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Sample records for exhaust systems

  1. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  2. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  3. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the construction, operation, malfunction, diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of the fuel and exhaust systems used in automobiles. The course contains five study units covering fundamentals of gasoline engine fuel…

  4. Debris exhaust system

    DOEpatents

    McBride, D.D.; Bua, D.; Domankevitz, Y.; Nishioka, N.

    1998-06-23

    A debris removal system removes debris from a work site by flowing fluid away from the work site toward the periphery of a structure. The fluid flow can be kept constant around the periphery so that debris is removed evenly. The structure can have a reduced cross section between the fluid inlet and the work site so that the resulting increased fluid velocity works to prevent debris from escaping. 9 figs.

  5. Debris exhaust system

    DOEpatents

    McBride, Donald D.; Bua, Dominic; Domankevitz, Yacov; Nishioka, Norman

    1998-01-01

    A debris removal system removes debris from a work site by flowing fluid away from the work site toward the periphery of a structure. The fluid flow can be kept constant around the periphery so that debris is removed evenly. The structure can have a reduced cross section between the fluid inlet and the work site so that the resulting increased fluid velocity works to prevent debris from escaping.

  6. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  7. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  8. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  9. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  10. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  11. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  16. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  17. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  18. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  19. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  20. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  1. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  2. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  3. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  4. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  5. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  6. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  7. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  8. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  9. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  10. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine...

  11. Exhaust system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenoya, Y.; Otani, J.

    1982-10-19

    An exhaust system for an engine of a motorcycle is disclosed having catalytic and silencing mufflers arranged in adjacent side -by-side series flow relationship, the catalytic muffler extending rearwardly of the motorcycle, and, adjacent its rear end, being interconnected with the silencing muffler, the silencing muffler including plural expansion chambers which are interconnected in flow reversal relationship for gases to be exhausted rearwardly of the motorcycle.

  12. System for Removing Pollutants from Incinerator Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David t.; Bahr, James; Dubovik, Rita; Gebhard, Steven C.; Lind, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    A system for removing pollutants -- primarily sulfur dioxide and mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx) -- from incinerator exhaust has been demonstrated. The system is also designed secondarily to remove particles, hydrocarbons, and CO. The system is intended for use in an enclosed environment, for which a prior NOx-and-SO2-removal system designed for industrial settings would not be suitable.

  13. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  14. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine exhaust system. 36.25 Section 36.25... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.25 Engine exhaust system. (a) Construction. The exhaust system of the engine shall be designed to withstand an internal pressure equal to 4 times the...

  15. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine exhaust system. 36.25 Section 36.25... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.25 Engine exhaust system. (a) Construction. The exhaust system of the engine shall be designed to withstand an internal pressure equal to 4 times the...

  16. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visual exhaust system inspection. 202... Standards § 202.22 Visual exhaust system inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable unless the exhaust system...

  17. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas... optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  18. 40 CFR 91.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine inlet and exhaust systems. 91... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.407 Engine inlet and exhaust systems. (a) The marine engine manufacturer is liable for emission...

  19. Piston engine intake and exhaust system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. O. A. L.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of intake and exhaust system design is to control the transfer of acoustic energy from the sources and its emission by the system with minimal loss of engine performance. A rational design process depends on the adoption of a design methodology based on predictive modeling of acoustic behavior. Virtually any system geometry can be modeled by breaking it down to a sequence of simple elements or chambers. An initial design layout is then produced with simple parametric models of individual element behavior. This design is then refined to prototype level by systematic modification of detail using realistic assessments of system performance in its operational environment. Following prototype validation by practical testing, further necessary development is again assisted by predictive modeling. The application of appropriate procedures is illustrated by a series of practical examples. These concern improvements in interior noise by control of intake noise, of vehicle performance by reducing flow losses, of the environment by control of exhaust emissions, and lastly with the control of flow noise. The report concludes with a brief outline of current and new developments involving integrated design procedures.

  20. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  1. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  2. A second law approach to exhaust system optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Primus, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A model has been constructed that applies second law analysis to a Fanno formulation of the exhaust process of a turbocharged diesel engine. The model has been used to quantify available energy destruction at the valve and in the manifold and to study the influence of various system parameters on the relative magnitude of these exhaust system losses. The model formulation and its application to the optimization of the exhaust manifold diameter is discussed. Data are then presented which address the influence of the manifold friction, turbine efficiency, turbine power extraction, valve flow area, compression ratio, speed, load and air-fuel ratio on the available energy destruction in the exhaust system.

  3. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... analytical system. The provisions of § 86.111-94 apply to this subpart, except that the NOX analyzer is optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  4. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    DOEpatents

    Haines, Leland Milburn

    2002-02-19

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  5. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual exhaust system inspection. 202.22 Section 202.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE... Standards § 202.22 Visual exhaust system inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations...

  6. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine exhaust system. 36.25 Section 36.25... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.25 Engine exhaust system. (a) Construction. The...

  7. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine exhaust system. 36.25 Section 36.25... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.25 Engine exhaust system. (a) Construction. The...

  8. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine exhaust system. 36.25 Section 36.25... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.25 Engine exhaust system. (a) Construction. The...

  9. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards, if inspection of the... traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections shall not constitute a violation of this subpart);...

  10. Diesel engine dual path exhaust cleaner and burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.L.

    1983-02-15

    A dual filter element exhaust cleaner and burner system for diesel engines provides for the trapping of particulates in the engine exhaust gases by their passage through filter elements, as selectively controlled by means of a four-way valve. Collected particulates in a non-active particulate filter element are incinerated by means of a heater, with this filter element, during incineration, being supplied with exhaust gases through a constant flow exhaust gas regulator whereby incineration of the particulates will occur at a controlled rate independent of engine speed.

  11. [Remote passive sensing of aeroengine exhausts using FTIR system].

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Zuo, Hong-Fu; Li, Shao-Cheng; Wen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Yao-Hua

    2009-03-01

    The traditional method of measuring the aeroengine exhausts is intrusive gas sampling analysis techniques. The disadvantages of the techniques include complex system, difficult operation, high costs and potential danger because of back-pressure effects. The non-intrusive methods have the potential to overcome these problems. So the remote FTIR passive sensing is applied to monitor aeroengine exhausts and determine the concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines. The principle of FTIR remote passive sensing is discussed. The model algorithm for the calibration of FTIR system, the radiance power distribution and gas concentration are introduced. TENSOR27 FTIR-system was used to measure the spectra of infrared radiation emitted by the hot gases of exhausts in a test rig. The emission spectra of exhausts were obtained under different thrusts. By analyzing the spectra, the concentrations of CO2, CO and NO concentration were calculated under 4 thrusts. Researches on the determination of concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines by using the remote FTIR sensing are still in early stage in the domestic aeronautics field. The results of the spectra and concentration in the aeroengine test are published for the first time. It is shown that the remote FTIR passive sensing techniques have a great future in monitoring the hot gas of the aeroengines exhausts. PMID:19455785

  12. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  13. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  14. Exhaust particle removing system for an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.

    1986-12-23

    A method is described comprising the steps of: (a) measuring degree of clogging of a filter which traps particles suspended in exhaust gas emitted from an engine; (b) indicating when the measured degree of clogging of the filter is equal to or greater than a first reference level; (c) burning off the particles deposited on the filter when the measured degree of clogging of the filter is equal to or greater than the first reference level and when a manual switch is in a preset position; and (d) burning off the particles deposited on the filter independent of whether or not the manual switch is in the preset position when the measured degree of clogging of the filter is equal to or greater than a second reference level greater than the first reference level.

  15. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector...-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

  16. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector...-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

  17. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector...-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

  18. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector...-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

  19. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15... analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector...-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

  20. Integrated exhaust and electrically heated particulate filter regeneration systems

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2013-01-08

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes multiple zones. An electrical heater includes heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A post-fuel injection system injects fuel into at least one of a cylinder of an engine and an exhaust system. A control module is configured to operate in a first mode that includes activating the electrical heater to heat exhaust of the engine. The control module is also configured to operate in a second mode that includes activating the post-injection system to heat the exhaust. The control module selectively operates in at least one of the first mode and the second mode.

  1. A Low-Cost, Effective, Fumes Exhaust System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of avoiding welding fumes. The sources of these fumes are presented in a table. Criticizes currently used ventilation systems and reviews the Occupational Safety and Health Act requirements. Describes a low-cost exhaust system developed for agricultural mechanics laboratories. (LRA)

  2. Exhaust system with emissions storage device and plasma reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hoard, John W.

    1998-01-01

    An exhaust system for a combustion system, comprising a storage device for collecting NO.sub.x, hydrocarbon, or particulate emissions, or mixture of these emissions, and a plasma reactor for destroying the collected emissions is described. After the emission is collected in by the storage device for a period of time, the emission is then destroyed in a non-thermal plasma generated by the plasma reactor. With respect to the direction of flow of the exhaust stream, the storage device must be located before the terminus of the plasma reactor, and it may be located wholly before, overlap with, or be contained within the plasma reactor.

  3. Diesel engine exhaust trap particulate distribution and incineration balancing system

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, G. S.; Parker, W. J.; Tendulkar, D. V.

    1981-09-22

    A diesel particulate trapping and incineration system is disclosed that includes a porous wall monolithic ceramic filter element having dual openended inlet passages separated from adjacent exhaust passages by particulate filtering porous walls. A balancing system for the distribution and incineration of particulates is provided including dual inlet ducts feeding exhaust gases to both ends of the inlet passages and valve means for controlling the amount of inlet gas flow entering the open opposite ends of the inlet ducts. In this way control is obtained of distribution of particulates over the length of the inlet duct walls as well as of the incineration of particulates upon heating of the exhaust gases to incineration temperature.

  4. Exhaust particle removing system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.

    1986-08-05

    An exhaust particle removing system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a filter disposed in an engine exhaust passage for trapping particles suspended in exhaust gas; (b) a burner for burning off the particles deposited on the filter; (c) means for sensing the pressure in the exhaust passage at a point upstream of the filter; (d) means for sensing the pressure in the exhaust passage at a point downstream of the filter; (e) means for determining whether or not the sensed upstream pressure is lower than a preset level; (f) means for, when the sensed upstream pressure is not lower than the preset level, deducing the degree of clogging of the filter on the basis of the sensed upstream and downstream pressures; (g) means for, when the sensed upstream pressure is lower than the preset level, measuring a time elapsed since the moment at which the sensed upstream pressure dropped below the preset level; (h) means for, when the sensed upstream pressure is lower than the preset level, deducing the degree of clogging of the filter on the basis of the time elapsed and the sensed upstream and downstream pressures obtained immediately prior to the moment at which the sensed upstream pressure dropped below the preset level; and (i) means for controlling the burner on the basis of the deduced degree of clogging of the filter.

  5. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.1509 Section 86.1509 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  7. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O. A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for... Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B) Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR...) Major component description. The exhaust gas analytical system, Figure B94-7, consists of a...

  8. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... description. The exhaust gas analytical system for HC, CO, CO2, and NOX, Figure B90-7, consists of a flame.... A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for the continuous determination of hydrocarbons... with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure...

  9. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O. A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for...) Major component description. The exhaust gas analytical system, Figure B94-7, consists of a flame... consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector. The analysis...

  10. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O (required for 2015 and later model year vehicles). A...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B) Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC...) Major component description. The exhaust gas analytical system, Figure B94-7, consists of a...

  11. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... description. The exhaust gas analytical system for HC, CO, CO2, and NOX, Figure B90-7, consists of a flame.... A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for the continuous determination of hydrocarbons... with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure...

  12. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... description. The exhaust gas analytical system for HC, CO, CO2, and NOX, Figure B90-7, consists of a flame.... A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for the continuous determination of hydrocarbons... with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure...

  13. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... description. The exhaust gas analytical system for HC, CO, CO2, and NOX, Figure B90-7, consists of a flame.... A heated flame ionization detector (HFID) is used for the continuous determination of hydrocarbons... with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure...

  14. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B) Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O (required for 2015 and later model year vehicles). A... description. The exhaust gas analytical system, Figure B94-7, consists of a flame ionization detector...

  15. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O (required for 2015 and later model year vehicles). A...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B) Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC...) Major component description. The exhaust gas analytical system, Figure B94-7, consists of a...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following specifications: (1) The analyzer used shall conform to the accuracy provisions of 40 CFR part 1065... flow. (b) The inclusion of a raw CO2 analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required in order to... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system....

  17. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following specifications: (1) The analyzer used shall conform to the accuracy provisions of 40 CFR part 1065... flow. (b) The inclusion of a raw CO2 analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required in order to... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system....

  18. The Design of Exhaust Systems and Discharge Stacks [With Comments].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John H.

    1963-01-01

    An important part of ventilating for safety consists of providing the necessary exhaust systems to remove building contaminants safely. Further, the effluent must be cleaned within practical limits by means of filters, collectors, and scrubbers. Where recirculation is not safe or feasible, the effluent must be discharged to the outside in a manner…

  19. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for salt well portable exhauster

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as it is applied to the Salt Well Portable Exhauster, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/Salt Well Exhauster system meets all applicable performance criteria. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted the testing using a mockup of the Salt Well Portable Exhauster stack at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The stack/sampling system configuration tested was designed to provide airborne effluent control for the Salt Well pumping operation at some U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington. The portable design of the exhauster allows it to be used in other applications and over a range of exhaust air flowrates (approximately 200 - 1100 cubic feet per minute). The unit includes a stack section containing the sampling probe and another stack section containing the airflow, temperature and humidity sensors. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles.

  20. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust... calculated. (b) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute...

  1. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust... calculated. (b) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute...

  2. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust... calculated. (b) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute...

  3. HSCT Exhaust System Anticipated Seal Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacek, Larry

    2006-01-01

    The overview for HSR seals includes defining objectives, summarizing sealing and material requirements, presenting relevant seal cross-sections, and identifying technology needs. Overview presentations are given for the inlet, turbomachinery, combustor and nozzle. The HSCT and HSR seal issues center on durability and efficiency of rotating equipment seals, structural seals and high speed bearing and sump seals. Tighter clearances, propulsion system size and thermal requirements challenge component designers.

  4. Parasitic load control system for exhaust temperature control

    DOEpatents

    Strauser, Aaron D.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Coldren, Dana R.

    2009-04-28

    A parasitic load control system is provided. The system may include an exhaust producing engine and a fuel pumping mechanism configured to pressurize fuel in a pressure chamber. The system may also include an injection valve configured to cause fuel pressure to build within the pressure chamber when in a first position and allow injection of fuel from the pressure chamber into one or more combustion chambers of the engine when in a second position. The system may further include a controller configured to independently regulate the pressure in the pressure chamber and the injection of fuel into the one or more combustion chambers, to increase a load on the fuel pumping mechanism, increasing parasitic load on the engine, thereby increasing a temperature of the exhaust produced by the engine.

  5. Exhaust particle removing system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.

    1988-07-12

    An exhaust particle removing system is described for an engine, comprising: (a) a filter for trapping particles in exhaust from the engine; (b) means for determining whether or not the degree of clogging of the filter is unacceptable; (c) means for detecting an operating condition of the engine; (d) means for when the degree of clogging of the filter is unacceptable, throttling the flow of intake air into the engine and thus varying the pressure of the intake air in accordance with the detected engine operating condition in cases where the detected engine operating condition resides in a first predetermined range within which the temperature of the engine exhaust would be inadequate to burn off the trapped particles if the intake air flow were not throttled, the throttling means comprising a movable throttle valve disposed in an air intake passage, a bypass passage connected to the air intake passage and bypassing the throttle valve, and a movable bypass valve disposed in the bypass passage; and (e) means for, when the degree of clogging of the filter is unacceptable, allowing free flow of the intake air in cases where the detected engine operating condition resides in a second predetermined range within which the temperature of the engine exhaust would be adequate to burn off the trapped particles even if the intake air flow were not throttled.

  6. Exhaust system for use with a turbine and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect

    Dalsania, Prakash Bavanjibhai; Sadhu, Antanu

    2015-08-18

    An exhaust system for use with a steam turbine is provided. An exhaust hood includes an input and an output, the input receiving fluid from the steam turbine. The exhaust hood includes a first side wall that extends between the input and the output. The first side wall includes an aperture. An ejector is coupled to the exhaust hood. The ejector includes inlets and an outlet. At least one of the inlets receives fluid from the exhaust hood via the aperture.

  7. Three years operation demonstrates exhaust emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The first field installation of a patented NO{sub x} emissions system completed its third year of operation as a demonstration site last August. The cogeneration site is powered by three Caterpillar 350 kW G398 natural gas-fueled engines. The Hybrid Low NO{sub x} system has achieved NO{sub x} and CO levels below 10 ppm consistently. Although this system initially appears complicated and somewhat sophisticated, it has been relatively maintenance free and easy to operate, according to university officials. Petrocon Technologies, of Beaumont, Texas, acquired the license to use the technology in 1994. The first step in the Hybrid Low NO{sub x} system`s process is an afterburner fired at substoichiometric conditions to increase the temperature while also increasing the CO content of the engine exhaust. The added fuel consumption of the burner limits the economy of the system to sites that have use for the additional thermal energy. Cogeneration plants are good candidates. Downstream from the burner, the high-temperature, CO-enriched exhaust passes through a heat recovery steam generator where the gas temperature is reduced to about 538{degree}C. Exhaust then passes over an Allied Signal-supplied reduction catalyst, where NO{sub x} is reduced to below 10 ppm. Controlled levels of CO in contact with the proprietary catalyst is the primary factor in achieving such extraordinarily low NO{sub x} emission levels.

  8. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  9. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems...-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.46 Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems. (a) Explosion tests to determine the strength of the intake and exhaust systems to withstand...

  10. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems...-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.46 Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems. (a) Explosion tests to determine the strength of the intake and exhaust systems to withstand...

  11. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems...-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.46 Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems. (a) Explosion tests to determine the strength of the intake and exhaust systems to withstand...

  12. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems...-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.46 Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems. (a) Explosion tests to determine the strength of the intake and exhaust systems to withstand...

  13. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mixing tunnel into which the engine exhaust and dilutant (background) air are dumped; a dilute exhaust... system; and a background sampling system. (1) Mixing tunnel. The mixing tunnel must be constructed such... exhaust sample port must be located in or downstream of the mixing tunnel at a point where complete...

  14. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consist of: a mixing tunnel into which the engine exhaust and dilutant (background) air are dumped; a... exhaust sampling system; and a background sampling system. (1) Mixing tunnel. The mixing tunnel must be.... A dilute exhaust sample port must be located in or downstream of the mixing tunnel at a point...

  15. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mixing tunnel into which the engine exhaust and dilutant (background) air are dumped; a dilute exhaust... system; and a background sampling system. (1) Mixing tunnel. The mixing tunnel must be constructed such... exhaust sample port must be located in or downstream of the mixing tunnel at a point where complete...

  16. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consist of: a mixing tunnel into which the engine exhaust and dilutant (background) air are dumped; a... exhaust sampling system; and a background sampling system. (1) Mixing tunnel. The mixing tunnel must be.... A dilute exhaust sample port must be located in or downstream of the mixing tunnel at a point...

  17. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling system is...) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute flow...

  18. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling system is...) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute flow...

  19. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling... Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling system is...) A constant volume sampler (CVS) is typically used to control the total amount of dilute flow...

  20. Exhaustive search system and method using space-filling curves

    DOEpatents

    Spires, Shannon V.

    2003-10-21

    A search system and method for one agent or for multiple agents using a space-filling curve provides a way to control one or more agents to cover an area of any space of any dimensionality using an exhaustive search pattern. An example of the space-filling curve is a Hilbert curve. The search area can be a physical geography, a cyberspace search area, or an area searchable by computing resources. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace.

  1. Acoustically shielded exhaust system for high thrust jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, John P. (Inventor); Lee, Robert (Inventor); Majjigi, Rudramuni K. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A flade exhaust nozzle for a high thrust jet engine is configured to form an acoustic shield around the core engine exhaust flowstream while supplementing engine thrust during all flight conditions, particularly during takeoff. The flade airflow is converted from an annular 360.degree. flowstream to an arcuate flowstream extending around the lower half of the core engine exhaust flowstream so as to suppress exhaust noise directed at the surrounding community.

  2. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  3. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani; Koskinen, Jari

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  4. A static investigation of several STOVL exhaust system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, B. M., Jr.; Meyer, B. E.; Re, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    A static cold flow scale model test was performed in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of various STOVL exhaust systems. All of the concepts considered included a vectorable cruise nozzle and a separate vectorable vertical thrust ventral nozzle mounted on the tailpipe. The two ventral nozzle configurations tested featured vectorable constant thickness cascade vanes for area control and improved performance during transition and vertical lift flight. The best transition performance was achieved using a butterfly door type ventral nozzle and a pitch vectoring 2DCD or axisymmetric cruise nozzle. The clamshell blocker type of ventral nozzle had reduced transition performance due to the choking of the tailpipe flow upstream of the cruise nozzle.

  5. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly proposed for embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side ('bevel') did produce up to 3dB more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side ('slant') produced up to 2dB more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron ('notch') produced up to 2dB increase in the noise. Having internal walls ('septae') within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  6. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  7. QCGAT mixer compound exhaust system design and static big model test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmore, W. L.; Thompson, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    A mixer exhaust system was designed to meet the proposed performance and exhaust jet noise goals for the AiResearch QCGAT engine. Some 0.35 scale models of the various nozzles were fabricated and aerodynamically and acoustically tested. Preliminary optimization, engine cycle matching, model test data and analysis are presented. A final mixer exhaust system is selected for optimum performance for the overall flight regime.

