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Sample records for exhibit morphological differences

  1. A2T and A2V Aβ peptides exhibit different aggregation kinetics, primary nucleation, morphology, structure, and LTP inhibition.

    PubMed

    Murray, Brian; Sorci, Mirco; Rosenthal, Joseph; Lippens, Jennifer; Isaacson, David; Das, Payel; Fabris, Daniele; Li, Shaomin; Belfort, Georges

    2016-04-01

    The histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the aggregation and accumulation of the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) into misfolded oligomers and fibrils. Here we examine the biophysical properties of a protective Aβ variant against AD, A2T, and a causative mutation, A2T, along with the wild type (WT) peptide. The main finding here is that the A2V native monomer is more stable than both A2T and WT, and this manifests itself in different biophysical behaviors: the kinetics of aggregation, the initial monomer conversion to an aggregation prone state (primary nucleation), the abundances of oligomers, and extended conformations. Aggregation reaction modeling of the conversion kinetics from native monomers to fibrils predicts the enhanced stability of the A2V monomer, while ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry measures this directly confirming earlier predictions. Additionally, unique morphologies of the A2T aggregates are observed using atomic force microscopy, providing a basis for the reduction in long term potentiation inhibition of hippocampal cells for A2T compared with A2V and the wild type (WT) peptide. The stability difference of the A2V monomer and the difference in aggregate morphology for A2T (both compared with WT) are offered as alternate explanations for their pathological effects. Proteins 2016; 84:488-500. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26799157

  2. Do Online Students Exhibit Different Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausler, Joel; Sanders, John W.; Young, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between learning styles and student type. This research seeks to examine if online students exhibit different learning styles from onsite students; and, if so, what accommodations relating to learning style differences may be made for online students? Students (N = 80) were asked to complete an online survey in order…

  3. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  4. Photoreactive helical nanoaggregates exhibiting morphology transition on thermal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Mitsuaki; Ohba, Tomonori; Karatsu, Takashi; Yagai, Shiki

    2015-01-01

    The supramolecular design of photochromic molecules has produced various smart molecular assemblies that can switch their structures and/or functions in response to light stimuli. However, most of these assemblies require large structural changes of the photochromic molecules for an efficient conversion of assembled states, which often suppresses the photoreactivity within the self-assemblies. Here we report molecular assemblies, based on a photo-cross-linkable chromophoric dyad, in which a small amount of ultraviolet-generated photochemical product can guide the entire system into different assembly processes. In apolar solution, the intact dyad self-assembles into right-handed superhelical fibrils. On ultraviolet-irradiation of these fibrils, an effective photoreaction affords a sole photo-cross-linked product. When right-handed helical fibrils, containing a minor amount of the photoproduct, are thermally reconstructed, the intact molecule and the photoproduct undergo a co-assembly process that furnishes superhelical fibrils with different molecular packing structures. This molecular design principle should afford new paradigms for smart molecular assemblies. PMID:26586298

  5. Photoreactive helical nanoaggregates exhibiting morphology transition on thermal reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Mitsuaki; Ohba, Tomonori; Karatsu, Takashi; Yagai, Shiki

    2015-11-01

    The supramolecular design of photochromic molecules has produced various smart molecular assemblies that can switch their structures and/or functions in response to light stimuli. However, most of these assemblies require large structural changes of the photochromic molecules for an efficient conversion of assembled states, which often suppresses the photoreactivity within the self-assemblies. Here we report molecular assemblies, based on a photo-cross-linkable chromophoric dyad, in which a small amount of ultraviolet-generated photochemical product can guide the entire system into different assembly processes. In apolar solution, the intact dyad self-assembles into right-handed superhelical fibrils. On ultraviolet-irradiation of these fibrils, an effective photoreaction affords a sole photo-cross-linked product. When right-handed helical fibrils, containing a minor amount of the photoproduct, are thermally reconstructed, the intact molecule and the photoproduct undergo a co-assembly process that furnishes superhelical fibrils with different molecular packing structures. This molecular design principle should afford new paradigms for smart molecular assemblies.

  6. Characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts exhibiting rough colonies and pseudohyphal morphology with respect to alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Vanda Renata; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; da Silva, Jessica Carolina Gomes; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina

    2013-01-01

    Among the native yeasts found in alcoholic fermentation, rough colonies associated with pseudohyphal morphology belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae are very common and undesirable during the process. The aim of this work was to perform morphological and physiological characterisations of S. cerevisiae strains that exhibited rough and smooth colonies in an attempt to identify alternatives that could contribute to the management of rough colony yeasts in alcoholic fermentation. Characterisation tests for invasiveness in Agar medium, killer activity, flocculation and fermentative capacity were performed on 22 strains (11 rough and 11 smooth colonies). The effects of acid treatment at different pH values on the growth of two strains (“52” - rough and “PE-02” - smooth) as well as batch fermentation tests with cell recycling and acid treatment of the cells were also evaluated. Invasiveness in YPD Agar medium occurred at low frequency; ten of eleven rough yeasts exhibited flocculation; none of the strains showed killer activity; and the rough strains presented lower and slower fermentative capacities compared to the smooth strains in a 48-h cycle in a batch system with sugar cane juice. The growth of the rough strain was severely affected by the acid treatment at pH values of 1.0 and 1.5; however, the growth of the smooth strain was not affected. The fermentative efficiency in mixed fermentation (smooth and rough strains in the same cell mass proportion) did not differ from the efficiency obtained with the smooth strain alone, most likely because the acid treatment was conducted at pH 1.5 in a batch cell-recycle test. A fermentative efficiency as low as 60% was observed with the rough colony alone. PMID:24688501

  7. Do Online Learning Patterns Exhibit Regional and Demographic Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Tsui-Chuan; Yang, Chyan

    2012-01-01

    This paper used a multi-level latent class model to evaluate whether online learning patterns exhibit regional differences and demographics. This study discovered that the Internet learning pattern consists of five segments, and the region of Taiwan is divided into two segments and further found that both the user and the regional segments are…

  8. Ineffective oesophageal motility: Manometric subsets exhibit different symptom profiles

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Horst Gunter; Hansen, Ross David; Malcolm, Allison; Kellow, John Edward

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the demographic and clinical features of different manometric subsets of ineffective oesophageal motility (IOM; defined as ≥ 30% wet swallows with distal contractile amplitude < 30 mmHg), and to determine whether the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux differs between IOM subsets. METHODS: Clinical characteristics of manometric subsets were determined in 100 IOM patients (73 female, median age 58 years) and compared to those of 100 age-and gender-matched patient controls with oesophageal symptoms, but normal manometry. Supine oesophageal manometry was performed with an eight-channel DentSleeve water-perfused catheter, and an ambulatory pH study assessed gastro-oesophageal reflux. RESULTS: Patients in the IOM subset featuring a majority of low-amplitude simultaneous contractions (LASC) experienced less heartburn (prevalence 26%), but more dysphagia (57%) than those in the IOM subset featuring low-amplitude propagated contractions (LAP; heartburn 70%, dysphagia 24%; both P ≤ 0.01). LASC patients also experienced less heartburn and more dysphagia than patient controls (heartburn 68%, dysphagia 11%; both P < 0.001). The prevalence of heartburn and dysphagia in IOM patients featuring a majority of non-transmitted sequences (NT) was 54% (P = 0.04 vs LASC) and 36% (P < 0.01 vs controls), respectively. No differences in age and gender distribution, chest pain prevalence, acid exposure time (AET) and symptom/reflux association existed between IOM subsets, or between subsets and controls. CONCLUSION: IOM patients with LASC exhibit a different symptom profile to those with LAP, but do not differ in gastro-oesophageal reflux prevalence. These findings raise the possibility of different pathophysiological mechanisms in IOM subsets, which warrants further investigation. PMID:18595138

  9. Murine and human CFTR exhibit different sensitivities to CFTR potentiators.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guiying; McCarty, Nael A

    2015-10-01

    Development of therapeutic molecules with clinical efficacy as modulators of defective CFTR includes efforts to identify potentiators that can overcome or repair the gating defect in mutant CFTR channels. This has taken a great leap forward with the identification of the potentiator VX-770, now available to patients as "Kalydeco." Other small molecules with different chemical structure also are capable of potentiating the activity of either wild-type or mutant CFTR, suggesting that there are features of the protein that may be targeted to achieve stimulation of channel activity by structurally diverse compounds. However, neither the mechanisms by which these compounds potentiate mutant CFTR nor the site(s) where these compounds bind have been identified. This knowledge gap partly reflects the lack of appropriate experimental models to provide clues toward the identification of binding sites. Here, we have compared the channel behavior and response to novel and known potentiators of human CFTR (hCFTR) and murine (mCFTR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Both hCFTR and mCFTR were blocked by GlyH-101 from the extracellular side, but mCFTR activity was increased with GlyH-101 applied directly to the cytoplasmic side. Similarly, glibenclamide only exhibited a blocking effect on hCFTR but both blocked and potentiated mCFTR in excised membrane patches and in intact oocytes. The clinically used CFTR potentiator VX-770 transiently increased hCFTR by ∼13% but potentiated mCFTR significantly more strongly. Our results suggest that mCFTR pharmacological sensitivities differ from hCFTR, which will provide a useful tool for identifying the binding sites and mechanism for these potentiators. PMID:26209275

  10. Comparison of stem morphology and anatomy of two alfalfa clonal lines exhibiting divergent cell wall composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous research, two alfalfa clonal lines (252, 1283) were identified that exhibited environmentally stable differences in stem cell walls. Compared to stems of 1283, stems of 252 have a higher cell wall concentration and greater amounts of lignin and cellulose but reduced levels of pectic suga...

  11. Myoblasts from affected and non-affected FSHD muscles exhibit morphological differentiation defects

    PubMed Central

    Barro, Marietta; Carnac, Gilles; Flavier, Sébastien; Mercier, Jacques; Vassetzky, Yegor; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is a muscular hereditary disease with a prevalence of 1 in 20,000 caused by a partial deletion of a subtelomeric repeat array on chromosome 4q. However, very little is known about the pathogenesis as well as the molecular and biochemical changes linked to the progressive muscle degeneration observed in these patients. Several studies have investigated possible pathophysiological pathways in FSHD myoblasts and mature muscle cells but some of these reports were apparently in contradiction. The discrepancy between these studies may be explained by differences between the sources of myoblasts. Therefore, we decided to thoroughly analyze affected and unaffected muscles from patients with FSHD in terms of vulnerability to oxidative stress, differentiation capacity and morphological abnormalities. We have established a panel of primary myoblast cell cultures from patients affected with FSHD and matched healthy individuals. Our results show that primary myoblasts are more susceptible to an induced oxidative stress than control myoblasts. Moreover, we demonstrate that both types of FSHD primary myoblasts differentiate into multi-nucleated myotubes, which present morphological abnormalities. Whereas control myoblasts fuse to form branched myotubes with aligned nuclei, FSHD myoblasts fuse to form either thin and branched myotubes with aligned nuclei or large myotubes with random nuclei distribution. In conclusion, we postulate that these abnormalities could be responsible for muscle weakness in patients with FSHD and provide an important marker for FSHD myoblasts. PMID:18505476

  12. Chlorella Virus Encoded Deoxyuridine triphosphatases Exhibit different Temperature Optima

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,Y.; Moriyama, H.; Homma, K.; Van Etten, J.

    2005-01-01

    A putative deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) gene from chlorella virus PBCV-1 was cloned, and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein has dUTPase activity and requires Mg{sup 2+} for optimal activity, while it retains some activity in the presence of other divalent cations. Kinetic studies of the enzyme revealed a K{sub m} of 11.7 {mu}M, a turnover k{sub cat} of 6.8 s{sup -1}, and a catalytic efficiency of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 5.8 x 105 M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. dUTPase genes were cloned and expressed from two other chlorella viruses IL-3A and SH-6A. The two dUTPases have similar properties to PBCV-1 dUTPase except that IL-3A dUTPase has a lower temperature optimum (37{sup o}C) than PBCV-1 dUTPase (50{sup o}C). The IL-3A dUTPase differs from the PBCV-1 enzyme by nine amino acids, including two amino acid substitutions, Glu81{yields}Ser81 and Thr84{yields}Arg84, in the highly conserved motif III of the proteins. To investigate the difference in temperature optima between the two enzymes, homology modeling and docking simulations were conducted. The results of the simulation and comparisons of amino acid sequence suggest that adjacent amino acids are important in the temperature optima. To confirm this suggestion, three site-directed amino acid substitutions were made in the IL-3A enzyme: Thr84{yields}Arg84, Glu81{yields}Ser81, and Glu81{yields}Ser81 plus Thr84{yields}Arg84. The single substitutions affected the optimal temperature for enzyme activity. The temperature optimum increased from 37 to 55{sup o}C for the enzyme containing the two amino acid substitutions. We postulate that the change in temperature optimum is due to reduction in charge and balkiness in the active cavity that allows more movement of the ligand and protein before the enzyme and substrate complex is formed.

  13. Morphological and immunochemical differences between keloid and hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, H. P.; Desmoulière, A.; Diegelmann, R. F.; Cohen, I. K.; Compton, C. C.; Garner, W. L.; Kapanci, Y.; Gabbiani, G.

    1994-01-01

    There are two types of excessive scarring, keloid and hypertrophic scar. Contrary to hypertrophic scars, keloids do not regress with time, are difficult to revise surgically, and do not provoke scar contractures. These two lesions require different therapeutic approaches but are often confused because of an apparent lack of morphological differences. We have investigated the collagen organization and the possible presence of alpha-smooth muscle (SM) actin-expressing myofibroblasts in these conditions. Keloids contain large, thick collagen fibers composed of numerous fibrils closely packed together. In contrast hypertrophic scars exhibit modular structures in which fibroblastic cells, small vessels, and fine, randomly organized collagen fibers are present. We confirm that such nodular structures are always present in hypertrophic scar and rarely in keloid. Furthermore, only nodules of hypertrophic scars contain alpha-SM actin-expressing myofibroblasts. Electron microscopic examination supports the above-mentioned differences in collagen organization and in fibroblastic features and shows the presence of an amorphous extracellular material surrounding fibroblastic cells in keloid. The presence in hypertrophic scar myofibroblasts of alpha-SM actin, the actin isoform typical of vascular SM cells, may represent an important element in the pathogenesis of contraction. Interestingly, when placed in culture fibroblasts from hypertrophic scars and keloid express similar amounts of alpha-SM actin, suggesting that local microenvironmental factors influence in vivo the expression of this protein. Thus several morphological and immunohistochemical differences exist between hypertrophic scar and keloid that are useful for the biological and pathological characterization of the two lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8030742

  14. Metre-long cell-laden microfibres exhibit tissue morphologies and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoe, Hiroaki; Okitsu, Teru; Itou, Akane; Kato-Negishi, Midori; Gojo, Riho; Kiriya, Daisuke; Sato, Koji; Miura, Shigenori; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Kaori; Matsunaga, Yukiko T.; Shimoyama, Yuto; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-06-01

    Artificial reconstruction of fibre-shaped cellular constructs could greatly contribute to tissue assembly in vitro. Here we show that, by using a microfluidic device with double-coaxial laminar flow, metre-long core-shell hydrogel microfibres encapsulating ECM proteins and differentiated cells or somatic stem cells can be fabricated, and that the microfibres reconstitute intrinsic morphologies and functions of living tissues. We also show that these functional fibres can be assembled, by weaving and reeling, into macroscopic cellular structures with various spatial patterns. Moreover, fibres encapsulating primary pancreatic islet cells and transplanted through a microcatheter into the subrenal capsular space of diabetic mice normalized blood glucose concentrations for about two weeks. These microfibres may find use as templates for the reconstruction of fibre-shaped functional tissues that mimic muscle fibres, blood vessels or nerve networks in vivo.

  15. VMP1-deficient Chlamydomonas exhibits severely aberrant cell morphology and disrupted cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The versatile Vacuole Membrane Protein 1 (VMP1) has been previously investigated in six species. It has been shown to be essential in macroautophagy, where it takes part in autophagy initiation. In addition, VMP1 has been implicated in organellar biogenesis; endo-, exo- and phagocytosis, and protein secretion; apoptosis; and cell adhesion. These roles underly its proven involvement in pancreatitis, diabetes and cancer in humans. Results In this study we analyzed a VMP1 homologue from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. CrVMP1 knockdown lines showed severe phenotypes, mainly affecting cell division as well as the morphology of cells and organelles. We also provide several pieces of evidence for its involvement in macroautophagy. Conclusion Our study adds a novel role to VMP1's repertoire, namely the regulation of cytokinesis. Though the directness of the observed effects and the mechanisms underlying them remain to be defined, the protein's involvement in macroautophagy in Chlamydomonas, as found by us, suggests that CrVMP1 shares molecular characteristics with its animal and protist counterparts. PMID:24885763

  16. FlgM proteins from different bacteria exhibit different structural characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wai Kit; Hendrix, Rachel; Stewart, Claire; Campbell, Eric V; Lavarias, Mitchell; Morris, Kolyn; Nichol, Shauna; Gage, Matthew J

    2013-04-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a unique class of proteins that do not require a stable structure for function. The importance of IDPs in many biological processes has been established but there remain unanswered questions about their evolution and conservation of their disordered state within a protein family. Our group has been studying the structural similarities among orthologous FlgM proteins, a model class of IDPs. We have previously shown that the FlgM protein from the thermophile Aquifex aeolicus has more structure at A. aeolicus' physiological temperature (85°C) than is observed for the Salmonella typhimurium FlgM, suggesting that the disordered nature of FlgM varies among organisms and is not universally conserved. In this work, we extend these studies to the FlgM proteins from Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate that the B. subtilis, E. coli, and S. typhimurium FlgMs exist in a premolten globule-like conformation, though the B. subtilis FlgM is in a more compacted conformation than the other two. The P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis FlgM proteins exist in a currently unknown conformation that is not either coil-like or premolten globule-like. The P. aeruginosa FlgM appears to contain more weak intramolecular contacts given its more compacted state than the P. mirabilis FlgM. These results provide experimental evidence that members of the same protein family can exhibit different degrees of disorder, though understanding how different disordered states evolve in the same protein family will require more study. PMID:23352839

  17. Soot Combustion over Nanostructured Ceria with Different Morphologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Niu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liqiang; Yuan, Fulong; Zhu, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, nano-structure ceria with three different morphologies (nanorod, nanoparticle and flake) have been prepared by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods. The ceria samples were deeply characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, H2-TPR, XPS and in-situ DRIFTS, and tested for soot combustion in absence/presence NO atmospheres under loose and tight contact conditions. The prepared ceria samples exhibit excellent catalytic activities, especially, the CeO2 with nanorod (Ce-R) shows the best catalytic activity, for which the peak temperature of soot combustion (Tm) is about 500 and 368 °C in loose and tight contact conditions, respectively. The catalytic activity for Ce-R is higher than that of the reported CeO2 catalysts and reaches a level that of precious metals. The characterization results reveal that the maximal amounts of adsorbed oxygen species on the surface of the nanostructure Ce-R catalyst should be the crucial role to decide the catalytic soot performance. High BET surface area may also be a positive effect on soot oxidation activity under loose contact conditions. PMID:27353143

  18. Soot Combustion over Nanostructured Ceria with Different Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Niu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liqiang; Yuan, Fulong; Zhu, Yujun

    2016-06-01

    In this study, nano-structure ceria with three different morphologies (nanorod, nanoparticle and flake) have been prepared by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods. The ceria samples were deeply characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, H2-TPR, XPS and in-situ DRIFTS, and tested for soot combustion in absence/presence NO atmospheres under loose and tight contact conditions. The prepared ceria samples exhibit excellent catalytic activities, especially, the CeO2 with nanorod (Ce-R) shows the best catalytic activity, for which the peak temperature of soot combustion (Tm) is about 500 and 368 °C in loose and tight contact conditions, respectively. The catalytic activity for Ce-R is higher than that of the reported CeO2 catalysts and reaches a level that of precious metals. The characterization results reveal that the maximal amounts of adsorbed oxygen species on the surface of the nanostructure Ce-R catalyst should be the crucial role to decide the catalytic soot performance. High BET surface area may also be a positive effect on soot oxidation activity under loose contact conditions.

  19. Soot Combustion over Nanostructured Ceria with Different Morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Niu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liqiang; Yuan, Fulong; Zhu, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, nano-structure ceria with three different morphologies (nanorod, nanoparticle and flake) have been prepared by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods. The ceria samples were deeply characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, H2-TPR, XPS and in-situ DRIFTS, and tested for soot combustion in absence/presence NO atmospheres under loose and tight contact conditions. The prepared ceria samples exhibit excellent catalytic activities, especially, the CeO2 with nanorod (Ce-R) shows the best catalytic activity, for which the peak temperature of soot combustion (Tm) is about 500 and 368 °C in loose and tight contact conditions, respectively. The catalytic activity for Ce-R is higher than that of the reported CeO2 catalysts and reaches a level that of precious metals. The characterization results reveal that the maximal amounts of adsorbed oxygen species on the surface of the nanostructure Ce-R catalyst should be the crucial role to decide the catalytic soot performance. High BET surface area may also be a positive effect on soot oxidation activity under loose contact conditions. PMID:27353143

  20. Wetting morphologies on an array of fibers of different radii.

    PubMed

    Sauret, Alban; Boulogne, François; Cébron, David; Dressaire, Emilie; Stone, Howard A

    2015-05-28

    We investigate the equilibrium morphology of a finite volume of liquid placed on two parallel rigid fibers of different radii. As observed for identical radii fibers, the liquid is either in a column morphology or adopts a drop shape depending on the inter-fiber distance. However the cross-sectional area and the critical inter-fiber distance at which the transition occurs are both modified by the polydispersity of the fibers. Using energy considerations, we analytically predict the critical inter-fiber distance corresponding to the transition between the column and the drop morphologies. This distance depends both on the radii of the fibers and on the contact angle of the liquid. We perform experiments using a perfectly wetting liquid on two parallel nylon fibers: the results are in good agreement with our analytical model. The morphology of the capillary bridges between fibers of different radii is relevant to the modeling of large arrays of polydisperse fibers. PMID:25899307

  1. Human dendritic cells and macrophages. In situ immunophenotypic definition of subsets that exhibit specific morphologic and microenvironmental characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, G. S.; Turner, R. R.; Shiurba, R. A.; Eng, L.; Warnke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and antisera in situ, the authors have defined subsets of human dendritic cells and macrophages that exhibit specific morphologic and microenvironmental characteristics. All subsets contained cells that reacted with antibodies directed against HLA-A,B,C, HLA-Dr, leukocyte common, Leu-M3, and Leu-3(T4) antigens. R4/23 and anti-S100 defined three major subsets. R4/23+, S100- cells constituted the B-cell-related follicular dendritic cells, which were identified only within the germinal center/mantle microenvironment of lymphoid follicles. R4/23-, S100+ cells constituted the T-cell-related dendritic cell subset. Anti-Leu-6(T6) further subdivided this group into Leu-6(T6)- interdigitating cells within the T-cell microenvironments of lymphoid organs and Leu-6(T6)+ Langerhans cells found predominantly in epithelial microenvironments, especially the skin. R4/23-, S100- cells constituted the nondendritic tissue macrophage subset which was widely distributed, primarily outside of dendritic-cell microenvironments. These data indicate that although dendritic cells and macrophages share several common antigenic features, morphologically and microenvironmentally distinct subsets express distinct immunologic phenotypes. Such data may provide insight into the ontogeny and function of these subsets and constitute a basis for the comparison of normal dendritic cells and macrophages to various histiocytic proliferative disorders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 p78-c Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3985124

  2. Embryonic thermosensitivity and hatchling morphology differ between two coexisting lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yan-Fu; Li, Hong; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

    2011-07-01

    We incubated eggs of two coexisting lizards, Phrynocephalus frontalis and Phrynocephalus versicolor, at three constant temperatures (24, 28 and 32 °C) to examine whether they differ in embryonic thermosensitivity and hatchling morphology. Eggs incubated at the three temperatures produced morphologically different hatchlings in P. versicolor but not in P. frontalis. Snout-vent length (SVL), body mass and head width were greater in P. versicolor hatchlings from the 24 °C treatment than those from the 32 °C treatment when accounting for differences in initial egg mass, and tail length was smaller in P. versicolor hatchlings from the 24 °C treatment than those from the 32 °C treatment when accounting for differences in final egg mass. Body mass, head length, head width, tail length, fore-limb length and hind-limb length were greater in P. frontalis hatchlings than in P. versicolor hatchling when accounting for differences in initial or final egg mass. Moreover, P. frontalis females produce larger hatchlings than do P. versicolor females of the same SVL not only by laying larger eggs, but also by investing more dry materials (and thus, more energy) into the egg. Given a link between interspecific competition (and niche restriction) and morphology, it seems likely that morphological differences at hatching may facilitate the coexistence of the two lizards. The two lizards differed in embryonic thermosensitivity and water uptake by eggs during incubation, suggesting that they use different microhabitats in the area of sympatry.

  3. Photocatalytic activity of ZNO with different morphologies synthesized by a sonochemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Yayapao, Oranuch; Thongtem, Somchai; Thongtem, Titipun

    2016-05-01

    Different morphologies of ZnO structures were successfully synthesized in precursor solutions with the pH of 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 by a sonochemical method at room temperature. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities of ZnO samples with different morphologies were evaluated via the degradation of methylene blue (C16H18ClN3S). In this research, the flower-like ZnO sample of densely assembled nanoplates exhibited the highest photodegradation of 64% under UV light irradiation within 300 min.

  4. Making connections: Listening to visitor conversations at different styles of sea jelly exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, Tamara M.

    This study sought to determine what types of connections to prior experiences and knowledge were being made at two different styles of exhibits focusing on sea jellies. Family groups, consisting of one or two adults with one or two children aged 6-11, were audio recorded and tracked as they visited a view-only or touch pool sea jelly exhibit. A short interview was given after their visit to the sea jelly exhibit. The discourse from the exhibit and survey were coded for types of learning talk. Coding was also done to determine the inspiration for the connection and the subject of the connection (structural or behavioral). Visitors made connections regardless of the seajelly.exhibit design and results showed no differences in the type or frequency of the connections made. However, visitors were more likely to make connections on the subject of the sea jelly structure at the view only exhibit. Many of the connections, regardless of subject or inspiration, were metaphoric connections, demonstrating the importance of metaphors for making prior experience connections. Findings provide useful information for future aquarium practice.

  5. Morphological and physiological changes exhibited by a Cd-resistant Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides strain and its cadmium removal capacity.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, M C; Cortés, A A; Sánchez-Fortún, A; Garnica-Romo, M G; Sánchez-Carrillo, S; Sánchez-Fortún, Sebastián

    2016-12-01

    Changes induced on freshwater microalga Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides (Dc(wt)) acclimated in the laboratory until their survival in culture media enriched with cadmium 100 µM have been studied. Cadmium removal by living cells of this Cd-resistant (Dc(CdR100)) strain was tested in cultures exposed to 100 µM Cd during 30 days. Cell dimensions were measured under light microscopy, and cell growth was studied. Photosynthetic yield (ΦPSII) was analyzed and the photosynthetic oxygen development and respiration response was obtained. Results show that Dc(CdR100) strain exhibited significant cell morphology changes in comparison to Dc(wt) cells, which affected both surface area and cell biovolume. Malthusian fitness analysis showed that Dc(CdR100) strain living in Cd-enriched culture had developed a lower capacity of nearly 50% growth, and its photosynthetic oxygen development and respiration response were significantly reduced in both light and dark photosynthetic phases. Dc(CdR100) strain showed a very high capacity to remove cadmium from the aquatic environment (over 90%), although most of the removed heavy metal (≈70%) is adhered to the cell wall. These specific characteristics of Dc(CdR100) cells suggest the possibility of using this strain in conjunction with Dc(wt) strain as bioelements into a dual-head biosensor, and in bioremediation processes on freshwater polluted with Cd. PMID:27222159

  6. Martian impact basins: Morphology differences and tectonic provinces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stam, M.; Schultz, P. M.; Mcgill, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed geomorphic and structural mapping of five Martian basins and preliminary study of eleven other basins reveal four characteristic styles of modification that relate to the degree and age of past tectonic activity. Within regions that exhibit no evidence for tectonic activity, the modification style can be used to distinguish areas dominated by different exogenic processes. A framework for understanding these different styles of basin modification is provided.

  7. Foot Morphological Difference between Habitually Shod and Unshod Runners

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yang; Mei, Qichang; Fernandez, Justin; Li, Zhiyong; Feng, Neng; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    Foot morphology and function has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researchers and footwear manufacturers. In this study, 168 habitually unshod runners (90 males whose age, weight & height were 23±2.4years, 66±7.1kg & 1.68±0.13m and 78 females whose age, weight & height were 22±1.8years, 55±4.7kg & 1.6±0.11m) (Indians) and 196 shod runners (130 males whose age, weight & height were 24±2.6years, 66±8.2kg & 1.72±0.18m and 66 females whose age, weight & height were 23±1.5years, 54±5.6kg & 1.62±0.15m)(Chinese) participated in a foot scanning test using the easy-foot-scan (a three-dimensional foot scanning system) to obtain 3D foot surface data and 2D footprint imaging. Foot length, foot width, hallux angle and minimal distance from hallux to second toe were calculated to analyze foot morphological differences. This study found that significant differences exist between groups (shod Chinese and unshod Indians) for foot length (female p = 0.001), width (female p = 0.001), hallux angle (male and female p = 0.001) and the minimal distance (male and female p = 0.001) from hallux to second toe. This study suggests that significant differences in morphology between different ethnicities could be considered for future investigation of locomotion biomechanics characteristics between ethnicities and inform last shape and design so as to reduce injury risks and poor performance from mal-fit shoes. PMID:26148059

  8. Do ACL-injured copers exhibit differences in knee kinematics?: An MRI study.

    PubMed

    Barrance, Peter J; Williams, Glenn N; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Buchanan, Thomas S

    2007-01-01

    Kinematic changes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may play a role in the long-term development of osteoarthritis (OA). Some ACL-injured patients (copers) successfully return to demanding activities without the reconstructive surgery usually recommended for functionally unstable patients (noncopers). We determined whether copers exhibit less disruption to kinematics than noncopers, perhaps because of lower impairment of muscular control as observed in earlier studies. We used dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and model-based tracking to investigate anteroposterior (AP) and internal-external tibial positioning in copers, presurgical noncopers, and uninjured control subjects during dynamic nonloaded knee extension. Copers and control subjects showed similar levels of side-to-side differences in AP tibial positioning (1.1 +/- 4.9 mm and 1.4 +/- 2.7 mm, respectively), whereas noncopers exhibited anterior tibial positioning in their injured knees (2.6 +/- 3 mm) that differed from control subjects. Copers were the most variable of the three groups, and contrary to our hypothesis, tibial positioning in copers was not different from that of noncopers. Differences in tibial positioning did not correlate with side-to-side differences in AP laxity in any of the groups, and we identified no changes to tibial axial rotation patterns associated with ACL deficiency. PMID:17091013

  9. On the Non-Monotonic Variation of the Opposition Surge Morphology with Albedo Exhibited by Satellites' Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deau, E. A.; Spilker, L. J.; Flandes, A.

