur under exposure conditions like these. Alternatively, the experimental conditions may have been near a threshold for finding effects. That is, important lower respiratory effects may occur but may be detectable experimentally with slightly higher DEP concentrations, longer exposures, more invasive testing (e.g., bronchoalveolar lavage), or more susceptible subjects. However, ethical and practical barriers to such experiments are considerable. PMID:22852485

Riedl, Marc A; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Linn, William S; Gong, Henry; Clark, Kenneth W; Effros, Richard M; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R; Berhane, Kiros T

2012-02-01

62

Nitrogen dioxide and ultrafine particles dominate the biological effects of inhaled diesel exhaust treated by a catalyzed diesel particulate filter.  

PubMed

We studied the impact of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) on the toxicity of diesel exhaust. Rats inhaled exhaust from a Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine, with and without DPF after-treatment, or HEPA-filtered air for 4h, on 1 day (single exposure) and 3 days (repeated exposures). Biological effects were assessed after 2h (single exposure) and 20h (single and repeated exposures) recovery in clean air. Concentrations of pollutants were (1) untreated exhaust (-DPF), nitric oxide (NO), 43 ppm; nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 4 ppm; carbon monoxide (CO), 6 ppm; hydrocarbons, 11 ppm; particles, 3.2×10(5)/cm(3), 60-70nm mode, 269 ?g/m(3); (2) treated exhaust (+DPF), NO, 20 ppm; NO2, 16 ppm; CO, 1 ppm; hydrocarbons, 3 ppm; and particles, 4.4×10(5)/cm(3), 7-8nm mode, 2 ?g/m(3). Single exposures to -DPF exhaust resulted in increased neutrophils, total protein and the cytokines, growth-related oncogene/keratinocyte chemoattractant, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lung lavage fluid, as well as increased gene expression of interleukin-6, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, metallothionein 2A, tumor necrosis factor-?, inducible nitric oxide synthase, glutathione S-transferase A1, heme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase 2, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 in the lung, and ET- 1 in the heart. Ratio of bigET-1 to ET-1 peptide increased in plasma in conjunction with a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression in the lungs after exposure to diesel exhaust, suggesting endothelial dysfunction. Rather than reducing toxicity, +DPF exhaust resulted in heightened injury and inflammation, consistent with the 4-fold increase in NO2 concentration. The ratio of bigET-1 to ET-1 was similarly elevated after -DPF and +DPF exhaust exposures. Endothelial dysfunction, thus, appeared related to particle number deposited, rather than particle mass or NO2 concentration. The potential benefits of particulate matter reduction using a catalyzed DPF may be confounded by increase in NO2 emission and release of reactive ultrafine particles. PMID:23897985

Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Thomson, Errol M; Kumarathasan, Prem; Guénette, Josée; Rosenblatt, Debbie; Chan, Tak; Rideout, Greg; Vincent, Renaud

2013-07-28

63

[Experimental study on characteristics of biodiesel exhausted particle].  

PubMed

A particle emission experiment of a direct-injection turbocharged diesel engine with biodiesel and diesel was carried out. A pump of 80 L/min and fiber glass filters with diameter of 90 mm was used to sample engine particles in exhaust pipe. The size distribution, soluble organic fraction (SOF) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of particles were analyzed by a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and GC-MS. The results indicate that the volume weighted size distribution of biodiesel particle is single-peak and its median diameter d(0.5) and mean diameter d32 are decreased with the increasing speed. At the high speed the d32 and d(0.5) of biodiesel are larger than those of diesel, and quite the contrary at the low speed. SOF mass concentration and mass percentage of biodiesel are 12.3 - 31.5 mg/m3 and 38.2% - 58.0% respectively, which are much higher than those of diesel. The total PAHs emission concentration of biodiesel is 2.9 - 4.7 microg/m3 lower than that of diesel as much as 29.1% - 92.4%. PMID:17891981

Ge, Yun-shan; He, Chao; Han, Xiu-kun; Wu, Si-jin; Lu, Xiao-ming

2007-07-01

64

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) can occur while people are cooking, driving, smoking, operating small appliances such as hair dryers, or eating out in restaurants. These exposures can often be higher than outdoor concentrations. For 3 years, portable monitors were employed in homes, cars, and restaurants. More than 300 measurement periods in several homes were documented, along with 25

Lance Wallace; Wayne Ott

2011-01-01

65

Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

66

Identification of Surrogate Measures of Diesel Exhaust Exposure in a Controlled Chamber Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) has been associated with acute cardiopulmonary and vascular responses, chronic noncancer health effects, and respiratory cancers in humans. To better understand DE exposures and eventually their related health effects, we established a controlled c...

67

Generation and Characterization of Diesel Exhaust in a Facility for Controlled Human Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An idling medium-duty diesel truck operated on ultralow sulfur diesel fuel was used as an emission source to generate diesel exhaust for controlled human exposure. Repeat tests were conducted on the Federal Test Procedure using a chassis dynamometer to demonstrate the reproducibility of this vehicle as a source of diesel emissions. Exhaust was supplied to a specially constructed exposure chamber

Aniket A. Sawant; David R. Cocker III; J. Wayne Miller; Tony Taliaferro; David Diaz-Sanchez; William S. Linn; Kenneth W. Clark; Henry Gong Jr; Michael Holdren; Kenneth Cowen; Alex Laskin; David Harris; Richard Shores; Robert Kagann; Ram Hashmonay; Francesca Sprovieri; Nicola Pirrone; Larry Jacobson; Brian Hetchler; David Schmidt; Richard Nicolai; Albert Heber; Ji-Qin Ni; Steven Hoff; Jacek Koziel; Yuanhui Zhang; David Beasley; David Parker; Roxolana Kashuba; Peter Scheff; Chitsan Lin; Naiwei Liou; Endy Sun; Kenneth Clark; Gustavo Olivares; Johan Strom; Christer Johansson; Lars Gidhagen

2008-01-01

68

TOF-SIMS measurements of the exhaust particles emitted from gasoline and diesel engine vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained the detailed compositional information of diesel and gasoline exhaust particles, and discussed the possibility of the classification into each emission source. The intensities of Ca+ and hydrocarbons were relatively high in the TOF-SIMS spectrum of the gasoline exhaust particles. The secondary ions such as NH4+ and Si(CH3)3+ were strongly detected from the diesel exhaust particles. From TOF-SIMS images

B. Tomiyasu; M. Owari; Y. Nihei

2006-01-01

69

Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.  

PubMed

General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust. PMID:6193022

Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

70

AN ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICLE SIZER{trademark} SPECTROMETER FOR TRANSIENT EMISSION PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

There has been increased interest in obtaining size distribution data during transient engine operation where both particle size and total number concentrations can change dramatically. Traditionally, the measurement of particle emissions from vehicles has been a compromise based on choosing between the conflicting needs of high time resolution or high particle size resolution for a particular measurement. Currently the most common technique for measuring submicrometer particle sizes is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPSTM) system. The SMPS system gives high size resolution but requires an aerosol to be stable over a long time period to make a particle size distribution measurement. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is commonly used for fast time response measurements but is limited to measuring total concentration only. This paper describes a new instrument, the Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM (EEPSTM) spectrometer, which has high time resolution and a reasonable size resolution. The EEPS was designed specifically for measuring engine exhaust and, like the SMPS system, uses a measurement based on electrical mobility. Particles entering the instrument are charged to a predictable level, then passed through an annular space where they are repelled outward by the voltage from a central column. When the particles reach electrodes on the outer cylindrical (a column of rings), they create a current that is measured by an electrometer on one or more of the rings. The electrometer currents are measured multiple times per second to give high time resolution. A sophisticated realtime inversion algorithm converts the currents to particle size and concentration for immediate display.

Johnson, T: Caldow, R; Pucher, A Mirme, A Kittelson, D

2003-08-24

71

AN ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICLE SIZERTM SPECTROMETER FOR TRANSIENT EMISSION PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

There has been increased interest in obtaining size distribution data during transient engine operation where both particle size and total number concentrations can change dramatically. Traditionally, the measurement of particle emissions from vehicles has been a compromise based on choosing between the conflicting needs of high time resolution or high particle size resolution for a particular measurement. Currently the most common technique for measuring submicrometer particle sizes is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPSTM) system. The SMPS system gives high size resolution but requires an aerosol to be stable over a long time period to make a particle size distribution measurement. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is commonly used for fast time response measurements but is limited to measuring total concentration only. This paper describes a new instrument, the Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM (EEPSTM) spectrometer, which has high time resolution and a reasonable size resolution. The EEPS was designed specifically for measuring engine exhaust and, like the SMPS system, uses a measurement based on electrical mobility. Particles entering the instrument are charged to a predictable level, then passed through an annular space where they are repelled outward by the voltage from a central column. When the particles reach electrodes on the outer cylindrical (a column of rings), they create a current that is measured by an electrometer on one or more of the rings. The electrometer currents are measured multiple times per second to give high time resolution. A sophisticated realtime inversion algorithm converts the currents to particle size and concentration for immediate display.

Johnson, T; Caldow, R; Pucher, A; Mirme, A; Kittelson, D

2003-08-24

72

Exacerbation of allergic inflammation in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles prior to viral infection  

PubMed Central

Background Viral infections and exposure to oxidant air pollutants are two of the most important inducers of asthma exacerbation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust increases the susceptibility to influenza virus infections both in epithelial cells in vitro and in mice in vivo. Therefore, we examined whether in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to oxidant air pollutants enhances the susceptibility to respiratory virus infections, which in turn leads to increased virus-induced exacerbation of asthma. Ovalbumin-sensitized (OVA) male C57BL/6 mice were instilled with diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or saline and 24 hours later infected with influenza A/PR/8. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours post-infection and analyzed for markers of lung injury, allergic inflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results Exposure to DEP or infection with influenza alone had no significant effects on markers of injury or allergic inflammation. However, OVA-sensitized mice that were exposed to DEP and subsequently infected with influenza showed increased levels of eosinophils in lung lavage and tissue. In addition Th2-type cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, and markers of eosinophil chemotaxis, such as CCL11 and CCR3, were increased in OVA-sensitized mice exposed to DEP prior to infection with influenza. These mice also showed increased levels of IL-1?, but not IL-10, RANTES, and MCP-1 in lung homogenates. Conclusion These data suggest that in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to diesel exhaust could enhance virus-induced exacerbation of allergic inflammation.

Jaspers, Ilona; Sheridan, Patricia A; Zhang, Wenli; Brighton, Luisa E; Chason, Kelly D; Hua, Xiaoyang; Tilley, Stephen L

2009-01-01

73

Particle Emissions from a Small Two-Stroke Engine: Effects of Fuel, Lubricating Oil, and Exhaust Aftertreatment on Particle Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fuel and lubricating oil formulation and exhaust catalytic aftertreatment on physical and chemical characteristics of two-stroke engine exhaust particles were studied. The exhaust particles were produced with a professional chainsaw engine. The employed fuels were a 98-octane oxygenated, low-sulfur, low-aromatic reformulated gasoline, which served as a reference, and a 95-octane nonoxygenated alkylate gasoline that had no aromatics

Timo Ålander; Eero Antikainen; Taisto Raunemaa; Esa Elonen; Aimo Rautiola; Keijo Torkkell

2005-01-01

74

Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particles and oil shale particles dispersed in lecithin surfactant  

SciTech Connect

Diesel exhaust particulate material from exhaust pipe scrapings of two trucks, diluted automobile diesel exhaust particulate material collected on filters, and two oil shale ores were prepared for the Ames mutagenicity assay by dichloromethane (DCM) extraction, by dispersion into 0.85% saline, or by dispersion into dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL) emulsion in saline. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was used to detect frameshift mutagens in the samples. Samples of diesel soot gave positive mutagenic responses with both DCM extraction and DPL dispersion, with the DPL dispersion giving higher results in some cases. The results suggest that possible mutagens associated with inhaled particles may be dispersed or solubilized into the phospholipid component of pulmonary surfactant and become active in such a phase.

Wallace, W.E.; Keane, M.J.; Hill, C.A.; Xu, J.; Ong, T.M.

1987-01-01

75

Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particles and oil shale particles dispersed in lecithin surfactant.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particulate material from exhaust pipe scrapings of two trucks, diluted automobile diesel exhaust particulate material collected on filters, and two oil shale ores were prepared for the Ames mutagenicity assay by dichloromethane (DCM) extraction, by dispersion into 0.85% saline, or by dispersion into dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL) emulsion in saline. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was used to detect frameshift mutagens in the samples. Samples of diesel soot gave positive mutagenic responses with both DCM extraction and DPL dispersion, with the DPL dispersion giving higher results in some cases. The results suggest that possible mutagens associated with inhaled particles may be dispersed or solubilized into the phospholipid component of pulmonary surfactant and become active in such a phase. PMID:2437315

Wallace, W E; Keane, M J; Hill, C A; Xu, J; Ong, T M

1987-01-01

76

Particle-Sizing System for Scanning Electron Microscope Images of Solid-Propellant Combustion Exhaust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate measurement of particle size distribution of rocket motor exhausts is essential for predicting the combustion efficiency and infrared plume signature. This thesis presents an automated method for extracting particle size distribution from scannin...

Y. L. Lee

1991-01-01

77

Heavy exposure to diesel exhaust linked to lung cancer death in miners  

Cancer.gov

In a study of non-metal miners in the United States, federal government scientists reported that heavy exposure to diesel exhaust increased risk of death from lung cancer. The research, all part of the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study, was designed to evaluate cancer risk from diesel exhaust, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer, among 12,315 workers at eight non-metal mining facilities.

78

Cerium dioxide nanoparticles can interfere with the associated cellular mechanistic response to diesel exhaust exposure.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the biological response of a sophisticated in vitro 3D co-culture model of the epithelial airway barrier to a co-exposure of CeO(2) NPs and diesel exhaust using a realistic air-liquid exposure system. Independent of the individual effects of either diesel exhaust or CeO(2) NPs investigation observed that a combined exposure of CeO(2) NPs and diesel exhaust did not cause a significant cytotoxic effect or alter cellular morphology after exposure to diesel exhaust for 2h at 20?g/ml (low dose) or for 6h at 60?g/ml (high dose), and a subsequent 6h exposure to an aerosolized solution of CeO(2) NPs at the same doses. A significant loss in the reduced intracellular glutathione level was recorded, although a significant increase in the oxidative marker HMOX-1 was found after exposure to a low and high dose respectively. Both the gene expression and protein release of tumour necrosis factor-? were significantly elevated after a high dose exposure only. In conclusion, CeO(2) NPs, in combination with diesel exhaust, can significantly interfere with the cell machinery, indicating a specific, potentially adverse role of CeO(2) NPs in regards to the biological response of diesel exhaust exposure. PMID:22960666

Steiner, Sandro; Mueller, Loretta; Popovicheva, Olga B; Raemy, David O; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Mayer, Andreas; Gehr, Peter; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clift, Martin J D

2012-09-06

79

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

80

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

81

TEST OF A THEORETICAL COMMUTER EXPOSURE MODEL TO VEHICLE EXHAUST IN TRAFFIC  

EPA Science Inventory

A theoretical model of commuter exposure is presented as a box or cell model with the automobile passenger compartment representing the microenvironment exposed to CO concentrations resulting from vehicle exhaust leaks and emissions from traffic. Equations which describe this sit...

82

Inhibition of catalase activity in vitro by diesel exhaust particles  

SciTech Connect

The effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the activity of catalase, an intracellular anti-oxidant, was investigated because H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is a cytotoxic oxidant, and catalase released from alveolar cells is an important antioxidant in the epithelial lining fluid in the lung. DEP inhibited the activity of bovine liver catalase dose-dependently, to 25-30% of its original value. The inhibition of catalase by DEP was observed only in the presence of anions such as Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, or thiocyanate. Other anions, such as CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}} or SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and cations such as K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, or Fe{sup 2+}, did not affect the activity of catalase, even in the presence of DEP extract. Catalase from guinea pig alveolar cells and catalase from red blood cells were also inhibited by DEP extracts, as was catalase from bovine liver. These results suggest that DEP taken up in the lung and located on alveolar spaces might cause cell injury by inhibiting the activity of catalase in epithelial lining fluid, enhancing the toxicity of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated from cells in addition to that of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} generated by the chemical reaction of DEP with oxygen. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Mori, Yoki; Murakami, Sumika; Sagae, Toshiyuki [Health Sciences Univ. of Hokkaido (Japan)] [and others

1996-02-09

83

The diesel exhaust in miners study: I. Overview of the exposure assessment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an overview of the exposure assessment process for an epidemiologic study that investigated mortality, with a special focus on lung cancer, associated with diesel exhaust (DE) exposure among miners. Details of several components are provided in four other reports. A major challenge for this study was the development of quantitative estimates of historical exposures to DE. There

P. A. Stewart; J. B. Coble; R. Vermeulen; Patricia Schleiff; Aaron Blair; Jay Lubin; Michael Attfield; D. T. Silverman

2010-01-01

84

Studies of diesel engine particle emissions during transient operations using an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer  

SciTech Connect

Diesel engine particle emissions during transient operations, including emissions during FTP transient cycles and during active regenerations of a NOx adsorber, were studied using a fast Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS). For both fuels tested, a No. 2 certification diesel and a low sulfur diesel (BP-15), high particle concentrations and emission rates were mainly associated with heavy engine acceleration, high speed, and high torque during transient cycles. Averaged over the FTP transient cycle, the particle number concentration during tests with the certification fuel was 1.2e8/cm3, about four times the particle number concentration observed during tests using the BP-15 fuel. The effect of each engine parameter on particle emissions was studied. During tests using BP-15, the particle number emission rate was mainly controlled by the engine speed and torque, whereas for Certification fuel, the engine acceleration also had a strong effect on number emission rates. The effects of active regenerations of a diesel NOx adsorber on particle emissions were also characterized for two catalyst regeneration strategies: Delayed Extended Main (DEM) and Post 80 injection (Post80). Particle volume concentrations observed during DEM regenerations were much higher than those during Post80 regenerations, and the minimum air to fuel ratio achieved during the regenerations had little effect on particle emission for both strategies. This study provides valuable information for developing strategies that minimize the particle formation during active regenerations of NOx adsorbers.

Wang, Jian [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Domingo, Norberto [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL

2006-01-01

85

BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)--a study in underground mining.  

PubMed

Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil shale mine in Estonia were compared with surface workers. Personal exposures to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (NP) were some eight times higher underground than on the surface. Underground miners were also occupationally exposed to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as indicated by excretion of urinary metabolites of benzene and pyrene. In addition, increased O(6)-alkylguanine DNA adducts were detected in the white blood cells of underground workers, suggesting higher exposure to nitroso-compounds. However, no differences between underground and surface workers were observed in the levels of other bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results. PMID:12191893

Scheepers, P T J; Coggon, D; Knudsen, L E; Anzion, R; Autrup, H; Bogovski, S; Bos, R P; Dahmann, D; Farmer, P; Martin, E A; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Neumann, H G; Poole, J; Schmidt-Ott, A; Seiler, F; Volf, J; Zwirner-Baier, I

2002-08-01

86

Control of Nitrous Oxide Exposure in Dental Operatories Using Local Exhaust Ventilation  

PubMed Central

An experimental portable local exhaust ventilation system was installed in three dental operatories where nitrous oxide was used routinely. Standard methods of exhaust ventilation design used in industry to control exposures to toxic airborne substances were applied to the dental operatory setting. The concentration of nitrous oxide in the dentists' breathing zones was measured before and after installation to determine the efficiency of the system in reducing occupational exposures. Results indicate that placement of the exhaust opening and exhaust air flow rate are important in determining the degree of control achieved. After the system had been installed in one operatory, peak exposures declined from over 600 parts per million (ppm) to less than 70 ppm: the time-weighted average exposure was below the NIOSH recommended level of 25 ppm. A permanently installed local exhaust ventilation system modeled after the portable one used in this pilot study may be feasible for most operatories and should not interfere with dental procedures. The results suggest that nitrous oxide exposures can be greatly reduced if dental operatories are equipped with local exhaust ventilation. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 7

Jacobs, David E.; Middendorf, Paul J.

1986-01-01

87

Biological Responses to Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEPs) Depend on the Physicochemical Properties of the DEPs  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are the main components of ambient particulate materials, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-PAHs, heavy metals, and gaseous materials. Many epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies have shown that ambient particles, including DEPs, are associated with respiratory disorders, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and lung cancer. However, the relationship between the biological response to DEPs and their chemical composition remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the physicochemical properties of DEPs before toxicological studies, and then administered a single intratracheal instillation of DEPs to mice. The mice were then killed 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after DEP exposure to observe the biological responses induced by DEPs over time. Our findings suggest that DEPs engulfed into cells induced a Th2-type inflammatory response followed by DNA damage, whereas DEPs not engulfed into cells induced a Th1-type inflammatory response. Further, the physicochemical properties, including surface charge, particle size, and chemical composition, of DEPs play a crucial role in determining the biological responses to DEPs. Consequently, we suggest that the biological response to DEPs depend on cell-particle interaction and the physicochemical properties of the particles.

Park, Eun-Jung; Roh, Jinkyu; Kang, Min-Sung; Kim, Soo Nam; Kim, Younghun; Choi, Sangdun

2011-01-01

88

Penetration of diesel exhaust particles through commercially available dust half masks.  

PubMed

Half masks are certified by the competent, national institutions--National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the respective European national institutions applying common European regulations. However, certification testing is conducted with particles of NaCl, paraffin oil, or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and at the constant flow rate, whereas particles commonly found in workplaces may differ in size, shape, and morphology from these particles. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate filtration efficiency of commercially available filtering facepiece half masks under the condition of exposure to diesel fumes. In this study, we focused on the particulate phase [diesel exhaust particles (DEP)] of three (petroleum diesel, ecodiesel, and biodiesel) diesel fuel combustion types. Two types of European standard-certified half masks, FFP2 and FFP - Filtering Facepiece, and three types of popular diesel fuels were tested. The study showed that the filtration efficiencies for each examined half mask and for each of diesel exhaust fumes were lower than the minimum filtration efficiency required for the standard test aerosols by the European standards. For FFP2 and FFP3 particulate half masks, standard minimum filtration efficiency is 94 and 99%, respectively, whereas 84-89% of mass of DEP from various fuels were filtered by the tested FFP2 and only 75-86% by the FFP3. The study indicated that DEP is more penetrating for these filters than the standard salt or paraffin oil test aerosols. The study also showed that the most penetrating DEP are probably in the 30- to 300-nm size range, regardless of the fuel type and the half-mask model. Finally, the pressure drops across both half masks during the 80-min tests remained below an acceptable maximum of breathing resistance-regardless of the fuel types. The respiratory system, during 40-min test exposures, may be exposed to 12-16mg of DEP if a FFP2 or FFP3 particulate half mask is used. To conclude, commercially available half masks may not ensure a sufficient level of protection of the respiratory tract against diesel exhaust fumes. PMID:23104683

Penconek, Agata; Dr??yk, Paulina; Moskal, Arkadiusz

2012-10-26

89

Exposure to Inhalable, Respirable, and Ultrafine Particles in Welding Fume  

PubMed Central

This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m?3 for inhalable and 1.29 mg m?3 for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m?3). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements exposure to welding fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging.

Pesch, Beate

2012-01-01

90

Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of fuel composition in two diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of diesel fuel composition on mutagenicity of exhaust particle associated organic compounds has been investigated using nine fuels varying in aromatic content and distillation properties. The tests were conducted with Oldsmobile Delta-88 and Peugot 504 diesel cars operated according to the EPA Federal Test Procedure. The particulate exhaust from each test was collected on a filter, extracted in

C. R. Clark; T. R. Henderson; R. E. Royer; A. L. Brooks; R. O. McClellan; W. F. Marshall; T. M. Naman

2009-01-01

91

Diesel exhaust particles induce endothelial dysfunction in apoE{sup -/-} mice  

SciTech Connect

Background: Particulate air pollution can aggravate cardiovascular disease by mechanisms suggested to involve translocation of particles to the bloodstream and impairment of endothelial function, possibly dependent on present atherosclerosis. Aim: We investigated the effects of exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in vivo and ex vivo on vasomotor functions in aorta from apoE{sup -/-} mice with slight atherosclerosis and from normal apoE{sup +/+} mice. Methods: DEP 0, 0.5 or 5 mg/kg bodyweight in saline was administered i.p. The mice were sacrificed 1 h later and aorta ring segments were mounted on wire myographs. Segments from unexposed mice were also incubated ex vivo with 0, 10 and 100 {mu}g DEP/ml before measurement of vasomotor functions. Results: Exposure to 0.5 mg/kg DEP in vivo caused a decrease in the endothelium-dependent acetylcholine elicited vasorelaxation in apoE{sup -/-} mice, whereas the response was enhanced in apoE{sup +/+} mice. No significant change was observed after administration of 5 mg/kg DEP. In vivo DEP exposure did not affect constriction induced by K{sup +} or phenylephrine. In vitro exposure to 100 {mu}g DEP/ml enhanced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and attenuated phenylephrine-induced constriction. Vasodilation induced by sodium nitroprusside was not affected by any DEP exposure. Conclusion: Exposure to DEP has acute effect on vascular functions. Endothelial dysfunction possibly due to decreased NO production as suggested by decreased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation and unchanged sodium nitroprusside response can be induced by DEP in vivo only in vessels of mice with some atherosclerosis.

Hansen, Christian S. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 5, Building 5B, 2nd Floor, 1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sheykhzade, Majid [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Denmark); Moller, Peter [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 5, Building 5B, 2nd Floor, 1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Folkmann, Janne Kjaergaard [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 5, Building 5B, 2nd Floor, 1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Amtorp, Ole [Department of Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jonassen, Thomas [Department of Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Loft, Steffen [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 5, Building 5B, 2nd Floor, 1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark)]. E-mail: s.loft@pubhealth.ku.dk

2007-02-15

92

Mutagenicity of Diesel Exhaust Particles from an Engine with Differing Exhaust After Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatments on the mutagenicity of diesel particulate matter (DPM) collected directly in an underground mine environment. A number of after-treatment devices are currently used on diesel engines in mines, but it is critical to determine whether reductions in DPM concentrations result in a corresponding decrease in

X.-C. Shi; M. J. Keane; T. Ong; S. Q. Li; A. B. Bugarski

2010-01-01

93

Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed exhaust emission data have been taken from a Cummins N-14 single cylinder research engine in which the oil consumption was varied by different engine modifications. Low sulfur fuel was used, and oil consumption was varied by modifying the intake ...

J. Stetter J. Ghandhi N. Forster D. Foster

2003-01-01

94

RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLAMMOGENIC AND MUTAGENIC EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES: A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust particulate matter (DEP) is a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant derived from mobile and stationary diesel fuel combustion. Exposure to DEP is associated with carcinogenic and immunotoxic effects in humans and experimental animals. At the cellular level, these heal...

95

Reduction in (pro-)inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust treated with a non-catalyzed diesel particle filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly stringent regulation of particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles has led to the widespread use of diesel particle filters (DPFs), the effect of which on exhaust toxicity is so far poorly understood. We exposed a cellular model of the human respiratory epithelium at the air-liquid interface to non-catalyzed wall-flow DPF-filtered diesel exhaust and compared the resulting biological responses to the ones observed upon exposure to unfiltered exhaust. Filtered diesel exhaust acted highly oxidative, even though to a lesser extent than unfiltered exhaust (quantification of total reduced glutathione), and both exhaust types triggered comparable responses to oxidative stress (measurement of heme-oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD1) gene expression). Further, diesel exhaust filtration significantly reduced pro-inflammatory responses (measurement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression and quantification of the secretion of their gene products TNF-? and IL-8). Because inflammatory processes are central to the onset of adverse respiratory health effects caused by diesel exhaust inhalation, our results imply that DPFs may make a valuable contribution to the detoxification of diesel vehicle emissions. The induction of significant oxidative stress by filtered diesel exhaust however, also implies that the non-particulate exhaust components also need to be considered for lung cell risk assessment.

Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Müller, Loretta L.; Heeb, Norbert V.; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

96

Diesel exhaust but not ozone increases fraction of exhaled nitric oxide in a randomized controlled experimental exposure study of healthy human subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a promising non-invasive index of airway inflammation that may be used to assess respiratory effects of air pollution. We evaluated FENO as a measure of airway inflammation after controlled exposure to diesel exhaust or ozone. Methods Healthy volunteers were exposed to either diesel exhaust (particle concentration 300 ?g/m3) and filtered air for one hour, or ozone (300 ppb) and filtered air for 75 minutes. FENO was measured in duplicate at expiratory flow rates of 10, 50, 100 and 270 mL/s before, 6 and 24 hours after each exposure. Results Exposure to diesel exhaust increased FENO at 6 hours compared with air at expiratory flow rates of 10 mL/s (p?=?0.01) and at 50 mL/s (p?=?0.011), but FENO did not differ significantly at higher flow rates. Increases in FENO following diesel exhaust were attenuated at 24 hours. Ozone did not affect FENO at any flow rate or time point. Conclusions Exposure to diesel exhaust, but not ozone, increased FENO concentrations in healthy subjects. Differences in the induction of airway inflammation may explain divergent responses to diesel exhaust and ozone, with implications for the use of FENO as an index of exposure to air pollution.

2013-01-01

97

Lung retention and metabolic fate of inhaled benzo(a)pyrene associated with diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of compounds considered to have human carcinogenic potential and have been found associated with many respirable, environmental particle pollutants. The effect of these ultrafine, insoluble, carrier particles on the lung retention and metabolic fate of inhaled PAHs was investigated with a radiolabeled model PAH, [3H]benzo(a)pyrene (3H-BaP). Fischer-344 rats were exposed (30 min) by nose-only inhalation to 3H-BaP adsorbed (approximately 0.1% by mass) onto diesel engine exhaust particles. These aerosols were generated in a dynamic aerosol generation system by vapor condensation methods. The total mass concentration of these aerosols was 4-6 micrograms/liter of air with a mass median diameter of 0.14 micron. Lung clearance of the inhaled particle-associated 3H radioactivity occurred in two phases. The initially rapid clearance of this inhaled radiolabel had a half-time of less than 1 hr. The second, long-term component of lung clearance had a half-time of 18 +/- 2 days and represented 50 +/- 2% of the 3H radioactivity that had initially deposited in lungs. In contrast, previous inhalation studies with a pure 3H-BaP aerosol showed that greater than 99% of the 3H radioactivity deposited in lungs was cleared within 2 hr after exposure (Sun et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 65, 231-244, 1982). By HPLC analysis, the majority of diesel soot-associated 3H radioactivity retained in lungs was BaP (65-76%) with smaller amounts of BaP-phenol (13-17%) and BaP-quinone (5-18%) metabolites also being detected. No other metabolites of BaP were detected in lungs of exposed rats. Tissue distribution and excretion patterns of 3H radioactivity were qualitatively similar to previous inhalation studies with 3H-BaP coated Ga2O3 aerosols (Sun et al., 1982). These findings suggest that inhaled PAHs may be retained in lungs for a greater period of time when these compounds are associated with diesel engine exhaust particles. In addition, these compounds retained in lungs can be metabolized in lungs. These results may have significant implications for the health risks that may be involved with human exposure to particle-associated organic pollutants. PMID:6200954

Sun, J D; Wolff, R K; Kanapilly, G M; McClellan, R O

1984-03-30

98

Aircraft exhaust particle measurement with multiple ground-based lidar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Aerosol Research Branch conducted an aircraft exhaust particle experiment involving tow ground based lidar systems and NASA's B737-100, T39 and OV10 aircraft. The experiment took place at LaRC in February and March of 1996. During flight, exhaust particles exiting the two wing-mounted engines of the B737 become quickly entrained into the aircraft's wingtip vortices.

Robert J. Decoursey; Lamont R. Poole; Chris A. Hostetler; Geoffrey S. Kent; Gary Hansen

1997-01-01

99

Divergent electrocardiographic responses to whole and particle-free diesel exhaust inhalation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to traffic-related fine particulate matter (PM)(2.5). Although inroads have been made in understanding the mechanisms of PM-related health effects, DE's complex mixture of PM, gases, and volatile organics makes it difficult to determine how the constituents contribute to DE's effects. We hypothesized that exposure to particle-filtered DE (fDE; gases alone) will elicit less cardiac effects than whole DE (wDE; particles plus gases). In addition, we hypothesized that spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats will be more sensitive to the electrocardiographic effects of DE exposure than Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; background strain with normal blood pressure). SH and WKY rats, implanted with telemeters to monitor electrocardiogram and heart rate (HR), were exposed once for 4 h to 150 ?g/m(3) or 500 ?g/m(3) of wDE (gases plus PM) or fDE (gases alone) DE, or filtered air. Exposure to fDE, but not wDE, caused immediate electrocardiographic alterations in cardiac repolarization (ST depression) and atrioventricular conduction block (PR prolongation) as well as bradycardia in SH rats. Exposure to wDE, but not fDE, caused postexposure ST depression and increased sensitivity to the pulmonary C fiber agonist capsaicin in SH rats. The only notable effect of DE exposure in WKY rats was a decrease in HR. Taken together, hypertension may predispose to the potential cardiac effects of DE and components of DE may have divergent effects with some eliciting immediate irritant effects (e.g., gases), whereas others (e.g., PM) trigger delayed effects potentially via separate mechanisms. PMID:22052608

Lamb, Christina M; Hazari, Mehdi S; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P; Krantz, Q Todd; King, Charly; Winsett, Darrell W; Cascio, Wayne E; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K

2011-11-02

100

Health effects of real-world exposure to diesel exhaust in persons with asthma.  

PubMed

Many people, including people with asthma, experience short-term exposure to diesel exhaust (DE*) during daily activities. The health effects of such exposures, however, remain poorly understood. The present study utilized a real-world setting to examine whether short-term DE exposure would (1) worsen asthma symptoms, (2) augment airway inflammation, or (3) increase oxidative stress burdens. The study also examined exposure-response relations for several DE components and the contribution of background asthma severity to individuals' respiratory responses to DE exposure. Sixty people participated in the study; 31 had mild asthma and 29 had moderate asthma. Each participant completed an exposure and a control session. During the exposure session, participants walked for 2 hours along a heavily trafficked city street where motor vehicle access was restricted to buses and official taxicabs. These vehicles were powered by diesel engines. During the control session, participants walked for the same duration and at the same speed in a public park where motor vehicle traffic was prohibited. The concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), NO2, ultrafine particles (UFP), and particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) during exposure sessions were, on average, 4.8, 4.0, 3.4, and 2.0 times higher, respectively, than during control sessions. Increases in asthma symptom score and in the daily use of asthma reliever medication within the 7-day measurement period after exposure were not significant. Some effects on lung function were statistically significant. Compared with control sessions, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) was reduced 3.0% to 4.1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC) was reduced 2.8% to 3.7% in the 5 hours immediately after the exposure sessions. Analyses of biomarkers showed that the exposure sessions led to a significant reduction in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH and to significant increases in induced sputum neutrophils and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The changes in lung function indices (FEV1, FVC, and forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC [FEF25-75]) were most consistently associated with UFP and EC exposures, whereas the changes in EBC pH were most consistently associated with NO2 exposure. In addition, NO2 had a significant effect on bronchial reactivity and on the amount of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in induced sputum; it also modified the UFP effect on EBC pH and the EC effect on exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). However, our findings cannot be taken as demonstrating a causal association with any measured pollutant, because the measured pollutant concentrations may simply represent the entire roadside diesel-traffic exposure that comprises not only the pollutants measured in this study but also other pollutants in the complex DE mixture and resuspended coarse particles from road dust, engine debris, and tire debris. The effects of exposure appeared to be larger in the more severe asthmatic group for most outcomes measured. In conclusion, short-term exposure to urban roadside diesel traffic led to consistent and significant reductions in lung function, accompanied by airway acidification and neutrophilic inflammation. Our findings help to explain the epidemiologic evidence on diesel traffic health effects in persons with asthma. PMID:19449765

Zhang, Junfeng Jim; McCreanor, James E; Cullinan, Paul; Chung, Kian Fan; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Han, In-Kyu; Järup, Lars; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

2009-02-01

101

The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition  

SciTech Connect

Detailed exhaust emission data have been taken from a Cummins N-14 single cylinder research engine in which the oil consumption was varied by different engine modifications. Low sulfur fuel was used, and oil consumption was varied by modifying the intake valve stem seals, the exhaust valve stem seals, the oil control ring and combinations of these modifications. Detailed measurements of exhaust gas particle size distributions and chemical composition were made for the various oil consumption configurations for a range of engine loads and speeds. The particulate mass was measured with TEOM and traditional gravimetric filter methods. Filter data for EC/OC, sulfates and trace metals have been taken and analyzed. The trace metals in the particulate mass serve as the basis for assessing oil consumption at the different operating conditions. The data indicate that the oil consumption for the steady state testing done here was approximately an order of magnitude below oil consumption values cited in the literature. We did measure changes in the details of the chemical composition of the particulate for the different engine operating conditions, but it did not correlate with changes in the oil consumption. Furthermore, the data indicate that the particle size distribution is not strongly impacted by low level oil consumption variations observed in this work.

Stetter, J; Forster, N; Ghandhi, J; Foster, D

2003-08-24

102

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.  

PubMed

Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO?), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 ?g m?³ at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 ?g m?³ at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 ?g m?³ across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 ?g m?³, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 ?g m?³ by facility, an ?2- to 3-fold difference. The average NO and NO? levels underground ranged from 0.20 to 1.49 parts per million (ppm) and from 0.10 to 0.60 ppm, respectively, and were ?10 times higher than levels on the surface, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.11 ppm and from 0.01 to 0.06 ppm, respectively. The ROC, NO, and NO? concentrations underground were correlated with the REC levels (r = 0.62, 0.71, and 0.62, respectively). A total of 80% of the underground jobs were assigned an exposure estimate based on measurements taken for the specific job title or for other jobs with a similar percentage of time spent in the major underground work areas. The average REC exposure levels by facility were from 15 to 64 times higher underground than on the surface. The large contrast in exposure levels measured underground versus on the surface, along with the differences between the mining facilities and between underground jobs within the facilities resulted in a wide distribution in the exposure estimates for evaluation of exposure-response relationships in the epidemiologic analyses. PMID:20876232

Coble, Joseph B; Stewart, Patricia A; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T; Attfield, Michael

2010-09-27

103

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure Monitoring Surveys and Development of Exposure Groups  

PubMed Central

Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 ?g m?3 at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 ?g m?3 at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 ?g m?3 across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 ?g m?3, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 ?g m?3 by facility, an ?2- to 3-fold difference. The average NO and NO2 levels underground ranged from 0.20 to 1.49 parts per million (ppm) and from 0.10 to 0.60 ppm, respectively, and were ?10 times higher than levels on the surface, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.11 ppm and from 0.01 to 0.06 ppm, respectively. The ROC, NO, and NO2 concentrations underground were correlated with the REC levels (r = 0.62, 0.71, and 0.62, respectively). A total of 80% of the underground jobs were assigned an exposure estimate based on measurements taken for the specific job title or for other jobs with a similar percentage of time spent in the major underground work areas. The average REC exposure levels by facility were from 15 to 64 times higher underground than on the surface. The large contrast in exposure levels measured underground versus on the surface, along with the differences between the mining facilities and between underground jobs within the facilities resulted in a wide distribution in the exposure estimates for evaluation of exposure–response relationships in the epidemiologic analyses.

Coble, Joseph B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T.; Attfield, Michael

2010-01-01

104

Design and testing of Electrostatic Aerosol in Vitro Exposure System (EAVES): an alternative exposure system for particles.  