  8. Exhaust, Dust Collection and Ventilation Systems. Module SH-44. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on exhaust, dust collection, and ventilation systems is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses the types of contaminants that can be controlled by ventilation, the types of ventilation systems, and the component parts of local exhaust systems. Following the introduction, 10 objectives…

  9. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-90 Exhaust gas sampling system... schematic drawing of the CFV system (methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles may be tested using this test... be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the sample zone dilute exhaust...

  10. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-90 Exhaust gas sampling system... schematic drawing of the CFV system (methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles may be tested using this test... be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the sample zone dilute exhaust...

  11. 40 CFR 85.2224 - Exhaust analysis system-EPA 81.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust analysis system-EPA 81. 85... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2224 Exhaust analysis system—EPA 81. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this...

  12. 40 CFR 85.2224 - Exhaust analysis system-EPA 81.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust analysis system-EPA 81. 85... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2224 Exhaust analysis system—EPA 81. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this...

  13. Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system

    DOEpatents

    Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-05-21

    A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

  14. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for AP-40 exhauster stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.; Bussell, J.H.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as applied to the AP-40 exhauster stack, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/AP-40 system meets all applicable performance criteria. The contaminant mixing tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the wind tunnel facility, 331-H Building, using a mockup of the actual stack. The particle sample transport tests were conducted by PNNL at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The AP-40 stack is typical of several 10-in. diameter stacks that discharge the filtered ventilation air from tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles. Unrelated to the performance criteria, it was found that the record sample filter holder exhibited symptoms of sample bypass around the particle collection filter. This filter holder should either be modified or replaced with a different type. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be...

  17. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be...

  18. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... grab sample. 90.423 Section 90.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a... following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample...

  19. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... grab sample. 90.423 Section 90.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a... following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample...

  20. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... grab sample. 90.423 Section 90.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a... following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample...

  1. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... grab sample. 90.423 Section 90.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a... following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample...

  2. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sample. 90.423 Section 90.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic... following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample...

  3. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust... must be selected consecutively as they are produced. (2) Test motorcycles and test exhaust systems to... sold or offered for sale in commerce. (3) Before the official test, the test motorcycle and...

  4. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust... must be selected consecutively as they are produced. (2) Test motorcycles and test exhaust systems to... sold or offered for sale in commerce. (3) Before the official test, the test motorcycle and...

  5. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust... must be selected consecutively as they are produced. (2) Test motorcycles and test exhaust systems to... sold or offered for sale in commerce. (3) Before the official test, the test motorcycle and...

  6. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The probe must have a... sample of the exhaust. (d) Sample transfer line. (1) The maximum inside diameter of the sample line may... the different analyzers. (2) Heat the sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to the...

  7. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The probe must have a... sample of the exhaust. (d) Sample transfer line. (1) The maximum inside diameter of the sample line may... the different analyzers. (2) Heat the sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to the...

  8. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The probe must have a... sample of the exhaust. (d) Sample transfer line. (1) The maximum inside diameter of the sample line may... the different analyzers. (2) Heat the sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to the...

  9. 40 CFR 89.412 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. 89.412 Section 89.412 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission...

  10. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the different analyzers. (2) Heat the sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to the HC... as small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The probe must have a... which yields a well mixed, homogenous sample of the engine exhaust. The probe must extend...

  11. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. 91.414 Section 91.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.414...

  12. Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, S.; Nomoto, Y.; Oda, T.; Yokooku, K.

    1984-09-18

    An internal combustion engine is provided with an exhaust gas recirculating passage for communicating the intake passage and the exhaust passage thereof. The recirculating passage is provided with a valve for controlling the amount of recirculated exhaust gas. A fundamental air-fuel ratio control value for regulating the air-fuel ratio of the intake gas to a predetermined value is corrected by an operating condition correction value according to the operating condition of the engine. The operating condition correction value is successively changed to an optimal value by comparing the actually obtained air-fuel ratio with a predetermined value. The operating condition correction value for correcting the fundamental air-fuel ratio control value when the exhaust gas recirculation is carried out is changed independently from the same for correcting the fundamental air-fuel ratio correction value when the exhaust gas recirculation is not carried out. The initial values of the former correction value and the latter correction value are compared with each other, while the present values of the former correction value and the latter correction value are compared with each other. The comparison value of the initial values and the comparison value of the present values are compared with each other to detect clogging of the recirculating passage. When clogging is detected, the valve is controlled to compensate for the clogging.

  13. Exhaust system having a gold-platinum group metal catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ragle, Christie Susan; Silver, Ronald G.; Zemskova, Svetlana Mikhailovna; Eckstein, Colleen J.

    2011-12-06

    A method of providing an exhaust treatment device is disclosed. The method includes applying a catalyst including gold and a platinum group metal to a particulate filter. The concentration of the gold and the platinum group metal is sufficient to enable oxidation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

  14. Exhaust system having a gold-platinum group metal catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ragle, Christie Susan; Silver, Ronald G.; Zemskova, Svetlana Mikhailovna; Eckstein, Colleen J.

    2012-08-07

    A method of providing an exhaust treatment device is disclosed. The method includes applying a catalyst including gold and a platinum group metal to a particulate filter. The concentration of the gold and the platinum group metal is sufficient to enable oxidation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

  15. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust...

  16. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust...

  17. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  18. 5. West SideElevated Tank Structure with fume exhaust system and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. West Side-Elevated Tank Structure with fume exhaust system and support structure in foreground. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Functional requirements for portable exhauster system to be used during saltwell pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document defines functional requirements for portable exhausters used to ventilate primary tanks during saltwell pumping, and provide back-up to primary and annulus ventilation systems at C-106 and AY-102.

  20. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C.; Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven

    2002-06-01

    system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  1. Jet noise characteristics of unsuppressed duct burning turbofan exhaust system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packman, A. B.; Kozlowski, H.; Gutierrez, O.

    1976-01-01

    Recent aero-acoustic tests of model coannular nozzles have shown that less noise is generated if the higher-velocity jet is exhausted from the outer annular passage rather than from the primary nozzle. These findings are of particular significance to a duct-burning turbofan (DBTF) engine being studied for application to an advanced supersonic transport. Unlike conventional turbofan engines that have peak velocities from the primary nozzle, it is possible to design a DBTF engine to have a fan velocity higher than that of the primary flow. Results are presented for a NASA-sponsored model test program that covers a range of fan to primary-area ratios from 0.75 to 1.2, and a range of fan to primary-velocity ratios from 0.4 to 2.8. Correlations are given that relate radiated sound power to fan velocity, fan to primary-velocity ratio, and fan to primary-area ratio. Corresponding exhaust-plume velocity-traverse data are presented which suggest that the observed noise benefits may be due to the more rapid decay of the annular flow because of shear stresses on the inner surface that result from the lower-velocity primary flow.

  2. Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

  3. Particulate trap system for engine exhaust using electrically powered regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, V.D.N.; Wade, W.R.; Aimone, M.G.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for removing oxidizable particulates from an automotive engine having a driven output part, and consists of: a) a particulate filter trap disposed in such stream; b) electrically heated elements proximate to the filter to promote oxidation of particulates collected in the filter; c) an alternator for converting the motion of the engine driven output part to a supply of electrical energy which can be connected to the elements and effective to heat the elements to at least the incineration temperature of the particulates while the engine is at least at an idle condition; d) electrically actuated means for diverting the stream of exhaust gases away from at least a portion of the filter trap and for delayedly admitting a flow of a fluid medium effective to transfer heat between the elements and collected particulates and to supply oxygen for supporting oxidation of the particulates.

  4. Combustion control system adding a liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.E.

    1980-01-15

    A combustion control system is disclosed that adds a fluid and heat energy to the air-fuel mixture of the induction system of an internal combustion engine in response to engine need to improve combustion, to increase power, to improve efficiency, and to reduce emissions. The system incorporates fluidic control mechanisms which provide the control functions without any moving parts. The system incorporates one or more variable impedance flow control mechanisms, each of which produces an impedance to flow through the control mechanism which varies in a controlled relationship to the pressure differential across the control mechanism. In one embodiment, the main variable impedance control mechanism is a vortex chamber. The outlet of the vortex chamber is connected to the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) inlet to intake manifold downstream of the butterfly valve. The vortex chamber has inputs for supplying air, the liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases for mixing within the vortex chamber. The incoming liquid, air, exhaust gases, and PCV gases are transmitted into the main vortex chamber by input constructions which, in themselves, provide for controlled regulation of both the relative proportions and total amounts of the incoming liquid and gases. In a specific embodiment, the input constructions include a liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber for mixing liquid with exhaust gases and a PCV-exhaust gas vortex chamber for mixing exhaust gases with PCV gases and air and swirl producing devices for causing controlled choking of the inlets of one or more of the vortex chambers. The system also incorporates a variable impedance syphon break in the line connecting the liquid source with the liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber.

  5. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Castellano, Christopher R.; Moini, Ahmad; Koermer, Gerald S.; Furbeck, Howard

    2010-07-20

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  6. Formation and destruction of CH2O in the exhaust system of a gas engine.

    PubMed

    Alzueta, María U; Glarborg, Peter

    2003-10-01

    A computational study of chemical reactions occurring in the exhaust system of natural gas engines has been conducted, emphasizing the formation and destruction of formaldehyde. The modeling was based on a detailed reaction mechanism, developed for describing oxidation of C1-C2 hydrocarbons and formaldehyde. The mechanism was validated against data from laboratory flow reactors and from the exhaust system of a full-scale gas engine. A parametric study of the exhaust system chemistry was performed, investigating the effect of temperature, stoichiometry, pressure, and exhaust gas composition. The results indicate a complex interaction between unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), formaldehyde, and nitrogen oxides. Above 850 K, partial oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons may occur, resulting in net formation or net destruction of CH2O depending on the unburned hydrocarbons/CH2O ratio and the reaction conditions. At the typical unburned hydrocarbons/CH2O ratio of 1.0-1.5% for gas engines, net formaldehyde formation may occur in the exhaust system if temperatures above 850 K are reached. PMID:14572109

  7. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  8. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  9. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  10. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  11. Engine Performance (Section B: Fuel and Exhaust Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This module is the third of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Six units cover: fuel supply systems; carburetion; carburetor service; gasoline engine electronic fuel injection; diesel fuel injection; and exhaust systems and turbochargers. Introductory materials include a competency profile and…

  12. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  13. Experiments on Exhaust Noise of Tightly Integrated Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.; Brown, Clifford A.; Bozak, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    A wide-ranging series of tests have been completed that seek to map the effects of installation, including jet by jet interaction effects, on exhaust noise from various nozzles in forward flight. The primary data was far-field acoustic spectral directivity. The goals of the test series were (i) to generate enough data for empirical models of the different effects, and (ii) to provide data for advanced computational noise predictions methods applied to simplified yet realistic configurations. Data is presented that demonstrate several checks on data quality and that provide an overview of trends observed to date. Among the findings presented here: (i) Data was repeatable between jet rigs for single nozzles with and without surfaces to within +/- 0.5 dB. (ii) The presence of a second jet caused a strong reduction of the summed noise in the plane of the two plumes and an increase over the expected source doubling in most other azimuthal planes. (iii) The impact of the second jet was reduced when the jets were unheated. (iv) The impact of adding a second isolated rectangular jet was relatively independent of the nozzle aspect ratio up to aspect ratio 8:1. (v) Forward flight had similar impact on a high aspect ratio (8:1) jet as on an axisymmetric jet, except at the peak noise angle where the impact was less. (vi) The effect of adding a second round jet to a tightly integrated nozzle where the nozzle lip was less than a diameter from the surface was very dependent upon the length of the surface downstream of the nozzle. (vii) When the nozzles were rectangular and tightly integrated with the airframe surface the impact of a second jet was very dependent upon how close together the two jets were. This paper serves as an overview of the test; other papers presented in the same conference will give more detailed analysis of the results.

  14. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  15. New Model Exhaust System Supports Testing in NASA Lewis' 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, James W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In early 1996, the ability to run NASA Lewis Research Center's Abe Silverstein 10- by 10- Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10) at subsonic test section speeds was reestablished. Taking advantage of this new speed range, a subsonic research test program was scheduled for the 10x10 in the fall of 1996. However, many subsonic aircraft test models require an exhaust source to simulate main engine flow, engine bleed flows, and other phenomena. This was also true of the proposed test model, but at the time the 10x10 did not have a model exhaust capability. So, through an in-house effort over a period of only 5 months, a new model exhaust system was designed, installed, checked out, and made ready in time to support the scheduled test program.

  16. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of... requires: (i) Bag sampling (see 40 CFR part 1065) and analytical capabilities (see 40 CFR part 1065), as...-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas PDP-CVS in 40 CFR part...

  17. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of... requires: (i) Bag sampling (see 40 CFR part 1065) and analytical capabilities (see 40 CFR part 1065), as...-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas PDP-CVS in 40 CFR part...

  18. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements...

  19. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements...

  20. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling air... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

  1. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling air... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

  2. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling air... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

  3. Measuring Airflow in Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems. Module 23. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on measuring airflow in local exhaust ventilation systems. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each…

  4. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems. 36.46 Section 36.46 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT...

  5. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... grab sample. 91.423 Section 91.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in...) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to...

  6. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... grab sample. 91.423 Section 91.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in...) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to...

  7. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... grab sample. 91.423 Section 91.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in...) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to...

  8. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sample. 91.423 Section 91.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in...) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to...

  9. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... grab sample. 91.423 Section 91.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 91.423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in...) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to...

  10. 75 FR 67634 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 57191). The direct final rule... Federal Register (75 FR 57191). This rule eliminates turbochargers from the list of equipment considered... dissipative devices. FMCSA used the direct final rule procedures (75 FR 29915, May 28, 2010) because it was...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (i) The primary dilution tunnel shall be: (A) Small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow... sampling system. (B) Have a 0.483 cm (0.19 in) minimum inside diameter. (C) Be installed in the primary... diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel). (D) Be sufficiently...

  12. An Evaluation of a Welding Fumes Exhaust System. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 284.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    A study evaluated the feasibility of introducing unheated outside air into the airstream of a cross-flow welding exhaust system to reduce heating energy costs of a school welding laboratory. The physical facility used was the agricultural mechanics laboratory at the University of Arizona, which is similar to facilities in which instruction in…

  13. Regeneration of Exhausted Arsenic Adsorptive media of a Full Scale Treatment System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the method and results of laboratory tests showing the feasibility of regenerating exhausted, iron-based, adsorptive media and the results of a follow up regeneration test at a full scale system in Twentynine Palms CA. The laboratory studies on se...

  14. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling air... saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

  15. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. 36.47 Section 36.47 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements §...

  16. Limiter/vacuum system for plasma impurity control and exhaust in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.; Brooks, J.; Mattas, R.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed design of a limiter/vacuum system for plasma impurity control and exhaust has been developed for the STARFIRE tokamak power plant. It is shown that the limiter/vacuum concept is a very attractive option for power reactors. It is relatively simple and inexpensive and deserves serious experimental verification.

  17. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The probe shall have a minimum of... to engine family. (c) Sample transfer line. (1) The maximum inside diameter of the sample line shall... internally to the different analyzers. (2) Heat the sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe...

  18. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The probe shall have a minimum of... to engine family. (c) Sample transfer line. (1) The maximum inside diameter of the sample line shall... internally to the different analyzers. (2) Heat the sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe...

  19. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The probe shall have a minimum of... to engine family. (c) Sample transfer line. (1) The maximum inside diameter of the sample line shall... internally to the different analyzers. (2) Heat the sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe...

  20. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles. 86.110-90 Section 86.110-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  1. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of... requires: (i) Bag sampling (see 40 CFR part 1065) and analytical capabilities (see 40 CFR part 1065), as...-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas PDP-CVS in 40 CFR part...

  2. Motor Transportation Technology: Automechanics. [Fuel and Exhaust System.] Block VII. A-VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Instructional materials on fuel and exhaust systems are provided for an auto mechanics course in the motor transportation technology program. Instructor's plans are provided for five units. Each unit consists of instructional and manipulative lessons. The format of an instructional lesson is as follows: the subject, aim, a listing of teaching aids…

  3. Experimental Investigation of Exhaust Thermoelectric System and Application for Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, W. S.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    In this case study, an energy harvesting system using a thermoelectric power generator (TEG) has been constructed. Experimental investigation of the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric modules (TMs) in this system has been undertaken to assess the feasibility for automotive applications. Two test benches have been developed to analyze the TM performance and the TEG system characteristics, especially the temperature difference, open-circuit voltage, and maximum power output of the TM and TEG system. As the performance of a TM is most influenced by the applied pressure and the temperature difference, a thermostatic heater, thermostatic water tank, and clamping devices are used in our experimental apparatus, increasing the output power of the TEG system. Based on the test bench, a new system called the "four-TEGs" system was designed and assembled into a prototype vehicle called "Warrior," and the characteristics of the system such as the maximum power output have been studied in road tests. The results show great potential for application of this technology in future vehicles.

  4. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... analysis as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is permitted as applicable. The inclusion of an additional raw carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required if the CVS system is used, in order to accurately determine the CVS dilution factor. The heated sample line specified in 40 CFR...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... analysis as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is permitted as applicable. The inclusion of an additional raw carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required if the CVS system is used, in order to accurately determine the CVS dilution factor. The heated sample line specified in 40 CFR...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... analysis as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is permitted as applicable. The inclusion of an additional raw carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required if the CVS system is used, in order to accurately determine the CVS dilution factor. The heated sample line specified in 40 CFR...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is permitted as applicable. The inclusion of an additional raw carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required if the CVS system is used, in order to accurately determine the CVS dilution factor. The heated sample line specified in 40 CFR part 1065 for...

  8. Integrated exhaust gas analysis system for aircraft turbine engine component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. L.; Anderson, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated exhaust gas analysis system was designed and installed in the hot-section facility at the Lewis Research Center. The system is designed to operate either manually or automatically and also to be operated from a remote station. The system measures oxygen, water vapor, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Two microprocessors control the system and the analyzers, collect data and process them into engineering units, and present the data to the facility computers and the system operator. Within the design of this system there are innovative concepts and procedures that are of general interest and application to other gas analysis tasks.

  9. System interfaces control document for the Tokamak exhaust processing system PBS 3.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Willms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan J; Coons, James E; Kubic, William L

    2008-01-01

    The Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) removes tritium from highly tritiated gas streams and returns it back to the fuel system. The largest feed streams originate from the torus, but others arrive from systems throughout the tritium plant. Tritium in the form of free hydrogen (i.e., DT, HT) is separated by Pd-Ag permeators or by cryoadsorption and directed to the Isotope Separation System (ISS). Tritium present in impurities (such as CD{sub 2}T{sub 2} and DTO) is chemically converted to free hydrogen, separated by Pd-Ag membranes, and then sent to ISS. All waste streams are processed by the Detritiation System (DS) prior to venting to the atmosphere. The stream received from Helium Glow Discharge Cleaning (GDC) is returned to GDC after processing. TEP is also designed to accommodate a Tritium Plant (TP) standby mode of operation whereby gases received from fuelling are processed by TEP and returned to SDS. This S-ICD describes all process interfaces for TEP and contains tables to control their progressive definition.

  10. Effect of Room Ventilation Rates in Rodent Rooms with Direct-Exhaust IVC Systems.

    PubMed

    Geertsema, Roger S; Lindsell, Claire E

    2015-09-01

    When IVC are directly exhausted from a rodent housing room, the air quality of the room can become independent of the intracage air quality and may reduce the need for high room ventilation rates. This study assessed the effect of decreasing the ventilation rate in rodent rooms using direct-exhaust IVC systems. The study was conducted over 16 wk and compared conditions in 8 rodent rooms that had ventilation rates of 5 to 6 air changes per hour (ACH) with those in rooms at 10 to 12 ACH. At the low ventilation rate, rooms had higher CO₂ concentrations, higher dew point temperature, and lower particulate levels and spent a greater percentage of time above the temperature set point than did rooms at the high rate. The levels of allergens and endotoxins in room air were the same regardless of the ventilation rate. Differences seen in parameters within cages at the 2 ventilation rates were operationally irrelevant. We detected no total volatile organic compounds in the room that were attributable to ammonia, regardless of the ventilation rate. Clearing the air of ethanol after a spill took longer at the low compared with high rate. However, ethanol clearance was faster at the low rate when the demand-control system was activated than at the high ventilation rate alone. Air quality in the room and in the cages were acceptable with room ventilation rates of 5 to 6 ACH in rodent rooms that use direct-exhaust IVC systems. PMID:26424250

  11. Effect of Room Ventilation Rates in Rodent Rooms with Direct-Exhaust IVC Systems

    PubMed Central

    Geertsema, Roger S; Lindsell, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    When IVC are directly exhausted from a rodent housing room, the air quality of the room can become independent of the intracage air quality and may reduce the need for high room ventilation rates. This study assessed the effect of decreasing the ventilation rate in rodent rooms using direct-exhaust IVC systems. The study was conducted over 16 wk and compared conditions in 8 rodent rooms that had ventilation rates of 5 to 6 air changes per hour (ACH) with those in rooms at 10 to 12 ACH. At the low ventilation rate, rooms had higher CO2 concentrations, higher dew point temperature, and lower particulate levels and spent a greater percentage of time above the temperature set point than did rooms at the high rate. The levels of allergens and endotoxins in room air were the same regardless of the ventilation rate. Differences seen in parameters within cages at the 2 ventilation rates were operationally irrelevant. We detected no total volatile organic compounds in the room that were attributable to ammonia, regardless of the ventilation rate. Clearing the air of ethanol after a spill took longer at the low compared with high rate. However, ethanol clearance was faster at the low rate when the demand-control system was activated than at the high ventilation rate alone. Air quality in the room and in the cages were acceptable with room ventilation rates of 5 to 6 ACH in rodent rooms that use direct-exhaust IVC systems. PMID:26424250

  12. IR imaging simulation and analysis for aeroengine exhaust system based on reverse Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Lihai; Mo, Dongla; Shi, Jingcheng

    2014-11-01

    The IR radiation characteristics of aeroengine are the important basis for IR stealth design and anti-stealth detection of aircraft. With the development of IR imaging sensor technology, the importance of aircraft IR stealth increases. An effort is presented to explore target IR radiation imaging simulation based on Reverse Monte Carlo Method (RMCM), which combined with the commercial CFD software. Flow and IR radiation characteristics of an aeroengine exhaust system are investigated, which developing a full size geometry model based on the actual parameters, using a flow-IR integration structured mesh, obtaining the engine performance parameters as the inlet boundary conditions of mixer section, and constructing a numerical simulation model of engine exhaust system of IR radiation characteristics based on RMCM. With the above models, IR radiation characteristics of aeroengine exhaust system is given, and focuses on the typical detecting band of IR spectral radiance imaging at azimuth 20°. The result shows that: (1) in small azimuth angle, the IR radiation is mainly from the center cone of all hot parts; near the azimuth 15°, mixer has the biggest radiation contribution, while center cone, turbine and flame stabilizer equivalent; (2) the main radiation components and space distribution in different spectrum is different, CO2 at 4.18, 4.33 and 4.45 micron absorption and emission obviously, H2O at 3.0 and 5.0 micron absorption and emission obviously.