    2011-01-01

    We used well know phase functions of satellites and rings around the giant planets of our Solar System to study the morphology of the opposition effect (at phase angles alpha < 20 degrees. To avoid the effect of the variable finite size of the Sun, we use a deconvolution morphological model to retrieve the morphological parameters of the surge (A and HWHM). These parameters are found to have a non-monotonic variation with the single scattering albedo, similar to that observed in asteroids, which is unexplained so far. The non-monotonic variation is discussed in the framework of the coherent backscattering and shadow hiding mechanisms.

  10. Morphological and molecular differences in two strains of Ustilago esculenta.

    PubMed

    You, Wenyu; Liu, Qian; Zou, Keqin; Yu, Xiaoping; Cui, Haifeng; Ye, Zihong

    2011-01-01

    Ustilago esculenta is a fungal endophyte of Zizania latifolia that plays an important agricultural role in this vegetable crop. The purpose of this study was to characterize sporidial (T) and mycelial (M-T) strains of U. esculenta isolated from sporulating and non-sporulating galls on plants growing in Zhejiang province, China. Morphological comparisons of the T strain and M-T strain were made by optical and scanning electron microscope observation. Genetic differences were examined by sequencing the ITS region of the fungus and examining differential protein expression by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. The sporidial (T) and mycelial (M-T) strains differed in morphological characteristics of their in vitro single colony formations and in cell shape. Alignment of ITS sequences of the T strain and M-T strain revealed a single mutation between the T strain and M-T strain, but the sequences were the same within strains. A total of 146 proteins were only expressed in the M-T strain, and 242 proteins were only expressed in the T strain isolated from infected plants. A total of 222 proteins were up-regulated or down-regulated in the T strain when compared with the M-T strain. Of these, 18 proteins were identified and eight were associated with processes involving energy metabolism and the cytoskeleton. Two morphology-related proteins, MAP kinase kinase and actin, were differentially expressed. The differences noted in the T strain and M-T strain may lead to a better understanding of the life cycle and morphogenesis in U. esculenta. PMID:20495805

  11. Synthesis and characterization of different morphological SnS nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    SnS in three nano forms possessing different morphologies such as particles, whiskers and ribbons were synthesised by chemical route. The morphology variation was brought about in the chemical route synthesis by varying a synthesis parameter such as temperature and influencing the synthesis by use of surfactant. The elemental composition determination by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) showed that all three synthesized SnS nanomaterials were tin deficient. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all of them possess orthorhombic structure. The Raman spectra of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all three samples possess three common distinguishable peaks. In them two peaks lying at 98 ± 1 cm-1 and 224 ± 4 cm-1 are the characteristic Ag mode of SnS. The third peak lying at 302 ± 1 cm-1 is associated with secondary Sn2S3 phase. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the respective morphologies. The optical analysis showed that they possess direct as well as indirect optical bandgap. The electrical transport properties study on the pellets prepared from the different nanomaterials of SnS showed them to be semiconducting and p-type in nature. The current-voltage (I-V) plots of the silver (Ag)/SnS nanomaterials pellets for dark and incandescent illumination showed that all configurations showed good ohmic behaviour except Ag/SnS nanoribbons pellet configuration under illumination. All the obtained results are discussed in detail.

  12. Induced neural stem cells from distinct genetic backgrounds exhibit different reprogramming status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Min; Lim, Kyung Tae; Kwak, Tae Hwan; Lee, Seung Chan; Im, Jung Hyun; Hali, Sai; In Hwang, Seon; Kim, Dajeong; Hwang, Jeongho; Kim, Kee-Pyo; Chung, Hak-Jae; Kim, Jeong Beom; Ko, Kinarm; Chung, Hyung-Min; Lee, Hoon Taek; Schöler, Hans R; Han, Dong Wook

    2016-03-01

    Somatic cells could be directly converted into induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) by ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. However, the underlying mechanism of direct lineage transition into iNSCs is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of genetic background on the direct conversion process into an iNSC state. The iNSCs from two different mouse strains exhibited the distinct efficiency of lineage conversion as well as clonal expansion. Furthermore, the expression levels of endogenous NSC markers, silencing of transgenes, and in vitro differentiation potential were also different between iNSC lines from different strains. Therefore, our data suggest that the genetic background of starting cells influences the conversion efficiency as well as reprogramming status of directly converted iNSCs. PMID:26930613

  13. Human cancer cells exhibit in vitro individual receptiveness towards different mistletoe extracts.

    PubMed

    Knöpfl-Sidler, F; Viviani, A; Rist, L; Hensel, A

    2005-06-01

    In vitro cytotoxic effects of three aqueous mistletoe extracts on cell physiology against different human tumor cell lines and primary cancer cells were investigated in order to compare the receptiveness of different cancer cells against different mistletoe products. Therefore cell proliferation (BrdU-incorporation assay), mitochondrial activity (MTT-testing) and necrotic cell toxicity (LDH assay) were assayed over serial dilutions of the test products. Data obtained with HELA-S3, MOLT-4, MFM-223, COR-L51, KPL-1 and VM-CUB1 tumor cell lines and Iscador M (20 mg/ml), Iscador Q (20 mg/ml) and Abnobaviscum Fraxini -2 (20 mg/ml) indicated significant growth-inhibition of all cell lines, but also different cell susceptibilities against the different extracts. These variations were not only monitored on established cell lines but also on primary mamma carcinoma cells from surgical resectates. Concerning cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity Abnobaviscum Fraxini exhibits stronger inhibitory effects compared to products from the Iscador series. In case the evaluation was standardized on the active contents of VAA-I within the different products, the Iscador extracts possess higher cytotoxic activity. Pure viscotoxins and mistletoe lectins exhibited less effects than the extracts. The simultaneous presence of pure mistletoe lectins and mistletoe polysaccharides diminished the VAA-mediated cytotoxic effects. The presence of fetal calf serum (FCS) in cultivation media during in vitro testing diminished the cytotoxic effects of mistletoe extracts. It was shown that in vivo application of mistletoe preparations led to the formation of antibodies against unknown compounds of the extracts, diminishing the cytotoxic effect. PMID:15997835

  14. Enhancement of textural differences based on morphological component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jianning; Eramian, Mark

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a new texture enhancement method which uses an image decomposition that allows different visual characteristics of textures to be represented by separate components in contrast with previous methods which either enhance texture indirectly or represent all texture information using a single image component. Our method is intended to be used as a preprocessing step prior to the use of texture-based image segmentation algorithms. Our method uses a modification of morphological component analysis (MCA) which allows texture to be separated into multiple morphological components each representing a different visual characteristic of texture. We select four such texture characteristics and propose new dictionaries to extract these components using MCA. We then propose procedures for modifying each texture component and recombining them to produce a texture-enhanced image. We applied our method as a preprocessing step prior to a number of texture-based segmentation methods and compared the accuracy of the results, finding that our method produced results superior to comparator methods for all segmentation algorithms tested. We also demonstrate by example the main mechanism by which our method produces superior results, namely that it causes the clusters of local texture features of each distinct image texture to mutually diverge within the multidimensional feature space to a vastly superior degree versus the comparator enhancement methods. PMID:25935032

  15. Is supramolecular filament chirality the underlying cause of major morphology differences in amyloid fibrils?

    PubMed

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Lu, Xuefang; Popova, Ludmila; Wan, William; Shanmugasundaram, Maruda; Stubbs, Gerald; Dukor, Rina K; Lednev, Igor K; Nafie, Laurence A

    2014-02-12

    The unique enhanced sensitivity of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) to the formation and development of amyloid fibrils in solution is extended to four additional fibril-forming proteins or peptides where it is shown that the sign of the fibril VCD pattern correlates with the sense of supramolecular filament chirality and, without exception, to the dominant fibril morphology as observed in AFM or SEM images. Previously for insulin, it has been demonstrated that the sign of the VCD band pattern from filament chirality can be controlled by adjusting the pH of the incubating solution, above pH 2 for "normal" left-hand-helical filaments and below pH 2 for "reversed" right-hand-helical filaments. From AFM or SEM images, left-helical filaments form multifilament braids of left-twisted fibrils while the right-helical filaments form parallel filament rows of fibrils with a flat tape-like morphology, the two major classes of fibril morphology that from deep UV resonance Raman scattering exhibit the same cross-β-core secondary structure. Here we investigate whether fibril supramolecular chirality is the underlying cause of the major morphology differences in all amyloid fibrils by showing that the morphology (twisted versus flat) of fibrils of lysozyme, apo-α-lactalbumin, HET-s (218-289) prion, and a short polypeptide fragment of transthyretin, TTR (105-115), directly correlates to their supramolecular chirality as revealed by VCD. The result is strong evidence that the chiral supramolecular organization of filaments is the principal underlying cause of the morphological heterogeneity of amyloid fibrils. Because fibril morphology is linked to cell toxicity, the chirality of amyloid aggregates should be explored in the widely used in vitro models of amyloid-associated diseases. PMID:24484302

  16. Microscopy and Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy Characterization of Quartz Exhibiting Different Alkali-Silica Reaction Potential.

    PubMed

    Kuchařová, Aneta; Götze, Jens; Šachlová, Šárka; Pertold, Zdeněk; Přikryl, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Different quartz types from several localities in the Czech Republic and Sweden were examined by polarizing microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy, spectroscopy, and petrographic image analysis, and tested by use of an accelerated mortar bar test (following ASTM C1260). The highest alkali-silica reaction potential was indicated by very fine-grained chert, containing significant amounts of fine-grained to cryptocrystalline matrix. The chert exhibited a dark red CL emission band at ~640 nm with a low intensity. Fine-grained orthoquartzites, as well as fine-grained metamorphic vein quartz, separated from phyllite exhibited medium expansion values. The orthoquartzites showed various CL of quartz grains, from blue through violet, red, and brown. Two CL spectral bands at ~450 and ~630 nm, with various intensities, were detected. The quartz from phyllite displayed an inhomogeneous dark red CL with two CL spectral bands of low intensities at ~460 and ~640 nm. The massive coarse-grained pegmatite quartz from pegmatite was assessed to be nonreactive and displayed a typical short-lived blue CL (~480 nm). The higher reactivity of the fine-grained hydrothermal quartz may be connected with high concentrations of defect centers, and probably with amorphized micro-regions in the quartz, respectively; indicated by a yellow CL emission (~570 nm). PMID:26790877

  17. Barchan dunes morphology dynamics under different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzewski, M.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to emphasize significance of diversified dynamics of barchans dune morphology. We analyzed and compared barchans found in two dune fields: Kharga (S Egypt) and Tarfaya-Laâyoune (S-Morocco). These dune fields are characterized by significantly different factors responsible for dunes development e.g. textural and mineralogical composition of dune sand, dune sand moisture, air humidity, inter dune vegetation cover. For each investigated dune filed and study period (2008, 2010, 2012 for Kharga and 2007, 2011, 2012 for Tarfaya-Laâyoune dune fields) detailed shape measurement of 20 simple isolated barchans of different dune sizes was made. The ± 10-2 m horizontal and ± 1,5 10-2m vertical accuracy was obtained (1 measuring point per 1m2 on average).In order to compare barchan dunes morphology and to determine depositional and erosional patterns, the 3D models were created. For better understanding of this processes, sand bulk density of barchan surface was measured (1 measuring point per 2m2 on average). The velocity of dunes in relation to dune shape was also analyzed. The results show that the relationship between typically correlated parameters change during movement of the barchans. Most values change by a few percent per year (slip face height, dune base area and dune volume) or by a dozen or so percent per year (windward side length, horns length and width). We obtain good linear relationship (with 0,05 significant level) between slip face height and the dune base area (0,77 < R2 < 0,83), dune volume (0,66 < R2 < 0,72), windward side length (0,58 < R2 < 0,87), horns length (0,71 < R2 < 0,90) or horns width (0,79 < R2 < 0,93). The linear relationship between displacement rate and the morphological parameters is not strong (0,54< R2 < 0,81) for Kharga dune field and (0,41< R2 < 0,66) for Tarfaya-Laâyoune dune field. We noted also good linear relationship between displacement rate and the angle of span of the horns (R2=0,73 on Tarfaya

  18. Differences in Lateral Line Morphology between Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Jurasin, Tyler; Nguyen, Chau; Coffin, Allison B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite identification of multiple factors mediating salmon survival, significant disparities in survival-to-adulthood among hatchery- versus wild-origin juveniles persist. In the present report, we explore the hypothesis that hatchery-reared juveniles might exhibit morphological defects in vulnerable mechanosensory systems prior to release from the hatchery, potentiating reduced survival after release. Juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two different hatcheries were compared to wild-origin juveniles on several morphological traits including lateral line structure, otolith composition (a proxy for auditory function), and brain weight. Wild juveniles were found to possess significantly more superficial lateral line neuromasts than hatchery-reared juveniles, although the number of hair cells within individual neuromasts was not significantly different across groups. Wild juveniles were also found to possess primarily normal, aragonite-containing otoliths, while hatchery-reared juveniles possessed a high proportion of crystallized (vaterite) otoliths. Finally, wild juveniles were found to have significantly larger brains than hatchery-reared juveniles. These differences together predict reduced sensitivity to biologically important hydrodynamic and acoustic signals from natural biotic (predator, prey, conspecific) and abiotic (turbulent flow, current) sources among hatchery-reared steelhead, in turn predicting reduced survival fitness after release. Physiological and behavioral studies are required to establish the functional significance of these morphological differences. PMID:23554988

  19. Beach morphologies induced by breakwaters with different orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Nancy L.; Harley, Mitchell D.; Armaroli, Clara; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2015-06-01

    A desired outcome in the construction of a detached emerged breakwater is the formation of an accretionary salient in its lee to augment the beach, improve beach amenity and provide an additional buffer from storm waves. The extent to which this salient forms and its morphology are strongly controlled by the breakwater geometry with respect to the original shoreline, sediment availability, and local wave climate. The purpose of this paper is to identify how breakwater geometry and orientation of gaps between individual breakwaters alter the direction of waves entering the gaps and change the asymmetry of the salients. Four distinct breakwater sites along the Emilia-Romagna coastline in Northern Italy were chosen for a detailed field and desktop study comprising three-dimensional topographic and bathymetric surveys, sediment sampling, LiDAR flights and historical shoreline mapping. The orientations of the shorelines at these four sites range over 43°, resulting in different exposures to the dominant waves. The oblique orientations of the gaps between individual breakwater segments at three of the four sites effectively create a "gap window" between breakwaters favoring the exposure of short-period waves from the north and diminishing the effect of longer waves from the dominant east. Salients can be symmetrical despite an acute angle of approach of the dominant deep water waves where refraction is enhanced by offshore topography and breakwaters are parallel to the shore. Waves approaching normal to the gap window undergo less diffraction due to their shorter length relative to the gap window width and undergo less attenuation by breaking and bottom friction if they are locally generated and have short periods. Greater breaking-wave energy on the gap-facing slope of the salient can create shoreline and morphological asymmetry. The implication is that breakwater orientations can be designed or altered to selectively dampen or facilitate wave energy to enhance

  20. Pain and Personality: Do Individuals with Different Forms of Chronic Pain Exhibit a Mutual Personality?

    PubMed

    Gustin, Sylvia M; Burke, Lucinda A; Peck, Chris C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A

    2016-04-01

    The role of personality in the experience of chronic pain is a growing field, with endless debate regarding the existence of a "pain personality". This study aims to compare different chronic pain types and consolidate the existence of a common personality. Thirty-two females with chronic orofacial pain and 37 age-matched healthy females were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Chronic pain subjects had either trigeminal neuropathy (neuropathic pain) or temporomandibular disorders (nociceptive pain). This study revealed that individuals with different chronic pain types exhibit a mutual personality profile encompassing significantly higher scores in Harm Avoidance and significantly lower scores in Self-Directedness when compared to healthy subjects. In fact, this combination is associated with Cluster C personality disorders. In conclusion, our study reveals that irrespective of type, chronic pain may be associated with Cluster C personality disorders. Indeed, there has never been empirical evidence in the past to suggest that chronic pain as an overall concept is associated with any particular personality disorders. Therefore, a potential future avenue of chronic pain treatment may lie in targeting particular personality aspects and shift the target of pain-relieving treatments from sensory and psychologically state focused to psychologically trait focused. PMID:25858277

  1. Do Young and Old Preschoolers Exhibit Response Bias Due to Different Mechanisms? Investigating Children's Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that younger preschoolers exhibit a yes bias due to underdeveloped cognitive abilities, whereas older preschoolers exhibit a response bias due to other factors. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the response latency to yes-no questions pertaining to familiar and unfamiliar objects in 3- to 6-year-olds. The…

  2. Closely Related Fishes Inhabiting Different Ecosystems Exhibit the Same Oocyte Production and Recruitment Pattern.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eudriano F S; Dias, June F; Murua, Hilario

    2016-04-01

    Information on oocyte production and recruitment in phylogenetically related species can help in understanding the evolution of reproductive life-history traits in fish of indeterminate fecundity. The present study compared, for the first time, oocyte production and recruitment patterns between two closely related species: Stellifer brasiliensis and Stellifer rastrifer (Perciformes, Sciaenidae), in the southwestern Atlantic, Brazil. Specimens of S. brasiliensis were sampled from the coastal waters of Ubatuba, and samples of S. rastrifer were taken from the Cananéia Lagoon Estuarine System. Ovaries were investigated using histology and model-based stereology. The total number of oocytes per individual (N) and stage-specific oocyte packing density did not differ significantly between S. brasiliensis and S. rastrifer The number of pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes were positively correlated with female total weight and length, and ovary weight in both species. Analysis of oocyte recruitment across their development stages revealed that approximately 5.9% of the standing stock oocytes larger than 50 μm in S. brasiliensis and 5.0% in S. rastrifer were recruited to form the next batches. Females of S. brasiliensis and S. rastrifer, in spawning-capable phase, exhibit the same oocyte production and recruitment patterns, showing no influences of the ecosystems on primary and secondary oocyte production. PMID:27132132

  3. Aspects of fracture morphology exhibited in the stress corrosion behavior of Ti-155 in methanol-hydrochloric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Simbi, D.J.; Scully, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Ti-155 was investigated in methanol-hydrochloric acid solution in preexposure and anodic polarization experiments using specimens with tensile axis in the parallel or transverse orientation to the rolling direction. Intergranular penetration data showed a dependence of the intergranular corrosion process on preexposure time. Susceptibility to SCC increased with increasing preexposure time and applied anodic current density. Fractographic analysis by scanning electro microscope (SEM) of fractured specimen surfaces in preexposure and anodic polarization experiments showed a fracture morphology comprised of intergranular at the exposure surface edge, an intermediate transgranular cleavage zone, and a terminal ductile region. These observations supported the view that intergranular fracture and transgranular cleavage occurring during SCC of titanium in MeOH-HCl solution is caused by mechanisms related to anodic dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), respectively. A mechanism to describe the simultaneous occurrence of dissolution and HE at the grain boundary was suggested.

  4. Differences in scaling and morphology between lumbricid earthworm ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Jessica A; Kier, William M

    2015-09-01

    Many soft-bodied invertebrates use a flexible, fluid-filled hydrostatic skeleton for burrowing. The aim of our study was to compare the scaling and morphology between surface-dwelling and burrowing earthworm ecotypes to explore the specializations of non-rigid musculoskeletal systems for burrowing locomotion. We compared the scaling of adult lumbricid earthworms across species and ecotypes to determine whether linear dimensions were significantly associated with ecotype. We also compared the ontogenetic scaling of a burrowing species, Lumbricus terrestris, and a surface-dwelling species, Eisenia fetida, using glycol methacrylate histology. We show that burrowing species are longer, thinner and have higher length-to-diameter ratios than non-burrowers, and that L. terrestris is thinner for any given body mass compared with E. fetida. We also found differences in the size of the musculature between the two species that may correlate with surface crawling or burrowing. Our results suggest that adaptations to burrowing for soft-bodied animals include a disproportionately thin body and strong longitudinal muscles. PMID:26232418

  5. Ultrastructural morphologic changes in mycobacterial biofilm in different extreme condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Sachan, Tarun Kumar; Sharma, Pragya; Rawat, Krishna Dutta

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the morphologic and ultrastructural features of biofilms of slow and fast-growing mycobacteria in different stress conditions, presence and absence of oleic acid albumin dextrose catalase (OADC) enrichment and at different temperatures: 30, 37 and 42 °C. Four hundred mycobacterial isolates were taken. The biomass of each biofilm was quantified using a modified microtiter plate assay method. Isolates were divided into those that formed fully established biofilms, moderately attached biofilms and weakly adherent biofilms by comparison with a known biofilm-forming strain. The large quantity of biofilm was produced by Mycobacterium smegmatis at temperature 37 and 42 °C as compared to 30 °C. Mycobacterium fortuitum and M. avium developed large amount of biofilm at 30 °C as compared to 37 and 42 °C. Mycobacterium tuberculosis developed strong biofilm at 37 °C and no biofilm at 30 and 42 °C in Sauton's media. The selected non-tuberculous mycobacteria and H37Rv developed strong biofilm in the presence of OADC enrichment in Sauton's medium. Microscopic examination of biofilms by scanning electron microscopy revealed that poorly adherent biofilm formers failed to colonize the entire surface of the microtiter well. While moderately adherent biofilm formers grew in uniform monolayers but failed to develop a mature three-dimensional structure. SEM analysis of an isolate representative of the group formed fully established biofilms with a textured, multi-layered, three-dimensional structure. PMID:25192360

  6. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) interacting proteins exhibit different expression patterns during development.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, C M; Spatuzza, M; Di Marco, B; Gloria, A; Barrancotto, G; Cupo, A; Musumeci, S A; D'Antoni, S; Bardoni, B; Catania, M V

    2015-05-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by the lack of expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and translation. FMRP is a component of mRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes and it can interact with a range of proteins either directly or indirectly, as demonstrated by two-hybrid selection and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. Most of FMRP-interacting proteins are RNA-binding proteins such as FXR1P, FXR2P and 82-FIP. Interestingly, FMRP can also interact directly with the cytoplasmic proteins CYFIP1 and CYFIP2, which do not bind RNA and link FMRP to the RhoGTPase pathway. The interaction with these different proteins may modulate the functions of FMRP by influencing its affinity to RNA and by affecting the FMRP ability of cytoskeleton remodeling through Rho/Rac GTPases. To better define the relationship of FMRP with its interacting proteins during brain development, we have analyzed the expression pattern of FMRP and its interacting proteins in the cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum at different ages in wild type (WT) mice. FMRP and FXR2P were strongly expressed during the first week and gradually decreased thereafter, more rapidly in the cerebellum than in the cortex. FXR1P was also expressed early and showed a reduction at later stages of development with a similar developmental pattern in these two regions. CYFIP1 was expressed at all ages and peaked in the third post-natal week. In contrast, CYFIP2 and 82-FIP (only in forebrain regions) were moderately expressed at P3 and gradually increased after P7. In general, the expression pattern of each protein was similar in the regions examined, except for 82-FIP, which exhibited a strong expression at P3 and low levels at later developmental stages in the cerebellum. Our data indicate that FMRP and its interacting proteins have distinct developmental patterns of expression and suggest that FMRP may be preferentially associated to certain proteins in

  7. Denosumab-treated Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Exhibits Morphologic Overlap With Malignant Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, John; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Bredella, Miriam A; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Nielsen, G Petur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign neoplasm characterized by an abundance of osteoclastic giant cells that are induced by the neoplastic mononuclear cells; the latter express high levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). Denosumab, a RANKL inhibitor, which is clinically used to treat GCT, leads to a marked alteration in the histologic appearance of the tumor with giant cell depletion and new bone deposition, leading to substantial histologic overlap with other primary tumors of bone. Most significantly, denosumab-treated GCT (tGCT) with abundant bone deposition may mimic de novo osteosarcoma, or GCT that has undergone malignant transformation. To histologically characterize tGCT, we identified 9 cases of GCT biopsied or resected after denosumab treatment. tGCT cases included 16 specimens from 9 patients including 6 female and 3 male individuals aged 16 to 47 (median 32) years. Duration of treatment varied from 2 to 55 months. We compared these tumors with malignant neoplasms arising in GCTs (n=9). The histology of tGCT was variable but appeared to relate to the length of therapy. All tGCTs showed marked giant cell depletion. Early lesions were highly cellular, and the combination of cellularity, atypia, and haphazard bone deposition caused the lesion to resemble high-grade osteosarcoma. Unlike de novo high-grade osteosarcoma or malignancies arising in GCT, however, tGCT showed less severe atypia, reduced mitotic activity, and lack of infiltrative growth pattern. Tumor in patients on prolonged therapy showed decreased cellularity and abundant new bone, deposited as broad, rounded cords or long, curvilinear arrays. The latter morphology was reminiscent of low-grade central osteosarcoma, but, unlike low-grade central osteosarcoma, tGCT was negative for MDM2 and again lacked an infiltrative growth pattern. Overall, tGCT may have a wide range of morphologic appearances. Because the treated tumors bear little

  8. UCP2- and non-UCP2-mediated electric current in eukaryotic cells exhibits different properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruihua; MoYung, K C; Zhang, M H; Poon, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Using live eukaryotic cells, including cancer cells, MCF-7 and HCT-116, normal hepatocytes and red blood cells in anode and potassium ferricyanide in cathode of MFC could generate bio-based electric current. Electrons and protons generated from the metabolic reaction in both cytosol and mitochondria contributing to the leaking would mediate the generation of electric current. Both resveratrol (RVT) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) used to induce proton leak in mitochondria were found to promote electric current production in all cells except red blood cells without mitochondria. Proton leak might be important for electric current production by bringing the charge balance in cells to enhance the further electron leak. The induced electric current by RVT can be blocked by Genipin, an inhibitor of UCP2-mediated proton leak, while that induced by DNP cannot. RVT could reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in cells better than that of DNP. In addition, RVT increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), while DNP decreased it. Results highly suggested the existence of at least two types of electric current that showed different properties. They included UCP2-mediated and non-UCP2-mediated electric current. UCP2-mediated electric current exhibited higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction effect per unit electric current production than that of non-UCP2-mediated electric current. Higher UCP2-mediated electric current observed in cancer cells might contribute to the mechanism of drug resistence. Correlation could not be established between electric current production with either ROS and MMP without distinguishing the types of electric current. PMID:26276275

  9. Pseudouridine synthase 1 deficient mice, a model for Mitochondrial Myopathy with Sideroblastic Anemia, exhibit muscle morphology and physiology alterations

    PubMed Central

    Mangum, Joshua E.; Hardee, Justin P.; Fix, Dennis K.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Elkes, Johnathon; Altomare, Diego; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Campagna, Dean R.; Schmidt, Paul J.; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Barlow, Shayne C.; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Fleming, Mark D.; Carson, James A.; Patton, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is an oxidative phosphorylation disorder, with primary clinical manifestations of myopathic exercise intolerance and a macrocytic sideroblastic anemia. One cause of MLASA is recessive mutations in PUS1, which encodes pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase 1 (Pus1p). Here we describe a mouse model of MLASA due to mutations in PUS1. As expected, certain Ψ modifications were missing in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs from Pus1−/− animals. Pus1−/− mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequency and were non-dysmorphic. At 14 weeks the mutants displayed reduced exercise capacity. Examination of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle morphology and histochemistry demonstrated an increase in the cross sectional area and proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIB and low succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) expressing myofibers, without a change in the size of MHC IIA positive or high SDH myofibers. Cytochrome c oxidase activity was significantly reduced in extracts from red gastrocnemius muscle from Pus1−/− mice. Transmission electron microscopy on red gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that Pus1−/− mice also had lower intermyofibrillar mitochondrial density and smaller mitochondria. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in muscle metabolism related to mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity may account for the reduced exercise capacity in Pus1−/− mice. PMID:27197761

  10. Cutaneous metastasis from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma exhibiting exclusively a spindle cell morphology. A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Danialan, Richard; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Mays, Stephen R; Prieto, Victor G; Bell, Diana; Curry, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a highly aggressive cancer accounting for 1-2% of thyroid malignancies. Cutaneous metastases from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma are exceedingly rare. We report a 65-year-old woman with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (BRAF V600E mutation) who had lymph node metastases (pT4 N1b) treated by total thyroidectomy, postoperative radiotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy (paclitaxel and pazopanib) and targeted therapy (vemurafenib). Nine months after initial diagnosis, radiographic studies revealed multiple pulmonary metastases. A dermatologic examination showed a solitary 1.2-cm chest nodule. Skin biopsy from this nodule revealed infiltrative dermal spindle cells arranged in poorly formed fascicles. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the tumor cells to be PAX-8 (+), pancytokeratin (+, focally), TTF-1 (-) and SOX-10 (-). Comparison with the patient's primary anaplastic thyroid carcinoma revealed focal areas of poorly differentiated spindle cells morphologically similar to the malignant spindle cells in the skin biopsy. Together, these findings confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma metastatic to skin. Cutaneous metastasis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma composed exclusively of spindle cells broadens the histologic differential diagnosis of cutaneous spindle cell malignancies and presents further diagnostic challenges. PAX-8 may be useful in discerning the spindle cell component of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma from other spindle cell malignancies in the skin. PMID:26347145

  11. Diblock copolymers of polystyrene-b-poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) exhibiting unique three-phase microdomain morphologies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Misichronis, Konstantinos; Chen, Jihua; Kahk, Jong K.; Imel, Adam; Dadmun, Mark; Hong, Kunlun; Hadjichristidis, Nikos; Mays, Jimmy W.; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos

    2016-03-29

    Here, the synthesis and molecular characterization of a series of conformationally asymmetric polystyrene-block-poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PS-b-PCHD) diblock copolymers (PCHD: ~90% 1,4 and ~10% 1,2), by sequential anionic copolymerization high vacuum techniques, is reported. A wide range of volume fractions (0.27 ≤ ΦPS ≤ 0.91) was studied by transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering in order to explore in detail the microphase separation behavior of these flexible/semiflexible diblock copolymers. Unusual morphologies, consisting of PCHD core(PCHD-1,4)–shell(PCHD-1,2) cylinders in PS matrix and three-phase (PS, PCHD-1,4, PCHD-1,2) four-layer lamellae, were observed suggesting that the chain stiffness of the PCHD block and the strong dependence ofmore » the interaction parameter χ on the PCHD microstructures are important factors for the formation of this unusual microphase separation behavior in PS-b-PCHD diblock copolymers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016, 54, 1564–1572« less

  12. Pseudouridine synthase 1 deficient mice, a model for Mitochondrial Myopathy with Sideroblastic Anemia, exhibit muscle morphology and physiology alterations.