PubMed

Conventional in vitro exposure methods for cultured human lung cells rely on prior suspension of particles in a liquid medium; these have limitations for exposure intensity and may modify the particle composition. Here electrostatic precipitation was used as an effective method for such in vitro exposures. An obsolete electrostatic aerosol sampler was modified to provide a viable environment within the deposition field for human lung cells grown on membranous support. Particle deposition and particle-induced toxicological effects for a variety of particles including standardized polystyrene latex spheres (PSL) and diesel exhaust emission particle mixtures are reported. The Electrostatic Aerosol in Vitro Exposure System (EAVES) efficiently deposited particles from an air stream directly onto cells. Cells exposed to the electric field of the EAVES in clean air or in the presence of charged PSL spheres exhibited minimal cytotoxicity, and their release of inflammatory cytokines was indistinguishable from that of the controls. For the responses tested here, there are no significant adverse effects caused neither by the electric field alone nor by the mildly charged particles. Exposure to diesel exhaust emissions using the EAVES system induced a threefold increase in cytokines and cytotoxicity as compared to the control. Taken together, these data show that the EAVES can be used to expose human lung cells directly to particles without prior collection in media, thereby providing an efficient and effective alternative to the more conventional particle in vitro exposure methods. PMID:18800273

de Bruijne, K; Ebersviller, S; Sexton, K G; Lake, S; Leith, D; Goodman, R; Jetters, J; Walters, G W; Doyle-Eisele, M; Woodside, R; Jeffries, H E; Jaspers, I

2009-02-01

105

Sublimation of ice particles from rocket exhausts in the upper atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of sublimation of ice particles from a rocket exhaust in the upper atmosphere is examined. Heating by solar radiation and losses of energy by means thermal radiation and sublimation are taken into account in the thermal balance of the ice particles. The time dependences of size and temperature of the ice particles are obtained. An estimation of water vapor concentration around the rocket trajectory is made. The process of sublimation of the rocket exhaust ice particles may be important for the interpretation of optical phenomena in the upper atmosphere connected with rocket launches and for propagation of disturbances at a large distance from the rocket.

Platov, Y. V.; Kosch, M. J.

2003-12-01

106

THE DUAL EFFECT OF THE PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON THE ALTERATION OF PULMONARY IMMUNE\\/INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES AND METABOLIC ENZYMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is an environmental and occupational health concern. This review examines the cellular actions of the organic and the particulate components of DEP in the development of various lung diseases. Both the organic and the particulate components cause oxidant lung injury. The particulate component is known to induce alveolar epithelial damage, alter thiol levels in

Jane Y. C. Ma; Joseph K. H. Ma

2002-01-01

107

Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of

Neil A Buzzard; Nigel N Clark; Steven E Guffey

2009-01-01

108

Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particles from an engine with differing exhaust after treatments.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatments on the mutagenicity of diesel particulate matter (DPM) collected directly in an underground mine environment. A number of after-treatment devices are currently used on diesel engines in mines, but it is critical to determine whether reductions in DPM concentrations result in a corresponding decrease in adverse health effects. An eddy-current dynamometer was used to operate naturally aspirated mechanically controlled engine at several steady-state conditions. The samples were collected when the engine was equipped with a standard muffler, a diesel oxidation catalytic converter, two types of uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter systems, and three types of disposable diesel particulate filter elements. Bacterial gene mutation activity of DPM was tested on acetone extracts using the Ames Salmonella assay. The results indicated strong correlation between engine operating conditions and mutagenic activity of DPM. When the engine was fitted with muffler, the mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected from light-load, but not heavy-load operating conditions. When the engine was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst, the samples did not exhibit mutagenic activity for any of four engine operating conditions. Mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected when the engine was retrofitted with three types of disposable filters and sintered metal diesel particulate filter and operated at light load conditions. However, those filtration systems substantially reduced the concentration-normalized mutagenic activity from the levels observed for the muffler. PMID:20711933

Shi, X-C; Keane, M J; Ong, T; Li, S-Q; Bugarski, A B

2010-01-01

109

Biophysical Assessment of Single Cell Cytotoxicity: Diesel Exhaust Particle-Treated Human Aortic Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a major source of traffic-related air pollution, has become a serious health concern due to its adverse influences on human health including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. To elucidate the relationship between biophysical properties (cell topography, cytoskeleton organizations, and cell mechanics) and functions of endothelial cells exposed to DEPs, atomic force microscope (AFM) was applied to analyze the toxic effects of DEPs on a model cell line from human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were also applied to further explore DEP-induced cytotoxicity in HAECs. Results revealed that DEPs could negatively impair cell viability and alter membrane nanostructures and cytoskeleton components in a dosage- and a time-dependent manner; and analyses suggested that DEPs-induced hyperpolarization in HAECs appeared in a time-dependent manner, implying DEP treatment would lead to vasodilation, which could be supported by down-regulation of cell biophysical properties (e.g., cell elasticity). These findings are consistent with the conclusion that DEP exposure triggers important biochemical and biophysical changes that would negatively impact the pathological development of cardiovascular diseases. For example, DEP intervention would be one cause of vasodilation, which will expand understanding of biophysical aspects associated with DEP cytotoxicity in HAECs.

Wu, Yangzhe; Yu, Tian; Gilbertson, Timothy A.; Zhou, Anhong; Xu, Hao; Nguyen, Kytai Truong

2012-01-01

110

Comparative evaluation of the effects of short-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust on rat lung and brain.  

PubMed

Combustion-derived nanoparticles, such as diesel engine exhaust particles, have been implicated in the adverse health effects of particulate air pollution. Recent studies suggest that inhaled nanoparticles may also reach and/or affect the brain. The aim of our study was to comparatively evaluate the effects of short-term diesel engine exhaust (DEE) inhalation exposure on rat brain and lung. After 4 or 18 h recovery from a 2 h nose-only exposure to DEE (1.9 mg/m(3)), the mRNA expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) were investigated in lung as well as in pituitary gland, hypothalamus, olfactory bulb, olfactory tubercles, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. HO-1 protein expression in brain was investigated by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. In the lung, 4 h post-exposure, CYP1A1 and iNOS mRNA levels were increased, while 18 h post-exposure HO-1 was increased. In the pituitary at 4 h post-exposure, both CYP1A1 and HO-1 were increased; HO-1 was also elevated in the olfactory tuberculum at this time point. At 18 h post-exposure, increased expression of HO-1 and COX-2 was observed in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, respectively. Induction of HO-1 protein was not observed after DEE exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis of inflammatory cell influx, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 indicated that the mRNA expression changes occurred in the absence of lung inflammation. Our study shows that a single, short-term inhalation exposure to DEE triggers region-specific gene expression changes in rat brain to an extent comparable to those observed in the lung. PMID:20467864

van Berlo, Damien; Albrecht, Catrin; Knaapen, Ad M; Cassee, Flemming R; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Kooter, Ingeborg M; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Bidmon, Hans-Jürgen; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Krutmann, Jean; Schins, Roel P F

2010-05-14

111

Driver Exposure to Combustion Particles in the U.S. Trucking Industry  

PubMed Central

A large study of combustion particle exposures for drivers of diesel-powered trucks was conducted in collaboration with an epidemiologic study of lung cancer outcomes for workers in the trucking industry. Three components of diesel exhaust combustion particles (PM2.5, elemental carbon, and organic carbon) were measured inside the driver cabs of diesel-powered trucks from 36 different trucking terminals across the United States between 2001 and 2005. In-cab particle exposures for drivers assigned to both short and long distance trips were observed, as well as information on the smoking status of the driver, truck characteristics such as age and model, and weather conditions during the sampling session. This article summarizes these findings and describes the relationship between exhaust particles and various determinants of exposure. The results suggest that in-cab particle exposures are positively related to smoking, ambient particle concentrations, truck age, and open windows, with other significant modifying factors such as weather. This study represents the largest and most comprehensive exposure assessment of drivers in the trucking industry, encompassing a 4-year period of observations on diesel and exhaust particle exposures nationwide. The results are relevant not only to the occupational group of truck drivers being examined but also to the general population that live, commute, or work within proximity to diesel-fueled traffic or trucking terminals.

Davis, M.E.; Smith, T.J.; Laden, F.; Hart, J.E.; Blicharz, A.P.; Reaser, P.; Garshick, E.

2008-01-01

112

Driver exposure to combustion particles in the U.S. Trucking industry.  

PubMed

A large study of combustion particle exposures for drivers of diesel-powered trucks was conducted in collaboration with an epidemiologic study of lung cancer outcomes for workers in the trucking industry. Three components of diesel exhaust combustion particles (PM(2.5), elemental carbon, and organic carbon) were measured inside the driver cabs of diesel-powered trucks from 36 different trucking terminals across the United States between 2001 and 2005. In-cab particle exposures for drivers assigned to both short and long distance trips were observed, as well as information on the smoking status of the driver, truck characteristics such as age and model, and weather conditions during the sampling session. This article summarizes these findings and describes the relationship between exhaust particles and various determinants of exposure. The results suggest that in-cab particle exposures are positively related to smoking, ambient particle concentrations, truck age, and open windows, with other significant modifying factors such as weather. This study represents the largest and most comprehensive exposure assessment of drivers in the trucking industry, encompassing a 4-year period of observations on diesel and exhaust particle exposures nationwide. The results are relevant not only to the occupational group of truck drivers being examined but also to the general population that live, commute, or work within proximity to diesel-fueled traffic or trucking terminals. PMID:17885912

Davis, M E; Smith, T J; Laden, F; Hart, J E; Blicharz, A P; Reaser, P; Garshick, E

2007-11-01

113

Diesel exhaust particles modulate vascular endothelial cell permeability: Implication of ZO-1 Expression  

PubMed Central

Exposure to air pollutants increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Recent toxicity studies revealed that ultra fine particles (UFP, dp<100–200 nm), the major portion of particulate matter (PM) by numbers in the atmosphere, induced atherosclerosis. In this study, we posited that variations in chemical composition in diesel exhausted particles (DEP) regulated endothelial cell permeability to a different extent. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to well-characterized DEP (dp<100 nm) emitted from a diesel engine in either idling mode (DEP1) or in urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) (DEP2). Horse Radish Peroxidase-Streptavidin activity assay showed that DEP2 increased endothelial permeability to a greater extent than DEP1 (Control=0.077± 0.005, DEP1=0.175±0.003, DEP2=0.265±0.006, n=3, p<0.01). DEP2 also down-regulated tight junction protein, Zonular Occludin-1 (ZO-1), to a greater extent compared to DEP1. LDH and caspase-3 activities revealed that DEP-mediated increase in permeability was not due to direct cytotoxicity, and DEP-mediated ZO-1 down-regulation was not due to a decrease in ZO-1 mRNA. Hence, our findings suggest that DEP1 versus DEP2 differentially influenced the extent of endothelial permeability at the post-translational level. This increase in endothelium permeability is implicated in inflammatory cell transmigration into subendothelial layers with relevance to the initiation of atherosclerosis.

Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffrey; Yu, Fei; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

2010-01-01

114

Diesel exhaust particles modulate vascular endothelial cell permeability: implication of ZO-1 expression.  

PubMed

Exposure to air pollutants increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Recent toxicity studies revealed that ultra-fine particles (UFP, d(p)<100-200 nm), the major portion of particulate matter (PM) by numbers in the atmosphere, induced atherosclerosis. In this study, we posited that variations in chemical composition in diesel exhausted particles (DEP) regulated endothelial cell permeability to a different extent. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to well-characterized DEP (d(p)<100 nm) emitted from a diesel engine in either idling mode (DEP1) or in urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) (DEP2). Horse Radish Peroxidase-Streptavidin activity assay showed that DEP2 increased endothelial permeability to a greater extent than DEP1 (control=0.077+/-0.005, DEP1=0.175+/-0.003, DEP2=0.265+/-0.006, n=3, p<0.01). DEP2 also down-regulated tight junction protein, Zonular Occludin-1 (ZO-1), to a greater extent compared to DEP1. LDH and caspase-3 activities revealed that DEP-mediated increase in permeability was not due to direct cytotoxicity, and DEP-mediated ZO-1 down-regulation was not due to a decrease in ZO-1 mRNA. Hence, our findings suggest that DEP1 vs. DEP2 differentially influenced the extent of endothelial permeability at the post-translational level. This increase in endothelium permeability is implicated in inflammatory cell transmigration into subendothelial layers with relevance to the initiation of atherosclerosis. PMID:20576493

Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffrey; Yu, Fei; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

2010-05-31

115

Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust in the Ames \\/ Salmonella assay using a direct exposure method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential mutagenic activity of diesel engine exhaust in the Ames\\/Salmonella assay using a direct aerosol exposure system. So, TA 98 and TA 100 strains, with or without added S9 mix, were exposed to diesel emissions after varying degrees of filtration. Variants of these two strains, deficient in nitroreductase (TA 98NR and

Mamadou Fall; Hasnaà Haddouk; Stéphane Loriot; Amadou Diouf; Frédéric Dionnet; Roy Forster; Jean-Paul Morin

2011-01-01

116

In-vehicle Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Vehicular Exhaust: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside

M. El-Fadel; L. Abi-Esber

2009-01-01

117

EFFECT OF SHORT TERM DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE ON NASAL RESPONSES TO INFLUENZA IN ALLERGIC RHINITICS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: Recently published data suggest that diesel exhaust (DE) has special impact on allergic inflammation, suppressing Th1 and augmenting Th2 responses to allergen via oxidant stress effects on airway cells. Exposures to particulate air pollutants including DE are also a...

118

Exposure to diesel exhaust induces changes in EEG in human volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate matter and nanoparticles have been shown to translocate to the brain, and potentially influence the central nervous system. No data are available whether this may lead to functional changes in the brain. METHODS: We exposed 10 human volunteers to dilute diesel exhaust (DE, 300 ?g\\/m3) as a model for ambient PM exposure and filtered air for one

Björn Crüts; Ludo van Etten; Håkan Törnqvist; Anders Blomberg; Thomas Sandström; Nicholas L Mills; Paul JA Borm

2008-01-01

119

EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES THE SEVERITY OF AN ONGOING INFLUENZA INFECTION.  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have shown that air pollutants including diesel exhaust (DE), alter host defense responses to decrease resistance to respiratory infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on the severity of an ongoing influenza infection in ...

120

Ultrafine particle size distributions measured in aircraft exhaust plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast-response measurements of particle size distributions were made for the first time in the near-field plume of a Boeing 737-300 aircraft burning fuel with fuel sulfur (S) contents (FSCs) of 56 and 2.6 ppmm, as well as in fresh and dissipating contrails from the same aircraft, using nine particle counters operating in parallel. Nonsoot particles were present in high concentrations,

Charles A. Brock; Franz Schröder; Bernd Kärcher; Andreas Petzold; Reinhold Busen; Markus Fiebig

2000-01-01

121

Lung clearance of inhaled particles after exposure to carbon black generated from a resuspension system.  

PubMed

A system to resuspend carbon black particles for providing submicron aerosols for inhalation exposure studies has been developed. The effect of continuous exposure to carbonaceous material (as a surrogate for the carbonaceous particles in diesel exhaust) on the pulmonary clearance of inhaled diesel tracer particles was studied in male Fischer 344 rats. Submicron carbon black particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 0.22 micron and a size distribution similar to that of exhaust particles from a GM 5.7-liter diesel engine were successfully generated and administered to test animals at a nominal concentration of 6 mg/m3 for 20 hr/day, 7 days/week, for periods lasting 1 to 11 weeks. Immediately after the carbon black exposure, test animals were administered 14C-tagged diesel particles for 45 min in a nose-only chamber. The pulmonary retention of inhaled radioactive tracer particles was determined at preselected time intervals. Based upon the data collected up to 1 year postexposure, prolonged exposure to carbon black particles exhibits a similar inhibitory effect on pulmonary clearance as does prolonged exposure to diesel exhaust with a comparable particulate dose. This observation indicates that the excessive accumulation of carbonaceous material may be the predominant factor affecting lung clearance. PMID:2440669

Lee, P S; Gorski, R A; Hering, W E; Chan, T L

1987-08-01

122

Characterisation of diesel exhaust particle number and size distributions using mini-dilution tunnel and ejector–diluter measurement techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the characteristics of diesel exhaust particle number and size distributions. These were measured for different engine load conditions from 10% to 100% of full engine load at a maximum torque of constant speed, using mini-dilution tunnel and sampling (MDTS) and ejector–diluter and sampling (EDS) systems. The exhaust particles sampled were analysed using a scanning mobility particle sizer

C. P. Wong; T. L. Chan; C. W. Leung

2003-01-01

123

Effects of particle exhaust on neutral compression ratios in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, neutral particles in DIII-D are studied via their compression in the plenum and via particle exhaust. The compression of gas in the plena is examined in terms of the magnetic field configuration and wall conditions. DIII-D compression ratios are observed in the range from 1 to {ge} 1,000. Particle control ultimately depends on the exhaust of neutrals via plenum or wall pumping. Wall pumping or outgassing is calculated by means of a detailed particle balance throughout individual discharges, and its effect on particle control is discussed. It is demonstrated that particle control through wall conditioning leads to lower normalized densities. A two-region model shows that the gas compression ratio (C{sub div} = divertor plenum neutral pressure/torus neutral pressure) can be interpreted in relation to gas flows in the torus and divertor including the pumping speed of the plenum cryopumps, plasma pumping, and the pumping or outgassing of the walls.

Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Greenfield, C.M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1998-08-01

124

Lactate and pH evaluation in exhausted humans with prolonged TASER X26 exposure or continued exertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveSafety concerns about TASER® Conducted Electrical Weapon (CEW) use and media reports of deaths after exposure have been expressed. CEWs are sometimes used on exhausted subjects to end resistance. The alternative is often a continued struggle. It is unclear if CEW use is metabolically different than allowing a continued struggle. We sought to determine if CEW exposure on exhausted humans

Jeffrey D. Ho; Donald M. Dawes; Jon B. Cole; Julie C. Hottinger; Kenneth G. Overton; James R. Miner

2009-01-01

125

Airway antioxidant and inflammatory responses to diesel exhaust exposure in healthy humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary cells exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) particles in vitro respond in a hierarchical fashion with protective antioxidant responses predominating at low doses and inflammation and injury only occurring at higher concentrations. In the present study, the authors examined whether similar responses occurred in vivo, specifically whether antioxidants were upregulated following a low-dose DE challenge and investigated how these responses

A. F. Behndig; I. S. Mudway; J. L. Brown; N. Stenfors; R. Helleday; S. T. Duggan; S. J. Wilson; C. Boman; F. R. Cassee; A. J. Frew; F. J. Kelly; T. Sandstrom; A. Blomberg

2006-01-01

126

DECREASED PRODUCTION OF SURFACTANT PROTEINS AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE INCREASES SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), termed collectins, enhance the opsonization of foreign particles and pathogens by phagocytic cells. Inhaled pollutants such as diesel exhaust (DE) have a possible role in suppressing the production of surfactant proteins whic...

127

Markers of exposure to diesel exhaust in railroad workers. Research report  

SciTech Connect

The study measured the exposure of railroad workers to diesel exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke by using personal air samples taken over two consecutive work shifts. Urine samples were collected from 87 subjects at the end of the study work shifts and were analyzed for markers of cigarette smoking (nicotine, cotinine) and for mutagenicity, using a sensitive microsuspension assay (Salmonella strain TA98 with or without S9 enzyme). Among smokers, a dose-response relationship was observed between urinary mutagenicity and the number of cigarettes smoked on the study day. After cigarette smoking was controlled for, no association was present between diesel exhaust exposure and urinary mutagenicity. Among nonsmokers, detectable concentrations of mutagens were present in the urine, but no association could be found between markers of diesel exhaust or environmental tobacco smoke and urinary mutagenicity. It was concluded that the mutagens associated with the levels of exposure to diesel exhaust or environmental tobacco smoke in the study were undetectable in the urine.

Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y.; Hammond, S.K.; Smith, T.J.

1990-01-01

128

New exposure system to evaluate the toxicity of (scooter) exhaust emissions in lung cells in vitro.  

PubMed

A constantly growing number of scooters produce an increasing amount of potentially harmful emissions. Due to their engine technology, two-stroke scooters emit huge amounts of adverse substances, which can induce adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. The aim of this study was to develop a system to expose a characterized triple cell coculture model of the human epithelial airway barrier, to freshly produced and characterized total scooter exhaust emissions. In exposure chambers, cell cultures were exposed for 1 and 2 h to 1:100 diluted exhaust emissions and in the reference chamber to filtered ambient air, both controlled at 5% CO(2), 85% relative humidity, and 37 degrees C. The postexposure time was 0-24 h. Cytotoxicity, used to validate the exposure system, was significantly increased in exposed cell cultures after 8 h postexposure time. (Pro-) inflammatory chemo- and cytokine concentrations in the medium of exposed cells were significantly higher at the 12 h postexposure time point. It was shown that the described exposure system (with 2 h exposure duration, 8 and 24 h postexposure time, dilution of 1:100, flow of 2 L/min as optimal exposure conditions) can be used to evaluate the toxic potential of total exhaust emissions. PMID:20230045

Müller, Loretta; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas C R; Gehr, Peter; Burtscher, Heinz; Morin, Jean-Paul; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

2010-04-01

129

Suppression of the NF-?B pathway by diesel exhaust particles impairs human antimycobacterial immunity.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic exposure to air pollution increases susceptibility to respiratory infections, including tuberculosis in humans. A possible link between particulate air pollutant exposure and antimycobacterial immunity has not been explored in human primary immune cells. We hypothesized that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major component of urban fine particulate matter, suppresses antimycobacterial human immune effector cell functions by modulating TLR-signaling pathways and NF-?B activation. We show that DEP and H37Ra, an avirulent laboratory strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, were both taken up by the same peripheral human blood monocytes. To examine the effects of DEP on M. tuberculosis-induced production of cytokines, PBMC were stimulated with DEP and M. tuberculosis or purified protein derivative. The production of M. tuberculosis and purified protein derivative-induced IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 was reduced in a DEP dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 remained unchanged. Furthermore, DEP stimulation prior to M. tuberculosis infection altered the expression of TLR3, -4, -7, and -10 mRNAs and of a subset of M. tuberculosis-induced host genes including inhibition of expression of many NF-?B (e.g., CSF3, IFNG, IFNA, IFNB, IL1A, IL6, and NFKBIA) and IFN regulatory factor (e.g., IFNG, IFNA1, IFNB1, and CXCL10) pathway target genes. We propose that DEP downregulate M. tuberculosis-induced host gene expression via MyD88-dependent (IL6, IL1A, and PTGS2) as well as MyD88-independent (IFNA, IFNB) pathways. Prestimulation of PBMC with DEP suppressed the expression of proinflammatory mediators upon M. tuberculosis infection, inducing a hyporesponsive cellular state. Therefore, DEP alters crucial components of antimycobacterial host immune responses, providing a possible mechanism by which air pollutants alter antimicrobial immunity. PMID:22345648

Sarkar, Srijata; Song, Youngmia; Sarkar, Somak; Kipen, Howard M; Laumbach, Robert J; Zhang, Junfeng; Strickland, Pamela A Ohman; Gardner, Carol R; Schwander, Stephan

2012-02-15

130

Particle exhaust characteristics of an in-vessel cryopump used in DIII-D diverted plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A particle exhaust scheme, employing a cryocondensation pump in the outboard divertor region under a baffle, has been installed and operated in the DIII-D tokamak. The cryopump provides toroidally symmetric pumping at a rate of 30000 to 40000 l/s for D{sub 2} in the pressure range of 1 to 4 mTorr. Pressures in the 2 to 3 mTorr range are routinely observed under the baffle. This translates to particle exhaust throughputs of nearly 100 Torr l/s. The exhaust throughput could be controlled by selecting the position of the plasma strike region with respect to the opening to the baffle chamber. The pump has been used quite effectively for plasma density control. 19 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Menon, M.M.; Hogan, J.T.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-07-01

131

Health effects of subchronic exposure to environmental levels of diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust is a public health concern and contributor to both ambient and occupational air pollution. As part of a general health assessment of multiple anthropogenic source emissions conducted by the National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC), a series of health assays was conducted on rats and mice exposed to environmentally relevant levels of diesel exhaust. This article summarizes the study design and exposures, and reports findings on several general indicators of toxicity and carcinogenic potential. Diesel exhaust was generated from a commonly used 2000 model 5.9-L, 6-cylinder turbo diesel engine operated on a variable-load heavy-duty test cycle burning national average certification fuel. Animals were exposed to clean air (control) or four dilutions of whole emissions based on particulate matter concentration (30, 100, 300, and 1000 microg/m(3)). Male and female F344 rats and A/J mice were exposed by whole-body inhalation 6 h/day, 7 days/wk, for either 1 wk or 6 mo. Exposures were characterized in detail. Effects of exposure on clinical observations, body and organ weights, serum chemistry, hematology, histopathology, bronchoalveolar lavage, and serum clotting factors were mild. Significant exposure-related effects occurring in both male and female rats included decreases in serum cholesterol and clotting Factor VII and slight increases in serum gamma-glutamyl transferase. Several other responses met screening criteria for significant exposure effects but were not consistent between genders or exposure times and were not corroborated by related parameters. Carcinogenic potential as determined by micronucleated reticulocyte counts and proliferation of adenomas in A/J mice were unaffected by 6 mo of exposure. Parallel studies demonstrated effects on cardiac function and resistance to viral infection; however, the results reported here show few and only modest health hazards from subchronic or shorter exposures to realistic concentrations of contemporary diesel emissions. PMID:15204765

Reed, M D; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Seagrave, J C; Seilkop, S K; Mauderly, J L

2004-04-01

132

Eugenol attenuates pulmonary damage induced by diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Environmentally relevant doses of inhaled diesel particles elicit pulmonary inflammation and impair lung mechanics. Eugenol, a methoxyphenol component of clove oil, presents in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Our aim was to examine a possible protective role of eugenol against lung injuries induced by diesel particles. Male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups. Mice received saline (10 ?l in; CTRL group) or 15 ?g of diesel particles DEP (15 ?g in; DIE and DEUG groups). After 1 h, mice received saline (10 ?l; CTRL and DIE groups) or eugenol (164 mg/kg; EUG and DEUG group) by gavage. Twenty-four hours after gavage, pulmonary resistive (?P1), viscoelastic (?P2) and total (?Ptot) pressures, static elastance (Est), and viscoelastic component of elastance (?E) were measured. We also determined the fraction areas of normal and collapsed alveoli, amounts of polymorpho- (PMN) and mononuclear cells in lung parenchyma, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Est, ?P2, ?Ptot, and ?E were significantly higher in the DIE than in the other groups. DIE also showed significantly more PMN, airspace collapse, and apoptosis than the other groups. However, no beneficial effect on lipid peroxidation was observed in DEUG group. In conclusion, eugenol avoided changes in lung mechanics, pulmonary inflammation, and alveolar collapse elicited by diesel particles. It attenuated the activation signal of caspase-3 by DEP, but apoptosis evaluated by TUNEL was avoided. Finally, it could not avoid oxidative stress as indicated by malondialdehyde. PMID:22194320

Zin, Walter A; Silva, Ana G L S; Magalhães, Clarissa B; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Riva, Douglas R; Lima, Crystianne C; Leal-Cardoso, Jose H; Takiya, Christina M; Valença, Samuel S; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Faffe, Débora S

2011-12-22

133

PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY IN THE EXHAUST OF SMALL SOLID ROCKET MOTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combusting environments where high velocities are encountered present a very challenging environment for the application of the Particle image Velocimetry (PIV) method. The physical features of the flow - background irradiance from burning gases, dense smoke, compressibility effects, inability to control seeding densities and inherent CCD limitations - make the measurement process difficult in the exhaust plume of solid rocket

B. J. BALAKUMAR; R. J. ADRIAN

134

Enhancement of allergic inflammation by the interaction between diesel exhaust particles and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that fossil fuel combustion products act as adjuvants in the immune system and may lead to enhancement of allergic inflammation. Through this mechanism, particulate air pollutants may be an important contributor to the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In this communication we focus on the role of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) in

Andre E. Nel; David Diaz-Sanchez; David Ng; Timothy Hiura; Andrew Saxon

1998-01-01

135

BIOASSAY-DIRECTED FRACTIONAL AND SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY OF AUTOMOBILE AND FORKLIFT DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Many pulmonary toxicity studies of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have used an automobile-generated sample (A-DEP) whose mutagenicity has not been reported. In contrast, rnany inutagenicity studies of DEP have used a forklift-generated sample (SRM ...

136

EFFECT OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN NASAL LAVAGE CELLS AND DNA ADDUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall aim of this study is to determine (using a nasal challenge model) the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on nasal responses including induction of inflammation, immune changes and DNA damage. We are also examining how treatment of DEP with ozone (oz-DEP)modify ...

137

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE COMPOSITION AND THE METHOD OF SONICATION INFLUENCE THE ADJUVANCY EFFECT AND TARC PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous reports have shown diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can act as an immunological adjuvant in asthma. Recent interest has focused on thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) as an important modulator of this effect. This study evaluated the adjuvancy effects of thr...

138

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN A MURINE MUCOSAL SENSITIZATION MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies in humans and animals have shown diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can act as an immunological adjuvant to enhance the development of allergic lung disease and this effect is influenced by the chemical composition of the DEP. The adjuvancy of NIST SRM 2975 (NDEP) generated...

139

Noninvasive detection of hydroxyl radical generation in lung by diesel exhaust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce pulmonary tumors, asthma-like symptoms, and the like in experimental animals. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is suggested in the injuries induced by DEP, though the generation of ROS has not been proven. The present study provided the first direct evidence of OH generation in the lungs of living mice after intratracheal instillation of

Jin-Yi Han; Keizo Takeshita; Hideo Utsumi

2001-01-01

140

Synergistic Production of Lung Free Radicals by Diesel Exhaust Particles and Endotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested the hypothesis that free radicals were involved in the pathogenesis of lung injury caused by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Intratra- cheal coinstillation of DEP and LPS in rat lungs resulted in synergistic enhancement of free radical generation in the lungs. The radical metabolites were characterized as lipid-derived by electron spin resonance (ESR).

Toyoko Arimoto; Maria B. Kadiiska; Keizo Sato; Jean Corbett; Ronald P. Mason

2004-01-01

141

Low Energy Particle Observations Associated With a Solar Wind Reconnection Exhaust on July 22, 1999  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine particle signatures associated with a solar wind reconnection exhaust on July 22, 1999 using experiments on the Wind satellite. The passage of the exhaust past the satellite took only 40 seconds and thus it was essential that the 3D-P instrument on Wind was operating in a `burst mode' that provides full three- dimensional particle distributions. In this work we analyze the characteristics of thermal electrons (EESA-L) and protons (PESA-L) before, during and after the exhaust. EESA-L and PESA-L measurements were first converted into units of distribution function. Then the data was transferred to the solar wind rest frame and corrected for the spacecraft potential. The observations show a proton beam coming from the direction of the X-line and increases in the electron fluxes at the exhaust boundaries. These are likely associated with the ion-acoustic and Langmuir waves identified at the exhaust boundary. Despite of the large rotation in the magnetic field direction the solar wind heat flux remained parallel to the magnetic field throughout the event implying no change in the IMF polarity.

Huttunen, K. E.; Bale, S. D.; Salem, C.

2007-05-01

142

Absence of energetic particle effects associated with magnetic reconnection exhausts in the solar wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined energetic particle data (>38 keV for electrons and >47 keV for protons) obtained in intervals surrounding a set of 7 encounters with Petschek-type reconnection exhausts in the solar wind by the Advanced Composition Explorer. We find no evidence for any substantial increases in energetic particle intensity associated with those encounters. This indicates that local reconnection is not a significant source of energetic particles in the solar wind and suggests the possibility that reconnection itself may not be a particularly effective process for populating other space and astrophysical environments with energetic particles.

Gosling, J. T.; Skoug, R. M.; Haggerty, D. K.; McComas, D. J.

2005-07-01

143

An efficient venturi scrubber system to remove submicron particles in exhaust gas.  

PubMed

An efficient venturi scrubber system making use of heterogeneous nucleation and condensational growth of particles was designed and tested to remove fine particles from the exhaust of a local scrubber where residual SiH4 gas was abated and lots of fine SiO2 particles were generated. In front of the venturi scrubber, normal-temperature fine-water mist mixes with high-temperature exhaust gas to cool it to the saturation temperature, allowing submicron particles to grow into micron sizes. The grown particles are then scrubbed efficiently in the venturi scrubber. Test results show that the present venturi scrubber system is effective for removing submicron particles. For SiO2 particles greater than 0.1microm, the removal efficiency is greater than 80-90%, depending on particle concentration. The corresponding pressure drop is relatively low. For example, the pressure drop of the venturi scrubber is approximately 15.4 +/- 2.4 cm H2O when the liquid-to-gas ratio is 1.50 L/m3. A theoretical calculation has been conducted to simulate particle growth process and the removal efficiency of the venturi scrubber. The theoretical results agree with the experimental data reasonably well when SiO2 particle diameter is greater than 0.1 microm. PMID:15828674

Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wang, Yu-Min; Hunag, Cheng-Hsiung; Li, Shou-Nan; Wu, Zong-Xue; Wang, Feng-Cai

2005-03-01

144

Pulmonary function responses in cats following long-term exposure to diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

Long-term inhalation studies were carried out to evaluate the toxic pulmonary effects of diesel engine emissions. Cats were exposed for over 2 years to whole, diluted diesel exhaust at levels expected to produce frank toxic effects. During the first 61 weeks of exposure, the cats received exhaust having a particulate level of 6 mg m-3. This was followed by a doubling of the exposure level from weeks 62 to 124 resulting in particulate levels of 12 mg m-3. No definitive pattern of pulmonary function response was observed following 61 weeks; however, a classic pattern of restrictive lung disease was found at 124 weeks. The significantly reduced lung volumes and diffusing capacity were indicative of a pulmonary interstitial response which was later verified by histopathology. PMID:2414357

Moorman, W J; Clark, J C; Pepelko, W E; Mattox, J

1985-10-01

145

Chronic Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum Is Associated with Phenotypic Evidence of B and T Cell Exhaustion  

PubMed Central

Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops slowly, requiring several years of repeated exposure to be effective. The cellular and molecular factors underlying this observation are only partially understood. Recent studies suggest that chronic Plasmodium falciparum exposure may induce functional exhaustion of lymphocytes, potentially impeding optimal control of infection. However, it remains unclear whether the “atypical” memory B cells (MBCs) and “exhausted” CD4 T cells described in humans exposed to endemic malaria are driven by P. falciparum per se or by other factors commonly associated with malaria, such as coinfections and malnutrition. To address this critical question we took advantage of a “natural” experiment near Kilifi, Kenya, and compared profiles of B and T cells of children living in a rural community where P. falciparum transmission is ongoing to the profiles of age-matched children living under similar conditions in a nearby community where P. falciparum transmission ceased 5 y prior to this study. We found that continuous exposure to P. falciparum drives the expansion of atypical MBCs. Persistent P. falciparum exposure was associated with an increased frequency of CD4 T cells expressing phenotypic markers of exhaustion, both programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) alone and PD-1 in combination with lymphocyte-activation gene-3 (LAG-3). This expansion of PD-1–expressing and PD-1/LAG-3–coexpressing CD4 T cells was largely confined to CD45RA+ CD4 T cells. The percentage of CD45RA+CD27+ CD4 T cells coexpressing PD-1 and LAG-3 was inversely correlated with frequencies of activated and classical MBCs. Taken together, these results suggest that P. falciparum infection per se drives the expansion of atypical MBCs and phenotypically exhausted CD4 T cells, which has been reported in other endemic areas.

Illingworth, Joseph; Butler, Noah S.; Roetynck, Sophie; Mwacharo, Jedida; Pierce, Susan K.; Bejon, Philip; Crompton, Peter D.; Marsh, Kevin

2013-01-01

146

The Effect of Local Exhaust Ventilation Controls on Dust Exposures During Concrete Cutting and Grinding Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effectiveness of commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities. Work activities were performed by union-sponsored apprentices and included tuck-point grinding, surface grinding, paver block and brick cutting (masonry saw), and concrete block cutting (hand-held saw). In a randomized block design, implemented under

Gerry A. Croteau; Steven E. Guffey; Mary Ellen Flanagan; Noah S. Seixas

2002-01-01

147

Heavy exposure to diesel exhaust linked to lung cancer death in miners  

Cancer.gov

In a study of non-metal miners in the United States, federal government scientists reported that heavy exposure to diesel exhaust increased risk of death from lung cancer. The study was carried out by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, both parts of HHS.

148

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the

Rebecca J Sheesley; James J Schauer; Eric Garshick; Francine Laden; Thomas J Smith; Andrew P Blicharz; Jeffrey T Deminter

2009-01-01

149

Examination of cytokines and metals in exhaled breath condensate and lung lavage fluids after diesel exhaust exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology studies link human exposure to ambient air pollution with the development and exacerbation of cardiopulmonary disease. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant source of ambient air pollution, and thus may contribute to adverse pulmonary health effects. Previous human re...

150

Diesel exhaust particles induce the over expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in alvelor machrophage and failed to induce apoptosis through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10), including diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been reported to induce lung injury and exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alveolar macrophages play a major role in the lung's response to inhaled particles and...

151

Chemical and physical properties of ultrafine diesel exhaust particles sampled downstream of a catalytic trap.  

PubMed

The chemical and physical properties of exhaust particles produced by a Caterpillar 3176 C-12 heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a catalytic trap (CRT) are reported. The engine was operated at 600 Nm and 1500 rpm, using fuels containing 15 and 49 ppm sulfur. A two-stage dilution tunnel designed to simulate the reactions that occur when hot combustion products mix with cooler atmospheric air was used. Particle size distributions were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and nano-scanning mobility particle sizer (nano SMPS); a nanomicro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (nano MOUDI) collected size-resolved samples for gravimetric and chemical analysis. A nanometer tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano TDMA) was used to measure the volatility and hygroscopicity of 4-15 nm particles. These measurements confirm that the particles consisted primarily of sulfates. PMID:16999131

Grose, Melissa; Sakurai, Hiromu; Savstrom, Jake; Stolzenburg, Mark R; Watts, Winthrop F; Morgan, Christopher G; Murray, Ian P; Twigg, Martyn V; Kittelson, David B; McMurry, Peter H

2006-09-01

152

The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed exhaust emission data have been taken from a Cummins N-14 single cylinder research engine in which the oil consumption was varied by different engine modifications. Low sulfur fuel was used, and oil consumption was varied by modifying the intake valve stem seals, the exhaust valve stem seals, the oil control ring and combinations of these modifications. Detailed measurements of

J Stetter; N Forster; J Ghandhi; D Foster

2003-01-01

153

The efficacy of local exhaust ventilation for controlling dust exposures during concrete surface grinding.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effectiveness of a commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete grinding activities. Surface grinding was conducted at six commercial building construction sites in Seattle, WA, by cement masons. Time-integrated filter samples and direct reading respirable dust concentrations were collected using a cyclone in line with a direct reading respirable dust monitor. Personal exposure levels were determined with and without LEV, one sample directly after the other. A total of 28 paired samples were collected in which three different dust collection shroud configurations were tested. Data obtained with a direct reading respirable dust monitor were adjusted to remove non-work task-associated dust exposures and was subsequently used to calculate the exposure reduction achieved. The application of LEV resulted in a reduction in the overall geometric mean respirable dust exposure from 4.5 to 0.14 mg/m(3), a mean exposure reduction of 92%. Despite the effective control of dust generated during surface grinding, 22 and 26% of the samples collected while LEV was being used were greater than the 8 h time-weighted average permissible exposure limit (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and threshold limit value (American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) for respirable crystalline silica, respectively. PMID:15298850

Croteau, Gerry A; Flanagan, Mary Ellen; Camp, Janice E; Seixas, Noah S

2004-08-06

154

MUTAGENICITY OF DIESEL-EXHAUST PARTICLE EXTRACTS COLLECTED UNDER SMOG-CHAMBER CONDITIONS USING THE 'SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM' TEST SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to detect the effect that different environmental conditions have upon diesel-exhaust organics. In this study, diesel-exhaust was injected into the Calspan smog chamber under different conditions, and the resulting particles were collected upon Pallflex gla...