  13. Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M. A.; Masum, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

  14. NO.sub.x catalyst and method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system

    DOEpatents

    Balmer-Millar, Mari Lou; Park, Paul W.; Panov, Alexander G.

    2007-06-26

    The activity and durability of a zeolite lean-burn NOx catalyst can be increased by loading metal cations on the outer surface of the zeolite. However, the metal loadings can also oxidize sulfur dioxide to cause sulfate formation in the exhaust. The present invention is a method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system including a NO.sub.x catalyst. The NO.sub.x catalyst includes a zeolite loaded with at least one metal. The metal is selected from among an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a lanthanide metal, a noble metal, and a transition metal. In order to suppress sulfate formation, at least a portion of the loaded metal is complexed with at least one of sulfate, phosphate, and carbonate.

  15. NO.sub.x catalyst and method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system

    DOEpatents

    Balmer-Millar, Mari Lou; Park, Paul W.; Panov, Alexander G.

    2006-08-22

    The activity and durability of a zeolite lean-bum NOx catalyst can be increased by loading metal cations on the outer surface of the zeolite. However, the metal loadings can also oxidize sulfur dioxide to cause sulfate formation in the exhaust. The present invention is a method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system including a NO.sub.x catalyst. The NO.sub.x catalyst includes a zeolite loaded with at least one metal. The metal is selected from among an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a lanthanide metal, a noble metal, and a transition metal. In order to suppress sulfate formation, at least a portion of the loaded metal is complexed with at least one of sulfate, phosphate, and carbonate.

  16. Experimental and three-dimensional CFD investigation in a gas turbine exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Sultanian, B.K.; Nagao, S.; Sakamoto, T.

    1999-04-01

    Both experimental and three-dimensional CFD investigations are carried out in a scale model of an industrial gas turbine exhaust system to better understand its complex flow field and to validate CFD prediction capabilities for improved design applications. The model consists of an annular diffuser passage with struts, followed by turning vanes and a rectangular plenum with side exhaust. Precise measurements of total/static pressure and flow velocity distributions at the model inlet, strut outlet and model outlet are made using aerodynamic probes and locally a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Numerical analyses of the model internal flow field are performed utilizing a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (N-S) calculation method with the industry standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model. Both the experiments and computations are carried out for three load conditions: full speed no load (FSNL), full speed mid load (FSML, 57% load), and full speed full load (FSFL). Based on the overall comparison between the measurements and CFD predictions, this study concludes that the applied N-S method is capable of predicting complicated gas turbine exhaust system flows for design applications.

  17. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  18. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  19. Examination of redirected continuous miner scrubber discharge configurations for exhaust face ventilation systems

    PubMed Central

    Organiscak, J.A.; Beck, T.W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) has recently studied several redirected scrubber discharge configurations in its full-scale continuous miner gallery for both dust and gas control when using an exhaust face ventilation system. Dust and gas measurements around the continuous mining machine in the laboratory showed that the conventional scrubber discharge directed outby the face with a 12.2-m (40-ft) exhaust curtain setback appeared to be one of the better configurations for controlling dust and gas. Redirecting all the air toward the face equally up both sides of the machine increased the dust and gas concentrations around the machine. When all of the air was redirected toward the face on the off-curtain side of the machine, gas accumulations tended to be reduced at the face, at the expense of increased dust levels in the return and on the curtain side of the mining machine. A 6.1-m (20-ft) exhaust curtain setback without the scrubber operating resulted in the lowest dust levels around the continuous mining machine, but this configuration resulted in some of the highest levels of dust in the return and gas on the off-curtain side of the mining face. Two field studies showed some similarities to the laboratory findings, with elevated dust levels at the rear corners of the continuous miner when all of the scrubber exhaust was redirected toward the face either up the off-tubing side or equally up both sides of the mining machine. PMID:26251566

  20. Heat Transfer Analysis of an Engine Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Evaporation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Tan, Gangfeng; Guo, Xuexun; Deng, Yadong; Zhang, Hongguang; Yang, Kai

    2016-03-01

    Engine exhaust can be used by thermoelectric generators for improving thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. In his paper, the performance of a thermoelectric evaporation system is investigated. First, the thermal characteristics of diesel engines are obtained according to the experiment data. Then, mathematical models are created based on the specified conditions of the coolant cycle and the evaporator geometric parameters. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics and power performance of the thermoelectric evaporation system are estimated, and a comparison with the system in which the heat exchanger operates with all-liquid coolant is investigated. The results show that the overall heat transfer rate of the thermoelectric evaporator system increases with engine power. At the rated condition, the two-phase zone with an area of 0.8689 m2 dominates the evaporator's heat transfer area compared with the preheated zone area of 0.0055 m2, and for the thermoelectric module, the cold-side temperature is stable at 74°C while the hot-side temperature drops from 341.8°C to 304.9°C along the exhaust direction. For certain thermoelectric cells, the temperature difference between the cold side and hot side rises with the engine load, and the temperature difference drops from 266.9°C to 230.6°C along the exhaust direction. For two cold-side systems with the same heat transfer, coolant mass flow rate in the evaporator with two-phase state is much less, and the temperature difference along with equivalent heat transfer length L is significantly larger than in the all-liquid one. At rated power point, power generated by thermoelectric cells in the two-phase evaporation system is 508.4 W, while the other is only 328.8 W.

  1. A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

  2. A hybrid active/passive exhaust noise control system for locomotives.

    PubMed

    Remington, Paul J; Knight, J Scott; Hanna, Doug; Rowley, Craig

    2005-01-01

    A prototype hybrid system consisting of active and passive components for controlling far-field locomotive exhaust noise has been designed, assembled, and tested on a locomotive. The system consisted of a resistive passive silencer for controlling high-frequency broadband noise and a feedforward multiple-input, multiple-output active control system for suppressing low-frequency tonal noise. The active system used ten roof-mounted bandpass speaker enclosures with 2-12-in. speakers per enclosure as actuators, eight roof-mounted electret microphones as residual sensors, and an optical tachometer that sensed locomotive engine speed as a reference sensor. The system was installed on a passenger locomotive and tested in an operating rail yard. Details of the system are described and the near-field and far-field noise reductions are compared against the design goal. PMID:15704399

  3. Bithermal Low-Cycle Fatigue Evaluation of Automotive Exhaust System Alloy SS409

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Gui-Ying; Behling, Mike B.; Halford, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    This investigation provides, for the first time, cyclic strainrange-controlled, thermomechanical fatigue results for the ferritic stainless steel alloy SS409. The alloy has seen extensive application for automotive exhaust system components. The data were generated to calibrate the Total Strain Version of the Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP) method for eventual application to the design and durability assessment of automotive exhaust systems. The thermomechanical cyclic lifetime and cyclic stress-strain constitutive behavior for alloy SS409 were measured using bithermal tests cycling between isothermal extremes of 400 and 800 C. Lives ranged up to 10,000 cycles to failure with hold-times of 0.33 to 2.0 minutes. The bithermal fatigue behavior is compared to isothermal, strain-controlled fatigue behavior at both 400 and 800 C. Thermomechanical cycling was found to have a profound detrimental influence on the fatigue failure resistance of SS409 compared to isothermal cycling. Supplementary bithermal cyclic stress-strain constitutive tests with hold-times ranging from 40 seconds up to 1.5 hours were conducted to calibrate the TS-SRP equation for extrapolation to longer lifetime predictions. Observed thermomechanical (bithermal) fatigue lives correlated well with lives calculated using the calibrated TS-SRP equations: 70% of the bithermal fatigue data fall within a factor of 1.2 of calculated life; 85% within a factor of 1.4; and 100% within a factor of 1.8.

  4. Exhaust after-treatment system with in-cylinder addition of unburnt hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Gerald N.; Kesse, Mary L.

    2007-10-30

    Certain exhaust after-treatment devices, at least periodically, require the addition of unburnt hydrocarbons in order to create reductant-rich exhaust conditions. The present disclosure adds unburnt hydrocarbons to exhaust from at least one combustion chamber by positioning, at least partially within a combustion chamber, a mixed-mode fuel injector operable to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a first spray pattern with a small average angle relative to a centerline of the combustion chamber and a second spray pattern with a large average angle relative to the centerline of the combustion chamber. An amount of fuel is injected in the first spray pattern into a non-combustible environment within the at least one combustion chamber during at least one of an expansion stroke and exhaust stroke. The exhaust with the unburnt amount of fuel is moved into an exhaust passage via an exhaust valve.

  5. A study of ingestion and dispersion of engine exhaust products in trailing vortex systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, J. N.; Stahara, S. S.; Woolley, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis has been made of the ingestion and dispersion of engine exhaust products into the trailing vortex system of supersonic aircraft flying in the stratosphere. The rate of mixing between the supersonic jet and the co-flowing supersonic stream was found to be an order of magnitude less than would be expected on the basis of subsonic eddy-viscosity results. The length of the potential core was 66 nozzle exit radii so that the exhaust gases remain at elevated temperatures and concentrations over much longer distances than previsously estimated. Ingestion started at the end of the potential core and all hot gas from the engine was ingested into the trailing vortex within two core lengths. Comparison between the buoyancy calculations for the supersonic case with nondimensionalized subsonic aircraft contrail data on wake spreading showed good agreement. Velocity and temperature profiles have been specified at various stages of the wake, and the analysis in this report can be used to predict variations of concentrations of species such as nitrogen oxides under conditions of chemical reaction.

  6. Design and Integrate Improved Systems for Nuclear Facility Ventilation and Exhaust Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.

    2014-04-15

    Objective: The objective of this R&D project would complete the development of three new systems and integrate them into a single experimental effort. However, each of the three systems has stand-alone applicability across the DOE complex. At US DOE nuclear facilities, indoor air is filtered and ventilated for human occupancy, and exhaust air to the outdoor environment must be regulated and monitored. At least three technical standards address these functions, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory would complete an experimental facility to answer at least three questions: (1) Can the drag coefficient of a new Los Alamos air mixer be reduced for better operation in nuclear facility exhaust stacks? (2) Is it possible to verify the accuracy of a new dilution method for HEPA filter test facilities? (3) Is there a performance-based air flow metric (volumetric flow or mass flow) for operating HEPA filters? In summary, the three new systems are: a mixer, a diluter and a performance-based metric, respectively. The results of this project would be applicable to at least four technical standards: ANSI N13.1 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities; ASTM F1471 Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System, ASME N511: In-Service Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment, Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, and ASME AG-1: Code On Nuclear Air And Gas Treatment. All of the three proposed new systems must be combined into a single experimental device (i.e. to develop a new function of the Los Alamos aerosol wind tunnel). Technical Approach: The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally (2006) designed to evaluate small air samplers (cf. US EPA 40 CFR 53.42). In 2009, the tunnel was modified for exhaust stack verifications per the ANSI N13.1 standard. In 2010, modifications were started on the

  7. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust... by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration...

  9. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  10. Apparatus and a method for diagnosing an exhaust gas purification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, N.; Uchitani, N.

    1988-09-13

    This patent describes a method for diagnosing at least three sensors of an exhaust gas purification system, which includes a predetermined relationship between outputs of the three sensors comprising: detecting an output of a first sensor of the three sensors; detecting an output of a second sensor of the three sensors; detecting an output of a third sensor of the three sensors; detecting an engine revolution number; and determining whether the engine revolution number is within a first revolution range when the output of the second sensor is contrary to an output predicted in accordance with the outputs of the first and third sensors on the basis on the predetermined relationship, whereby the method does not diagnose any of three sensors as out of order when the engine revolution number is within the first revolution range.

  11. TNKVNT: A model of the Tank 48 purge/ventilation exhaust system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    The waste tank purge ventilation system for Tank 48 is designed to prevent dangerous concentrations of hydrogen or benzene from accumulating in the gas space of the tank. Fans pull the gas/water vapor mixture from the tank gas space and pass it sequentially through a demister, a condenser, a reheater, and HEPA filters before discharging to the environment. Proper operation of the HEPA filters requires that the gas mixture passing through them has a low relative humidity. The ventilation system has been modified by increasing the capacity of the fans and changing the condenser from a two-pass heat exchanger to a single-pass heat exchanger. It is important to understand the impact of these modifications on the operation of the system. A hydraulic model of the ventilation exhaust system has been developed. This model predicts the properties of the air throughout the system and the flowrate through the system, as functions of the tank gas space and environmental conditions. This document serves as a Software Design Report, a Software Coding report, and a User`s Manual. All of the information required for understanding and using this code is herein contained: the governing equations are fully developed, the numerical algorithms are described in detail, and an extensively commented code listing is included. This updated version of the code models the entire purge ventilation system, and is therefore more general in its potential applications.

  12. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks' air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  13. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks’ air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  14. 40 CFR 85.2225 - Steady state test exhaust analysis system-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady state test exhaust analysis... Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2225 Steady state test exhaust analysis system—EPA 91. (a) Special... feet (above mean sea level). At any given altitude and ambient conditions specified in paragraphs...

  15. 40 CFR 85.2225 - Steady state test exhaust analysis system-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steady state test exhaust analysis... Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2225 Steady state test exhaust analysis system—EPA 91. (a) Special... feet (above mean sea level). At any given altitude and ambient conditions specified in paragraphs...

  16. Mock-up and testing of a variable volume laboratory fume hood exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Vresk, J.; Hirsch, P. R.; Davis, S. A.; Myers, G. E.; Woodring, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A test of an ANL-designed variable volume system prototype used to displace an existing constant volume fume hood ventilation system in a laboratory of the Materials Science Division is described. Performance characteristics such as response, stability, repeatability and hood containment were tested and evaluated, with particular emphasis on containment, to clearly demonstrate that operator safety and the environment are not compromised. Results obtained clearly indicate the feasibility of implementing the prototype concept. The variable volume system enables reducing conditioned ventilation air to the laboratory room by at least 50%, dependent solely upon internal heat loads. Normal hood exhaust of 200 CFM with the face sash in a closed position can be provided by air used to condition building offices and corridors. In all modes of operation, i.e., fume hood face sash closed to fully open, the building differential pressure design criteria from office to corridor to laboratory to fume hood is maintained. Also, hood face velocity can be established to meet minimum requirements at any position of sash opening and test results indicate a hood containment efficiency equal to or better than the presently existing constant volume proportional by-pass system.

  17. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  18. RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer. 3280.708 Section 3280.708 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  1. Fluid-structure interaction study of the splitter plate in a TBCC exhaust system during mode transition phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuai; Xu, Jinglei; Mo, Jianwei; Gu, Rui; Pang, Lina

    2015-07-01

    Splitter plate plays an important role in a turbine-based combined-cycle (TBCC) exhaust system during the mode transition phase when turbojet engine and ramjet engine operate simultaneously. Dissimilar pressure distribution on both sides of the plate has a potential origin in the aeroelastic coupling, which is an interesting topic while few research works have devoted to that aspect. To better understand the aeroelastic behavior of the plate and the corresponding dynamic flow features, an integrated fluid-structure interaction simulation is conducted under one particular operation condition during mode transition phase in the TBCC exhaust system. A finite-volume-based CFD solver FLUENT is adopted to solve the unsteady Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations. ABAQUS, a finite-element-method-based CSD solver, is employed to compute the plate elastic deformation. A two-way interaction between the fluid and the structure is accomplished by the mesh-based parallel-code coupling interface (MpCCI) in a loosely-coupled manner. The accuracy of the coupling procedure is validated for the flutter of a flat plate in supersonic flow. Then, features of steady flow field of the TBCC exhaust system are discussed, followed by the investigation of the aeroelastic phenomenon of the splitter plate and the evolution process of the flow field pattern. Finally, performances variation of the exhaust system is obtained and discussed. The results show that the plate vibrates with decaying amplitude and reaches a dynamic stable state eventually. The thrust, lift and pitch moment of the TBCC exhaust system are increased by 0.68%, 2.82% and 5.86%, respectively, compared with the corresponding values in steady state which does not take into account the fluid-structure interaction effects. The analysis reveals the importance of considering the fluid-structure interaction effects in designing the splitter plate in the TBCC exhaust system and demonstrates the availability of the present coupled

  2. RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLAMMOGENIC AND MUTAGENIC EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES: A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (DEP) is a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant derived from mobile and stationary diesel fuel combustion. Exposure to DEP is associated with carcinogenic and immunotoxic effects in humans and experimental animals. At the cellular level, these heal...

  3. On-board ammonia generation and exhaust after treatment system using same

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Josh; Robel, Wade J.; Brown, Cory A.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.

    2010-03-30

    Often NOx selective catalysts that use ammonia to reduce NOx within exhaust to a harmless gas require on-board storage of ammonia which can be hazardous and inconvenient. In order to generate ammonia in exhaust, the present disclosure increases a NOx concentration in exhaust from at least one combustion chamber, at least in part, by injecting fuel in a predetermined increased NOx generation sequence that includes a first injection during non-auto ignition conditions and a second injection during auto ignition conditions. At least a portion of the NOx is converted to ammonia by passing at least a portion of the exhaust with the increased NOx concentration over an ammonia-producing catalyst.

  4. Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

  5. Experiments and Simulations on a Heat Exchanger of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generation System Under Coupling Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Yu, C. G.; Chen, S.; Wang, Y. P.; Su, C. Q.

    2014-06-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates an exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for vehicles, using thermoelectric modules and a heat exchanger to produce electric power. It proposes a new plane heat exchanger of a thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, producing electricity from a limited hot surface area. To investigate the new plane heat exchanger, we make a coupling condition of heat-flow and flow-solid coupling analysis on it to obtain the temperature, heat, and pressure field of the heat exchanger, and compared it with the old heat exchanger. These fields couple together to solve the multi-field coupling of the flow, solid, and heat, and then the simulation result is compared with the test bench experiment of TEG, providing a theoretical and experimental basis for the present exhaust gas waste heat recovery system.

  6. Modeling the Air Flow in the 3410 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack System

    SciTech Connect

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2013-01-23

    Additional ventilation capacity has been designed for the 3410 Building filtered exhaust stack system. The updated system will increase the number of fans from two to three and will include ductwork to incorporate the new fan into the existing stack. Stack operations will involve running various two-fan combinations at any given time. The air monitoring system of the existing two-fan stack was previously found to be in compliance with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard, however it is not known if the modified (three-fan) system will comply. Subsequently, a full-scale three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the modified stack system has been created to examine the sampling location for compliance with the standard. The CFD modeling results show good agreement with testing data collected from the existing 3410 Building stack and suggest that velocity uniformity and flow angles will remain well within acceptance criteria when the third fan and associated ductwork is installed. This includes two-fan flow rates up to 31,840 cfm for any of the two-fan combinations. For simulation cases in which tracer gas and particles are introduced in the main duct, the model predicts that both particle and tracer gas coefficients of variance (COVs) may be larger than the acceptable 20 percent criterion of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for each of the two-fan, 31,840 cfm combinations. Simulations in which the tracers are introduced near the fans result in improved, though marginally acceptable, COV values for the tracers. Due to the remaining uncertainty that the stack will qualify with the addition of the third fan and high flow rates, a stationary air blender from Blender Products, Inc. is considered for inclusion in the stack system. A model of the air blender has been developed and incorporated into the CFD model. Simulation results from the CFD model that includes the air blender show striking improvements in tracer gas mixing and tracer particle

  7. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat...

  8. 40 CFR 89.412 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the exhaust pipe shall be as small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The.... The inside diameter shall not be greater than the inside diameter of the sample line plus 0.03 cm. The... extend across at least 80 percent of the diameter of the duct. (c) Sample transfer line. (1) The...

  9. Factors to Consider in Designing Aerosol Inlet Systems for Engine Exhaust Plume Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    This document consists of viewgraphs of charts and diagrams of considerations to take when sampling the engine exhaust plume. It includes a chart that compares the emissions from various fuels, a diagram and charts of the various processes and conditions that influence the particulate size and concentration,

  10. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) or less. (ii) A heat exchanger is required. (iii) The gas mixture temperature, measured at a point... transfer of heat from the vehicle exhaust gas shall be minimized between the point where it leaves the vehicle tailpipe(s) and the point where it enters the dilution tunnel airstream. To accomplish this,...