    PubMed

    Mangum, Joshua E; Hardee, Justin P; Fix, Dennis K; Puppa, Melissa J; Elkes, Johnathon; Altomare, Diego; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Campagna, Dean R; Schmidt, Paul J; Sendamarai, Anoop K; Lidov, Hart G W; Barlow, Shayne C; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Fleming, Mark D; Carson, James A; Patton, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is an oxidative phosphorylation disorder, with primary clinical manifestations of myopathic exercise intolerance and a macrocytic sideroblastic anemia. One cause of MLASA is recessive mutations in PUS1, which encodes pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase 1 (Pus1p). Here we describe a mouse model of MLASA due to mutations in PUS1. As expected, certain Ψ modifications were missing in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs from Pus1(-/-) animals. Pus1(-/-) mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequency and were non-dysmorphic. At 14 weeks the mutants displayed reduced exercise capacity. Examination of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle morphology and histochemistry demonstrated an increase in the cross sectional area and proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIB and low succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) expressing myofibers, without a change in the size of MHC IIA positive or high SDH myofibers. Cytochrome c oxidase activity was significantly reduced in extracts from red gastrocnemius muscle from Pus1(-/-) mice. Transmission electron microscopy on red gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that Pus1(-/-) mice also had lower intermyofibrillar mitochondrial density and smaller mitochondria. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in muscle metabolism related to mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity may account for the reduced exercise capacity in Pus1(-/-) mice. PMID:27197761

  13. Different populations of blacklegged tick nymphs exhibit differences in questing behavior that have implications for human lyme disease risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, Isis M.; Hickling, Graham J.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; McElreath, Richard; Tsao, Jean I.

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. We studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of Lyme disease in the eastern United States. Lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. This led us to hypothesize that there are behavior differences between northern and southern nymphs that alter how readily they are collected, and how likely they are to transmit the etiological agent of Lyme disease to humans. To examine this question, we compared the questing behavior of I. scapularis nymphs originating from one northern (Lyme disease endemic) and two southern (non-endemic) US regions at field sites in Wisconsin, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Florida. Laboratory-raised uninfected nymphs were monitored in circular 0.2 m2 arenas containing wooden dowels (mimicking stems of understory vegetation) for 10 (2011) and 19 (2012) weeks. The probability of observing nymphs questing on these stems (2011), and on stems, on top of leaf litter, and on arena walls (2012) was much greater for northern than for southern origin ticks in both years and at all field sites (19.5 times greater in 2011; 3.6-11.6 times greater in 2012). Our findings suggest that southern origin I. scapularis nymphs rarely emerge from the leaf litter, and consequently are unlikely to contact passing humans. We propose that this difference in questing behavior accounts for observed geographic differences in the efficacy of the standard sampling techniques used to collect questing nymphs. These findings also support our hypothesis that very low Lyme disease incidence in southern states is, in part, a consequence of the type of host-seeking behavior exhibited by southern populations of the key Lyme disease vector.

  14. Different Populations of Blacklegged Tick Nymphs Exhibit Differences in Questing Behavior That Have Implications for Human Lyme Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Arsnoe, Isis M.; Hickling, Graham J.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; McElreath, Richard; Tsao, Jean I.

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. We studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of Lyme disease in the eastern United States. Lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. This led us to hypothesize that there are behavior differences between northern and southern nymphs that alter how readily they are collected, and how likely they are to transmit the etiological agent of Lyme disease to humans. To examine this question, we compared the questing behavior of I. scapularis nymphs originating from one northern (Lyme disease endemic) and two southern (non-endemic) US regions at field sites in Wisconsin, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Florida. Laboratory-raised uninfected nymphs were monitored in circular 0.2 m2 arenas containing wooden dowels (mimicking stems of understory vegetation) for 10 (2011) and 19 (2012) weeks. The probability of observing nymphs questing on these stems (2011), and on stems, on top of leaf litter, and on arena walls (2012) was much greater for northern than for southern origin ticks in both years and at all field sites (19.5 times greater in 2011; 3.6–11.6 times greater in 2012). Our findings suggest that southern origin I. scapularis nymphs rarely emerge from the leaf litter, and consequently are unlikely to contact passing humans. We propose that this difference in questing behavior accounts for observed geographic differences in the efficacy of the standard sampling techniques used to collect questing nymphs. These findings also support our hypothesis that very low Lyme disease incidence in southern states is, in part, a consequence of the type of host-seeking behavior exhibited by southern populations of the key Lyme disease vector. PMID

  15. Different populations of blacklegged tick nymphs exhibit differences in questing behavior that have implications for human lyme disease risk.

    PubMed

    Arsnoe, Isis M; Hickling, Graham J; Ginsberg, Howard S; McElreath, Richard; Tsao, Jean I

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. We studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of Lyme disease in the eastern United States. Lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. This led us to hypothesize that there are behavior differences between northern and southern nymphs that alter how readily they are collected, and how likely they are to transmit the etiological agent of Lyme disease to humans. To examine this question, we compared the questing behavior of I. scapularis nymphs originating from one northern (Lyme disease endemic) and two southern (non-endemic) US regions at field sites in Wisconsin, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Florida. Laboratory-raised uninfected nymphs were monitored in circular 0.2 m2 arenas containing wooden dowels (mimicking stems of understory vegetation) for 10 (2011) and 19 (2012) weeks. The probability of observing nymphs questing on these stems (2011), and on stems, on top of leaf litter, and on arena walls (2012) was much greater for northern than for southern origin ticks in both years and at all field sites (19.5 times greater in 2011; 3.6-11.6 times greater in 2012). Our findings suggest that southern origin I. scapularis nymphs rarely emerge from the leaf litter, and consequently are unlikely to contact passing humans. We propose that this difference in questing behavior accounts for observed geographic differences in the efficacy of the standard sampling techniques used to collect questing nymphs. These findings also support our hypothesis that very low Lyme disease incidence in southern states is, in part, a consequence of the type of host-seeking behavior exhibited by southern populations of the key Lyme disease vector. PMID

  16. Morphological and magnetic study of CaMnO{sub 3-x} oxides obtained from different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Gil de Muro, Izaskun; Insausti, Maite; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teofilo . E-mail: qiproapt@lg.ehu.es

    2005-03-15

    The CaMnO{sub 3-x} (x=0 and 0.02) mixed oxide was synthesised from both thermal treatment of a metallo-organic precursor and ceramic method. The morphology of the different products is clearly different. The samples exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering with T{sub N} near to 120K and a weak ferromagnetic component above T{sub N}. This is slightly stronger in the phase prepared by the ceramic route.

  17. Visible light photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 particles with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xue; Yu, Lili; Yan, Lina; Li, Hongji; Yan, Yongsheng; Liu, Chunbo; Zhai, Hongju

    2014-06-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) particles with different morphologies were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal process and their optical and photocatalytic properties were investigated. Their crystal structure and microstructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). XRD patterns demonstrate that the as-prepared samples are monoclinic cell. FESEM shows that BiVO4 crystals can be fabricated in different morphologies by simply manipulating the reaction parameters of hydrothermal process. The UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) reveal that the band gaps of BiVO4 photocatalysts are about 2.07-2.21 eV. The as-prepared BiVO4 photocatalysts exhibit higher photocatalytic activities in the degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) compared with traditional N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2). Furthermore, wheat like BiVO4 sample reveals the highest photocatalytic activity. Up to 100% Rh B is decolorized after visible light irradiation for 180 min. The reason for the difference in the photocatalytic activities for BiVO4 samples obtained at different conditions were systematically studied based on their shape, size and the variation of local structure.

  18. Solvent-controlled preparation and photocatalytic properties of nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films with different morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Yanhui Gao, Yinyin; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Low-temperature growth of nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films was presented by a solvent-controlled method. Nanoparticle structured films in anatase phase have been successfully fabricated with some adjustment. The effects of the solvent were investigated and the formation mechanism was proposed. - Highlights: • Nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films with different morphologies were obtained at low temperature. • The effects of the solvent on the morphologies of the products were investigated. • The effects of the solvent on the phtocatalytic activity were investigated. - Abstract: A low-temperature growth method of nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films with different morphologies was reported. Rod-like, grass-like and nanosheet structured films have been successfully fabricated just by adjusting the ratio of different solvents. The effects of the solvent on the morphologies of the TiO{sub 2} nanostructures were investigated. The formation mechanism of different morphologies was proposed based on the experiment results. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was evaluated under UV illumination. Results showed that the solvents exhibited important effect on the morphologies and photocatalytic activity of as-prepared nanostructured titania films.

  19. Foraging strategies in trees of different root morphology: the role of root lifespan.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas S; McCormack, M Luke; Eissenstat, David M

    2013-09-01

    Resource exploitation of patches is influenced not simply by the rate of root production in the patches but also by the lifespan of the roots inhabiting the patches. We examined the effect of sustained localized nitrogen (N) fertilization on root lifespan in four tree species that varied widely in root morphology and presumed foraging strategy. The study was conducted in a 12-year-old common garden in central Pennsylvania using a combination of data from minirhizotron and root in-growth cores. The two fine-root tree species, Acer negundo L. and Populus tremuloides Michx., exhibited significant increases in root lifespan with local N fertilization; no significant responses were observed in the two coarse-root tree species, Sassafras albidum Nutt. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Across species, coarse-root tree species had longer median root lifespan than fine-root tree species. Localized N fertilization did not significantly increase the N concentration or the respiration of the roots growing in the N-rich patch. Our results suggest that some plant species appear to regulate the lifespan of different portions of their root system to improve resource acquisition while other species do not. Our results are discussed in the context of different strategies of foraging of nutrient patches in species of different root morphology. PMID:24128849

  20. Polycation-functionalized gold nanoparticles with different morphologies for superior gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng; Wang, Ranran; Zhao, Nana; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Da-Fu; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2015-03-01

    Favorable physical and chemical properties endow Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) with various biomedical applications. After appropriate surface functionalization, Au NPs could construct promising drug/gene carriers with multiple functions. There is now ample evidence that physicochemical properties, such as size, shape, and surface chemistry, can dramatically influence the behaviors of Au NPs in biological systems. Investigation of these parameters could be fundamentally important for the application of Au NPs as drug/gene carriers. In this work, we designed a series of novel gene carriers employing polycation-functionalized Au NPs with five different morphologies (including Au nanospheres, Au nano-octahedra, arrow-headed Au nanorods, and Au nanorods with different aspect ratios). The effects of the particle size and shape of these different carriers on gene transfection were investigated in detail. The morphology of Au NPs is demonstrated to play an important role in gene transfection. The most efficient gene carriers are those fabricated with arrow-headed Au nanorods. Au nanosphere-based carriers exhibit the poorest performance in gene transfection. In addition, Au nanorods with smaller aspect ratios perform better than longer ones. These results may provide new avenues to develop promising gene carriers and gain useful information on the interaction of Au NPs with biological systems.

  1. Clear differences in metabolic and morphological adaptations of akinetes of two Nostocales living in different habitats.

    PubMed

    Perez, Rebeca; Forchhammer, Karl; Salerno, Graciela; Maldener, Iris

    2016-02-01

    Akinetes are resting spore-like cells formed by some heterocyst-forming filamentous cyanobacteria for surviving long periods of unfavourable conditions. We studied the development of akinetes in two model strains of cyanobacterial cell differentiation, the planktonic freshwater Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 and the terrestrial or symbiotic Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133, in response to low light and phosphate starvation. The best trigger of akinete differentiation of Anabaena variabilis was low light; that of N. punctiforme was phosphate starvation. Light and electron microscopy revealed that akinetes of both species differed from vegetative cells by their larger size, different cell morphology and large number of intracellular granules. Anabaena variabilis akinetes had a multilayer envelope; those of N. punctiforme had a simpler envelope. During akinete development of Anabaena variabilis, the amount of the storage compounds cyanophycin and glycogen increased transiently, whereas in N. punctiforme, cyanophycin and lipid droplets increased transiently. Photosynthesis and respiration decreased during akinete differentiation in both species, and remained at a low level in mature akinetes. The clear differences in the metabolic and morphological adaptations of akinetes of the two species could be related to their different lifestyles. The results pave the way for genetic and functional studies of akinete differentiation in these species. PMID:26679176

  2. Brief Communication: Buoyancy-Induced Differences in Soot Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Griffin, Devon W.; Greenberg, Paul S.; Roma, John

    1995-01-01

    Reduction or elimination of buoyancy in flames affects the dominant mechanisms driving heat transfer, burning rates and flame shape. The absence of buoyancy produces longer residence times for soot formation, clustering and oxidation. In addition, soot pathlines are strongly affected in microgravity. We recently conducted the first experiments comparing soot morphology in normal and reduced-gravity laminar gas jet diffusion flames. Thermophoretic sampling is a relatively new but well-established technique for studying the morphology of soot primaries and aggregates. Although there have been some questions about biasing that may be induced due to sampling, recent analysis by Rosner et al. showed that the sample is not biased when the system under study is operating in the continuum limit. Furthermore, even if the sampling is preferentially biased to larger aggregates, the size-invariant premise of fractal analysis should produce a correct fractal dimension.

  3. Sex-based differences in the adaptive value of social behavior contrasted against morphology and environment.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, E; Festa-Bianchet, M; Réale, D; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F

    2015-03-01

    The adaptive nature of sociality has long been a central question in ecology and evolution. However, the relative importance of social behavior for fitness, compared to morphology and environment, remains largely unknown. We assessed the importance of sociality for fitness (lamb production and survival) in a population of mark6d bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) over 16 years (n = 1022 sheep-years). We constructed social networks from observations (n = 38,350) of group membership (n = 3150 groups). We then tested whether consistent individual differences in social behavior (centrality) exist and evaluated their relative importance compared to factors known to affect fitness: mass, age, parental effects, and population density. Sheep exhibited consistent individual differences in social centrality. Controlling for maternal carryover effects and age, the positive effect of centrality in a social network on adult female lamb production and survival was equal or greater than the effect of body mass or population density. Social centrality had less effect on male survival and no effect on adult male lamb production or lamb survival. Through its effect on lamb production and survival, sociality in fission-fusion animal societies may ultimately influence population dynamics equally or more than morphological or environmental effects. PMID:26236860

  4. Fin-mutant female zebrafish (Danio rerio) exhibit differences in association preferences for male fin length

    PubMed Central

    Gumm, Jennifer M.; Snekser, Jennifer L.; Iovine, M. Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Females often choose to associate with males that have exaggerated traits. In fishes, this may reflect an overall preference for larger size in a potential mate. Female zebrafish (Danio rerio) prefer males with larger bodies but not longer fins. The availability of mutant and transgenic strains of zebrafish make this a unique model system in which to study the role of phenotypic variation in social and sexual behavior. We used mutant strains of zebrafish with truncated (short fin) and exaggerated (long fin) fins to further examine female preferences for fin length in dichotomous association tests. Wild type females showed no preferences between wild type males and short fin mutant males or between wild type males and long fin mutant males. short fin females also showed no preference for short fin males or wild type males while long fin females preferred to associate with long fin males over wild type males. These results suggest that the single gene long fin mutation that results in altered fin morphological may also be involved in a related female association preference. PMID:18848866

  5. Quantitative Proteomics of Zea mays Hybrids Exhibiting Different Levels of Heterosis.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Diwakar; Newton, Kathleen J; Mooney, Brian P

    2016-08-01

    Maize hybrids exhibiting heterosis (hybrid vigor) were generated from inbred parents with increasing genetic distance. B73 was used as the common female parent in crosses with N192 (low heterosis), MO17 (high-heterosis 1), and NC350 (high-heterosis 2). Total and mitochondria-enriched proteomes were analyzed from ear shoots of field-grown hybrids and their inbred parents. GeLCMS (1D SDS-PAGE fractionation, trypsin digestion, LTQ Orbitrap nano-RP-LC MS/MS) was used to analyze proteins, and spectral counting was used for quantitation. In total, 3,568 proteins were identified and quantified in hybrids including 2,489 in the mitochondria-enriched fraction and 2,162 in the total protein fraction. Sixty-one proteins were differentially abundant (p < 0.05) in one or both of the high-heterosis hybrids compared with the low-heterosis hybrid. For the total proteome, eight of these showed similar trends in abundance in both of the higher-heterosis hybrids. Nine proteins showed this heterosis-correlated pattern in the mitochondrial proteome, including a mitochondria-associated target of rapamycin (TOR) protein. Although differentially abundant proteins belong to various pathways, protein, and RNA metabolism, and stress responsive proteins were the major classes changed in response to increasing heterosis. PMID:27297264

  6. Fanconi anemia proteins FANCD2 and FANCI exhibit different DNA damage responses during S-phase

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Archana; Chaudhury, Indrajit; Adams, Nicole; Sobeck, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway members, FANCD2 and FANCI, contribute to the repair of replication-stalling DNA lesions. FA pathway activation relies on phosphorylation of FANCI by the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase, followed by monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI by the FA core complex. FANCD2 and FANCI are thought to form a functional heterodimer during DNA repair, but it is unclear how dimer formation is regulated or what the functions of the FANCD2–FANCI complex versus the monomeric proteins are. We show that the FANCD2–FANCI complex forms independently of ATR and FA core complex, and represents the inactive form of both proteins. DNA damage-induced FA pathway activation triggers dissociation of FANCD2 from FANCI. Dissociation coincides with FANCD2 monoubiquitination, which significantly precedes monoubiquitination of FANCI; moreover, monoubiquitination responses of FANCD2 and FANCI exhibit distinct DNA substrate specificities. A phosphodead FANCI mutant fails to dissociate from FANCD2, whereas phosphomimetic FANCI cannot interact with FANCD2, indicating that FANCI phosphorylation is the molecular trigger for FANCD2–FANCI dissociation. Following dissociation, FANCD2 binds replicating chromatin prior to—and independently of—FANCI. Moreover, the concentration of chromatin-bound FANCD2 exceeds that of FANCI throughout replication. Our results suggest that FANCD2 and FANCI function separately at consecutive steps during DNA repair in S-phase. PMID:22753026

  7. Material morphology and electrical resistivity differences in EPDM rubbers.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Domeier, Linda A.

    2008-03-01

    Electrical resistance anomalies noted in EPDM gaskets have been attributed to zinc-enriched surface sublayers, about 10-{micro}m thick, in the sulfur cured rubber material. Gasket over-compression provided the necessary connector pin contact and was also found to cause surprising morphological changes on the gasket surfaces. These included distributions of zinc oxide whiskers in high pressure gasket areas and cone-shaped features rich in zinc, oxygen, and sulfur primarily in low pressure protruding gasket areas. Such whiskers and cones were only found on the pin side of the gaskets in contact with a molded plastic surface and not on the back side in contact with an aluminum surface. The mechanisms by which such features are formed have not yet been defined.

  8. Rhizobium meliloti produces a family of sulfated lipooligosaccharides exhibiting different degrees of plant host specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Schultze, M; Quiclet-Sire, B; Kondorosi, E; Virelizer, H; Glushka, J N; Endre, G; Géro, S D; Kondorosi, A

    1992-01-01

    We have shown that a Rhizobium meliloti strain overexpressing nodulation genes excreted high amounts of a family of N-acylated and 6-O-sulfated N-acetyl-beta-1,4-D-glucosamine penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide Nod factors. Either a C(16:2) or a C(16:3) acyl chain is attached to the nonreducing end subunit, whereas the sulfate group is bound to the reducing glucosamine. One of the tetrasaccharides is identical to the previously described NodRm-1 factor. The two pentasaccharides as well as NodRm-1 were purified and tested for biological activity. In the root hair deformation assay the pentasaccharides show similar activities on the host plants Medicago sativa and Melilotus albus and on the non-host plant Vicia sativa at a dilution of up to 0.01-0.001 microM, in contrast to NodRm-1, which displays a much higher specific activity for Medicago and Melilotus than for Vicia. The active concentration range of the pentasaccharides is more narrow on Medicago than on Melilotus and Vicia. In addition to root hair deformation, the different Nod factors were shown to induce nodule formation on M. sativa. We suggest that the production of a series of active signal molecules with different degrees of specificity might be important in controlling the symbiosis of R. meliloti with several different host plants or under different environmental conditions. Images PMID:1729688

  9. Superimposed Pristine Limestone Aquifers with Marked Hydrochemical Differences Exhibit Distinct Fungal Communities.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Ali; Purahong, Witoon; Lehmann, Robert; Herrmann, Martina; Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai U; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are one important group of eukaryotic microorganisms in a diverse range of ecosystems, but their diversity in groundwater ecosystems is largely unknown. We used DNA-based pyro-tag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA gene to investigate the presence and community structure of fungi at different sampling sites of two superimposed limestone aquifers ranging from 8.5 to 84 m depth in the newly established Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Hainich CZE). We detected a diversity of fungal OTUs in groundwater samples of all sampling sites. The relative percentage abundance of Basidiomycota was higher in the upper aquifer assemblage, whilst Ascomycota dominated the lower one. In parallel to differences in the hydrochemistry we found distinct fungal communities at all sampling sites. Classification into functional groups revealed an overwhelming majority of saprotrophs. Finding taxa common to all analyzed groundwater sites, point to a groundwater specific fungal microbiome. The presence of different functional groups and, in particular plant and cattle pathogens that are not typical of subsurface habitats, suggests links between the surface and subsurface biogeosphere due to rapid transportation across the fracture networks typical of karstic regions during recharge episodes. However, further studies including sampling series extended in both time and space are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27242696

  10. Superimposed Pristine Limestone Aquifers with Marked Hydrochemical Differences Exhibit Distinct Fungal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Ali; Purahong, Witoon; Lehmann, Robert; Herrmann, Martina; Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai U.; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are one important group of eukaryotic microorganisms in a diverse range of ecosystems, but their diversity in groundwater ecosystems is largely unknown. We used DNA-based pyro-tag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA gene to investigate the presence and community structure of fungi at different sampling sites of two superimposed limestone aquifers ranging from 8.5 to 84 m depth in the newly established Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Hainich CZE). We detected a diversity of fungal OTUs in groundwater samples of all sampling sites. The relative percentage abundance of Basidiomycota was higher in the upper aquifer assemblage, whilst Ascomycota dominated the lower one. In parallel to differences in the hydrochemistry we found distinct fungal communities at all sampling sites. Classification into functional groups revealed an overwhelming majority of saprotrophs. Finding taxa common to all analyzed groundwater sites, point to a groundwater specific fungal microbiome. The presence of different functional groups and, in particular plant and cattle pathogens that are not typical of subsurface habitats, suggests links between the surface and subsurface biogeosphere due to rapid transportation across the fracture networks typical of karstic regions during recharge episodes. However, further studies including sampling series extended in both time and space are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27242696

  11. Morphological differences in the mirror neuron system in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ng, Rowena; Brown, Timothy T; Erhart, Matthew; Järvinen, Anna M; Korenberg, Julie R; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an overly gregarious personality, including high empathetic concern for others. Although seemingly disparate from the profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), both are associated with deficits in social communication/cognition. Notably, the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been implicated in social dysfunction for ASD; yet, the integrity of this network and its association with social functioning in WS remains unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods were used to examine the structural integrity of the MNS of adults with WS versus typically developing (TD) individuals. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a tool typically used to screen for social features of ASD, was also employed to assess the relationships between social functioning with the MNS morphology in WS participants. WS individuals showed reduced cortical surface area of MNS substrates yet relatively preserved cortical thickness as compared to TD adults. Increased cortical thickness of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was associated with increased deficits in social communication, social awareness, social cognition, and autistic mannerisms. However, social motivation was not related to anatomical features of the MNS. Our findings indicate that social deficits typical to both ASD and WS may be attributed to an aberrant MNS, whereas the unusual social drive marked in WS is subserved by substrates distinct from this network. PMID:26230578

  12. Morphological differences in the mirror neuron system in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Rowena; Brown, Timothy T.; Erhart, Matthew; Järvinen, Anna M.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an overly gregarious personality, including high empathetic concern for others. Although seemingly disparate from the profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), both are associated with deficits in social communication/cognition. Notably, the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been implicated in social dysfunction for ASD; yet, the integrity of this network and its association with social functioning in WS remains unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging methods were used to examine the structural integrity of the MNS of adults with WS versus typically developing (TD) individuals. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a tool typically used to screen for social features of ASD, was also employed to assess the relationships between social functioning with the MNS morphology in WS participants. WS individuals showed reduced cortical surface area of MNS substrates yet relatively preserved cortical thickness as compared to TD adults. Increased cortical thickness of the inferior parietal lobule was associated with increased deficits in social communication, social awareness, social cognition, and autistic mannerisms. However, social motivation was not related to anatomical features of the MNS. Our findings indicate that social deficits typical to both ASD and WS may be attributed to an aberrant MNS, whereas the unusual social drive marked in WS is subserved by substrates distinct from this network. PMID:26230578

  13. Methods and apparatus for moving and separating materials exhibiting different physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Stephen C.; Brimhall, Owen D.; McLaughlin, Thomas J.; Baker, Charles D.; Sparks, Sam L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for controlling the movement of materials having different physical properties when one of the materials is a fluid. The invention does not rely on flocculation, sedimentation, centrifugation, the buoyancy of the materials, or any other gravity dependent characteristic, in order to achieve its desired results. The methods of the present invention provide that a first acoustic wave is propagated through a vessel containing the materials. A second acoustic wave, at a frequency different than the first acoustic wave, is also propagated through the vessel so that the two acoustic waves are superimposed upon each other. The superimposition of the two waves creates a beat frequency wave. The beat frequency wave comprises pressure gradients dividing regions of maximum and minimum pressure. The pressure gradients and the regions of maximum and minimum pressure move through space and time at a group velocity. The moving pressure gradients and regions of maximum and minimum pressure act upon the materials so as to move one of the materials towards a predetermined location in the vessel. The present invention provides that the materials may be controllably moved toward a location, aggregated at a particular location, or physically separated from each other.

  14. Methods and apparatus for moving and separating materials exhibiting different physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Stephen C.; Brimhall, Owen D.; McLaughlin, Thomas J.; Baker, Charles D.; Sparks, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for controlling the movement of materials having different physical properties when one of the materials is a fluid. The invention does not rely on flocculation, sedimentation, centrifugation, the buoyancy of the materials, or any other gravity dependent characteristic, in order to achieve its desired results. The methods of the present invention provide that a first acoustic wave is progpagated through a vessel containing the materials. A second acoustic wave, at a frequency different than the first acoustic wave, is also propagated through the vessel so that the two acoustic waves are superimposed upon each other. The superimposition of the two waves creates a beat frequency wave. The beat frequency wave comprises pressure gradients dividing regions of maximum and minimum pressure. The pressure gradients and the regions of maximum and minimum pressure move through space and time at a group velocity. The moving pressure gradients and regions of maximum and minimum pressure act upon the marterials so as to move one of the materials towards a predetermined location in the vessel. The present invention provides that the materials may be controllably moved toward a location, aggreated at a particular location, or physically separated from each other.

  15. Topcoat approaches for directed-assembly of copolymer films with blocks exhibiting differences in surface energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyo Seon; in Lee, Jeong; Ramirez-Hernandez, Abelardo; Tada, Yasuhiko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Wan, Lei; Ruiz, Ricardo; de Pablo, Juan; Nealey, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Fabricating patterns with feature dimensions smaller than 10 nm scale using block copolymer lithography requires the use of materials with large Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. Because such block copolymers (BCPs) typically show the large differences in surface energy between the blocks, one block (with lower surface energy) tends to segregate to the free surface of films and precludes the assembly of the desired through-film perpendicularly oriented structures. Here we describe a generalizable strategy to overcome this limitation. By coating the BCP film with an additional layer, a topcoat, thermodynamically favorable boundary conditions at the top surface of the film can be engineered for directed self-assembly. The allowable properties of the topcoats depend on the interfacial energies of the layer with the blocks of the copolymer, and the block-block interfacial energy. The strategy is demonstrated experimentally by directing the assembly of polystyrene-block-poly-2-vinylpyridine (PS- b-P2VP) films on chemically nanopatterned substrates with different topcoat materials.