155

Modeling Particle Exposure in US Trucking Terminals  

PubMed Central

Multi-tiered sampling approaches are common in environmental and occupational exposure assessment, where exposures for a given individual are often modeled based on simultaneous measurements taken at multiple indoor and outdoor sites. The monitoring data from such studies is hierarchical by design, imposing a complex covariance structure that must be accounted for in order to obtain unbiased estimates of exposure. Statistical methods such as structural equation modeling (SEM) represent a useful alternative to simple linear regression in these cases, providing simultaneous and unbiased predictions of each level of exposure based on a set of covariates specific to the exposure setting. We test the SEM approach using data from a large exposure assessment of diesel and combustion particles in the US trucking industry. The exposure assessment includes data from 36 different trucking terminals across the United States sampled between 2001 and 2005, measuring PM2.5 and its elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) components, by personal monitoring, and sampling at two indoor work locations and an outdoor “background” location. Using the SEM method, we predict: 1) personal exposures as a function of work related exposure and smoking status; 2) work related exposure as a function of terminal characteristics, indoor ventilation, job location, and background exposure conditions; and 3) background exposure conditions as a function of weather, nearby source pollution, and other regional differences across terminal sites. The primary advantage of SEMs in this setting is the ability to simultaneously predict exposures at each of the sampling locations, while accounting for the complex covariance structure among the measurements and descriptive variables. The statistically significant results and high R2 values observed from the trucking industry application supports the broader use of this approach in exposure assessment modeling.

Davis, ME; Smith, TJ; Laden, F; Hart, JE; Ryan, LM; Garshick, E

2007-01-01

156

Influence of Soot Particles and Electrode Forms of Barrier Discharge on Treatment of Diesel Exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of soot particles on treatment of diesel exhaust using barrier discharge has been experimentally investigated. A diesel fuel and air diffusion flame burner system is used for simulation of diesel exhaust gas. It produces particulate, NOx and HC emissions similar to diesel exhaust. Barrier discharge plasma reactor consists of double coaxial cylinders. Different design electrode forms have been tested, with results indicating the importance of testing devices with soot. 1500 ppmC1 of C3H6 were added to burner gas to increase HC concentration. NO conversion efficiency increases with increasing specific energy density in both uniform field reactor and non-uniform field reactor. In the case of non-uniform field reactor, NO conversion efficiency is low, ; current waveform of discharge varies with soot, surface discharge occurs outside reactor due to soot fouling and barrier discharge decrease to resulting in relaxation of the electric field. In the case of uniform field reactor, NO conversion efficiency is high, and the conversion improves drastically with high HC concentration. Concentration of C3H6 decreases with increasing specific energy density. Soot deposits on the surface of reactor and the presence of soot in gas decrease the NO conversions. Therefore, it is suggested that soot in diesel exhaust gas influenced both the occurrence of discharge and the plasma reaction as for conversion of NO to NO2.

Ehara, Yoshiyasu; Ito, Tairo; Hoard, John W.

157

Test of a theoretical commuter exposure model to vehicle exhaust in traffic  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model of commuter exposure is presented as a box or cell model with the automobile passenger compartment representing the microenvironment exposed to CO concentrations resulting from vehicle exhaust leaks and emissions from traffic. Equations that describe this situation are developed and discussed. The model is evaluated according to predictive power, explanatory power when compared to a more-parsimonious model, and the influence of initial CO concentrations inside a vehicle's passenger compartment. The model is shown to have relatively high predictive power and excellent explanatory power when compared to the more-conservative model.

Flachsbart, P.; Ah Yo, C.

1986-04-01

158

Particle exhaust and recycling control by active divertor pumping in EAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EAST tokamak was built to carry out long pulse plasma discharges up to 1000 s. To facilitate this, an active divertor pumping (ADP) system was installed under the lower outer (LO) divertor target plate (DTP) for plasma density control and impurity exhaust. The ADP system was used in the first EAST divertor physics campaign, and achieved very promising results on neutral gas particle exhaust and recycling control. The system can improve divertor screening for neutrals and reduce the ratio H/(H + D), and appears to be effective at controlling the main chamber hydrogenic recycling. The influence of ADP on lower inner (LI) and LO DTP is observed. Furthermore, we attempt to find an optimized strike point to mitigate DTP heat load during ADP operation. This article reports on these interesting results, in particular, for the lower single null (LSN) plasma configuration.

Hu, Q. S.; Li, J. G.; Li, Q.; Wang, X. M.; Hu, J. S.; Wang, J.; Yan, N.; Zhang, L.; Fu, J.; Wu, J.; Zhou, H. S.; Luo, G. N.; Guo, H. Y.

2011-08-01

159

Bioreactivity of carbon black and diesel exhaust particles to primary Clara and type II epithelial cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To begin to elucidate the mechanisms of particle toxicity to the lung, the bioreactivity of four carbon black (CB) and diesel exhaust particles ((DEPs), a surrogate for particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter < 10 microns (PM10), were examined with primary cultures of Clara and type II epithelial cells. METHODS: The particles were extensively characterised by surface chemistry, size, and

S. A. Murphy; K. A. BeruBe; R. J. Richards

1999-01-01

160

Particle exhaust of helium plasmas with actively cooled outboard pump limiter on Tore Supra  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting tokamak Tore Supra was designed for long-pulse (30-s) high input power operation. Here observations on the particle-handling characteristics of the actively cooled modular outboard pump limiter (OPL) are presented for helium discharges. The important experimental result was that a modest pumping speed (1 m{sup 3}/s) of the OPL turbomolecular pump (TMP) provided background helium exhaust. This result came about due to a well-conditioned vessel wall with helium discharges that caused no wall outgasing. The particle accountability in these helium discharges was excellent, and the well-conditioned wall did not play a significant role in the particle balance. The helium density control, 25% density drop with OPL exhaust efficiency of {approximately}1%, was possible with TMP although this may not be the case with reactive gases such as deuterium. The observed quadratic increase of the OPL neutral pressure with helium density was consistent with an improvement of the particle control with increasing plasma density.

Uckan, T.; Mioduszewski, P.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Loarer, T.; Chatelier, M.; Guilhem, D. [Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lutz, T.; Nygren, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mahdavi, M.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1995-08-01

161

Aircraft exhaust particle measurement with multiple ground-based lidar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Aerosol Research Branch conducted an aircraft exhaust particle experiment involving tow ground based lidar systems and NASA's B737-100, T39 and OV10 aircraft. The experiment took place at LaRC in February and March of 1996. During flight, exhaust particles exiting the two wing-mounted engines of the B737 become quickly entrained into the aircraft's wingtip vortices. The LaRC lidar systems were used to measure the distribution and optical properties of these exhaust particles as the B737 overflew the lidar facility. Two lidar systems, located in a common facility, were utilized for this experiment. One system was a fixed zenith- viewing lidar with a 48-inch receiver and a 2J transmitter, and the second was a scanning lidar with a 14-inch receiver and a 600 mJ transmitter. Two measurement geometries were employed for the experiment. In the first geometry, the B737 flew upwind of the lidar facility and perpendicular to the ambient wind. The second design had the aircraft fly directly over the facility, and parallel to the ambient wind.Under either scenario data were acquired at 20 and 30 Hertz, by the fixed zenith and scanning system respectively, as the ambient wind carried the vortex pair across the field of view of the lidars. The two supporting aircraft were used to collect in-situ particle data and to measure atmospheric turbulence, respectively. In this paper all aspects of the experiment will be discussed including the lidar systems, the geometry of the experiment, and the aircraft used. Also, selected data obtained during the experiment will be presented.

Decoursey, Robert J.; Poole, Lamont R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Kent, Geoffrey S.; Hansen, Gary

1997-08-01

162

Exposure to diesel exhaust induces changes in EEG in human volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Ambient particulate matter and nanoparticles have been shown to translocate to the brain, and potentially influence the central nervous system. No data are available whether this may lead to functional changes in the brain. Methods We exposed 10 human volunteers to dilute diesel exhaust (DE, 300 ?g/m3) as a model for ambient PM exposure and filtered air for one hour using a double blind randomized crossover design. Brain activity was monitored during and for one hour following each exposure using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) at 8 different sites on the scalp. The frequency spectrum of the EEG signals was used to calculate the median power frequency (MPF) and specific frequency bands of the QEEG. Results Our data demonstrate a significant increase in MPF in response to DE in the frontal cortex within 30 min into exposure. The increase in MPF is primarily caused by an increase in fast wave activity (?2) and continues to rise during the 1 hour post-exposure interval. Conclusion This study is the first to show a functional effect of DE exposure in the human brain, indicating a general cortical stress response. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect is mediated by the nanoparticles in DE and to define the precise pathways involved.

Cruts, Bjorn; van Etten, Ludo; Tornqvist, Hakan; Blomberg, Anders; Sandstrom, Thomas; Mills, Nicholas L; Borm, Paul JA

2008-01-01

163

Sickness Response Symptoms among Healthy Volunteers after Controlled Exposures to Diesel Exhaust and Psychological Stress  

PubMed Central

Background: Interactions between acute exposures to environmental chemical contaminants and psychological stress may be important in situations where they are likely to co-occur, ranging in intensity from daily urban living to participation in war. Modification of symptomatic responses by stress may play a role in medically unexplained symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposures. Objectives: We hypothesized that the combination of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and acute psychological stress would cause sickness responses in healthy volunteers. Moreover, these responses would be greater in individuals with self-reported prior chemical odor intolerance. Methods: One hundred adult subjects underwent 1-hr exposures to diluted DE and clean air control. Half of the subjects performed a public-speaking stressor task during the exposures. Subjects completed questionnaires to determine their Chemical Odor Intolerance Index score. Plasma cortisol, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and the severity of 35 symptoms were measured at time points before and after the exposures. Results: Subjects exposed to DE demonstrated small but statistically significant increases in severity for several symptom categories, including sickness response and upper respiratory, central nervous system, and total symptoms. The psychological stressor did not increase symptom severity independently or via interaction with DE. Subjects with prior self-reported chemical intolerance had more severe sickness response symptoms from DE. Conclusions: These results suggest that exposure to DE can cause acute sickness response symptoms and that these symptoms are also associated with increased levels of self-reported chemical intolerance. The results did not confirm our hypothesis that an acute stressor would increase sickness response symptom severity during the exposure.

Kipen, Howard M.; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Lin; Lioy, Paul J.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Gong, Jing; Kusnecov, Alexander; Fiedler, Nancy

2011-01-01

164

Lung tissue responses and sites of particle retention differ between rats and cynomolgus monkeys exposed chronically to diesel exhaust and coal dust.  

PubMed

Several chronic inhalation bioassays of poorly soluble, nonfibrous particles have resulted in an increased incidence of lung tumors in rats, no increase in lung tumors in Syrian hamsters, and inconsistent results in mice. These results have raised concerns that rats may be more prone than other species to develop persistent pulmonary epithelial hyperplasia, metaplasia, and tumors in response to the accumulation of inhaled particles. In addition, particle deposition and the rate of particle clearance from the lung differ between rats and primates, as does the anatomy of the centriacinar region. For these reasons, the usefulness of pulmonary carcinogenicity data from rats exposed to high concentrations of particles for quantitatively predicting lung cancer risk in humans exposed to much lower environmental or occupational concentrations has been questioned. The purpose of this investigation was to directly compare the anatomical patterns of particle retention and the lung tissue responses of rats and monkeys exposed chronically to high occupational concentrations of poorly soluble particles. Lung sections from male cynomolgus monkeys and F344 rats exposed 7 hr/day, 5 days/week for 24 months to filtered ambient air, diesel exhaust (2 mg soot/m3), coal dust (2 mg respirable particulate material/m3), or diesel exhaust and coal dust combined (1 mg soot and 1 mg respirable coal dust/m3) were examined histopathologically. The relative volume density of particulate material and the volume percentage of the total particulate material in defined pulmonary compartments were determined morphometrically to assess the relative amount and the anatomic distribution of retained particulate material. In all groups, relatively more particulate material was retained in monkey than in rat lungs. After adjustment for differences between rat and monkey controls, the coal dust- and the combined diesel exhaust and coal dust-exposed monkeys retained more particulate material than the coal dust- and the combined diesel exhaust and coal dust-exposed rats, respectively. There was no significant difference in the relative amount of retained particulate material between diesel exhaust-exposed monkeys and rats. Within each species, the sites of particle retention and lung tissue responses were the same for diesel soot, coal dust, and the combined material. Rats retained a greater portion of the particulate material in lumens of alveolar ducts and alveoli than monkeys. Conversely, monkeys retained a greater portion of the particulate material in the interstitium than rats. Rats, but not monkeys, had significant alveolar epithelial hyperplastic, inflammatory, and septal fibrotic responses to the retained particles. These results suggest that intrapulmonary particle retention patterns and tissue reactions in rats may not be predictive of retention patterns and tissue responses in primates exposed to poorly soluble particles at concentrations representing high occupational exposures. PMID:9193921

Nikula, K J; Avila, K J; Griffith, W C; Mauderly, J L

1997-05-01

165

Differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-1 in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-1 activation results in the upregulation of genes involved in promoting inflammation in airway epithelial cells, a principal target of inhaled DEP. IL-8 is a proinflammatory chemokine expressed by the airway epithelium in response to environmental pollutants. The mechanism by which DEP exposure induces IL-8 expression is not well understood. In the current study, we sought to determine whether DEP with varying organic content induces IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells, as well as, to develop a method to rapidly evaluate the upstream mechanism(s) by which DEP induces IL-8 expression. Exposure to DEP with varying organic content differentially induced IL-8 expression and IL-8 promoter activity human airway epithelial cells. Mutational analysis of the IL-8 promoter was also performed using recombinant human cell lines expressing reporters linked to the mutated promoters. Treatment with a low organic-containing DEP stimulated IL-8 expression by a mechanism that is predominantly NFkB-dependent. In contrast, exposure to high organic-containing DEP induced IL-8 expression independently of NFkB through a mechanism that requires AP-1 activity. Our study reveals that exposure to DEP of varying organic content induces proinflammatory gene expression through multiple specific mechanisms in human airway epithelial cells. The approaches used in the present study demonstrate the utility of a promoter-reporter assay ensemble for identifying transcriptional pathways activated by pollutant exposure. PMID:19914270

Tal, Tamara L; Simmons, Steven O; Silbajoris, Robert; Dailey, Lisa; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Ramabhadran, Ram; Linak, William; Reed, William; Bromberg, Philip A; Samet, James M

2009-11-13

166

Removal properties of diesel exhaust particles by a dielectric barrier discharge reactor.  

PubMed

The removal properties of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) were investigated using an engine exhaust particle size spectrometer (EEPS), field emission-type scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). DEP were treated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor installed in the tail pipe of a diesel engine, and a model DBD reactor fed with DEP in the mixture of N(2) and O(2). When changing the experimental parameters of both the plasma conditions and the engine load conditions, we obtained characteristic information of DEP treated with plasma discharges from the particle diameter and the composition. In evaluating the model DBD reactor, it became clear that there were two types of plasma processes (reactions with active oxygen species to yield CO(2) and reactions with active nitrogen species to yield nitrogen containing compounds). Moreover, from the result of a TOF-SIMS analysis, the characteristic secondary ions, such as C(2)H(6)N(+), C(4)H(12)N(+), and C(10)H(20)N(2)(+), were strongly detected from the DEP surfaces during the plasma discharges. This indicates that the nitrogen contained hydrocarbons were generated by plasma reactions. PMID:18270418

Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Takeuchi, Naomi; Madokoro, Kazuhiko; Fushimi, Chihiro; Yao, Shuiliang; Fujioka, Yuichi; Nihei, Yoshimasa

2008-02-01

167

ROLE OF NEPRILYSIN IN AIRWAY INFLAMMATION INDUCED BY DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The investigators intend to evaluate airway inflammatory responses and expression of the enzyme neprilysin in response to diesel exhaust particle exposure. Dr. Wong and colleagues anticipate that their research will reveal that components of diesel exhaust decrease neprilys...

168

Nitrogen dioxide: no influence on allergic sensitization in an intranasal mouse model with ovalbumin and diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

The role of traffic-related air pollution in the development of allergic diseases is still unclear. We therefore investigated if NO?, an important constituent of traffic-related air pollution, promotes allergic sensitization to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). We also examined if NO? influenced the allergy adjuvant activity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP). For this purpose, mice were exposed intranasally to OVA with or without DEP present, immediately followed by exposure to NO? (5 or 25 parts per million [ppm]) or room air for 4?h in whole body exposure chambers. Eighteen hours after the last of three exposures, the lungs of half of the animals were lavaged with saline and markers of lung damage and lung inflammation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Three weeks later, after intranasal booster immunizations with OVA, the levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG2a antibodies in serum were determined. Both NO? (25 ppm) and DEP gave lung damage, measured as increased total protein concentration in BALF, whereas only NO? seemed to stimulate release of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). In contrast, only DEP significantly increased the number of neutrophils. Furthermore, DEP in combination with OVA stimulated the production of serum allergen-specific IgE antibodies. NO?, however, neither increased the production of allergen-specific IgE antibodies, nor influenced the IgE adjuvant activity of DEP. Thus, based on our findings, NO? seems to be of less importance than combustion particles in the development of allergic diseases after exposure to traffic-related air pollution. PMID:21506877

Alberg, T; Nilsen, A; Hansen, J S; Nygaard, U C; Løvik, M

2011-04-01

169

Measurements of Br/Pb Ratios in Airborne Particles from Car Exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of particulate bromine and lead have been measured during one summer and one winter period. The measurements were made simultaneously in five sites in a city on the Swedish west coast. A rural site about 60 km from the city was used to measure the background aerosol. Aerosol sampling was made with six dichotomous virtual impactors, which fractionate the aerosol into two modes, one fine particle mode (aerodynamic diameter, a.d. < 3.5 ?m) and one coarse particle mode (3.5 ?m < a.d. < 18 ?m). The aerosol was collected onto thin teflon filters. Element concentrations were obtained by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis. The element concentrations were related to air mass trajectories. The Br/Pb ratio proved to be the same on a given date for the city sites and the background site. A dependence on the air mass history was found, suggesting that it is the quality of the air basin in the region that influences the Br/Pb ratio even for fresh car exhaust. The Br/Pb ratio was the same for fine and coarse particles, indicating that the ratio is determined before coagulation with larger particles occur. The ratios between coarse and fine particles containing lead and bromine respectively were also studied. The results suggest that lead and bromine are actually attached to the same particles.

Öblad, M.; Selin, E.

1985-10-01

170

Diesel exhaust particles impair endothelial progenitor cells, compromise endothelial integrity, reduce neoangiogenesis, and increase atherogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of the harmful cardiovascular effects of small particulate matter are incompletely understood. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) predict outcome of patients with vascular disease. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on EPC and on the associated vascular damage in mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to DEP. 2 ?g DEP/day was applicated intranasally for 3 weeks. Exposure to DEP reduced DiLDL/lectin positive EPC to 58.4 ± 5.6% (p < 0.005). Migratory capacity was reduced to 65.8 ± 3.9% (p < 0.0001). In ApoE(-/-) mice, DEP application reduced the number of EPC to 75.6 ± 6.4% (p < 0.005) and EPC migration to 58.5 ± 6.8% (p < 0.005). Neoangiogenesis was reduced to 39.5 ± 14.6% (p < 0.005). Atherogenesis was profoundly increased by DEP treatment (157.7 ± 18.1% vs. controls, p < 0.05). In cultured human EPC, DEP (0.1-100 ?g/mL) reduced migratory capacity to 25 ± 2.6% (p < 0.001). The number of colony-forming units was reduced to 8.8 ± 0.9% (p < 0.001) and production of reactive oxygen species was elevated by DEP treatment (p < 0.001). Furthermore, DEP treatment increased apoptosis of EPC (to 266 ± 62% of control, p < 0.05). In a blood-brain barrier model, DEP treatment impaired endothelial cell integrity during oxygen-glucose deprivation (p < 0.001). Diesel exhaust particles impair endothelial progenitor cell number and function in vivo and in vitro. The reduction in EPC was associated with impaired neoangiogenesis and a marked increase in atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:23584878

Pöss, Janine; Lorenz, Dominik; Werner, Christian; Pavlikova, Valerie; Gensch, Christoph; Speer, Thimoteus; Alessandrini, Francesca; Berezowski, Vincent; Kuntz, Mélanie; Mempel, Martin; Endres, Matthias; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

2013-09-01

171

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: V. Evaluation of the Exposure Assessment Methods  

PubMed Central

Exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), was assessed for an epidemiologic study investigating the association between DE and mortality, particularly from lung cancer, among miners at eight mining facilities from the date of dieselization (1947–1967) through 1997. To provide insight into the quality of the estimates for use in the epidemiologic analyses, several approaches were taken to evaluate the exposure assessment process and the quality of the estimates. An analysis of variance was conducted to evaluate the variability of 1998–2001 REC measurements within and between exposure groups of underground jobs. Estimates for the surface exposure groups were evaluated to determine if the arithmetic means (AMs) of the REC measurements increased with increased proximity to, or use of, diesel-powered equipment, which was the basis on which the surface groups were formed. Estimates of carbon monoxide (CO) (another component of DE) air concentrations in 1976–1977, derived from models developed to predict estimated historical exposures, were compared to 1976–1977 CO measurement data that had not been used in the model development. Alternative sets of estimates were developed to investigate the robustness of various model assumptions. These estimates were based on prediction models using: (i) REC medians rather AMs, (ii) a different CO:REC proportionality than a 1:1 relation, and (iii) 5-year averages of historical CO measurements rather than modeled historical CO measurements and DE-related determinants. The analysis of variance found that in three of the facilities, most of the between-group variability in the underground measurements was explained by the use of job titles. There was relatively little between-group variability in the other facilities. The estimated REC AMs for the surface exposure groups rose overall from 1 to 5 ?g m?3 as proximity to, and use of, diesel equipment increased. The alternative estimates overall were highly correlated (?0.9) with the primary set of estimates. The median of the relative differences between the 1976–1977 CO measurement means and the 1976–1977 estimates for six facilities was 29%. Comparison of estimated CO air concentrations from the facility-specific prediction models with historical CO measurement data found an overall agreement similar to that observed in other epidemiologic studies. Other evaluations of components of the exposure assessment process found moderate to excellent agreement. Thus, the overall evidence suggests that the estimates were likely accurate representations of historical personal exposure levels to DE and are useful for epidemiologic analyses.

Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Blair, Aaron; Schleiff, Patricia; Lubin, Jay H.; Attfield, Mike; Silverman, Debra T.

2012-01-01

172

Diesel exhaust and lung cancer in the trucking industry: Exposure-response analyses and risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Diesel exhaust is considered a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The epidemiologic evidence rests on studies of lung cancer among truck drivers, bus drivers, shipyard workers, and railroad workers. The general public is exposed to diesel exhaust in ambient air. Two regulatory agencies are now considering regulating levels of diesel exhaust: the

Kyle Steenland; James Deddens; Leslie Stayner

1998-01-01

173

Effects on symptoms and lung function in humans experimentally exposed to diesel exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Diesel exhaust is a common air pollutant made up of several gases, hydrocarbons, and particles. An experimental study was carried out which was designed to evaluate if a particle trap on the tail pipe of an idling diesel engine would reduce effects on symptoms and lung function caused by the diesel exhaust, compared with exposure to unfiltered exhaust. METHODS:

B Rudell; M C Ledin; U Hammarström; N Stjernberg; B Lundbäck; T Sandström

1996-01-01

174

A comparison of genotoxicity of automotive exhaust particles from laboratory and environmental sources.  

PubMed

This research (1) ranked the genotoxicity of methylene chloride extracts of laboratory and environmentally collected particles and (2) evaluated the role of collection location and sample composition on genotoxic potency. Samples of exhaust from a spark-ignition automobile, light-duty diesel automobile, and a heavy-duty diesel engine operated in a laboratory on a dynamometer were studied, as well as samples taken in a highway tunnel and outside the same tunnel. The tunnel samples were collected 30 m inside or 56 m outside the exit portal at times when between 70%-95% of the traffic consisted of diesel trucks. In the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, each extract produced a dose-dependent increase in mutagenicity in strain TA-98 without addition of liver S-9 fraction. Extracts from two tunnel samples collected 1 yr apart, and extracts of particles collected outside the tunnel had similar mutagenic activity. The order of mutagenic activity per microgram of extract in TA-98 without S-9 from the lowest to the highest was environmental sample less than or equal to tunnel less than heavy-duty diesel less than light-duty diesel less than spark ignition. Addition of S-9 or testing in Salmonella strains resistant to the mutagenicity of nitroaromatic compounds (TA-98 NR and TA-98 1,8-DNP6) decreased the mutagenic response. With cell killing, sister chromatid exchanges, and mutations as endpoints in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), the order of potency was tunnel less than light-duty less than spark-ignition samples. All three extracts induced a similar amount of mitotic delay per microgram with or without S-9. Enhanced chromosome aberration frequency was detected only in cells exposed to extracts from spark-ignition exhaust. The data indicated that genotoxic activity was detected in each particle extract, that the potency ranking was similar using different genetic endpoints, and that the magnitude of the genotoxic potency was similar. PMID:6207015

Brooks, A L; Li, A P; Dutcher, J S; Clark, C R; Rothenberg, S J; Kiyoura, R; Bechtold, W E; McClellan, R O

1984-01-01

175

Sites of particle retention and lung tissue responses to chronically inhaled diesel exhaust and coal dust in rats and cynomolgus monkeys.  

PubMed Central

The usefulness of pulmonary carcinogenicity data from rats exposed to high concentrations of particles for quantitatively predicting lung cancer risk in humans exposed to much lower environmental or occupational concentrations has been questioned. The results of several chronic inhalation bioassays of poorly soluble, nonfibrous particles have suggested that rats may be more prone than other rodent species to develop persistent pulmonary epithelial hyperplasia, metaplasia, and tumors in response to the accumulation of inhaled particles. In addition, rats and primates differ in their pulmonary anatomy and rate of particle clearance from the lung. This paper reviews results of recent Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (Albuquerque, NM) investigations that directly compared the anatomical patterns of particle retention and the lung tissue responses of rats and monkeys exposed chronically to high occupational concentrations of poorly soluble particles. Lung sections from male cynomolgus monkeys and F344 rats exposed 7 hr/day, 5 days/week for 24 months to filtered ambient air, diesel exhaust (2 mg soot/m3), coal dust (2 mg respirable particulate material/m3), or diesel exhaust and coal dust combined (1 mg soot and 1 mg respirable coal dust/m3) were obtained from a study conducted at the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and examined histopathologically and morphometrically. Within each species, the sites of particle retention and lung tissue responses were the same for diesel soot, coal dust, and combined material. Rats retained a significantly greater portion of the particulate material in the lumens of alveolar ducts and alveoli than monkeys. Conversely, monkeys retained a significantly greater portion of the particulate material in the interstitium than rats. Rats, but not monkeys, had significant alveolar epithelial hyperplastic, inflammatory, and septal fibrotic responses to the retained particles. These results suggest that anatomic patterns of particle retention and lung tissue reactions in rats may not be predictive of retention patterns and tissue responses in primates that inhale poorly soluble particles at concentrations representing high occupational exposures.

Nikula, K J; Avila, K J; Griffith, W C; Mauderly, J L

1997-01-01

176

Historical estimation of diesel exhaust exposure in a cohort study of U.S. railroad workers and lung cancer.  

PubMed

We have previously shown an elevated risk of lung cancer mortality in diesel exhaust exposed railroad workers. To reduce exposure misclassification, we obtained extensive historical information on diesel locomotives used by each railroad. Starting in 1945, we calculated the rate each railroad converted from steam to diesel, creating annual railroad-specific weighting factors for the probability of diesel exposure. We also estimated the average annual exposure intensity based on emission factors. The U.S. Railroad Retirement Board provided railroad assignment and work histories for 52,812 workers hired between 1939-1949, for whom we ascertained mortality from 1959-1996. Among workers hired after 1945, as diesel locomotives were introduced, the relative risk of lung cancer for any exposure was 1.77 (95% CI = 1.50-2.09), and there was evidence of an exposure-response relationship with exposure duration. Exposed workers hired before 1945 had a relative risk of 1.30 (95% CI = 1.19-1.43) for any exposure and there was no evidence of a dose response with duration. There was no evidence of increasing risk using estimated measures of intensity although the overall lung cancer risk remained elevated. In conclusion, although precise historical estimates of exposure are not available, weighting factors helped better define the exposure-response relationship of diesel exhaust with lung cancer mortality. PMID:16841258

Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Eschenroeder, Alan; Smith, Thomas J; Garshick, Eric

2006-09-01

177

Historical estimation of diesel exhaust exposure in a cohort study of U.S. railroad workers and lung cancer  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown an elevated risk of lung cancer mortality in diesel exhaust exposed railroad workers. To reduce exposure misclassification, we obtained extensive historical information on diesel locomotives used by each railroad. Starting in 1945, we calculated the rate each railroad converted from steam to diesel, creating annual railroad-specific weighting factors for the probability of diesel exposure. We also estimated the average annual exposure intensity based on emission factors. The US Railroad Retirement Board provided railroad assignment and work histories for 52,812 workers hired between 1939–1949, for whom we ascertained mortality 1959–1996. Among workers hired after 1945, as diesel locomotives were introduced, the relative risk of lung cancer for any exposure was 1.77 (95%CI=1.50–2.09), and there was evidence of an exposure response relationship with exposure duration. Exposed workers hired before 1945 had a relative risk of 1.30 (95%CI=1.19–1.43) for any exposure and there was no evidence of a dose response with duration. There was no evidence of increasing risk using estimated measures of intensity although the overall lung cancer risk remained elevated. In conclusion, although precise historical estimates of exposure are not available, weighting factors helped better define the exposure-response relationship of diesel exhaust with lung cancer mortality.

Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Eschenroeder, Alan; Smith, Thomas J; Garshick, Eric

2006-01-01

178

Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) and nanoparticle exposures: what do DEP human clinical studies tell us about potential human health hazards of nanoparticles?  

PubMed

Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly tested in cellular and laboratory-animal experiments for hazard potential, but there is a lack of health effects data for humans exposed to ENPs. However, human data for another source of nanoparticle (NP) exposure are available, notably for the NPs contained in diesel exhaust particulate (DEP). Studies of human volunteers exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) in research settings report DEP-NP number concentrations (i.e., >10(6) particles/cm(3)) that exceed number concentrations reported for worst-case exposure conditions for workers manufacturing and handling ENPs. Recent human DE exposure studies, using sensitive physiological instrumentation and well-characterized exposure concentrations and durations, suggest that elevated DE exposures from pre-2007 engines may trigger short-term changes in, for example, lung and systemic inflammation, thrombogenesis, vascular function, and brain activity. Considerable uncertainty remains both as to which DE constituents underlie the observed responses (i.e., DEP NPs, DEP mass, DE gases), and as to the implications of the observed short-term changes for the development of disease. Even so, these DE human clinical data do not give evidence of a unique toxicity for NPs as compared to other small particles. Of course, physicochemical properties of toxicological relevance may differ between DEP NPs and other NPs, yet overall, the DE human clinical data do not support the idea that elevated levels of NPs per se (at least in the DEP context) must be acutely toxic by virtue of their nano-sized nature alone. PMID:20462394

Hesterberg, Thomas W; Long, Christopher M; Lapin, Charles A; Hamade, Ali K; Valberg, Peter A

2010-07-01

179

Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Particles Does Not Affect Vascular Function in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We previously demonstrated that exposure to dilute diesel exhaust causes vascular dysfunction in humans. Objectives We conducted a study to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter causes vascular dysfunction. Methods Twelve male patients with stable coronary heart disease and 12 age-matched volunteers were exposed to concentrated ambient fine and ultrafine particles (CAPs) or filtered air for 2 hr using a randomized, double-blind cross-over study design. We measured peripheral vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function, and inflammatory variables—including circulating leukocytes, serum C-reactive protein, and exhaled breath 8-isoprostane and nitrotyrosine—6–8 hr after both exposures. Results Particulate concentrations (mean ± SE) in the exposure chamber (190 ± 37 ?g/m3) were higher than ambient levels (31 ± 8 ?g/m3) and levels in filtered air (0.5 ± 0.4 ?g/m3; p < 0.001). Chemical analysis of CAPs identified low levels of elemental carbon. Exhaled breath 8-isoprostane concentrations increased after exposure to CAPs (16.9 ± 8.5 vs. 4.9 ± 1.2 pg/mL, p < 0.05), but markers of systemic inflammation were largely unchanged. Although there was a dose-dependent increase in blood flow and plasma tissue plasminogen activator release (p < 0.001 for all), CAPs exposure had no effect on vascular function in either group. Conclusions Despite achieving marked increases in particulate matter, exposure to CAPs—low in combustion-derived particles—did not affect vasomotor or fibrinolytic function in either middle-aged healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. These findings contrast with previous exposures to dilute diesel exhaust and highlight the importance of particle composition in determining the vascular effects of particulate matter in humans.

Mills, Nicholas L.; Robinson, Simon D.; Fokkens, Paul H. B.; Leseman, Daan L. A. C.; Miller, Mark R.; Anderson, David; Freney, Evelyn J.; Heal, Mathew R.; Donovan, Robert J.; Blomberg, Anders; Sandstrom, Thomas; MacNee, William; Boon, Nicholas A.; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E.; Cassee, Flemming R.

2008-01-01

180

Neurogenic responses in rat lungs after nose-only exposure to diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

Using an in-line, real-time, in vivo exposure system, we investigated whether acute adverse effects of diesel exhaust (DE*) exposure involve neurogenic inflammation in the lungs via sensory nerve C fibers. A total of 168 female F344 rats (175 g, 8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to pretreatment with capsaicin or saline to deplete C-fiber neurotransmitters. In a 2 x 3 factorial design, groups of animals were then exposed nose-only to a low level of DE (LDE, 35.3 microg/m3), a high level of DE (HDE, 632.9 microg/m3), or side-stream cigarette smoke (CS, 0.4 mg/m3). Two control groups were exposed whole body to filtered air in the animal room (fRA) or unfiltered air in the diesel engine room (eRA), respectively. DE was taken directly from a heavy-duty Cummins N14 research engine operated at 75% throttle (California Air Resources Board [CARB] 8, mode 6). Exposure to DE or air was 4 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. Exposure to CS was for 4 hours/day for 7 days. Involvement of neurogenic inflammation in the response to DE or CS was assessed via comparison of plasma extravasation, a sensitive endpoint of neurogenic inflammation, between rats with and without capsaicin pretreatment. Lung injury was assessed via analysis of proinflammatory cytokines, respiratory permeability, and histopathology. Moreover, whether DE exposure affected the molecular mechanisms of neurogenic inflammation was analyzed through quantification of substance P (SP) and its primary neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor at the gene and protein levels and through neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity. DE and CS exposure induced dose-dependent plasma extravasation, which may play an important role in initiating the associated lung inflammation and injury. Exposure of rats to DE affected the SP signaling pathway as indicated by overexpression of the NK1 receptor or reduction of SP in the lung tissue. DE exposure consistently inactivated tissue NEP, a key factor that switches neurogenic inflammation from its physiological and protective functions to a role that increases and perpetuates lung injury. The roles of these overlapping neurokininergic mechanisms in the initiation of DE-associated lung injury are plausible, and these changes may contribute to DE-associated respiratory disorders. Capsaicin rats followed the same trends as those of saline animals when exposed to DE or CS: capsaicin rats did not have significantly different plasma extravasation in the airways or lung parenchyma compared to their corresponding controls. Histopathology evaluation likewise demonstrated the same degree of tissue changes, such as edema and alveolar macrophage collection, in capsaicin and saline rats after the same level of DE exposure. In summary, our data suggest that neurokininergic mechanisms may have been involved in DE-induced inflammatory conditions in rat lung but that C fibers did not appear to be involved under these exposure conditions. We believe that time-course or protein knockdown/knockout animal studies are required to characterize further the role of neurokininergic mechanisms in DE-induced lung injury. PMID:15916011

Witten, Mark L; Wong, Simon S; Sun, Nina N; Keith, Ingegerd; Kweon, Chol-Bum; Foster, David E; Schauer, James J; Sherrill, Duane L

2005-01-01

181

Genotoxic bioactivation of constituents of a diesel exhaust particle extract by the human lung.  

PubMed

The ability of the human lung to catalyze genotoxic bioactivation of constituents of diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (DEPE) and the identity of the lung enzymes involved in the bioactivation were investigated using human lung tissues obtained from surgical resections. Genotoxicity was determined by lung S9-catalyzed mutagenicity of DEPE constituents to Salmonella typhimurium TA98NR in the Ames test and by DEPE-induced pneumocyte DNA damage response as determined by ?H2Ax expression in ex vivo tissues. S9 was prepared from lung explants treated ex vivo with either DEPE to induce pulmonary enzymes (DEPE-S9) or vehicle only (CON-S9). TA98NR served as the tester strain for the purpose of enhancing and minimizing the contribution of lung S9 and Salmonella, respectively, to DEPE bioactivation. DEPE-S9 was 2.2-fold more active than CON-S9 or rat liver S9 in DEPE bioactivation and the bioactivation was inhibited 58, 45, 22, and 16% by ?-naphthoflavone, dicumarol, ketoconazole, and ticlopidine, respectively. Alveolar S9 was less active than bronchioalveolar S9 in DEPE bioactivation. DEPE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induced ?-pH2Ax expression in pulmonary cells. Pulmonary CYP1A1 and NQO1 were induced by DEPE treatment, with the constitutive and induced CYP1A1 distributed throughout all peripheral lung regions, whereas NQO1 was limited in distribution to bronchiolar epithelium. The results show that the human lung is highly active in catalyzing genotoxic bioactivation of diesel emission constituents and that CYP1A and NQO1 play major roles in the reaction. The findings underscore the usefulness of human lung tissues in studies of the pneumotoxicity potential of chemicals to humans. PMID:23400972

Iba, Michael M; Caccavale, Robert J

2013-02-09

182

A case-control study relating railroad worker mortality to diesel exhaust exposure using a threshold regression model  

PubMed Central

A case–control study of lung cancer mortality in U.S. railroad workers in jobs with and without diesel exhaust exposure is reanalyzed using a new threshold regression methodology. The study included 1256 workers who died of lung cancer and 2385 controls who died primarily of circulatory system diseases. Diesel exhaust exposure was assessed using railroad job history from the US Railroad Retirement Board and an industrial hygiene survey. Smoking habits were available from next-of-kin and potential asbestos exposure was assessed by job history review. The new analysis reassesses lung cancer mortality and examines circulatory system disease mortality. Jobs with regular exposure to diesel exhaust had a survival pattern characterized by an initial delay in mortality, followed by a rapid deterioration of health prior to death. The pattern is seen in subjects dying of lung cancer, circulatory system diseases, and other causes. The unique pattern is illustrated using a new type of Kaplan–Meier survival plot in which the time scale represents a measure of disease progression rather than calendar time. The disease progression scale accounts for a healthy-worker effect when describing the effects of cumulative exposures on mortality.

Lee, Mei-Ling Ting; Whitmore, G.A.; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Garshick, Eric

2008-01-01

183

A case-control study relating railroad worker mortality to diesel exhaust exposure using a threshold regression model.  