  11. 40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall be either chemically cleaned stainless steel or other inert material, for example... testing under this subpart: (i) The exhaust is analyzed for gaseous emissions using analyzers meeting the... waived and only the minimum temperature specification applies. (B) For locomotives and engines...

  12. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  13. Investigation of advanced thrust vectoring exhaust systems for high speed propulsive lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R. A.; Petit, J. E.; Capone, F. J.; Whittaker, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a wind tunnel investigation conducted at the NASA-Langley research center to determine thrust vectoring/induced lift characteristics of advanced exhaust nozzle concepts installed on a supersonic tactical airplane model. Specific test objectives include: (1) basic aerodynamics of a wing body configuration, (2) investigation of induced lift effects, (3) evaluation of static and forward speed performance, and (4) the effectiveness of a canard surface to trim thrust vectoring/induced lift forces and moments.

  14. Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system

    DOEpatents

    Aardahl, Christopher L.; Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou; Chanda, Ashok; Habeger, Craig F.; Koshkarian, Kent A.; Park, Paul W.

    2006-07-25

    The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

  15. Altitude Performance Characteristics of Turbojet-engine Tail-pipe Burner with Variable-area Exhaust Nozzle Using Several Fuel Systems and Flame Holders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lavern A; Meyer, Carl L

    1950-01-01

    A tail-pipe burner with a variable-area exhaust nozzle was investigated. From five configurations a fuel-distribution system and a flame holder were selected. The best configuration was investigated over a range of altitudes and flight Mach numbers. For the best configuration, an increase in altitude lowered the augmented thrust ratio, exhaust-gas total temperature, and tail-pipe combustion efficiency, and raised the specific fuel consumption. An increase in flight Mach number raised the augmented thrust ratio but had no apparent effect on exhaust-gas total temperature, tail-pipe combustion efficiency, or specific fuel consumption.

  16. Effect of Thermoelectric Modules' Topological Connection on Automotive Exhaust Heat Recovery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zheng, S. J.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.; Yu, C. G.; Wang, Y. P.

    2016-03-01

    In automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (AETEGs), a certain number of thermoelectric modules are connected in series and/or parallel to recover energy from exhaust gas, which provides a way to improve fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Because of the temperature distribution on the surfaces of heat exchanger, several types of modules are planned for use in an AETEG; however, property disparities among modules exist and wire resistance cannot be neglected in practical application, so experiments have been carried out to research effects of the two factors on the maximum output power of series and parallel connection. The performance of series and parallel connections have been characterized, and mathematic models have been built to analyze and predict the performance of each connection. Experiments and theoretical analysis reveal that parallel connection shows a better performance than series connection when large differences of Seebeck coefficient and resistivity exist. However, wire resistance will cause more significant power dissipation in parallel connection. The authors believe the research presented in this paper is the first to carry out an examination of the impact of module property disparity and wire resistance on the output power of an array of thermoelectric modules connected in series and parallel, which provides a reference for choosing module connection in AETEGs.

  17. Shock propagation in the exhaust gas handling system of the proposed large altitude rocket cell: methods and preliminary analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.B.; Pierce, R.E.

    1984-10-04

    Numerical predictions are to be performed of the shock pressures that would result from the detonation of 100,000 lbm TNT. The initial phase of the project was to develop the methodology for analyzing the problem, develop a preliminary conceptual design to use in initial simulations, and estimate over-pressures, inside the conceptual facility, resulting from the propellant detonation. This report discusses the methods of analysis used to study the problem of the detonation of the propellant, and the propagation of the shock wave inside the exhaust gas processing system, and presents preliminary results. The KOVEC computer code was used to simulate the detonation of 100,000 lbm TNT and develop a boundary prescription for use in the gas dynamics code GASP which models the propagation of the shock wave through the LARC exhaust gas processing system. Results are presented showing the effect of cross-sectional area changes and variations in the initial pressure in the gas processing system on the shock wave peak pressure and propagation speed.

  18. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  19. Exhaust pressure and density of various pulsed MPD-Arc thruster systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michels, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    Exhaust flow in a new 155-cm-i.d. vacuum facility is compared with earlier measurements in a small (15.2-cm-i.d.) duct. Reductions in post-transient impact pressure are about 5:1 in the larger facility. Corresponding reduced electron number densities (about 2 x 10 to the 13th power per cu cm) are noted. A new 125-microsec pulse-forming network power source produced no major differences in impact pressure compared to the crowbarred condenser bank used earlier. Comparing a puff gas feed of the arc chamber with a new 10-msec steady gas feed also shows no major difference in impact pressure for 125-microsec powering.

  20. Exhaust emission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.W.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

  1. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility`s process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    SciTech Connect

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-2 1). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases.

  2. Experimental aerodynamic and acoustic model testing of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) testbed coannular exhaust nozzle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.; Morris, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance and jet noise characteristics of a one sixth scale model of the variable cycle engine testbed exhaust system were obtained in a series of static tests over a range of simulated engine operating conditions. Model acoustic data were acquired. Data were compared to predictions of coannular model nozzle performance. The model, tested with an without a hardwall ejector, had a total flow area equivalent to a 0.127 meter (5 inch) diameter conical nozzle with a 0.65 fan to primary nozzle area ratio and a 0.82 fan nozzle radius ratio. Fan stream temperatures and velocities were varied from 422 K to 1089 K (760 R to 1960 R) and 434 to 755 meters per second (1423 to 2477 feet per second). Primary stream properties were varied from 589 to 1089 K (1060 R to 1960 R) and 353 to 600 meters per second (1158 to 1968 feet per second). Exhaust plume velocity surveys were conducted at one operating condition with and without the ejector installed. Thirty aerodynamic performance data points were obtained with an unheated air supply. Fan nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.8 to 3.2 at a constant primary pressure ratio of 1.6; primary pressure ratio was varied from 1.4 to 2.4 while holding fan pressure ratio constant at 2.4. Operation with the ejector increased nozzle thrust coefficient 0.2 to 0.4 percent.

  3. Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

  4. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  5. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  6. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize..., intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. (f)...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  8. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  9. Exhaust Nozzles for Propulsion Systems with Emphasis on Supersonic Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stitt, Leonard E.

    1990-01-01

    This compendium summarizes the contributions of the NASA-Lewis and its contractors to supersonic exhaust nozzle research from 1963 to 1985. Two major research and technology efforts sponsored this nozzle research work; the U.S. Supersonic Transport (SST) Program and the follow-on Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program. They account for two generations of nozzle technology: the first from 1963 to 1971, and the second from 1971 to 1985. First, the equations used to calculate nozzle thrust are introduced. Then the general types of nozzles are presented, followed by a discussion of those types proposed for supersonic aircraft. Next, the first-generation nozzles designed specifically for the Boeing SST and the second-generation nozzles designed under the SCR program are separately reviewed and then compared. A chapter on throttle-dependent afterbody drag is included, since drag has a major effect on the off-design performance of supersonic nozzles. A chapter on the performance of supersonic dash nozzles follows, since these nozzles have similar design problems, Finally, the nozzle test facilities used at NASA-Lewis during this nozzle research effort are identified and discussed. These facilities include static test stands, a transonic wind tunnel, and a flying testbed aircraft. A concluding section points to the future: a third generation of nozzles designed for a new era of high speed civil transports to produce even greater advances in performance, to meet new noise rules, and to ensure the continuity of over two decades of NASA research.

  10. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  11. Method for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.X pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Levendis, Yiannis A.; Wise, Donald L.

    1994-05-17

    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). The CMA is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since CMA is a uniquely water-soluble form of calcium and magnesium. When the dispersed particles of CMA are heated to a high temperature, fine calcium and magnesium oxide particles, which are hollow with thin and highly porous walls are formed, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic acetate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  12. Exhaustive derivation of static self-consistent multisoliton solutions in the matrix Bogoliubov-de Gennes systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Daisuke A.

    2016-04-01

    The matrix-generalized Bogoliubov-de Gennes systems have recently been considered by the present author [Phys. Rev. B 93, 024512 (2016)], and time-dependent and self-consistent multisoliton solutions have been constructed based on the ansatz method. In this paper, restricting the problem to the static case, we exhaustively determine the self-consistent solutions using the inverse scattering theory. Solving the gap equation, we rigorously prove that the self-consistent potential must be reflectionless. As a supplementary topic, we elucidate the relation between the stationary self-consistent potentials and the soliton solutions in the matrix nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Asymptotic formulae of multisoliton solutions for sufficiently isolated solitons are also presented.

  13. Effects of diesel exhaust on the microbiota within a tuffaceous tunnel system

    SciTech Connect

    Haldeman, D.L.; Lagadinos, T.; Amy, P.S.; Hersman, L.; Meike, A.

    1996-08-01

    The abundance and distribution of microbiota that may be impacted by diesel and diesel exhaust were investigated from three depths into the walls and invert (floor) of U12n tunnel at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, a potential geological analog of Yucca Mountain. Enumerations included total cell counts, and numbers of aerobic heterotrophic, sulfate-reducing, nitrate-reducing, and diesel-degrading bacteria. Additionally, the disappearance of total petroleum hydrocarbons was determined in microcosms containing subsurface materials that were amended with diesel fuel. Results revealed that microbes capable of utilizing diesel and diesel combustion products were present in the subsurface in both the walls and the invert of the tunnel. The abundance of specific bacterial types in the tunnel invert, a perturbed environment, was greater than that observed in the tunnel wall. Few trends of microbial distribution either into the tunnel wall or the invert were noted with the exception of aerobic heterotrophic abundance which increased with depth into the wall and decreased with depth into the invert. No correlation between microbiota and a specific introduced chemical species have yet been determined. The potential for microbial contamination of the tunnel wall during sampling was determined to be negligible by the use of fluorescently labeled latex spheres (1{mu}m in dia.) as tracers. Results indicate that additional investigations might be needed to examine the microbiota and their possible impacts on the geology and geochemistry of the subsurface, both indigenous microbiota and those microorganisms that will likely be introduced by anthropogenic activity associated with the construction of a high-level waste repository.

  14. MUTAGENICITY OF DIESEL-EXHAUST PARTICLE EXTRACTS COLLECTED UNDER SMOG-CHAMBER CONDITIONS USING THE 'SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM' TEST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was designed to detect the effect that different environmental conditions have upon diesel-exhaust organics. In this study, diesel-exhaust was injected into the Calspan smog chamber under different conditions, and the resulting particles were collected upon Pallflex gla...

  15. Development of indigenous local exhaust ventilation system: reduction of welders exposure to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Shakeel; Sathawara, Natvarbhai; Kumar, Sunil; Gandhi, Sumitra; Parmar, Chimanlal; Saiyed, Habibullah

    2004-07-01

    Two (portable and mobile) local exhaust ventilation (LEV) units were developed in collaboration with the Rural Technology Institute, Gandhinagar, India. Basically, each unit consists of three parts comprising an electric motor, a blower and a fume hood. In both units the motor is fixed in a rectangular iron frame in a foot-mount position and equipped compactly with a blower, which in turn is connected to a fume hood through a flexible hosepipe. The portable unit is light in weight (50 kg) and has a cone shaped metallic fume hood. The mobile unit, on the other hand, differs from the portable model with respect to its weight (150 kg), size, RPM, voltage requirement, hood shape and size, and has a motor enclosure. The efficiency of the portable and mobile units on trial bases was tested by measuring the manganese concentration as a reference metal in welding fumes generated by electric arc welding. The concentration of manganese (mean +/- SD) was 0.218 +/- 0.06 microg/m3 in the general environment. In the workplace area where joining of metal objects by welding was done, the concentration of manganese was found to be 0.63 +/- 0.09 and 3.75 +/- 0.56 microg/m3 at a distance of 5 m and 2 m away from the site of operation, respectively. In the breathing zone it was 22.16 +/- 20.90 microg/m3 which was reduced to 8.25 +/- 4.5 microg /m3 after application of a portable LEV showing about 63% removal of the manganese concentration from the breathing zone of the welder. In another experiment conducted with a mobile LEV unit for heavy-duty work, the concentration of manganese in the breathing zone without operating the mobile LEV was 70.06 +/- 37.38 microg /m3 but was lowered to 8.29 +/- 1.76 microg /m3 after operating the mobile LEV. This indicated an average removal of manganese content by about 88% from the breathing zone of the welder. In both the experiments locations of sample collection were similar. PMID:15308834

  16. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James Joshua; Coleman, Gerald N.

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  17. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... condensation at any point in the dilution system. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this... requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) must...

  18. Acoustic and Laser Doppler Anemometer Results for Confluent, 22-Lobed, and Unique-Lobed Mixer Exhaust Systems for Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salikuddin, M.; Martens, S.; Shin, H.; Majjigi, R. K.; Krejsa, Gene (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this task was to develop a design methodology and noise reduction concepts for high bypass exhaust systems which could be applied to both existing production and new advanced engine designs. Special emphasis was given to engine cycles with bypass ratios in the range of 4:1 to 7:1, where jet mixing noise was a primary noise source at full power takeoff conditions. The goal of this effort was to develop the design methodology for mixed-flow exhaust systems and other novel noise reduction concepts that would yield 3 EPNdB noise reduction relative to 1992 baseline technology. Two multi-lobed mixers, a 22-lobed axisymmetric and a 21-lobed with a unique lobe, were designed. These mixers along with a confluent mixer were tested with several fan nozzles of different lengths with and without acoustic treatment in GEAE's Cell 41 under the current subtask (Subtask C). In addition to the acoustic and LDA tests for the model mixer exhaust systems, a semi-empirical noise prediction method for mixer exhaust system is developed. Effort was also made to implement flowfield data for noise prediction by utilizing MGB code. In general, this study established an aero and acoustic diagnostic database to calibrate and refine current aero and acoustic prediction tools.

  19. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section 86.110-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND...

  20. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  1. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  2. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  3. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 1: Design layouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The design layouts and detailed design drawings of coannular exhaust nozzle models for a supersonic propulsion system are presented. The layout drawings show the assembly of the component parts for each configuration. A listing of the component parts is also given.

  4. 40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled engines and particulate emissions from all engines. 86.1310-2007 Section 86.1310-2007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL...

  5. The role of immune system exhaustion on cancer cell escape and anti-tumor immune induction after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fernando; Domingues, Cátia; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Estrela, Jéssica; Encarnação, João; Pires, Ana Salomé; Laranjo, Mafalda; Alves, Vera; Teixo, Ricardo; Sarmento, Ana Bela; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Rosa, Manuel Santos

    2016-04-01

    Immune surveillance seems to represent an effective tumor suppressor mechanism. However, some cancer cells survive and become variants, being poorly immunogenic and able to enter a steady-state phase. These cells become functionally dormant or remain hidden clinically throughout. Neoplastic cells seem to be able to instruct immune cells to undergo changes promoting malignancy. Radiotherapy may act as a trigger of the immune response. After radiotherapy a sequence of reactions occurs, starting in the damage of oncogenic cells by multiple mechanisms, leading to the immune system positive feedback against the tumor. The link between radiotherapy and the immune system is evident. T cells, macrophages, Natural Killer cells and other immune cells seem to have a key role in controlling the tumor. T cells may be dysfunctional and remain in a state of T cell exhaustion, nonetheless, they often retain a high potential for successful defense against cancer, being able to be mobilized to become highly functional. The lack of clinical trials on a large scale makes data a little robust, in spite of promising information, there are still many variables in the studies relating to radiation and immune system. The clarification of the mechanisms underlying immune response to radiation exposure may contribute to treatment improvement, gain of life quality and span of patients. PMID:26868867

  6. Effect of systemic pH on pH sub i and lactic acid generation in exhaustive forearm exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, V.L.; Schubert, C.; Keller, U.; Mueller, S. Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington )

    1988-09-01

    To investigate whether changes in systemic pH affect intracellular pH (pH{sub i}), energy-rich phosphates, and lactic acid generation in muscle, eight normal volunteers performed exhaustive forearm exercise with arterial blood flow occluded for 2 min on three occasions. Subjects ingested 4 mmol/kg NH{sub 4}Cl (acidosis; A) or NaHCO{sub 3} (alkalosis; B) or nothing (control; C) 3 h before the exercise. Muscle pH{sub i} and phosphocreatine (PCr) content were measured with {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 31}P-NMR) spectroscopy during exercise and recovery. Lactate output during 0.5-7 min of recovery was calculated as deep venous-arterial concentration differences times forearm blood flow. Before exercise, blood pH and bicarbonate were lower in acidosis than alkalosis and intermediate in control. Lactic acid output during recovery was less with A than B and intermediate in C. PCr utilization and resynthesis were not affected by extracellular pH changes. pH{sub i} did not differ before exercise or at its end. Hence systemic acidosis inhibited and alkalosis stimulated lactic acid output. These findings suggest that systemic pH regulates cellular acid production, protecting muscle pH, at the expense of energy availability.

  7. Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Timothy J.; Lott, Stephen E.; Lockwood, Steven J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.

    1998-01-01

    A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

  8. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (3) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2... scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale. (See 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (c) Alternate analytical systems. Alternate analysis systems meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part...

  9. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (3) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2... scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale. (See 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (c) Alternate analytical systems. Alternate analysis systems meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part...

  10. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (3) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2... scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale. (See 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (c) Alternate analytical systems. Alternate analysis systems meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part...

  11. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (3) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2... scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale. (See 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (c) Alternate analytical systems. Alternate analysis systems meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part...

  12. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (3) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2... scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale. (See 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.) (c) Alternate analytical systems. Alternate analysis systems meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part...

  13. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pump—Constant Volume Sampler (PDP-CVS) system with a heat exchanger, or a Critical Flow Venturi—Constant Volume Sampler (CFV-CVS) system with CVS sample probes and/or a heat exchanger or electronic flow... sampling point. (ii) For the CFV-CVS, either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation is...

  14. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Volume Sampler (PDP-CVS) system with a heat exchanger, or a Critical Flow Venturi—Constant Volume Sampler (CFV-CVS) system with CFV sample probes and/or a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. Figure... sampling point. (ii) For the CFV-CVS, either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation is...

  15. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pump—Constant Volume Sampler (PDP-CVS) system with a heat exchanger, or a Critical Flow Venturi—Constant Volume Sampler (CFV-CVS) system with CVS sample probes and/or a heat exchanger or electronic flow... sampling point. (ii) For the CFV-CVS, either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation is...

  16. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of... requirements are as follows: (1) This sampling system requires the use of a PDP-CVS and a heat exchanger or a CFV-CVS with either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. Figure 2 in appendix A to...

  17. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Volume Sampler (PDP-CVS) system with a heat exchanger, or a Critical Flow Venturi—Constant Volume Sampler (CFV-CVS) system with CFV sample probes and/or a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. Figure... sampling point. (ii) For the CFV-CVS, either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation is...

  18. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pump—Constant Volume Sampler (PDP-CVS) system with a heat exchanger, or a Critical Flow Venturi—Constant Volume Sampler (CFV-CVS) system with CVS sample probes and/or a heat exchanger or electronic flow... sampling point. (ii) For the CFV-CVS, either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation is...

  19. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Volume Sampler (PDP-CVS) system with a heat exchanger, or a Critical Flow Venturi—Constant Volume Sampler (CFV-CVS) system with CFV sample probes and/or a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. Figure... sampling point. (ii) For the CFV-CVS, either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation is...

  20. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of... requirements are as follows: (1) This sampling system requires the use of a PDP-CVS and a heat exchanger or a CFV-CVS with either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. Figure 2 in appendix A to...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Major component description. The analytical system, Figure N94-1, consists of a flame ionization.... The analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame... (HPLC) of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Major component description. The analytical system, Figure N94-1, consists of a flame ionization.... The analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame... (HPLC) of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Major component description. The analytical system, Figure N94-1, consists of a flame ionization.... The analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame... (HPLC) of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Major component description. The analytical system, Figure N94-1, consists of a flame ionization.... The analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame... (HPLC) of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The...

  5. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... engines. This system utilizes the Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) concept (described in § 90.420) of... only to prevent water condensation, the minimum component temperature is 55 °C. (B) Coordinate...

  6. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in the circulating raw water intake line for the exhaust cooling system. (c) Engine exhaust cooling..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if... deepest load waterline; (iii) They are so arranged as to prevent entry of cold water from rough...

  7. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in the circulating raw water intake line for the exhaust cooling system. (c) Engine exhaust cooling..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if... deepest load waterline; (iii) They are so arranged as to prevent entry of cold water from rough...

  8. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in the circulating raw water intake line for the exhaust cooling system. (c) Engine exhaust cooling..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if... deepest load waterline; (iii) They are so arranged as to prevent entry of cold water from rough...

  9. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in the circulating raw water intake line for the exhaust cooling system. (c) Engine exhaust cooling..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if... deepest load waterline; (iii) They are so arranged as to prevent entry of cold water from rough...

  10. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in the circulating raw water intake line for the exhaust cooling system. (c) Engine exhaust cooling..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if... deepest load waterline; (iii) They are so arranged as to prevent entry of cold water from rough...

  11. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or both...), and exhaust must be shown to function properly under all operating conditions for which approval...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1127 - Exhaust driven turbo-superchargers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust driven turbo-superchargers. 25.1127... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1127 Exhaust driven turbo-superchargers. (a) Each exhaust driven turbo-supercharger must be approved or shown to...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... designed to resist the entry of water or rodents. The manufacturer is not required to provide the moisture... rodents into the home. The manufacturer is not required to provide the moisture-lint exhaust duct or...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... designed to resist the entry of water or rodents. The manufacturer is not required to provide the moisture... rodents into the home. The manufacturer is not required to provide the moisture-lint exhaust duct or...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... designed to resist the entry of water or rodents. The manufacturer is not required to provide the moisture... rodents into the home. The manufacturer is not required to provide the moisture-lint exhaust duct or...