  16. Functionally distinct tendon fascicles exhibit different creep and stress relaxation behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Demirci, Taylan; Klemt, Christian; Riley, Graham P; Screen, Hazel RC

    2014-01-01

    Most overuse tendinopathies are thought to be associated with repeated microstrain below the failure threshold, analogous to the fatigue failure that affects materials placed under repetitive loading. Investigating the progression of fatigue damage within tendons is therefore of critical importance. There are obvious challenges associated with the sourcing of human tendon samples for in vitro analysis so animal models are regularly adopted. However, data indicates that fatigue life varies significantly between tendons of different species and with different stresses in life. Positional tendons such as rat tail tendon or the bovine digital extensor are commonly applied in in vitro studies of tendon overuse, but there is no evidence to suggest their behaviour is indicative of the types of human tendon particularly prone to overuse injuries. In this study, the fatigue response of the largely positional digital extensor and the more energy storing deep digital flexor tendon of the bovine hoof were compared to the semitendinosus tendon of the human hamstring. Fascicles from each tendon type were subjected to either stress or strain controlled fatigue loading (cyclic creep or cyclic stress relaxation respectively). Gross fascicle mechanics were monitored after cyclic stress relaxation and the mean number of cycles to failure investigated with creep loading. Bovine extensor fascicles demonstrated the poorest fatigue response, while the energy storing human semitendinosus was the most fatigue resistant. Despite the superior fatigue response of the energy storing tendons, confocal imaging suggested a similar degree of damage in all three tendon types; it appears the more energy storing tendons are better able to withstand damage without detriment to mechanics. PMID:24285289

  17. Bispecific Antibodies Targeting Different Epitopes on the HIV-1 Envelope Exhibit Broad and Potent Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, M.; Rudicell, R. S.; Louder, M.; McKee, K.; O'Dell, S.; Stewart-Jones, G.; Wang, K.; Xu, L.; Chen, X.; Choe, M.; Chuang, G.; Georgiev, I. S.; Joyce, M. G.; Kirys, T.; Ko, S.; Pegu, A.; Shi, W.; Todd, J. P.; Yang, Z.; Bailer, R. T.; Rao, S.; Kwong, P. D.; Nabel, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The potency and breadth of the recently isolated neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1 have stimulated interest in their use to prevent or to treat HIV-1 infection. Due to the antigenically diverse nature of the HIV-1 envelope (Env), no single antibody is highly active against all viral strains. While the physical combination of two broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can improve coverage against the majority of viruses, the clinical-grade manufacturing and testing of two independent antibody products are time and resource intensive. In this study, we constructed bispecific immunoglobulins (IgGs) composed of independent antigen-binding fragments with a common Fc region. We developed four different bispecific IgG variants that included antibodies targeting four major sites of HIV-1 neutralization. We show that these bispecific IgGs display features of both antibody specificities and, in some cases, display improved coverage over the individual parental antibodies. All four bispecific IgGs neutralized 94% to 97% of antigenically diverse viruses in a panel of 206 HIV-1 strains. Among the bispecific IgGs tested, VRC07 × PG9-16 displayed the most favorable neutralization profile. It was superior in breadth to either of the individual antibodies, neutralizing 97% of viruses with a median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.055 μg/ml. This bispecific IgG also demonstrated in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters comparable to those of the parental bNAbs when administered to rhesus macaques. These results suggest that IgG-based bispecific antibodies are promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection in humans. IMPORTANCE To prevent or treat HIV-1 infection, antibodies must potently neutralize nearly all strains of HIV-1. Thus, the physical combination of two or more antibodies may be needed to broaden neutralization coverage and diminish the possibility of viral resistance. A bispecific antibody that has two different

  18. Different roles for homologous interneurons in species exhibiting similar rhythmic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Akira; Newcomb, James M; Lillvis, Joshua L; Katz, Paul S

    2011-06-21

    It is often assumed that similar behaviors in related species are produced by similar neural mechanisms. To test this, we examined the neuronal basis of a simple swimming behavior in two nudibranchs (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia), Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris. The side-to-side swimming movements of Dendronotus [1] strongly resemble those of Melibe [2, 3]. In Melibe, it was previously shown that the central pattern generator (CPG) for swimming is composed of two bilaterally symmetric pairs of identified interneurons, swim interneuron 1 (Si1) and swim interneuron 2 (Si2), which are electrically coupled ipsilaterally and mutually inhibit both contralateral counterparts [2, 4]. We identified homologs of Si1 and Si2 in Dendronotus. (Henceforth, homologous neurons in each species will be distinguished by the subscripts (Den) and (Mel).) We found that Si2(Den) and Si2(Mel) play similar roles in generating the swim motor pattern. However, unlike Si1(Mel), Si1(Den) was not part of the swim CPG, was not strongly coupled to the ipsilateral Si2(Den), and did not inhibit the contralateral neurons. Thus, species differences exist in the neuronal organization of the swim CPGs despite the similarity of the behaviors. Therefore, similarity in species-typical behavior is not necessarily predictive of common neural mechanisms, even for homologous neurons in closely related species. PMID:21620707

  19. EWS/FLI-responsive GGAA-microsatellites exhibit polymorphic differences between European and African populations

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Robert; Monument, Michael J.; Watkins, W. Scott; Smith, Richard; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Jorde, Lynn B.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    The genetics of Ewing sarcoma development remain obscure. The incidence of Ewing sarcoma is ten-fold less in Africans as compared to Europeans, irrespective of geographic location, suggesting population-specific genetic influences. Since GGAA-containing microsatellites within key target genes are necessary for Ewing sarcoma-specific EWS/FLI DNA binding and gene activation, and gene expression is positively correlated with the number of repeat motifs in the promoter/enhancer region, we sought to determine if significant polymorphisms exist between African and European populations which might contribute to observed differences in Ewing sarcoma incidence and outcomes. GGAA-microsatellites upstream of two critical EWS/FLI-target genes, NR0B1 and CAV1, were sequenced from subjects of European and African descent. While the characteristics of the CAV1 promoter microsatellites were similar across both populations, the NR0B1 microsatellite in African subjects was significantly larger, harboring more repeat motifs, a greater number of repeat segments, and longer consecutive repeats, than in European subjects. These results are biologically intriguing as NR0B1 was the most highly enriched EWS/FLI bound gene in prior studies, and is absolutely necessary for oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma. These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms in the NR0B1 gene might influence disease susceptibility and prognosis in Ewing sarcoma in unanticipated ways. PMID:22749036

  20. The effects of exercise training of different intensities on neuromuscular junction morphology.

    PubMed

    Deschenes, M R; Maresh, C M; Crivello, J F; Armstrong, L E; Kraemer, W J; Covault, J

    1993-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise training on neuromuscular junction morphology in skeletal muscle. The objectives of this investigation were: 1) to determine if exercise training would elicit changes in neuromuscular junction morphology, 2) to determine if exercise training of different intensities would evoke specific changes in neuromuscular junction morphology, and 3) to determine whether changes in neuromuscular junction structure occur independently of changes in muscle fibre type and size. Twenty-four age and size matched male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: high-intensity trained (HIT), low-intensity trained (LIT), or untrained. Neuromuscular junction morphology of the soleus muscle was determined via immunofluorescent staining. Presynaptic acetylcholine vesicles were visualized with SV-2 antibody in conjunction with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled secondary secondary antibody. Postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors were identified with rhodamine labelled alpha-bungarotoxin. Laser scanning microscopy was used to produce images of synapses, which were used to quantitate the following: total area of SV-2 and alpha-bungarotoxin staining, density of acetylcholine vesicles and receptors, structural complexity, and synaptic coupling. To visualize nerve terminal branching, a smaller number of neuromuscular junctions were stained with C-2 antibody, which reacts with a neurofilament epitope, in conjunction with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled secondary antibody. Total length of branching, number of branches, average length of branches, and ratio of secondary to primary branches per neuromuscular junction were determined. Citrate synthase activity, fibre type composition and fibre cross-sectional areas of the soleus muscle were assessed to determine the presence of a training effect in that muscle. Results indicate that training did induce hypertrophy of the neuromuscular junction that was independent of muscle

  1. Different morphologic aspects and clinical features in massive hepatic amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Melato, M; Manconi, R; Magris, D; Morassi, P; Benussi, D G; Tiribelli, C

    1984-01-01

    4 cases of massive hepatic amyloidosis are reported with special reference to their clinical profiles and histologic features. On the basis of these data, two different clinical and histologic courses of the disease can be distinguished. 2 patients showed marked hepatomegaly without cholestasis, whereas in the other 2 the clinical picture was characterized by much less pronounced hepatomegaly, but by severe and progressive intrahepatic cholestasis. The time course of the disease seems to be different in the two forms, the cholestatic form being more rapidly fatal than the other. PMID:6745505

  2. A study of the differences between two amorphous spray-dried samples of cefditoren pivoxil which exhibited different physical stabilities.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Masato; Buckton, Graham

    2005-01-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the reasons for the difference in physical stability of two amorphous cefditoren pivoxil samples that had been prepared using spray drying at inlet-air temperatures of 40 degrees C (SD-A) and 100 degrees C (SD-B). The two samples appeared amorphous by powder X-ray diffraction and had indistinguishable glass transition temperatures. Despite the fact that glass transition is often regarded as an indicator of the stability of amorphous forms, crystallisation was observed for SD-A, but not for SD-B, during storage at 60 degrees C and 81% relative humidity (RH). Gravimetric water sorption data demonstrated very similar water sorption until high RH values, at which point SD-A sorbed more water than did SD-B. The values of the dispersive, acidic (K(A)) and basic (K(D)) components of surface energy of the spray-dried samples were obtained using inverse gas chromatography (IGC), in the dry state and after equilibration with different RH environments. The data showed that the two amorphous samples had different surface properties and that the effect of sorbed water on these samples was also different. It is concluded that the two samples did not have long-range order, but had differences in the orientation of molecules at the surface, which were significant enough to alter the stability when the samples were stressed with water vapour and high temperature storage. IGC proved a valuable tool with which to study changes in the surface properties of amorphous materials. PMID:15652196

  3. Functional morphology of the tetra fish Astyanax lacustris differs between divergent habitats in the Pantanal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pereira, R; Araújo, M S; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether the body morphology of the tetra fish Astyanax lacustris (previously Astyanax asuncionensis) varied between populations inhabiting one lagoon (a lentic, shallow environment, with great habitat complexity created by aquatic macrophytes) and an adjacent river (a deeper, lotic environment where aquatic macrophytes are scarce) in a seasonally flooded wetland, despite population mixing during the wet season. Morphological differences matched a priori predictions of the theory relating functional body morphology and swimming performance in fishes between lagoon and river habitats. Observed morphological variation could have resulted from adaptive habitat choice by tetras, predation by piscivores and adaptive phenotypic plasticity during development. PMID:27238590

  4. Morphological differences in the lateral geniculate nucleus associated with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo-Chica, Mónica; Hegarty, John P; Schneider, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a common learning disability characterized by normal intelligence but difficulty in skills associated with reading, writing and spelling. One of the most prominent, albeit controversial, theories of dyslexia is the magnocellular theory, which suggests that malfunction of the magnocellular system in the brain is responsible for the behavioral deficits. We sought to test the basis of this theory by directly measuring the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), the only location in the brain where the magnocellular and parvocellular streams are spatially disjoint. Using high-resolution proton-density weighted MRI scans, we precisely measured the anatomical boundaries of the LGN in 13 subjects with dyslexia (five female) and 13 controls (three female), all 22-26 years old. The left LGN was significantly smaller in volume in subjects with dyslexia and also differed in shape; no differences were observed in the right LGN. The functional significance of this asymmetry is unknown, but these results are consistent with the magnocellular theory and support theories of dyslexia that involve differences in the early visual system. PMID:26082892

  5. Efficacy of evaluation of rooster sperm morphology using different staining methods.

    PubMed

    Lukaszewicz, E; Jerysz, A; Partyka, A; Siudzińska, A

    2008-12-01

    This work focused on inexpensive methods of evaluation fowl sperm morphology, based on eosin-nigrosin smears, which can determine disorders in spermatogenesis and can be recommended for evaluating the fertilising potency and selecting males in flocks reproduced by artificial insemination. Four fowl breeds (Black Minorca, Italian Partridge, Forwerk and Greenleg Partridge) were used to determine the efficacy of sperm morphology evaluation using four eosin-nigrosin staining methods (according to Blom, Bakst and Cecil, Morisson, Jaśkowski) and three examiners of different experience (high, medium, novice). There were significant (P< or = 0.01) differences in sperm morphology between Blom's staining method and those of Bakst and Cecil, Morisson or Jaśkowski, irrespective of fowl breed and examiners experience. Blom stain caused sperm head swelling and showed a drastic reduction in the proportion of live spermatozoa with normal morphology. The staining method had a greater influence on sperm morphology evaluation than the experience of the examiners. PMID:18486956

  6. A comparative biomechanical analysis of habitually unshod and shod runners based on a foot morphological difference.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qichang; Fernandez, Justin; Fu, Weijie; Feng, Neng; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-08-01

    Running is one of the most accessible physical activities and running with and without footwear has attracted extensive attention in the past several years. In this study 18 habitually male unshod runners and 20 habitually male shod runners (all with dominant right feet) participated in a running test. A Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture the kinematics of each participant's lower limb. The in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system was employed to measure the pressure and force exerted on the pressure sensors of the insole. The function of a separate hallux in unshod runners is analyzed through the comparison of plantar pressure parameters. Owing to the different strike patterns in shod and unshod runners, peak dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were significantly different. Habitually shod runners exhibited a decreased foot strike angle (FSA) under unshod conditions; and the vertical average loading rate (VALR) of shod runners under unshod conditions was larger than that under shod conditions. This suggests that the foot strike pattern is more important than the shod or unshod running style and runners need to acquire the technique. It can be concluded that for habitually unshod runners the separate hallux takes part of the foot loading and reduces loading to the forefoot under shod conditions. The remaining toes of rearfoot strike (RFS) runners function similarly under unshod conditions. These morphological features of shod and unshod runners should be considered in footwear design to improve sport performance and reduce injury. PMID:25964998

  7. Transcriptome-Based Identification of Differently Expressed Genes from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains Exhibiting Different Virulence in Rice Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Tae-Hwan; Song, Eun-Sung; Kim, Hong-Il; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcription patterns of two Xoo strains (KACC10331 and HB1009), which showed different virulence patterns against eight rice cultivars, including IRBB21 (carrying Xa21). In total, 743 genes showed a significant change (p-value < 0.001 in t-tests) in their mRNA expression levels in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 strain (K1 race). Among them, four remarkably enriched GO terms, DNA binding, transposition, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, and cellular macromolecule metabolic process, were identified in the upregulated genes. In addition, the expression of 44 genes was considerably higher (log2 fold changes > 2) in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain than in the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain. Furthermore, 13 and 12 genes involved in hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) and two-component regulatory systems (TCSs), respectively, were upregulated in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain, which we determined using either quantitative real-time PCR analysis or next-generation RNA sequencing. These results will be helpful to improve our understanding of Xoo and to gain a better insight into the Xoo–rice interactions. PMID:26907259

  8. Transcriptome-Based Identification of Differently Expressed Genes from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains Exhibiting Different Virulence in Rice Varieties.

    PubMed

    Noh, Tae-Hwan; Song, Eun-Sung; Kim, Hong-Il; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcription patterns of two Xoo strains (KACC10331 and HB1009), which showed different virulence patterns against eight rice cultivars, including IRBB21 (carrying Xa21). In total, 743 genes showed a significant change (p-value < 0.001 in t-tests) in their mRNA expression levels in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 strain (K1 race). Among them, four remarkably enriched GO terms, DNA binding, transposition, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, and cellular macromolecule metabolic process, were identified in the upregulated genes. In addition, the expression of 44 genes was considerably higher (log2 fold changes > 2) in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain than in the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain. Furthermore, 13 and 12 genes involved in hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) and two-component regulatory systems (TCSs), respectively, were upregulated in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain, which we determined using either quantitative real-time PCR analysis or next-generation RNA sequencing. These results will be helpful to improve our understanding of Xoo and to gain a better insight into the Xoo-rice interactions. PMID:26907259

  9. A study of the methylene/perfluormethylene selectivity of porous polymer monolithic stationary phases exhibiting different fluorous/hydrophobic content.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenpo; Oleschuk, Richard D

    2014-02-14

    Porous polymer monolithic columns are prepared from a variety of monomers and cross-linkers and can be customized to exhibit different selectivities for separate analyte classes. The composition of the monolith can be precisely controlled by selecting different monomers and or cross-linker ratios. In this work monoliths exhibiting both fluorous and hydrophobic character were prepared using butyl methacrylate and its fluorous analogue (monomer) and 1,3-butanediol diacrylate and its fluorous analogue (cross-linker) in different ratios. The selectivity of the monoliths was probed using capillary electrochromatography with several fluorous and alkyl benzene analytes. Hydrophobic stationary phases exhibited greater methylene selectivity ( [Formula: see text] ) while those with increasing fluorous character show enhanced pefluoromethylene selectivity ( [Formula: see text] ). The Gibbs free energy change associated with the sorption of the analytes on each stationary phase composition can be calculated from migration times (i.e. capacity factor) for the addition of an individual -CF2- or -CH2- moiety. Furthermore, the Gibbs free energy change associated with a single -CF2- or -CH2- moiety (analyte) interacting with an individual -CF2- or -CH2- (stationary phase) can also be estimated by plotting fluorous column composition against [Formula: see text] . Furthermore [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] can be plotted versus H2O percentage in mobile phase, and a new concept, hypothetical water percentage (HWP) is proposed to evaluate the hydrophobicity/fluorophilicity of a stationary phase. PMID:24461637

  10. Different evolutionary pathways underlie the morphology of wrist bones in hominoids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The hominoid wrist has been a focus of numerous morphological analyses that aim to better understand long-standing questions about the evolution of human and hominoid hand use. However, these same analyses also suggest various scenarios of complex and mosaic patterns of morphological evolution within the wrist and potentially multiple instances of homoplasy that would benefit from require formal analysis within a phylogenetic context. We identify morphological features that principally characterize primate – and, in particular, hominoid (apes, including humans) - wrist evolution and reveal the rate, process and evolutionary timing of patterns of morphological change on individual branches of the primate tree of life. Linear morphological variables of five wrist bones – the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, capitate and hamate – are analyzed in a diverse sample of extant hominoids (12 species, 332 specimens), Old World (8 species, 43 specimens) and New World (4 species, 26 specimens) monkeys, fossil Miocene apes (8 species, 20 specimens) and Plio-Pleistocene hominins (8 species, 18 specimens). Result Results reveal a combination of parallel and synapomorphic morphology within haplorrhines, and especially within hominoids, across individual wrist bones. Similar morphology of some wrist bones reflects locomotor behaviour shared between clades (scaphoid, triquetrum and capitate) while others (lunate and hamate) indicate clade-specific synapomorphic morphology. Overall, hominoids show increased variation in wrist bone morphology compared with other primate clades, supporting previous analyses, and demonstrate several occurrences of parallel evolution, particularly between orangutans and hylobatids, and among hominines (extant African apes, humans and fossil hominins). Conclusions Our analyses indicate that different evolutionary processes can underlie the evolution of a single anatomical unit (the wrist) to produce diversity in functional and morphological

  11. Morphological awareness and vocabulary development among kindergartners with different ability levels.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children significantly improved their morphological awareness skills and vocabulary over a period of 4 months ( eta(p)(2) = .61 for morphological awareness and eta(p)(2) = .53 for vocabulary), with the greatest gains made by children who were initially low on these measures. Morphological awareness and vocabulary skills were reciprocally related; each made a unique contribution to growth in the other. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to combine instruction in vocabulary and morphological awareness and that kindergarten teachers can successfully do so with guidance. PMID:24306459

  12. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, H; Kozłowska, H

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant properties of water and 80% methanolic extracts of cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Almari and cv. Henika, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Gregor and cv. Mobek, rye (Secale cereale L.) cv. Dańkowskie Zlote, oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Slawko and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cv. Kora were used. PC (L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine) liposome system and spectrophotometric assay of total antioxidant activity (TAA) were used to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts. Among the water extracts, only the one prepared from buckwheat exhibited antioxidant activity at the concentration analyzed. The following hierarchy of antioxidant activity was provided for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grain: buckwheat > barley > oat > wheat congruent with rye. The antioxidant activity was observed in extract prepared from separated parts of buckwheat and barley. In respect to hulls, the antioxidant hierarchy was as follows: buckwheat > oat > barley. The correlation coefficient between total phenolic compounds and total antioxidative activity of the extracts was -0.35 for water extracts and 0.96, 0.99, 0.80, and 0.99 for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grains, hulls, pericarb with testa fractions and endosperm with embryo fractions, respectively. PMID:10888490

  13. Observed Differences in Social Behaviors Exhibited in Peer Interactions Between Youth With Spina Bifida and Their Peers: Neuropsychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Kolbuck, Victoria D.; Zebracki, Kathy; Roache, Caitlin R.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in social behaviors in observed peer interactions between children with spina bifida (SB) and peers, and to examine neuropsychological correlates of these differences. Method A total of 100 youth (aged 8–15 years) with SB and peers participated in video-recorded interaction tasks, which were coded for interaction style, affect, and collaboration. Children with SB also completed a neuropsychological test battery. Results Children with SB demonstrated less adaptive social behaviors in peer interactions, particularly within the interaction style domain. Observational items found to be different between children with SB and their peers were best predicted by social language and attention abilities. Conclusions Children with SB exhibit a less adaptive interaction style and lower levels of social dominance but are comparable with typically developing peers on other social behaviors. The observed group differences may have a neuropsychological basis. PMID:25427551

  14. Genetic and developmental analysis of differences in eye and face morphology between Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Saad; Hilbrant, Maarten; Hopfen, Corinna; Almudi, Isabel; Nunes, Maria D S; Posnien, Nico; Kuncheria, Linta; Tanaka, Kentaro; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Schlötterer, Christian; McGregor, Alistair P

    2013-01-01

    Eye and head morphology vary considerably among insects and even between closely related species of Drosophila. Species of the D. melanogaster subgroup, and other Drosophila species, exhibit a negative correlation between eye size and face width (FW); for example, D. mauritiana generally has bigger eyes composed of larger ommatidia and conversely a narrower face than its sibling species. To better understand the evolution of eye and head morphology, we investigated the genetic and developmental basis of differences in eye size and FW between male D. mauritiana and D. simulans. QTL mapping of eye size and FW showed that the major loci responsible for the interspecific variation in these traits are localized to different genomic regions. Introgression of the largest effect QTL underlying the difference in eye size resulted in flies with larger eyes but no significant difference in FW. Moreover, introgression of a QTL region on the third chromosome that contributes to the FW difference between these species affected FW, but not eye size. We also observed that this difference in FW is detectable earlier in the development of the eye-antennal disc than the difference in the size of the retinal field. Our results suggest that different loci that act at different developmental stages underlie changes in eye size and FW. Therefore, while there is a negative correlation between these traits in Drosophila, we show genetically that they also have the potential to evolve independently and this may help to explain the evolution of these traits in other insects. PMID:23809700

  15. INI1/hSNF5-interaction defective HIV-1 IN mutants exhibit impaired particle morphology, reverse transcription and integration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Retroviral integrase catalyzes integration of viral DNA into the host genome. Integrase interactor (INI)1/hSNF5 is a host factor that binds to HIV-1 IN within the context of Gag-Pol and is specifically incorporated into HIV-1 virions during assembly. Previous studies have indicated that INI1/hSNF5 is required for late events in vivo and for integration in vitro. To determine the effects of disrupting the IN-INI1 interaction on the assembly and infectivity of HIV-1 particles, we isolated mutants of IN that are defective for binding to INI1/hSNF5 and tested their effects on HIV-1 replication. Results A reverse yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify INI1-interaction defective IN mutants (IID-IN). Since protein-protein interactions depend on the surface residues, the IID-IN mutants that showed high surface accessibility on IN crystal structures (K71R, K111E, Q137R, D202G, and S147G) were selected for further study. In vitro interaction studies demonstrated that IID-IN mutants exhibit variable degrees of interaction with INI1. The mutations were engineered into HIV-1NL4-3 and HIV-Luc viruses and tested for their effects on virus replication. HIV-1 harboring IID-IN mutations were defective for replication in both multi- and single-round infection assays. The infectivity defects were correlated to the degree of INI1 interaction of the IID-IN mutants. Highly defective IID-IN mutants were blocked at early and late reverse transcription, whereas partially defective IID-IN mutants proceeded through reverse transcription and nuclear localization, but were partially impaired for integration. Electron microscopic analysis of mutant particles indicated that highly interaction-defective IID-IN mutants produced morphologically aberrant virions, whereas the partially defective mutants produced normal virions. All of the IID-IN mutant particles exhibited normal capsid stability and reverse transcriptase activity in vitro. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that a

  16. Patterns of differences in brain morphology in humans as compared to extant apes

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Although human evolution is characterized by a vast increase in brain size, it is not clear whether or not certain regions of the brain are enlarged disproportionately in humans, or how this enlargement relates to differences in overall neural morphology. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not there are specific suites of features that distinguish the morphology of the human brain from that of apes. The study sample consists of whole brain, in vivo magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) and five ape species (gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos). Twenty-nine 3D landmarks, including surface and internal features of the brain were located on 3D MRI reconstructions of each individual using MEASURE software. Landmark coordinate data were scaled for differences in size and analyzed using Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) to statistically compare the brains of each non-human ape species to the human sample. Results of analyses show both a pattern of brain morphology that is consistently different between all apes and humans, as well as patterns that differ among species. Further, both the consistent and species-specific patterns include cortical and subcortical features. The pattern that remains consistent across species indicates a morphological reorganization of 1) relationships between cortical and subcortical frontal structures, 2) expansion of the temporal lobe and location of the amygdala, and 3) expansion of the anterior parietal region. Additionally, results demonstrate that, although there is a pattern of morphology that uniquely defines the human brain, there are also patterns that uniquely differentiate human morphology from the morphology of each non-human ape species, indicating that reorganization of neural morphology occurred at the evolutionary divergence of each of these groups. PMID:21056456

  17. Ewes With Divergent Cortisol Responses to ACTH Exhibit Functional Differences in the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis.

    PubMed

    Hewagalamulage, Sakda D; Clarke, Iain J; Rao, Alexandra; Henry, Belinda A

    2016-09-01

    Within any population, the cortisol response to ACTH covers a considerable range. High responders (HRs) exhibit a greater cortisol secretory response to stress or ACTH, compared with individuals classified as low cortisol responders (LRs). We administered ACTH (0.2 μg/kg, iv) to 160 female sheep and selected subpopulations of animals as LR and HR. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in HR and LR and to identify factors that underlie the differing cortisol responses to ACTH. Hypothalami, pituitaries, and adrenals were collected from nonstressed HR and LR ewes. Expression of genes for CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptor, and mineralocorticoid receptor were measured by in situ hybridization in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression was measured in the anterior pituitary. Expression of CRH, AVP, and POMC was higher in HR, with no differences in either glucocorticoid receptor or mineralocorticoid receptor expression. Oxytocin expression was greater in LR. In the adrenal gland, real-time PCR analysis indicated that expression of the ACTH receptor and a range of steroidogenic enzymes was similar in HR and LR. Adrenal weights, the cortex to medulla ratio and adrenal cortisol content were also similar in LR and HR. In conclusion, LR and HR display innate differences in the steady-state expression of CRH, AVP, oxytocin, and POMC, indicating that selection for cortisol responsiveness identifies distinct subpopulations that exhibit innate differences in the gene expression/function of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis markers. PMID:27414744

  18. Assembling strategy to synthesize palladium modified kaolin nanocomposites with different morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Jing; Zhou, Yonghua; Yang, Huaming

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites of aluminosilicate minerals, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite) with natural different morphologies assembling with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized through strong electrostatic adsorption and chemical bonding after surface modification with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). Meanwhile, the influence of different morphologies supports on catalytic hydrogenation properties was explored. The surface concentration of amino groups on the kaolins was related to the morphology and surface nature. Electronmicroscopy revealed that the monodisperse Pd nanoparticles were uniformly deposited onto the surface of kaolins, ranging in diameter from 0.5 nm to 5.5 nm. The functional groups could not only improve the dispersion of kaolins with different morphologies in solution, but also enhance the interaction between Pd precursors and kaolins, thus preventing small Pd nanoparticles from agglomerating and leading to high activity for the catalytic hydrogenation of styrene. Pd-FK@APTES was more active compared to other samples. Selecting the kaolin morphology with a different surface nature allows the selective surface modification of a larger fraction of the reactive facets on which the active sites can be enriched and tuned. This desirable surface coordination of catalytically active atoms could substantially improve catalytic activity. PMID:26333629

  19. Assembling strategy to synthesize palladium modified kaolin nanocomposites with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Jing; Zhou, Yonghua; Yang, Huaming

    2015-09-01

    Nanocomposites of aluminosilicate minerals, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite) with natural different morphologies assembling with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized through strong electrostatic adsorption and chemical bonding after surface modification with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). Meanwhile, the influence of different morphologies supports on catalytic hydrogenation properties was explored. The surface concentration of amino groups on the kaolins was related to the morphology and surface nature. Electronmicroscopy revealed that the monodisperse Pd nanoparticles were uniformly deposited onto the surface of kaolins, ranging in diameter from 0.5 nm to 5.5 nm. The functional groups could not only improve the dispersion of kaolins with different morphologies in solution, but also enhance the interaction between Pd precursors and kaolins, thus preventing small Pd nanoparticles from agglomerating and leading to high activity for the catalytic hydrogenation of styrene. Pd-FK@APTES was more active compared to other samples. Selecting the kaolin morphology with a different surface nature allows the selective surface modification of a larger fraction of the reactive facets on which the active sites can be enriched and tuned. This desirable surface coordination of catalytically active atoms could substantially improve catalytic activity.

  20. Assembling strategy to synthesize palladium modified kaolin nanocomposites with different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Jing; Zhou, Yonghua; Yang, Huaming

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites of aluminosilicate minerals, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite) with natural different morphologies assembling with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized through strong electrostatic adsorption and chemical bonding after surface modification with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). Meanwhile, the influence of different morphologies supports on catalytic hydrogenation properties was explored. The surface concentration of amino groups on the kaolins was related to the morphology and surface nature. Electronmicroscopy revealed that the monodisperse Pd nanoparticles were uniformly deposited onto the surface of kaolins, ranging in diameter from 0.5 nm to 5.5 nm. The functional groups could not only improve the dispersion of kaolins with different morphologies in solution, but also enhance the interaction between Pd precursors and kaolins, thus preventing small Pd nanoparticles from agglomerating and leading to high activity for the catalytic hydrogenation of styrene. Pd-FK@APTES was more active compared to other samples. Selecting the kaolin morphology with a different surface nature allows the selective surface modification of a larger fraction of the reactive facets on which the active sites can be enriched and tuned. This desirable surface coordination of catalytically active atoms could substantially improve catalytic activity. PMID:26333629

  1. Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Two Different Binding Mechanisms to the Lipopolysaccharides Isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Hanbo; Allen, William E.; Hicks, Rickey P.