PubMed

A case-control study of lung cancer mortality in U.S. railroad workers in jobs with and without diesel exhaust exposure is reanalyzed using a new threshold regression methodology. The study included 1256 workers who died of lung cancer and 2385 controls who died primarily of circulatory system diseases. Diesel exhaust exposure was assessed using railroad job history from the US Railroad Retirement Board and an industrial hygiene survey. Smoking habits were available from next-of-kin and potential asbestos exposure was assessed by job history review. The new analysis reassesses lung cancer mortality and examines circulatory system disease mortality. Jobs with regular exposure to diesel exhaust had a survival pattern characterized by an initial delay in mortality, followed by a rapid deterioration of health prior to death. The pattern is seen in subjects dying of lung cancer, circulatory system diseases, and other causes. The unique pattern is illustrated using a new type of Kaplan-Meier survival plot in which the time scale represents a measure of disease progression rather than calendar time. The disease progression scale accounts for a healthy-worker effect when describing the effects of cumulative exposures on mortality. PMID:19221608

Lee, Mei-Ling Ting; Whitmore, G A; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Garshick, Eric

2009-01-01

184

Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between

Yuh-Chin T Huang; Andrew J Ghio

2009-01-01

185

Whole and particle-free diesel exhausts differentially affect cardiac electrophysiology, blood pressure, and autonomic balance in heart failure-prone rats.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies strongly link short-term exposures to vehicular traffic and particulate matter (PM) air pollution with adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, especially in those with preexisting CV disease. Diesel engine exhaust is a key contributor to urban ambient PM and gaseous pollutants. To determine the role of gaseous and particulate components in diesel exhaust (DE) cardiotoxicity, we examined the effects of a 4-h inhalation of whole DE (wDE) (target PM concentration: 500 µg/m(3)) or particle-free filtered DE (fDE) on CV physiology and a range of markers of cardiopulmonary injury in hypertensive heart failure-prone rats. Arterial blood pressure (BP), electrocardiography, and heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic balance, were monitored. Both fDE and wDE decreased BP and prolonged PR interval during exposure, with more effects from fDE, which additionally increased HRV triangular index and decreased T-wave amplitude. fDE increased QTc interval immediately after exposure, increased atrioventricular (AV) block Mobitz II arrhythmias shortly thereafter, and increased serum high-density lipoprotein 1 day later. wDE increased BP and decreased HRV root mean square of successive differences immediately postexposure. fDE and wDE decreased heart rate during the 4th hour of postexposure. Thus, DE gases slowed AV conduction and ventricular repolarization, decreased BP, increased HRV, and subsequently provoked arrhythmias, collectively suggesting parasympathetic activation; conversely, brief BP and HRV changes after exposure to particle-containing DE indicated a transient sympathetic excitation. Our findings suggest that whole- and particle-free DE differentially alter CV and autonomic physiology and may potentially increase risk through divergent pathways. PMID:22543275

Carll, Alex P; Hazari, Mehdi S; Perez, Christina M; Krantz, Quentin Todd; King, Charly J; Winsett, Darrell W; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K

2012-04-26

186

Evaluation of the Dekati mass monitor for the measurement of exhaust particle mass emissions.  

PubMed

The Dekati mass monitor (OMM) is an instrument which measures the mass concentration of airborne particles in real time by combining aerodynamic and mobility size particle classification. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the DMM by sampling exhaust from five engines and vehicles of different technologies in both steady-state and transient tests. DMM results are found higher than the filter-based particulate matter (PM) by 39 +/- 24% (range stands for +/- one standard deviation) for 62 diesel tests conducted in total and 3% and 14% higher, respectively, in two gasoline tests. To explore whether the difference occurs because of the different measurement principles of DMM and filter-based PM, the DMM operation is replicated over steady-state tests by combining an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The correlation of ELPI and SMPS derived mass and filter-based PM is satisfactory (R2 = 0.95) with a mean deviation of 5 +/- 15%. For the same tests, the correlation of DMM with PM was also high (R2 = 0.95), but DMM exceeded PM by 44 +/- 23% on average. The comparison of ELPI and SMPS and DMM results reveals that the latter overestimates both the geometric mean diameter and especially the width of the particle mass-weighted size distribution. These findings demonstrate thatthe statistically significant difference between the DMM and the filter-based PM cannot just originate from the different measurement principles but also from the actual implementation of the combined aerodynamic-mobility measurement in the DMM. Optimizing the DMM will require changes in its design and/or the calculation algorithm to improve the resolution and width of the aerodynamic size distribution recorded. PMID:16913132

Mamakos, Athanasios; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Samaras, Zissis

2006-08-01

187

Improved design of a tangential entry cyclone separator for separation of particles from exhaust gas of diesel engine.  

PubMed

An effective design of cyclone separator with tangential inlet is developed applying an equation derived from the correlation of collection efficiency with maximum pressure drop components of the cyclone, which can efficiently remove the particles around 1microm of the exhaust gas of diesel engine. PMID:22324145

Mukhopadhyay, N

2011-01-01

188

Effect of vitamin C and iron chelation on diesel exhaust particle and carbon black induced oxidative damage and cell adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Exposure to particulate matter is associated with oxidative stress and risk of cardiovascular diseases. We investigated if vitamin C and desferrioxamine (iron chelator) altered the levels of oxidative stress and expression of cell adhesion molecules upon exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and carbon black in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that the particles were only slightly cytotoxic in the high concentration ranges. Particle-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was attenuated by vitamin C administration or iron chelation and particularly when combined (p<0.001). Only desferrioxamine protected the DNA from oxidative damage in terms of strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sensitive sites induced by carbon black (p<0.01). Carbon black and small sized DEP generated from an Euro4 engine increased the surface expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, whereas DEP from an engine representing an old combustion type engine (SRM2975) with larger particles did not affect the expression of cell adhesion molecules. These effects were also attenuated by desferrioxamine but not vitamin C. The study shows that exposure to carbon black and DEP in HUVECs can generate both oxidative stress and expression of cell surface adhesion molecules and that these effects can in part be attenuated by vitamin C and desferrioxamine. PMID:21421028

Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Roursgaard, Martin; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Loft, Steffen; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Møller, Peter

2011-03-21

189

Biological effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on isolated cardiac muscle of guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Diesel engine-powered vehicles emit some 30 to 100 times more particles than do gasoline engine cars. We previously reported that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) could produce superoxide anions in an in vitro study. Furthermore, mice instilled intratracheally with DEP showed high mortality at low doses. The cause of death was lung edema with damage to the lung endothelial cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism of the onset of mortality induced by DEP, we examined the direct action of DEP on the isolated atrium of guinea pigs. A light-duty (2740cc), four cylinder diesel engine was used. The DEP were collected on fiberglass filter. DEP caused a negative inotropic action that was followed by the cardiac arrest of the isolated left atrium. These actions were not inhibited by propranolol, atropine, verapamil, diltiazem, diphenhydramine, indomethacin, superoxide dismutase or catalase. The precise mechanism of cardiac arrest is unknown. However, these results suggest that cardiac toxicity induced by DEP might be involved in lung edema. PMID:7531585

Sakakibara, M; Minami, M; Endo, T; Hirafuji, M; Murakami, S; Mori, Y; Sagai, M

1994-10-01

190

A cryocondensation pump for particle exhaust in the DIII-D tokamak  

SciTech Connect

For particle exhaust in the advanced divertor configuration of the D3-D tokamak, a cryopump with a pumping speed of approximately 50,000 I/s for D{sub 2} is being designed. The location of the pump inside the tokamak presents several technical challenges, viz., proximity to the high temperature plasma, intense pulsed magnetic fields (2T), electromagnetic forces that result when the plasma current of up to 3 MA abruptly collapses due to MHD instabilities, the requirement for the pump to be compatible with the tokamak wall conditioning glow discharge procedure, severe space limitations in and around the tokamak, restrictions imposed on the allowed materials, and the high degree of reliability needed for the application. A concentric coaxial loop with forced convection flow of two-phase (primarily liquid) helium is selected as the cryocondensation surface. The helium loop will be surrounded by a liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shield, which will be protected from energetic particles emanating from the divertor stroke region. This configuration will permit pumping at pressures of several mTorr, for pulse durations of 5 s, and regeneration of the pump between tokamak discharges. This paper describes the details of the design and the operating scenario of the cryopump.

Menon, M.M.; Owen, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Smith, J.P.; Schaubel, K.M.; Mahdavi, M.A; Baxi, C.B.; Luxon, J.; Schaffer, M.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1991-12-01

191

A cryocondensation pump for particle exhaust in the DIII-D tokamak  

SciTech Connect

For particle exhaust in the advanced divertor configuration of the D3-D tokamak, a cryopump with a pumping speed of approximately 50,000 I/s for D{sub 2} is being designed. The location of the pump inside the tokamak presents several technical challenges, viz., proximity to the high temperature plasma, intense pulsed magnetic fields (2T), electromagnetic forces that result when the plasma current of up to 3 MA abruptly collapses due to MHD instabilities, the requirement for the pump to be compatible with the tokamak wall conditioning glow discharge procedure, severe space limitations in and around the tokamak, restrictions imposed on the allowed materials, and the high degree of reliability needed for the application. A concentric coaxial loop with forced convection flow of two-phase (primarily liquid) helium is selected as the cryocondensation surface. The helium loop will be surrounded by a liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shield, which will be protected from energetic particles emanating from the divertor stroke region. This configuration will permit pumping at pressures of several mTorr, for pulse durations of 5 s, and regeneration of the pump between tokamak discharges. This paper describes the details of the design and the operating scenario of the cryopump.

Menon, M.M.; Owen, L.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Smith, J.P.; Schaubel, K.M.; Mahdavi, M.A; Baxi, C.B.; Luxon, J.; Schaffer, M.J. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States))

1991-01-01

192

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RATS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rat fetuses. The dams were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation chambers on days...

193

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RABBITS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rabbit fetuses. The pregnant does were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation cham...

194

Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species during Interaction of Diesel Exhaust Particle Components with NADPH-Cytochrome p450 Reductase and Involvement of the Bioactivation in the DNA Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) after intratracheal injection, was suppressed by pretreatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) modified with polyethylene glycol (Sagai et al. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 14: 37–47; 1993), the possibility that superoxide could be enzymatically and continuously generated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP), was examined. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH) oxidation was stimulated during interaction

Yoshito Kumagai; Toyoko Arimoto; Masaru Shinyashiki; Nobuhiro Shimojo; Yumi Nakai; Toshikazu Yoshikawa; Masaru Sagai

1997-01-01

195

Particle exposure in a Baroque church during Sunday Masses.  

PubMed

Particle concentrations were measured in a Baroque church during five Sunday Masses. The highest particle number and mass concentrations were observed when both candles and the incense were burned. They were respectively 16.8 and 14.3 times higher than outdoors for submicron particles. The exposure to particles experienced by the churchgoers, especially priests and church workers who participated in several Masses on that day, was considerably higher than the exposure experienced at the same time outdoors. PMID:23972742

Polednik, Bernard

2013-08-21

196

Cytomegalovirus exposure, immune exhaustion and cancer occurrence in renal transplant recipients.  

PubMed

The role of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in carcinogenesis is controversial. We studied whether CMV may contribute to cancer occurrence in renal transplant recipients. We studied a prospective cohort of 455 consecutive patients who received a kidney transplant between January 1995 and December 2006. All cancers and types of cancers were assessed. Lymphocyte phenotype and cytokines production were analysed according to CMV status in a subset population of this cohort. Mean follow-up was 84 ± 29 months. One hundred and nineteen cancers (26.2%) occurred during the study follow-up. There was a higher cumulated incidence of cancers in CMV-exposed patients (30.4% vs. 20%; P=0.018). Mean time to cancer occurrence was shorter in CMV-exposed patients than in CMV-naïve patients (4.7 ± 2.6 vs. 6.7 ± 2.8; P = 0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed that both pretransplant CMV exposure (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.17-2.88; P = 0.009) and post-transplant CMV replication (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.02-4.59; P = 0.044) were risk factors for cancer. Among CD8+ T cells, exhausted T cells assessed as CD57+CD28- were expanded in CMV-exposed patients (26 ± 20 vs. 9 ± 8%; P < 0.0001), whereas CD8+CD57+IL2- cells were more frequent in CMV-exposed patients. Our results highly suggest that CMV increases the risk of cancer after transplantation. PMID:22784509

Courivaud, Cécile; Bamoulid, Jamal; Gaugler, Béatrice; Roubiou, Caroline; Arregui, Charlène; Chalopin, Jean-Marc; Borg, Christophe; Tiberghien, Pierre; Woronoff-Lemsi, Marie-Christine; Saas, Philippe; Ducloux, Didier

2012-07-11

197

Hard metal exposures. Part 1: Observed performance of three local exhaust ventilation systems.  

PubMed

Not every ventilation system performs as intended; much can be learned when they do not. The purpose of this study was to compare observed initial performance to expected levels for three saw-reconditioning shop ventilation systems and to characterize the changes in performance of the systems over a one-year period. These three local exhaust ventilation systems were intended to control worker exposures to cobalt, cadmium, and chromium during wet grinding, dry grinding, and welding/brazing activities. Prior to installation the authors provided some design guidance based on Industrial Ventilation, a Manual of Recommended Practice. However, the authors had limited influence on the actual installation and operation and no line authority for the systems. In apparent efforts to cut costs and to respond to other perceived needs, the installed systems deviated from the specifications used in pressure calculations in many important aspects, including adding branch ducts, use of flexible ducts, the choice of fans, and the construction of some hoods. After installation of the three systems, ventilation measurements were taken to determine if the systems met design specifications, and worker exposures were measured to determine effectiveness. The results of the latter will be published as a companion article. The deviations from design and maintenance failures may have adversely affected performance. From the beginning to the end of the study period the distribution of air flow never matched the design specifications for the systems. The observed air flows measured within the first month of installation did not match the predicated design air flows for any of the systems, probably because of the differences between the design and the installed system. Over the first year of operation, hood air flow variability was high due to inadequate cleaning of the sticky process materials which rapidly accumulated in the branch ducts. Poor distribution of air flows among branch ducts frequently produced individual hood air flows that were far below specified design levels even when the total air flow through that system was more than adequate. To experienced practitioners, it is not surprising that deviations from design recommendations and poor maintenance would be associated with poor system performance. Although commonplace, such experiences have not been documented in peer-reviewed publications to date. This publication is a first step in providing that documentation. PMID:10750277

Guffey, S E; Simcox, N; Booth, D W; Hibbard, R; Stebbins, A

2000-04-01

198

Motorcycle exhaust particles augment antigen-induced airway inflammation in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

Evidence indicates that environment pollutants from fossil fuel combustion compromise the immune system by enhancing allergic reactions and damaging the respiratory tract. This study was performed to investigate the effects of motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP), a major air pollutant especially in the urban areas of Taiwan, on allergen-induced airway inflammatory reactions in lab animals. BALB/c mice were intratracheally instilled with ovalbumin (OVA), MEP, or phosphate-buffered saline, 3 times every 2 wk. Airway hyperresponsiveness was measured in unrestrained mice by barometric plethsmography. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum from treated animals were collected for cytokine and antibody determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Lung tissue stained with hematoxylin/eosin was examined. Data showed that MEP augmented OVA-induced airway inflammation; characterized by infiltration of eosinophils and neutrophils in BALF and lung tissue inflammation. The combination of OVA and MEP markedly increased interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) protein levels in BALF. In addition, MEP also augmented OVA-induced rise in OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgE and airway hyperresponsiveness. Pretreated lavage cells with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors showed that TNF-alpha release was significantly inhibited. This study found that MEP augmented antigen-induced allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness through a Th2-dominant pathway. PMID:18246500

Lee, Chen-Chen; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Lai, Yih-Loong; Kang, Jaw-Jou

2008-01-01

199

4-Nitrophenol isolated from diesel exhaust particles disrupts regulation of reproductive hormones in immature male rats.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we found that 4-nitrophenol (PNP) isolated from diesel exhaust particles exhibited both estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. This compound is also a degradation product of the insecticide parathion. Here, we investigated the in vivo effect of PNP on reproductive function in immature male rats. Twenty-eight-day-old rats were injected subcutaneously with PNP (0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg) daily for 14 days. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly lower in all PNP dosage groups than in the control group, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was significantly decreased in rats treated with 0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg PNP. However, plasma concentrations of testosterone were significantly increased by 10 mg/kg PNP, and plasma concentrations of immunoreactive (ir)-inhibin were also significantly increased in the 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg PNP groups. Plasma concentrations of prolactin were significantly increased by 10 mg/kg PNP, and plasma concentrations of corticosterone were significantly increased in all treatment groups. These findings clearly show that PNP influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in immature male rats, with decreased secretion of LH and FSH and increased secretion of testosterone and inhibin. PNP, therefore, appears to disrupt endocrine activity in the immature male reproductive system. PMID:19404784

Li, Xuezheng; Li, Chunmei; Suzuki, Akira K; Taneda, Shinji; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

2009-04-29

200

Bioassay-directed fractionation and salmonella mutagenicity of automobile and forklift diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed Central

Many pulmonary toxicity studies of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have used an automobile-generated sample (A-DEPs) whose mutagenicity has not been reported. In contrast, many mutagenicity studies of DEPs have used a forklift-generated sample (SRM 2975) that has been evaluated in only a few pulmonary toxicity studies. Therefore, we evaluated the mutagenicity of both DEPs in Salmonella coupled to a bioassay-directed fractionation. The percentage of extractable organic material (EOM) was 26.3% for A-DEPs and 2% for SRM 2975. Most of the A-EOM (~55%) eluted in the hexane fraction, reflecting the presence of alkanes and alkenes, typical of uncombusted fuel. In contrast, most of the SRM 2975 EOM (~58%) eluted in the polar methanol fraction, indicative of oxygenated and/or nitrated organics derived from combustion. Most of the direct-acting, base-substitution activity of the A-EOM eluted in the hexane/dichloromethane (DCM) fraction, but this activity eluted in the polar methanol fraction for the SRM 2975 EOM. The direct-acting frameshift mutagenicity eluted across fractions of A-EOM, whereas > 80% eluted only in the DCM fraction of SRM 2975 EOM. The A-DEPs were more mutagenic than SRM 2975 per mass of particle, having 227 times more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-type and 8-45 more nitroarene-type mutagenic activity. These differences were associated with the different conditions under which the two DEP samples were generated and collected. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the health effects of DEPs requires the evaluation of DEP standards for a variety of end points, and our results highlight the need for multidisciplinary studies on a variety of representative samples of DEPs.

DeMarini, David M; Brooks, Lance R; Warren, Sarah H; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Gilmour, M Ian; Singh, Pramila

2004-01-01

201

Evaluation of an exposure assessment used in epidemiological studies of diesel exhaust and lung cancer in underground mines  

PubMed Central

NIOSH/NCI (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and National Cancer Institute) developed exposure estimates for respirable elemental carbon (REC) as a surrogate for exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) for different jobs in eight underground mines by year beginning in the 1940s—1960s when diesel equipment was first introduced into these mines. These estimates played a key role in subsequent epidemiological analyses of the potential relationship between exposure to DE and lung cancer conducted in these mines. We report here on a reanalysis of some of the data from this exposure assessment. Because samples of REC were limited primarily to 1998–2001, NIOSH/NCI used carbon monoxide (CO) as a surrogate for REC. In addition, because CO samples were limited, particularly in the earlier years, they used the ratio of diesel horsepower (HP) to the mine air exhaust rate as a surrogate for CO. There are considerable uncertainties connected with each of these surrogate-based steps. The estimates of HP appear to involve considerable uncertainty, although we had no data upon which to evaluate the magnitude of this uncertainty. A sizable percentage (45%) of the CO samples used in the HP to CO model was below the detection limit which required NIOSH/NCI to assign CO values to these samples. In their preferred REC estimates, NIOSH/NCI assumed a linear relation between C0 and REC, although they provided no credible support for that assumption. Their assumption of a stable relationship between HP and CO also is questionable, and our reanalysis found a statistically significant relationship in only one-half of the mines. We re-estimated yearly REC exposures mainly using NIOSH/NCI methods but with some important differences: (i) rather than simply assuming a linear relationship, we used data from the mines to estimate the CO—REC relationship; (ii) we used a different method for assigning values to nondetect CO measurements; and (iii) we took account of statistical uncertainty to estimate bounds for REC exposures. This exercise yielded significantly different exposure estimates than estimated by NIOSH/NCI. However, this analysis did not incorporate the full range of uncertainty in REC exposures because of additional uncertainties in the assumptions underlying the modeling and in the underlying data (e.g. HP and mine exhaust rates). Estimating historical exposures in a cohort is generally a very difficult undertaking. However, this should not prevent one from recognizing the uncertainty in the resulting estimates in any use made of them.

Crump, Kenny; Van Landingham, Cynthia

2012-01-01

202

Vacuum cleaner emissions as a source of indoor exposure to airborne particles and bacteria.  

PubMed

Vacuuming can be a source of indoor exposure to biological and nonbiological aerosols, although there are few data that describe the magnitude of emissions from the vacuum cleaner itself. We therefore sought to quantify emission rates of particles and bacteria from a large group of vacuum cleaners and investigate their potential determinants, including temperature, dust bags, exhaust filters, price, and age. Emissions of particles between 0.009 and 20 ?m and bacteria were measured from 21 vacuums. Ultrafine (<100 nm) particle emission rates ranged from 4.0 × 10(6) to 1.1 × 10(11) particles min(-1). Emission of 0.54-20 ?m particles ranged from 4.0 × 10(4) to 1.2 × 10(9) particles min(-1). PM(2.5) emissions were between 2.4 × 10(-1) and 5.4 × 10(3) ?g min(-1). Bacteria emissions ranged from 0 to 7.4 × 10(5) bacteria min(-1) and were poorly correlated with dust bag bacteria content and particle emissions. Large variability in emission of all parameters was observed across the 21 vacuums, which was largely not attributable to the range of determinant factors we assessed. Vacuum cleaner emissions contribute to indoor exposure to nonbiological and biological aerosols when vacuuming, and this may vary markedly depending on the vacuum used. PMID:22084932

Knibbs, Luke D; He, Congrong; Duchaine, Caroline; Morawska, Lidia

2011-12-07

203

Single Particle Source Profiles of Gasoline and Diesel Powered Vehicles, Biomass Burning and Coal Combustion Exhaust Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicular exhaust, biomass burning, and coal combustion are three significant aerosol sources that have local to global impacts on the earth's atmosphere. They may also contribute to health effects as they can emit carcinogenic species such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and trace metals including beryllium and vanadium. In these source characterization studies, combustion products were diluted to near ambient temperature and pressure using a two stage dilution source sampler. Diluted exhaust emissions were analyzed with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) obtaining real-time measurements of single particle size and chemical composition. In addition, samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), which was operated in a manner compatible with advanced chemical analysis techniques, for size segregated mass concentrations. Due to the importance of these particle sources to the atmosphere, differentiating these emissions from each other and other particle sources is essential. Since ATOFMS is a relatively new single particle analysis technique, source characterization experiments are needed to determine qualitative signatures of specific particulate sources for their ambient identification. ATOFMS single particle mass spectra will be discussed introducing chemically distinct single particle types emitted from these combustion sources. Numerous particle types are emitted from each source, as indicated by distinct chemical associations on the single particle level. Examples include, the chemical associations of vanadium with organic carbon (OC) in gasoline powered vehicle emissions, calcium with black carbon (BC) in diesel powered vehicle emissions, beryllium and boron with BC in coal combustion emissions, and potassium with OC from biomass burning emissions. Most importantly, the overall particle type distributions from each source differ significantly. Finally, complementary MOUDI mass distribution data will be used to determine the relative fractions of these particle types to the overall particulate mass emissions from these tests. These results will be presented in terms of single particle source profiles for these environmentally important combustion aerosol sources.

Suess, D. T.; Prather, K. A.; Schauer, J.; Cass, G. R.

2001-12-01

204

Impact of experimental type 1 diabetes mellitus on systemic and coagulation vulnerability in mice acutely exposed to diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates that diabetic patients have increased susceptibility to adverse cardiovascular outcomes related to acute increases in exposures to particulate air pollution. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. METHODS: To evaluate the possible mechanisms underlying these actions, we assessed the systemic effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in control mice, and mice with streptozotocin--induced type 1 diabetes. Four weeks following induction of diabetes, the animals were intratracheally instilled (i.t.) with DEP (0.4 mg/kg) or saline, and several cardiovascular endpoints were measured 24 h thereafter. RESULTS: DEP caused leucocytosis and a significant increase in plasma C-reactive protein and 8-isoprostane concentrations in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. The arterial PO2 as well as the number of platelets and the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles assessed in vivo were significantly decreased following the i.t. instillation of DEP in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. Both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase activities, as well as the plasma concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor and von Willebrand factor were significantly increased in DEP-exposed diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or DEP-exposed non-diabetic mice. The in vitro addition of DEP (0.25-1 mug/ml) to untreated mouse blood significantly and dose-dependently induced in vitro platelet aggregation, and these effects were exacerbated in blood of diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: This study has shown that systemic and coagulation events are aggravated by type 1 diabetes in mice, and described the possible mechanisms for these actions that may also be relevant to the exacerbation of cardiovascular morbidity accompanying particulate air pollution in diabetic patients. PMID:23587270

Nemmar, Abderrahim; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Yasin, Javed; Ali, Badreldin H

2013-04-15

205

Impact of experimental type 1 diabetes mellitus on systemic and coagulation vulnerability in mice acutely exposed to diesel exhaust particles  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological evidence indicates that diabetic patients have increased susceptibility to adverse cardiovascular outcomes related to acute increases in exposures to particulate air pollution. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Methods To evaluate the possible mechanisms underlying these actions, we assessed the systemic effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in control mice, and mice with streptozotocin–induced type 1 diabetes. Four weeks following induction of diabetes, the animals were intratracheally instilled (i.t.) with DEP (0.4 mg/kg) or saline, and several cardiovascular endpoints were measured 24 h thereafter. Results DEP caused leukocytosis and a significant increase in plasma C-reactive protein and 8-isoprostane concentrations in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. The arterial PO2 as well as the number of platelets and the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles assessed in vivo were significantly decreased following the i.t. instillation of DEP in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. Both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase activities, as well as the plasma concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor and von Willebrand factor were significantly increased in DEP-exposed diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or DEP-exposed non-diabetic mice. The in vitro addition of DEP (0.25-1 ?g/ml) to untreated mouse blood significantly and dose-dependently induced in vitro platelet aggregation, and these effects were exacerbated in blood of diabetic mice. Conclusion This study has shown that systemic and coagulation events are aggravated by type 1 diabetes in mice, acutely exposed to DEP and has described the possible mechanisms for these actions that may also be relevant to the exacerbation of cardiovascular morbidity accompanying particulate air pollution in diabetic patients.

2013-01-01

206

Roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Adjuvant Activity of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an imbalance in Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are thought to induce Th2-dominated IgE and IgG1 production. However, the roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subtypes in the increased immune responses to antigen in mice exposed to DEP are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 mAb abrogated the

Hidekazu Fujimaki; Naoya Ui; Hiroko Ushio; Keiko Nohara; Tomohiko Endo

2001-01-01

207

In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur-containing fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of sulfur oxides on particle formation and contrails is investigated in the exhaust plumes of a twin-engine jet aircraft. Different fuels were used with sulfur mass fractions of 170 and 5500 ppm in the fuel, one lower than average, the other above the specification limit of standard Jet-A1 fuel. During various phases of the same flight, the two

U. Schumann; J. Ström; R. Busen; R. Baumann; K. Gierens; M. Krautstrunk; F. P. Schröder; J. Stingl

1996-01-01

208

Motorcycle Exhaust Particles Induce IL8 Production Through NF-?B Activation in Human Airway Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP) are among the major air pollutants, especially in urban area of Taiwan. In our previous study, data showed that MEP induce proinflammatory and proallergic response profiles in BALB\\/c mice. Effects of MEP on interleukin (IL)-8 production in A549 human airway epithelial cells were further investigated in this study. It was found that MEP enhanced IL-8 protein

Chen-Chen Lee; Yu-Wen Cheng; Jaw-Jou Kang

2005-01-01

209

Lung cancer in heavy equipment operators and truck drivers with diesel exhaust exposure in the construction industry  

PubMed Central

Background: Several studies indicate that truck drivers have an increased risk of lung cancer, but few studies have examined lung cancer risk in heavy equipment operators. Workers in both occupations are exposed to diesel exhaust. Aims: To examine the incidence and mortality from lung cancer among truck drivers and among drivers of heavy vehicles. Methods: A computerised register of Swedish construction workers participating in health examinations between 1971 and 1992 was used. Male truck drivers (n = 6364) and drivers of heavy construction vehicles (n = 14 364) were selected as index groups; carpenters/electricians constituted the reference group (n = 119 984). Results: Operators of heavy construction equipment experienced no increased risk of lung cancer compared to risk among the carpenter/electrician referents (61 cases v 70.1 expected). However, a significant inverse trend risk with increasing use of cabins was apparent. Truck drivers had increased risks of cancer of the lung (61 cases v 47.3 expected) and prostate (124 cases v 99.7 expected), although only mortality for lung cancer was significantly increased. Comparisons with the general population showed similar results. Conclusion: Results are consistent with those of previous studies suggesting that heavy equipment operators with potential exposure to diesel exhaust may have little or no increased risk of lung cancer, although the use of cabins seemed to decrease the risk of lung cancer. The results for truck drivers are also consistent with previous reports of increased lung cancer risk among truck drivers exposed to diesel exhaust, as well as recent reports linking diesel exhaust exposure to prostate cancer.

Jarvholm, B; Silverman, D

2003-01-01

210

Interference of animal source ammonia with exposure chamber atmospheres containing acid particulate from automobile exhaust  

SciTech Connect

A study was designed to test the effect of animal source ammonia on some component concentrations in test atmospheres produced to measure the health effects of pollutants in the exhaust emissions of gasoline-powered engines equipped with oxidative catalyst converters. The dominantly acidic nature of the exhaust particulate phase required an evaluation of test chamber concentrations of the alkaline components contributed by the test animals. The animal population in the chamber was critical in maintaining the essential integrity of the pollutant atmosphere. Measures to minimize the production of the animal-produced interferent(s) were helpful in attenuating the interfering effect.

Malanchuk, M.; Barkley, N.P.; Contner, G.L.

1980-08-01

211

Interference of animal source ammonia with exposure chamber atmospheres containing acid particulate from automobile exhaust.  

PubMed

A study was designed to test the effect of animal source ammonia on some component concentrations in test atmospheres produced to measure the health effects of pollutants in the exhaust emissions of gasoline-powered engines equipped with oxidative catalyst converters. The dominantly acidic nature of the exhaust particulate phase required an evaluation of test chamber concentrations of the alkaline components contributed by the test animals. The animal population in the chamber was critical in maintaining the essential integrity of the pollutant atmosphere. Measures to minimize the production of the animal-produced interferent(s) were helpful in attenuating the interfering effect. PMID:6160191

Malanchuk, M; Barkley, N P; Contner, G L

1980-08-01

212

Sites of particle retention and lung tissue responses to chronically inhaled diesel exhaust and coal dust in rats and cynomolgus monkeys.  

PubMed

The usefulness of pulmonary carcinogenicity data from rats exposed to high concentrations of particles for quantitatively predicting lung cancer risk in humans exposed to much lower environmental or occupational concentrations has been questioned. The results of several chronic inhalation bioassays of poorly soluble, nonfibrous particles have suggested that rats may be more prone than other rodent species to develop persistent pulmonary epithelial hyperplasia, metaplasia, and tumors in response to the accumulation of inhaled particles. In addition, rats and primates differ in their pulmonary anatomy and rate of particle clearance from the lung. This paper reviews results of recent Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (Albuquerque, NM) investigations that directly compared the anatomical patterns of particle retention and the lung tissue responses of rats and monkeys exposed chronically to high occupational concentrations of poorly soluble particles. Lung sections from male cynomolgus monkeys and F344 rats exposed 7 hr/day, 5 days/week for 24 months to filtered ambient air, diesel exhaust (2 mg soot/m3), coal dust (2 mg respirable particulate material/m3), or diesel exhaust and coal dust combined (1 mg soot and 1 mg respirable coal dust/m3) were obtained from a study conducted at the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and examined histopathologically and morphometrically. Within each species, the sites of particle retention and lung tissue responses were the same for diesel soot, coal dust, and combined material. Rats retained a significantly greater portion of the particulate material in the lumens of alveolar ducts and alveoli than monkeys. Conversely, monkeys retained a significantly greater portion of the particulate material in the interstitium than rats. Rats, but not monkeys, had significant alveolar epithelial hyperplastic, inflammatory, and septal fibrotic responses to the retained particles. These results suggest that anatomic patterns of particle retention and lung tissue reactions in rats may not be predictive of retention patterns and tissue responses in primates that inhale poorly soluble particles at concentrations representing high occupational exposures. PMID:9400729

Nikula, K J; Avila, K J; Griffith, W C; Mauderly, J L

1997-09-01

213

Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in biological endpoints during filtered air exposure, may allow the inclusion of higher risk patients who are likely the main contributors to the increased particle-induced health effects in epidemiological studies.

2009-01-01

214

Design and Characterization of an Isokinetic Sampling Train for Particle Size Measurements Using Exhaust Gas Recirculation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A particulate sampling train has been constructed which satisfies the conflicting requirements of isokinetic sample extraction and constant flowrate through an inertial sizing device. Its design allows a variable fraction of the filtered exhaust gas to be...

A. D. Williamson D. B. Harris R. S. Martin T. E. Ward

1984-01-01

215

Sorptive behavior of nitro-PAHs in street runoff and their potential as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles.  

PubMed

This is the first report to reveal the particle-water distribution of nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and to discuss their potential risks and utility as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles (DEP). Time-series samples of runoff were collected from a highway, and NPAHs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to study their dynamic behavior. The concentrations of total NPAHs ranged from 11 to 73 ng/L in particulate phase (>0.7 mcirom) and from 2.3 to 4.9 ng/L in dissolved phase (<0.7 microm). Like their PAH analogs, most (81-97%) NPAHs were associated with particulate matter. The organic carbon-normalized in situ partition coefficients (Koc') of NPAHs observed in runoff events (10(5.8-6.3) for 2-nitrofluoranthene and 10(5.8-6.2) for 1-nitropyrene [1-NP]) were more than 1 order of magnitude higher than those expected from their Kow, indicating great affinity for particulate matter such as soot. Concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs adjusted by potency equivalency factors and induction equivalency factors showed that the potential risks of NPAHs were smaller than those of PAHs by a factor of more than a hundred for the particulate phase and morethan fourforthe dissolved phase. Comparison of concentrations and compositions of NPAHs and PAHs among runoff, DEP, gasoline vehicle exhaust particles, boiler exhaust particles, and aerosols suggested that the ratio of 1-NP to total PAHs (1-NP/PAH) is a useful indicator of DEP for source apportionment of PAHs among traffic-related sources. Source-apportionment of PAHs in the runoff by 1-NP/PAH and methylphenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios suggested that most PAHs in the runoff except the second flush peak were derived from DEP but that other pyrogenic sources contributed to the particles at the second flush and thus to the overall runoff particles. PMID:18351085

Murakami, Michio; Yamada, Junya; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Takada, Hideshige

2008-02-15

216

EFFECT OF DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE ON MUCOSAL SENSITIZATION TO OVALBUMIN ANTIGEN.  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies in humans and animals have shown that diesel exhaust (DE) can act as an immunological adjuvant to increase the severity of Type I hypersensitivity immune responses. The mechanism by which DE causes these effects is unknown but thought to be associated with lung in...

217

Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Response after Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel Exhaust  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodiesel (BD) is an advanced fuel produced from renewable domestic sources. The broad uses of BD in different industries including mining may lead to potential health effects. We hypothesized that the toxicity of biodiesel exhaust (BDE) is dependent at least on three major mecha...

218

Health effects of ambient particulate matter--biological mechanisms and inflammatory responses to in vitro and in vivo particle exposures.  

PubMed

In this article, we review and analyze different modes of exposure to ultrafine particles in order to assess particle-induced inflammatory responses and the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Based on results from monocytic cells cultured under submerged conditions, we discuss (1) the impact of particle properties such as surface area and oxidative potential on lipid metabolism as a highly sensitive regulatory pathway and (2) the interference of diesel exhaust particles with toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory responses. Furthermore, new developments of air-liquid interface exposure used as an alternative approach to simulate cell particle interactions are presented. In addition to the in vitro approaches, animal exposure studies are described that apply selected mouse models to elucidate potential allergic and inflammatory pulmonary responses and mast-cell-related mechanisms after particle exposure. Long-term inhalation of ultrafine particles might lead to irreversible changes in lung structure and function. Clinical studies addressing the characteristics of inflammatory airway cells are a promising approach to understand underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Finally, a potential outcome of human particle exposure is chronic cough in children. Here, discrimination between asthmatic and nonasthmatic cough by means of immunological parameters appears to be an important step toward improving diagnosis and therapy. PMID:18300050

Maier, Konrad Ludwig; Alessandrini, Francesca; Beck-Speier, Ingrid; Hofer, Thomas Philipp Josef; Diabaté, Silvia; Bitterle, Ellen; Stöger, Tobias; Jakob, Thilo; Behrendt, Heidrun; Horsch, Marion; Beckers, Johannes; Ziesenis, Axel; Hültner, Lothar; Frankenberger, Marion; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne; Schulz, Holger

2008-02-01

219

Exposure to Ultrafine Particles in Urban Centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ultrafine particles (UFP: particles with diameters less than 100 nm) can originate from anthropogenic sources such as fossil\\u000a fuel combustion, or naturally through nucleation of sulphuric acid, water and ammonia molecules. These particles can be further\\u000a transformed through condensation, evaporation and coagulation processes that affect their number, size and composition. The\\u000a properties of UFP from vehicle emissions depend on the vehicle

Kelly Sabaliauskas; Greg Evans

220

Exposure to heavy charged particles affects thermoregulation in rats  

SciTech Connect

Rats exposed to 0.1-5 Gy of heavy particles ({sup 56}Fe, {sup 40}Ar, {sup 20}Ne or {sup 4}He) showed dose-dependent changes in body temperature. Lower doses of all particles produced hyperthermia, and higher doses of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 56}Fe produced hypothermia. Of the four HZE particles, {sup 56}Fe particles were the most potent and {sup 4}He particles were the least potent in producing changes in thermoregulation. The {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar particles produced an intermediate level of change in body temperature. Significantly greater hyperthermia was produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 20}Ne, {sup 40}Ar and {sup 56}Fe particles than by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays. Pretreating rats with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin attenuated the hyperthermia produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles, indicating that prostaglandins mediate {sup 56}Fe-particle-induced hyperthermia. The hypothermia produced by exposure to 5 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles is mediated by histamine and can be attenuated by treatment with the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine. 15 refs., 4 figs.

Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Joseph, J.A.; Harris, A.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rabin, B.M. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)]|[Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1994-09-01

221

In Vitro Exposures in Diesel Exhaust Atmospheres: Resuspension of PM from Filters Verses Direct Deposition of PM from Air  

PubMed Central

One of the most widely used in vitro particulate matter (PM) exposures methods is the collection of PM on filters, followed by resuspension in a liquid medium, with subsequent addition onto a cell culture. To avoid disruption of equilibria between gases and PM, we have developed a direct in vitro sampling and exposure method (DSEM) capable of PM-only exposures. We hypothesize that the separation of phases and post-treatment of filter-collected PM significantly modifies the toxicity of the PM compared to direct deposition, resulting in a distorted view of the potential PM health effects. Controlled test environments were created in a chamber that combined diesel exhaust with an urban-like mixture. The complex mixture was analyzed using both the DSEM and concurrently-collected filter samples. The DSEM showed that PM from test atmospheres produced significant inflammatory response, while the resuspension exposures at the same exposure concentration did not. Increasing the concentration of resuspended PM sixteen times was required to yield measurable IL-8 expression. Chemical analysis of the resuspended PM indicated a total absence of carbonyl compounds compared to the test atmosphere during the direct-exposures. Therefore, collection and resuspension of PM into liquid modifies its toxicity and likely leads to underestimating toxicity.

Lichtveld, Kim M.; Ebersviller, Seth M.; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Vizuete, William; Jaspers, Ilona; Jeffries, Harvey E.