  6. Experimental and analytical studies of flow through a ventral and axial exhaust nozzle system for STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esker, Barbara S.; Debonis, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Flow through a combined ventral and axial exhaust nozzle system was studied experimentally and analytically. The work is part of an ongoing propulsion technology effort at NASA Lewis Research Center for short takeoff, vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The experimental investigation was done on the NASA Lewis Powered Lift Facility. The experiment consisted of performance testing over a range of tailpipe pressure ratios from 1 to 3.2 and flow visualization. The analytical investigation consisted of modeling the same configuration and solving for the flow using the PARC3D computational fluid dynamics program. The comparison of experimental and analytical results was very good. The ventral nozzle performance coefficients obtained from both the experimental and analytical studies agreed within 1.2 percent. The net horizontal thrust of the nozzle system contained a significant reverse thrust component created by the flow overturning in the ventral duct. This component resulted in a low net horizontal thrust coefficient. The experimental and analytical studies showed very good agreement in the internal flow patterns.

  7. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Anderson, Ren

    2001-01-01

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  8. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies. PMID:22878358

  9. Prediction of creep life exhaustion in high energy piping system girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Conventional United States designs of high energy fossil power piping systems use the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.1 Power Piping Code. Analytical methodology in the Code is based on thin shell linear elastic beam theory. The Code is developed to be used as a piping system design tool. It is inadequate as a tool to evaluate some in-service problems in high energy piping systems. Main steam and hot reheat piping system materials are usually subject to creep during normal operation. The process of time dependent material creep damage leads to accelerated rates of creep cavitation and life consumption. This effect results in the redistribution of high thermal stresses and material property degradation in service. There are no guidelines in the Code to address life consumption or in-service degradation issues. A methodology is presented which considers an approach to evaluate the time dependent life consumption in high energy piping systems. This approach is applied in a case study to reconcile stresses which significantly exceed the Code stress allowable. The paper also includes an approach to select highest creep damage locations for nondestructive examination (NDE).

  10. Participation of the central noradrenergic system in the reestablishment of copulatory behavior of sexually exhausted rats by yohimbine, naloxone, and 8-OH-DPAT.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Manzo, G; Fernández-Guasti, A

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of a neurotoxic lesion of the central noradrenergic system on the pharmacological reversal of the sexual inhibition present at sexual exhaustion, by IP treatment with yohimbine (2 mg/kg), 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (0.25 mg/kg), and naloxone (3 mg/kg). All drugs, at the doses tested, were able to increase the percentage of sexually exhausted intact rats showing copulatory behavior 24 h after a sexual satiation session. In N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4)-lesioned, sexually exhausted animals, naloxone and 8-OH-DPAT lost their stimulatory effect on sexual behavior; yohimbine treatment was still able to markedly increase the percentage of satiated rats mounting, intromitting, and exhibiting the ejaculatory motor pattern, but inhibited seminal emission. The data strongly suggest that the integrity of the central noradrenergic system is essential for the pharmacological reestablishment of copulatory behavior in sexually exhausted rats. Results are in line with previous data showing that the sexual behavioral variables more directly addressing motivational components are severely affected by sexual satiation. PMID:8535863

  11. Exhaust gas ignition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a system developed for rapid light-off of underbody catalysts that has shown potential to meet Euro Stage III emissions targets and to be more cost-effective than some alternatives. Future emissions legislation will require SI engine aftertreatment systems to approach full operating efficiency within the first few seconds after starting to reduce the high total-emissions fraction currently contributed by the cold phase of driving. A reduction of cold-start emissions during Phase 1 (Euro) or Bag 1 (FTP), which in many cases can be as much as 80% of the total for the cycle, has been achieved by electrical heating of the catalytic converter. But electrically heated catalyst (EHC) systems require high currents (100--200 A) to heat the metallic substrate to light-off temperatures over the first 15--20 seconds. Other viable approaches to reducing cold-start emissions include use of a fuel-powered burner upstream of the catalyst. However, as with EHC, the complexity of parts and the introduction of raw fuel into the exhaust system make this device unsatisfactory. Still another approach, an exhaust gas ignition (EGI) system, was first demonstrated in 1991. The operation of a system developed by engineers at Ford Motor Co., Ltd., Cambustion Ltd., and Tickford Ltd. is described here.

  12. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065...-alignment and dispersion specifications in 40 CFR pat 1065, subpart C. (C) Use only analytical gases conforming to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065.750 for calibration, zero, and span checks. (D) Use...

  13. Exhaustive stability analysis in a consensus system with time delay and irregular topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Gomez, Rudy; Olgac, Nejat

    2011-04-01

    A consensus problem and its stability are studied for a group of agents with second-order dynamics and communication delays. The communication topologies are taken as irregular but always connected and undirected. The delays are assumed to be quasi-static and the same for all the interagent channels. A decentralised, PD-like control structure is proposed to create a consensus in the position and velocity of the agents. We present an interesting factorisation feature for the characteristic equation of the system which simplifies the stability analysis considerably from a prohibitively large dimensional problem to a manageable small scale. It facilitates a rare stability picture in the space of the control parameters and the delay, utilising a paradigm named cluster treatment of characteristic roots (CTCR). The influence of the individual factors on the absolute and relative stability of the system is studied. This leads to the introduction of two novel concepts: the most exigent eigenvalue, which refers to the one that defines the delay stability margin of the system, and the most critical eigenvalue, which is the one that dictates the consensus speed of the system. It is observed that the most exigent eigenvalue is not always the most critical, and this feature may be used as a design tool for the control logic. Case studies and simulations results are presented to verify these concepts.

  14. An evaluation of industrial ventilation branch screening methods for obstructions in working exhaust systems.

    PubMed

    Booth, D W; Guffey, S E

    2001-01-01

    This research evaluated the effectiveness of screening methods in identifying obstructed branches in industrial ventilation systems. These methods were divided into two categories: pressure comparisons and pressure ratio comparisons. The first category contained techniques that compare measured static pressures with the corresponding design static pressures or with previously measured pressures. Certain aspects of the method suggested in the Industrial Ventilation Manual were also tested. The second category compares the ratios of two measured pressures and includes the new reference ratio method. Data were collected from six industrial ventilation systems. Four of the systems were used to control wood dust, and two were used to control metal shavings from a saw-sharpening operation. Each system was tested for naturally occurring or deliberately inserted obstructions. Appropriate static and velocity pressures were measured to calculate each troubleshooting method's parameter. The change in the parameter was compared with a range of thresholds for the test cases. Receiver operator characteristic curves and bootstrapping techniques were used to identify the best method for determining the presence of obstructions or alterations. The pressure ratio methods were found to be substantially superior to the pressure comparison methods at detecting obstructions. PMID:11549133

  15. 76 FR 58288 - International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information on Services for Individuals with Disabilities For information... effective in reducing sulfur oxide emissions as the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI regulation 14. DATES... systems for marine engines to remove sulfur oxide emissions. Annex VI regulation 4 of the...

  16. 40 CFR 85.2224 - Exhaust analysis system-EPA 81.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short... are solely in effect. The following exceptions apply: In a state where the Administrator has approved... chapter, the requirements of this section are concurrently in effect until June 30, 1994 for 1995...

  17. 40 CFR 85.2224 - Exhaust analysis system-EPA 81.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short... are solely in effect. The following exceptions apply: In a state where the Administrator has approved... chapter, the requirements of this section are concurrently in effect until June 30, 1994 for 1995...

  18. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065...-alignment and dispersion specifications in 40 CFR pat 1065, subpart C. (C) Use only analytical gases conforming to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065.750 for calibration, zero, and span checks. (D) Use...

  19. Flow field description of the Space Shuttle Vernier reaction control system exhaust plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Mary P.; Alred, John W.

    1987-01-01

    The flow field for the Vernier Reaction Control System (VRCS) jets of the Space Shuttle Orbiter has been calculated from the nozzle throat to the far-field region. The calculations involved the use of recently improved rocket engine nozzle/plume codes. The flow field is discussed, and a brief overview of the calculation techniques is presented. In addition, a proposed on-orbit plume measurement experiment, designed to improve future estimations of the Vernier flow field, is addressed.

  20. Analysis of the load selection on the error of source characteristics identification for an engine exhaust system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Sifa; Liu, Haitao; Dan, Jiabi; Lian, Xiaomin

    2015-05-01

    Linear time-invariant assumption for the determination of acoustic source characteristics, the source strength and the source impedance in the frequency domain has been proved reasonable in the design of an exhaust system. Different methods have been proposed to its identification and the multi-load method is widely used for its convenience by varying the load number and impedance. Theoretical error analysis has rarely been referred to and previous results have shown an overdetermined set of open pipes can reduce the identification error. This paper contributes a theoretical error analysis for the load selection. The relationships between the error in the identification of source characteristics and the load selection were analysed. A general linear time-invariant model was built based on the four-load method. To analyse the error of the source impedance, an error estimation function was proposed. The dispersion of the source pressure was obtained by an inverse calculation as an indicator to detect the accuracy of the results. It was found that for a certain load length, the load resistance at the frequency points of one-quarter wavelength of odd multiples results in peaks and in the maximum error for source impedance identification. Therefore, the load impedance of frequency range within the one-quarter wavelength of odd multiples should not be used for source impedance identification. If the selected loads have more similar resistance values (i.e., the same order of magnitude), the identification error of the source impedance could be effectively reduced.

  1. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  2. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James Joshua; Coleman, Gerald N.

    2010-10-12

    A method of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The method includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream my be converted into ammonia.

  3. Comparison of acoustic performance of five muffler configurations on a small helicopter. [acoustic properties of modified helicopter exhaust system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hilton, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    A field noise measurement program has been conducted on a standard Bell 47 series helicopter and on one that had been modified with specially designed, airframe-mounted mufflers to reduce the engine exhaust noise. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the acoustic performance of five experimental exhaust muffler configurations for a helicopter reciprocating engine in an operational environment. All muffler configurations produced beneficial engine exhaust noise reductions but some configurations were markedly better than others. Flyover noise results indicated that maximum overall noise reductions of approximately 8 db were obtained with the various mufflers. The rotor noise was judged to be the dominant noise component for the muffler-equipped helicopters whereas the engine noise was the dominant component for the basic configuration.

  4. Abating exhaust noises in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A noise abating improvement for jet engines including turbojets, turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, scramjets, and hybrid jets is introduced. A provision is made for an apparatus in the primary and/or secondary flow streams of the engines; the apparatus imparts to the exhaust gases a component rotation or swirl about the engine's longitudinal axis. The rotary component in the exhaust gases causes a substantial suppression of sound energy build up normally produced by an axial flow exhaust system.

  5. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate in a location other than a hazardous...

  6. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate in a location other than a hazardous...

  7. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate in a location other than a hazardous...

  8. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate in a location other than a hazardous...

  9. Motorcycle with closeable engine intake exhaust passages

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuta, H.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuchida, N.

    1984-03-06

    An intake and exhaust system for a compact motorcycle including a valve arrangement for closing both the intake and exhaust systems so as to preclude the excape of fuel vapors to the surrounding area when the motorcycle is not in use.

  10. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  11. The trapping system for the recirculated gases at different locations of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) pipe of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piperel, A.; Montagne, X.; Dagaut, P.

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, in diesel engines, it is typical to recycle exhaust gases (EGR) in order to decrease pollutant emissions. However, few studies report the precisely measured composition of the recycled gases. Indeed, in order to know precisely the composition of the EGR gases, they have to be sampled hot and not diluted, in contrast to the usual practice. Thus, a new system to collect such samples was developed. With this new trapping system, it is possible to measure the concentrations of NOx, CO, CO2, O2, hydrocarbons (HCs) in the range C1-C9, aldehydes, ketones and PAHs. The trapping system and the analytical protocol used are described in this paper.

  12. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  13. Measurements of the ionospheric reaction to exhaust from dedicated burns of the space shuttle’s orbital maneuvering system engines over Kwajalein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, R. G.; Groves, K. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Hysell, D. L.; Carrano, C. S.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Coster, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    In a continuation of the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust (SIMPLEX) experiment, a series of Orbiting Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engine burns from the space shuttle have been carried out over Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Exhaust from the shuttle’s two OMS engines consists of CO, CO2, H2, H20, and N2, each of which interact with the background ionosphere (predominately O+) through charge exchange resulting in electron “holes.” Such interactions have been detected from the ground with radars, optical imagers, and GPS TEC measurements and from space with satellites such as the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) in the Shuttle Exhaust Ion Turbulence Experiment (SEITE). In this talk, we present signatures of ionospheric modification resulting from OMS burns during recent shuttle missions observed in incoherent scatter returns on the ARPA Long-range Tracking And Instrumentation Radar (ALTAIR) and in optical data from an All-Sky Imager. GPS TEC measurements are investigated for evidence of depletions resulting from post-burn molecular recombination. Space Shuttle OMS Engine Burn

  14. Experimental aerodynamic and acoustic model testing of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) testbed coannular exhaust nozzle system: Comprehensive data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.; Morris, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    The component detail design drawings of the one sixth scale model of the variable cycle engine testbed demonstrator exhaust syatem tested are presented. Also provided are the basic acoustic and aerodynamic data acquired during the experimental model tests. The model drawings, an index to the acoustic data, an index to the aerodynamic data, tabulated and graphical acoustic data, and the tabulated aerodynamic data and graphs are discussed.

  15. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation exhaust. 111.33-9 Section 111.33-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier...

  16. Design and test of an exhaust gas clean-up system for power plants using high sulphur content fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.N.

    1980-10-10

    This experimental program, initially designated to study an exhaust gas cleanup and water recovery system for a Cheng Cycle Dual-Fluid (CCDF) turbine power plant using sulfur rich fuels, has shown the potential of a general Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system applicable to utility and industrial boilers as well. The process was studied both theoretically and experimentaly. Experiments were performed using a bench scale (25k equivalent) apparatus and a pilot scale (1Mw equivalent) apparatus. Data obtained indicated the IPT process potentially can out-perform the conventional FGD process with significant cost savings.

  17. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F

    2016-07-01

    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. PMID:26729653

  18. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  19. Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kammel, R.A.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

  20. Exhaust purification apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.; Ushimura, S.

    1987-05-05

    An exhaust purification apparatus is described for use in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust conduit through which exhaust particles are discharged together with exhaust gas to the atmosphere. Included is an outer shell having an inlet connected to the exhaust conduit and an outlet connected to the atmosphere. The outer shell contains a trap element and a regenerative burner located upstream of the trap element, the regenerative burner comprising: a cylindrical hollow member fixed to the liner and extending within a combustion chamber to define an evaporation chamber, a glow plug for igniting the mixture supplied into the evaporated chamber when actuated; and a control unit responsive to a regeneration requirement for actuating the glow plug and supplying an air-fuel mixture into the evaporation chamber through the mixture conduit.

  1. Influences of the exhaust flow on the boundary layer flow on the wafer surface in spin coating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Seiichi; Munekata, Mizue; Kurishima, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Kazuyoshi; Ohba, Hideki

    2005-06-01

    Recently, development of high technology has been required for the formation of thin uniform film in manufacturing processes of semiconductor as the semiconductor become more sophisticated. Spin coating is usually used for spreading photoresist on a wafer surface. However, since rotating speed of the disk is very high in spin coating, the dropped resist scatters outward and reattaches to the film surface. So, the scattered resist is removed by the exhaust flow generated at the gap between the wafer edge and the catch cup. It is seriously concemed that the stripes called Ekman spiral vortices appears on the disk in the case of high rotating speed and the film thickness increases near the wafer edge in the case of low rotating speed, because it prevent the formation of uniform film. The purpose of this study is to make clear the generation mechanism of Ekman spiral vortices and the influence of exhaust flow on it. Moreover the influence of the catch cup geometry on the wafer surface boundary layer flow is investigated.

  2. Exhaust gas afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, S.J. Jr.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an exhaust gas afterburner device adapted for installation between an exhaust manifold and a corresponding portion of the engine block of an internal combustion engine. The device comprises: a spacer sandwiched between portions of two sheet metal members forming a gasket section of the device, the gasket section surrounding at least one exhaust gas port, a plenum section formed by remaining portions of the members, and wall sections defining passageways extending from the interior of the plenum section to the port and an air supply inlet on the plenum.

  3. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  4. Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Yasushi; Furukawa, Naotsugu; Matsukata, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Eiichi

    2011-07-01

    Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523 K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C2 hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO2/Cfuel = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523 K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

  5. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  6. Atmospheric scavenging exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

  7. Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

    1983-01-01

    Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

  8. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L.; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO2 and 15 ppm-NH3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  9. Epidemiological-environmental study of diesel bus garage workers: chronic effects of diesel exhaust on the respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Minshall, S.

    1987-10-01

    Two hundred and eighty-three (283) male diesel bus garage workers from four garages in two cities were examined to determine if there was excess chronic respiratory morbidity related to diesel exposure. The dependent variables were respiratory symptoms, radiographic interpretation for pneumoconiosis, and pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and flow rates). Independent variables included race, age, smoking, drinking, height, and tenure (as surrogate measure of exposure). Exposure-effect relationships within the study population showed no detectable associations of symptoms with tenure. There was an apparent association of pulmonary function and tenure. Seven workers (2.5%) had category 1 pneumoconiosis (three rounded opacities, two irregular opacities, and one with both rounded and irregular). The study population was also compared to a nonexposed blue-collar population. After indirect adjustment for age, race, and smoking, the study population had elevated prevalences of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, but there was no association with tenure. Dyspnea showed a dose-response trend but no apparent increase in prevalence. Mean percent predicted pulmonary function of the study population was greater than 100%, i.e., elevated above the comparison population. These data show there is an apparent effect of diesel exhaust on pulmonary function but not chest radiographs. Respiratory symptoms are high compared to blue-collar workers, but there is no relationship with tenure.

  10. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated SRM exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from SRM fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The possible biologic effects of exhaust products from solid rocket motor (SRM) burns associated with the space shuttle are examined. The major components of the exhaust that might have an adverse effect on vegetation, HCl and Al2O3 are studied. Dose response curves for native and cultivated plants and selected insects exposed to simulated exhaust and component chemicals from SRM exhaust are presented. A system for dispensing and monitoring component chemicals of SRM exhaust (HCl and Al2O3) and a system for exposing test plants to simulated SRM exhaust (controlled fuel burns) are described. The effects of HCl, Al2O3, and mixtures of the two on the honeybee, the corn earworm, and the common lacewing and the effects of simulated exhaust on the honeybee are discussed.

  11. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  12. Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

  13. The exhausted horse syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1998-04-01

    Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

  14. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = -0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = -.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = -0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R(2) = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy

  15. Long-Term Oxidation of Candidate Cast Iron and Advanced Austenitic Stainless Steel Exhaust System Alloys from 650-800 C in Air with Water Vapor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brady, Michael P; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan N; Haynes, James A

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remained adherentmore » from 700-800 C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 C compared to 650-700 C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.« less

  16. Long-term oxidation of candidate cast iron and stainless steel exhaust system alloys from 650 to 800 °C in air with water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan .; Haynes, James A.; Weldon, R. G.; England, R. D.

    2014-08-29

    Here, the oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 °C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 °C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 °C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remained adherent from 700-800 °C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 °C compared to 650-700 °C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.

  17. Long-term oxidation of candidate cast iron and stainless steel exhaust system alloys from 650 to 800 °C in air with water vapor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brady, Michael P.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan .; Haynes, James A.; Weldon, R. G.; England, R. D.

    2014-08-29

    Here, the oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 °C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 °C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 °C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remainedmore » adherent from 700-800 °C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 °C compared to 650-700 °C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.« less

  18. Hybrid Exhaust Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Gerard D. (Inventor); Logan, Charles P. (Inventor); McEnerney, Bryan William (Inventor); Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An exhaust includes a wall that has a first composite material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion and a second composite material having a second coefficient of the thermal expansion that is less than the first coefficient of thermal expansion.

  19. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  1. Oxidant generation and toxicity enhancement of aged-diesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianfeng; Wyatt, Anna; Kamens, Richard M.

    Diesel exhaust related airborne Particulate Matter (PM) has been linked to a myriad of adverse health outcomes, ranging from cancer to cardiopulmonary disease. The underlying toxicological mechanisms are of great scientific interest. A hypothesis under investigation is that many of the adverse health effects may derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. In this study, the main objective was to determine whether aged-diesel exhaust PM has a higher oxidant generation and toxicity than fresh diesel exhaust PM. The diesel exhaust PM was generated from a 1980 Mercedes-Benz model 300SD, and a dual 270 m 3 Teflon film chamber was utilized to generate two test atmospheres. One side of the chamber is used to produce ozone-diesel exhaust PM system, and another side of the chamber was used to produce diesel exhaust PM only system. A newly optimized dithiothreitol (DTT) method was used to assess their oxidant generation and toxicity. The results of this study showed: (1) both fresh and aged-diesel exhaust PM had high oxidant generation and toxicity; (2) ozone-diesel exhaust PM had a higher toxicity response than diesel exhaust PM only; (3) the diesel exhaust PM toxicity increased with time; (4) the optimized DTT method could be used as a good quantitative chemical assay for oxidant generation and toxicity measurement.

  2. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    DOEpatents

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DUAL CATALYST EQUIPPED VEHICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was initiated to characterize exhaust gas emissions from an automobile equipped with a dual catalyst system. The dual catalyst system was designed by Gould, Inc. to reduce emissions of engine exhaust hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. It basically ...

  4. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a) The design pressures of the steam...

  5. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a) The design pressures of the steam...