    2014-01-01

    Circular dichroism and 1H NMR were used to investigate the interactions of a series of synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Previous CD studies with AMPs containing only three Tic-Oic dipeptide units do not exhibit helical characteristics upon interacting with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) consisting of LPS. Increasing the number of Tic-Oic dipeptide units to six resulted in five analogues with CD spectra that exhibited helical characteristics on binding to LPS SUVs. Spectroscopic and in vitro inhibitory data suggest that there are two possible helical conformations resulting from two different AMP-LPS binding mechanisms. Mechanism one involves a helical binding conformation where the AMP binds LPS very strongly and is not efficiently transported across the LPS bilayer resulting in the loss of inhibitory activity. Mechanism two involves a helical binding conformation where the AMP binds LPS very loosely and is efficiently transported across the LPS bilayer resulting in an increase in inhibitory activity. Mechanism three involves a nonhelical binding conformation where the AMP binds LPS very loosely and is efficiently transported across the LPS bilayer resulting in an increase in inhibitory activity. PMID:25610647

  2. High-fertility phenotypes: two outbred mouse models exhibit substantially different molecular and physiological strategies warranting improved fertility.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Martina; Michaelis, Marten; Hoeflich, Andreas; Sobczak, Alexander; Schoen, Jennifer; Weitzel, Joachim M

    2014-01-01

    Animal models are valuable tools in fertility research. Worldwide, there are more than 400 transgenic or knockout mouse models available showing a reproductive phenotype; almost all of them exhibit an infertile or at least subfertile phenotype. By contrast, animal models revealing an improved fertility phenotype are barely described. This article summarizes data on two outbred mouse models exhibiting a 'high-fertility' phenotype. These mouse lines were generated via selection over a time period of more than 40 years and 161 generations. During this selection period, the number of offspring per litter and the total birth weight of the entire litter nearly doubled. Concomitantly with the increased fertility phenotype, several endocrine parameters (e.g. serum testosterone concentrations in male animals), physiological parameters (e.g. body weight, accelerated puberty, and life expectancy), and behavioral parameters (e.g. behavior in an open field and endurance fitness on a treadmill) were altered. We demonstrate that the two independently bred high-fertility mouse lines warranted their improved fertility phenotype using different molecular and physiological strategies. The fertility lines display female- as well as male-specific characteristics. These genetically heterogeneous mouse models provide new insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms that enhance fertility. In view of decreasing fertility in men, these models will therefore be a precious information source for human reproductive medicine. Translated abstract A German translation of abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/147/4/427/suppl/DC1. PMID:24248751

  3. Body morphology differs in wild juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Willamette River, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billman, E.J.; Whitman, L.D.; Schroeder, R.K.; Sharpe, C.S.; Noakes, David L. G.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Body morphology of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the upper Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A., was analysed to determine if variation in body shape is correlated with migratory life-history tactics followed by juveniles. Body shape was compared between migrating juveniles that expressed different life-history tactics, i.e. autumn migrants and yearling smolts, and among parr sampled at three sites along a longitudinal river gradient. In the upper Willamette River, the expression of life-history tactics is associated with where juveniles rear in the basin with fish rearing in downstream locations generally completing ocean ward migrations earlier in life than fish rearing in upstream locations. The morphological differences that were apparent between autumn migrants and yearling smolts were similar to differences between parr rearing in downstream and upstream reaches, indicating that body morphology is correlated with life-history tactics. Autumn migrants and parr from downstream sampling sites had deeper bodies, shorter heads and deeper caudal peduncles compared with yearling smolts and parr from the upstream sampling site. This study did not distinguish between genetic and environmental effects on morphology; however, the results suggest that downstream movement of juveniles soon after emergence is associated with differentiation in morphology and with the expression of life-history variation.

  4. Comparing the Biogeochemical Potential of Hyporheic Zones Driven by Different River Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, J. D.; Harvey, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Channel morphology controls the hydrodynamics of hyporheic exchange and its residence times. As a result, it also constrains the hyporheic zone's biogeochemical processes that transform carbon, nutrients, metals, and contaminants and the hyporheic zone's net effect at the local, reach and watershed scales. Previous studies of different morphologies (e.g., meanders, bars, and smaller bedforms such as dunes) have mainly focused on the amount of exchange or, if biogeochemistry was involved, have been specific to a particular morphology. In this work, we present a quantitative intercomparison of the amount of exchange, residence time distributions (RTDs), and biogeochemical potential for four channel morphologies: ripples, dunes, bars, and meander bends. To this end, simple two-dimensional conceptualizations and semi-analytical solutions for the hyporheic zone's flow and transport are used. In general, all morphologies are characterized by heavy-tail RTDs, implying long-term memory to solute inputs. We hypothesize that even though meander bends induce larger hyporheic exchange per unit length of channel and longer residence times, substrate limitations result in less biogeochemical processing when compared with the cumulative effect of multiple bedforms. The models presented are a function of geometric and physical properties easily measured or constrained with field or remote sensing data. The simplicity of this approach allows for practical calculations of the hyporheic zone's exchange and biogeochemical potential over a broad range of scenarios and morphologies, making it a useful tool for experimental design, sampling, and watershed scale assessment.

  5. Androgens regulate sex differences in signaling but are not associated with male variation in morphology in the weakly electric fish Parapteronotus hasemani.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Jacquelyn M; Smith, G Troy

    2016-02-01

    Sexually dimorphic signaling is widespread among animals and can act as an honest indicator of mate quality. Additionally, differences in signaling and morphology within a sex can be associated with different strategies for acquiring mates. Weakly electric fish communicate via self-generated electrical fields that transmit information about sex, reproductive state, and social status. The weakly electric knifefish Parapteronotus hasemani exhibits sexual dimorphism in body size as well as substantial within-male variation in body size and jaw length. We asked whether P. hasemani exhibits hormonally mediated sexual dimorphism in electrocommunication behavior. We also asked whether males with short versus long jaws differed significantly from each other in morphology, behavior, hormone levels, or reproductive maturity. Males produced longer chirps than females, but other signal parameters (electric organ discharge frequency; chirp rate and frequency modulation) were sexually monomorphic. Pharmacologically blocking androgen receptors in males reduced chirp duration, suggesting that this sexually dimorphic trait is regulated at least in part by the activational effects of androgens. Males sorted into two distinct morphological categories but did not differ in circulating 11-ketotestosterone or testosterone. Short-jawed males and long-jawed males also did not differ in any aspects of signaling. Thus, chirping and high levels of 11-ketotestosterone were reliably associated with reproductively active males but do not necessarily indicate male type or quality. This contrasts with other alternative male morph systems in which males that differ in morphology also differ in androgen profiles and signaling behavior. PMID:26518663

  6. Differences in adhesion of Candida albicans 3153A cells exhibiting switch phenotypes to buccal epithelium and stratum corneum.

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, K; Wertz, P W; Drake, D; Morrow, B; Soll, D R

    1994-01-01

    Cells of the laboratory strain 3153A of Candida albicans can be stimulated to undergo high-frequency phenotypic switching by a low dose of UV. We have compared the adhesive properties of cells exhibiting the basic original smooth (o-smooth) phenotype and three switch phenotypes (star, irregular wrinkle, and revertant smooth) to buccal epithelium and stratum corneum. The generalized hierarchy of adhesion is as follows: o-smooth > irregular wrinkle > revertant smooth > star. This is the inverse of the hierarchy of the proportions of elongate hyphae formed by these phenotypes in culture. These results suggest that the differences in adhesion between o-smooth and the three switch phenotypes of strain 3153A reflect, at least in part, the level of interference due to the formation of elongate hyphae, which tend to cause clumping in suspension. No major differences in the levels of adhesion of cells of the different phenotypes between buccal epithelium and stratum corneum were observed. Results which demonstrate that buccal epithelium induces germination (hypha formation) by conditioning the medium are also presented. Images PMID:8132340

  7. Cannabis-related episodic memory deficits and hippocampal morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Reilly, James L; Gilman, Jodi M; Roberts, Andrea G; Alpert, Kathryn I; Wang, Lei; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with episodic memory (EM) impairments and abnormal hippocampus morphology among both healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects. Considering the hippocampus' role in EM, research is needed to evaluate the relationship between cannabis-related hippocampal morphology and EM among healthy and clinical groups. We examined differences in hippocampus morphology between control and schizophrenia subjects with and without a past (not current) cannabis use disorder (CUD). Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls (CON), 10 subjects with a CUD history (CON-CUD), 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders (SCZ), and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history (SCZ-CUD). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping with MRI produced surface-based representations of the hippocampus that were compared across all four groups and correlated with EM and CUD history. Surface maps of the hippocampus were generated to visualize morphological differences. CON-CUD and SCZ-CUD were characterized by distinct cannabis-related hippocampal shape differences and parametric deficits in EM performance. Shape differences observed in CON-CUD were associated with poorer EM performance, while shape differences observed in SCZ-CUD were associated with a longer duration of CUD and shorter duration of CUD remission. A past history of CUD may be associated with notable differences in hippocampal morphology and EM impairments among adults with and without schizophrenia. Although the results may be compatible with a causal hypothesis, we must consider that the observed cannabis-related shape differences in the hippocampus could also be explained as biomarkers of a neurobiological susceptibility to poor memory or the effects of cannabis. PMID:25760303

  8. Morphological and behavioral differences in the gastropod Trophon geversianus associated to distinct environmental conditions, as revealed by a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, Federico; Nieto Vilela, Rocío Aimé; Lozada, Mariana; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The gastropod Trophon geversianus exhibits shell polymorphisms along its distribution in subtidal and intertidal habitats. Our hypothesis is that morphological and behavioral patterns of T. geversianus represent habitat-specific constrains; subsequently we expect an association between shell morphology, attachment behavior, and habitat. In order to test this hypothesis we compared individuals from intertidal and subtidal habitats, at three sites in Golfo Nuevo (Argentina). We analyzed shell morphology using classic morphometric variables, 3D geometric morphometrics and computing tomography scan. The results were complemented with field observations of attachment to substrate and turning time behavior, as well as of the number of shell scars produced by crab predation. Our results showed differences in shell size and shape between intertidal and subtidal-collected individuals. Centroid size, total weight and shell weight, as well as shell density and thickness were significantly lower in intertidal individuals than in subtidal ones. Gastropods from intertidal habitats presented a low-spired shell and an expanded aperture which might allow better attachment to the bottom substrate, while subtidal individuals presented a slender and narrower shell shape. The number of crab scars was significantly higher in shells from subtidal individuals. Observations of the behavior of gastropods placed at the intertidal splash zone showed 100% of attachment to the bottom in the intertidal individuals, while subtidal specimens only attached in average in 32% of the cases. These latter took 12 times longer to re-attach to the bottom when faced up. Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene fragments showed no consistent differences among individuals sampled in both habitats. All these results suggest that T. geversianus has developed two ecomorphs with distinct morphological and behavioral responses to physically stressful conditions registered in north Patagonian intertidals, as opposed to

  9. Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Development among Kindergarteners with Different Ability Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children…

  10. Three-dimensional digitization: method for evaluating morphological differences between teeth.

    PubMed

    Soma, K; Kuroki, T; Nakamura, T; Miura, F

    1991-03-01

    A new comparative method has been developed for evaluating morphological differences between a pair of teeth. This method consists of five steps: 1) digitization of the surface morphology of the teeth, 2) standardization to enable comparison of the teeth on a common axis, 3) reversal of data on one tooth to enable comparison with the opposite tooth, 4) qualitative evaluation by computer graphic superimposition and 5) quantitative evaluation by the set operation. To illustrate its effectiveness, this method was applied to a pair of extracted premolars. Application to the dental crown on a clinical plaster cast was also discussed. PMID:2025911

  11. Ca3 (PO4 )2 :Eu3+ phosphor preparation with different morphologies and their fluorescence properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-03-01

    Ca3(PO4)2:Eu(3+) phosphor was prepared using a facile chemistry method in the presence of surfactants. The effects of surfactants on the morphology and photoluminescence properties of Ca3(PO4)2:Eu(3+) phosphor were investigated. The morphology of the phosphor was significantly influenced by the surfactants employed. When nonionic surfactant glyceryl monostearate and anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate were employed, the phosphor powders are composed of a large number of homogeneous spherical particles with sizes of 0.3-0.6 µm and 2-3 µm, respectively. By contrast, when cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was used, the morphology of the phosphor is completely different. The product is an excellent cuboid, and the phosphor prepared with 2.5 mmol cetyltrimethylammonium bromide showed higher luminescent intensity than phosphors prepared with the other two types of surfactants. PMID:23616256

  12. Abiotic Stress Responsive Rice ASR1 and ASR3 Exhibit Different Tissue-Dependent Sugar and Hormone-Sensitivities

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Joungsu; Lee, Youn Hab; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Nahm, Baek Hie; Song, Sang Ik

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the six rice ASR genes is differentially regulated in a tissue-dependent manner according to environmental conditions and reproductive stages. OsASR1 and OsASR3 are the most abundant and are found in most tissues; they are enriched in the leaves and roots, respectively. Coexpression analysis of OsASR1 and OsASR3 and a comparison of the cis-acting elements upstream of OsASR1 and OsASR3 suggested that their expression is regulated in common by abiotic stresses but differently regulated by hormone and sugar signals. The results of quantitative real-time PCR analyses of OsASR1 and OsASR3 expression under various conditions further support this model. The expression of both OsASR1 and OsASR3 was induced by drought stress, which is a major regulator of the expression of all ASR genes in rice. In contrast, ABA is not a common regulator of the expression of these genes. OsASR1 transcription was highly induced by ABA, whereas OsASR3 transcription was strongly induced by GA. In addition, OsASR1 and OsASR3 expression was significantly induced by sucrose and sucrose/glucose treatments, respectively. The induction of gene expression in response to these specific hormone and sugar signals was primarily observed in the major target tissues of these genes (i.e., OsASR1 in leaves and OsASR3 in roots). Our data also showed that the overexpression of either OsASR1 or OsASR3 in transgenic rice plants increased their tolerance to drought and cold stress. Taken together, our results revealed that the transcriptional control of different rice ASR genes exhibit different tissue-dependent sugar and hormone-sensitivities. PMID:23620302

  13. Endothelial, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle exhibit different viscous and elastic properties as determined by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, A. B.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Reichert, W. M.; Kraus, W. E.; Truskey, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that, due to functional and structural differences, the apparent elastic modulus and viscous behavior of cardiac and skeletal muscle and vascular endothelium would differ. To accurately determine the elastic modulus, the contribution of probe velocity, indentation depth, and the assumed shape of the probe were examined. Hysteresis was observed at high indentation velocities arising from viscous effects. Irreversible deformation was not observed for endothelial cells and hysteresis was negligible below 1 microm/s. For skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle cells, hysteresis was negligible below 0.25 microm/s. Viscous dissipation for endothelial and cardiac muscle cells was higher than for skeletal muscle cells. The calculated elastic modulus was most sensitive to the assumed probe geometry for the first 60 nm of indentation for the three cell types. Modeling the probe as a blunt cone-spherical cap resulted in variation in elastic modulus with indentation depth that was less than that calculated by treating the probe as a conical tip. Substrate contributions were negligible since the elastic modulus reached a steady value for indentations above 60 nm and the probe never indented more than 10% of the cell thickness. Cardiac cells were the stiffest (100.3+/-10.7 kPa), the skeletal muscle cells were intermediate (24.7+/-3.5 kPa), and the endothelial cells were the softest with a range of elastic moduli (1.4+/-0.1 to 6.8+/-0.4 kPa) depending on the location of the cell surface tested. Cardiac and skeletal muscle exhibited nonlinear elastic behavior. These passive mechanical properties are generally consistent with the function of these different cell types.

  14. Differences on morphological and phonological processing between typically developing children and children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Miguel; Garayzábal, Elena; Moraleda, Esther

    2013-07-01

    It is widely acknowledged that people with Down syndrome (Ds) have less highly developed morphosyntactic abilities than typically developing (TD) children. However, little is known about the morphological processing of this population. In this paper we carry out two experiments in which the morphological Base Frequency (BF) effect is explored in both groups. The aim of the experiments is to carry out an in-depth exploration of morphological processing in children with Ds and TD children. In the first experiment children performed a definition task; in the second children had to provide a plural form for singular words. The results show a significant BF effect in only the first experiment. In the second experiment this morphological variable does not reach significance, but the variable we called Ending phoneme (a phonological variable that refers to the last phoneme of the bases prior to the addition of plural morphemes) does. The results also show that children with Ds score significantly below the two control groups in both experiments, with no significant differences between control groups. We go on to discuss morphological processing in children with and without Ds, the role of the two tasks carried out (paying special attention to the role played by working memory), and the possible relationship between our results and morphosyntactic deficits described in the literature. PMID:23643760

  15. Mandibular morphology in two archaeological human skeletal samples from northwest Europe with different masticatory regimes.

    PubMed

    Mays, S

    2015-06-01

    Mandibular morphology, assessed osteometrically, is studied in two historic human skeletal series (N = 64 individuals) from northwest Europe, one from Zwolle, the Netherlands (19th century CE), the other from Wharram Percy, England (10th-19th century). Both groups show greater dental wear than modern Western populations, but the rate of wear is greater at Wharram Percy than at Zwolle, suggesting a more vigorous masticatory regime. The aim is to evaluate any differences in mandibular morphology between the two groups that might relate to the inferred difference in biomechanical loading upon the chewing apparatus consequent upon the different physical properties of the diets consumed. Results indicate that the mandibles from Zwolle are generally smaller than those from Wharram Percy, especially in the gonial and ramus region and in the height of the post-canine corpus. These differences are consistent with those predicted on biomechanical grounds. That clear differences were observed in two samples whose masticatory regimes were distinct but not very different is an indication of the sensitivity of mandibular morphology to biomechanical input, and supports its value for investigating differences in physical properties of diets in palaeopopulations. PMID:25724125

  16. Preparation and efficient visible light-induced photocatalytic activity of m-BiVO4 with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanjie; Shang, Huishan; Shi, Fengjuan; Chao, Cong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Bing

    2015-10-01

    The monoclinic scheelite BiVO4 crystals with peanut-like, oval, twin-quadrangle and twin-four-pointed star morphologies were synthesized via a facile one step hydrothermal method by using sodium citrate as the chelating agent. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were employed to elucidate the structures and mophologies of the as-prepared BiVO4 samples. The results showed that the formation of m-BiVO4 with different morphologies relied on the pH value of the precursor solution. The band gaps values (Eg) of all the BiVO4 samples were around 2.37-2.45 eV according to the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum, which indicated that samples could strongly absorb in the visible light region. The photocatalytic activities of BiVO4 crystals were evaluated by degradation of MB in aqueous solution under artificial solar-light. The BiVO4 samples obtained at different pH values showed different photocatalytic activities during the sunlight-driven photodegradation of methylene blue (MB). The sample with peanut-like-shape prepared at pH=1 exhibited the highest activity, and the photocatalytic conversion could reach above 90% after 3 h of irradiation. The result suggested that m-BiVO4 with peanut-like-shape could be used as an effective photocatalyst in practical application for organic pollutants degradation.

  17. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 2. Synechococcus strains representative of putative ecotypes inhabiting different depths in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat exhibit different adaptive and acclimative responses to light.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Shane; Olsen, Millie T; Schaible, George A; Becraft, Eric D; Shen, Gaozhong; Klapper, Isaac; Bryant, Donald A; Ward, David M

    2015-01-01

    Closely related strains of thermophilic Synechococcus were cultivated from the microbial mats found in the effluent channels of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP). These strains have identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA sequences but are representative of separate, predicted putative ecotype (PE) populations, which were identified by using the more highly resolving psaA locus and which predominate at different vertical positions within the 1-mm-thick upper-green layer of the mat. Pyrosequencing confirmed that each strain contained a single, predominant psaA genotype. Strains differed in growth rate as a function of irradiance. A strain with a psaA genotype corresponding to a predicted PE that predominates near the mat surface grew fastest at high irradiances, whereas strains with psaA genotypes representative of predominant subsurface populations grew faster at low irradiance and exhibited greater sensitivity to abrupt shifts to high light. The high-light-adapted and low-light-adapted strains also exhibited differences in pigment content and the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus (photosystem ratio) when grown under different light intensities. Cells representative of the different strains had similar morphologies under low-light conditions, but under high-light conditions, cells of low-light-adapted strains became elongated and formed short chains of cells. Collectively, the results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that closely related, but distinct, ecological species of Synechococcus occupy different light niches in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat and acclimate differently to changing light environments. PMID:26175719

  18. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 2. Synechococcus strains representative of putative ecotypes inhabiting different depths in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat exhibit different adaptive and acclimative responses to light

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Shane; Olsen, Millie T.; Schaible, George A.; Becraft, Eric D.; Shen, Gaozhong; Klapper, Isaac; Bryant, Donald A.; Ward, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Closely related strains of thermophilic Synechococcus were cultivated from the microbial mats found in the effluent channels of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP). These strains have identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA sequences but are representative of separate, predicted putative ecotype (PE) populations, which were identified by using the more highly resolving psaA locus and which predominate at different vertical positions within the 1-mm-thick upper-green layer of the mat. Pyrosequencing confirmed that each strain contained a single, predominant psaA genotype. Strains differed in growth rate as a function of irradiance. A strain with a psaA genotype corresponding to a predicted PE that predominates near the mat surface grew fastest at high irradiances, whereas strains with psaA genotypes representative of predominant subsurface populations grew faster at low irradiance and exhibited greater sensitivity to abrupt shifts to high light. The high-light-adapted and low-light-adapted strains also exhibited differences in pigment content and the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus (photosystem ratio) when grown under different light intensities. Cells representative of the different strains had similar morphologies under low-light conditions, but under high-light conditions, cells of low-light-adapted strains became elongated and formed short chains of cells. Collectively, the results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that closely related, but distinct, ecological species of Synechococcus occupy different light niches in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat and acclimate differently to changing light environments. PMID:26175719

  19. Five Conditions Commonly Used to Down-regulate Tor Complex 1 Generate Different Physiological Situations Exhibiting Distinct Requirements and Outcomes*

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jennifer J.; Cooper, Terrance G.

    2013-01-01

    Five different physiological conditions have been used interchangeably to establish the sequence of molecular events needed to achieve nitrogen-responsive down-regulation of TorC1 and its subsequent regulation of downstream reporters: nitrogen starvation, methionine sulfoximine (Msx) addition, nitrogen limitation, rapamycin addition, and leucine starvation. Therefore, we tested a specific underlying assumption upon which the interpretation of data generated by these five experimental perturbations is premised. It is that they generate physiologically equivalent outcomes with respect to TorC1, i.e. its down-regulation as reflected by TorC1 reporter responses. We tested this assumption by performing head-to-head comparisons of the requirements for each condition to achieve a common outcome for a downstream proxy of TorC1 inactivation, nuclear Gln3 localization. We demonstrate that the five conditions for down-regulating TorC1 do not elicit physiologically equivalent outcomes. Four of the methods exhibit hierarchical Sit4 and PP2A phosphatase requirements to elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. Rapamycin treatment required Sit4 and PP2A. Nitrogen limitation and short-term nitrogen starvation required only Sit4. G1 arrest-correlated, long-term nitrogen starvation and Msx treatment required neither PP2A nor Sit4. Starving cells of leucine or treating them with leucyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors did not elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. These data indicate that the five commonly used nitrogen-related conditions of down-regulating TorC1 are not physiologically equivalent and minimally involve partially differing regulatory mechanisms. Further, identical requirements for Msx treatment and long-term nitrogen starvation raise the possibility that their effects are achieved through a common regulatory pathway with glutamine, a glutamate or glutamine metabolite level as the sensed metabolic signal. PMID:23935103

  20. Genomic and physiological responses to strong selective pressure during late organogenesis: few gene expression changes found despite striking morphological differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    results suggest that statistically significant changes in gene expression of relatively few genes contribute to the phenotypic changes and large morphological differences exhibited by reference and resistant populations upon exposure to PAH pollutants. By correlating cardiac physiology and morphology with changes in gene expression patterns of reference and resistant embryos, we provide additional evidence for acquired resistance among embryos whose parents live at heavily contaminated sites. PMID:24215130

  1. Variations of structural components: specific intercultural differences in facial morphology, skin type, and structures.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Aisha; Momoh, Adeyiza O; Bullocks, Jamal M

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of the differences in facial morphology and skin structure and tone among ethnic groups within the realm of plastic surgery is relevant due to the increasing number of ethnic individuals seeking cosmetic surgery. Previous classifications of ideal facial morphologic characteristics have been revised and challenged over the years to accurately reflect the differences in facial structure that are aesthetically pleasing to individuals of differing ethnic groups. The traditional neoclassic canons reflected the European Caucasian facial morphology and cannot be used to classify facial characteristics in ethnic groups due to drastic differences in measurement and proportion. In addition, differences in biophysiologic properties of ethnic skin types influence the progression of aging and the ability of skin to withstand environmental insults. Thickness of the stratum corneum, water content, and melanin composition are important factors that were analyzed in varying ethnic groups. Although it appears that Caucasian Americans are subject to earlier onset of skin wrinkling and sagging than are African Americans due to thinner stratum corneum layers and decreased water content, more research needs to be conducted to be inclusive of other ethnic groups. These data will enable plastic surgeons to treat these groups more effectively while preserving their unique characteristics. PMID:20676309

  2. Canopy architecture and morphology of switchgrass populations differing in forage yield

    SciTech Connect

    Redfearn, D.D.; Moore, K.J.; Vogel, K.P.

    1997-03-01

    Phenotypic selection has been used to improve forage yield in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), but the effects on canopy architecture and morphology are not understood. Our objectives were to determine if canopy architecture and morphology can explain genotype x environment (G x E) yield difference in switchgrass (Panicum L.) and to evaluate canopy architecture and morphology as selection criteria for increasing yield. This study was conducted in 1993 near Mead, NE, and near Ames, IA. The experimental design was a randomized complete block experiment with a split-plot arrangement of four replicates at each location. Whole plots were tiller population and subplots were sward maturity. Tiller populations were harvested on 9 June, 19 July, and 27 August at Ames and on 10 June, 27 July, and 26 August at Mead and were classified morphologically. Tillers were separated into primary yield components and dried at 55{degrees}C to determine total forage yield and dry matter contribution of morphological components. Genotype x environment interactions occurred for total forage yield and IVDMD apparently altered morphological changes within the canopy of selected switchgrass populations. The most apparent changes were development of additional collared leaves and internodes in some populations across locations. Although canopy architecture may not be a useful selection criterion because of variability associated with individual canopy traits, indirect measurements showed that leaf area index (LAI) has some potential as a selection criterion for increasing total forage yield. However, selection for individual canopy traits may be most effective for modifying sward growth habits. 36 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  3. Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species

    PubMed Central

    Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Brunetti, Riccardo; Caicci, Federico; Gasparini, Fabio; Griggio, Francesca; Sato, Atsuko; Stach, Thomas; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Gissi, Carmela; Manni, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names. PMID:25955391

  4. Lateral and Rotational Mobilities of Lipids in Specific Cellular Membranes of Eucalyptus gunnii Cultivars Exhibiting Different Freezing Tolerance 1

    PubMed Central

    Leborgne, Nathalie; Dupou-Cézanne, Laurence; Teulières, Chantal; Canut, Hervé; Tocanne, Jean-François; Boudet, Alain M.