2012-01-01

222

Effect of prolonged exposure to diesel engine exhaust on proinflammatory markers in different regions of the rat brain  

PubMed Central

Background The etiology and progression of neurodegenerative disorders depends on the interactions between a variety of factors including: aging, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility factors. Enhancement of proinflammatory events appears to be a common link in different neurological impairments, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Studies have shown a link between exposure to particulate matter (PM), present in air pollution, and enhancement of central nervous system proinflammatory markers. In the present study, the association between exposure to air pollution (AP), derived from a specific source (diesel engine), and neuroinflammation was investigated. To elucidate whether specific regions of the brain are more susceptible to exposure to diesel-derived AP, various loci of the brain were separately analyzed. Rats were exposed for 6 hrs a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks to diesel engine exhaust (DEE) using a nose-only exposure chamber. The day after the final exposure, the brain was dissected into the following regions: cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and tubercles, and the striatum. Results Baseline levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1?) were dependent on the region analyzed and increased in the striatum after exposure to DEE. In addition, baseline level of activation of the transcription factors (NF-?B) and (AP-1) was also region dependent but the levels were not significantly altered after exposure to DEE. A similar, though not significant, trend was seen with the mRNA expression levels of TNF-? and TNF Receptor-subtype I (TNF-RI). Conclusions Our results indicate that different brain regions may be uniquely responsive to changes induced by exposure to DEE. This study once more underscores the role of neuroinflammation in response to ambient air pollution, however, it is valuable to assess if and to what extent the observed changes may impact the normal function and cellular integrity of unique brain regions.

2010-01-01

223

Perinatal exposure to diesel exhaust affects gene expression in mouse cerebrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many environmental toxins alter reproductive function and affect the central nervous system (CNS). Gonadal steroid hormones\\u000a cause differentiation of neurons and affect brain function and behavior during the perinatal period, and the CNS is thought\\u000a to be particularly susceptible to toxic insult during this period. It was, therefore, hypothesized that inhalation of diesel\\u000a exhaust (DE) during the fetal or suckling

Naomi Tsukue; Manabu Watanabe; Takayuki Kumamoto; Hirohisa Takano; Ken Takeda

2009-01-01

224

Air pollution & the brain: Subchronic diesel exhaust exposure causes neuroinflammation and elevates early markers of neurodegenerative disease  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood. Objective We explored the central nervous system consequences of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and addressed the minimum levels necessary to elicit neuroinflammation and markers of early neuropathology. Methods Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to DE (992, 311, 100, 35 and 0 ?g PM/m3) by inhalation over 6 months. Results DE exposure resulted in elevated levels of TNF? at high concentrations in all regions tested, with the exception of the cerebellum. The midbrain region was the most sensitive, where exposures as low as 100 ?g PM/m3 significantly increased brain TNF? levels. However, this sensitivity to DE was not conferred to all markers of neuroinflammation, as the midbrain showed no increase in IL-6 expression at any concentration tested, an increase in IL-1? at only high concentrations, and a decrease in MIP-1? expression, supporting that compensatory mechanisms may occur with subchronic exposure. A?42 levels were the highest in the frontal lobe of mice exposed to 992 ?g PM/m3 and tau [pS199] levels were elevated at the higher DE concentrations (992 and 311 ?g PM/m3) in both the temporal lobe and frontal lobe, indicating that proteins linked to preclinical Alzheimer's disease were affected. ? Synuclein levels were elevated in the midbrain in response to the 992 ?g PM/m3 exposure, supporting that air pollution may be associated with early Parkinson's disease-like pathology. Conclusions Together, the data support that the midbrain may be more sensitive to the neuroinflammatory effects of subchronic air pollution exposure. However, the DE-induced elevation of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases was limited to only the higher exposures, suggesting that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation may precede preclinical markers of neurodegenerative disease in the midbrain.

2011-01-01

225

Commuter exposure to respirable particles inside buses and by bicycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of bus commuters and a cyclist to respirable particles in the city of Manchester has been evaluated, using personal sampling pumps installed in the cabs of the vehicles and carried by the cyclist. These have provided an estimate of the average exposure of commuters using bus services and cycling in a congested European city.

Ivan L. Gee; David W. Raper

1999-01-01

226

Characterization of Submicron Exhaust Particles from Engines Operating Without Load on Diesel and JP-8 Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diluted exhaust from a selection of Air Force ground support vehicles was subjected to gravimetric, carbon, and size distribution analyses in September 1999. The vehicles operated on diesel and JP-8 fuels. In most cases, the engines involved were similar to civilian counterparts. The tests involved \\

C. Fred Rogers; John C. Sagebiel; Barbara Zielinska; W. Patrick Arnott; Eric M. Fujita; Jacob D. McDonald; James Brian Griffin; Kerry Kelly; Dana Overacker; David Wagner; JoAnn S. Lighty; Adel Sarofim; Glenn Palmer

2003-01-01

227

Characterization of Exhaust Particles from Military Vehicles Fueled with Diesel, Gasoline, and JP-8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diluted exhaust from selected military aircraft ground-support equipment (AGE) was analyzed for particulate mass, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), SO4 , and size distributions. The experiments occurred at idle and load conditions and utilized a chassis dynamometer. The selected AGE vehicles operated on gasoline, diesel, and JP-8. These military vehicles exhibited concentrations, size distributions, and emission factors in

Kerry E. Kelly; David A. Wagner; JoAnn S. Lighty; Adel F. Sarofim; C. Fred Rogers; John Sagebiel; Barbara Zielinska; W. Pat Arnott; Glenn Palmer

2003-01-01

228

The influence of occupational exposure to pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil on prostate cancer: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the relation between exposure to pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil in relation to prostate cancer incidence in a large prospective study. Methods: This cohort study was conducted among 58 279 men in the Netherlands. In September 1986, cohort members (55–69 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on potential cancer risk factors, including job history. Follow up for prostate cancer incidence was established by linkage to cancer registries until December 1995 (9.3 years of follow up). The analyses included 1386 cases of prostate cancer and 2335 subcohort members. A blinded case-by-case expert exposure assessment was carried out to assign cases and subcohort members a cumulative probability of exposure for each potential carcinogenic exposure. Results: In multivariate analyses there was a significant negative association for pesticides (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.95) when comparing the highest tertile of exposure to pesticides with no exposure. No association was found for occupational exposure to PAHs (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.31), diesel exhaust (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.06), metal dust (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.40), metal fumes (RR 1.11; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.54), or mineral oil (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.48) when comparing the highest tertile of exposure with no exposure. In subgroup analysis, with respect to tumour invasiveness and morphology, null results were found for occupational exposure to pesticides, PAH, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, and mineral oil. Conclusions: These results suggest a negative association between occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer. For other carcinogenic exposures results suggest no association between occupational exposure to PAHs, diesel exhaust, metal dust, metal fumes, or mineral oil and prostate cancer.

Boers, D; Zeegers, M; Swaen, G; Kant, I.; van den Brandt, P A

2005-01-01

229

Evaluation of urinary metabolites of 1-nitropyrene as biomarkers for exposure to diesel exhaust in taxi drivers of Shenyang, China.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant contributor to the toxicity associated with particulate matter (PM). 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) has been used as a molecular marker for DE, and the urinary metabolites of 1-NP have been proposed as biomarkers for exposure to DE. In this study, several urinary 1-NP metabolites were evaluated for their utility as markers of short-term exposures to DE. The study population was a cohort of 24 taxi drivers from Shenyang, China, who submitted urine samples collected before, after, and the next morning following their workshifts. The urinary metabolites studied were isomers of hydroxy-1-nitropyrene (3-, 6-, 8- OHNPs) and hydroxy-N-acetyl-1-aminopyrene (3-,6-, 8-OHNAAPs). Exposure to DE was estimated based on exposure to 1-NP in air samples collected during and after the driver's workshift; 6- and 8-OHNP, and 8-OHNAAP were consistently detected in the drivers' urine. Concentrations of the metabolites in the taxi drivers' urine were greater than metabolite levels previously reported in non-occupationally exposed subjects; however no associations were observed between subject-specific exposures to 1-NP and urinary metabolites measured at the end of the workshift or in the next morning void. Significant autocorrelation was observed in metabolite levels in successive urine samples, from which half-lives for urinary elimination of ~10-12 h were estimated. These observations suggest that, in an occupational setting, urinary 1-NP metabolites may be more suitable as markers of ongoing exposure (timescales of several days) rather than indicators of acute exposure associated with single workshifts. PMID:22588216

Miller-Schulze, Justin P; Paulsen, Michael; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning; Tamura, Kenji; Dong, Lijun; Zhang, Xuemei; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Yost, Michael G; Simpson, Christopher D

2012-05-16

230

Ultrafine particle concentrations and exposures in four high-rise Beijing apartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine particle (UFP) exposures have the potential to elicit adverse health effects. People spend most of their time within their place of residence. Little information is available on UFP levels in homes in mainland China. To contribute new data to this important topic, we made time-series measurements of particle number (PN) concentrations and resident activities inside four apartments in high-rise buildings in Beijing during June to August 2009. Indoor PN concentrations at the four sites, averaged over the few-day duration of monitoring at each site, spanned an order of magnitude, from 2800 to 29,100 cm-3. This wide range resulted from differences among apartments in three main factors: (1) the frequency of indoor source events, including cooking activities and intrusion of cooking exhaust from neighboring apartments; (2) the extent of natural ventilation via open windows; and (3) the extent of active air filtration. Daily-integrated PN exposure of the thirteen residents, while in their apartments, ranged from 45,000 to 494,000 cm-3 h/d. For two sites at which outdoor PN concentrations were also measured, the percentage of daily-integrated residential exposure attributable to particles of outdoor origin was 58% for the residents of one site and 81% for residents of the other.

Mullen, Nasim A.; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Yinping; Wang, Shuxiao; Nazaroff, William W.

2011-12-01

231

Diesel exhaust particles induce oxidative stress, proinflammatory signaling, and P-glycoprotein up-regulation at the blood-brain barrier  

PubMed Central

Here, we report that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a major constituent of urban air pollution, affect blood-brain barrier function at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Isolated rat brain capillaries exposed to DEPs showed increased expression and transport activity of the key drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (6 h EC50 was ?5 ?g/ml). Up-regulation of P-glycoprotein was abolished by blocking transcription or protein synthesis. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase or pretreatment of capillaries with radical scavengers ameliorated DEP-induced P-glycoprotein up-regulation, indicating a role for reactive oxygen species in signaling. DEP exposure also increased brain capillary tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels. DEP-induced P-glycoprotein up-regulation was abolished when TNF-receptor 1 (TNF-R1) was blocked and was not evident in experiments with capillaries from TNF-R1 knockout mice. Inhibition of JNK, but not NF-?B, blocked DEP-induced P-glycoprotein up-regulation, indicating a role for AP-1 in the signaling pathway. Consistent with this, DEPs increased phosphorylation of c-jun. Together, our results show for the first time that a component of air pollution, DEPs, alters blood-brain barrier function through oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production. These experiments disclose a novel blood-brain barrier signaling pathway, with clear implications for environmental toxicology, CNS pathology, and the pharmacotherapy of CNS disorders.—Hartz, A. M. S., Bauer, B., Block, M. L., Hong, J.-S., Miller, D.-S. Diesel exhaust particles induce oxidative stress, proinflammatory signaling, and P-glycoprotein up-regulation at the blood-brain barrier.

Hartz, Anika M. S.; Bauer, Bjorn; Block, Michelle L.; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Miller, David S.

2008-01-01

232

A comparison of sampling and analytical methods for assessing occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in a railroad work environment  

SciTech Connect

Methods of assessing occupational exposure to diesel exhaust were evaluated in a railroad work environment. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH{reg_sign})-recommended elemental carbon and respirable combustible dust methods of sampling and analysis for assessing diesel exhaust were included in the study. A total of 215 personal and area samples were collected using both size-selective and non-size-selective samplers. The results demonstrate that the elemental carbon method is suitable for the railroad environment and the respirable combustible dust method is not. All elemental carbon concentrations measured were below the proposed ACG1H Threshold Limit Value (TLV{reg_sign}) of 0.15 mg/m{sup 3}. The concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) were also found to be below their respective TLVs. There is no correlation between elemental carbon or respirable combustible dust and the oxides of nitrogen. The elemental carbon as fraction of total carbon is about 13%, except for onboard locomotives where it is about 24%. Comparison of elemental carbon and respirable combustible dust measurements showed consistent relationships for most sampling locations with respirable combustible dust concentrations 12 to 53 times higher than the elemental carbon levels.

Verma, D.K.; Shaw, L.; Julian, J.; Smolynec, K.; Wood, C.; Shaw, D.

1999-10-01

233

Xenobiotic Particle Exposure and Microvascular Endpoints: A Call to Arms  

PubMed Central

Xenobiotic particles can be considered in two genres: air pollution particulate matter and engineered nanoparticles. Particle exposures can occur in the greater environment, the workplace, and our homes. The majority of research in this field has, justifiably, focused on pulmonary reactions and outcomes. More recent investigations indicate that cardiovascular effects are capable of correlating with established mortality and morbidity epidemiological data following particle exposures. While the preliminary and general cardiovascular toxicology has been defined, the mechanisms behind these effects, specifically within the microcirculation, are largely unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this review is several fold: first, a historical background on toxicological aspects of particle research is presented. Second, essential definitions, terminology, and techniques that may be unfamiliar to the microvascular scientist will be discussed. Third, the most current concepts and hypotheses driving cardiovascular research in this field will be reviewed. Lastly, potential future directions for the microvascular scientist will be suggested. Collectively speaking, microvascular research in the particle exposure field represents far more than a “niche”. The immediate demand for basic, translational, and clinical studies is high and diverse. Microvascular scientists at all career stages are strongly encouraged to expand their research interests to include investigations associated with particle exposures.

Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; McCawley, Michael; Knuckles, Travis L.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

2011-01-01

234

Spatial Measurements of Ultrafine Particles Using an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer within a Local Community Downwind of a Major International Trade Bridge in Buffalo, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine particles (UFP) can be defined as having at least one dimension that is less than 100 nanometers. Because of their dimensions, they exhibit unique properties that affect atmospheric transport, exposures, and possibly health endpoints. Freshly generated Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is predominantly in the ultrafine particle size range size range, which in practice is defined by the detection characteristics

Timothy R. McAuley; Andrea Ferro; John D. Spengler; Philip K. Hopke; Peter A. Jaques

2010-01-01

235

Adsorption of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Ni to titanium dioxide nanoparticles: effect of particle size, solid concentration, and exhaustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Adsorption of metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) to TiO2 nanoparticles and bulk particles was examined for use as a contaminant removal substrate as a function of particle size,\\u000a sorbent concentration, and exhaustion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Adsorption experiments were conducted with 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 g\\/L nanoparticles in a pH 8 solution and in spiked San Antonio\\u000a tap water.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  When results were normalized by mass,

Karen E. Engates; Heather J. Shipley

2011-01-01

236

Effect of various LPG supply systems on exhaust particle emission in spark-ignited combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particle size distribution and particle number (PN) concentration emitted by internal combustion engine are a subject\\u000a of significant environmental concern because of their adverse health effects and environmental impact. This subject has recently\\u000a attracted the attention of the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP). In 2007, the UN-ECE GRPE PMP proposed a new method to\\u000a measure particle emissions in the diluted

J. W. Lee; H. S. Do; S. I. Kweon; K. K. Park; J. H. Hong

2010-01-01

237

Prediction of the Size of Aluminum-Oxide Particles in Exhaust Plumes of Solid Rocket Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of coagulation and aerodynamic fragmentation of liquid particles of aluminum oxide in an accelerating gas flow in the Laval nozzle are analyzed. A formula obtained by an approximate analytical solution of equations of a two-phase flow is proposed to calculate the characteristic particle diameter at the nozzle exit. The limiting particle diameter in the nozzle throat calculated theoretically

O. B. Kovalev

2002-01-01

238

Residential indoor and outdoor coarse particles and associated endotoxin exposures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that coarse particles (PM 10-2.5) have detrimental impacts upon health, especially for respiratory effects. There are limited data available for indoor residential exposures. Some data exist regarding the composition of this PM size fraction with emphasis on crustal elements and biological components. This study includes data from 146 homes sampled in Regina, Saskatchewan (SK) where 5-day integrated concurrent monitoring of indoor and outdoor coarse particles was conducted during the winter and summer of 2007. The coarse particle filters were subsequently analysed for endotoxin content to determine the contribution of this compound. Winter indoor geometric mean concentrations of coarse particles exceeded outdoor concentrations (3.73 ?g m -3 vs 2.49 ?g m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001); however the reverse was found in summer (4.34 ?g m -3 vs 8.82 ?g m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001). Linear regression indicated that winter predictors of indoor coarse particles were outdoor coarse particles, ventilation and presence of at least two or more occupants. During the summer, increased use of central air conditioning was associated with reduced coarse particles, while smoking and the presence of two or more occupants resulted in increased coarse particles. Endotoxin concentrations (EU ?g -1) were lower indoors than outdoors in both seasons. Spatial variability of ambient coarse particles was assessed to determine the suitability of using a single monitoring station within a city to estimate exposure. The coefficients of variation between homes sampled simultaneously and the central monitoring station were calculated (median COV in summer = 15% and winter = 24%) and showed significant variability by week, especially during the summer months, suggesting a single site may be insufficient for characterizing exposure. Future studies should consider daily measurements per home to understand shorter term exposures and day to day variability of these pollutants.

Wheeler, Amanda J.; Dobbin, Nina A.; Lyrette, Ninon; Wallace, Lance; Foto, Mark; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Kearney, Jill; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Harrison, Ian; Rispler, Kathleen; Héroux, Marie-Eve

2011-12-01

239

Pedestrian exposure to size-resolved particles in Milan.  

PubMed

Measurement campaigns for airborne particles along a pedestrian route in the city center of Milan were performed by means of a portable instrument consisting of an optical particle counter and a global positioning system (GPS) signal receiver. Based on the size-resolved particle number concentration data and on proper density factors experimentally determined for Milan urban area, the mass concentrations were calculated in terms of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < or =10 microm (PM10), < or =2.5 pm (PM2.5), and < or =1 microm (PM1). Besides directly measuring the personal exposure to PM throughout the route, the measurement campaigns pointed out small spatial and temporal variations of the concentration ranges in the different urban microenvironments visited along the route as well as very peculiar features of the particles levels in the underground subway. These findings suggested that the personal exposure of pedestrians in the city center could be estimated by simply taking into account the exposure at the open air and in the subway. The comparison between measured and calculated exposures according to the microenvironment-based estimation results in reasonable accordance, even though the estimations tend to slightly underestimate (12%) the actual measured exposure. PMID:22168110

Lonati, Giovanni; Ozgen, Senem; Ripamonti, Giovanna; Cernuschi, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele

2011-11-01

240

Modeling particle exposure in U.S. trucking terminals.  

PubMed

Multi-tiered sampling approaches are common in environmental and occupational exposure assessment, where exposures for a given individual are often modeled based on simultaneous measurements taken at multiple indoor and outdoor sites. The monitoring data from such studies is hierarchical by design, imposing a complex covariance structure that must be accounted for in order to obtain unbiased estimates of exposure. Statistical methods such as structural equation modeling (SEM) represent a useful alternative to simple linear regression in these cases, providing simultaneous and unbiased predictions of each level of exposure based on a set of covariates specific to the exposure setting. We test the SEM approach using data from a large exposure assessment of diesel and combustion particles in the U.S.trucking industry. The exposure assessment includes data from 36 different trucking terminals across the United States sampled between 2001 and 2005, measuring PM2.5 and its elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) components, by personal monitoring, and sampling at two indoor work locations and an outdoor "background" location. Using the SEM method, we predict the following: (1) personal exposures as a function of work-related exposure and smoking status; (2) work-related exposure as a function of terminal characteristics, indoor ventilation, job location, and background exposure conditions; and (3) background exposure conditions as a function of weather, nearby source pollution, and other regional differences across terminal sites. The primary advantage of SEMs in this setting is the ability to simultaneously predict exposures at each of the sampling locations, while accounting for the complex covariance structure among the measurements and descriptive variables. The statistically significant results and high R2 values observed from the trucking industry application supports the broader use of this approach in exposure assessment modeling. PMID:16856739

Davis, M E; Smith, T J; Laden, F; Hart, J E; Ryan, L M; Garshick, E

2006-07-01

241

Particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motorcycle exhaust emissions.  

PubMed

The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in emission of a two-stroke carburetor motorcycle was studied. The exhaust gas from the test motorcycle was passed to a dilution tunnel and collected using a 10 cascade micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) of 0.056-10 microm aerodynamic diameter fitted with aluminum substrates. All MOUDI substrates were analyzed for particulate mass and for PAHs by GC/MS. Most of the 21 analyzed PAHs have two significant modes that peak at <0.1 and 0.18-0.32 microm. For some PAHs, a third peak appears around 1.8 microm. MOUDI impactor samples show that 88.9% particulate and 89.6% PAH mass distributed smaller than 2.5 microm. Mass median diameters of PAHs are about 0.2 microm. Total benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalency emission factor was 440+/-13.8 ng/km for the test motorcycle. An average of 90.3% of carcinogenicity is observed in particulate smaller than 1.0 microm. The results suggest that submicron particulates predominate in the exhaust from motorcycle and exhibit high carcinogenic potency for these particulate. PMID:15979788

Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Chao, Mu-Rong; Lin, Chi-Chwen

2005-10-17

242

Effects of combinations of diesel exhaust and ozone exposure on lung function in human volunteers.  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone (03) exposure induces changes in human lung function, typically seen as a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Because people are usually exposed to other ambient air pollutants simultaneously with 03, there may be interact...

243

PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO JP-8 JET FUEL VAPORS AND EXHAUST AT AIR FORCE BASES  

EPA Science Inventory

JP-8 jet fuel (similar to commercial/international jet A-1 fuel) is the standard military fuel for all types of vehicles, including the U.S. Air Force aircraft inventory. As such, JP-8 presents the most common chemical exposure in the Air Force, particularly for flight and gro...

244

Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Particles Does Not Affect Vascular Function in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We previously demonstrated that exposure to dilute diesel exhaust causes vascular dysfunction in humans. Objectives: We conducted a study to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter causes vascular dysfunction. Methods: Twelve male patients with stable coronary heart disease and 12 age-matched volunteers were exposed

Nicholas L. Mills; Simon D. Robinson; Paul H. B. Fokkens; Daan L. A. C. Leseman; Mark R. Miller; David Anderson; Evelyn J. Freney; Mathew R. Heal; Robert J. Donovan; Anders Blomberg; Thomas Sandström; William MacNee; Nicholas A. Boon; Ken Donaldson; David E. Newby; Flemming R. Cassee

2008-01-01

245

Predictive models for deposition of inhaled diesel exhaust particles in humans and laboratory species. Research report, July 1984-January 1987  

SciTech Connect

A deposition model for diesel-exhaust particles was formulated mathematically from available scientific data, and was used to predict the deposition of particles in the airways of laboratory animals and of humans of different ages. In addition, a lung-growth model was formulated for humans, from infancy to adulthood, to predict the effect of age on deposition. The investigators predicted from their models that: (1) deposition in the alveoli is markedly affected by changes in the size distribution of particles; (2) nose- versus mouth-breathing had little effect on deposition in the alveoli; (3) increased minute ventilation substantially increased the rate of particle deposition; and (4) age (in humans) influenced the levels of deposition observed in the unciliated regions of the airways (the highest levels of deposition occurred in infants under two years, decreased in children over two years, and decreased again in adults aged 25 years or older); and (5) the deposition rate in laboratory animals was higher than in humans of all ages.

Yu, C.P.; Xu, G.B.

1987-07-01

246

The effects of an open and closed divertor on particle exhaust during edge-localized mode suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares the effects of divertor geometry on particle exhaust characteristics during the suppression of ELM using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on DIII-D. The subject is timely, particularly for ITER, because the combination of techniques to control or mitigate ELMs and control particle exhaust can provide confidence in the ability of an external pumping system to fully remove the particle exhaust. The differences between an open and closed divertor magnetic topology show a strong coupling of the perturbed strikepoint to the pumping manifold in closed divertor configurations, which can increase the particle exhaust by a factor of four. There is also an observed dependence on q(95) in this configuration, which is a common feature of RMP ELM suppression. Neutral density in both the active and non-active divertors is seen to increase during the RMP in the ISS configuration, and edge plasma conditions (i.e. n(e,sep) and midplane profile of D(alpha)) are seen to increase in the closed divertor configuration. Finally, the pumping exhaust is also shown to have a strong dependence on local measurements of the recycling flux. These observations, when taken as a whole, point to a substantial change in the plasma edge conditions, i.e. near the LCFS, throughout the poloidal cross-section of the vacuum vessel. This is coincident with the application of the RMP affecting the pumping capability of the system.

Unterberg, E. A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Schmitz, O. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Evans, T.E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Brooks, N. H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Mordijck, S. [University of California, San Diego; Moyer, R.A. [University of California, San Diego; Orlov, D. M. [University of California, San Diego & La Jolla

2010-01-01

247

Organic extract of diesel exhaust particles stimulates expression of Ia and costimulatory molecules associated with antigen presentation in rat peripheral blood monocytes but not in alveolar macrophages  

SciTech Connect

We hypothesized that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in lung. The present study was designed to clarify the following about DEP: (1) whether it affects the expression of Ia and B7 molecules in alveolar macrophages (AM) as a mature cell or in peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) as an immature cell (2) if it affects the antigen-presenting (AP) activity of PBM (3) what component of DEP is responsible for the effects, and (4) whether the effect of DEP is related to oxidative stress. DEP was extracted with methylene chloride. Cells were exposed to whole DEP, organic extract, or residual particles for 24 h. Cell-surface molecules were measured by flow cytometry. AP activity was assessed by antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Whole DEP or organic extract significantly increased the expression of Ia and B7 molecules on PBM but not on AM. No significant effect of residual particles was observed. A low concentration of organic extract also increased the AP activity of PBM. When the induction of an antioxidative enzyme was assessed, heme oxygenase-1 protein was found to be significantly increased by exposure to whole DEP, and the organic extract was more effective than the residual particles. Furthermore, the organic extract-induced expression of Ia antigen on PBM was reduced by the addition of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that DEP may act on immature APC and enhance their AP activity and that the action contributing to oxidative stress may be mediated by organic compounds of DEP.

Koike, Eiko [Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) Research Project, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)]. E-mail: ekoike@nies.go.jp; Kobayashi, Takahiro [Environmental Health Sciences Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

2005-12-15

248

A quantitative description of vehicle exhaust particle size distributions in a highway tunnel.  

PubMed

During the period May 18-May 22, 1999, a comprehensive study was conducted in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel on the Pennsylvania Turnpike to measure real-world motor-vehicle emissions. As part of this study, size distributions of particle emissions were determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Each measured size distribution consisted of two modes: a nucleation mode with midpoint diameter less than 20 nm and an accumulation mode with midpoint diameter less than 100 nm. The nucleation and accumulation components in some distributions also exhibited second maxima, which implies that such particle size distributions are superpositions of two particle size distributions. This hypothesis was utilized in fitting the particle size distributions that exhibited second maxima with four lognormal distributions, two for the nucleation mode and two for the accumulation mode. The fitting assumed that the observed particle size distribution was a combination of two bimodal log-normal distributions, one attributed to the heavy-duty diesel (HDD) vehicles and another attributed either to a different class of HDD vehicles or to the light-duty spark ignition vehicles. Based on this method, estimated particle production rates were 1.8 x 10(13) and 2.8 x 10(14) particles/vehicle-km for light-duty spark ignition and HDD vehicles, respectively, which agreed with independently obtained estimates. PMID:15061617

Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Rogers, C Fred; Gertler, Alan W

2004-03-01

249

Estimating particle exposure in the Mexico City metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study question: We examined whether methods for measuring exposure to airborne particles less than 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in the Mexico City metropolitan area give different estimates of PM10 levels, and the nature of these differences, and developed a model for estimating missing PM10 data for one measurement method. Methods: Government PM10 measurements using two different technologies at

MARIE S O'NEILL; DANA LOOMIS; VICTOR TORRES MEZA; ARMANDO RETAMA; DIANE GOLD

2002-01-01

250

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST (Final 2002)  

EPA Science Inventory

This assessment examined information regarding the possible health hazards associated with exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DE), which is a mixture of gases and particles. The assessment concludes that long-term (i.e., chronic) inhalation exposure is likely to pose a l...

251

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ENHANCE INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIVITY BY INCREASING VIRUS ATTACHMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite vaccination and antiviral therapies, influenza infections continue to cause large scale morbidity and mortality every year. Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the incidence and severity of influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air polluta...

252

Exposure to dust and particle-associated 1-nitropyrene of drivers of diesel-powered equipment in underground mining.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted in two mines in order to determine the most suitable strategy for ambient exposure assessment in the framework of a European study aimed at validation of biological monitoring approaches for diesel exhaust (BIOMODEM). Exposure to dust and particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) was studied in 20 miners of black coal by the long wall method (Czech Republic) and in 20 workers in oil shale mining by the room and pillar method (Estonia). The study in the oil shale mine was extended to include 100 workers in a second phase (main study). In each mine half of the study population worked underground as drivers of diesel-powered trains (black coal) and excavators (oil shale). The other half consisted of workers occupied in various non-diesel production assignments. Exposure to diesel exhaust was studied by measurement of inhalable and respirable dust at fixed locations and by personal air sampling of respirable dust. The ratio of geometric mean inhalable to respirable dust concentration was approximately two to one. The underground/surface ratio of respirable dust concentrations measured at fixed locations and in the breathing zones of the workers was 2-fold or greater. Respirable dust was 2- to 3-fold higher in the breathing zone than at fixed sampling locations. The 1-NP content in these dust fractions was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and ranged from 0.003 to 42.2 ng/m(3) in the breathing zones of the workers. In mine dust no 1-NP was detected. In both mines 1-NP was observed to be primarily associated with respirable particles. The 1-NP concentrations were also higher underground than on the surface (2- to 3-fold in the coal mine and 10-fold or more in the oil shale mine). Concentrations of 1-NP in the breathing zones were also higher than at fixed sites (2.5-fold in the coal mine and 10-fold in the oil shale mine). For individual exposure assessment personal air sampling is preferred over air sampling at fixed sites. This study also suggests that particle-associated 1-NP much better reflects the ambient exposure to diesel exhaust particles than dust concentrations. Therefore, measurement of particle-associated 1-NP is preferred over measurement of dust concentrations by gravimetry, when linking ambient exposure to biomonitoring outcomes such as protein and DNA adducts and excretion of urinary metabolites of genotoxic substances. PMID:12855488

Scheepers, P T J; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Anzion, R; Dahmann, D; Poole, J; Bos, R P

2003-07-01

253

Size distribution of unburned aluminum particles in solid propellant rocket motor exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The size distribution of particles of unburned aluminum exiting a solid propellant rocket chamber is calculated by extending a previously developed theoretical model. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional approximations to the chamber flow field are considered, but particle velocity lags are neglected. Results of the one-dimensional analysis differ from the more realistic two-dimensional results in that they predict a lower overall combustion efficiency and a most probable particle size which is always greater than zero. It is argued that these observations can be explained by the fact that the one-dimensional flow field allows many particles to pass through the chamber with a very short residence time.

Larson, R.S.

1986-06-01

254

Chrysotile asbestos exposure associated with removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) by mechanics: results of a simulation study.  

PubMed

For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were not detectable. PMID:16265462

Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C

2006-03-01

255

Identification and quantification of 1-nitropyrene metabolites in human urine as a proposed biomarker for exposure to diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

1-nitropyrene (1-NP) is one of the most abundant nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in diesel exhaust particulate matter (DEP) and is a main contributor of direct-acting mutagenicity in DEP. Therefore, the metabolites of 1-NP are expected to be a biomarker for assessment of exposure to DEP. In this study, a highly specific and sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine urinary 1-NP metabolites. After enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites, the analytes were selectively extracted from the urine matrix with blue rayon. The eluate from the rayon was further purified on an acidic alumina cartridge. Hydroxy-N-acetyl- 1-aminopyrenes (6- and 8-OHNAAP) and hydroxy-1-nitropyrenes (3-, 6-, and 8-OHNP) in human urine were identified by their retention times and MS/MS spectra and quantified by using deuterated internal standards. 1-NP metabolites were quantified in urine from all healthy, nonoccupationally exposed subjects. 6-OHNAAP, 8-OHNAAP, 6-OHNP, and 8-OHNP (means of 117, 109, 203, and 137 pmol/mol creatinine, respectively) were the most abundant isomers in human urine. This report is the first to demonstrate the presence of OHNAAPs and OHNPs in human urine, in agreement with previous in vivo and in vitro studies that predicted that these metabolites should be excreted into human urine. This method for determining urinary 1-NP metabolites should be useful for the surveillance of exposure to NPAHs and DEP and will facilitate the study of cancer risk associated with these exposures. PMID:17580912

Toriba, Akira; Kitaoka, Hitomi; Dills, Russell L; Mizukami, Satoko; Tanabe, Kaori; Takeuchi, Naoki; Ueno, Mariko; Kameda, Takayuki; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Simpson, Christopher D

2007-06-20

256

Effects of exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust on 8-OHdG synthesis in the mouse asthmatic lung  

PubMed Central

It has been demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is associated with the induction and exacerbation of respiratory disorders; however, the impacts of DE containing mainly nanoparticles have been less studied. We have previously demonstrated that inhalation exposure to nanoparticle-rich DE (NR-DE) exacerbated allergic pulmonary inflammation, in the context of enhanced local expression of proinflammatory molecules. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a marker of oxidative damage, particularly in DNA. This study examined the effects of NR-DE on 8-OHdG synthesis in the lung in the presence or absence of an allergen. Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice were exposed by inhalation to four different gas compositions (control air, low-concentration DE, high-concentration DE and high-concentration DE without particulate matter) for 8 weeks, in the presence or absence of repetitive intratracheal administration of ovalbumin (OVA). Thereafter, we assessed the levels of 8-OHdG synthesis and expression in the lungs by means of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunohistochemistry. The EIA revealed that the level of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the high-concentration NR-DE-exposed and allergen-sensitized/stimulated group compared with that in the control air-exposed and allergen-treated group. The immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the level of immunoreactive 8-OHdG was higher in the NR-DE-exposed and allergen-treated lungs compared with that in the corresponding control air-exposed lungs. The results suggested that NR-DE exposure enhanced 8-OHdG formation in asthmatic lungs. This, at least in part, is involved in the NR-DE-mediated exacerbation of the allergic pathophysiology that was identified in our previous study.

TANAKA, MICHITAKA; TAKANO, HIROHISA; FUJITANI, YUJI; HIRANO, SEISHIRO; ICHINOSE, TAKAMICHI; SHIMADA, AKINORI; INOUE, KEN-ICHIRO

2013-01-01

257

Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987-2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions - temperatures of 25-100 °C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1-600 ?g m-3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution can be used to quantitatively describe the gas-particle partitioning of the entire test fleet. This distribution is designed to be applied to quartz filter POA emission factors in order to update emissions inventories for use in chemical transport models.

May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

2013-10-01

258

Disruption of MicroRNA Expression in Human Airway Cells by Diesel Exhaust Particles Is Linked to Tumorigenesis-Associated Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse airway health effects; however, the underlying mechanism in disease initiation is still largely unknown. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs; small noncoding RNAs) have been suggested to be important in maintaining the lung in a disease-free state through regulation of gene expression. Although many studies have shown aberrant miRNA expression patterns in diseased versus healthy tissue, little is known regarding whether environmental agents can induce such changes. Objectives We used diesel exhaust particles (DEP), the largest source of emitted airborne PM, to investigate pollutant-induced changes in miRNA expression in airway epithelial cells. We hypothesized that DEP exposure can lead to disruption of normal miRNA expression patterns, representing a plausible novel mechanism through which DEP can mediate disease initiation. Methods Human bronchial epithelial cells were grown at air–liquid interface until they reached mucociliary differentiation. After treating the cells with 10 ?g/cm2 DEP for 24 hr, we analyzed total RNA for miRNA expression using microarray profile analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results DEP exposure changed the miRNA expression profile in human airway epithelial cells. Specifically, 197 of 313 detectable miRNAs (62.9%) were either up-regulated or down-regulated by 1.5-fold. Molecular network analysis of putative targets of the 12 most altered miRNAs indicated that DEP exposure is associated with inflammatory responses pathways and a strong tumorigenic disease signature. Conclusions Alteration of miRNA expression profiles by environmental pollutants such as DEP can modify cellular processes by regulation of gene expression, which may lead to disease pathogenesis.

Jardim, Melanie J.; Fry, Rebecca C.; Jaspers, Ilona; Dailey, Lisa; Diaz-Sanchez, David

2009-01-01

259

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL

2012-01-01

260

Strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for particles.  

PubMed Central

To set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for aerosol particles, dusts, or chemicals, one has to evaluate whether mechanistic considerations permit identification of a no observed effect level (NOEL). In the case of carcinogenic effects, this can be assumed if no genotoxicity is involved, and exposure is considered safe if it does not exceed the NOEL. If tumor induction is associated with genotoxicity, any exposure is considered to be of risk, although a NOEL may be identified in the animal or human exposure studies. This must also be assumed when no information on the carcinogenic mechanism, including genotoxicity, is available. Aerosol particles, especially fibrous dusts, which include man-made mineral fiber(s) (MMMF), present a challenge for toxicological evaluation. Many MMMF that have been investigated have induced tumors in animals and genotoxicity in vitro. Since these effects have been associated with long-thin fiber geometry and high durability in vivo, all fibers meeting such criteria are considered carcinogenic unless the opposite has been demonstrated. This approach is practicable. Investigations on fiber tumorigenicity/genotoxicity should include information on dose response, pathobiochemistry, particle clearance, and persistence of the material in the target organ. Such information will introduce quantitative aspects into the qualitative approach that has so far been used to classify fibrous dusts as carcinogens. The rationales for classifying the potential carcinogenicity of MMMF and for setting OELs used by the different European committees and regulatory agencies are described.

Greim, H A; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K

1997-01-01

261

Real-time Characterization of Particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Aerosols and From Motor-Vehicles Exhausts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the spring of 2007 a diffusion charger (DC), a photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS), and a condensation particle counter (CPC) were operated a) in Wilmington (CA), an urban area near the Los Angeles port heavily influenced by a mix of industrial and gasoline- / diesel-fuelled vehicle emissions, and b) at the California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Test Laboratory (HDETL), a dynamometer testing facility in downtown Los Angeles (CA). During the dynamometer tests, we characterized the exhausts of several individual types of vehicles, equipped with different emission control technologies, and operated under different driving conditions. Information about the chemical composition, active surface area, and particle number concentration from the PAS, DC, and CPC were combined to identify the main chemical and physical characteristics of the studied aerosols. In particular, the ratio between the PAS and the DC signals (PAS/DC) provided a reliable measurement of the amount of particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (pPAH) per unit area of the active surface of the particles. This quantity may be directly related to the amount of pPAHs transported into the human respiratory tract. Plots of the PAS/DC ratio versus the average surface particle diameter (Dp; estimated by combining DC and CPC measurements) were then used to distinguish between the presence/absence of nuclei mode particles and the presence/absence of an adsorbed layer on accumulation mode particles, for both ambient and dynamometer-tests data. All results were then complemented with measurements of the particle size distribution (SMPS) and of the black carbon (BC) aerosol content to obtain further insights on the pPAHs emitted by motor-vehicles and other sources. Integrated 24-h filter samples were also collected in Wilmington, solvent extracted and analyzed by GC/MS to determine the relative concentrations of the 11 most abundant pPAHs found at the urban site. Finally, these results were used to establish correlations between the concentrations of each individual PAH species and the measured PAS signal (from fA to ? g/m3).

Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Sioutas, C.

2007-12-01

262

The Effect of Diesel Exhaust Particles on Cell Function and Release of Inflammatory Mediators from Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal studies have reported that diesel exhaust particles (DEP), which constitute an important fraction of particulate air pollution, lead to inflammation and\\/or damage of the airways. To investigate the mecha- nisms underlying DEP-induced airway disease in humans, we have cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) from surgically obtained bronchial explants and investigated the effects of purified DEP on the permeability

Hasan Bayram; Jagdish L. Devalia; Raymond J. Sapsford; Takayuki Ohtoshi; Yuichi Miyabara; Masaru Sagai; Robert J. Davies

263

Comparison of the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel exhaust using a dilution tailpipe sampler and an in-plume sampler during on-road operation.  