  6. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a) The design pressures of the steam...

  7. Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of R-4360-18 Power-Plant Installation for XR60 Airplane. 3; Performance of Induction and Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, David T.; Hawkins, W. Kent

    1947-01-01

    A study has been made of the performance of the induction and the exhaust systems on the XR60 power-plant installation as part of an investigation conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Altitude flight conditions from 5000 to 30,000 feet were simulated for a range of engine powers from 750 to 3000 brake horsepower. Slipstream rotation prevented normal pressure recoveries in the right side of the main duct in the region of the right intercooler cooling-air duct inlet. Total-pressure losses in the charge-air flow between the turbosupercharger and the intercoolers were as high as 2.1 inches of mercury. The total-pressure distribution of the charge air at the intercooler inlets was irregular and varied as much as 1.0 inch of mercury from the average value at extreme conditions, Total-pressure surveys at the carburetor top deck showed a variation from the average value of 0.3 inch of mercury at take-off power and 0.05 inch of mercury at maximum cruising power, The carburetor preheater system increased the temperature of the engine charge air a maximum of about 82 F at an average cowl-inlet air temperature of 9 F, a pressure altitude of 5000 feet, and a brake horsepower of 1240.

  8. Acceptance test procedure bldg. 271-U remote monitoring of project W-059 B-Plant canyon exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-09-01

    The test procedure provides for verifying indications and alarms The test procedure provides for verifying indications and alarms associated with the B Plant Canyon Ventilation System as they are being displayed on a remote monitoring workstation located in building 271-U. The system application software was installed by PLCS Plus under contract from B&W Hanford Company. The application software was installed on an existing operator workstation in building 271U which is owned and operated by Bechtel Hanford Inc.

  9. Outdoor smog chamber experiments: reactivity of methanol exhaust. Part 2. Quality assurance and data processing system description

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.; Kamens, R.M.; Holleman, M.S.

    1985-09-01

    The report describes the Quality Assurance and Data Processing procedures and systems used at the UNC Outdoor Smog Chamber Facility. The primary product of research conducted at this facility is information in the form of measurements of reactants and products in photochemical systems and measurements of the critical parameters that influence the chemical transformations system. Generating useful data begins with understanding the goals of the project and the special needs and concerns of conducting a successful smog-chamber operation. The system components are designed to collect, transfer, process, and report accurate, high-resolution data without loss or distortion. The system components in the Quality Assurance and Data Processing system are: people, hardware, software, checklists, and data bases. Quality-assurance checks are made at every level of the program. Pressurized gas-tank and liquid mixtures were used to establish experimental conditions of HC assuring consistency throughout the program. Several NBS traceable standards and liquid injections into the chamber used for calibration have been intercompared and show good agreement.

  10. Shape memory alloy actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle for jet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Gangbing (Inventor); Ma, Ning (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed adaptive exhaust nozzle features an innovative use of the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actively control of the opening area of the exhaust nozzle for jet engines. The SMA actuators remotely control the opening area of the exhaust nozzle through a set of mechanism. An important advantage of using SMA actuators is the reduction of weight of the actuator system for variable area exhaust nozzle. Another advantage is that the SMA actuator can be activated using the heat from the exhaust and eliminate the need of other energy source. A prototype has been designed and fabricated. The functionality of the proposed SMA actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle is verified in the open-loop tests.

  11. Analysis on Impulse Characteristics of PDRE with Exhaust Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hong-bo; Weng, Chun-sheng; Lv, Xiao-jing; Li, Ning

    2014-06-01

    The exhaust characteristics related to impulse was investigated in a pulse detonation rocket engine (PDRE) by tunable diode laser absorption sensing system. The instantaneous parameters of temperature, velocity and pressure were obtained for exhaust at engine exit. Analysis on impulse characteristics based on control volume of the PDRE was conducted for a single operation circle with experimental results. It was concluded that the impulse (3.26 N·s) achieved by exhaust measurements was in agreement with that (3.09 N·s) by a load cell. The impulse caused by exhaust momentum experienced an extremely sharp ascending, a steep rising and a slow increment in sequence. The exhausts during the sharp ascending and steep rising were under expansion with high mass weighted average temperature (>1266 K), so there was a possible promotion for exhausts utilizing.

  12. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James J.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Knox, Kevin J.

    2009-06-30

    A power source is provided for use with selective catalytic reduction systems for exhaust-gas purification. The power source includes a first cylinder group with a first air-intake passage and a first exhaust passage, and a second cylinder group with a second air-intake passage and a second exhaust passage. The second air-intake passage is fluidly isolated from the first air-intake passage. A fuel-supply device may be configured to supply fuel into the first exhaust passage, and a catalyst may be disposed downstream of the fuel-supply device to convert at least a portion of the exhaust stream in the first exhaust passage into ammonia.

  13. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger... integrated measurement of diluted THC is required. Unless compensation for varying mass flow is made, a constant mass flow system must be used to ensure a proportional THC measurement. (2) For natural...

  14. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than 355 °F). This will be determined by a temperature sensor located on a section of the probe wall outside of the walls of the sampling system. The temperature sensor shall be insulated from any heating elements on the probe. The sensor shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °F (1.1 °C). (5) The...

  15. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... than 355 °F). This will be determined by a temperature sensor located on a section of the probe wall outside of the walls of the sampling system. The temperature sensor shall be insulated from any heating elements on the probe. The sensor shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °F (1.1 °C). (5) The...

  16. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than 355 °F). This will be determined by a temperature sensor located on a section of the probe wall outside of the walls of the sampling system. The temperature sensor shall be insulated from any heating elements on the probe. The sensor shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °F (1.1 °C). (5) The...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test cycle. (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±1 inch of water (0...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test cycle. (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±1 inch of water (0...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... test cycle. (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±1 inch of water (0...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel...

  20. Short review on heat recovery from exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Hassan; Khaled, Mahmoud; Lemenand, Thierry; Ramadan, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    The increasing growth of energy demand leads to issues associated with energy demand reduction and propose new energy efficient solutions. Heat recovery consists the most promising solution especially in regions where renewable energy resources are not available. That is why the domain of heat recovery has shown a tremendous improvement during the recent years. On the other hand, few works have been dedicated to heat recovery from exhaust gas. This paper presents a review on heat recovery from exhaust gas. The authors propose to classify exhaust gas heat recovery systems within three different classifications that are exhaust gas temperature, utilized equipment and recovery purposes.

  1. An Exhaustive, Non-Euclidean, Non-Parametric Data Mining Tool for Unraveling the Complexity of Biological Systems – Novel Insights into Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Loucoubar, Cheikh; Paul, Richard; Bar-Hen, Avner; Huret, Augustin; Tall, Adama; Sokhna, Cheikh; Trape, Jean-François; Ly, Alioune Badara; Faye, Joseph; Badiane, Abdoulaye; Diakhaby, Gaoussou; Sarr, Fatoumata Diène; Diop, Aliou; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Bureau, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Complex, high-dimensional data sets pose significant analytical challenges in the post-genomic era. Such data sets are not exclusive to genetic analyses and are also pertinent to epidemiology. There has been considerable effort to develop hypothesis-free data mining and machine learning methodologies. However, current methodologies lack exhaustivity and general applicability. Here we use a novel non-parametric, non-euclidean data mining tool, HyperCube®, to explore exhaustively a complex epidemiological malaria data set by searching for over density of events in m-dimensional space. Hotspots of over density correspond to strings of variables, rules, that determine, in this case, the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum clinical malaria episodes. The data set contained 46,837 outcome events from 1,653 individuals and 34 explanatory variables. The best predictive rule contained 1,689 events from 148 individuals and was defined as: individuals present during 1992–2003, aged 1–5 years old, having hemoglobin AA, and having had previous Plasmodium malariae malaria parasite infection ≤10 times. These individuals had 3.71 times more P. falciparum clinical malaria episodes than the general population. We validated the rule in two different cohorts. We compared and contrasted the HyperCube® rule with the rules using variables identified by both traditional statistical methods and non-parametric regression tree methods. In addition, we tried all possible sub-stratified quantitative variables. No other model with equal or greater representativity gave a higher Relative Risk. Although three of the four variables in the rule were intuitive, the effect of number of P. malariae episodes was not. HyperCube® efficiently sub-stratified quantitative variables to optimize the rule and was able to identify interactions among the variables, tasks not easy to perform using standard data mining methods. Search of local over density in m-dimensional space, explained by easily

  2. A constant-volume rapid exhaust dilution system for motor vehicle particulate matter number and mass measurements.

    PubMed

    Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H

    2003-10-01

    An improved version of the constant volume sampling (CVS) methodology that overcomes a number of obstacles that exist with the current CVS dilution tunnel system used in most diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions test facilities is presented. The key feature of the new sampling system is the introduction of dilution air immediately at the vehicle tailpipe. In the present implementation, this is done concentrically through a cylindrical air filter. Elimination of the transfer hose conventionally used to connect the tailpipe to the dilution tunnel significantly reduces the hydrocarbon and particulate matter (PM) storage release artifacts that can lead to wildly incorrect particle number counts and to erroneous filter-collected PM mass. It provides accurate representations of particle size distributions for diesel vehicles by avoiding the particle coagulation that occurs in the transfer hose. Furthermore, it removes the variable delay time that otherwise exists between the time that emissions exit the tailpipe and when they are detected in the dilution tunnel. The performance of the improved CVS system is examined with respect to diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles. PMID:14604329

  3. Use of aromatic salts for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Levendis, Yiannis A.; Wise, Donald L.

    1994-10-04

    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium benzoate. The calcium benzoate is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since calcium benzoate is a water-soluble form of calcium. When the dispersed particles of calcium benzoate are heated to a high temperature, the organic benzoate burns off and fine calcium oxide particles are formed. These particles are cenospheric (hollow) and have thin and highly porous walls, thus, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic benzoate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  4. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.

  5. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Tabulated aeroynamic data book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tabulated data from wind tunnel tests conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of an advanced coannular exhaust nozzle for a future supersonic propulsion system are presented. Tests were conducted with two test configurations: (1) a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and (2) an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At takeoff conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less. Data are provided through test run 25.

  6. Formal Verification of Safety Properties for Aerospace Systems Through Algorithms Based on Exhaustive State-Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardo, Gianfranco

    2004-01-01

    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) designed by Lockheed Martin is part of NASA's effort to reduce aviation accidents. We developed a Petri net model of the RSM protocol and used the model checking functions of our tool SMART to investigate a number of safety properties in RSM. To mitigate the impact of state-space explosion, we built a highly discretized model of the system, obtained by partitioning the monitored runway zone into a grid of smaller volumes and by considering scenarios involving only two aircraft. The model also assumes that there are no communication failures, such as bad input from radar or lack of incoming data, thus it relies on a consistent view of reality by all participants. In spite of these simplifications, we were able to expose potential problems in the RSM conceptual design. Our findings were forwarded to the design engineers, who undertook corrective action. Additionally, the results stress the efficiency attained by the new model checking algorithms implemented in SMART, and demonstrate their applicability to real-world systems. Attempts to verify RSM with NuSMV and SPIN have failed due to excessive memory consumption.

  7. Diesel exhaust cleaner with burner vortex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Riddel, J.W.

    1983-05-17

    A diesel engine exhaust cleaner and burner system includes at least one exhaust cleaner member with a filter positioned therein to effect removal of particulates from a stream of exhaust gas delivered thereto via an inlet manifold. A fuel burner supplied with fuel by a fuel nozzle is operatively associated with the inlet manifold to supply the necessary heat to effect incineration of particulates collected on the filter. A cyclone duct providing a vortex chamber therein is operatively positioned downstream of the fuel nozzle and is supplied with sufficient air so as to effect both the complete combustion of the fuel and the controlled incineration of the particulates by increasing the residence time of the fuel in the reaction region within the vortex chamber and also effecting a more uniform distribution of the heat of combustion across the inlet face of the filter for the uniform heating of the particulates thereon to their combustion temperature.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Rocket Exhaust Cratering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Supersonic jet exhaust impinging onto a flat surface is a fundamental flow encountered in space or with a missile launch vehicle system. The flow is important because it can endanger launch operations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a landing rocket s exhaust on soils. From numerical simulations and analysis, we developed characteristic expressions and curves, which we can use, along with rocket nozzle performance, to predict cratering effects during a soft-soil landing. We conducted a series of multiphase flow simulations with two phases: exhaust gas and sand particles. The main objective of the simulation was to obtain the numerical results as close to the experimental results as possible. After several simulating test runs, the results showed that packing limit and the angle of internal friction are the two critical and dominant factors in the simulations.

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) will not be exceeded, the design pressure of such piping systems may be reduced... pressure from the accepted standards in 46 CFR 56.60-1, Table 56.60-1(b), using the pressure-temperature... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) will not be exceeded, the design pressure of such piping systems may be reduced... pressure from the accepted standards in 46 CFR 56.60-1, Table 56.60-1(b), using the pressure-temperature... the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and...

  11. The Benefits of Mixed Flow Technology: Roof Exhaust Fans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetley, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the problems associated with laboratory workstation exhaust faced by most colleges and universities and explains how the selection of a proper fume hood exhaust system can prevent or eliminate these problems and provide a clean and safe lab environment. Also highlighted are indoor air quality legal implications. (GR)

  12. PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ASD EXHAUST DISPERSION AROUND HOUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the use of a wind tunnel to physically model the dispersion of exhaust plumes from active soil depressurization (ASD) radon mitigation systems in houses. he testing studied the effects of exhaust location (grade level vs. above the eave), as house height, roo...

  13. Aero-acoustic tests of duct-burning turbofan exhaust nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Packman, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    The acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several exhaust systems suitable for duct burning turbofan engines are evaluated. Scale models representing unsuppressed coannular exhaust systems are examined statically under varying exhaust conditions. Ejectors with both hardwall and acoustically treated inserts are investigated.

  14. Variable area exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, E. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle for a gas turbine engine comprises a number of arcuate flaps pivotally connected to the trailing edge of a cylindrical casing which houses the engine. Seals disposed within the flaps are spring biased and extensible beyond the side edges of the flaps. The seals of adjacent flaps are maintained in sealing engagement with each other when the flaps are adjusted between positions defining minimum nozzle flow area and the cruise position. Extensible, spring biased seals are also disposed within the flaps adjacent to a supporting pylon to thereby engage the pylon in a sealing arrangement. The flaps are hinged to the casing at the central portion of the flaps' leading edges and are connected to actuators at opposed outer portions of the leading edges to thereby maximize the mechanical advantage in the actuation of the flaps.

  15. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  16. Acceptance test procedure for SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster unit

    SciTech Connect

    Becken, G.W.

    1994-12-16

    The proper functioning of a new 241-SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster will be acceptance tested, to establish operability and to provide an operational baseline for the equipment. During this test, a verification of all of the alarm and control circuits associated with the exhaust, which provide operating controls and/or signals to local and remote alarm/annunciator panels, shall be performed. Test signals for sensors that provide alarms, warnings, and/or interlocks will be applied to verify that alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints are correct. Alarm and warning lights, controls, and local and remote readouts for the exhauster will be verified to be adequate for proper operation of the exhauster. Testing per this procedure shall be conducted in two phases. The first phase of testing, to verify alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints primarily, will be performed in the MO-566 Fab Shop. The second phase of testing, to verify proper operation and acceptable interface with other tank farm systems, will be conducted after the exhauster and all associated support and monitoring equipment have been installed in the SY Tank Farm. The exhauster, which is mounted on a skid and which will eventually be located in the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors mounted on the skid and associated equipment. These sensors provide information such as: exhauster system inlet vacuum pressure; prefilter and HEPA filter differential pressures; exhaust stack sampler status; exhaust fan status; system status (running/shut down); and radiation monitoring systems status. The output of these sensors is transmitted to the exhauster annunciator panel where the signals are displayed and monitored for out-of-specification conditions.

  17. Treatment of power utilities exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Koermer, Gerald

    2012-05-15

    Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

  18. Design Analysis Report for 244-AR Interim Stabilization Exhaust Ventilation Ducting

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD, J.

    2002-11-21

    This report documents the design analysis performed for the exhaust ducting associated with the 244-AR Interim Stabilization Project. The exhaust ducting connects portable exhausters PORO5 and PORO6 to the existing east dog house of the 291-AR filter vault and the vessel ventilation system. This analysis examines loads on the ductwork and ductwork supports.

  19. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  20. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.

    PubMed

    Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S

    2016-07-01

    concentrations and the number of trucks and wind speed (R(2) = 0.432; p < 0.01). The presence of trucks with cooling systems and older trucks with older exhaust systems was associated with peak concentrations on the direct reading instruments. The results highlight the relevance of direct reading instruments in helping to identify sources of exposure and suggest that monitoring particle number concentrations improves understanding of workers' exposures to diesel exhaust. This study, by quantifying workers' exposure levels through a multimetric approach, contributes to the further understanding of occupational exposures to diesel engine exhaust. PMID:26891343

  1. Apparatus and method to inject a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Michael B.

    2009-09-22

    An exhaust aftertreatment system for an internal combustion engine is provided including an apparatus and method to inject a reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream. Included is a fuel metering device adapted to inject reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream and a controllable pressure regulating device. A control module is operatively connected to the reductant metering device and the controllable pressure regulating device, and, adapted to effect flow of reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream over a controllable flow range.

  2. Energy Efficient Engine Exhaust Mixer Model Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Larkin, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust mixer test program was conducted to define the technology required for the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The model configurations of 1/10 scale were tested in two phases. A parametric study of mixer design options, the impact of residual low pressure turbine swirl, and integration of the mixer with the structural pylon of the nacelle were investigated. The improvement of the mixer itself was also studied. Nozzle performance characteristics were obtained along with exit profiles and oil smear photographs. The sensitivity of nozzle performance to tailpipe length, lobe number, mixer penetration, and mixer modifications like scalloping and cutbacks were established. Residual turbine swirl was found detrimental to exhaust system performance and the low pressure turbine system for Energy Efficient Engine was designed so that no swirl would enter the mixer. The impact of mixer/plug gap was also established, along with importance of scalloping, cutbacks, hoods, and plug angles on high penetration mixers.

  3. Exhaust gas cleaning device of internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenoya, Y.; Ishida, Y.

    1984-03-06

    An exhaust gas cleaning device of an internal combustion engine, comprising a secondary-air supply system connected to exhaust ports to supply the secondary air for cooling the exhaust gas, and reed valve devices installed in the secondary-air supply system and adapted to be opened and closed by the pulsating pressure generated in the exhaust ports when the engine is in operation. The reed valve devices are mounted on the side surface of the cylinder block, each of which has a reed valve chamber and a reed valve that divides the reed valve chamber into an upstream chamber and a downstream chamber and that is adapted to be opened and closed by the pulsating exhaust gas. The upstream chamber is communicated with the open air via a secondary-air intake pipe, and the downstream chamber is connected to the exhaust port via a secondary-air supply passage. The exhaust gas cleaning device is simply constructed so that its maintenance is easy and the presence of the device does not hinder maintenance operation for the internal combustion engine such as replacement of spark plugs, adjustment of tappets, and the like.

  4. Test-methods on the test-bench: a comparison of complete exhaust and exhaust particle extracts for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Sandro; Heeb, Norbert V; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    With the growing number of new exhaust after-treatment systems, fuels and fuel additives for internal combustion engines, efficient and reliable methods for detecting exhaust genotoxicity and mutagenicity are needed to avoid the widespread application of technologies with undesirable effects toward public health. In a commonly used approach, organic extracts of particulates rather than complete exhaust is used for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment, which may reduce the reliability of the results. In the present study, we assessed the mutagenicity and the genotoxicity of complete diesel exhaust compared to an organic exhaust particle extract from the same diesel exhaust in a bacterial and a eukaryotic system, that is, a complex human lung cell model. Both, complete exhaust and organic extract were found to act mutagenic/genotoxic, but the amplitudes of the effects differed considerably. Furthermore, our data indicate that the nature of the mutagenicity may not be identical for complete exhaust and particle extracts. Because in addition, differences between the responses of the different biological systems were found, we suggest that a comprehensive assessment of exhaust toxicity is preferably performed with complete exhaust and with biological systems representative for the organisms and organs of interest (i.e., human lungs) and not only with the Ames test. PMID:24697289

  5. Fact Program - distributed exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Futuristic Airframe Concepts & Technology (FACT): Distributed exhaust nozzle mounted in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel. Angle is zero degrees with respect to microphones. Photographed in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel, Jet Noise Lab, building 1221-A.

  6. Diesel engine exhaust particulate filter with intake throttling incineration control

    SciTech Connect

    Ludecke, O.; Rosebrock, T.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a diesel engine exhaust filter and particulate incineration system in combination with a diesel engine having a normally unthrottled air induction system for admitting combustion air to the engine and an exhaust system for carrying off spent combustion products exhausted from the engine, said filter and incineration system comprising: a combustion resistant filter disposed in the exhaust system and operative to collect and retain portions of the largely carbonaceous particulate matter contained in the engine exhaust products, said fiber being capable of withstanding without substantial damage internal temperatures sufficient to burn the collected particulate matter, a throttle in the indication system and operable to restrict air flow into the engine to reduce the admittance of excess combustion air and thereby increase engine exhaust gas temperature, and means to actuate said throttle periodically during engine operation to an air flow restricting burn mode capable of raising the particulates in said filter to their combustion temperature under certain engine operating conditions and to maintain said throttle mode for an interval adequate to burn retained particulates in the filter.