    1992-01-01

    Two cell lines of Eucalyptus gunnii have been shown to keep their differential frost tolerance at the cellular level after long-term culture. They have been used to investigate the fluidity of specific cell membranes in relation with frost tolerance. Protoplasts and isolated vacuoles were obtained from both cell lines. In addition, purified plasma membrane and tonoplast (the vacuolar membrane) were separated from a crude microsomal fraction through free-flow electrophoresis. The lateral and rotational mobilities of lipids in these different membranes were studied by two biophysical techniques: fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence polarization. After labeling the vacuoles isolated from the frost-sensitive cells with 1-oleoyl-2-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benz-oxadiazol-4-yl)aminocaproyl phosphatidylcholine, a single mobile component was observed with a diffusion coefficient of 2.4 × 10−9 cm2 s−1 and a mobile fraction close to 100% at a temperature of 23°C. When using isolated vacuoles from the frost tolerant line, a higher lateral diffusion of tonoplast lipids was found with a diffusion coefficient of 3.2 × 10−9 cm2 s−1, still with a mobile fraction close to 100%. No convincing data were obtained when performing fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments on protoplasts. Fluorescence polarization experiments confirmed the differential behavior of the two cell lines for tonoplast and also for plasma membrane. In addition, they showed that intrinsically tonoplast exhibited a higher fluidity than plasma membrane. Our results provide the first information on the fluidity of tonoplast and on the compared properties of two important plant membranes—tonoplast and plasma membrane—through the use of two complementary biophysical approaches. In addition, they suggest there is a correlation between membrane fluidity and cold tolerance. The potential interest of plant vacuole as a natural model system in membrane studies is emphasized

  5. Icam5 Expression Exhibits Sex Differences in the Neonatal Pituitary and Is Regulated by Estradiol and Bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Eckstrum, Kirsten S; Weis, Karen E; Baur, Nicholas G; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Raetzman, Lori T

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are prevalent in the environment and can impair reproductive success by affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The developing pituitary gland is sensitive to exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), and sex-specific effects can occur. However, effects on the critical window of neonatal pituitary gland development in mice have not been explored. Therefore, this study determined baseline gene expression in male and female pituitaries and consequences of environmental exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2) and BPA on transcription of genes exhibiting sex differences during the neonatal period. Through microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of pituitaries at postnatal day (PND)1, 3 genes were differentially expressed between males and females: Lhb, Fshb, and intracellular adhesion molecule-5 (Icam5). To see whether E2 and BPA exposure regulates these genes, pituitaries were cultured at PND1 with 10(-8)M E2 or 4.4 × 10(-6)M BPA. E2 decreased expression of Lhb, Fshb, and Icam5 mRNA in females but only significantly decreased expression of Icam5 in males. BPA decreased expression of Icam5 similarly to E2, but it did not affect Lhb or Fshb. Importantly, in vivo exposure to 50-μg/kg · d E2 from PND0 to PND7 decreased expression of Lhb, Fshb, and Icam5 mRNA in both males and females, whereas 50-mg/kg · d BPA exposure during the same time frame decreased expression of Icam5 in females only. Overall, we have uncovered that genes differentially expressed between the sexes can be regulated in part by hormonal and chemical signals in vivo and directly at the pituitary and can be regulated in a sex-specific manner. PMID:26789235

  6. A Novel 2006 Indian Outbreak Strain of Chikungunya Virus Exhibits Different Pattern of Infection as Compared to Prototype Strain

    PubMed Central

    Das, Indrani; Nayak, Tapas K.; Kumar, Sameer; Chhatai, Jagamohan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Suryawanshi, Amol R.; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in India after 32 years and its worldwide epidemics with unprecedented magnitude raised a great public health concern. Methods and Findings In this study, a biological comparison was carried out between a novel 2006 Indian CHIKV outbreak strain, DRDE-06 and the prototype strain S-27 in mammalian cells in order to understand their differential infection pattern. Results showed that S-27 produced maximum number of progenies (2.43E+06 PFU/ml) at 20 to 24 hours post infection whereas DRDE-06 produced more than double number of progenies around 8 hours post infection in mammalian cells. Moreover, the observation of cytopathic effect, detection of viral proteins and viral proliferation assay confirmed the remarkably faster and significantly higher replication efficiency of DRDE-06. Moreover, our mutational analysis of whole genome of DRDE-06 revealed the presence of nineteen mutations as compared to S-27, whereas the analysis of 273 global isolates showed the consistent presence of fifteen out of nineteen mutations in almost all outbreak isolates. Further analysis revealed that ∼46% of recent outbreak strains including DRDE-06 do not contain the E1-A226V mutation which was earlier shown to be associated with the adaptation of CHIKV in a new vector species, Aedes albopictus. Conclusions A novel 2006 Indian CHIKV outbreak strain, DRDE-06 exhibits different pattern of infection as compared to prototype strain, S-27. This might be associated to some specific mutations observed in genome wide mutational analysis in DRDE-06 which emphasizes the need of future experimental investigation. PMID:24465661

  7. The liver and kidney expression of sulfate anion transporter sat-1 in rats exhibits male-dominant gender differences.

    PubMed

    Brzica, Hrvoje; Breljak, Davorka; Krick, Wolfgang; Lovrić, Mila; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C; Sabolić, Ivan

    2009-04-01

    The sulfate anion transporter (sat-1, Slc26a1) has been cloned from rat liver, functionally characterized, and localized to the sinusoidal membrane in hepatocytes and basolateral membrane (BLM) in proximal tubules (PT). Here, we confirm previously described localization of sat-1 protein in rat liver and kidneys and report on gender differences (GD) in its expression by immunochemical, transport, and excretion studies in rats. The approximately 85-kDa sat-1 protein was localized to the sinusoidal membrane in hepatocytes and BLM in renal cortical PT, with the male-dominant expression. However, the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction data indicated no GD at the level of sat-1 mRNA. In agreement with the protein data, isolated membranes from both organs exhibited the male-dominant exchange of radiolabeled sulfate for oxalate, whereas higher oxalate in plasma and 24-h urine indicated higher oxalate production and excretion in male rats. Furthermore, the expression of liver, but not renal, sat-1 protein was: unaffected by castration, upregulated by ovariectomy, and downregulated by estrogen or progesterone treatment in males. Therefore, GD (males > females) in the expression of sat-1 protein in rat liver (and, possibly, kidneys) are caused by the female sex-hormone-driven inhibition at the posttranscriptional level. The male-dominant abundance of sat-1 protein in liver may conform to elevated uptake of sulfate and extrusion of oxalate, causing higher plasma oxalate in males. Oxalate is then excreted by the kidneys via the basolateral sat-1 (males > females) and the apical CFEX (Slc26a6; GD unknown) in PT and eliminated in the urine (males > females), where it may contribute to the male-prevailing development of oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:19002488

  8. Brazilian Angiostrongylus cantonensis haplotypes, ac8 and ac9, have two different biological and morphological profiles

    PubMed Central

    Monte, Tainá CC; Gentile, Rosana; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Ester; Santos, Jeannie N; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Cases have been recorded in many parts of the world, including Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in the biology and morphology of two different Brazilian haplotypes of A. : ac8 and ac9. A significantly larger number of L1 larvae eliminated in the faeces of rodents at the beginning of the patent period was observed for ac9 haplotype and compared to the total of L1 larvae eliminated, there was a significant difference between the two haplotypes. The ac9 haplotype showed a significant difference in the proportion of female and male specimens (0.6:1), but the same was not observed for ac8 (1.2:1). The morphometric analysis showed that male and female specimens isolated from ac8 haplotype were significantly larger with respect to body length, oesophagus length, spicule length (male) and distance from the anus to the rear end (female) compared to specimens from ac9. The morphological analysis by light microscopy showed little variation in the level of bifurcations at the lateral rays in the right lobe of the copulatory bursa between the two haplotypes. The biological, morphological and morphometric variations observed between the two haplotypes agree with the observed variation at the molecular level using the cytochrome oxidase subunit I marker and reinforce the possible influence of geographical isolation on the development of these haplotypes. PMID:25591110

  9. Analysis of microstructures and macrotextures for different apple cultivars based on parenchyma morphology.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jumin; Sun, Yonghai; Chen, Fangyuan; Yu, Libo; Mao, Qian; Wang, Lu; Guo, Xiaolei; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Fuji, Golden Delicious, and Jonagold parenchyma were imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy to be extracted morphology characteristics, which were used to analyze the relationship with macrotexture of apples tested by penetration and compression. Before analyzing the relationship, the significantly different morphology parameters were reduced in dimensions by principal component analysis and were proved to be availably used for distinguishing the different apple cultivars. For compression results, cell did not absolutely determine the hardness in different apple cultivars, and the pore should also be taken into consideration. With the same size in cell feret diameter, the bigger the pore feret diameter was, the softer the apple became. If no difference existed in pore feret diameter size, the cultivar became harder with a narrower distribution in cell feret diameter. The texture parameters were compared with the roundness parameters in the same or inverse changing trends to explore the relationship. High correlations were found between the texture parameters (energy required in whole penetration (Wt), fracture force (Fp), crispness) and pore solidity (R(2)  > 0.924, P < 0.001). Compactness of parenchyma played an important role in fruit texture. This research could provide the comprehension about relationship between microstructure and macrotexture of apple cultivars and morphological values for modeling apple parenchyma, contributing to numerical simulation for constitutive relation of fruit. PMID:26873096

  10. Hepatitis E virus derived from different sources exhibits different behaviour in virus inactivation and/or removal studies with plasma derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kadue; Urayama, Takeru; Hattori, Shinji; Ideno, Shoji; Furuki, Rie; Sakai, Kaoru; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes viral hepatitis, and is considered a risk factor for blood products. Although some HEV inactivation/removal studies have been reported, detailed investigations of different manufacturing steps as heat treatment, partitioning during cold ethanol fractionation, low pH treatment, and virus filtration have yet to be reported for plasma-derived medicinal products. In this study, human serum- and swine faeces-derived HEVs, with and without detergent treatment, were used. The kinetic patterns of inactivation, log reduction value, or partitioning during the process were evaluated. In addition, the mouse encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and canine and porcine parvoviruses (CPV/PPV) were also evaluated as model viruses for HEV. Small pore size (19 or 15 nm) virus filtration demonstrated effective removal of HEV. Middle pore size (35 nm) virus filtration and 60 °C liquid heating demonstrated moderate inactivation/removal. Ethanol fractionation steps demonstrated limited removal of HEV. Unpurified HEV exhibited different properties than the detergent-treated HEV, and both forms displayed differences when compared with EMCV, CPV, and PPV. Limited or no inactivation of HEV was observed during low pH treatment. Untreated plasma-derived HEV from humans showed different properties compared to that of HEV treated with detergent or derived from swine faeces. Therefore, HEV spike preparation requires more attention. PMID:27461242

  11. A study on different morphological structures of zinc oxide nanostructures for humidity sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Abdullah, M. A. R.; Sin, M. D.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Effects of different morphological structures of ZnO to the performance of the device in the humidity sensing have been studied. Two different kinds of nanostructures were obtained which are nanords and nanoflakes. From the surface morphology image, the ZnO nanoflakes has lower diameter size of 100 nm compared to ZnO nanorods of 250 nm. The ZnO nanoflakes are not aligned and has low porous structure compared to ZnO nanorods. The humidity sensor performance of ZnO nanorods has superior performance compared to ZnO nanoflakes. The sensitivity of the ZnO nanorods sensor is 3.20 which are almost two times higher than the ZnO nanoflakes of 1.65. The structural properties of the samples have been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) electrical properties has been characterized using current voltage (I-V) measurement.

  12. Different Levels of DNA Methylation Detected in Human Sperms after Morphological Selection Using High Magnification Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cassuto, Nino Guy; Montjean, Debbie; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Bouret, Dominique; Marzouk, Flora; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze DNA methylation levels between two groups of spermatozoa taken from the same sample, following morphological selection by high magnification (HM) at 6100x microscopy. A prospective study was conducted and studied 876 spermatozoa from 10 randomly selected men. Sperm morphology was characterized at HM according to criteria previously established. High-scoring Score 6 and low-scoring Score 0 sperm were selected. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed using an immunoassay method targeting 5-methylcytosine residues by fluorescence microscopy with imaging analysis system to detect DNA methylation in single spermatozoon. Results. In total, 448 S6 spermatozoa and 428 S0 spermatozoa were analyzed. A strong relationship was found between sperm DNA methylation levels and sperm morphology observed at HM. Sperm DNA methylation level in the S6 group was significantly lower compared with that in the S0 group (p < 10−6), OR = 2.4; and p < 0.001, as determined using the Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Differences in DNA methylation levels are associated with sperm morphology variations as observed at HM, which allows spermatozoa with abnormal levels to be discarded and ultimately decrease birth defects, malformations, and epigenetic diseases that may be transmitted from sperm to offspring in ICSI. PMID:27148551

  13. Compositions and morphologies of TiAlSi intermetallics in different diffusion couples

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Tong; Liu, Guiliang; Liu, Xiangfa

    2014-09-15

    Two kinds of diffusion couples were designed to investigate the formation of ternary TiAlSi phases in Al–Si–Ti alloys. It was found that different diffusion processes result in various compositions and morphologies of TiAlSi intermetallics. The melted Al, Si and Ti atoms in the diffusion couple leads to the formation of flake-like TiAlSi phase through liquid–liquid reaction. Besides, unidirectional diffusion of Al and Si atoms into blocky TiAl{sub 3} particles or Ti powders via a liquid–solid diffusion process also results in the formation of TiAlSi, while keeping the block-like morphology. This kind of diffusion is a gradual process, driven by the concentration gradient. The reactions in the diffusion couples are helpful to understand the compositional and morphological evolutions of TiAlSi as reported in previous work. - Highlights: • Two diffusion couples were designed to investigate the formation of TiAlSi phases. • Compositions and morphologies of TiAlSi are influenced by the diffusion process. • Liquid–liquid and liquid–solid diffusions were detected. • The corresponding mechanisms were discussed.

  14. Different Levels of DNA Methylation Detected in Human Sperms after Morphological Selection Using High Magnification Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cassuto, Nino Guy; Montjean, Debbie; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Bouret, Dominique; Marzouk, Flora; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze DNA methylation levels between two groups of spermatozoa taken from the same sample, following morphological selection by high magnification (HM) at 6100x microscopy. A prospective study was conducted and studied 876 spermatozoa from 10 randomly selected men. Sperm morphology was characterized at HM according to criteria previously established. High-scoring Score 6 and low-scoring Score 0 sperm were selected. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed using an immunoassay method targeting 5-methylcytosine residues by fluorescence microscopy with imaging analysis system to detect DNA methylation in single spermatozoon. Results. In total, 448 S6 spermatozoa and 428 S0 spermatozoa were analyzed. A strong relationship was found between sperm DNA methylation levels and sperm morphology observed at HM. Sperm DNA methylation level in the S6 group was significantly lower compared with that in the S0 group (p < 10(-6)), OR = 2.4; and p < 0.001, as determined using the Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Differences in DNA methylation levels are associated with sperm morphology variations as observed at HM, which allows spermatozoa with abnormal levels to be discarded and ultimately decrease birth defects, malformations, and epigenetic diseases that may be transmitted from sperm to offspring in ICSI. PMID:27148551

  15. Information Generated by the Moving Pinnae of Rhinolophus rouxi: Tuning of the Morphology at Different Harmonics

    PubMed Central

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Reijniers, Jonas; Steckel, Jan; Peremans, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Bats typically emit multi harmonic calls. Their head morphology shapes the emission and hearing sound fields as a function of frequency. Therefore, the sound fields are markedly different for the various harmonics. As the sound field provides bats with all necessary cues to locate objects in space, different harmonics might provide them with variable amounts of information about the location of objects. Also, the ability to locate objects in different parts of the frontal hemisphere might vary across harmonics. This paper evaluates this hypothesis in R. rouxi, using an information theoretic framework. We estimate the reflector position information transfer in the echolocation system of R. rouxi as a function of frequency. This analysis shows that localization performance reaches a global minimum and a global maximum at the two most energetic frequency components of R. rouxi call indicating tuning of morphology and harmonic structure. Using the fundamental the bat is able to locate objects in a large portion of the frontal hemisphere. In contrast, using the 1 overtone, it can only locate objects, albeit with a slightly higher accuracy, in a small portion of the frontal hemisphere by reducing sensitivity to echoes from outside this region of interest. Hence, different harmonic components provide the bat either with a wide view or a focused view of its environment. We propose these findings can be interpreted in the context of the foraging behaviour of R. rouxi, i.e., hunting in cluttered environments. Indeed, the focused view provided by the 1 overtone suggests that at this frequency its morphology is tuned for clutter rejection and accurate localization in a small region of interest while the finding that overall localization performance is best at the fundamental indicates that the morphology is simultaneously tuned to optimize overall localization performance at this frequency. PMID:21698094

  16. Sex Differences in Parietal Lobe Morphology: Relationship to Mental Rotation Performance

    PubMed Central

    Koscik, Tim; O’Leary, Dan; Moser, David J.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2009-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain have reported evidence for sexual dimorphism. In addition to sex differences in overall cerebral volume, differences in the proportion of gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) volume have been observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge there have been no studies examining the relationship between the sex differences in parietal lobe structure and function. The parietal lobe is thought to be involved in spatial ability, and particularly involved in mental rotation. The purpose of this study is to examine whether sex differences in parietal lobe structure are present, and if present to relate these differences to performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT). We found that women had proportionately greater gray matter volume in the parietal lobe compared to men, and this morphologic difference was disadvantageous for women in terms of performance on the MRT. In contrast, we found that men compared to women had proportionately greater parietal lobe surface area, and this morphologic difference was associated with a performance advantage for men on mental rotation. These findings support the possibility that the sexual dimorphism in the structure of the parietal lobe is a neurobiological substrate for the sex difference in performance on the Mental Rotations Test. PMID:18980790

  17. Mitochondrial genetic differentiation and morphological difference of Miniopterus fuliginosus and Miniopterus magnater in China and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi; Sun, Keping; Lu, Guanjun; Lin, Aiqing; Jiang, Tinglei; Jin, Longru; Hoyt, Joseph R; Feng, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Because of its complicated systematics, the bent-winged bat is one of the most frequently studied bat species groups. In China, two morphologically similar bent-winged bat species, Miniopterus fuliginosus and Miniopterus magnater were identified, but their distribution range and genetic differentiation are largely unexplored. In this study, we applied DNA bar codes and two other mitochondrial DNA genes including morphological parameters to determine the phylogeny, genetic differentiation, spatial distribution, and morphological difference of the M. fuliginosus and M. magnater sampled from China and one site in Vietnam. Mitochondrial DNA gene genealogies revealed two monophyletic lineages throughout the Tropic of Cancer. According to DNA bar code divergences, one is M. fuliginosus corresponding to the Chinese mainland and the other is M. magnater corresponding to tropical regions including Hainan and Guangdong provinces of China and Vietnam. Their most recent common ancestor was dated to the early stage of the Quaternary glacial period (ca. 2.26 million years ago [Ma] on the basis of D-loop data, and ca. 1.69–2.37 Ma according to ND2). A population expansion event was inferred for populations of M. fuliginosus at 0.14 Ma. The two species probably arose in separate Pleistocene refugia under different climate zones. They significantly differed in forearm length, maxillary third molar width, and greatest length of the skull. PMID:25859327

  18. Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Luza, André Luís; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2015-01-01

    The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and niche similarities between species and individuals. Subsequently, we applied phylogenetic and morphologic indexes of diversity and distance between species to evaluate small mammal assemblage structures on the three scales. The results indicated a repulsion pattern near forest edges, showing that phylogenetically similar species coexisted less often than expected by chance. The strategies for niche differentiation might explain the phylogenetic repulsion observed at the edge. Phylogenetic and morphological clustering in the grassland and at the forest interior indicated the coexistence of closely related and ecologically similar species and individuals. Coexistence patterns were similar whether species-trait values or individual values were used. At the landscape and regional scales, assemblages showed a predominant pattern of phylogenetic and morphological clustering. Environmental filters influenced the coexistence patterns at three scales, showing the importance of phylogenetically conserved ecological tolerances in enabling taxa co-occurrence. Evidence of phylogenetic repulsion in one region indicated that other processes beyond environmental filtering are important for community assembly at broad scales. Finally, ecological interactions and environmental filtering seemed important at the local scale, while environmental filtering and historical colonization seemed important for community

  19. Morphological, geochemical, and ecological differences of two extant menardiform globorotaliid planktonic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenberg, Marcus; Nielsen, Sven N.; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Holbourn, Ann

    2010-05-01

    Taxonomic consistency is the basic prerequisite for any foraminiferal study. In particular, interpretation of planktonic foraminiferal geochemical data requires consistent selection of monospecific tests, since different species are adapted to different ecological niches and hence different calcification depths. Recording stable isotope signals and temperatures of ambient seawater during calcification, species-specific planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope values (δ18O) and Mg/Ca ratios reflect environmental conditions at different depth levels of the upper water column, which makes them suitable for paleoceanographic and climate reconstructions. However, since slight morphological differences may reflect different life habitats, the geochemical composition of a foraminiferal sample is highly dependent on the selection of morphologically alike specimens used for analysis. In order to exemplify the impact of unintended mixing of slightly varying species on δ18O values and Mg/Ca ratios, this study investigates morphological characteristics and geochemical signatures of Globorotalia cultrata (d'Orbigny, 1839) and Globorotalia menardii (Parker, Jones & Brady, 1865). Both species are often assembled as 'G. menardii' group or referred to as synonyms and are commonly suggested to represent seasonal thermocline habitats. In general, both nonspinose species precipitate circular to oval, lobulate, and low trochospiral tests showing 5-6 chambers in the final whorl. The perforate chambers meet at limbate sutures, which are straight on the umbilical side and curved on the spiral side. Tests are rimmed with an imperforate keel. The umbilical extra-umbilical aperture is furnished with an imperforate lip. In contrast, tests of G. cultrata differ from G. menardii in surface and keel. The surface of G. cultrata is smooth and shiny, at shallow sites transparent, and shows only few subconical pustules of sizes

  20. Morphological responses of crop and weed species of different growth forms to ultraviolet-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.W.; Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M. )

    1990-10-01

    Recent evidence of a general, global decline of stratospheric ozone has heightened concern about possible ecological consequences of increases in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation resulting from ozone depletion. The influence of UV-B radiation (280-320 nanometers) on the morphology of 12 common dicot and monocot crop or weed species was examined to determine whether any common responses could be found that might, in turn, be useful in predicting possible changes in competitive balance under solar UV-B enhancement. Under glasshouse conditions, UV-B exposure (simulating a 20% reduction in stratospheric ozone at Logan, Utah) was found to reduce leaf blade and internode lengths and increase leaf and axillary shoot production in several species. Overall, the directions of these trends were similar in the majority of species that exhibited a significant response. These morphological changes occurred without any significant reduction in total shoot dry matter production. There was no clear distinction in the response of crops and weeds, though monocots were found to be generally more responsive than dicots. Previous work in dense canopies has shown that the photomorphogenetic effects of UV-B alter leaf placement and thereby influence competition for light. Our results suggest that, under these conditions, changes in competitive balance resulting from increased UV-B might be expected more frequently when monocots are involved in mixtures, rather than mixtures of only dicots.

  1. Ophiopogon japonicus strains from different cultivation regions exhibit markedly different properties on cytotoxicity, pregnane X receptor activation and cytochrome P450 3A4 induction

    PubMed Central

    GE, LE-LE; KAN, LIAN-DI; ZHUGE, ZHENG-BING; MA, KE; CHEN, SHU-QING

    2015-01-01

    Maidong, known as Ophiopogon japonicus, is one of the two basic ingredients of Shenmai injection, which is a widely used herbal preparation in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and viral myocarditis. Previously, the ethanol extract of Maidong activated the pregnane X receptor (PXR) signaling pathway and induced the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) reporter gene and raised the concern of herb-drug interactions (HDIs) when Maidong was used in combination with prescribed drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. Therefore, the present study further investigated and compared the differences of the ethanol and aqueous extracts (ee- and ae-, respectively) of two Maidong strains, known as Zhe Maidong (ZM) and Chuan Maidong (CM). Cytotoxicity, PXR activation and CYP3A4 induction by the 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo-(-z-y1)-3,5-diphenytetrazoliumromide assay, reporter gene assay and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis were examined. The observations showed that ee-ZM demonstrated a significantly higher cytotoxicity, a relatively weaker PXR activation capability and a markedly stronger CYP3A4-inducing capacity than ee-CM. Compared to ae-CM, ae-ZM exhibited only a slight or no difference on cytotoxicity and CYP3A4 induction, while a significant lower level of PXR activation was apparent. Collectively, Maidong from different producing areas possess different properties upon cytotoxicity and the drug-metabolizing enzyme inducing effect, and attention should be paid to the selection of Maidong strains from different planting regions into TCM preparations for reducing potential adverse reactions and HDIs. PMID:26137250

  2. Canopy Photosynthesis and Its Relationship to Plant Productivity in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Differing in Leaf Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Randy; Meredith, William R.; Williford, J. Ray

    1986-01-01

    A 2-year study was conducted to determine the relationships between plant canopy photosynthesis, canopy light interception, and plant productivity of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) exhibiting differing leaf morphologies. The near-isogenic lines were from a single background (MD 65-11) and represented the leaf shapes Normal (small leaf lobing), Sub-Okra (intermediate leaf lobing), Okra (large leaf lobing), and Super Okra (severe leaf lobing). The F1 of a cross Normal × Okra (intermediate leaf lobing) and the F2 (segregating 1:2:1 for Normal Sub-Okra, and Okra, respectively) were also grown. Reduced plant canopies were produced by Okra and Super Okra lines, which translated into increased light penetration to the ground, and hence, in reduced canopy photosynthesis. Integrated canopy photosynthesis (ICAP) was significantly associated with light interception by the plant canopy. Part of the remaining variability in ICAP was associated with confounding factors associated with plant maturity and other unmeasured genotypic factors. Intermediate (F1 and Sub-Okra) and normal leaf types displayed the largest ICAP values in both years. Lint production was positively related to ICAP (R2 = 0.53). The combination of high ICAP values and competitive lint yields indicate that intermediate lobed leaf morphologies offer promise as productive sources of physiological variation for cotton germplasm development. PMID:16665085

  3. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M.; Vajrabukka, C.; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal ( B. indicus) ( n = 10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) ( B. taurus) ( n = 10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% ( n = 10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % ( n = 10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm2; 1.60 μ3 × 10-6) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm2; 0.51 μ3x10-6) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm2; 0.68 μ3 × 10-6) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm2; 0.61 μ3 × 10-6) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm2) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm2); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm2 for HF75% and HF87.5 %) ( P < 0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred ( P < 0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction ( P < 0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic

  4. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Lahiani, Mohamed H; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%-46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml(-1). The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. These established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta. PMID:27195934

  5. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml–1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the additionmore » of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. Furthermore, these established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.« less

  6. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml‑1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. These established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  7. Similarities and differences in altitudinal versus latitudinal variation for morphological traits in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Klepsatel, Peter; Gáliková, Martina; Huber, Christian D; Flatt, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how natural environments shape phenotypic variation is a major aim in evolutionary biology. Here, we have examined clinal, likely genetically based variation in morphology among 19 populations of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) from Africa and Europe, spanning a range from sea level to 3000 m altitude and including locations approximating the southern and northern range limit. We were interested in testing whether latitude and altitude have similar phenotypic effects, as has often been postulated. Both latitude and altitude were positively correlated with wing area, ovariole number, and cell number. In contrast, latitude and altitude had opposite effects on the ratio between ovariole number and body size, which was negatively correlated with egg production rate per ovariole. We also used transgenic manipulation to examine how increased cell number affects morphology and found that larger transgenic flies, due to a higher number of cells, had more ovarioles, larger wings, and, unlike flies from natural populations, increased wing loading. Clinal patterns in morphology are thus not a simple function of changes in body size; instead, each trait might be subject to different selection pressures. Together, our results provide compelling evidence for profound similarities as well as differences between phenotypic effects of latitude and altitude. PMID:24410363

  8. Effect of different locations on the morphological, chemical, pulping and papermaking properties of Trema orientalis (Nalita).

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Chowdhury, Nasima; Ni, Yonghao

    2010-03-01

    The chemical compositions and fiber morphology of stem and branch samples from Trema orientalis at three different sites planted in Bangladesh were determined and their pulping, bleaching and the resulting pulp properties were investigated. A large difference between the stem and branch samples was observed. The stem samples have consistently higher alpha-cellulose and lower lignin content, and longer fibers than the branch samples in all sites. T. orientalis from the Dhaka and Rajbari region had higher alpha-cellulose content and longer fiber length, resulting in higher pulp yield and better papermaking properties. The T. orientalis pulp from Rajbari region also showed the best bleachability. PMID:19914825

  9. Poplar saplings exposed to recurring temperature shifts of different amplitude exhibit differences in leaf gas exchange and growth despite equal mean temperature.

    PubMed

    Cerasoli, Sofia; Wertin, Timothy; McGuire, Mary Anne; Rodrigues, Ana; Aubrey, Doug P; Pereira, João Santos; Teskey, Robert O

    2014-01-01

    Most investigations of plant responses to changes in temperature have focused on a constant increase in mean day/night temperature without considering how differences in temperature cycles can affect physiological processes and growth. To test the effects of changes in growth temperature on foliar carbon balance and plant growth, we repeatedly exposed poplar saplings (Populus deltoides × nigra) to temperature cycles consisting of 5 days of a moderate (M, +5 °C) or extreme (E, +10 °C) increase in temperature followed by 5 days of a moderate (M, -5 °C) or extreme (E, -10 °C) decrease in temperature, with respect to a control treatment (C, 23.4 °C). The temperature treatments had the same mean temperature over each warm and cool cycle and over the entire study. Our goal was to examine the influence of recurring temperature shifts on growth. Net photosynthesis (A) was relatively insensitive to changes in growth temperature (from 20 to 35 °C), suggesting a broad range of optimum temperature for photosynthesis. Leaf respiration (R) exhibited substantial acclimation to temperature, having nearly the same rate at 13 °C as at 33 °C. There was no evidence that preconditioning through temperature cycles affected the response of A or R to treatment temperature fluctuations. Averaged across the complete warm/cool temperature cycle, the A : R ratio did not differ among the temperature treatments. While foliar carbon balance was not affected, the temperature treatments significantly affected growth. Whole-plant biomass was 1.5 times greater in the M treatment relative to the C treatment. Carbon allocation was also affected with shoot volume and biomass greater in the M and E treatments than in the C treatment. Our findings indicate that temperature fluctuations can have important effects on growth, though there were few effects on leaf gas exchange, and can help explain differences in growth that are not correlated with mean growth temperature. PMID:24876300

  10. Morphological and karyotypic differences within and among populations of Radopholus similis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chun-Ling; Li, Yun; Xie, Hui; Huang, Xin; Wu, Wen-Jia; Yu, Lu; Wang, Dong-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Twenty populations of Radopholus similis from three countries and different hosts (19 populations from ornamental plants and one population from ginger) were compared using morphological characters, morphometrics and karyotype between progeny from both single females and 30 females of each population. Morphological diversity existed in and among the populations, even within the progeny nematodes from single nematodes compared to that of 30 females. The labial disc shape, the number of head annuli, the terminated position of lateral lips, the number of genital papillae before cloacal apertures and female and male tail terminal shape showed variation. In addition, genital papillae arranged in a double row before cloacal apertures was first found in two ornamental populations. The karyotype of all the 20 populations was n = 5. Combining our results and previous studies, we support that Radopholus citrophilus is a synonym of Radopholus similis, and that it is not possible to distinguish physiological races or pathotypes of Radopholus similis according to morphological characters or karyotype. PMID:25349501

  11. Photoluminescence and Raman behaviors of ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. J.; Liu, Y. C.; Lu, Y. M.; Zhang, J. Y.; Shen, D. Z.; Fan, X. W.

    2006-03-01

    The morphology, structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures synthesized from different zinc precursors by a vapor transport process were investigated. The zinc precursors involved pure zinc powder, zinc powder mixed with graphite and zinc powder mixed with carbon nanotubes. The products were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, Raman and PL techniques. The results indicated that the zinc precursors have a strong effect on the morphology and structural properties of the ZnO nanostructures. For the pure zinc, zinc mixed with graphite and zinc mixed with carbon nanotube, uniform tetrapod-, chrysanthemum- and needle-like morphologies are obtained, respectively. Photoluminescence measurements show that all the products have a strong near-band-edge UV emission accompanied by weak visible emissions. The relatively stronger green-light emission from the tetrapods implies that more defects exist in the tetrapods. A peak at 445 nm is found in the spectrum of the tetrapod-like nanostructures, which may be caused by oxygen-depletion interface traps. Furthermore, products synthesized at 600 °C demonstrate better photoluminescence properties than those synthesized at 450 °C.