PubMed

Originally constructed to develop gaseous emission factors for heavy-duty diesel trucks, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility has been modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentation. An electrical low-pressure impactor designed to continuously measure and record size distribution data was used to monitor the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel truck exhaust. For this study, which involved a high-mileage (900,000 mi) truck running at full load, samples were collected by two different methods. One sample was obtained directly from the exhaust stack using an adaptation of the University of Minnesota's air-ejector-based mini-dilution sampler. The second sample was pulled from the plume just above the enclosed trailer, at a point approximately 11 m from the exhaust discharge. Typical dilution ratios of about 300:1 were obtained for both the dilution and plume sampling systems. Hundreds of particle size distributions were obtained at each sampling location. These were compared both selectively and cumulatively to evaluate the performance of the dilution system in simulating real-world exhaust plumes. The data show that, in its current residence-time configuration, the dilution system imposes a statistically significant bias toward smaller particles, with substantially more nanoparticles being collected than from the plume sample. PMID:11002602

Brown, J E; Clayton, M J; Harris, D B; King, F G

2000-08-01

264

Nasal instillation of nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust particles slightly affects emotional behavior and learning capability in rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, in order to reveal novel adverse effects of ultrafine particles (UFP) on the central nervous system, the effects of nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust particles (NRDEP; count mode diameter, 21.45 nm) on emotional behavior, learning capability and brain neurotransmitter levels were studied in rats by intranasal instillation (iNI). NRDEP (10 and 50 µg/rat) was instilled into 2-week old infant, male rats once a week for 4 weeks. Spontaneous motor activity measured was observed to be inverse to the dose level. In active avoidance tests using a shuttle box, NRDEP-treated animals showed a lower avoidance performance than control animals given air-instillation. The levels of dopamine and its metabolite (DOPAC) in the medial mammillary nucleus of the brain tended to be lower in the NRDEP-treated animals. From these results, although the effects of NRDEP by iNI on the emotionality and the brain neurotransmitter levels were not fully clear, the results obtained by avoidance testing suggested involvement of UFP in learning capability. PMID:21628955

Yokota, Syunji; Takashima, Hiromasa; Ohta, Ryo; Saito, Yoshiaki; Miyahara, Takashi; Yoshida, Yuka; Negura, Tsukasa; Senuma, Mika; Usumi, Kenji; Hirabayashi, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Takaho; Horiuchi, Shinji; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro; Fujimaki, Hidekazu

2011-06-01

265

Identification of pathology from diesel exhaust particles in the bladder in a rat model by aspiration of particles from the pharynx.  

PubMed

To determine whether diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) could be a toxic agent to the bladder, rats were exposed to different concentrations of DEPs for one month or three months. When the rats were sacrificed, morphologic changes of the urothelium were investigated. The antioxidase activity and the levels of lipid peroxidation in the bladder were assayed. In the three-month group, DEPs at doses of 21.03 ?g/?l insulted the structural integrity of surface glycosaminoglycans, widened the gap between urothelial cells, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, and decreased antioxidase activities in the urinary bladder (p<0.05). Furthermore, DEPs at a dose of 5.61 ?g/?l decreased glutathione, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities (p<0.05). These results led to the conclusion that DEPs were a toxic agent in the bladder. The toxic effects might be attributed to oxidative damage mediated by pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalance or excessive free radicals. PMID:23467115

Luo, Longhua; Hong, Xinru; Chen, Chunjing; Brooks, Stephen P; Song, Yanfeng

2013-02-14

266

Differential Responses upon Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel versus Diesel Exhaust on Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Outcomes  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodiesel (BD) exhaust may have reduced adverse health effects due to lower mass emissions and reduced production of hazardous compounds compared to diesel exhaust. To investigate this possibility, we compared adverse effects in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation ex...

267

Acute skin lesions due to localized ``hot particle`` radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small (<0.5 mm) discrete radioactive particles. Hanford mini-swine were exposed to localized doses from 0.2 to over 600 Gy (averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 70{mu}m depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit.

Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

1996-06-01

268

CHARACTERIZING THE SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO MUTAGENIC AND CARCINOGENIC CHEMICALS IN AIRBORNE FINE PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Personal and ambient exposures to airborne fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and genotoxic activity has been studied in populations in the US, Japan, China, and the Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors used to collect fine particles were extracted f...

269

Recovery from changes in the blood and nasal cavity and/or lungs of rats caused by exposure to methanol-fueled engine exhaust  

SciTech Connect

One group of male, pathogen-free, Fischer 344 rats was exposed to about 17-fold diluted exhaust generated by an M85 methanol-fueled engine (methanol with 15% gasoline) without catalyst for 8 h, and then the rates of recovery from the resulting increased levels of plasma formaldehyde and carboxyhemoglobin in their erythrocytes were measured. The carboxyhemoglobin level in the erythrocytes was restored within 4 h, whereas the plasma formaldehyde level was still elevated after 4 h but was restored to the normal level within 8 h. No methanol or formic acid was detected in the plasma. Another group of rats was exposed to the same dilution of exhaust for 8 h/d for 7 d, and then the recovery from histopathological damage of the nasal cavity and lungs was also examined. Hyperplasia/squamous metaplasia and erosion of the respiratory epithelium lining the nasoturbinate, maxilloturbinate, or nasal septum, and infiltration of neutrophils into the submucosa at level 1 (level of the posterior edge of the upper incisor teeth) were observed immediately after the exposure period. Lesions of the respiratory epithelium at level 2 (incisive papilla) were less than those at level 1. Slight lesions at levels 1 or 2 were still noticed 1 wk after exposure, but not 4 wk after exposure. Just after exposure, decreases of Clara cells in the terminal bronchiolus and of cilia in the bronchial/bronchiolar epithelium were also observed. Moreover, focal hypertrophy of alveolar walls and increase of macrophages were observed in parts adjacent to respiratory bronchiolus. One week after the exposure period, these changes were no longer seen. These results indicate that changes in the blood and in the nasal cavity and lungs caused by methanol-fueled engine exhaust are reversible. However, complete recovery from damage of the nasal cavity caused by 7-d exposure takes 4 wk, and recovery from elevated plasma formaldehyde and erythrocyte carboxyhemoglobin levels caused by a single 8-h exposure takes 4-8 h.

Maejima, K.; Suzuki, T.; Numata, H.; Maekawa, A.; Nagase, S.; Ishinishi, N. (Japan Automobile Research Institute, Inc., Ibaraki (Japan))

1993-07-01

270

PM10 emission factors for non-exhaust particles generated by road traffic in an urban street canyon and along a freeway in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown clear contributions of non-exhaust emissions to the traffic related PM10 load of the ambient air. These emissions consist of particles produced by abrasion from brakes, road wear, tire wear, as well as vehicle induced resuspension of deposited road dust. The main scope of the presented work was to identify and quantify the non-exhaust fraction of traffic related PM10 for two roadside locations in Switzerland with different traffic regimes. The two investigated locations, an urban street canyon with heavily congested traffic and an interurban freeway, are considered as being typical for Central Europe. Mass-relevant contributions from abrasion particles and resuspended road dust mainly originated from particles in the size range 1-10 ?m. The results showed a major influence of vehicle induced resuspension of road dust. In the street canyon, the traffic related PM10 emissions (LDV: 24 ± 8 mg km -1 vehicle -1, HDV: 498 ± 86 mg km -1 vehicle -1) were assigned to 21% brake wear, 38% resuspended road dust and 41% exhaust emissions. Along the freeway (LDV: 50 ± 13 mg km -1 vehicle -1, HDV: 288 ± 72 mg km -1 vehicle -1), respective contributions were 3% brake wear, 56% resuspended road dust and 41% exhaust emissions. There was no indication for relevant contributions from tire wear and abrasion from undamaged pavements.

Bukowiecki, N.; Lienemann, P.; Hill, M.; Furger, M.; Richard, A.; Amato, F.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Buchmann, B.; Gehrig, R.

2010-06-01

271

Skin exposure to micro- and nano-particles can cause haemostasis in zebrafish larvae.  

PubMed

Low mass ambient exposure to airborne particles is associated with atherothrombotic events that may be a consequence of the combustion-derived nanoparticle content. There is concern also over the potential cardiovascular impact of manufactured nanoparticles. To better understand the mechanism by which toxic airborne particles can affect cardiovascular function we utilised zebrafish as a genetically tractable model. Using light and confocal fluorescence video-microscopy, we measured heart-rate and blood flow in the dorsal aorta and caudal artery of zebrafish larvae that had been exposed to a number of toxic and non-toxic microparticles and nanoparticles. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP), carboxy-charged Latex beads (carboxy-beads) and toxic alumina (Taimicron TM300), but not non-toxic alumina (Baikalox A125), were found to promote both skin and gut cell damage, increased leukocyte invasion into the epidermis, tail muscle ischaemia and haemostasis within the caudal artery of free swimming zebrafish larvae. The presence of sodium sulfite, a reducing agent, or warfarin, an anticoagulant, within the system water abrogated the effects of both toxic alumina and carboxy-beads but not DEP. Genetic manipulation of skin barrier function augmented skin damage and haemostasis, even for the non-toxic alumina. The toxic effects of carboxy-beads were still apparent after leukocyte numbers were depleted with anti-Pu.1 morpholino. We conclude that particle uptake across skin epithelium and gut mucosal barriers, or the presence of leukocytes, is not required for particle-induced haemostasis while a compromised skin barrier function accentuated tissue injury and haemostasis. PMID:20174755

McLeish, Jennifer A; Chico, Timothy J A; Taylor, Harriet B; Tucker, Carl; Donaldson, Ken; Brown, Simon B

2010-02-19

272

Particle exhaust scheme using an in-vessel cryocondensation pump in the advanced divertor configuration of the DIII-D tokamak  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a particle exhaust scheme using a cryocondensation pump in the advanced divertor configuration of the DIII-D tokamak is described. In this configuration, the pump is located inside a baffle chamber within the tokamak, designed to receive particles reflected off the divertor strike region. A concentric coaxial loop with forced-convection flow of two-phase helium is selected as the cryocondensation surface. The pumping configuration is optimized by Monte Carlo techniques to provide maximum exhaust efficiency while minimizing the deleterious effects of impingement of energetic plasma particles on cryogenic surfaces. Heat loading contributions from various sources on the cryogenic surfaces are estimated, based on which the cryogenic surfaces are estimated, based on which the cryogenic flow loop for the pump is designed. The mechanical aspects of the pump, designed to meet the many challenging requirements of operating the cryopump internal to the tokamak vacuum and in close proximity with the high-temperature plasma, are also outlined.

Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Owen, L.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Anderson, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Langhorn, A.; Luxon, J.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.J.; Schaubel, K.M.; Smith, J.P> (General Atomics Co., San Diego, CA (United States))

1992-11-01

273

Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous and particulate matter from marine vessels gain increasing attention due to their significant contribution to the anthropogenic burden of the atmosphere, implying the change of the atmospheric composition and the impact on local and regional air quality and climate (Eyring et al., 2010). As ship emissions significantly affect air quality of onshore regions, this study deals with various aspects of gas and particulate plumes from marine traffic measured near the Elbe river mouth in northern Germany. In addition to a detailed investigation of the chemical and physical particle properties from different types of commercial marine vessels, we will focus on the chemistry of ship plumes and their changes while undergoing atmospheric processing. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe which is passed on average, daily by 30 ocean-going vessels reaching the port of Hamburg, the second largest freight port of Europe. During 5 days of sampling from April 25-30, 2011 170 commercial marine vessels were probed at a distance of about 1.5-2 km with high temporal resolution. Mass concentrations in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and number as well as PAH and black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM1 were measured; size distribution instruments covered the size range from 6 nm up to 32 ?m. The chemical composition of the non-refractory aerosol in the submicron range was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gas concentrations in the air and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of ship information for each vessel including speed, size, vessel type, fuel type, gross tonnage and engine power was recorded via Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. Although commercial marine vessels powered by diesel engines consume high-sulfur fuel, the chemical submicron aerosol fraction is mainly composed of hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) species. These include PAHs that are adsorbed onto the high number of ultrafine particles. Nevertheless, the chemical composition, typical particle sizes as well as emitted gaseous components vary substantially dependent on the engine or ship type, engine operation condition and fuel mixture. This results in cargo vessels compared to tankers, passenger ships and river boats being the largest polluters influencing the Elbe shipping lane areas by high amounts of NOx, SO2, CO2, PAH, BC and ultrafine particulate matter. The tropospheric ozone chemistry in this area is also substantially affected particularly due to the increasing number of Elbe-passing ships. As onshore regions can be influenced by aged shipping plumes, trajectory pathways and transportation times were examined. As a consequence of the plumes' aging, variations of the organic fraction of the mass spectral fingerprints were found. Eyring, V. et al. (2010), Atmospheric Environment, 44, 4735-4771.

Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

2011-12-01

274

In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur-containing fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of sulfur oxides on particle formation and contrails is investigated in the exhaust plumes of a twin-engine jet aircraft. Different fuels were used with sulfur mass fractions of 170 and 5500 ppm in the fuel, one lower than average, the other above the specification limit of standard Jet-Al fuel. During various phases of the same flight, the two engines burnt either high- or low-sulfur fuel or different fuels in the two engines. Besides visual, photographic, and video observations from close distance, in situ measurements were made within the plumes at plume ages of 20 to 30 s, at altitudes between 9 and 9.5 km, and temperatures between -49 and -55°C, when the visible contrail was about 2 km long. The data include particle number densities for particles larger than 7 nm, 18 nm, 120 nm, and 1 ?m in diameter, together with wind, temperature and humidity measurements. The observations show visible and measurable differences between contrails caused by the different sulfur levels. At ambient temperatures 5 K below the threshold temperature for contrail onset, the plume became visible about 10 m after the engine exit for high sulfur content, but 15 m after the engine exit for low sulfur content. The higher sulfur emission caused a larger optical thickness of the contrail shortly after onset, with slightly brown-colored contrail when the Sun was behind the observer, and more contrast when viewed against the Sun. The high-sulfur contrail grew more quickly but also evaporated earlier than the low-sulfur contrail. At plume ages of about 20 s, each engine plume was diluted to an effective diameter of 20 m. The plumes contained many subvisible particles. Peak number densities were 30,000 cm-3 for particles of diameter above 7 nm and 15,000 cm-3 above 18 nm. The latter is a little larger than the estimated number of soot particles emitted. The high-sulfur plume shows more particles than the low-sulfur plume. The differences are about 25% for particles above 7 nm and about 50% above 18 nm. The results indicate that part of the fuel sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid which nucleates with water vapor heterogeneously on soot or nucleates acid droplets homogeneously which then coagulate partly with soot. During descent through the level of contrail onset, the high-sulfur contrail remained visible at slightly lower altitude (25 to 50 m) or higher temperature (0.2 to 0.4 K). At least for average to high sulfur contents, aircraft generate an invisible aerosol trail which enhances the background level of condensation nuclei, in particular in regions with dense air traffic at northern latitudes and near the tropopause.

Schumann, U.; StröM, J.; Busen, R.; Baumann, R.; Gierens, K.; Krautstrunk, M.; Schröder, F. P.; Stingl, J.

1996-03-01

275

Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester (United States))

1992-04-01

276

Exposure to ultrafine and fine particles and noise during cycling and driving in 11 Dutch cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that exposures during traffic participation may be associated with adverse health effects. Traffic participation involves relatively short but high exposures. Potentially relevant exposures include ultrafine particles, fine particles (PM2.5) and noise.Simultaneously, detailed real time exposure of particle number concentration (PNC), PM2.5 and noise has been measured while driving and cycling 12 predefined routes of approximately 10–20 min

Hanna Boogaard; Frank Borgman; Jaap Kamminga; Gerard Hoek

2009-01-01

277

Diesel exhaust particles and carbon black have adjuvant activity on the local lymph node response and systemic IgE production to ovalbumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible adjuvant effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the response to the model allergen ovalbumin (OA) was studied in BALB\\/c mice using the popliteal lymph node (PLN) assay. In addition to changes in PLN weight, cell numbers and cell proliferation, specific serum IgE anti-OA antibody levels were measured. OA inoculated together with DEP into one hind footpad gave

Martinus Løvik; Ann-Kristin Høgseth; Per Ivar Gaarder; Randi Hagemann; Ingvar Eide

1997-01-01

278

Effect of biodiesel on the particle size distribution in the exhaust of common-rail diesel engine and the mechanism of nanoparticle formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of biodiesel blends on the particle size distribution (PSD) of exhaust aerosol and the mechanism of nanoparticle formation\\u000a were investigated with a modern common rail light-duty diesel engine. The results showed that PSD of diesel included two modes:\\u000a nucleation mode (NM) and accumulation mode (CM). The criterion diameter of the two modes is 50 nm. Only CM was observed

XuSheng Zhang; Hui Zhao; ZongJie Hu; ZhiJun Wu; LiGuang Li

2009-01-01

279

Human exposure to large solar particle events in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whenever energetic solar protons produced by solar particle events traverse bulk matter, they undergo various nuclear and atomic collision processes which significantly alter the physical characteristics and biologically important properties of their transported radiation fields. These physical interactions and their effect on the resulting radiation field within matter are described within the context of a recently developed deterministic, coupled neutron-proton space radiation transport computer code (BRYNTRN). Using this computer code, estimates of human exposure in interplanetary space, behind nominal (2 g/cm2) and storm shelter (20 g/cm2) thicknesses of aluminum shielding, are made for the large solar proton event of August 1972. Included in these calculations are estimates of cumulative exposures to the skin, ocular lens, and bone marrow as a function of time during the event. Risk assessment in terms of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is discussed for these organs. Also presented are estimates of organ exposures for hypothetical, worst-case flare scenarios. The rate of dose equivalent accumulation places this situation in an interesting region of dose rate between the very low values of usual concern in terrestrial radiation environments and the high dose rate values prevalent in radiation therapy.

Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Curtis, S. B.

280

Human exposure to large solar particle events in space.  

PubMed

Whenever energetic solar protons produced by solar particle events traverse bulk matter, they undergo various nuclear and atomic collision processes which significantly alter the physical characteristics and biologically important properties of their transported radiation fields. These physical interactions and their effect on the resulting radiation field within matter are described within the context of a recently developed deterministic, coupled neutron-proton space radiation transport computer code (BRYNTRN). Using this computer code, estimates of human exposure in interplanetary space, behind nominal (2 g/cm2) and storm shelter (20 g/cm2) thicknesses of aluminum shielding, are made for the large solar proton event of August 1972. Included in these calculations are estimates of cumulative exposures to the skin, ocular lens, and bone marrow as a function of time during the event. Risk assessment in terms of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is discussed for these organs. Also presented are estimates of organ exposures for hypothetical, worst-case flare scenarios. The rate of dose equivalent accumulation places this situation in an interesting region of dose rate between the very low values of usual concern in terrestrial radiation environments and the high dose rate values prevalent in radiation therapy. PMID:11537027

Townsend, L W; Wilson, J W; Shinn, J L; Curtis, S B

1992-01-01

281

Exposure to airborne ultrafine particles from cooking in Portuguese homes.  

PubMed

Cooking was found to be a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols from gas combustion in stoves. Therefore, this study consisted of the determination of the alveolar deposited surface area due to aerosols resulting from common domestic cooking activities (boiling fish, vegetables, or pasta, and frying hamburgers and eggs). The concentration of ultrafine particles during the cooking events significantly increased from a baseline of 42.7 microm2/cm3 (increased to 72.9 microm2/cm3 due to gas burning) to a maximum of 890.3 microm2/cm3 measured during fish boiling in water and a maximum of 4500 microm2/cm3 during meat frying. This clearly shows that a domestic activity such as cooking can lead to exposures as high as those of occupational exposure activities. Implications: The approach of this study considers the determination of alveolar deposited surface area of aerosols generated from cooking activities, namely, typical Portuguese dishes. This type of measurement has not been done so far, in spite of the recognition that cooking activity is a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols. The results have shown that the levels of generated aerosols surpass the outdoor concentrations in a major European town, which calls for further determinations, contributing to a better assessment of exposure of individuals to domestic activities such as this one. PMID:23155858

Bordado, J C; Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C

2012-10-01

282

Organic Chemicals in Diesel Exhaust Particles Enhance Picryl Chloride-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice.  

PubMed

Background: Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have been reported to worsen allergic airway inflammation in mice. Recently, the organic chemical components of DEP (DEP-OC) were found to be important contributors to the aggravation of allergic airway inflammation in mice. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEP-OC on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions induced by picryl chloride (PiCl) in NC/Nga mice. Methods: DEP were extracted with benzene/ethanol, and the soluble organic fraction formed the DEP-OC. NC/Nga male mice received simultaneous application of DEP-OC and/or PiCl on their ears once a week for 9 or 3 weeks. We evaluated skin lesions by noting scaling, eruption, excoriation, erosion, hemorrhage, pathologic changes, production of cytokines, and IgE level in the serum. Results: PiCl application alone produced progressively severe AD-like skin lesions. The application of PiCl plus DEP-OC resulted in a marked worsening of skin lesions in the early stages of AD. Moreover, mast cell counts significantly increased in the subcutaneous tissue. Administration of PiCl combined with DEP-OC resulted in a greater increase in the local expression of interleukin-4, keratinocyte chemoattractant, and neutrophils in subcutaneous tissue compared with PiCl treatment alone. In contrast, the combination treatment produced lower levels of IFN-? compared with PiCl treatment alone. Conclusions: DEP-OC application to the skin aggravated PiCl-induced AD. This aggravation may be due to activation of the Th2-associated immune responses by the organic chemicals in DEP. PMID:23817207

Sadakane, Kaori; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Rie; Inoue, Ken-Ichiro; Kawazato, Hiroaki; Yasuda, Aiko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2013-06-27

283

Exhaust recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust is described that provides for the reduction of recirculation during engine idling without the prior-art complexities of moving parts. The system also achieves preheating and improved mixing and carburetion of the fuel-air mixture in the inlet header. Exhaust gases are recycled by means of a swirl

Sarto

1974-01-01

284

Traffic generated non-exhaust particulate emissions from concrete pavement: A mass and particle size study for two-wheelers and small cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to understand the non-exhaust (NE) emission of particles from wear of summer tire and concrete pavement, especially for two wheelers and small cars. A fully enclosed laboratory-scale model was fabricated to simulate road tire interaction with a facility to collect particles in different sizes. A road was cast using the M-45 concrete mixture and the centrifugal casting method. It was observed that emission of large particle non exhaust emission (LPNE) as well as PM 10 and PM 2.5 increased with increasing load. The LPNE was 3.5 mg tire -1 km -1 for a two wheeler and 6.4 mg tire -1 km -1 for a small car. The LPNE can lead to water pollution through water run-off from the roads. The contribution of the PM 10 and PM 2.5 was smaller compared to the LPNE particles (less than 0.1%). About 32 percent of particle mass of PM 10 was present below 1 ?m. The number as well as mass size distribution for PM 10 was observed to be bi-modal with peaks at 0.3 ?m and 4-5 ?m. The NE emissions did not show any significant trend with change in tire pressure.

Aatmeeyata; Kaul, D. S.; Sharma, Mukesh

285

Estimation of southern resident killer whale exposure to exhaust emissions from whale-watching vessels and potential adverse health effects and toxicity thresholds.  

PubMed

Southern resident killer whales in British Columbia and Washington are exposed to heavy vessel traffic. This study investigates their exposure to exhaust gases from whale-watching vessels by using a simple dispersion model incorporating data on whale and vessel behavior, atmospheric conditions, and output of airborne pollutants from the whale-watching fleet based on emissions data from regulatory agencies. Our findings suggest that current whale-watching guidelines are usually effective in limiting pollutant exposure to levels at or just below those at which measurable adverse health effects would be expected in killer whales. However, safe pollutant levels are exceeded under worst-case conditions and certain average-case conditions. To reduce killer whale exposure to exhaust we recommend: vessels position on the downwind side of whales, a maximum of 20 whale-watching vessels should be within 800 m at any given time, viewing periods should be limited, and current whale-watch guidelines and laws should be enforced. PMID:21276987

Lachmuth, Cara L; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G; Steyn, D Q; Milsom, William K

2011-01-28

286

Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

2005-08-25

287

Glutathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype could aggravate DEP-induced airway inflammation in human subjects. Given the critical role airway epithelial cells play in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, we established the GSTM1 deficiency condition in primary bronchial epithelial cells from human volunteers with GSTM1 sufficient genotype (GSTM1+) using GSTM1 shRNA to determine whether GSTM1 deficiency could exaggerate DEP-induced expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-1? proteins. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying GSTM1 regulation of DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1? expression were also investigated. Methods IL-8 and IL-1? protein levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GSTM1 deficiency in primary human bronchial epithelial cells was achieved using lentiviral GSTM1 shRNA particles and verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of protein kinases was detected using immunoblotting. Results Exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (GSTM1+) to 25-100??g/ml DEP for 24?h significantly increased IL-8 and IL-1? protein expression. Knockdown of GSTM1 in these cells further elevated DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1? expression, implying that GSTM1 deficiency aggravated DEP-induced pro-inflammatory response. DEP stimulation induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, the downstream kinase of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), in GSTM1+ bronchial epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK kinase and PI3K activity blocked DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1? expression. DEP-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation could be increased by GSTM1 knockdown. In addition, pretreatment of HBEC with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine significantly inhibited DEP-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, and subsequent IL-8 and IL-1? expression. Conclusion GSTM1 regulates DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1? expression in primary human bronchial epithelial cells by modulation of ROS, ERK and Akt signaling.

2012-01-01

288

Personal particle exposure monitoring using nephelometry during haze in Brunei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter using a portable nephelometer during the 1998 haze episode in Brunei Darussalam revealed significant differences in exposure patterns between different individuals depending on their activities, time, and location. Concentrations of airborne particles were monitored inside offices, homes, classrooms, motor vehicles, helicopters, and outdoors. Outdoor concentrations were considerably higher than those indoors mainly due to the widespread use of air-conditioning in Brunei. Most people in Brunei spend very little time outdoors, especially during severe haze episodes. There were considerable differences between measurements obtained with the personalDataRAM ® and fixed site monitoring using a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM ®) due to differences in the measurement principles of the two instruments.

Muraleedharan, T. R.; Radojevic, M.

289

Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation and solar energetic particles.  

PubMed

Several investigations of the radiation field at aircraft altitudes have been undertaken during solar cycle 23 which occurred in the period 1993-2003. The radiation field is produced by the passage of galactic cosmic rays and their nuclear reaction products as well as solar energetic particles through the Earth's atmosphere. Galactic cosmic rays reach a maximum intensity when the sun is least active and are at minimum intensity during solar maximum period. During solar maximum an increased number of coronal mass ejections and solar flares produce high energy solar particles which can also penetrate down to aircraft altitudes. It is found that the very complicated field resulting from these processes varies with altitude, latitude and stage of solar cycle. By employing several active and passive detectors, the whole range of radiation types and energies were encompassed. In-flight data was obtained with the co-operation of many airlines and NASA. The EURADOS Aircraft Crew in-flight data base was used for comparison with the predictions of various computer codes. A brief outline of some recent studies of exposure to radiation in Earth orbit will conclude this contribution. PMID:17846031

O'Sullivan, D

2007-09-09

290

Personal exposure to airborne particles and metals: results from the Particle TEAM study in Riverside, California.  

PubMed

The PTEAM Study was the first large-scale probability-based study of personal exposure to particles. Sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Air Resources Board of California, it was carried out by the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the Harvard University School of Public Health (HSPH). HSPH designed and constructed a 4-lpm, battery-operated personal monitor for inhalable particles (PM10) that could be worn comfortably for up to 14 hours by persons from 10 to 70 years old. The monitor was worn for two consecutive 12-hour periods (day and night) during the fall of 1990 by 178 participants representing 139,000 nonsmoking residents of Riverside, California. Nearly identical monitors were employed to collect concurrent indoor and outdoor samples. The monitors were equipped with a different sampling nozzle to collect fine particles (PM2.5). Population-weighted daytime personal PM10 exposures averaged 150 +/- 9 (SE) micrograms/m3, compared to concurrent indoor and outdoor concentrations of 95 +/- 6 micrograms/m3. This suggested the existence of excess mass near the person, a "personal cloud" that appeared related to personal activities. Fourteen of 15 prevalent elements also were evaluated in the personal samples. The two major indoor sources of indoor particles were smoking and cooking; even in these homes, however, more than half of the indoor particles came from outdoors, and a substantial portion of the indoor particles were of undetermined indoor origin. Outdoor concentrations near the homes were well correlated with outdoor concentrations at the central site, supporting the idea of using the central site as an indicator of of ambient concentrations over a wider area. Indoor concentrations were only weakly correlated with outdoor concentrations, however, and personal exposures were even more poorly correlated with outdoor concentrations. Elemental profiles were obtained for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (major contributions from potassium and chlorine) and cooking emissions (aluminum, iron, calcium, and chlorine). These profiles can be used in future source apportionment studies. PMID:8777374

Ozkaynak, H; Xue, J; Spengler, J; Wallace, L; Pellizzari, E; Jenkins, P

291

Airborne concentrations of PM(2.5) and diesel exhaust particles on Harlem sidewalks: a community-based pilot study.  

PubMed Central

Residents of the dense urban core neighborhoods of New York City (NYC) have expressed increasing concern about the potential human health impacts of diesel vehicle emissions. We measured concentrations of particulate matter [less than/equal to] 2.5 micro in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on sidewalks in Harlem, NYC, and tested whether spatial variations in concentrations were related to local diesel traffic density. Eight-hour (1000-1800 hr) air samples for PM(2.5 )and elemental carbon (EC) were collected for 5 days in July 1996 on sidewalks adjacent to four geographically distinct Harlem intersections. Samples were taken using portable monitors worn by study staff. Simultaneous traffic counts for diesel trucks, buses, cars, and pedestrians were carried out at each intersection on [Greater/equal to] 2 of the 5 sampling days. Eight-hour diesel vehicle counts ranged from 61 to 2,467 across the four sites. Mean concentrations of PM(2.5) exhibited only modest site-to-site variation (37-47 microg/m(3)), reflecting the importance of broader regional sources of PM(2.5). In contrast, EC concentrations varied 4-fold across sites (from 1.5 to 6 microg/m(3)), and were associated with bus and truck counts on adjacent streets and, at one site, with the presence of a bus depot. A high correlation (r = 0.95) was observed between EC concentrations measured analytically and a blackness measurement based on PM(2.5) filter reflectance, suggesting the utility of the latter as a surrogate measure of DEP in future community-based studies. These results show that local diesel sources in Harlem create spatial variations in sidewalk concentrations of DEP. The study also demonstrates the feasibility of a new paradigm for community-based research involving full and active partnership between academic scientists and community-based organizations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Kinney, P L; Aggarwal, M; Northridge, M E; Janssen, N A; Shepard, P

2000-01-01

292

CONTROLLED EXPOSURES OF HEALTHY AND ASTHMATIC VOLUNTEERS TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES IN METROPOLITAN LOS ANGELES  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigators expect to use a Harvard ambient particle concentrator to assess the effects of exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) on healthy and asthmatic people.  12 healthy individuals and 12 individuals with mild asthma will be exposed to either filtere...

293

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE (DEP)-INDUCED ACTIV ATION OF STAT3 REQUIRES ACTIVITIES OF EGFR AND SRC IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

In vivo exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) elicits acute inflammatory responses in the lung characterized by inflammatory cell influx and elevated expression of mediators such as cytokines, and chemokines. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) protein...

294

Comparison of four mobility particle sizers with different time resolution for stationary exposure measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to airborne ultrafine and nanoparticles has raised increased interest over the recent years as they may cause adverse\\u000a health effects. A common way to quantify exposure to airborne particles is to measure particle number size distributions through\\u000a electrical mobility analysis. Four mobility particle sizers have been subject to a detailed intercomparison study, a TSI Fast\\u000a Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS),

Christof Asbach; Heinz Kaminski; Heinz Fissan; Christian Monz; Dirk Dahmann; Sonja Mülhopt; Hanns R. Paur; Heinz J. Kiesling; Friedhelm Herrmann; Matthias Voetz; Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch

2009-01-01

295

Circulating factors induce coronary endothelial cell activation following exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust and nitrogen dioxide in humans: evidence from a novel translational in vitro model.  

PubMed

The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Plasma samples were obtained from human volunteers exposed to 100 ?g/m(3) DE or filtered air for 2 h. A second cohort was exposed to 500 ppb NO(2) or filtered air in an identical protocol. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (hCAECs) were grown to confluence and treated for 24 h with a 10 or 30% (in media) mixture of plasma obtained before, immediately post or 24 h postexposure to pollutant exposures. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from hCAECs following the incubation and probed for intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased by plasma obtained at both timepoints following the NO(2) exposures. VCAM-1 was significantly elevated in cells treated with plasma obtained 24 h following diesel exposure and at both timepoints following NO(2) exposure. Interleukin-8 protein was elevated in the hCAEC supernatant when cells were incubated with plasma from NO(2) exposures. These data indicate that proinflammatory circulating factors are elevated acutely following exposure to both DE and a primary component thereof, NO(2). These functional translational assays offer novel approaches to assessing the cardiovascular risk associated with air pollution exposure. PMID:22331494

Channell, Meghan M; Paffett, Michael L; Devlin, Robert B; Madden, Michael C; Campen, Matthew J

2012-02-13

296

Circulating Factors Induce Coronary Endothelial Cell Activation Following Exposure to Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Nitrogen Dioxide in Humans: Evidence From a Novel Translational In Vitro Model  

PubMed Central

The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Plasma samples were obtained from human volunteers exposed to 100 ?g/m3 DE or filtered air for 2 h. A second cohort was exposed to 500 ppb NO2 or filtered air in an identical protocol. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (hCAECs) were grown to confluence and treated for 24 h with a 10 or 30% (in media) mixture of plasma obtained before, immediately post or 24 h postexposure to pollutant exposures. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from hCAECs following the incubation and probed for intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased by plasma obtained at both timepoints following the NO2 exposures. VCAM-1 was significantly elevated in cells treated with plasma obtained 24 h following diesel exposure and at both timepoints following NO2 exposure. Interleukin-8 protein was elevated in the hCAEC supernatant when cells were incubated with plasma from NO2 exposures. These data indicate that proinflammatory circulating factors are elevated acutely following exposure to both DE and a primary component thereof, NO2. These functional translational assays offer novel approaches to assessing the cardiovascular risk associated with air pollution exposure.

Channell, Meghan M.; Paffett, Michael L.; Devlin, Robert B.; Madden, Michael C.; Campen, Matthew J.

2012-01-01

297

Effects of nitrated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diesel exhaust particle extracts on cell signalling related to apoptosis: Possible implications for their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and diesel exhaust particle extracts (DEPE) induced apoptosis in Hepa1c1c7 cells with the following potency: 1,3-dinitropyrene (1,3-DNP)>1-nitropyrene (1-NP)?DEPE?1,8-dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP). The compounds induced cyp1a1, and activated various intracellular signalling pathways related to apoptosis. The CYP inhibitor ?-naphthoflavone strongly reduced 1,3-DNP-induced cell death, whereas cell death induced by 1-NP was rather increased. Toxic 1,3-DNP and 1-NP were found

Nina E. Landvik; Morgane Gorria; Volker M. Arlt; Nana Asare; Anita Solhaug; Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann; Jørn A. Holme

2007-01-01

298

Effect of isothermal dilution on emission factors of organic carbon and n-alkanes in the particle and gas phases of diesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the effect of isothermal dilution (30 °C) on emission factors (EFs) of semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds of heavy-duty diesel exhaust, we measured EFs for particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle phase, and EFs for n-alkanes in both the particle phase and the gas phase of exhaust produced under high-idle engine operating conditions at dilution ratios (DRs) ranging from 8 to 1027. The EC EFs did not vary with DR, whereas the OC EFs in the particle phase determined at DR = 1027 were 13% of the EFs determined at DR = 8, owing to evaporation of organic compounds. Using partitioning theory and n-alkane EFs measured at DR = 14 and 238, we calculated the distributions of compounds between the particle and gas phases at DR = 1760, which corresponds to the DR for tailpipe emissions as they move from the tailpipe to the roadside atmosphere. The gas-phase EF of a compound with a vapor pressure of 10-7 Pa was 0.01 ?g kg-1-fuel at DR = 14, and this value is 1/330 the value derived at DR = 1760. Our results suggest that the EFs of high-volatility compounds in the particle phase will be overestimated and that the EFs of low-volatility compounds in the gas phase will be underestimated if the estimates are derived from data obtained at the low DRs and they are applied to the real world. Therefore, extrapolation from EFs derived at low DR values to EFs at atmospherically relevant DRs will be a source of error in predictions of the concentrations of particulate matter and gas-phase precursors to secondary organic aerosols in air quality models.

Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Hasegawa, Shuich; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Furuyama, Akiko; Hirano, Seishiro; Takami, Akinori

2012-11-01

299

Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles  

EPA Science Inventory

CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

300

COMPARISON OF THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL EXHAUST USING A DILUTION TAIL-PIPE SAMPLER AND IN-PLUME SAMPLER DURING ON-ROAD OPERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper compares the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel exhaust using a dilution tail-pipe sampler and an in-plume sampler during on-road operation. EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentat...

301

Prediction of frequency and exposure level of solar particle events.  

PubMed

For future space missions outside of the Earth's magnetic field, the risk of radiation exposure from solar particle events (SPEs) during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded vehicles is a major concern when designing radiation protection including determining sufficient shielding requirements for astronauts and hardware. While the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by solar modulation, SPE occurrences themselves are chaotic in nature. We report on a probabilistic modeling approach, where a cumulative expected occurrence curve of SPEs for a typical solar cycle was formed from a non-homogeneous Poisson process model fitted to a database of proton fluence measurements of SPEs that occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19-23) and those of large SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice. From the fitted model, we then estimated the expected frequency of SPEs at any given proton fluence threshold with energy >30 MeV (Phi(30)) during a defined space mission period. Analytic energy spectra of 34 large SPEs observed in the space era were fitted over broad energy ranges extending to GeV, and subsequently used to calculate the distribution of mGy equivalent (mGy-Eq) dose for a typical blood-forming organ (BFO) inside a spacecraft as a function of total Phi(30) fluence. This distribution was combined with a simulation of SPE events using the Poisson model to estimate the probability of the BFO dose exceeding the NASA 30-d limit of 250 mGy-Eq per 30 d. These results will be useful in implementing probabilistic risk assessment approaches at NASA and guidelines for protection systems for astronauts on future space exploration missions. PMID:19509510

Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Hayat, Matthew J; Feiveson, Alan H; Cucinotta, Francis A

2009-07-01

302

Characterization of exposures among cemented tungsten carbide workers. Part I: Size-fractionated exposures to airborne cobalt and tungsten particles.  

PubMed

As many as 30,000 workers in the United States of America are exposed to cemented tungsten carbides (CTC), alloys composed primarily of tungsten carbide and cobalt, which are used in cutting tools. Inhalation of cobalt-containing particles may be sufficient for the development of occupational asthma, whereas tungsten carbide particles in association with cobalt particles are associated with the development of hard metal disease (HMD) and lung cancer. Historical epidemiology and exposure studies of CTC workers often rely only on measures of total airborne cobalt mass concentration. In this study, we characterized cobalt- and tungsten-containing aerosols generated during the production of CTC with emphasis on (1) aerosol "total" mass (n=252 closed-face 37 mm cassette samples) and particle size-selective mass concentrations (n=108 eight-stage cascade impactor samples); (2) particle size distributions; and (3) comparison of exposures obtained using personal cassette and impactor samplers. Total cobalt and tungsten exposures were highest in work areas that handled powders (e.g., powder mixing) and lowest in areas that handled finished product (e.g., grinding). Inhalable, thoracic, and respirable cobalt and tungsten exposures were observed in all work areas, indicating potential for co-exposures to particles capable of getting deposited in the upper airways and alveolar region of the lung. Understanding the risk of CTC-induced adverse health effects may require two exposure regimes: one for asthma and the other for HMD and lung cancer. All sizes of cobalt-containing particles that deposit in the lung and airways have potential to cause asthma, thus a thoracic exposure metric is likely biologically appropriate. Cobalt-tungsten mixtures that deposit in the alveolar region of the lung may potentially cause HMD and lung cancer, thus a respirable exposure metric for both metals is likely biologically appropriate. By characterizing size-selective and co-exposures as well as multiple exposure pathways, this series of papers offer an approach for developing biologically meaningful exposure metrics for use in epidemiology. PMID:18628793

Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

2008-07-16

303

Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.

Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.

2010-12-01

304

Comparison of two expert-based assessments of diesel exhaust exposure in a case-control study: Programmable decision rules versus expert review of individual jobs  

PubMed Central

Objectives Professional judgment is necessary to assess occupational exposure in population-based case-control studies; however, the assessments lack transparency and are time-consuming to perform. To improve transparency and efficiency, we systematically applied decision rules to the questionnaire responses to assess diesel exhaust exposure in the New England Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Methods 2,631 participants reported 14,983 jobs; 2,749 jobs were administered questionnaires (‘modules’) with diesel-relevant questions. We applied decision rules to assign exposure metrics based solely on the occupational history responses (OH estimates) and based on the module responses (module estimates); we combined the separate OH and module estimates (OH/module estimates). Each job was also reviewed one at a time to assign exposure (one-by-one review estimates). We evaluated the agreement between the OH, OH/module, and one-by-one review estimates. Results The proportion of exposed jobs was 20–25% for all jobs, depending on approach, and 54–60% for jobs with diesel-relevant modules. The OH/module and one-by-one review had moderately high agreement for all jobs (?w=0.68–0.81) and for jobs with diesel-relevant modules (?w=0.62–0.78) for the probability, intensity, and frequency metrics. For exposed subjects, the Spearman correlation statistic was 0.72 between the cumulative OH/module and one-by-one review estimates. Conclusions The agreement seen here may represent an upper level of agreement because the algorithm and one-by-one review estimates were not fully independent. This study shows that applying decision-based rules can reproduce a one-by-one review, increase transparency and efficiency, and provide a mechanism to replicate exposure decisions in other studies.

Pronk, Anjoeka; Stewart, Patricia A.; Coble, Joseph B.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Wheeler, David C.; Colt, Joanne S.; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Johnson, Alison; Waddell, Richard; Verrill, Castine; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T.; Friesen, Melissa C.

2012-01-01

305

Respiratory Effects of Seasonal Exposures to Ozone and Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas human respiratory effects of brief ozone exposures are well documented, much less is known about the human health effects of mid- to long-term exposures. The authors' objective in this study was to determine whether lung function or respiratory symptom changes would occur over the course of a summer season among healthy young adults working outdoors in the presence of

Patrick L. Kinney; Morton Lippmann

2000-01-01

306

FINE PARTICLE EXPOSURE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED VENTRICULAR REPOLARIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has previously been associated with cardiac events, especially in older people with cardiovascular disease and in diabetics. This study examined the cardiac effects of short-term exposures to ambient PM2.5 in a prospective pane...

307

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles in the workplace: exploring sampling techniques and strategies.  

PubMed

Recently, toxicological and epidemiological studies on health effects related to particle exposure suggest that 'ultrafine particles' (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of <100 nm) may cause severe health effects after inhalation. Although the toxicological mechanisms for these effects have not yet been explained, it is apparent that measuring exposures against mass alone is not sufficient. It is also necessary to consider exposures against surface area and number concentration. From earlier research it was hypothesized that results on number concentration and particle distributions may vary with distance to the source, limiting the reliability of estimates of personal exposure from results which were obtained using static measurement equipment. Therefore, a workplace study was conducted to explore the performance of measurement methods in a multi-source emission scenario as part of a sampling strategy to estimate personal exposure. In addition, a laboratory study was conducted to determine possible influences of both distance to source and time course on particle number concentration and particle size distribution. In both studies different measurement equipment and techniques were used to characterize (total) particle number concentration. These included a condensation particle counter (CPC), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). For the present studies CPC devices seemed to perform well for the identification of particle emission sources. The range of ultrafine particle number concentration can be detected by both SMPS and ELPI. An important advantage of the ELPI is that aerosols with ultrafine sizes can be collected for further analysis. Specific surface area of the aerosols can be estimated using gas adsorption analysis; however, with this technique ultrafine particles cannot be distinguished from particles with non-ultrafine sizes. Consequently, estimates based on samples collected from the breathing zone and scanning electron microscopic analysis may give a more reliable estimate of the specific surface area of the ultrafine particles responsible for personal exposure. The results of both the experimental and the workplace study suggest both spatial and temporal variation in total number concentration and aerosol size distribution. Therefore, the results obtained from static measurements and grab sampling should be interpreted with care as estimates of personal exposure. For evaluation of workplace exposure to ultrafine particles it is recommended that all relevant characteristics of such exposure are measured as part of a well-designed sampling strategy. PMID:15240340

Brouwer, Derk H; Gijsbers, José H J; Lurvink, Marc W M

2004-07-07

308

Commuter exposure to ultrafine particles in different urban locations, transportation modes and routes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure in different urban transport microenvironments is important for epidemiological exposure assessments and for policy making.Three sub-studies were performed to characterize personal exposure to UFP concentration and average particle size distribution diameters in frequently traveled commuter microenvironments in the city of Basel, Switzerland. First, the spatial variation of sidewalk UFP exposures within urban areas and transport-specific microenvironments was explored. Second, exposure to UFP concentration and average particle size were quantified for five modes of transportation (walking, bicycle, bus, tram, car) during different times of the day and week, along the same route. Finally, the contribution of bicycle commuting along two different routes (along main roads, away from main roads) to total daily exposures was assessed by 24-h personal measurements.In general, smaller average particle sizes and higher UFP levels were measured at places and for travel modes in close proximity to traffic. Average trip UFP concentrations were higher in car (31,784 particles cm?³) and on bicycle (22,660 particles cm?³) compared to walking (19,481 particles cm?³) and public transportation (14,055–18,818 particles cm?³). Concentrations were highest for all travel modes during weekday morning rush hours, compared to other time periods. UFP concentration was lowest in bus, regardless of time period. Bicycle travel along main streets between home and work place (24 min on average) contributed 21% and 5% to total daily UFP exposure in winter and summer, respectively. Contribution of bicycle commutes to total daily UFP exposure could be reduced by half if main roads are avoided.Our results show the importance of considering commuter behavior and route choice in exposure assessment studies.

Ragettli, Martina S.; Corradi, Elisabetta; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Schindler, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Jerrett, Michael; Ducret-Stich, Regina E.; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish C.

2013-10-01

309

Long time exposure digital in-line holography for 3-D particle trajectography.  

PubMed

One advantage of digital in-line holography is the ability for a user to know the 3-D location of a moving particle recorded at a given time. When the time exposure is much larger than the time required for grabbing the particle image at a given location, the diffraction pattern is spread along the trajectory of this particle. This can be seen as a convolution between the diffraction pattern and a blurring function resulting from the motion of the particle during the camera exposure. This article shows that the reconstruction of holograms recorded under such conditions exhibit traces that could be processed for extracting 3D trajectories. PMID:24104265

Lebrun, D; Méès, L; Fréchou, D; Coëtmellec, S; Brunel, M; Allano, D

2013-10-01

310

Rocket motor exhaust scrubber  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A wet scrubber having a series of chambers for capturing and cooling exhaust gases generated during static test firing of rocket motors. Exhaust gas enters an inlet to a first chamber and is cooled and slowed by a spray solution. HCL gas is condensed and absorbed by the spray solution and precipitates to a liquid slurry at the bottom of the device. The remaining exhaust products enter a demister chamber where nozzles continue to spray the gasses as they pass upward and through a mesh-style demister at the top of the vessel. The demister filters liquid and solid waste particles from the gas stream, and the clean, dry gases are accelerated through a centrifugal fan into the atmosphere. A deflector is positioned within the inlet to the first chamber for containing parts in the event of a motor mal-function.

Carns; Richard H. (Byantown, MD); Armstrong; Gerald (Hughesville, MD); Rast; Robert H. (Nanjemoy, MD); Mitchell; Dennis R. (Brooking, OR)

2005-11-15

311

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle cabin air filters may result in further diminishing the biomedical effects of diesel exhaust in subjects exposed in traffic and workplaces.  

Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

1999-01-01

312

A single-particle characterization of a mobile Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System for exposure studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was used to investigate the size and chemical composition of fine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in the size range 0.2–2.6 ?m produced by a Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (VACES) contained within the Mobile Ambient Particle Concentrator Exposure Laboratory (MAPCEL). The data were collected during a study of human exposure to CAPs, in

Evelyn J Freney; Mathew R Heal; Robert J Donovan; Nicholas L Mills; Kenneth Donaldson; David E Newby; Paul HB Fokkens; Flemming R Cassee

2006-01-01

313

Exposure to nanoscale particles and fibers during machining of hybrid advanced composites containing carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated airborne exposures to nanoscale particles and fibers generated during dry and wet abrasive machining\\u000a of two three-phase advanced composite systems containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), micron-diameter continuous fibers (carbon\\u000a or alumina), and thermoset polymer matrices. Exposures were evaluated with a suite of complementary instruments, including\\u000a real-time particle number concentration and size distribution (0.005–20 ?m), electron microscopy, and integrated sampling

Dhimiter Bello; Brian L. Wardle; Namiko Yamamoto; Roberto Guzman deVilloria; Enrique J. Garcia; Anastasios J. Hart; Kwangseog Ahn; Michael J. Ellenbecker; Marilyn Hallock

2009-01-01

314

Part 3. Assessment of genotoxicity and oxidative stress after exposure to diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant diesel engines: report on 1- and 3-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.  

PubMed

Human health hazards due to diesel exhaust (DE*) exposure have been associated with both solvent and combustion components. In the past, diesel engine exhaust components have been linked to increased mutagenicity in cultures of Salmonella typhimurium and mammalian cells (Tokiwa and Ohnishi 1986). In addition, DE has been shown to increase both the incidence of tumors and the induction of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine adducts (8-OHdG) in ICR mice (Ichinose et al. 1997). Furthermore, DE is composed of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulates. One such PAH, 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), has been identified in DE and found in urban air. 3-NBA has been observed to induce micronucleus formation in DNA of human hepatoma cells (Lamy et al. 2004). The purpose of the current research, which is part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), a multidisciplinary program being carried out by the Health Effects Institute and the Coordinating Research Council, is to determine whether improvements in the engineering of heavy-duty diesel engines reduce the oxidative stress and genotoxic risk associated with exposure to DE components. To this end, the genotoxicity and oxidative stress of DE from an improved diesel engine was evaluated in bioassays of tissues from Wistar Han rats and C57BL/6 mice exposed to DE. Genotoxicity was measured as strand breaks using an alkaline-modified comet assay. To correlate possible DNA damage found by the comet assay, measurement of DNA-adduct formation was evaluated by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the levels of free 8-OHdG found in the serum of the animals exposed to DE. 8-OHdG is a specific modified base indicating an oxidative type of DNA damage to DNA nucleotides. In addition, a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to assess oxidative stress and damage in the form of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus region of the brains of DE-exposed animals. Results from the comet assay showed no significant differences in rats between the control and exposed groups (P = 0.53, low exposure; P = 0.92, medium exposure; P = 0.77, high exposure) after 1 month of DE exposure. There were no differences between sexes in the responses of rats to these exposures. Likewise, there were no significant differences found after 3 months of exposure. Similarly, no significant differences were found between the mice exposed for 1 and 3 months to DE, nor were any differences found between sexes. Measurements of 8-OHdG in both mice and rats showed no significant difference among DE exposure groups (P = 0.46, mice; P = 0.86, rats). In mice, measured 8-OHdG was lower in the 3-month group than the 1-month group. In rats, the inverse was true. In mice, no significant differences in the levels of lipid peroxidation, as measured by TBARS, were found between the controls and DE exposure groups (P = 0.92), nor were there any differences between sexes. In rats, comparisons between the control and low-exposure groups approached significance, but no significant differences were found between the other DE exposure groups. Additionally, in rats, there were no significant differences between the 1- and 3-month DE exposure groups. PMID:23156842

Hallberg, L M; Ward, J B; Hernandez, C; Ameredes, B T; Wickliffe, J K

2012-09-01

315

A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 1: Road dust loading and suspension modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of particle mass in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. In this paper, Part 1, the road dust sub-model of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described. The model provides a generalised process based formulation of the non-exhaust emissions, with emphasis on the contribution of road wear, suspension, surface dust loading and the effect of road surface moisture (retention of wear particles and suspended emissions). The model is intended for use as a tool for air quality managers to help study the impact of mitigation measures and policies. We present a description of the road dust sub-model and apply the model to two sites in Stockholm and Copenhagen where seven years of data with surface moisture measurements are available. For the site in Stockholm, where studded tyres are in use, the model predicts the PM10 concentrations very well with correlations (R2) in the range of R2 = 0.76–0.91 for daily mean PM10. The model also reproduces well the impact of a reduction in studded tyres at this site. For the site in Copenhagen the correlation is lower, in the range 0.44–0.51. The addition of salt is described in the model and at both sites this leads to improved correlations due to additional salt emissions. For future use of the model a number of model parameters, e.g. wear factors and suspension rates, still need to be refined. The effect of sanding on PM10 emissions is also presented but more information will be required before this can be confidently applied for management applications.

Denby, B. R.; Sundvor, I.; Johansson, C.; Pirjola, L.; Ketzel, M.; Norman, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Omstedt, G.

2013-10-01

316

Ultrafine Particle Emissions and Exposure Measurement in South Australian Workplaces - A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne ultrafine particles (UFPs) are encountered in many working environments and have been associated with a range of potential health risks, including cardio-respiratory disease. However, there are no generic occupational exposure standards for ambient UFPs (less than < 100 nm in diameter) and generally there is a shortage of relevant exposure data. The aim of this pilot study was to

S Lee; X Liu; A Deemer; B Sanderson; D. Pisaniello

317

Influence of preexisting pulmonary emphysema on susceptibility of rats to inhaled diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibilities of normal rats and rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema to chronically inhaled diesel exhaust were compared. Rats were exposed 7 h/day, 5 days/wk for 24 months to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as controls. Emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of elastase 6 wk before exhaust exposure. Measurements included lung burdens of diesel soot, respiratory function, bronchoalveolar lavage, clearance of radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses, lung collagen, excised lung weight and volume, histopathology, and mean linear intercept of terminal air spaces. Parameters indicated by analysis of variance to exhibit significant interactions between the influences of emphysema and exhaust were examined to determine if the effects were more than additive (indicating increased susceptibility). Although 14 of 63 parameters demonstrated emphysema-exhaust interactions, none indicated increased susceptibility. Less soot accumulated in lungs of emphysematous rats than in those of nonemphysematous rats, and the reduced accumulation had a sparing effect in the emphysematous rats. The results did not support the hypothesis that emphysematous lungs are more susceptible than are normal lungs to chronic exposure to high levels of diesel exhaust. The superimposition of effects of emphysema and exhaust, however, might still warrant special concern for heavy exposures of emphysematous subjects.

Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-05-01

318

Variation in Penetration of Submicrometric Particles Through Electrostatic Filtering Facepieces During Exposure to Paraffin Oil Aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies show the increase of penetration through electrostatic filters during the exposure to an aerosol flow because of particle deposition on filter fibers. We studied the effect of increasing loads of paraffin oil aerosol on the penetration of selected particle sizes through a model of electrostatic filtering facepiece. FFP2 facepieces were exposed for 8 hr to a flow rate

Carmela Plebani; Stefano Listrani; Giovanna Tranfo; Francesca Tombolini

2012-01-01

319

Dietary modulation of the effects of exposure to 56FE particles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On exploratory missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays composed of protons and heavy particles, such as 56Fe. Long-term exposure to these particles can cause cancer and other age-related diseases, due to increases in oxidative stress. However, there are signif...

320

Reducing particle exposures in a tropical office building using electrostatic precipitators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological surveys have shown that indoor fine particle exposures are associated with various health outcomes. Concomitantly, empirical data on the impact of electrostatic precipitation filter use on indoor particles in an office building has not been published. This research reports an intervention study on the impact of various filters within the air-handling unit (AHU) of a tropical office building. The

M. S. Zuraimi; K. W. Tham

2009-01-01

321

Comparison of the Effects of Exposure to Different Particles or Energies on Behavioral Responding in Rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On exploratory class missions, astronauts will be exposed to a variety of heavy particles which differ in terms of quality and energy. Previous research has shown that exposure to 56Fe particles (1 GeV/n) can disrupt performance on taste aversion (CTA) learning and on operant responding using an ascending fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. How exposure to different types of particles and different energies will affect performance remains to be established. Rats were exposed to 56Fe (1 GeV/n, 5 GeV/n), 48Ti (1.2 GeV/n)) or 28Si (600 MeV/n) using the AGS or NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following exposure, the rats were tested for the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced CTA. Compared to 1 GeV/n 56Fe, exposure to 5 GeV/n 56Fe particles required higher doses to disrupt the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced CTA. The dose-response curve for a 48Ti-induced disruption of CTA learning was similar to that produced by exposure to 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles, despite the difference in the LET of the two types of particles. In contrast the rats exposed to 28Si failed to show disruption of amphetamine-induced CTA learning, following exposure to 2.0-4.0 Gy. When tested on a ascending fixed-ratio operant task, the rats exposed to 5 GeV/n 56Fe, in contrast to the rats irradiated with 1 GeV/n 56Fe, did not show poorer performance than the non irradiated controls. These results show that the effects of exposure to heavy particles depend upon the specific particle, its energy, and the endpoint being tested. Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529

Rabin, B. M.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Joseph, J. A.; Carey, A.

322

MicroRNA Expression in Response to Controlled Exposure to Diesel Exhaust: Attenuation by the Antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine in a Randomized Crossover Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Adverse health effects associated with diesel exhaust (DE) are thought to be mediated in part by oxidative stress, but the detailed mechanisms are largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and may respond to exposures such as DE. Objectives: We profiled peripheral blood cellular miRNAs in participants with mild asthma who were exposed to controlled DE with and without antioxidant supplementation. Methods: Thirteen participants with asthma underwent controlled inhalation of filtered air and DE in a double-blinded, randomized crossover study of three conditions: a) DE plus placebo (DEP), b) filtered air plus placebo (FAP), or c) DE with N-acetylcysteine supplementation (DEN). Total cellular RNA was extracted from blood drawn before exposure and 6 hr after exposure for miRNA profiling by the NanoString nCounter assay. MiRNAs significantly associated with DEP exposure and a predicted target [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2)] as well as antioxidant enzyme genes were assessed by reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for validation, and we also assessed the ability of N-acetylcysteine supplementation to block the effect of DE on these specific miRNAs. 8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured in plasma as a systemic oxidative stress marker. Results: Expression of miR-21, miR-30e, miR-215, and miR-144 was significantly associated with DEP. The change in miR-144 was validated by RT-qPCR. NRF2 and its downstream antioxidant genes [glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)] were negatively associated with miR-144 levels. Increases in miR-144 and miR-21 were associated with plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine 8-OHdG level and were blunted by antioxidant (i.e, DEN). Conclusions: Systemic miRNAs with plausible biological function are altered by acute moderate-dose DE exposure. Oxidative stress appears to mediate DE-associated changes in miR-144.

Yamamoto, Masatsugu; Singh, Amrit; Sava, Francesco; Pui, Mandy; Tebbutt, Scott J.

2013-01-01

323

NEUROTROPHINS OPERATE AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT IN RESPONSES OF ALLERGIC MICE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP)  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF are linked to allergic responses. Treatment with anti-p75 (pan-neurotrophin receptor) prevents the increase in airflow obstruction caused by exposure to DEP in ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic mice (Toxicol Sci 84(S1):91, 2005). Our present goa...

324

TOTAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL (THEM) FOR RESPIRABLE SUSPENDED PARTICLES (RSP)  

EPA Science Inventory

A Total Human Exposure Model (THEM) has been developed that calculates 24-hour profiles using real human activity patterns and indoor air models derived from actual measurements of pollutants. HEM was designed for implementation on personal computers. urrently, the model uses the...

325

Translocation of particles and inflammatory responses after exposure to fine particles and nanoparticles in an epithelial airway model  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental studies provide evidence that inhaled nanoparticles may translocate over the airspace epithelium and cause increased cellular inflammation. Little is known, however, about the dependence of particle size or material on translocation characteristics, inflammatory response and intracellular localization. Results Using a triple cell co-culture model of the human airway wall composed of epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells we quantified the entering of fine (1 ?m) and nano-sized (0.078 ?m) polystyrene particles by laser scanning microscopy. The number distribution of particles within the cell types was significantly different between fine and nano-sized particles suggesting different translocation characteristics. Analysis of the intracellular localization of gold (0.025 ?m) and titanium dioxide (0.02–0.03 ?m) nanoparticles by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy showed differences in intracellular localization depending on particle composition. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were detected as single particles without membranes as well as in membrane-bound agglomerations. Gold nanoparticles were found inside the cells as free particles only. The potential of the different particle types (different sizes and different materials) to induce a cellular response was determined by measurements of the tumour necrosis factor-? in the supernatants. We measured a 2–3 fold increase of tumour necrosis factor-? in the supernatants after applying 1 ?m polystyrene particles, gold nanoparticles, but not with polystyrene and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Conclusion Quantitative laser scanning microscopy provided evidence that the translocation and entering characteristics of particles are size-dependent. Energy filtering transmission electron microscopy showed that the intracellular localization of nanoparticles depends on the particle material. Both particle size and material affect the cellular responses to particle exposure as measured by the generation of tumour necrosis factor-?.

Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Muhlfeld, Christian; Blank, Fabian; Musso, Claudia; Gehr, Peter

2007-01-01

326

EXPOSURE RELATIONSHIP OF PERSONAL EXPOSURE OF HIGH-RISK SUBPOPULATIONS TO AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF FINE PARTICLES.  

EPA Science Inventory

An association has been demonstrated between ambient particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) concentrations and human morbidity/mortality. However, little is known regarding the most important sources of PM exposure, interpersonal and intrapersonal variability in exposure, and the...

327

Rat- and human-based risk estimates of lung cancer from occupational exposure to poorly-soluble particles: A quantitative evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In risk assessment there is a need for quantitative evaluation of the capability of animal models to predict disease risks in humans. In this paper, we compare the rat- and human-based excess risk estimates for lung cancer from working lifetime exposures to inhaled poorly-soluble particles. The particles evaluated include those for which long-term dose-response data are available in both species, i.e., coal dust, carbon black, titanium dioxide, silica, and diesel exhaust particulate. The excess risk estimates derived from the rat data were generally lower than those derived from the human studies, and none of the rat- and human-based risk estimates were significantly different (all p-values>0.05). Residual uncertainty in whether the rat-based risk estimates would over- or under-predict the true excess risks of lung cancer from inhaled poorly-soluble particles in humans is due in part to the low power of the available human studies, limited particle size exposure data for humans, and ambiguity about the best animal models and extrapolation methods.

Kuempel, E. D.; Smith, R. J.; Dankovic, D. A.; Stayner, L. T.

2009-02-01

328

Pulmonary response to perfluoropolymer fume and particles generated under various exposure conditions.  

PubMed

Combustion-product toxicity of perfluorinated polymers in small-scale tests varied markedly under various exposure conditions. The toxicity of perfluoropolymer fumes is associated with submicron pyrolysis particles (0.03-0.15 microns) in the fumes. The toxicity of pyrolysis products was not observed in rats exposed to the fumes filtered to remove the particles. The particles in the fume were agglomerated by aging or a water-treatment process, and the toxicity of particles was markedly reduced when rats were exposed to aged or water-treated fumes. Some agglomerated particles showed chain-aggregation and ultimately attained nonrespirable size. The reduced toxicity of pyrolysis fume is believed to be due to a decreased number of toxic particles resulting from particle agglomeration. Aged particle agglomerate was not toxic when instilled intratracheally into the rats. However, the particle agglomerate became toxic when rats were exposed by the inhalation to fumes evolved from the reheated agglomerate. The fumes contained numerous toxic submicron particles evolved from thermal decomposition of agglomerates by reheating. Rats exposed to the pyrolysis fumes died with pulmonary edema and hemorrhage due to Type I pneymocyte damage. The edematous lungs revealed some agglomerated particles, but it was difficult to distinguish small pyrolysis particles from contaminating dust or cellular debris. PMID:1765219

Lee, K P; Seidel, W C

1991-08-01

329

Decreased number of sperms and Sertoli cells in mature rats exposed to diesel exhaust as fetuses.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to follow up the effects of fetal exposure to diesel exhaust on testicular cell numbers and daily sperm production in adulthood. Thirty-six pregnant rats were divided into five groups: groups exposed to total diesel-engine exhaust containing 1.71 mg/m3 particulate matter and 0.80 ppm nitrogen dioxide (high dose) or 0.17 mg/m3 particulate matter and 0.10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (low dose); groups exposed to filtered exhaust without particles containing 0.80 (high dose) or 0.10 (low dose) ppm nitrogen dioxide; and a group exposed to clean air. Exhaust exposure was performed from gestational day 7 to delivery. The numbers of daily produced sperm, spermatids and Sertoli cells in the diesel-exhaust-exposed groups were significantly lower than those in the control group on day 96 after birth. The ratio of spermatids/Sertoli cells and the follicle-stimulating hormone levels in the exposed groups were significantly higher. The present study provides evidence for the first time that mature rats exposed to diesel exhaust during fetus show a decrease in the daily production of sperm due to an insufficient number of Sertoli cells. As both the exhaust-exposed groups showed almost the same reactions toward the inhalation, the gaseous phase must have included the responsible toxicants. PMID:15585359

Watanabe, Nobue

2005-01-15

330

Case Report: Supraventricular Arrhythmia after Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Air Pollution Particles  

PubMed Central

Context: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of arrhythmias. Case presentation: We present a case of a 58-year-old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles. Twenty minutes into the exposure, telemetry revealed new onset of atrial fibrillation. The exposure was discontinued, and she reverted to normal sinus rhythm approximately 2 hr later. No abnormality was evident on the volunteer’s laboratory examination or echocardiography that could explain an increased risk for supraventricular arrhythmia. Discussion: Epidemiologic evidence strongly supports a relationship between exposure to air pollutants and cardiovascular disease, but population-level data are not directly relevant to the clinical presentation of individual cases. To our knowledge, this is the only case report of an individual suffering an episode of atrial fibrillation after exposure to an air pollutant. The resolution of the arrhythmia with termination of the particle exposure further supports a causal relationship between the two. Relevance to clinical practice: Exposure to air pollution, including particulate matter, may cause supraventricular arrhythmias.

Bassett, Maryann; Montilla, Tracey; Chung, Eugene H.; Smith, Candice B.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Carraway, Martha Sue

2011-01-01

331

Effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) on immune responses: contributions of particulate versus organic soluble components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure on innate, cellular and humoral pulmonary immunity was studied using high-dose, acute-exposure rat, mouse, and cell culture models. DEP consists of a complex mixture of petrochemical-derived organics adsorbed onto elemental carbon particles. DEP is a major component of particulate urban air pollution and a health concern in both urban and occupational environments.

Paul D. Siegel; Rajiv K. Saxena; Q. B. Saxena; Joseph K. H. Ma; Jane Y. C. Ma; Xue-Jun Yin; Vincent Castranova; Nabil Al-Humadi; Daniel M. Lewis

2004-01-01

332

Assessment of the influence of media particle size on the biofiltration of odorous exhaust ventilation air from a piggery facility.  

PubMed

Two pilot scale biofiltration systems were constructed and installed at the University College Dublin Research Farm, Lyons Estate. Experimental units consisting of two pens in a 12 pen pig house were sealed off from other pens. Air from each pen was extracted and treated separately in two biofiltration systems. Wood chips larger than 20 mm were selected as the medium for biofiltration system 1, whereas chips of between 10 and 16 mm were used in biofiltration system 2. The moisture content of the media was maintained at 69+/-4% (w.w.b.) using a load cell method. The volumetric loading rates ranged from 769 to 1847 m3 [gas] m(-1) [medium] h(-1) over a 63-day experimental period. Both biofilters reduced odour between 88% and 95%. Ammonia removal efficiencies ranged from 64% to 92% and 69% to 93%, for biofiltration systems 1 and 2, respectively. Sulphur-containing compounds were reduced between 9-66%, and -147-51% across biofiltration systems 1 and 2. The pH of the biofilters' leachate remained between 6 and 8. Pressure drop for biofilter 2 was 16 Pa greater than that of biofilter I at the maximum volumetric loading rate of 1847 m3 [gas] m(-3) [medium] h(-1). It is recommended that a wood chip media particle size greater than 20 mm be used for large scale operation of a biofiltration system on intensive pig production facilities to reduce the development of anaerobic zones and to minimize pressure drop on the system fans. PMID:12139329

Sheridan, B A; Curran, T P; Dodd, V A

2002-09-01

333

Effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging on object recognition memory in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to HZE particles produces changes in neurocognitive performance. These changes, including deficits in spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory and operant responding, are also observed in the aged organism. As such, it has been proposed that exposure to heavy particles produces "accelerated aging". Because aging is an ongoing process, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of exposure and the effects of aging, such that doses of HZE particles that do not affect the performance of younger organisms will affect the performance of organisms as they age. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that young rats that had been exposed to HZE particles would show a progressive deterioration in object recognition memory as a function of the age of testing. Rats were exposed to 12 C, 28 S or 48 Ti particles at the N.A.S.A. Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. HZE particle-induced changes in object recognition memory were tested using a standard procedure: rats were placed in an open field and allowed to interact with two identical objects for up to 30 sec; twenty-four hrs later the rats were again placed in the open field, this time containing one familiar and one novel object. Non-irradiated control animals spent significantly more time with the novel object than with the familiar object. In contrast, the rats that been exposed to heavy particles spent equal amounts of time with both the novel and familiar object. The lowest dose of HZE particles which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was determined three months and eleven months following exposure. The threshold dose needed to disrupt object recognition memory three months following irradiation varied as a function of the specific particle and energy. When tested eleven months following irradiation, doses of HZE particles that did not did not affect the performance of the younger rats did affect the performance of the older rats. For all particles the dose of radiation which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was lower when the rats were tested eleven months following irradiation than when the rats were tested 3 months following exposure.

Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Shannahan, Ryan; Hering, Kathleen

334

MURINE PULMONARY MACROPHAGE EXPRESSION AND PRODUCTION OF TNFA AND MIP-2 AFTER EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP) AND EXTRACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEP constitute an important fraction of particulate air pollution and have been shown to cause inflammation of the airways. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory cytokine response of alveolar macrophages exposed to DEP and DEP-extracts. A murine alveolar macr...

335

Characterization, Exposure Measurement and Control for Nanoscale Particles in Workplaces and on the Road  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of engineered nanoparticles is increasing at a rapid rate and more concerns are being raised about the occupational health and safety of nanoparticles in the workplace, and implications of nanotechnology on the environment and living systems. At the same time, diesel engine emissions are one of the serious air pollution sources in urban area. Ultrafine particles on the road can result in harmful effects on the health of drivers and passengers. Research on characterization, exposure measurement and control is needed to address the environmental, health and safety issues of nanoscale particles. We present results of our studies on airborne particles in workplaces and on the road.

Wang, Jing; Pui, David Y. H.

2011-07-01

336

Exposure to ultrafine and fine particles and noise during cycling and driving in 11 Dutch cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have suggested that exposures during traffic participation may be associated with adverse health effects. Traffic participation involves relatively short but high exposures. Potentially relevant exposures include ultrafine particles, fine particles (PM 2.5) and noise. Simultaneously, detailed real time exposure of particle number concentration (PNC), PM 2.5 and noise has been measured while driving and cycling 12 predefined routes of approximately 10-20 min duration. Sampling took place in eleven medium-sized Dutch cities on eleven weekdays in August till October 2006. To investigate variability in cyclists exposure, we systematically collected information on meteorology, GPS coordinates, type of road, traffic intensity, passing vehicles and mopeds while cycling. The overall mean PNC of car drivers was 5% higher than the mean PNC of cyclists. The overall mean concentration of PM 2.5 in the car was 11% higher than during cycling. Slightly higher 1-min peak concentrations were measured in the car (PNC 14%; PM 2.5 29% for 95-percentiles). Shorter duration peaks of PNC were higher during cycling (43% for 99-percentile of 1-s averages). Peaks in PNC typically last for less than 10 s. A large variability of exposure was found within and between routes. Factors that significantly predicted PNC variability during cycling were: passing vehicles (mopeds, cars), waiting for traffic lights, passing different types of (large) intersections and bicycle lanes and bike paths close to motorized traffic. No relation was found between PM 2.5 and those predictor variables. The correlation between PNC and noise was moderate (median 0.34). PM 2.5 had very low correlations with PNC and noise. PNC and PM 2.5 exposure of car drivers was slightly higher than that of cyclists. PNC was largely uncorrelated with PM 2.5 and reflected local traffic variables more than PM 2.5. Different factors were associated with high PNC and high noise exposures.

Boogaard, Hanna; Borgman, Frank; Kamminga, Jaap; Hoek, Gerard

337

Analysis of Exposure-Dose Variation of Inhaled Particles in Adult Subjects.  

EPA Science Inventory

Although internal dose is a key factor for determining the health risk of inhaled pollutant particles, available dose information is largely limited to young healthy adults under a few typical exposure conditions. Extrapolation of the limited dose information to different populat...

338

USE OF METAL- AND FLUORESCEIN-TAGGED MATERIALS TO STUDY SETTLED PARTICLES EXPOSURE PATHWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Through the use of ten size ranges of tagged materials (Antley et. al., 2000a), inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and flourometry are being used to study the movement of settled particles in the indoor environment, exposure pathways, and the collection effi...

339

High-Z Particle Cosmic-Ray Exposure of Apollo 8-14 Astronauts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On Apollo missions that individual astronauts' high Z particle exposure was measured by means of Lexan foils located in the passive dosimetry packs carried on the chest, thigh, and ankle of each astronaut. The report deals with measurements obtained on Ap...

E. V. Benton R. P. Henke

1972-01-01

340

Estimates of Carrington-class solar particle event radiation exposures on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation exposure estimates for crew members on the surface of Mars are made for solar particle event proton radiation environments comparable to the Carrington event of 1859. We assume that the proton energy distributions for these Carrington-type events are similar to those measured for other, more recent large events. The fluence levels of these hypothetical events are normalized to the

L. W. Townsend; M. Pourarsalan; M. I. Hall; J. A. Anderson; S. Bhatt; N. Delauder; A. M. Adamczyk

2011-01-01

341

Effects of age and exposure to heavy particles on a behavioral measure of anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

On forthcoming exploratory class missions astronauts will be expected to function in novel and possibly dangerous environments This requirement may produce anticipatory fear or anxiety Previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles such as those experienced on missions beyond the protection provided by the magnetic shield of the earth can affect the performance of the organism on a

B. M. Rabin; J. A. Joseph; B. Shukitt-Hale; K. L. Carrihill-Knoll; A. Carey; B. C. Foster

2006-01-01

342

PARTICLE TOTAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY (PTEAM): RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA PILOT STUDY - VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this study was to estimate the frequency distribution of exposure of an urban population to inhalable particles (less than 10 micrometers in diameter). Probability sampling design was used to select 178 nonsmoking residents aged 10 or above in Riverside, CA. Each pers...

343

Simulated restaurant cook exposure to emissions of PAHs, mutagenic aldehydes, and particles from frying bacon.  

PubMed

This study investigated the exposure of cooks to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), higher mutagenic aldehydes, total particles, and ultrafine particles during cooking. Experiments were performed by pan frying fresh and smoked bacon on both electric and gas stoves, and with the gas alone. Detailed analyses of PAHs were performed, with analyses of the levels of 32 different PAHs. A TSI-3939 scanning mobility particle sizer system was used to measure the ultrafine particles. The results showed that total PAHs were in the range of 270-300 ng/m(3) air. However, the smoked bacon experiment showed a somewhat different PAH pattern, whereby retene constituted about 10% of the total PAHs, which is a level similar to that of the abundant gas phase constituent phenanthrene. The reason for the elevated retene emissions is unknown. The total cancer risk, expressed as toxic equivalency factors, showed a somewhat higher risk on the electric stove (p < 0.05) compared with the gas stove. Levels of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal were between 34 and 54 ?g/m(3) air. The level of total particles was between 2.2 and 4.2 mg/m(3). Frying on a gas stove caused a statistically significant higher amount of ultrafine particles compared with frying on an electric stove. Large variations in the mobility diameter at peak particle concentration were found (74.4 nm-153.5 nm). The highest mobility diameter was found for frying on an electric stove. The gas flame itself showed a maximum production of 19.5-nm-sized particles and could not be the explanation for the difference between frying on the gas stove and frying on the electric stove. No single indicator for the exposure to cooking fume could be selected. Each compound should be measured independently to provide a comprehensive characterization of the cooking exposure. PMID:23343415

Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Strandberg, Bo; Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Johansen, Arve; Svendsen, Kristin

2013-01-01

344

Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

345

Validation of modelling the radiation exposure due to solar particle events at aircraft altitudes.  

PubMed

Dose assessment procedures for cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew have been introduced in most European countries in accordance with the corresponding European directive and national regulations. However, the radiation exposure due to solar particle events is still a matter of scientific research. Here we describe the European research project CONRAD, WP6, Subgroup-B, about the current status of available solar storm measurements and existing models for dose estimation at flight altitudes during solar particle events leading to ground level enhancement (GLE). Three models for the numerical dose estimation during GLEs are discussed. Some of the models agree with limited experimental data reasonably well. Analysis of GLEs during geomagnetically disturbed conditions is still complex and time consuming. Currently available solar particle event models can disagree with each other by an order of magnitude. Further research and verification by on-board measurements is still needed. PMID:18838437

Beck, P; Bartlett, D T; Bilski, P; Dyer, C; Flückiger, E; Fuller, N; Lantos, P; Reitz, G; Rühm, W; Spurny, F; Taylor, G; Trompier, F; Wissmann, F

2008-10-06

346

Exposure assessment of diesel bus emissions.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 mum emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station) and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform along with their breathing frequency. PMID:17159271

Yip, Maricela; Madl, Pierre; Wiegand, Aaron; Hofmann, Werner

2006-12-01

347

Cognitive differences between male and female rats following exposure to 56Fe particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On exploratory class missions astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation (HZE particles) that are not experienced in low earth orbit. While it is likely that the crew will consist of both male and female astronauts, there has been little research on the effects of exposure to HZE particles on cognitive performance in female subjects. While previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance in male rats it remains to be established whether or not similar effects will occur with female subjects because estrogen may act as a neuroprotectant. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were obtained from Taconic Farms. Thirty mm segments of silastic tubing containing either 180 pg l7-estradiol/mL in sesame oil or vehicle alone were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Three days following surgery the rats were exposed to 56Fe particles (1000 MeV/n, 0-200 cGy) at the NSRL. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. The results indicated that the pattern of decrements in cognitive performance differed between male and female rats. In addition, for female rats, there were differences in performance as a function of the presence or absence of estradiol. In the vehicle implanted subjects exposure to 56Fe particles did not affect operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio schedule; whereas irradiation did disrupt responding in OVX animals given estradiol. These results suggest that estrogen may not be protective following exposure to HZE particles. This research was supported by Grant NNX08AM66G from NASA.

Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Luskin, Katharine; Long, Lauren; Joseph, James

348

Measurements and Modeling of Radiation Exposure Due to Solar Particle Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dose assessment procedures of cosmic radiation to aircraft crew are introduced in most of the European countries according the corresponding European directive and national regulations 96 29 Euratom However the radiation exposure due to solar particle events is still a matter of scientific research Several in-flight measurements were performed during solar storm conditions First models to estimate the exposure due to solar particle events were discussed previously Recently EURADOS European Radiation Dosimetry Group http www eurados org started to coordinate research activities in model improvements for dose assessment of solar particle events The coordinated research is a work package of the European research project CONRAD Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry on complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces Major aim of sub group B of that work package is the validation of models for dose assessment of solar particle events using data from neutron ground level monitors in-flight measurement results obtained during a solar particle event and proton satellite data The paper describes the current status of obtainable solar storm measurements and gives an overview of the existing models for dose assessment of solar particle events in flight altitudes

Beck, P.; Conrad Wp6-Sgb Team

349

IN VIVO EVIDENCE OF FREE RADICAL FORMATION IN THE RAT LUNG AFTER EXPOSURE TO AN EMISSION SOURCE AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to air pollution particles can be associated with increased human morbidity and mortality. The mechanism(s) of lung injury remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that lung exposure to oil fly ash (an emission source air pollution particle) causes in vivo free radical ...

350

Excursion guidance criteria to guide control of peak emission and exposure to airborne engineered particles.  

PubMed

The overall aim of our research was to characterize airborne particles from selected nanotechnology processes and to utilize the data to develop and test quantitative particle concentration-based criteria that can be used to trigger an assessment of particle emission controls. We investigated particle number concentration (PNC), particle mass (PM) concentration, count median diameter (CMD), alveolar deposited surface area, elemental composition, and morphology from sampling of aerosols arising from six nanotechnology processes. These included fibrous and non-fibrous particles, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We adopted standard occupational hygiene principles in relation to controlling peak emission and exposures, as outlined by both Safe Work Australia, ((1)) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®). ((2)) The results from the study were used to analyses peak and 30-minute averaged particle number and mass concentration values measured during the operation of the nanotechnology processes. Analysis of peak (highest value recorded) and 30-minute averaged particle number and mass concentration values revealed: Peak PNC20-1000 nm emitted from the nanotechnology processes were up to three orders of magnitude greater than the local background particle concentration (LBPC). Peak PNC300-3000 nm was up to an order of magnitude greater, and PM2.5 concentrations up to four orders of magnitude greater. For three of these nanotechnology processes, the 30-minute average particle number and mass concentrations were also significantly different from the LBPC (p-value < 0.001). We propose emission or exposure controls may need to be implemented or modified, or further assessment of the controls be undertaken, if concentrations exceed three times the LBPC, which is also used as the local particle reference value, for more than a total of 30 minutes during a workday, and/or if a single short-term measurement exceeds five times the local particle reference value. The use of these quantitative criteria, which we are terming the universal excursion guidance criteria, will account for the typical variation in LBPC and inaccuracy of instruments, while precautionary enough to highlight peaks in particle concentration likely to be associated with particle emission from the nanotechnology process. Recommendations on when to utilize local excursion guidance criteria are also provided. PMID:24116668

McGarry, Peter; Morawska, Lidia; Knibbs, Luke D; Morris, Howard

2013-11-01

351

Estimates of Carrington-class solar particle event radiation exposures on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation exposure estimates for crew members on the surface of Mars are made for solar particle event proton radiation environments comparable to the Carrington event of 1859. We assume that the proton energy distributions for these Carrington-type events are similar to those measured for other, more recent large events. The fluence levels of these hypothetical events are normalized to the value for the Carrington event, as reported from measurements in ice core data. In this work, we use the BRYNTRN radiation transport code, originally developed at NASA Langley Research Center, and the Computerized Anatomical Male and Female human geometry models to estimate exposures for aluminum shield areal densities similar to those provided by a spacesuit, a surface lander, and a permanent habitat located at various altitudes in the Mars atmosphere. Comparisons of the predicted organ exposures with current NASA Permissible Exposure Limits are made.

Townsend, L. W.; Pourarsalan, M.; Hall, M. I.; Anderson, J. A.; Bhatt, S.; Delauder, N.; Adamczyk, A. M.

2011-09-01

352

Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The

Beatrix Groneberg-Kloft; Thomas Kraus; Anke van Mark; Ulrich Wagner; Axel Fischer

2006-01-01

353

Effects of Exposure to Heavy Particles on a Behavior Mediated by the Dopaminergic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of exposure to heavy particles on behaviors mediated by the central nervous system (CNS) are qualitatively different than the effects produced by exposure to other types of radiation. One behavior mediated by the CNS is the amphetamine-induced taste aversion, which is produced by pairing a novel tasting solution with injection of amphetamine. When the conditioning day is three days following irradiation, exposing rats to low doses of 56Fe particles (600 MeV/n or 1 GeV/n) eliminates the taste aversion produced by injection of amphetamine, which is dependent upon the integrity of the central dopaminergic system, but has no effect on the aversion produced by injection of lithium chloride which is mediated by the gastrointestinal system. In contrast to the effects obtained using heavy particles, exposing rats to 60Co gamma rays or to fission spectrum neutrons has no selective effect upon the acquisition of either amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced taste aversions. When the conditioning day occurs four months following exposure to 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles, there is an enhancement of the amphetamine-induced taste aversion. The implications of these findings for approaches to risk assessment are considered

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; McEwen, J.

354

Using the Aerasense NanoTracer for simultaneously obtaining several ultrafine particle exposure metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expanding production and use of nanomaterials increases the chance of human exposure to engineered nanoparticles (NP), also referred to as ultrafine particles (UFP; <= 100 - 300 nm). This is particularly true in workplaces where they can become airborne and thereafter inhaled by workers during nanopowder processing. Considering the suspected hazard of many engineered UFPs, the general recommendation is to take measures for minimizing personal exposure while monitoring the UFP pollution for assessment and control purposes. The portable Aerasense NanoTracer accomplishes this UFP monitoring, either intermittently or in real time. This paper reviews its design and operational characteristics and elaborates on a number of application extensions and constraints. The NanoTracer's output signals enable several UFP exposure metrics to be simultaneously inferred. These include the airborne UFP number concentration and the number-averaged particle size, serving as characteristics of the pertaining UFP pollution. When non-hygroscopic particles are involved, the NanoTracer's output signals also allow an estimation of the lung-deposited UFP surface area concentration and the lung-deposited UFP mass concentration. It is thereby possible to distinguish between UFP depositions in the alveolar region, the trachea-bronchial region and the head airway region, respectively, by making use of the ICRP particle deposition model.

Marra, J.

2011-07-01

355

Prediction of lung cancer risk for radon exposures based on cellular alpha particle hits.  

PubMed

To explore the role of the multiplicity of cellular hits by radon progeny alpha particles for lung cancer incidence, the number of single and multiple alpha particle hits were computed for basal and secretory cells in the bronchial epithelium of human airway bifurcations. Hot spots of alpha particle hits were observed at the branching points of bronchial airway bifurcations. The effect of single and multiple alpha particle intersections of bronchial cells during a given exposure period, selected from a Poisson distribution, on lung cancer risk were simulated by a transformation frequency--tissue response model, based on experimentally observed cellular transformation and survival functions. Calculations of lung cancer risk at low radon exposure levels suggest that single hits produce a linear-dose response relationship, while the superposition of single and increasing multiple hits at higher exposure levels may also be approximated by a quasi-linear dose-effect curve. The simulations predict a carcinogenic enhancement effect for radon progeny accumulations at bifurcation branching sites, which may increase current risk estimates. PMID:21471125

Truta-Popa, L-A; Hofmann, W; Cosma, C

2011-04-06

356

Particle Exposure Assessment for Community Elderly (PEACE) in Tianjin, China: Mass concentration relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle Exposure Assessment for Community Elderly (PEACE) in Tianjin, China was to characterize personal PM10 exposure, and provide data support for an epidemiological study investigating potential health effects of PM pollution on Chinese elderly population. In this study, a total of 80 elderly participants were recruited for a two-consecutive-day personal exposure measurement, and simultaneously residential indoor, residential outdoor and community PM10 were monitored in the summer and winter of 2009. Personal PM10 concentrations were 192.8 ± 100.6 ?g m-3 in summer and 154.6 ± 105.4 ?g m-3 in winter. Modeled personal exposures were less than measured personal exposures while a high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.71 was obtained. Based on measured and modeled exposures, a mean personal cloud of 30.2 ?g m-3 was estimated in summer and 16.5 ?g m-3 in winter. Moderate correlation emerged between personal and community PM10 concentrations in summer (r = 0.39), and stronger correlation was found in winter (r = 0.82). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shown that smoking, cooking and cleaning activities did not produce significant effect on personal exposures. Further more, multivariate regression analysis performed in this study revealed that community PM10 level contributed most of personal PM10 exposure, 32% in summer and 64% in winter, respectively. The findings of this study indicated that PM10 personal exposures were considerably influenced by outdoor particulate matter rather than typical indoor sources, and ambient PM10 level measured at community monitoring sites may be used as a surrogate of personal exposure to PM10.

Zhou, Jian; Han, Bin; Bai, Zhipeng; You, Yan; Zhang, Jiefeng; Niu, Can; Liu, Yating; Zhang, Nan; He, Fei; Ding, Xiao; Lu, Bing; Hu, Yandi

2012-03-01

357

Exposure to Concentrated Coarse Air Pollution Particles Causes Mild Cardiopulmonary Effects in Healthy Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background There is ample epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence that exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution [aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5)], which derives primarily from combustion processes, can result in increased mortality and morbidity. There is less certainty as to the contribution of coarse PM (PM2.5–10), which derives from crustal materials and from mechanical processes, to mortality and morbidity. Objective To determine whether coarse PM causes cardiopulmonary effects, we exposed 14 healthy young volunteers to coarse concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and filtered air. Coarse PM concentration averaged 89.0 ?g/m3 (range, 23.7–159.6 ?g/m3). Volunteers were exposed to coarse CAPs and filtered air for 2 hr while they underwent intermittent exercise in a single-blind, crossover study. We measured pulmonary, cardiac, and hematologic end points before exposure, immediately after exposure, and again 20 hr after exposure. Results Compared with filtered air exposure, coarse CAP exposure produced a small increase in polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 20 hr postexposure, indicating mild pulmonary inflammation. We observed no changes in pulmonary function. Blood tissue plasminogen activator, which is involved in fibrinolysis, was decreased 20 hr after exposure. The standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), a measure of overall heart rate variability, also decreased 20 hr after exposure to CAPs. Conclusions Coarse CAP exposure produces a mild physiologic response in healthy young volunteers approximately 20 hr postexposure. These changes are similar in scope and magnitude to changes we and others have previously reported for volunteers exposed to fine CAPs, suggesting that both size fractions are comparable at inducing cardiopulmonary changes in acute exposure settings.

Graff, Donald W.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Rappold, Ana; Zhou, Haibo; Huang, Yuh-Chin T.; Devlin, Robert B.

2009-01-01

358

Effects of age and exposure to heavy particles on a behavioral measure of anxiety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On forthcoming exploratory class missions astronauts will be expected to function in novel and possibly dangerous environments This requirement may produce anticipatory fear or anxiety Previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles such as those experienced on missions beyond the protection provided by the magnetic shield of the earth can affect the performance of the organism on a variety of tasks In addition research has shown that there is an interaction between age and exposure to heavy particles on a variety of behavioral tasks such that older organisms are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of irradiation Because there are changes in exploration-induced anxiety as a function of age it is possible that exposure to HZE particles will also affect a middle-aged astronaut s ability to respond appropriately in anxiety producing situations The present experiment utilized the elevated plus-maze to evaluate the effects of age and exposure to HZE particle radiation on anxiety Fischer-344 rats 2 7 12 and 16 months of age at the time of irradiation were exposed to 56 Fe particles 1 GeV n 0 25-2 00 Gy in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory Control rats at each age were not irradiated At the time of testing the rats were 3- 11- 13- and 20-months old respectively Anxiety was studied using an elevated plus-maze The maze is composed of four arms in the shape of a sign placed 90 cm above the floor Two of the arms are enclosed and two of the arms are open The amount of

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carrihill-Knoll, K. L.; Carey, A.; Foster, B. C.

359

Children exposure assessment to ultrafine particles and black carbon: The role of transport and cooking activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate evaluation of the airborne particle dose-response relationship requires detailed measurements of the actual particle concentration levels that people are exposed to, in every microenvironment in which they reside. The aim of this work was to perform an exposure assessment of children in relation to two different aerosol species: ultrafine particles (UFPs) and black carbon (BC). To this purpose, personal exposure measurements, in terms of UFP and BC concentrations, were performed on 103 children aged 8-11 years (10.1 ± 1.1 years) using hand-held particle counters and aethalometers. Simultaneously, a time-activity diary and a portable GPS were used to determine the children's daily time-activity pattern and estimate their inhaled dose of UFPs and BC. The median concentration to which the study population was exposed was found to be comparable to the high levels typically detected in urban traffic microenvironments, in terms of both particle number (2.2 × 104 part. cm-3) and BC (3.8 ?g m-3) concentrations. Daily inhaled doses were also found to be relatively high and were equal to 3.35 × 1011 part. day-1 and 3.92 × 101 ?g day-1 for UFPs and BC, respectively. Cooking and using transportation were recognized as the main activities contributing to overall daily exposure, when normalized according to their corresponding time contribution for UFPs and BC, respectively. Therefore, UFPs and BC could represent tracers of children exposure to particulate pollution from indoor cooking activities and transportation microenvironments, respectively.

Buonanno, G.; Stabile, L.; Morawska, L.; Russi, A.

2013-11-01

360

In vitro and in vivo assessment of pulmonary risk associated with exposure to combustion generated fine particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong correlations exist between exposure to PM2.5 and adverse pulmonary effects. PM2.5 consists of fine (?2.5?m) and ultrafine (?0.1?m) particles with ultrafine particles accounting for >70% of the total particles. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have recently been identified in airborne PM2.5. To determine the adverse pulmonary effects of EPFRs associated with exposure to elevated levels of PM2.5, we engineered

Baher Fahmy; Liren Ding; Dahui You; Slawo Lomnicki; Barry Dellinger; Stephania A. Cormier

2010-01-01

361

Lung Cancer and Vehicle Exhaust in Trucking Industry Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An elevated risk of lung cancer in truck drivers has been attributed to diesel exhaust exposure. Interpretation of these studies specifically implicating diesel exhaust as a carcinogen has been limited because of limited exposure measurements and lack of work records relating job title to exposure-related job duties. Objectives: We established a large retrospective cohort of trucking company workers to

Eric Garshick; Francine Laden; Jaime E. Hart; Bernard Rosner; Mary E. Davis; Ellen A. Eisen; Thomas J. Smith

2008-01-01

362

Generation and characterization of radiolabeled diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential health risks associated with increased use of diesel engines, information is needed on the biological fate of inhaled diesel exhaust components. Appropriately radiolabeled exhaust produced by burning radiolabeled fuel could be used to gain this information. The purpose of this study was to characterize different radiolabeled diesel exhausts with respect to their potential use in studies of the biological fate of exhaust carbon particles and particle-associated organic compounds (particle extracts). A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to burn diesel fuel containing trace amounts of 14C-labeled hexadecane, dotriacontane, benzene, phenanthrene or benzo(a)pyrene. Greater than 98% of the 14C in all additives was converted to volatile materials upon combustion. The remainder was distributed in varying amounts between the carbon particles and particle extracts. Aromatic additives labeled carbon particles more efficiently than aliphatic additives. Column chromatography of the particle extracts showed that, in most cases, the majority of the radioactivity eluted in fractions identical to the specific fuel additive employed, suggesting that a large amount of the particle-associated organic compounds consisted of uncombusted fuel constituents. Applying an electrical load to the engine-electrical generator increased carbon particle radioactivity, but had variable effects on the amount of radioactivity in the particle extracts. 67Ga-tetramethylheptanedione was also studied as a fuel additive to label carbon particles. 67Ga was incorporated into the exhaust particles and lung deposition of particles in rats was found to be approximately 10%. However, the 67Ga-radiolabel was found to separate from the particles in vivo, making it an unsuitable radiolabel for studying the long-term lung retention of diesel exhaust carbonaceous particles. PMID:6205579

Dutcher, J S; Sun, J D; Lopez, J A; Wolf, I; Wolff, R K; McClellan, R O

1984-07-01

363

Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV\\/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least

W. A. Hunt; J. A. Joseph; B. M. Rabin

1989-01-01

364

Exposure to nanoscale particles and fibers during machining of hybrid advanced composites containing carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated airborne expo- sures to nanoscale particles and fibers generated during dry and wet abrasive machining of two three- phase advanced composite systems containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), micron-diameter continuous fibers (carbon or alumina), and thermoset polymer matrices. Exposures were evaluated with a suite of complementary instruments, including real-time par- ticle number concentration and size distribution (0.005-20 lm), electron

Dhimiter Bello; Brian L. Wardle; Namiko Yamamoto; Roberto Guzman; Enrique J. Garcia; Anastasios J. Hart; Kwangseog Ahn; Michael J. Ellenbecker; Marilyn Hallock

2008-01-01

365

N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Lung Inflammation After Short-Term Inhalation Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung inflammation is a key response to increased levels of particulate air pollution (PM); however, the cellular mechanisms leading to this response are poorly understood. To determine whether oxidants are implicated in PM-dependent lung inflam- mation, we tested the ability of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to prevent lung inflammation in a rat model of short-term exposure to con- centrated ambient particles (CAPs).

Claudia Ramos Rhoden; Joy Lawrence; John J. Godleski; Beatriz Gonzalez-Flecha

2004-01-01

366

Gene expression profiles in rat lung after inhalation exposure to C 60 fullerene particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern over the influence of nanoparticles on human health has risen due to advances in the development of nanotechnology. We are interested in the influence of nanoparticles on the pulmonary system at a molecular level. In this study, gene expression profiling of the rat lung after whole-body inhalation exposure to C60 fullerene (0.12mg\\/m3; 4.1×104 particles\\/cm3, 96nm diameter) and ultrafine nickel

Katsuhide Fujita; Yasuo Morimoto; Akira Ogami; Toshihiko Myojyo; Isamu Tanaka; Manabu Shimada; Wei-Ning Wang; Shigehisa Endoh; Kunio Uchida; Tetsuya Nakazato; Kazuhiro Yamamoto; Hiroko Fukui; Masanori Horie; Yasukazu Yoshida; Hitoshi Iwahashi; Junko Nakanishi

2009-01-01

367

Lung cancer risk from exposure to alpha particles and inhalation of other pollutants in rats  

SciTech Connect

The goal of these experiments is to establish a quantitative correlation between early DNA damage and cancer incidence in a way that would be helpful for assessing the carcinogenic risk of radon alone or in combination with specific indoor pollutants. Rat tracheal epithelium has been exposed in vivo to {sup 210}Po alpha particles in the presence and absence of NO{sub 2} or cigarette smoke. The major accomplishments so far are: the design and implementation of a tracheal implant to simulate radon alpha particle exposure, the measurement of DNA breaks in a small 7.0 mm segment of the trachea exposed to external x-irradiation, the measurement of the rate of repair of the x-ray induced tracheal DNA strand breaks, the measurement of DNA strand breaks following inhalation of cigarette smoke or NO{sub 2}, the measurement of tracheal DNA stand breaks following exposure to high doses {sup 210}Po alpha particle radiation, the assessment of the amount of mucous in the goblet cells and in the underlying mucous glands. So far we have been unable to detect DNA strand breaks in the tracheal epithelium as a result of exposure to NO{sub 2} cigarette smoke or {sup 210}Po alpha particles. We have developed a simple artificial' trachea consisting of rat tracheal epithelial cells growing on a basement membrane coated millipore filter. Experiments are proposed to utilize these artificial tracheas to eliminate the potential interference of increased mucous secretion and/or inflammation that can significantly affect the radiation dose from the alpha particles. 61 refs., 17 figs.

Burns, F.J.

1990-01-01

368

Human exposure to space radiation: role of primary and secondary particles.  

PubMed

Human exposure to space radiation implies two kinds of risk, both stochastic and deterministic. Shielding optimisation therefore represents a crucial goal for long-term missions, especially in deep space. In this context, the use of radiation transport codes coupled with anthropomorphic phantoms allows to simulate typical radiation exposures for astronauts behind different shielding, and to calculate doses to different organs. In this work, the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and two phantoms, a mathematical model and a voxel model, were used, taking the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) spectra from the model of Badhwar and O'Neill. The time integral spectral proton fluence of the August 1972 Solar Particle Event (SPE) was represented by an exponential function. For each aluminium shield thickness, besides total doses the contributions from primary and secondary particles for different organs and tissues were calculated separately. More specifically, organ-averaged absorbed doses, dose equivalents and a form of 'biological dose', defined on the basis of initial (clustered) DNA damage, were calculated. As expected, the SPE doses dramatically decreased with increasing shielding, and doses in internal organs were lower than in skin. The contribution of secondary particles to SPE doses was almost negligible; however it is of note that, at high shielding (10 g cm(-2)), most of the secondaries are neutrons. GCR organ doses remained roughly constant with increasing Al shielding. In contrast to SPE results, for the case of cosmic rays, secondary particles accounted for a significant fraction of the total dose. PMID:17151013

Trovati, S; Ballarini, F; Battistoni, G; Cerutti, F; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Gadioli, E; Garzelli, M V; Mairani, A; Ottolenghi, A; Paretzke, H G; Parini, V; Pelliccioni, M; Pinsky, L; Sala, P R; Scannicchio, D; Zankl, M

2006-12-06

369

Occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in an aviation base.  

PubMed

The occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in a high performance jet engine airport was investigated. Three spatial scales were considered: i) a downwind receptor site, ii) close to the airstrip, iii) personal monitoring. Particle number, surface area, mass concentrations and distributions were measured as well as inorganic and organic fractions, ionic fractions and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Particle number distribution measured at a receptor site presents a mode of 80 nm and an average total concentration of 6.5 × 10(3) part. cm(-3); the chemical analysis shows that all the elements may be attributed to long-range transport from the sea. Particle number concentrations in the proximity of the airstrip show short term peaks during the working day mainly related to takeoff, landing and pre-flight operations of jet engines. Personal exposure of workers highlights a median number concentration of 2.5 × 10(4) part. cm(-3) and 1.7 × 10(4) part. cm(-3) for crew chief and hangar operator. PMID:22771354

Buonanno, Giorgio; Bernabei, Manuele; Avino, Pasquale; Stabile, Luca

2012-07-05

370

Biological effects of alpha particle radiation exposure on human monocytic cells.  

PubMed

Radon ((222)Rn) gas produces decay progeny that emits high energy alpha (?)-particles. Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to (222)Rn is linked with elevated risk of developing lung cancer, however clear mechanisms leading to such effects have not been delineated. Cytokines play a critical role in inflammation and their dysregulated production often contributes to disease pathogenesis. In this study, Bio-plex multiplex technology was employed to investigate modulations of 27 pro-inflammatory cytokines following exposure of human monocytic cells to 1.5 Gy of ?-particle radiation. Concurrently, DNA damage was assessed by examining the formation of phosphorylated H2A histone family X (?-H2AX) sites. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, 4 cytokines were shown to be statistically downregulated by ?2 fold relative to the untreated controls and included the interleukin (IL) family of proteins (IL-2, IL-15 and IL-17) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP-1b). Interferon-inducible protein-12 (IP-12), vascular endothelial growth factor and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were shown to be high expressors and upregulated. Cells irradiated with ?-particles ranging from 0.27 to 2.14 Gy showed statistically significant, dose-dependant increases in ?-H2AX formation. These data suggest that ?-particle radiation causes dysregulation in the production of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and results in significant DNA damage. PMID:22153871

Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Kutzner, Barbara; McNamee, James P; Bellier, Pascale V; Wilkins, Ruth C

2011-12-06

371

In vitro and in vivo assessment of pulmonary risk associated with exposure to combustion generated fine particles.  

PubMed

Strong correlations exist between exposure to PM(2.5) and adverse pulmonary effects. PM(2.5) consists of fine (particles with ultrafine particles accounting for >70% of the total particles. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have recently been identified in airborne PM(2.5). To determine the adverse pulmonary effects of EPFRs associated with exposure to elevated levels of PM(2.5), we engineered 2.5 mum surrogate EPFR-particle systems. We demonstrated that EPFRs generated greater oxidative stress in vitro, which was partly responsible for the enhanced cytotoxicity following exposure. In vivo studies using rats exposed to EPFRs containing particles demonstrated minimal adverse pulmonary effects. Additional studies revealed that fine particles failed to reach the alveolar region. Overall, our study implies qualitative differences between the health effects of PM size fractions. PMID:20369027

Fahmy, Baher; Ding, Liren; You, Dahui; Lomnicki, Slawo; Dellinger, Barry; Cormier, Stephania A

2010-03-01

372

Comparative biology approaches for charged particle exposures and cancer development processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative biology studies can provide useful information for the extrapolation of results be-tween cells in culture and the more complex environment of the tissue. In other circumstances, they provide a method to guide the interpretation of results obtained for cells from differ-ent species. We have considered several key cancer development processes following charged particle exposures using comparative biology approaches. Our particular emphases have been mutagenesis and genomic instability. Carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of mutations and most of htese mutations occur on autosomes. Two loci provide the greatest avenue for the consideration of charged particle-induced mutation involving autosomes: the TK1 locus in human cells and the APRT locus in mouse cells. Each locus can provide information on a wide variety of mutational changes, from small intragenic mutations through multilocus dele-tions and extensive tracts of mitotic recombination. In addition, the mouse model can provide a direct measurement of chromosome loss which cannot be accomplished in the human cell system. Another feature of the mouse APRT model is the ability to examine effects for cells exposed in vitro with those obtained for cells exposed in situ. We will provide a comparison of the results obtained for the TK1 locus following 1 GeV/amu Fe ion exposures to the human lymphoid cells with those obtained for the APRT locus for mouse kidney epithelial cells (in vitro or in situ). Substantial conservation of mechanisms is found amongst these three exposure scenarios, with some differences attributable to the specific conditions of exposure. A similar approach will be applied to the consideraiton of proton-induced autosomal mutations in the three model systems. A comparison of the results obtained for Fe ions vs. protons in each case will highlight LET-specificc differences in response. Another cancer development process that is receiving considerable interest is genomic instability. We have examined this process following exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing charged particles in human lymphoid cells and in human epithelial cells. A comparison of the results in these systems can reveal similari-ties and differences as a function of cell type and LET. Last, we will approach the question of the relevance of genomic instability in the context of charged particle mutagenesis. In many models, it has been difficult to link these two processes. We will present data regarding the mechanistic associations between these processes. Taken together, these studies will allow the definition of conserved pathways that are likely to contribute strongly to the cancer risks for astronauts exposed to charged particle radiations. Supported by NASA grant NNJ07HC721 to A. Kronenberg and NASA grant NNX10AC12G to M. Turker.

Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Sudo, Hiroko; Wiese, Claudia; Dan, Cristian; Turker, Mitchell

373

Comprehensive assessment of exposures to elongate mineral particles in the taconite mining industry.  

PubMed

Since the 1970s, concerns have been raised about elevated rates of mesothelioma in the vicinity of the taconite mines in the Mesabi Iron Range. However, insufficient quantitative exposure data have hampered investigations of the relationship between cumulative exposures to elongate mineral particles (EMP) in taconite dust and adverse health effects. Specifically, no research on exposure to taconite dust, which includes EMP, has been conducted since 1990. This article describes a comprehensive assessment of present-day exposures to total and amphibole EMP in the taconite mining industry. Similar exposure groups (SEGs) were established to assess present-day exposure levels and buttress the sparse historical data. Personal samples were collected to assess the present-day levels of worker exposures to EMP at six mines in the Mesabi Iron Range. The samples were analyzed using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 and 7402. For many SEGs in several mines, the exposure levels of total EMP were higher than the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL). However, the total EMP classification includes not only the asbestiform EMP and their non-asbestiform mineral analogs but also other minerals because the NIOSH 7400 cannot differentiate between these. The concentrations of amphibole EMP were well controlled across all mines and were much lower than the concentrations of total EMP, indicating that amphibole EMP are not major components of taconite EMP. The levels are also well below the NIOSH REL of 0.1 EMP cc(-1). Two different approaches were used to evaluate the variability of exposure between SEGs, between workers, and within workers. The related constructs of contrast and homogeneity were calculated to characterize the SEGs. Contrast, which is a ratio of between-SEG variability to the sum of between-SEG and between-worker variability, provides an overall measure of whether there are distinctions between the SEGs. Homogeneity, which is the ratio of the within-worker variance component to the sum of the between-worker and within-worker variance components, provides an overall measure of how similar exposures are for workers within an SEG. Using these constructs, it was determined that the SEGs are formed well enough when grouped by mine for both total and amphibole EMP to be used for epidemiological analysis. PMID:23792972

Hwang, Jooyeon; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

2013-06-22

374

Ozone and limonene in indoor air: a source of submicron particle exposure.  

PubMed Central

Little information currently exists regarding the occurrence of secondary organic aerosol formation in indoor air. Smog chamber studies have demonstrated that high aerosol yields result from the reaction of ozone with terpenes, both of which commonly occur in indoor air. However, smog chambers are typically static systems, whereas indoor environments are dynamic. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the potential for secondary aerosol in indoor air as a result of the reaction of ozone with d-limonene, a compound commonly used in air fresheners. A dynamic chamber design was used in which a smaller chamber was nested inside a larger one, with air exchange occurring between the two. The inner chamber was used to represent a model indoor environment and was operated at an air exchange rate below 1 exchange/hr, while the outer chamber was operated at a high air exchange rate of approximately 45 exchanges/hr. Limonene was introduced into the inner chamber either by the evaporation of reagent-grade d-limonene or by inserting a lemon-scented, solid air freshener. A series of ozone injections were made into the inner chamber during the course of each experiment, and an optical particle counter was used to measure the particle concentration. Measurable particle formation and growth occurred almost exclusively in the 0.1-0.2 microm and 0.2-0.3 microm size fractions in all of the experiments. Particle formation in the 0.1-0.2 microm size range occurred as soon as ozone was introduced, but the formation of particles in the 0.2-0.3 microm size range did not occur until at least the second ozone injection occurred. The results of this study show a clear potential for significant particle concentrations to be produced in indoor environments as a result of secondary particle formation via the ozone-limonene reaction. Because people spend the majority of their time indoors, secondary particles formed in indoor environments may make a significant contribution to overall particle exposure. This study provides data for assessing the impact of outdoor ozone on indoor particles. This is important to determine the efficacy of the mass-based particulate matter standards in protecting public health because the indoor secondary particles can vary coincidently with the variations of outdoor fine particles in summer.

Wainman, T; Zhang, J; Weschler, C J; Lioy, P J

2000-01-01

375

Geomagnetic influence on aircraft radiation exposure during a solar energetic particle event in October 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present initial results from the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model during the Halloween 2003 superstorm. The objective of NAIRAS is to produce global, real-time, data-driven predictions of ionizing radiation for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. We have conducted a case study of radiation exposure during a high-energy solar energetic particle (SEP) event in October 2003. The purpose of the case study is to quantify the important influences of the storm time and quiet time magnetospheric magnetic field on high-latitude SEP atmospheric radiation exposure. The Halloween 2003 superstorm is an ideal event to study magnetospheric influences on atmospheric radiation exposure since this event was accompanied by a major magnetic storm which was one of the largest of solar cycle 23. We find that neglecting geomagnetic storm effects during SEP events can underestimate the high-latitude radiation exposure from nearly 15% to over a factor of 2, depending on the flight path relative to the magnetosphere open-closed boundary.

Mertens, Christopher J.; Kress, Brian T.; Wiltberger, Michael; Blattnig, Steve R.; Slaba, Tony S.; Solomon, Stanley C.; Engel, M.

2010-03-01

376

Inhalation of poorly soluble particles. I. Differences in inflammatory response and clearance during exposure.  

PubMed

Results from animal studies have indicated some uncertainties over the validity of a single general occupational control limit for all types of "particulates (insoluble) not otherwise classified" (PNOC) (ACGIH, 2000). Therefore, to examine the extent to which a given control limit may be valid for nontoxic dusts with different physical characteristics, this study compared the pulmonary effects in rats of inhalation exposure to two poorly soluble dusts of similar density and with relatively low toxicity: titanium dioxide and barium sulfate. The objectives were to compare the dusts in (a) their buildup and clearance in the lungs during inhalation; (b) their transfer to lymph nodes; (c) the changes, with time, in the lavageable cell population; and (d) the pathological change from histology. The exposure aerosol concentrations were selected to achieve similar mass and volume lung burdens for both dusts and to attain "overload" over the common exposure periods of about 4 mo and 7 mo. Despite obtaining similar lung burdens for both dusts, there was significantly more translocation of TiO(2) to the hilar lymph nodes than with BaSO(4). It was also found that clearance of TiO(2) was retarded whereas clearance of BaSO(4) was not. Trends in these data were clarified by the use of a simple model of particle clearance. Retardation of particle clearance and translocation to the lymph nodes are markers of the condition known as "overload" in which the alveolar macrophage-based clearance of particles from the deep lung is impaired. In addition, bronchoalveolar lavage showed that TiO(2) caused significantly more recruitment of inflammatory neutrophils to lungs than BaSO(4). These differences between the dusts were not due to differences in toxicity, solubility, or lung deposition. The explanation that the different responses are due to the different particle size distributions of the two dust types is examined in a companion paper (Tran et al., this issue). PMID:11114783

Cullen, R T; Tran, C L; Buchanan, D; Davis, J M; Searl, A; Jones, A D; Donaldson, K

2000-12-01

377

Growth of human bronchial epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface alters the response to particle exposure  

PubMed Central

Background We tested the hypothesis that normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells 1) grown submerged in media and 2) allowed to differentiate at air-liquid interface (ALI) demonstrate disparities in the response to particle exposure. Results Following exposure of submerged NHBE cells to ambient air pollution particle collected in Chapel Hill, NC, RNA for IL-8, IL-6, heme oxygenase 1 (HOX1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) increased. The same cells allowed to differentiate over 3, 10, and 21 days at ALI demonstrated no such changes following particle exposure. Similarly, BEAS-2B cells grown submerged in media demonstrated a significant increase in IL-8 and HOX1 RNA after exposure to NIST 1648 particle relative to the same cells exposed after growth at ALI. Subsequently, it was not possible to attribute the observed decreases in the response of NHBE cells to differentiation alone since BEAS-2B cells, which do not differentiate, showed similar changes when grown at ALI. With no exposure to particles, differentiation of NHBE cells at ALI over 3 to 21 days demonstrated significant decrements in baseline levels of RNA for the same proteins (i.e. IL-8, IL-6, HOX1, and COX2). With no exposure to particles, BEAS-2B cells grown at ALI showed comparable changes in RNA for IL-8 and HOX1. After the same particle exposure, NHBE cells grown at ALI on a transwell in 95% N2-5% CO2 and exposed to NIST 1648 particle demonstrated significantly greater changes in IL-8 and HOX1 relative to cells grown in 95% air-5% CO2. Conclusions We conclude that growth of NHBE cells at ALI is associated with a diminished biological effect following particle exposure relative to cells submerged in media. This decreased response showed an association with increased oxygen availability.

2013-01-01

378

Effects of inhaled diesel exhaust on immune responses after lung immunization  

SciTech Connect

The inhalation of diesel exhaust particles and the accumulation of these particles in the lung-associated lymph nodes could alter the development of immune responses after lung immunization. To study this possibility, Fischer 344 rats and CD-1 mice were exposed to three levels of diesel exhaust (nominal concentration--7000, 3500, or 350 micrograms particles/m3). Chamber controls and exposed animals were immunized by intratracheal instillation of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure. The number of anti-SRBC IgM antibody-forming cells (AFC) in the lung-associated lymph nodes and spleen was evaluated after immunization. The lung-associated lymph nodes from rats and mice exposed to the high levels of diesel exhaust were black with accumulated diesel particles, and the number of lymphoid cells was significantly elevated at each sacrifice time, while rats exposed to the medium level of diesel exhaust also had elevated numbers of cells in these tissues at 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure. The total number of AFC in the lung-associated lymph nodes was significantly elevated (p less than 0.05) in rats exposed to medium and high levels of diesel exhaust, but no significant effects were observed in exposed mice. Data expressed as AFC/10(6) lymphoid cells in rats and mice, and the level of specific IgM, IgG, or IgA antibody in rat sera were not significantly altered. We conclude that the increased cellularity, and the presence of diesel particles in the lung-associated lymph nodes, had a minimal effect on the immune and antigen filtration functions of these tissues.

Bice, D.E.; Mauderly, J.L.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.

1985-12-01

379

Correlation between car ownership and leukaemia: Is non-occupational exposure to benzene from petrol and motor vehicle exhaust a causative factor in leukaemia and lymphoma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is widespread agreement that many cancers have environmental causes we are often unable to see associations between specific cancers and exposure to environmental chemicals. One might also speulate that the more widespread, common-place and ‘normal’ a chemical exposure is perceived to be then the less likely it will be that the exposure is recognised, let alone be considered

S. P. Wolff

1992-01-01

380

The toxicity of particles from combustion processes  

SciTech Connect

The pulmonary toxicity of inhaled particles will depend on their size, solubility and inherent toxicity. Many combustion-derived particles, such as soot and fly ash, are of a respirable size and, being poorly soluble, are retained for prolonged periods in the lung. The acute toxicity of fly ash from coal combustion was compared to that of a known toxic particle, alpha-quartz, by exposures of rats to 35 mg/m{sup 3} of each type of particle for 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk for 4 wk. The acute pulmonary toxicity was measured by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One year after the exposures, fibrosis with granulomas was observed in the quartz-exposed rats, while little or no fibrosis developed in the fly-ash-exposed rats. The toxicity of soot from diesel exhaust was determined by chronic (30 mo) exposures of rats, 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk to exhaust containing 0.35, 3.5 or 7.0 mg/m{sup 3} soot. The two higher exposures caused persistent pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis and neoplasmas. Rats exposed to the lowest concentration demonstrated no toxic responses and there was no life shortening caused by any exposure. Ongoing comparative studies indicate that pure carbon black particles cause responses similar to those caused by diesel exhaust, indicating that much of the toxicity induced by the diesel soot results from the presence of the large lung burdens of carbonaceous particles.

Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.

1991-12-31

381

The toxicity of particles from combustion processes  

SciTech Connect

The pulmonary toxicity of inhaled particles will depend on their size, solubility and inherent toxicity. Many combustion-derived particles, such as soot and fly ash, are of a respirable size and, being poorly soluble, are retained for prolonged periods in the lung. The acute toxicity of fly ash from coal combustion was compared to that of a known toxic particle, alpha-quartz, by exposures of rats to 35 mg/m{sup 3} of each type of particle for 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk for 4 wk. The acute pulmonary toxicity was measured by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One year after the exposures, fibrosis with granulomas was observed in the quartz-exposed rats, while little or no fibrosis developed in the fly-ash-exposed rats. The toxicity of soot from diesel exhaust was determined by chronic (30 mo) exposures of rats, 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk to exhaust containing 0.35, 3.5 or 7.0 mg/m{sup 3} soot. The two higher exposures caused persistent pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis and neoplasmas. Rats exposed to the lowest concentration demonstrated no toxic responses and there was no life shortening caused by any exposure. Ongoing comparative studies indicate that pure carbon black particles cause responses similar to those caused by diesel exhaust, indicating that much of the toxicity induced by the diesel soot results from the presence of the large lung burdens of carbonaceous particles.

Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.

1991-01-01

382

Exposure vs toxicity levels of airborne quartz, metal and carbon particles in cast iron foundries.  

PubMed

Aerosol dust samples and quartz raw materials from different working stations in foundry plants were characterized in order to assess the health risk in this working environment. Samples were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and microanalysis, and by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration and the solubility degree of Fe and other metals of potential health effect (Mn, Zn and Pb) in the bulk samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Overall, the results indicate substantial changes in quartz crystal structure and texture when passing from the raw material to the airborne dust, which include lattice defects, non-bridging oxygen hole centres and contamination of quartz grains by metal and/or graphite particles. All these aspects point towards the relevance of surface properties on reactivity.