  7. Operational test report, 500 CFM portable exhauster

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-05-15

    A 500 cubic foot per minute (CFM) portable exhauster system was fabricated for use on 241-A-101 [a Hydrogen Watch List tank] during saltwell pumping activities. An operational test was performed on this unit during 9/20/96 through 1O/14/96 in the 241-A Tank Farm. This operational test was done in accordance with OTP-060-001 Rev 0 (See Appendix A of this report). The test was performed with exceptions.

  8. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  9. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  10. Conceptual Approach For Estimating Potential Air Toxics And Radionuclide Airborne Emissions From A Temporary Exhaust System For The 216-Z-9 Crib Removal Action

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.; Sutter, C.; O'Brien, P.; Bates, J.; Klos, B.; Teal, J.; Oates, L.

    2008-07-01

    The 216-Z-9 Crib, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeastern Washington State, was the site of a successful mining effort to recover plutonium from the contaminated soils at the disposal site. A CERCLA Action Memorandum (AM) issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires the removal of the buildings associated with this mining effort to facilitate a remedial action planned for the near future. The decontamination and demolition of the 216 Z-9 Crib facilities is required under a consent order between the DOE, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Removal of the buildings located on and near the concrete cover slab over the 216-Z-9 Crib will require removal of the large soil-packaging glovebox located inside the 216-Z- 9A Building. Prior to cleaning out the glovebox, it will be necessary to provide active filtered ventilation capability to ensure a negative pressure exists between the glovebox and the adjacent airspace while hands-on work proceeds within. The glovebox floor is open to the Z-9 crib cavern environment below. For this reason the crib and glovebox currently share a common airspace. The functional requirements for safely conducting work within the glovebox include provision of a negative pressure in the box of about 0.5 inches of water gage (nominal) less than the interior of the building. In addition, the building surrounding the glovebox will be maintained at a slight negative pressure with respect to outdoor ambient pressure. In order to assess the relevant and appropriate clean air requirements for the new temporary ventilation system and associated emissions monitoring, it was necessary to reliably predict the nature of the exhaust air stream. Factors used to predict the presence and concentrations of certain radionuclide particulates and certain gases considered to be air toxics, included reliability parameters, flow rates, radionuclide content, and off

  11. Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

  12. 500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    BIELICKI, B.E.

    1999-05-20

    500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM.

  13. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

  14. Turbojet-exhaust-nozzle secondary-airflow pumping as an exit control of an inlet-stability bypass system for a Mach 2.5 axisymmetric mixed-compression inlet. [Lewis 10- by 10-ft. supersonic wind tunnel test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet that was attached to a turbojet engine was fitted with large, porous bleed areas to provide a stability bypass system that would allow a large, stable airflow range. Exhaust-nozzle, secondary-airflow pumping was used as the exit control for the stability bypass airflow. Propulsion system response and stability bypass performance were obtained for several transient airflow disturbances, both internal and external. Internal airflow disturbances included reductions in overboard bypass airflow, power lever angle, and primary-nozzle area, as well as compressor stall. Nozzle secondary pumping as a stability bypass exit control can provide the inlet with a large stability margin with no adverse effects on propulsion system performance.

  15. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (<50 μA). Bradykinin acetate, angiotensin II antipeptide, angiotensin II acetate, neurotensin, angiotensin I trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than 50 μA, and extraction recoveries for the model peptides were in the range of 77-94%, with RSD values less than 10%. PMID:25467476

  16. Air admixture to exhaust jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, Eugen

    1953-01-01

    The problem of thrust increase by air admixture to exhaust jets of rockets, turbojet, ram- and pulse-jet engines is investigated theoretically. The optimum ratio of mixing chamber pressure to ambient pressure and speed range for thrust increase due to air admixture is determined for each type of jet engine.

  17. BIOMARKERS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to examine the detectability of some chemical components of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in human urine following controlled human diesel exposures (IRB-approved). Ultimately, and upon validation, we propose to apply these components as biomarke...

  18. Analysis, Verification, and Application of Equations and Procedures for Design of Exhaust-pipe Shrouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Herman H.; Wcislo, Chester R.; Dexter, Howard E.

    1947-01-01

    Investigations were made to develop a simplified method for designing exhaust-pipe shrouds to provide desired or maximum cooling of exhaust installations. Analysis of heat exchange and pressure drop of an adequate exhaust-pipe shroud system requires equations for predicting design temperatures and pressure drop on cooling air side of system. Present experiments derive such equations for usual straight annular exhaust-pipe shroud systems for both parallel flow and counter flow. Equations and methods presented are believed to be applicable under certain conditions to the design of shrouds for tail pipes of jet engines.

  19. Analysis of exhaustive limited service for token ring networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peden, Jeffery H.

    1990-01-01

    Token ring operation is well-understood in the cases of exhaustive, gated, gated limited, and ordinary cyclic service. There is no current data, however, on queueing models for the exhaustive limited service type. This service type differs from the others in that there is a preset maximum (omega) on the number of packets which may be transmitted per token reception, and packets which arrive after token reception may still be transmitted if the preset packet limit has not been reached. Exhaustive limited service is important since it closely approximates a timed token service discipline (the approximation becomes exact if packet lengths are constant). A method for deriving the z-transforms of the distributions of the number of packets present at both token departure and token arrival for a system using exhaustive limited service is presented. This allows for the derivation of a formula for mean queueing delay and queue lengths. The method is theoretically applicable to any omega. Fortunately, as the value of omega becomes large (typically values on the order of omega = 8 are considered large), the exhaustive limited service discipline closely approximates an exhaustive service discipline.

  20. Using Laser-Induced Incandescence To Measure Soot in Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, William D.; Sankar, Subramanian V.

    2005-01-01

    An instrumentation system exploits laser-induced incandescence (LII) to measure the concentration of soot particles in an exhaust stream from an engine, furnace, or industrial process that burns hydrocarbon fuel. In comparison with LII soot-concentration-measuring systems, this system is more complex and more capable.

  1. Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to 49%. The new ''expander'' type power recovery system includes a waste heat recovery exchanger which will transfer heat from the engine exhaust into any of numerous thermal fluids. The recovered heat energy now in the thermal fluid medium can, in turn, be used to produce power for any desired application (i.e. gas compression, process refrigeration, electrical power generation, etc.). The particular systems put forth in this paper concentrate on the use of expansion fluids (other than steam) driving ''expanders'' as motive devices.

  2. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, Richard D.; Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  3. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  4. A mechanism for mercury oxidation in coat-derived exhausts.

    PubMed

    Niksa, Stephen; Fujiwara, N; Fujita, Y; Tomura, K; Moritomi, H; Tuji, T; Takasu, S

    2002-08-01

    This paper evaluates an elementary reaction mechanism for Hg0 oxidation in coal-derived exhausts consisting of a previously formulated homogeneous mechanism with 102 steps and a new three-step heterogeneous mechanism for unburned carbon (UBC) particles. Model predictions were evaluated with the extents of Hg oxidation monitored in the exhausts from a pilot-scale coal flame fired with five different coals. Exhaust conditions in the tests were very similar to those in full-scale systems. The predictions were quantitatively consistent with the reported coal-quality impacts over the full range of residence times. The role of Cl atoms in the homogeneous mechanism is hereby supplanted with carbon sites that have been chlorinated by HCl. The large storage capacity of carbon for Cl provided a source of Cl for Hg oxidation over a broad temperature range, so initiation was not problematic. Super-equilibrium levels of Cl atoms were not required, so Hg was predicted to oxidize in systems with realistic quench rates. Whereas many fundamental aspects of the heterogeneous chemistry remain uncertain, the information needed to characterize Hg oxidation in coal-derived exhausts is now evident: complete gas compositions (CO, hydrocarbons, H2O, O2 NOx, SOx), UBC properties (size, total surface area), and the ash partitioning throughout the exhaust system are required. PMID:12184687

  5. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  6. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  7. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  8. 75 FR 82040 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine Engines To Comply with Annex VI to MARPOL 73/78 AGENCY: Coast...-543 policy letter 09-01 that provide guidance for exhaust gas cleaning systems under MARPOL Annex VI... emissions in order to comply with regulation 14 of Annex VI of the International Convention for...

  9. The Effect of Indexing Exhaustivity on Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Describes results of a study that investigated the effect of variations in indexing exhaustivity on retrieval performance in a vector space retrieval system. The test collection of documents in the National Library of Medicine's Medline file indexed under cystic fibrosis is described, and use of the SMART information retrieval system is discussed.…

  10. Experimental evaluation of exhaust mixers for an Energy Efficient Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Kraft, G.

    1980-01-01

    Static scale model tests were conducted to evaluate exhaust system mixers for a high bypass ratio engine as part of the NASA sponsored Energy Efficient program. Gross thrust coefficients were measured for a series of mixer configurations which included variations in the number of mixer lobes, tailpipe length, mixer penetration, and length. All of these parameters have a significant impact on exhaust system performance. In addition, flow visualization pictures and pressure/temperature traverses were obtained for selected configurations. Parametric performance trends are discussed and the results considered relative to the Energy Efficient Engine program goals.

  11. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  12. Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D.; McKnight, T.E.

    1999-06-28

    A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.

  13. Remote passive detection of aircraft exhausts at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus P.; Jahn, Carsten; Harig, Roland; Aleyt, Christian; Rusch, Peter

    Emissions from vented sources are often important inputs for the development of emission inventories and contribute to local air pollution and global enhancement of greenhouse gases. Aircraft engines are part of these emission sources. A passive measurement technique such as FTIR emission spectrometry is more cost effective and faster in operation for the determination of the composition of hot exhausts of this kind than other measurement systems as e.g. in situ techniques. Within the scope of aircraft emission investigations the measurements were performed from a measurement van which is equipped with an FTIR spectrometer of high spectral resolution coupled with a telescope and a two-axis movable mirror for rapid orientation towards the emission sources. At airports the emission indices of CO2, CO and NO of main engines and auxiliary power units of standing aircraft were determined. The measurement time is about one minute. The accuracy is better than 30 % as found from burner experiments with calibration gases (CO and NO). The method is also applied to detect exhausts of flares and smoke stacks. Currently, a new scanning FTIR-system is developed. The system allows imaging of the exhaust gas and rapid automated alignment of the field of view. The goal of the new development is to measure aircraft exhausts during normal operations at the airport. The spectrometer is coupled with a camera giving an image of the scenery so that a rapid selection of the hottest exhaust area is possible. It is planned to equip the system with an infrared camera for automatic tracking of this area with the scanning mirror so that measurements of the exhausts of a moving aircraft are possible.

  14. Investigation of NO(x) Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of NO can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  15. Investigation of NOx Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  16. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures. PMID:15901550

  17. Localized corrosion resistance of automotive exhaust alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sabata, A.; Brossia, C.S.; Behling, M.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion in automotive exhaust systems can be broadly classified as (a) cold end corrosion and (b) hot end corrosion. For the cold end, the requirements include inside-out perforation corrosion resistance and cosmetic corrosion resistance. Perforation corrosion causes noticeable degradation in noise quality and may even affect the back pressure. For the hot end, the key concern has been perforation corrosion resistance. With the use of oxygen sensors in catalytic converters, the failure criteria will become more stringent. Numerous accelerated corrosion tests have been used to rank materials for the Hot End and the Cold End. These include (a) Continuous Test, (b) Cyclic Tests -- Hot End, (c) Cyclic Tests -- Cold End, (d) Electrochemical Ranking. In this paper the authors evaluate some of the commonly used exhaust materials in these accelerated tests. These accelerated tests are easy to use, inexpensive to run as compared to proving ground testing or trailer testing and can provide information in a relatively short time. Here they report lab work to date on some of the accelerated corrosion testing for perforation corrosion resistance. Note that these tests are useful for ranking materials only. Life expectancy of the material can be given only after a correlation is established between the accelerated tests and field performance. The electrochemical tests were designed to gain insight into pit growth kinetics in the accelerated tests.

  18. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated solid rocket exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from solid rocket fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, W. W.; Knott, W. M.; Stahel, E. P.; Ambrose, J. T.; Mccrimmon, J. N.; Engle, M.; Romanow, L. A.; Sawyer, A. G.; Tyson, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of solid rocket fuel (SRF) exhaust on selected plant and and insect species in the Merritt Island, Florida area was investigated in order to determine if the exhaust clouds generated by shuttle launches would adversely affect the native, plants of the Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, the citrus production, or the beekeeping industry of the island. Conditions were simulated in greenhouse exposure chambers and field chambers constructed to model the ideal continuous stirred tank reactor. A plant exposure system was developed for dispensing and monitoring the two major chemicals in SRF exhaust, HCl and Al203, and for dispensing and monitoring SRF exhaust (controlled fuel burns). Plants native to Merritt Island, Florida were grown and used as test species. Dose-response relationships were determined for short term exposure of selected plant species to HCl, Al203, and mixtures of the two to SRF exhaust.

  19. Exhaust gas clean up process

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.

    1989-04-11

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/. and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt.

  20. Diesel exhaust filter-incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Martyniuk, E.T.

    1981-08-11

    A diesel engine exhaust particulate filter-incinerator comprising an enclosed filter panel having particulate deposition surfaces bordered by electrodes of a high voltage power supply. Periodic incineration is accomplished by the collection on the surfaces of particulates in amounts sufficient to conduct sufficient electric current along paths through the particulates to heat them to incineration temperature. Ignition and burn off of particulates may be automatically accomplished by maintaining a suitable voltage across the electrodes at the edges of the collection surfaces to initiate arc-like current flow before the collected particulates reach a level that would plug the filter. Specific embodiments of exemplary filter constructions are disclosed.

  1. Getting older can be exhausting.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rohit; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a disease that affects primarily the aged. Although mortality is higher in both older septic patients and aged septic mice, the mechanisms underlying decreased survival in older hosts are incompletely understood. New work by Inoue and colleagues demonstrates persistent inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in older septic patients and aged septic mice. The clinical significance of these findings is manifested not only in increased mortality but also in a marked difference in secondary infections in older patients as long as a month following ICU admission. PMID:25184737

  2. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  3. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  4. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Micro gas turbines are expected as engines for the distributed co-generation systems, performing power generation and heat recovery. Waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, and it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to an absorption refrigerator. In this paper, we evaluated various single-double effect absorption cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption refrigerators, and clarified that the difference of performance among these cycles are little. We adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine, and experimented with it to get the partial load characteristics and the effect of cooling water temperature on the performance. Based on the experimental data, we developed as imulation model of the static characteristics, and studied the direction of improvement.

  5. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  6. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 87.82 Section 87.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and procedures for sampling...

  7. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 87.82 Section 87.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and procedures for sampling...

  8. Experimental investigation on influence of smoke venting velocity and vent height on mechanical smoke exhaust efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jie, Ji; Kaiyuan, Li; Wei, Zhong; Ran, Huo

    2010-05-15

    A set of burning experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of smoke vent height and exhausting velocity on mechanical smoke exhausting efficiency. Results have shown that the smoke exhausting process becomes more efficient due to the increased smoke vent height and the decreased exhausting velocity, which eliminate the plug-holing issue with fewer disturbances on the smoke layer interface. For each certain exhausting velocity, there is a critical value of distance between the vent and the bottom of the smoke layer. When the distance is less than the critical value, the smoke exhausting is inefficient, and the efficiency decreases sharply as the distance decreases. Contrarily, when the distance is greater than the critical value, a good efficiency can be acquired and the exhausted smoke increased relatively slowly as the distance increases. A critical Froude number, proposed by Hinkley to predict the onset of plug-holing effect in gravity venting systems, was validated in the experiments. However, the experimental results indicate that in the tests without the plug-holing, the fresh air entrained due to smoke exhausting is up to 48% of the mechanical exhausting rate. PMID:20042292

  9. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. PMID:22561182

  10. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... system. (6) A suitable hull strainer must be installed in the circulating raw water intake line for the... ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will be considered as meeting the requirements... otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical...

  11. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system. (6) A suitable hull strainer must be installed in the circulating raw water intake line for the... ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will be considered as meeting the requirements... otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical...

  12. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... system. (6) A suitable hull strainer must be installed in the circulating raw water intake line for the... ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will be considered as meeting the requirements... otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical...

  13. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... system. (6) A suitable hull strainer must be installed in the circulating raw water intake line for the... ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will be considered as meeting the requirements... otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical...

  14. 41 CFR 101-8.724 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 101-8.724 Section 101-8.724 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 8-NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1540 - Idle exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the CVS sampling system is used, the analysis procedures for dilute CO and CO2 specified in 40 CFR part 1065 apply. Follow the raw CO2 analysis procedure specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F, for the raw CO2 analyzer. (c) If the continuous raw exhaust sampling technique specified in 40 CFR...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1540 - Idle exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the CVS sampling system is used, the analysis procedures for dilute CO and CO2 specified in 40 CFR part 1065 apply. Follow the raw CO2 analysis procedure specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F, for the raw CO2 analyzer. (c) If the continuous raw exhaust sampling technique specified in 40 CFR...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1540 - Idle exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CVS sampling system is used, the analysis procedures for dilute CO and CO2 specified in 40 CFR part 1065 apply. Follow the raw CO2 analysis procedure specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F, for the raw CO2 analyzer. (c) If the continuous raw exhaust sampling technique specified in 40 CFR part 1065...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1540 - Idle exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the CVS sampling system is used, the analysis procedures for dilute CO and CO2 specified in 40 CFR part 1065 apply. Follow the raw CO2 analysis procedure specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F, for the raw CO2 analyzer. (c) If the continuous raw exhaust sampling technique specified in 40 CFR...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1540 - Idle exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the CVS sampling system is used, the analysis procedures for dilute CO and CO2 specified in 40 CFR part 1065 apply. Follow the raw CO2 analysis procedure specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F, for the raw CO2 analyzer. (c) If the continuous raw exhaust sampling technique specified in 40 CFR...

  20. Chemical kinetic modeling of exhaust hydrocarbon oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.C.; Hochgreb, S.; Norris, M.B. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons from spark ignition engines were made based on full-chemistry, zero-dimensional models and compared with experiments for engine-out hydrocarbons and exhaust port oxidation. Simple correlations can be drawn between calculated results for hydrocarbon oxidation half-lives in plug or stirred reactors and measured hydrocarbon emissions. the extent of reaction through the exhaust port was simulated using calculated temperature histories for each burned gas mass element leaving the cylinder, coupled to detailed chemical kinetic rate equations. The results show that, for the fuels considered, the extent of oxidation of the remaining unburned fuel measured through the exhaust can be bracketed by the calculated results for the well-mixed (average) and core (adiabatically expanded) temperatures in the exhaust. Most of the oxidation is shown to occur at the very early exhaust times. For the paraffins considered, comparisons of simulations and experiments suggest that fuel oxidation is partially controlled by the mixing of cold gases at the initial stages of exhaust, where temperatures are high and the cold unburned mixture emerges from the wall layers into the exhaust jet. These conclusions are supported by the relatively small measured dependence on fuel type of the extent of oxidation in the exhaust, and by the resulting ratio of fuel to nonfuel hydrocarbons in the exhaust port exit.

  1. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  2. Effluent sampling of Titan 3 C vehicle exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Storey, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Downwind in situ ground-level measurements of the exhaust from a Titan 3 C launch vehicle were made during a normal launch. The measurement activity was conducted as part of an overall program to obtain field data for comparison with the multilayer dispersion model currently being used to predict the behavior of rocket vehicle exhaust clouds. All measurements were confined to land, ranging from the launch pad to approximately 2 kilometers downwind from the pad. Measurement systems included detectors for hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulates (Al2O3). Airborne and ground-based optical systems were employed to monitor exhaust cloud rise, growth, and movement. These measurement systems, located along the ground track (45 deg azimuth from the launch pad) of the exhaust cloud, showed no effluents attributable to the launch. Some hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide were detected in the surface wind direction (15 deg azimuth) from the pad. Comparisons with the model were made in three areas: (1) assumption of cloud geometry at stabilization; (2) prediction of cloud stabilization altitude; and (3) prediction of the path of cloud travel. In addition, the importance of elemental analyses of the particulate samples is illustrated.

  3. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  4. Development of a system for the numerical simulation of Euler flows, with results of preliminary 3-D propeller-slipstream/exhaust-jet calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerstoel, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The current status of a computer program system for the numerical simulation of Euler flows is presented. Preliminary test calculation results are shown. They concern the three-dimensional flow around a wing-nacelle-propeller-outlet configuration. The system is constructed to execute four major tasks: block decomposition of the flow domain around given, possibly complex, three-dimensional aerodynamic surfaces; grid generation on the blocked flow domain; Euler-flow simulation on the blocked grid; and graphical visualization of the computed flow on the blocked grid, and postprocessing. The system consists of about 20 codes interfaced by files. Most of the required tasks can be executed. The geometry of complex aerodynamic surfaces in three-dimensional space can be handled. The validation test showed that the system must be improved to increase the speed of the grid generation process.

  5. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 3; Exhaust Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/Inlet Acoustic Team.

  6. Biodiesel Exhaust: The Need for Health Effects Research

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Kimberly J.; Madden, Michael C.; Ghio, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Biodiesel is a diesel fuel alternative that has shown potential of becoming a commercially accepted part of the United States’ energy infrastructure. In November 2004, the signing of the Jobs Creation Bill HR 4520 marked an important turning point for the future production of biodiesel in the United States because it offers a federal excise tax credit. By the end of 2005, industry production was 75 million gallons, a 300% increase in 1 year. Current industry capacity, however, stands at just over 300 million gallons/year, and current expansion and new plant construction could double the industry’s capacity within a few years. Biodiesel exhaust emission has been extensively characterized under field and laboratory conditions, but there have been limited cytotoxicity and mutagenicity studies on the effects of biodiesel exhaust in biologic systems. Objectives We reviewed pertinent medical literature and addressed recommendations on testing specific research needs in the field of biodiesel toxicity. Discussion Employment of biodiesel fuel is favorably viewed, and there are suggestions that its exhaust emissions are less likely to present any risk to human health relative to petroleum diesel emissions. Conclusion The speculative nature of a reduction in health effects based on chemical composition of biodiesel exhaust needs to be followed up with investigations in biologic systems. PMID:17450214

  7. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL(for wet exhaust mass) or VEXHD = VAIRD + (−.767) × GFUEL(for dry exhaust volume) or VEXHW = VAIRW + .749 × GFUEL(for wet exhaust volume) (b) Exhaust mass calculation from...