  12. Greater rhea (Rhea americana) external morphology at different stages of embryonic and fetal development.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Hatawa Melo; Sousa, Renata Patrícia; Bezerra, Dayseanny Oliveira; Olivindo, Rodrigo Fernando Gomes; das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; de Oliveira, Sâmia Clara; Feitosa, Matheus Levi Tajra; de Moura Fortes, Eunice Anita; Ferraz, Maíra Soares; de Carvalho, Yulla Klinger Pereira; de Menezes, Danilo José Ayres; de Carvalho, Maria Acelina Martins

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of wild species embryonic development is important for their maintenance in captivity or the wild. The objective of the present study was to characterize the external morphology and define the biometry of greater rhea embryos and fetuses at different stages of development. A total of 41 embryos and fetuses were analyzed to describe their external morphology using a stereoscopic microscope. The crown-rump (CR), total length (TL), cephalocaudal length (CCL), biparietal diameter (BPD), beak, humerus and tibio-tarsal lengths were measured by digital pachymeter, millimetric scale ruler and cotton thread. The weight of the embryos and fetuses was measured on digital scales. The greater rhea embryos at 5, 6 and 7 days incubation presented a "C" shape. At 9, 10 and 11 days the eyes were big and pigmented. At 11, 12 and 13 days the eyelid covered more than half the eye, resulting in an oval slit. In 14 and 15 day-old embryos, the skin was still thin and the ribs evident, but at 18 days this structure was thicker. In embryos at 21 and 27 days of development closed eyelids were observed forming an eyelid slit, and the eye ball was less pronounced at 27 days. Weight gain presented an exponential growth curve, while measurements such as TL, DBP, beak, humerus and tibio-tarsal length had linear growth over time. Thus it was possible to characterize the greater rhea embryos and fetuses at several incubation ages using their external morphology and morphometric analyses. PMID:26432389

  13. Different fixative methods influence histological morphology and TUNEL staining in mouse testes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Yang, Lu-Lu; Ji, Yan-Li; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Jun; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Society of Toxicologic Pathology has recommended mDF to fix testes since 2002. However, subsequent studies showed that false TUNEL-positive cells were observed in mDF-fixed testes. This study compared the effects of different fixation methods on histology and TUNEL staining in mouse testes. Results showed that fixation for 24 or 36h in mDF provided better morphologic details in untreated testes, but markedly enhanced false TUNEL-positive staining. To optimize the fixation, testes were fixed using mDF for 6h and then PFA for 18h. Interestingly, fixation using mDF/PFA manifested better morphologic details, and rarely caused false TUNEL-positive cells in testes. Finally, we examined germ cell apoptosis in testes using mDF/PFA fixation in cadmium-treated mice. As expected, cadmium triggered germ cell apoptosis which was well visualized in the mDF/PFA fixed testes. Taken together, mDF plus PFA fixation not only minimizes false TUNEL-positive cells, but also provides integrated morphologic details in testes. PMID:26820454

  14. Position-Related Differences in Selected Morphological Body Characteristics of Top-Level Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Bon, Marta; Pori, Primoz; Sibila, Marko

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the main morphological characteristics of Slovenian junior and senior female national handball team players. Morphological characteristics of various player subgroups (goalkeepers, wings, back players and pivots) were also determined so as to establish whether they had distinct profiles. The subjects were 87 handball players who were members of the Slovenian junior and senior female national teams in the period from 2003 to 2009. A standardised anthropometric protocol was used to assess the subjects' morphological characteristics. The measurements included 23 different anthropometric measures. First, basic statistical characteristics of anthropometric measures were obtained for all subjects together and then for each group separately. Somatotypes were determined using Heath-Carter's method. Endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were calculated by computer on the basis of formulas. In order to determine differences in the body composition and anthropometric data of the subjects playing in different positions, a one-way analysis of variance was employed. The results show that, on average, the wings differed the most from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body characteristics. The wings differed most prominently from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body parameters as they were significantly smaller and had a statistically significantly lower body mass than the other groups. In terms of transversal measures of the skeleton and the circumferences, the wings significantly differed mainly from the pivots and goalkeepers and less from the backs. The goalkeepers were the tallest, with high values of body mass and low values of transversal measures compared to P. Their skin folds were the most pronounced among all the groups on average and their share of subcutaneous fat in total body mass was the highest. Consequently, their endomorphic component of the somatotype was pronounced

  15. Computer simulations on the initiation and morphological difference of Japan winter and summer sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Tomokazu; Hayakawa, Masashi; Cho, Mengu; Suzuki, Tomoyuki

    2008-02-01

    Two-dimensional (axisymmetric) computer simulations (electromagnetic code) have been performed to study the initiation and morphological difference (summer, carrots, and winter, columns) of sprites for simulating Japan summer and winter sprites. By changing the physical parameters of a parent lightning, we have found the following findings by looking at the spatial-temporal distribution of reduced electric field, etc. (1) There are three important factors (the height where the charge is removed (ds), charge transfer (Q), and lightning current risetime (τ)) in the initiation of sprites and their morphological differences. (2) For the initiation of sprites, the charge transfer (Q) should exceed a certain value for possible charge heights (giving us a threshold of charge moment change (Qds) of the order of ~120-200 C.km), with a combination of small risetime of lightning current waveform. (3) Further, the height for positive charge is much higher than that for negative charge in a typical lightning configuration, which is the essential factor in determining the morphological difference of sprites in summer and winter. Positive charges for summer are located at a much higher altitude than those in winter in Japan, which might result in carrot-type in summer and columnar-type in winter even for the same positive polarity. (4) A combinational effect of (Ids) and (Qds) is important for having sprites. Finally, the present computer results on the initiation of sprites for Japanese lightning have been compared extensively to the well-documented properties of summer continental sprites and future subjects to study have been suggested.

  16. Identification of morphological differences between avian influenza A viruses grown in chicken and duck cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Mubarak, Firas; Daly, Janet; Christie, Denise; Fountain, Donna; Dunham, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    Although wild ducks are considered to be the major reservoirs for most influenza A virus subtypes, they are typically resistant to the effects of the infection. In contrast, certain influenza viruses may be highly pathogenic in other avian hosts such as chickens and turkeys, causing severe illness and death. Following in vitro infection of chicken and duck embryo fibroblasts (CEF and DEF) with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses, duck cells die more rapidly and produce fewer infectious virions than chicken cells. In the current study, the morphology of viruses produced from CEF and DEF cells infected with low pathogenic avian H2N3 was examined. Transmission electron microscopy showed that viruses budding from duck cells were elongated, while chicken cells produced mostly spherical virions; similar differences were observed in viral supernatants. Sequencing of the influenza genome of chicken- and duck-derived H2N3 LPAI revealed no differences, implicating host cell determinants as responsible for differences in virus morphology. Both DEF and CEF cells produced filamentous virions of equine H3N8 (where virus morphology is determined by the matrix gene). DEF cells produced filamentous or short filament virions of equine H3N8 and avian H2N3, respectively, even after actin disruption with cytochalasin D. These findings suggest that cellular factors other than actin are responsible for the formation of filamentous virions in DEF cells. The formation of elongated virions in duck cells may account for the reduced number of infectious virions produced and could have implications for virus transmission or maintenance in the reservoir host. PMID:25613009

  17. The characteristics of semiconductor-to-metal transition in VO2 of different morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhova, Yu V.; Osmolowskaya, O. M.; Osmolowsky, M. G.

    2015-11-01

    Vanadium dioxide nanoparticles (NPs) of different morphologies were obtained using the hydrothermal technique. Their shape and size were studied by SEM, XRD and SSA estimation. The functional properties, structural changes and thermal behavior of samples obtained were investigated to clarify the SMPT peculiarities. It is shown that the introduction of a doping element changes a mechanism of the nanoparticles growth and so that the SMPT becomes less expressed. The detailed study of SMPT in undoped VO2 showed the steps of the transition process. The testing of VO2 coating on glass for «smart» windows was successfully performed.

  18. Multi-level femoral morphology and mechanical properties of rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Ma, Renshi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yobo

    2015-07-01

    A macro-micro-nano-multi-level study was conducted to explore age-related structural and mechanical properties of bone, as well as the effects of aging on bone properties. A total of 70 male Wistar rats were used, ranging in the ages of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17 months (n = 7/age group). After micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning, longitudinal cortical bone specimens with a length of 5mm were cut along the femoral shaft axis from left femur shafts for mechanical testing, and the cross-sectional areas were measured. The macro-mechanical properties obtained in mechanical testing and microarchitecture parameters measured by micro-CT were significantly correlated with the animal age (r(2) = 0.96, p < 0.001). Scanning electron microscopy was used for detecting the microarchitecture features of the fractured surfaces, which exhibited age-related plate-fibrous-mixed fibrous-plate texture, resulting in changes in macro-mechanical properties (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.001). The mineral phase of the left femoral shaft and head was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Longitudinal and transverse trabecular bone tissues, as well as longitudinal cortical bone tissue, were used for nanoindentation test, and the chemical composition was evaluated by quantitative chemical analyses. The correlations between mineral content and bone material properties (i.e., elastic properties of the bone tissue and size and roughness of bone mineral grains) were highly significant (r > 0.95, p < 0.001). Multi-level femur morphology, mechanical property, and mineral content were significantly correlated with the animal age. The correlations between bone mineral content and bone material morphological and mechanical properties may partly explain the increase in bone fragility with aging, which will provide a theoretical basis for the investigation of age-related bone properties in clinics. PMID:25857690

  19. Effects of Urban Morphology on Intra-Urban Temperature Differences: Two Squares in Glasgow City Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drach, P. R. C.; Emmanuel, R.

    2014-12-01

    The perspective of climate change increases the necessity of tackling the urban over heating effects, by developing strategies to mitigate/adapt to changes. Analysing the influence of urban form on intra-urban temperature dynamics could be a helpful way of reducing its negative consequences. Also, it would help untangle the urban effect from the effect caused by atmospheric conditions. The present paper presents the effect of atmospheric conditions as exemplified by atmospheric stability (modified Pasquill-Gifford-Turner classification system) and urban morphology as measured by the Sky View Factor (SVF) on intra-urban variations in air temperature in a cold climate city, in and around the mature urban area of Glasgow, UK (55° 51' 57.294"N, 4° 15' 0.2628"W). The aim is to highlight their combined importance and to make preliminary investigations on the local warming effect of urban morphology under specific atmospheric stability classes. The present work indicates that the maximum intra-urban temperature differences (i.e. temperature difference between the coolest and the warmest spots in a given urban region) is strongly correlated with atmospheric stability. The spatial patterns in local temperature variations consistently show that water bodies and urban parks have lower temperature variations. Thus, greenery and urban materials could play an important role in influencing the local climate in cold cities. The knowledge of urban morphology's influence on local temperature variations could be an important tool for devising appropriate planning/design strategies to face urban overheating in the coming years as the background climate continues to warm.

  20. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  1. Differing morphologies of textured diamond films with electrical properties made with microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wen Chi; Wu, Yu-Shiang; Chang, Hou-Cheng; Lee, Yuan-Haun

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the orientation of textured diamond films produced through microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) at 1200 W, 110 Torr, CH 4/H 2 = 1/20, with depositions times of 0.5-4.0 h. After a growth period of 2.0-4.0 h, this particular morphology revealed a rectangular structure stacked regularly on the diamond film. The orientation on {1 1 1}-textured diamond films grew a preferred orientation of {1 1 0} on the surface, as measured by XRD. The formation of the diamond epitaxial film formed textured octahedrons in ball shaped (or cauliflower-like) diamonds in the early stages (0.5 h), and the surface of the diamond film extended to pile the rectangular structure at 4.0 h. The width of the tier was approximately 200 nm at the 3.0 h point of deposition, according to TEM images. The results revealed that the textured diamond films showed two different morphological structures (typical ball shaped and rectangular diamonds), at different stages of the deposition period. The I- V characteristics of the oriented diamond films after 4.0 h of deposition time showed good conformity with the ohmic contact.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of different MnO2 morphologies for lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun-A.; Jang, Hyuk; Hwang, Hyein; Choi, Mincheol; Lim, Dongwook; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2014-09-01

    Manganese dioxide (MnO2) was synthesized in the forms of nanorods, nanoparticles, and mesoporous structures and the characteristics of these materials were investigated. Crystallinities were studied by x-ray diffraction and morphologies by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Average pore sizes and specific surface areas were analyzed using the Barret-Joyner-Halenda and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods, respectively. Samples were also studied by cyclic voltammetry using 1M aqueous KOH solution saturated with either O2 or N2 as electrolytes to investigate their ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) and OER (oxygen evolution reaction) activities. Of the samples produced, mesoporous MnO2 exhibited the highest ORR and OER catalytic activities. Mesoporous MnO2 supported on a gas diffusion layer was also used as a catalyst on the air electrode (cathode) of a lithium-air battery in organic electrolyte. The charge-discharge behavior of mesoporous MnO2 was investigated at a current density 0.2 mAcm-2 in a pure oxygen environment. Mesoporous MnO2 electrodes showed stable cycleability up to 65 cycles at a cell capacity of 700 mAhg-1.

  3. Functional Properties and Morphological Characters of Soluble Dietary Fibers in Different Edible Parts of Angelica Keiskei.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fan; Wang, Yuqiang; Wu, Jinhong; Wang, Zhengwu

    2016-09-01

    This study comparatively investigated the functional properties, chemical compositions, and morphological characters of soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) from the root, stem, and leaf of Angelica keiskei. The SDFs showed relevant functional properties, with the root SDF (RSDF) exhibiting the highest water-holding capacity (22.6 g/g), oil-holding capacity (6.29 mL/g), swelling capacity (36.6 mL/g), emulsion stability, and fat adsorption (5.66 g/g). Stem SDF (SSDF) gave the highest foam stability, toxic ions adsorption (Pb: 1.12 mg/g; As: 3.22 mg/g), and bile acid salts adsorption (sodium cholate: 85.6 mg/g; sodium glycocholate: 93.1 mg/g; sodium taurocholate: 125.7 mg/g). RSDF and SSDF presented similar monosaccharide compositions, thermal property, chemical bonds and groups, and irregular, rough, and porous surfaces. It can be concluded that the obtained SDFs, especially for RSDF and SSDF, can be used in the food industry as fiber-rich functional ingredients. PMID:27481763

  4. TiO2 anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with different morphology and additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Ng, Yip Hang; Leung, Yu Hang; Liu, Fangzhou; Djurišic, Aleksandra B.; Xie, Mao Hai; Chan, Wai Kin

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performances of different TiO2 nanostructures, TiO2/CNT composite and TiO2 with titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) treatment anode were investigated. For different TiO2 nanostructures, we investigated vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes on Ti foil and TiO2 nanotube-powders fabricated by rapid breakdown anodization technique. The morphology of the prepared samples was characterized by scanning probe microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical lithium storage abilities were studied by galvanostatic method. In addition, carbon nanotubes (CNT) additives and solution treatment process of TiO2 anode were investigated, and the results show that the additives and treatment could enhance the cycling performance of the TiO2 anode on lithium ion batteries.

  5. Morphological differences in Macoma balthica (Bivalvia, Tellinacea) from a Dutch and three southeastern United States estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamermans, Pauline; Van der Veer, Henk W.; Witte, Johannes IJ.; Adriaans, Ewout J.

    1999-05-01

    Field collections of the bivalve Macoma balthica in the Dutch Wadden Sea and three southeastern United States estuaries revealed morphological differences between populations of the two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Individuals of the same age showed much larger shell lengths at the American stations. In addition, bivalves of the same body weight had higher siphon weights at the American stations than at the Dutch stations. This difference in siphon size was related to their burying depths. The American population, which invested more in heavier siphons, was able to burrow much deeper into the sediment (up to 30 cm). Deep burial may be an adaptation to avoid exposure to the high southern temperatures. Furthermore, it may serve as a refuge from blue crab predation. The results of our comparison between the southern American population and the European support the suggestion that populations of M. balthica living in these two regions should be considered separate and sibling species.

  6. Regulation of an in vivo metal-exchangeable superoxide dismutase from Propionibacterium shermanii exhibiting activity with different metal cofactors.

    PubMed Central

    Sehn, A P; Meier, B

    1994-01-01

    The anaerobic, but aerotolerant Propionibacterium freudenreichii sp. shermanii contains a single superoxide dismutase [EC 1.15.1.1.] exhibiting comparable activity with iron or manganese as metal cofactor. The formation of superoxide dismutase is not depending on the supplementation of iron or manganese to the culture medium. Even in the absence of these metals the protein is built in comparable amounts. Bacteria grown in the absence of iron and manganese synthesize a superoxide dismutase with very low activity which had incorporated copper. If the medium was also depleted of copper, cobalt was incorporated, leading to an enzymically inactive form. In the absence of cobalt an enzymically inactive superoxide dismutase was built with unknown metal contents. Upon aeration the amount of superoxide dismutase activity increased continuously up to 9 h, due to a de novo synthesis of the protein. This superoxide dismutase had incorporated iron into the active centre. The superoxide dismutase of Propionibacterium shermanii is able to form a much wider variety of complexes with trace metal ions in vivo than previously recognized, leading to the hypothesis that the original function of these proteins was the binding of cytoplasmic trace metals present in excess. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7818484

  7. Morphological analysis of cavities prepared by different parameters of Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Patricia M.; Navarro, Ricardo S.; Almeida, Juliana; Imparato, Jose Carlos P.; Eduardo, Carlos P.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes in cavities made by Er:YAG laser (2.94μm)(KaVo KEY 3)(LELO-FOUSP) and high-speed drill. Cavities were made on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 27 human molars (Banco de Dentes-FOUSP), using different laser parameters (n=3): G1-15Hz/160mJ enamel/ 6Hz/200mJ dentin; G2-15Hz/180mJ enamel/ 6Hz/200mJ dentin; G3-15Hz/160mJ enamel/ 6Hz/250mJ dentin; G4-15Hz/180mJ enamel/ 6Hz/250mJ dentin; G5-15Hz/180mJ enamel/ 10Hz/180mJ dentin; G6-15Hz/160mJ enamel/ 10Hz/180mJ dentin; G7-15Hz/160mJ enamel/ 10Hz/160mJ dentin; G8-15Hz/180mJ enamel/ 10Hz/160mJ dentin and G9-high-speed drill. Samples were fixed (2.5% glutaraldhyde, 12h, 4°C), dehydrated (25-100% ethanol), dried to a critical point and sputter-coated with gold for analysis under SEM. All laser parameters used showed no evidence of thermal damage and signs of burning and melting, Er:YAG laser ablated dental hard tissues, showing enamel prisms, like scales, dentin surface without smear layer and opened dentinal tubules. It was concluded that Er:YAG laser parameters were effective for ablation of hard tissues, promoting morphological changes in irradiated tissues, creating an irregular and microretentive morphological pattern.

  8. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    PubMed Central

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal differences between EM and AM trees. We further assessed the evidence of convergence or divergence in root traits among the six co-occurring species. Eight fine root morphological and chemical traits were investigated in root segments of the first to fourth root order in three different soil depths and the relative importance of the factors root order, tree species and soil depth for root morphology was determined. Root order was more influential than tree species while soil depth had only a small effect on root morphology All six species showed similar decreases in specific root length and specific root area from the 1st to the 4th root order, while the species patterns differed considerably in root tissue density, root N concentration, and particularly with respect to root tip abundance. Most root morphological traits were not significantly different between EM and AM species (except for specific root area that was larger in AM species), indicating that mycorrhiza type is not a key factor influencing fine root morphology in these species. The order-based root analysis detected species differences more clearly than the simple analysis of bulked fine root mass. Despite convergence in important root traits among AM and EM species, even congeneric species may differ in certain fine root morphological traits. This suggests that, in general, species identity has a larger influence on fine root morphology than mycorrhiza type. PMID:25717334

  9. Nano-hydroxyapatite and nano-titanium dioxide exhibit different subcellular distribution and apoptotic profile in human oral epithelium.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chor Yong; Fang, Wanru; Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid; Chia, Sing Ling; Tan, Kai Soo; Hong, Catherine Hsu Ling; Leong, David Tai

    2014-05-14

    Nanomaterials (NMs) such as titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) and hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) are widely used in food, personal care, and many household products. Due to their extensive usage, the risk of human exposure is increased and may trigger NMs specific biological outcomes as the NMs interface with the cells. However, the interaction of nano-TiO2 and nano-HA with cells, their uptake and subcellular distribution, and the cytotoxic effects are poorly understood. Herein, we characterized and examined the cellular internalization, inflammatory response and cytotoxic effects of nano-TiO2 and nano-HA using TR146 human oral buccal epithelial cells as an in vitro model. We showed both types of NMs were able to bind to the cellular membrane and passage into the cells in a dose dependent manner. Strikingly, both types of NMs exhibited distinct subcellular distribution profile with nano-HA displaying a higher preference to accumulate near the cell membrane compared to nano-TiO2. Exposure to both types of NMs caused an elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and expression of inflammatory transcripts with increasing NMs concentration. Although cells treated with nano-HA induces minimal apoptosis, nano-TiO2 treated samples displayed approximately 28% early apoptosis after 24 h of NMs exposure. We further showed that nano-TiO2 mediated cell death is independent of the classical p53-Bax apoptosis pathway. Our findings provided insights into the potential cellular fates of human oral epithelial cells as they interface with industrial grade nano-HA and nano-TiO2. PMID:24734929

  10. Alligators and Crocodiles Have High Paracellular Absorption of Nutrients, But Differ in Digestive Morphology and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher R; McWhorter, Todd J; Gienger, C M; Starck, J Matthias; Medley, Peter; Manolis, S Charlie; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    Much of what is known about crocodilian nutrition and growth has come from animals propagated in captivity, but captive animals from the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae respond differently to similar diets. Since there are few comparative studies of crocodilian digestive physiology to help explain these differences, we investigated young Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus in terms of (1) gross and microscopic morphology of the intestine, (2) activity of the membrane-bound digestive enzymes aminopeptidase-N, maltase, and sucrase, and (3) nutrient absorption by carrier-mediated and paracellular pathways. We also measured gut morphology of animals over a larger range of body sizes. The two species showed different allometry of length and mass of the gut, with A. mississippiensis having a steeper increase in intestinal mass with body size, and C. porosus having a steeper increase in intestinal length with body size. Both species showed similar patterns of magnification of the intestinal surface area, with decreasing magnification from the proximal to distal ends of the intestine. Although A. mississippiensis had significantly greater surface-area magnification overall, a compensating significant difference in gut length between species meant that total surface area of the intestine was not significantly different from that of C. porosus. The species differed in enzyme activities, with A. mississippiensis having significantly greater ability to digest carbohydrates relative to protein than did C. porosus. These differences in enzyme activity may help explain the differences in performance between the crocodilian families when on artificial diets. Both A. mississippiensis and C. porosus showed high absorption of 3-O methyl d-glucose (absorbed via both carrier-mediated and paracellular transport), as expected. Both species also showed surprisingly high levels of l-glucose-uptake (absorbed paracellularly), with fractional absorptions as high as those

  11. Temporal-lobe morphology differs between healthy adolescents and those with early-onset of depression

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Rasoulian, Abtin; Bosma, Rachael; Tong, Ryan; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has previously been linked to structural changes in several brain regions, particularly in the medial temporal lobes (Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2010; Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2011). This has been determined using voxel-based morphometry, segmentation algorithms, and analysis of shape deformations (Bell-McGinty et al., 2002; Bergouignan et al., 2009; Posener et al., 2003; Vasic et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2008): these are methods in which information related to the shape and the pose (the size, and anatomical position and orientation) of structures is lost. Here, we incorporate information about shape and pose to measure structural deformation in adolescents and young adults with and without depression (as measured using the Beck Depression Inventory and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria). As a hypothesis-generating study, a significance level of p < 0.05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, was used, so that subtle morphological differences in brain structures between adolescent depressed individuals and control participants could be identified. We focus on changes in cortical and subcortical temporal structures, and use a multi-object statistical pose and shape model to analyze imaging data from 16 females (aged 16–21) and 3 males (aged 18) with early-onset MDD, and 25 female and 1 male normal control participants, drawn from the same age range. The hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, putamen, and superior, inferior and middle temporal gyri in both hemispheres of the brain were automatically segmented using the LONI Probabilistic Brain Atlas (Shattuck et al., 2008) in MNI space. Points on the surface of each structure in the atlas were extracted and warped to each participant's structural MRI. These surface points were analyzed to extract the pose and shape features. Pose differences were detected between the two groups, particularly in the left and right putamina, right hippocampus, and left

  12. Rhizobium meliloti produces a family of sulfated lipo-oligosaccharides exhibiting different degrees of plant host specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, M.; Kondorosi, E.; Quiclet-Sire, B.; Gero, S.D. ); Virelizier, H. ); Glushka, J.N. ); Endre, G.; Kondorosi, A. Inst. of Genetics, Szeged )

    1992-01-01

    The authors have shown that a Rhizobium meliloti strain over expressing nodulation genes excreted high amounts of a family of N-acylated and 6-O-sulfated N-acetyl-{beta}-1,4-D-glucosamine penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide Nod factors. Either a C{sub 16:2} or a C{sub 16:3} acyl chain is attached to the nonreducing end subunit, whereas the sulfate group is bound to the reducing glucosamine. In the root hair deformation assay the pentasaccharides show similar activities on the host plants Medicago sativa and Melilotus albus and on the non-host plant Vicia sativa at a dilution of up to 0.01-0.001 {mu}M, in contrast to NodRm-1, which displays a much higher specific activity for Medicago and melilotus than for Vicia. The active concentration range of the pentasaccharides is more narrow on medicago than on Melilotus and Vicia. In addition to root hair deformation, the different Nod factors were shown to induce nodule formation on M. sativa. They suggest that the production of a series of active signal molecules with different degrees of specificity might be important in controlling the symbiosis of R. meliloti with several different host plants or under different environmental conditions.

  13. Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers exhibit different activities on thyroid hormone receptors depending on their degree of bromination

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiao-Min Guo, Liang-Hong Gao, Yu Zhang, Bin-Tian Wan, Bin

    2013-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) functions in experimental animals, and one of the proposed disruption mechanisms is direct binding of hydroxylated PBDE (OH-PBDE) to TH receptors (TRs). However, previous data on TH receptor binding and TH activity of OH-PBDEs were very limited and sometimes inconsistent. In the present paper, we examined the binding potency of ten OH-PBDEs with different degrees of bromination to TR using a fluorescence competitive binding assay. The results showed that the ten OH-PBDEs bound to TR with potency that correlated to their bromination level. We further examined their effect on TR using a coactivator binding assay and GH3 cell proliferation assay. Different TR activities of OH-PBDEs were observed depending on their degree of bromination. Four low-brominated OH-PBDEs (2′-OH-BDE-28, 3′-OH-BDE-28, 5-OH-BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47) were found to be TR agonists, which recruited the coactivator peptide and enhanced GH3 cell proliferation. However, three high-brominated OH-PBDEs (3-OH-BDE-100, 3′-OH-BDE-154, 4-OH-BDE-188) were tested to be antagonists. Molecular docking was employed to simulate the interactions of OH-PBDEs with TR and identify the structural determinants for TR binding and activity. According to the docking results, low-brominated OH-PBDEs, which are weak binders but TR agonists, bind with TR at the inner side of its binding pocket, whereas high-brominated compounds, which are potent binders but TR antagonists, reside at the outer region. These results indicate that OH-PBDEs have different activities on TR (agonistic or antagonistic), possibly due to their different binding geometries with the receptor. - Highlights: ► Thyroid hormone (TH) activity of OH-PBDEs with different Br number was evaluated. ► Four different experimental approaches were employed to investigate the mechanism. ► Low-brominated OH-PBDEs were agonists, but high-brominated ones were antagonists.

  14. Distinct effects of boar seminal plasma fractions exhibiting different protein profiles on the functionality of highly diluted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    García, E M; Calvete, J J; Sanz, L; Roca, J; Martínez, E A; Vázquez, J M

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how different protein profiles of seminal plasma (SP) fractions affect sperm functionality in vitro. Ejaculates from three boars were separated into six fractions. The fractions differed from each other in their sperm content, in their total SP protein content, and their spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II and heparin-binding protein (HBP) concentrations. Spermatozoa were mainly recovered in fraction 2 (sperm-rich fraction, >1800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml), whereas the pre-sperm fraction 1 and the post-sperm fractions 4-6 contained low numbers of spermatozoa (<500 x 10(6)/ml). Except in fraction 2, the total SP protein concentration and the concentration of both, spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II and the HBPs increased with fraction order. Distinct time-dependent effects were observed on motility characteristics and membrane integrity of highly diluted boar spermatozoa upon incubation with a 10% dilution of the SP from each fraction. The highest sperm viability was recorded after exposure for 5 h to fraction 2, followed by fractions 1 and 3. The percentages of motile spermatozoa also differed significantly among fractions after 5 h of incubation. Spermatozoa incubated with SP of fractions 1-3 showed the highest percentage motility. We conclude that different SP fractions exert distinct effects on the functionality of highly diluted boar spermatozoa. Fractions 1-3 appear to promote sperm survival, whereas fractions 4-6 seem to be harmful for preserving the physiological functions of highly diluted boar spermatozoa. PMID:19323794

  15. Identified motor terminals in Drosophila larvae show distinct differences in morphology and physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lnenicka, G. A.; Keshishian, H.

    2000-01-01

    In Drosophila, the type I motor terminals innervating the larval ventral longitudinal muscle fibers 6 and 7 have been the most popular preparation for combining synaptic studies with genetics. We have further characterized the normal morphological and physiological properties of these motor terminals and the influence of muscle size on terminal morphology. Using dye-injection and physiological techniques, we show that the two axons supplying these terminals have different innervation patterns: axon 1 innervates only muscle fibers 6 and 7, whereas axon 2 innervates all of the ventral longitudinal muscle fibers. This difference in innervation pattern allows the two axons to be reliably identified. The terminals formed by axons 1 and 2 on muscle fibers 6 and 7 have the same number of branches; however, axon 2 terminals are approximately 30% longer than axon 1 terminals, resulting in a corresponding greater number of boutons for axon 2. The axon 1 boutons are approximately 30% wider than the axon 2 boutons. The excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) produced by axon 1 is generally smaller than that produced by axon 2, although the size distributions show considerable overlap. Consistent with vertebrate studies, there is a correlation between muscle fiber size and terminal size. For a single axon, terminal area and length, the number of terminal branches, and the number of boutons are all correlated with muscle fiber size, but bouton size is not. During prolonged repetitive stimulation, axon 2 motor terminals show synaptic depression, whereas axon 1 EPSPs facilitate. The response to repetitive stimulation appears to be similar at all motor terminals of an axon. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Canine GM1-gangliosidosis. A clinical, morphologic, histochemical, and biochemical comparison of two different models.

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, J.; Orgad, U.; DeGasperi, R.; Richard, R.; Warren, C. D.; Knowles, K.; Thalhammer, J. G.; Raghavan, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The clinical, morphologic, histochemical, and biochemical features of GM1-gangliosidosis in two canine models, English Springer Spaniel (ESS) and Portuguese Water Dog (PWD), have been compared. The disease onset, its clinical course, and survival period of the affected dogs were similar in both models. Skeletal dysplasia was noted radiographically at 2 months of age, whereas at 4 1/2 months of age there was progressive neurologic impairment. However, dwarfism and coarse facial features were seen only in ESS. Both models had similar deficiency in activity of lysosomal beta-galactosidase, but possessed a normal protein activator for GM1-beta-galactosidase. Both models stored GM1-ganglioside, asialo-GM1, and oligosaccharides in brain. Furthermore, only the PWD stored glycoproteins containing polylactosaminoglycans in visceral organs, and neither model stored them in the brain. Morphologically, both models demonstrated similar storage material in multiple tissues and cell types. The ultrastructure of the storage material was cell-type specific and identical in both models. However, some differences in the lectin staining pattern were noted. Our clinical, biochemical, and histochemical findings indicate that PWD and ESS may represent two different mutations of the beta-galactosidase gene. Moreover, the authors conclude that it is difficult, and inappropriate, to apply the human classification of GM1-gangliosidosis (i.e. infantile, juvenile, and adult forms) to these canine models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1546746

  17. Morphologic and cytogenetic differences between post-polycythemic myelofibrosis and primary myelofibrosis in fibrotic stage.