  8. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL(for wet exhaust mass) or VEXHD = VAIRD + (−.767) × GFUEL(for dry exhaust volume) or VEXHW = VAIRW + .749 × GFUEL(for wet exhaust volume) (b) Exhaust mass calculation from...

  9. Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

  10. Device for removing particulates in exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shinsei, K.; Takada, H.

    1986-11-18

    A device is described for removing particulates from a flow of exhaust has exhausted from a diesel engine before the flow of exhaust gas is exhausted to the outside atmosphere, comprising: a particulate filter having a filter inlet; a regenerative burner for producing combustion gas, having a burner outlet, the regenerating burner including a housing having a first closed end and a second open end and defining a combustion chamber therein. An injection nozzle is disposed at the closed end to inject a fuel and air mixture into the combustion chamber, and an ignition plug is disposed at the closed end to be adjacent to the injection nozzle; and means, including only one exhaust gas conduit connected to the filter inlet for directing the flow of exhaust gas thereto, for concurrently directing the flow of exhaust gas, and all of the combustion gas produced by the regenerating burner from the burner outlet into the filter through the exhaust gas conduit and the filter inlet.

  11. Correlates of Work Exhaustion for Medical Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; Tatum, Donna Surges; Ward-Cook, Kory

    2003-01-01

    Medical technologists (n=196) were followed over 4 years. Higher levels of work exhaustion were related to perceived work interference with family, task load, and lower organizational support. Distributive justice partly mediated the effects of work interference and support on exhaustion. Distributive justice mediated the impact of procedural…

  12. Inhalation of diesel engine exhaust affects spermatogenesis in growing male rats.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, N; Oonuki, Y

    1999-01-01

    We conducted experiments to determine whether diesel engine exhaust affects reproductive endocrine function in growing rats. The rats were assigned to three groups: a group exposed to total diesel engine exhaust containing 5.63 mg/m3 particulate matter, 4.10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, and 8.10 ppm nitrogen oxide; a group exposed to filtered exhaust without particulate matter; and a group exposed to clean air. Dosing experiments were performed for 3 months beginning at birth (6 hr/day for 5 days/week). Serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were significantly higher in animals exposed to total diesel exhaust and filtered exhaust (p < 0.05 for each group) as compared to the controls. Follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly decreased in the two groups exposed to diesel exhaust as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Luteinizing hormone was significantly decreased in the total exhaust-exposed group as compared to the control and filtered groups (p < 0.05). Although testis weight did not show any significant difference among the groups, sperm production and activity of testicular hyaluronidase were significantly reduced in both exhaust-exposed groups as compared to the control group. Histological examination showed decreased numbers of step 18 and 19 spermatids in stage VI, VII, and VIII tubules in the testes of both diesel exhaust-exposed groups. This study suggests that diesel exhaust stimulates hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex, depresses gonadotropin-releasing-hormone, and inhibits spermatogenesis in rats. Because these effects were not inhibited by filtration, the gaseous phase of the exhaust appears to be more responsible than particulate matter for disrupting the endocrine system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10379000

  13. Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

    1976-01-01

    Scramjet/airframe integration design philosophy for hypersonic aircraft results in configurations having lower aft surfaces that serve as exhaust nozzles. There is a strong coupling between the exhaust plume and the aerodynamics of the vehicle, making accurate simulation of the engine exhaust mandatory. The experimental verification of the simulation procedure is described. The detonation tube simulator was used to produce an exact simulation of the scramjet exhaust for a Mach 8 flight condition. The pressure distributions produced by the exact exhaust flow were then duplicated by a cool mixture Argon and Freon 13B1. Such a substitute gas mixture validated by the detonation tube technique could be used in conventional wind tunnel tests. The results presented show the substitute gas simulation technique to be valid for shockless expansions.

  14. Effect of gasoline composition on exhaust hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kameoka, Atsushi; Akiyama, Ken-ichi; Hosoi, Kenzo

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of individual hydrocarbons in gasoline and to clarify the effect of the gasoline composition on engine-out exhaust hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed on a single cylinder research engine operating under steady state condition. The test fuels were blended gasolines of alkylate, catalytic reformate and fluid catalytic cracking gasoline. Chemically defined binary fuel mixtures of isooctane, benzene, toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene were used as variables to study their impact on exhaust hydrocarbons. The individual exhaust hydrocarbon species were analyzed using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector. The results of tests with blended gasoline indicated that the exhaust hydrocarbons were classified into the unburned fuel and the cracked products such as methane, ethane and various olefins. The production coefficients of benzene were 5% for toluene, 4% for xylene and 6% for ethylbenzene. These values suggested that alkylbenzene in the fuel produced benzene in the exhaust. 8 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Hot streak characterization in serpentine exhaust nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Darrell S.

    Modern aircraft of the United States Air Force face increasingly demanding cost, weight, and survivability requirements. Serpentine exhaust nozzles within an embedded engine allow a weapon system to fulfill mission survivability requirements by providing denial of direct line-of-sight into the high-temperature components of the engine. Recently, aircraft have experienced material degradation and failure along the aft deck due to extreme thermal loading. Failure has occurred in specific regions along the aft deck where concentrations of hot gas have come in contact with the surface causing hot streaks. The prevention of these failures will be aided by the accurate prediction of hot streaks. Additionally, hot streak prediction will improve future designs by identifying areas of the nozzle and aft deck surfaces that require thermal management. To this end, the goal of this research is to observe and characterize the underlying flow physics of hot streak phenomena. The goal is accomplished by applying computational fluid dynamics to determine how hot streak phenomena is affected by changes in nozzle geometry. The present research first validates the computational methods using serpentine inlet experimental and computational studies. A design methodology is then established for creating six serpentine exhaust nozzles investigated in this research. A grid independent solution is obtained on a nozzle using several figures of merit and the grid-convergence index method. An investigation into the application of a second-order closure turbulence model is accomplished. Simulations are performed for all serpentine nozzles at two flow conditions. The research introduces a set of characterization and performance parameters based on the temperature distribution and flow conditions at the nozzle throat and exit. Examination of the temperature distribution on the upper and lower nozzle surfaces reveals critical information concerning changes in hot streak phenomena due to changes

  16. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Design (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions. In addition, the guide describes methodologies that can be employed to operate laboratory exhaust systems in a safe and energy efficient manner by using variable air volume (VAV) technology. The guide, one in a series on best practices for laboratories, was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, the guides contain information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories. Studies show a direct relationship between indoor air quality and the health and productivity of building occupants. Historically, the study and protection of indoor air quality focused on emission sources emanating from within the building. For example, to ensure that the worker is not exposed to toxic chemicals, 'as manufactured' and 'as installed' containment specifications are required for fume hoods. However, emissions from external sources, which may be re-ingested into the building through closed circuiting between the building's exhaust stacks and air intakes, are an often overlooked aspect of indoor air quality.

  17. Emotionally exhausting factors in general practitioners’ work

    PubMed Central

    Torppa, M.A.; Kuikka, L.; Nevalainen, M.; Pitkälä, K.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Emotional exhaustion is central in burnout syndrome and signals its development. General practitioners’ (GP) work is emotionally challenging but research on these aspects is lacking. Objective. To study the prevalence of emotional exhaustion among GPs and to evaluate how their characteristics and work experiences are associated with emotional exhaustion. Design and methods. A questionnaire survey was carried out among GPs in Finland in 2011 in which questions were posed regarding their experience of emotional exhaustion and items related to their work experiences and professional identity. A statement “I feel burnt out from my job” (never, seldom, sometimes, quite often, or often) enquired about emotional exhaustion. Those responding quite often or often were categorized as emotionally exhausted. Results. Among the GPs, 68% responded (165/244). Of the respondents, 18% were emotionally exhausted. Emotional exhaustion was associated with older age, longer working history, experiences of having too much work, fear and reports of having committed a medical error, low tolerance of uncertainty in their work, and feeling alone at work. No differences in positive work experiences were found. In logistic regression analysis working experience > 5 years (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6–10.8; p = 0.0036) and feeling alone at work (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2–7.1; p = 0.020) predicted emotional exhaustion, having committed a medical error in the past three months predicted it marginally significantly (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0–5.9, p = 0.057), whereas tolerating uncertainty well protected against it (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.09–0.7; p = 0.0098). Conclusions. Emotional exhaustion among GPs was common and associated with longer working history, having committed a medical error, and feelings of isolation at work. GPs should receive more support throughout their careers. PMID:26311207

  18. Laser-induced incandescence measurements of particles in aeroengine exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, John D.

    1999-09-01

    Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) has been demonstrated as a non-intrusive technique for measurement of particle concentration in the exhausts of aero-engines on sea level test beds as part of a European Union collaborative program (AEROJET) aimed at replacing gas sampling rakes behind development engines with non-intrusive instrumentation. Currently emissions of CO, NOx, unburned hydrocarbon, and smoke from aero-engines must be shown to be less than internationally specified limits. Measurements are made on development engines on sea level test beds by applying a number of standard analytical methods to extracted exhaust gas samples. The hardware required for exhaust gas sampling is heavy and complex and is expensive to build and install. As a result, only the minimum number of emissions tests are conducted during an engine development program, and emissions data is only available to combustion engineers late in the program. Hence, there is a need for more versatile and less costly non-intrusive measurement techniques. Molecular species can be measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while LII is a promising smoke measuring technique. The development of an LII system specifically designed for exhaust applications is described.

  19. Problem definition study on techniques and methodologies for evaluating the chemical and toxicological properties of combustion products of gun systems: Volume 2, Facility criteria for the chemical and toxicological characterization of gun exhaust: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Lore, J.D.; Ross, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Rifles and large-caliber guns generate exhaust emissions as a result of combustion of propellant mixtures. Combustion occurs under high temperature and pressure inside the gun until the projectile is ejected from the barrel. Chemical transformations continue to occur after the gases are ejected from the muzzle. The resulting exhaust emissions are a complex mixture of chemical species. The rifle and gun are ubiquitous to the military. Every soldier is likely to receive some exposure to the exhaust products. Unfortunately, information about the chemical and toxicological properties of the weapons exhaust mixture is limited. This is so, in part, because laboratory duplication of the gun environment, particularly for large-caliber weapons, is an untested but inherently complex task. In order to efficiently focus research efforts, a two phase study was initiated. In the first phase, a literature evaluation of techniques and methodologies was undertaken. In this, the second phase, the criteria for a facility dedicated to the controlled generation, chemical and physical characterization, and toxicological evaluation of weapons produced exhaust are defined.

  20. Use of gas-turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This report describes an investigation of the use of gas-turbine exhaust as a substitute for conventional burners in the direct drying of food products. Four different equipment configurations were examined, including: diluting exhaust gases with air to achieve suitable temperatures; directing exhaust through a heat exchanger; moving the exhaust through a heat recovery boiler and then a drying system; and utilizing a conventional gas turbine cogeneration system. The study determined that diluting exhaust with air and the heat recovery boiler/drying system were economically attractive. The concern with direct drying using gas turbine exhaust is that the presence of elevated nitrogen oxides in the gas may be found in the food products or cause the formation of nitrosamines (a potent carcinogen) in these products. The study concluded that for direct drying using turbine exhaust to be commercialized for food products, either methods for reducing nitrogren oxides levels must be developed for the turbines of pilot tests combined with food-product analysis have to be performed.

  1. Concepts for reducing exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of the aircraft piston engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a general aviation aircraft piston engine by applying known technology. Fourteen promising concepts such as stratified charge combustion chambers, cooling cylinder head improvements, and ignition system changes were evaluated for emission reduction and cost effectiveness. A combination of three concepts, improved fuel injection system, improved cylinder head with exhaust port liners and exhaust air injection was projected as the most cost effective and safe means of meeting the EPA standards for CO, HC and NO. The fuel economy improvement of 4.6% over a typical single engine aircraft flight profile does not though justify the added cost of the three concepts, and significant reductions in fuel consumption must be applied to the cruise mode where most of the fuel is used. The use of exhaust air injection in combination with exhaust port liners reduces exhaust valve stem temperatures which can result in longer valve guide life. The use of exhaust port liners alone can reduce engine cooling air requirements by 11% which is the equivalent of a 1.5% increase in propulsive power. The EPA standards for CO, HC and NO can be met in the IO-520 engine using air injection alone or the Simmonds improved fuel injection system.

  2. Exhaustion and the Pathologization of Modernity.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Anna Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This essay analyses six case studies of theories of exhaustion-related conditions from the early eighteenth century to the present day. It explores the ways in which George Cheyne, George Beard, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Sigmund Freud, Alain Ehrenberg and Jonathan Crary use medical ideas about exhaustion as a starting point for more wide-ranging cultural critiques related to specific social and technological transformations. In these accounts, physical and psychological symptoms are associated with particular external developments, which are thus not just construed as pathology-generators but also pathologized. The essay challenges some of the persistently repeated claims about exhaustion and its unhappy relationship with modernity. PMID:25096856

  3. T-cell exhaustion, co-stimulation and clinical outcome in autoimmunity and infection.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Eoin F; Lee, James C; Jayne, David R W; Lyons, Paul A; Smith, Kenneth G C

    2015-07-30

    The clinical course of autoimmune and infectious disease varies greatly, even between individuals with the same condition. An understanding of the molecular basis for this heterogeneity could lead to significant improvements in both monitoring and treatment. During chronic infection the process of T-cell exhaustion inhibits the immune response, facilitating viral persistence. Here we show that a transcriptional signature reflecting CD8 T-cell exhaustion is associated with poor clearance of chronic viral infection, but conversely predicts better prognosis in multiple autoimmune diseases. The development of CD8 T-cell exhaustion during chronic infection is driven both by persistence of antigen and by a lack of accessory 'help' signals. In autoimmunity, we find that where evidence of CD4 T-cell co-stimulation is pronounced, that of CD8 T-cell exhaustion is reduced. We can reproduce the exhaustion signature by modifying the balance of persistent stimulation of T-cell antigen receptors and specific CD2-induced co-stimulation provided to human CD8 T cells in vitro, suggesting that each process plays a role in dictating outcome in autoimmune disease. The 'non-exhausted' T-cell state driven by CD2-induced co-stimulation is reduced by signals through the exhaustion-associated inhibitory receptor PD-1, suggesting that induction of exhaustion may be a therapeutic strategy in autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Using expression of optimal surrogate markers of co-stimulation/exhaustion signatures in independent data sets, we confirm an association with good clinical outcome or response to therapy in infection (hepatitis C virus) and vaccination (yellow fever, malaria, influenza), but poor outcome in autoimmune and inflammatory disease (type 1 diabetes, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and dengue haemorrhagic fever). Thus, T-cell exhaustion plays a central role in determining outcome in

  4. Effects of motor vehicle exhaust on male reproductive function and associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is consistently associated with various diseases and subsequent death among children, adult, and elderly people worldwide. Motor vehicle exhaust contributes to a large proportion of the air pollution present. The motor vehicle exhaust systems emit a variety of toxic components, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several epidemiological studies and laboratory studies have demonstrated that these components are potentially mutagenic, carcinogenic, and endocrine disrupting agents. However, their impact on male reproductive function and associated proteins is not very clear. Therefore, a comprehensive review on the effects of motor vehicle exhaust on male reproductive function and associated proteins is needed to better understand the risks of exhaust exposure for men. We found that motor vehicle exhaust can cause harmful effects on male reproductive functions by altering organ weights, reducing the spermatozoa qualities, and inducing oxidative stress. Remarkably, motor vehicle exhaust exposure causes significant changes in the expression patterns of proteins that are key components involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis. In conclusion, this review helps to describe the risks of vehicle exhaust exposure and its relationship to potential adverse effects on the male reproduction system. PMID:25329744

  5. Dispersion of turbojet engine exhaust in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The dispersion of the exhaust of turbojet engines into the atmosphere is estimated by using a model developed for the mixing of a round jet with a parallel flow. The analysis is appropriate for determining the spread and dilution of the jet exhaust from the engine exit until it is entrained in the aircraft trailing vortices. Chemical reactions are not expected to be important and are not included in the flow model. Calculations of the dispersion of the exhaust plumes of three aircraft turbojet engines with and without afterburning at typical flight conditions are presented. Calculated average concentrations for the exhaust plume from a single engine jet fighter are shown to be in good agreement with measurements made in the aircraft wake during flight.

  6. Power and particle exhaust in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Stambaugh, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The status of power and particle exhaust research in tokamaks is reviewed in the light of ITER requirements. There is a sound basis for ITER`s nominal design positions; important directions for further research are identified.

  7. An exploratory drilling exhaustion sequence plot program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Drew, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    The exhaustion sequence plot program computes the conditional area of influence for wells in a specified rectangular region with respect to a fixed-size deposit. The deposit is represented by an ellipse whose size is chosen by the user. The area of influence may be displayed on computer printer plots consisting of a maximum of 10,000 grid points. At each point, a symbol is presented that indicates the probability of that point being exhausted by nearby wells with respect to a fixed-size ellipse. This output gives a pictorial view of the manner in which oil fields are exhausted. In addition, the exhaustion data may be used to estimate the number of deposits remaining in a basin. ?? 1977.

  8. Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

  9. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk, Carl T.

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  10. Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

  11. Exhaustible Resource Depletion: A Modified Graphical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisato, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Presents a graphical analysis of the exhaustible resource depletion problem. Applies Hotelling's "r percent rule" as a new approach that operates in an "N"-period context. Includes two figures illustrating the approach. (CFR)

  12. Exhaust turbine and jet propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leist, Karl; Knornschild, Eugen

    1951-01-01

    DVL experimental and analytical work on the cooling of turbine blades by using ram air as the working fluid over a sector or sectors of the turbine annulus area is summarized. The subsonic performance of ram-jet, turbo-jet, and turbine-propeller engines with both constant pressure and pulsating-flow combustion is investigated. Comparison is made with the performance of a reciprocating engine and the advantages of the gas turbine and jet-propulsion engines are analyzed. Nacelle installation methods and power-level control are discussed.

  13. Dynamically Movable Exhausting Emc Sealing System

    DOEpatents

    Barringer, Dennis R.; Seminaro, Edward J.; Toffler, Harold M.

    2003-12-09

    A docking apparatus for printed circuit boards including a cassette housing, having a housing base, a housing cover and a housing wall, wherein the housing base and the housing wall are disposed relative to each other so as to define a housing cavity for containing a printed circuit card and wherein the housing wall includes a cable opening disposed so as to be communicated with the housing cavity, a housing bezel, disposed relative to the cassette housing so as to be associated with the cable opening, the housing bezel includes an outer bezel having a first plurality of openings and an inner bezel having a second plurality of apertures, the inner bezel in electrical communication with the printed circuit card, wherein said housing bezel is removable, and an EMC gasket disposed between the outer and inner bezels of said housing bezel, the EMC gasket configured to provide a removable EMC seal proximate the cable opening while still allowing airflow through the first and second plurality of apertures having the EMC gasket therebetween. A docking apparatus for printed circuit boards including a cassette housing, having a housing base, a housing cover and a housing wall, wherein the housing base and the housing wall are disposed relative to each other so as to define a housing cavity for containing a printed circuit card and wherein the housing wall includes a cable opening disposed so as to be communicated with the housing cavity, a housing bezel, disposed relative to the cassette housing so as to be associated with the cable opening, the housing bezel includes an outer bezel having a first plurality of openings and an inner bezel having a second plurality of apertures, the inner bezel in electrical communication with the printed circuit card, wherein said housing bezel is removable, and an EMC gasket disposed between the outer and inner bezels of said housing bezel, the EMC gasket configured to provide a removable EMC seal proximate the cable opening while still allowing airflow through the first and second plurality of apertures having the EMC gasket therebetween.

  14. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOEpatents

    Fensom, Rod; Kidder, David J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  15. Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, Seppo

    The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

  16. [Effect of ethanol gasoline and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of EFI vehicles with TWC].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-jie; Wang, Wei; Tang, Da-gang; Cui, Ping

    2004-07-01

    The injectors' flow-rate of all test vehicles that each was fixed with a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) and Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) was tested including before and after vehicles operated on unleaded and ethanol gasoline respectively running for a long time on real road. The three main engine-out exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) from vehicles operating on different fuels were also analyzed by exhaust testing procedure for the whole light-duty vehicle. Test results showed that comparing with unleaded gasoline and ethanol gasoline has a remarkable effect on decreasing engine-out exhaust emissions of CO and HC (both at about ten percent) and the exhaust emissions of CO, HC and NOx from vehicles with TWC respectively. When burning with unleaded gasoline the three main pollutants from vehicles with TWC have already or nearly reached Europe Exhaust First Standard, after changing to ethanol gasoline CO has drastically decreased at about thirty percent, while HC and NOx decreased at about eighteen and ten percent respectively, at this time which they were all above Europe Exhaust Standard First or nearly reached Europe Exhaust Second Standard; ethanol gasoline has also other better performance such as a slight cleaning function on injectors, a slower deteriorative trend of engine-out CO and HC and a longer operating life-span of TWC. PMID:15515949

  17. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for exhaust emissions. 87.31... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from...

  18. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  19. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or after February 1,...

  20. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...