    PubMed

    Boiocchi, Leonardo; Mathew, Susan; Gianelli, Umberto; Iurlo, Alessandra; Radice, Tommaso; Barouk-Fox, Sharon; Knowles, Daniel M; Orazi, Attilio

    2013-12-01

    Polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis share a propensity to progress toward a myelofibrotic late stage with overlapping clinical characteristics. Bone marrow features potentially useful for distinguishing the two entities have not been thoroughly investigated and, currently, clinical history is used for purposes of disease classification. This study describes in detail the morphologic features of 23 cases of post-polycythemic myelofibrosis and 15 cases of primary myelofibrosis with a similar degree of fibrosis, from two large medical centers. Cytogenetic results were available in 19 post-polycythemic myelofibrosis and in 13 primary myelofibrosis cases. JAK2 status and follow-up information was available in all cases. Cellularity was increased in both groups, but more so in post-polycythemic myelofibrosis than in primary myelofibrosis. In post-polycythemic myelofibrosis, most megakaryocytes retained polycythemia vera-like features including normally folded and/or hyperlobulated nuclei devoid of severe maturation defects; only in a few cases were rare tight clusters present. In primary myelofibrosis cases, megakaryocytes showed pronounced anomalies, including increased nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, abnormal clumping of chromatin and frequent tight clustering. No differences in blast number (<1%) or in the myeloid:erythroid ratio were observed. Post-polycythemic myelofibrosis showed a higher degree of karyotypic alterations and higher percentage of cases with complex karyotype and/or two or more clones. Chromosome 1 defects were common in post-polycythemic myelofibrosis, whereas isolated del(20q) was the most common alteration in primary myelofibrosis. No survival differences were noted between the two groups. Post-polycythemic myelofibrosis cases retain a distinct megakaryocytic morphology that represents a useful clue for differential diagnosis. In addition, they more often display a complex karyotype than do primary myelofibrosis cases. These results suggest

  18. Morphological differences between three groups of Luciogobius guttatus on the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung-Gi; Kim, Maeng-Jin; Han, Kyung-Nam

    2016-03-01

    Three ecological and geographical forms of Luciogobius guttatus from the western and eastern coasts of the Korean Peninsula as well as the coasts of, Jeju Island which is located to the south of the peninsula are described and compared based on morphological characteristics. The environments of these three coastal areas are different, and the morphometrics show a clear pattern of differentiation and reveal the discreteness of the western, eastern and Jeju groups. In addition, a discriminant analysis (DA), a principal component analysis (PCA) of morphometric characteristics, and a t-test for meristic characteristics all show that the three populations of L. guttatus differ from each other. Three divergent lineages of L. guttatus are described with the possibility of niche differentiation between the western, eastern and Jeju coastal habitats. The standard length of eastern populations was greater than that of western and Jeju populations, and those with morphometric characteristics had a longer body. In addition, eastern populations had a higher number of vertebrae. We speculate that the characteristics of eastern populations evolved through the difference in tide level and gravel density, whereas the difference between western and Jeju populations is due to geographical distance.

  19. Drinking water biofilms on copper and stainless steel exhibit specific molecular responses towards different disinfection regimes at waterworks.

    PubMed

    Jungfer, Christina; Friedrich, Frank; Varela Villarreal, Jessica; Brändle, Katharina; Gross, Hans-Jürgen; Obst, Ursula; Schwartz, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Biofilms growing on copper and stainless steel substrata in natural drinking water were investigated. A modular pilot-scale distribution facility was installed at four waterworks using different raw waters and disinfection regimes. Three-month-old biofilms were analysed using molecular biology and microscopy methods. High total cell numbers, low counts of actively respiring cells and low numbers of cultivable bacteria indicated the high abundance of viable but not cultivable bacteria in the biofilms. The expression of the recA SOS responsive gene was detected and underlined the presence of transcriptionally active bacteria within the biofilms. This effect was most evident after UV disinfection, UV oxidation and UV disinfection with increased turbidity at waterworks compared to chemically treated and non-disinfected systems. Furthermore, live/dead staining techniques and environmental scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the presence of living and intact bacteria in biofilms on copper substrata. Cluster analyses of DGGE profiles demonstrated differences in the composition of biofilms on copper and steel materials. PMID:23875760

  20. Two Clades of Type-1 Brassica napus Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Exhibit Differences in Acyl-CoA Preference.

    PubMed

    Greer, Michael S; Pan, Xue; Weselake, Randall J

    2016-06-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1, 2-diacylglycerol to produce triacylglycerol, which is the main component of the seed oil of Brassica oilseed species. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences encoded by four transcriptionally active DGAT1 genes from Brassica napus suggests that the gene forms diverged over time into two clades (I and II), with representative members in each genome (A and C). The majority of the amino acid sequence differences in these forms of DGAT1, however, reside outside of motifs suggested to be involved in catalysis. Despite this, the clade II enzymes displayed a significantly enhanced preference for linoleoyl-CoA when assessed using in-vitro enzyme assays with yeast microsomes containing recombinant enzyme forms. These findings contribute to our understanding of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in B. napus, and may advance our ability to engineer DGAT1s with desired substrate selectivity properties. PMID:27138895

  1. Proteins IA and IB exhibit different surface exposures and orientations in the outer membranes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, O; Swanson, J

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of whole gonococci to proteinase K resulted in cleavage of protein I (P.I) of the organism in situ. P.I subunits in the P.IB group were cleaved into two membrane-associated fragments, whereas P.IA subunits were cleaved by proteinase K to yield a single membrane-associated fragment slightly smaller in apparent size than the intact P.IA subunit. These data suggest that P.IA and P.IB subunits are quite different in their surface exposures and orientations in the gonococcal outer membrane; P.IB subunits likely have both termini buried in the membrane, whereas P.IA subunits have one of their termini exposed on the surface of the organism. Images PMID:6427111

  2. A morphological comparison of treatment with different beta-lactam antibiotics on experimental staphylococcal endocarditis and aortitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. J.; McColm, A. A.; Acred, P.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis and aortitis with five different beta-lactam antibiotics (ceftazidime, cephaloridine, cefotaxime, methicillin and flucloxacillin) was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. It was found that therapy with all five antibiotics produced similar morphological changes. At 3 and 8 h, the bacterial colonies showed zonal changes with the bacteria furthest from the lumen exhibiting less severe damage while the outer region consisted largely of lysed cells. However, in the outer zone a few apparently viable, thick-walled persistent bacteria were observed. At 24 and 48 h, many colonies consisted of large masses of lysed bacteria with only a few thick-walled persistent bacteria. In all cases, therapy was associated with an increased host inflammatory cell response resulting in invasion of leucocytes through the aortic wall or vegetation towards and engulfing the colonies. However, even at 48 h the inflammatory cells had not reached all the deep-seated colonies. It would appear that all the antibiotics reached bactericidal concentrations within the lesions. However, the eradication of the few 'persistent' bacteria was delayed by the inability of the inflammatory cells to reach all the colonies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:2206986

  3. Bisphenol A and its analogs exhibit different apoptotic potential in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Mokra, Katarzyna; Kocia, Magdalena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2015-10-01

    There are only a few studies that have assessed the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on human blood cells and no study has been conducted to analyze the impact of BPA analogs on human leucocytes. In this study, we have investigated the effect of BPA and its analogs like bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on apoptosis induction in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In order to clarify the mechanism of bisphenols-induced programmed cell death, changes in various signaling molecules of this process have been assessed. We observed an increase in cytosolic calcium ions (Ca(2+)) level and reduction of transmembrane mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) in PBMCs incubated with all compounds examined, and particularly BPA and BPAF. All compounds studied changed PBMCs membrane permeability, activated caspase-8, -9, -3 and induced PARP-1 cleavage and chromatin condensation, which confirmed that they were capable of inducing apoptosis both via intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. Moreover, we have found that modus operandi of bisphenols studied was different. We noticed that BPAF and BPS caused mainly necrotic and apoptotic changes, respectively, whereas BPA induced comparable apoptotic and necrotic effects in the incubated cells. PMID:26271707

  4. Children with New Onset Epilepsy Exhibit Diffusion Abnormalities in Cerebral White Matter in the Absence of Volumetric Differences

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth; Pulsipher, Dalin; Dabbs, Kevin; Myers y Gutierrez, Adan; Sheth, Raj; Jones, Jana; Seidenberg, Michael; Meyerand, Elizabeth; Hermann, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The purpose of this investigation was to examine the diffusion properties of cerebral white matter in children with recent onset epilepsy (n=19) compared to healthy controls (n=11). Subjects underwent DTI with quantification of mean diffusion (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (Dax) and radial diffusivity (Drad) for regions of interest including anterior and posterior corpus callosum, fornix, cingulum, and internal and external capsules. Quantitative volumetrics were also performed for the corpus callosum and its subregions (anterior, midbody and posterior) and total lobar white and gray matter for the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. The results demonstrated no group differences in total lobar gray or white matter volumes or volume of the corpus callosum and its subregions, but did show reduced FA and increased Drad in the posterior corpus callosum and cingulum. These results provide the earliest indication of microstructural abnormality in cerebral white matter among children with idiopathic epilepsies. This abnormality occurs in the context of normal volumetrics and suggests disruption in myelination processes. PMID:20044239

  5. The human genome retains relics of its prokaryotic ancestry: human genes of archaebacterial and eubacterial origin exhibit remarkable differences.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ponce, David; McInerney, James O

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotes are generally thought to stem from a fusion event involving an archaebacterium and a eubacterium. As a result of this event, contemporaneous eukaryotic genomes are chimeras of genes inherited from both endosymbiotic partners. These two coexisting gene repertoires have been shown to differ in a number of ways in yeast. Here we combine genomic and functional data in order to determine if and how human genes that have been inherited from both prokaryotic ancestors remain distinguishable. We show that, despite being fewer in number, human genes of archaebacterial origin are more highly and broadly expressed across tissues, are more likely to have lethal mouse orthologs, tend to be involved in informational processes, are more selectively constrained, and encode shorter and more central proteins in the protein-protein interaction network than eubacterium-like genes. Furthermore, consistent with endosymbiotic theory, we show that proteins tend to interact with those encoded by genes of the same ancestry. Most interestingly from a human health perspective, archaebacterial genes are less likely to be involved in heritable human disease. Taken together, these results show that more than 2 billion years after eukaryogenesis, the human genome retains at least two somewhat distinct communities of genes. PMID:21795752

  6. Comparison of wing morphology in three birds of prey: correlations with differences in flight behavior.

    PubMed

    Corvidae, Elaine L; Bierregaard, Richard O; Peters, Susan E

    2006-05-01

    Flight is the overriding characteristic of birds that has influenced most of their morphological, physiological, and behavioral features. Flight adaptations are essential for survival in the wide variety of environments that birds occupy. Therefore, locomotor structure, including skeletal and muscular characteristics, is adapted to reflect the flight style necessitated by different ecological niches. Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) soar to locate their prey, Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) actively chase down avian prey, and ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) soar and hover to locate fish. In this study, wing ratios, proportions of skeletal elements, and relative sizes of selected flight muscles were compared among these species. Oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities of several muscles were also analyzed via assays for citrate synthase (CS) and for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). It was found that structural characteristics of these three raptors differ in ways consistent with prevailing aerodynamic models. The similarity of enzymatic activities among different muscles of the three species shows low physiological differentiation and suggests that wing architecture may play a greater role in determining flight styles for these birds. PMID:16477604

  7. Rearing conditions differently affect the motor performance and cerebellar morphology of prenatally stressed juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Ulupinar, Emel; Erol, Kevser; Ay, Hakan; Yucel, Ferruh

    2015-02-01

    The cerebellum is one of the most vulnerable parts of the brain to environmental changes. In this study, the effect of diverse environmental rearing conditions on the motor performances of prenatally stressed juvenile rats and its reflection to the cerebellar morphology were investigated. Prenatally stressed Wistar rats were grouped according to different rearing conditions (Enriched=EC, Standard=SC and Isolated=IC) after weaning. Six weeks later, male and female offspring from different litters were tested behaviorally. In rotarod and string suspension tests, females gained better scores than males. Significant gender and housing effects were observed especially on the motor functions requiring fine skills with the best performance by enriched females, but the worst by enriched males. The susceptibility of cerebellar macro- and micro-neurons to environmental conditions was compared using stereological methods. In female groups, no differences were observed in the volume proportions of cerebellar layers, soma sizes and the numerical densities of granule or Purkinje cells. However, a significant interaction between housing and gender was observed in the granule to Purkinje cell ratio of males, due to the increased numerical densities of the granule cells in enriched males. These data imply that proper functioning of the cerebellum relies on its well organized and evolutionarily conserved structure and circuitry. Although early life stress leads to long term behavioral and neurobiological consequences in the offspring, diverse rearing conditions can alter the motor skills of animals and synaptic connectivity between Purkinje and granular cells in a gender dependent manner. PMID:25315128

  8. Species specific effects of three morphologically different belowground seagrasses on sediment properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattanachot, Ekkalak; Prathep, Anchana

    2015-12-01

    Roots and rhizomes of seagrass play an important role in coastline zone by anchoring the substrate firmly which prevent resuspension and also controlling sediment biogeochemistry. The aim of this study was to compare the physical and chemical differences of sediments for 3 seagrass species, which have different root morphology between summer (February 2013) and the monsoon month (September 2013). Seven seagrass communities were studied and are: the mono stand of Halophila ovalis, Thalassia hemprichii, and Cymodocea rotundata, the mixed patches of H. ovalis with T. hemprichii, H. ovalis with C. rotundata, and T. hemprichii with C. rotundata and the mixed patches of 3 seagrass species. The roots of seagrasses were the main driver of differences in sediment properties; the branched, long root species, C. rotundata, showed an increasing redox potential by means of oxygen releasing from their roots. The unbranched, long root with dense root hair species, T. hemprichii, tended to cause more poorly sorted sediments. The carbon storage was also estimated and results showed a trend of higher organic carbon density was in the multispecific patches, the mono specific patches and bare sand, respectively. Season also influenced the sediment properties; high wave action in the monsoon stirred up the sediments, this led to lower organic carbon density and high redox potential. Our results suggest that the roots of seagrass species both increase and decrease sediment properties.

  9. The mechanical and morphological properties of bone beneath internal fixation plates of differing rigidity.

    PubMed

    Claes, L

    1989-01-01

    The internal fixation of diaphyseal fractures by bone plates is a well recognized treatment. The normal physiological stress of bone is reduced by plates that cause a negative balance of bone-remodeling processes. Many investigators have shown that the degree of stress protection is dependent on the rigidity of the plates. It was the aim of this study to quantify mechanical and morphological changes at different locations in a plated diaphyseal bone as a function of differing plate rigidity. Two types of plates with the same size but different materials were used. The stainless steel plates had a modulus of elasticity and bending stiffness 3.2 times higher than the carbon fiber reinforced carbon plates. Both types of plates were applied to the intact right and left femora of six foxhounds for 6 months. The stiffer stainless steel plates led to a significantly higher bone loss and correspondingly greater loss of mechanical properties. These effects were greatest directly beneath the plate and less with increasing distance from the plate. PMID:2918416

  10. Estimation of runoff mitigation by morphologically different cover crop root systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Loiskandl, Willibald; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Himmelbauer, Margarita; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Hydrology is a major driver of biogeochemical processes underlying the distinct productivity of different biomes, including agricultural plantations. Understanding factors governing water fluxes in soil is therefore a key target for hydrological management. Our aim was to investigate changes in soil hydraulic conductivity driven by morphologically different root systems of cover crops and their impact on surface runoff. Root systems of twelve cover crop species were characterized and the corresponding hydraulic conductivity was measured by tension infiltrometry. Relations of root traits to Gardner's hydraulic conductivity function were determined and the impact on surface runoff was estimated using HYDRUS 2D. The species differed in both rooting density and root axes thickness, with legumes distinguished by coarser axes. Soil hydraulic conductivity was changed particularly in the plant row where roots are concentrated. Specific root length and median root radius were the best predictors for hydraulic conductivity changes. For an intensive rainfall simulation scenario up to 17% less rainfall was lost by surface runoff in case of the coarsely rooted legumes Melilotus officinalis and Lathyrus sativus, and the densely rooted Linum usitatissimum. Cover crops with coarse root axes and high rooting density enhance soil hydraulic conductivity and effectively reduce surface runoff. An appropriate functional root description can contribute to targeted cover crop selection for efficient runoff mitigation.

  11. A coastal and an interior Douglas fir provenance exhibit different metabolic strategies to deal with drought stress.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoguo; Jansen, Kirstin; Kleiber, Anita; Eiblmeier, Monika; Kammerer, Bernd; Ensminger, Ingo; Gessler, Arthur; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Drought is a major environmental stress affecting growth and vitality of forest ecosystems. In the present study, foliar nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) metabolism of two Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) provenances with assumed different drought tolerance were investigated. We worked with 1-year-old seedlings of the interior provenance Fehr Lake (FEHR) originating from a dry environment and the coastal provenance Snoqualmie (SNO) from a more humid origin. Total C and N, structural N and the concentrations of soluble protein, total amino acids (TAAs) and individual amino acids as well as the relative abundance of polar, low-molecular-weight metabolites including antioxidants were determined in current-year needles exposed either to 42 days of drought or to 42 days drought plus 14 days of rewatering. The seedlings reacted in a provenance-specific manner to drought stress. Coastal provenance SNO showed considerably increased contents of TAAs, which were caused by increased abundance of the quantitatively most important amino acids arginine, ornithine and lysine. Additionally, the polyamine putrescine accumulated exclusively in drought-stressed trees of this provenance. In contrast, the interior provenance FEHR showed the opposite response, i.e., drastically reduced concentrations of these amino acids. However, FEHR showed considerably increased contents of pyruvate-derived and aromatic amino acids, and also higher drought-induced levels of the antioxidants ascorbate and α-tocopherol. In response to drought, both provenances produced large amounts of carbohydrates, such as glucose and fructose, most likely as osmolytes that can readily be metabolized for protection against osmotic stress. We conclude that FEHR and SNO cope with drought stress in a provenance-specific manner: the coastal provenance SNO was mainly synthesizing N-based osmolytes, a reaction not observed in the interior provenance FEHR; instead, the latter increased the levels of scavengers of reactive

  12. Dynamic monitoring of avalanches and barchan dune morphology change at different timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, Joanna; Wiggs, Giles; Baddock, Matthew; Hipondoka, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Aeolian dune morphology responds dynamically to changing wind conditions. The lee slope avalanche dynamics of dunes are particularly sensitive to prior morphological conditions as well as the varying intensity and duration characteristics of sand transport events. Here we use terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to measure dune surface change over minutes, hours, a week and a year during conditions of variable approach flow resulting in considerable lee slope reworking. Several different avalanche patterns are recognised that can be related to slope characteristics, wind direction and slope reworking. We find that during oblique winds, horn reworking can reduce the lee slope angle. When the dominant, formative winds of the barchan return, the reworked lee slope, perpendicular to the prior oblique wind, takes longer to start avalanching. In the central region of the dune, avalanche frequency and the extent of lee slope reworking depends on wind speed. Under high winds from the dominant direction, there is continual erosion near the dune brink central area, due to the exceedance of a critical angle of repose, whilst under weaker winds the frequency of grainfall sedimentation and avalanches diminishes and net deposition in the brink area is more common. During the week of measurements, changes to the crest-brink area and lee slope form are considerable, based on the reworking of the slope by avalanche events, and this ultimately influences the dune migration rate. Over the course of a year, we demonstrate that the shape of the barchan stoss and lee slopes can change significantly, whilst the overall dune size and general planform is maintained. Our findings help elucidate dune mobility mechanics and pattern modifications at the wind storm event scale.

  13. Diversity of floral visitors to sympatric Lithophragma species differing in floral morphology.

    PubMed

    Cuautle, Mariana; Thompson, John N

    2010-01-01

    Most coevolving relationships between pairs of species are embedded in a broader multispecific interaction network. The mutualistic interaction between Lithophragma parviflorum (Saxifragaceae) and its pollinating floral parasite Greya politella (Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) occurs in some communities as a pairwise set apart from most other interactions in those communities. In other communities, however, this pair of species occurs with congeners and with other floral visitors to Lithophragma. We analyzed local and geographic differences in the network formed by interactions between Lithophragma plants and Greya moths in communities containing two Lithophragma species, two Greya species, and floral visitors other than Greya that visit Lithophragma flowers. Our goal was to evaluate if non-Greya visitors were common, if visitor assembly differs between Lithophragma species and populations and if these visitors act as effective pollinators. Sympatric populations of L. heterophyllum and L. parviflorum differ in floral traits that may affect assemblies of floral visitors. Visitation rates by non-Greya floral visitors were low, and the asymptotic number of visitor species was less than 20 species in all populations. Lithophragma species shared some of the visitors, with visitor assemblages differing between sites more for L. heterophyllum than for L. parviflorum. Pollination efficacy experiments showed that most visitors were poor pollinators. Single visits to flowers by this assemblage of species resulted in significantly higher seed set in Lithophragma heterophyllum (30.6 +/- 3.9 SE) than in L. parviflorum (4.7 +/- 3.4 SE). This difference was consistent between sites, suggesting that these visitors provide a better fit to the floral morphology of L. heterophyllum. Overall, none of the non-Greya visitors appears to be either sufficiently common or efficient as a pollinator to impose strong selection on any of these four Lithophragma populations in comparison with Greya

  14. Different amorphous solid-state forms of roxithromycin: A thermodynamic and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Milne, Marnus; Liebenberg, Wilna; Aucamp, Marique Elizabeth

    2016-02-10

    The striking impact that different preparation methods have on the characteristics of amorphous solid-state forms has attracted considerable attention during the last two decades. The pursuit of more extensive knowledge regarding polyamorphism therefore continues. The aim of this study was firstly, to investigate the influence of different preparation techniques to obtain amorphous solid-state forms for the same active pharmaceutical ingredient, namely roxithromycin. The preparation techniques also report on a method utilizing hot air, which although it is based on a melt intermediary step, is considered a novel preparation method. Secondly, to conduct an in-depth investigation into any physico-chemical differences between the resulting amorphous forms and thirdly, to bring our findings into context with that of previous work done, whilst simultaneously discussing a well-defined interpretation for the term polyamorphism and propose a discernment between true polyamorphism and pseudo-polyamorphism/atypical-polyamorphism. The preparation techniques included melt, solution, and a combination of solution-mechanical disruption as intermediary steps. The resulting amorphous forms were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, hot-stage microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and vapor sorption. Clear and significant thermodynamic differences were determined between the four amorphous forms. It was also deduced from this study that different preparation techniques have a mentionable impact on the morphological properties of the resulting amorphous roxithromycin powders. Thermodynamic properties as well as the physical characteristics of the amorphous forms greatly governed other physico-chemical properties i.e. solubility and dissolution. PMID:26705157

  15. Differences of Upper Airway Morphology According to Obesity: Study with Cephalometry and Dynamic MD-CT

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Chun, Bum Soo; Lee, Ho Won

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigated difference of parameters of polysomnography, cephalometry and dynamic multi-detector computerized tomography (MD-CT) in wake and sleep states according to obesity. Methods We evaluated 93 patients who underwent polysomnography and cephalometry. MD-CT was performed in 68 of these 93 patients. Fifty-nine and 34 patients were classified as obese and non-obese, with obesity defined as BMI ≥25. Cephalometry results were analyzed for 12 variables. Using the MD-CT, we evaluated dynamic upper airway morphology in wake and sleep states and divided the upper airway into four parts named as high retropalatal (HRP), low retropalatal (LRP), high retroglossal (HRG), and low retroglossal (LRG). A minimal cross sectional area (mCSA) and collapsibility index (CI) were calculated for each airway level. Results Diastolic blood pressure (P=0.0005), neck circumference (P<0.0001), and apnea-hypopnea index (P<0.0001) were statistically significantly different between the obese and non-obese group. Among 12 cephalometric variables, there was a significant difference in only the distance from mandibular plane to hyoid bone (P=0.003). There was statistical difference in CI of HRG and LRG in sleep state (P=0.0449, 0.0281) but no difference in mCSA in wake and sleep states. Conclusion The obese group had more severe sleep apnea than the non-obese group. We believe that the increased severity of apnea in the obese group may be have been due to increased collapsibility of the upper airway rather than decreased size of the upper airway. PMID:20978543

  16. [Comparative study of the volume difference vs. healthy limb, morphological and population description in transfemoral amputees].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the general characteristics and physical condition that keeps the transfemoral amputation stump to select and adapt appropriate type of prosthesis to restore a walking pattern amputee patient acceptable and useful design parameters set to propose new prosthetic systems. In this paper, the degree of difference between the volumes of the limb stump and healthy as well as morphological features occurred more frequently in the stumps of transfemoral amputees who were treated at the Laboratory of Orthotics and Prosthetics (LOP), Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR) in 2008. It captured all patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation left and right, over 18 years old, both sexes, use of hearing candidates were evaluated clinically and took three measurements of the circumferences at different wavelengths and the limb stump healthy, were calculated volumes of both sides using the mathematical model of the truncated cone and analyzed in three groups according to the level of amputation (proximal, middle and distal third). We obtained 49 patients, 39 men and 10 women, the difference stump volume compared to healthy limb volume per group were: 44.9% proximal third, middle third and distal 26.5%, 21.1%, the frequency of diagnostic data showed a stump right transfemoral amputees, due to metabolic, without use of prostheses, the most common morphological features indicate that the stump has a conical shape and size distal third, whose tissue is semi-flaccid consistency, the scar is not adhered to deep planes and shows a negative tinel, the mattress soft tissue is 2.15 ± 1.3 cm and physically presents a force level 4 in the clinical rating scale Daniels. The data are consistent with other studies comparing the percentage of the volume change with the percentages of reduced diameters transfemoral stump muscle, likewise agrees most amputees incidence of diabetes mellitus with other studies, cataloging it eat first cause amputation. The general description

  17. Morphology and composition of pyrotechnic residues formed at different levels of confinement.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Duvalois, Willem; Webb, Rutger; Koeberg, Mattijs

    2009-04-15

    Post explosion residues (PER) are residues from pyrotechnic compositions or explosives that are generated during an explosion. In the recent past SEM/EDX was used several times to analyze PER from pyrotechnic compositions. The results from these studies suggest that there might be a difference in morphology and composition of pyrotechnic residues formed at different levels of confinement. Also because of general thermodynamic principles it is believed that at higher levels of confinement the final pressure and temperature during the explosion is probably (but not necessarily) higher, eventually resulting in smaller and more spherical particles and a more homogeneous elemental composition. If there is a relation between morphology and composition of pyrotechnic residues and the level of confinement at which these are formed, it would be possible to draw conclusions about the conditions at which pyrotechnic residues were formed and the kind and construction of the device used. This may aid forensic scientists not only in the determination of the original explosive composition, but also of the explosive device. To perform controlled experiments with pyrotechnic charges at, at least, two pre-set levels of confinement a test vessel was built by TNO Defence, Security and Safety. For this study, three different flash powder compositions and black powder were selected. The generated residues were sampled on collecting plates and Nucleopore filters connected to a pump system in the immediate vicinity of the venting area for further analyses by SEM/EDX and XRD. From the results it follows that in the pressure range studied, the level of confinement seems to have a minor effect on the features of the generated residue particles. Because passive sampling by means of collector plates seemed doubtful and because the number of experiments had to be limited it is impossible to draw definitive conclusions. In addition to the level of confinement several other variables may affect

  18. Morphological and elemental properties of urban aerosols among PM events and different traffic systems.

    PubMed

    Maskey, Shila; Chae, Hoseung; Lee, Kwangyul; Dan, Nguyen Phuoc; Khoi, Tran Tien; Park, Kihong

    2016-11-01

    Morphology and elemental composition of individual fine ambient particles varied among types of PM events and between two different urban environments having different major transportation systems (gasoline/diesel vehicles versus motorcycles). Carbonaceous particles were the most dominant in PM events, whereas S-rich particles were the highest in non-events at urban Gwangju in Korea. The aged soot, semi-volatile organic (SVO), and non-volatile organic (NVO) particles were more abundant in the polluted-long range transport (LTP) event than those in the dust-LTP event and non-event. In the dust-LTP event, the aged mineral dust particles outnumbered the fresh ones, suggesting the mineral dust particles were aged during their long-range transport. At HoChiMinh (HCM) in Vietnam, the fraction of carbonaceous particles was much higher than Gwangju (66% versus 30%) possibly due to more abundant two-stroke motor vehicles at HCM. Of the carbonaceous particles, combustion soot (19%) was the highest, followed by NVO (18%), SVO (17%), and biological particles (11%) at HCM, whereas SVO (11%) and NVO (10%) particles were the highest, followed by combustion soot particles (8%) at Gwangju. The higher fraction of mineral dust particles was also observed at HCM, indicating the sampling site was influenced by dust from unpaved roads and construction sites. PMID:27262278

  19. Influence of different crosslinking systems on the mechanical and morphological properties of thermoplastic vulcanizates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patermann, Simone; Altstädt, Volker

    2015-05-01

    Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) combine the elastic properties of thermoset cross-linked rubbers with the melt processability of thermoplastics. The most representative examples of this class are the TPVs based on polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer rubber (EPDM). The PP/EPDM blends were produced by dynamic vulcanization in a continuous extrusion process. The influence of different crosslinking systems was studied with regard to cross-link density, compression set, tensile strength/elongation at break and morphology. With increasing peroxide concentration, the cross-link density increases, leading to a reduction of the compression set by 50 %. The same improvement is only reachable with twice the concentration of phenolic resin. Only the peroxide cross-linked blends show smaller dispersed EPDM particles with increasing peroxide concentration. With a peroxide concentration between 0.2 and 0.5 wt. %, a maximum in tensile strength and elongation at break was found. For the phenolic resin cross-linked blends, the tensile strength stays almost constant with increasing phenolic resin concentration and the elongation at break shows best results at 0.5 wt. % phenolic resin. Compared to batch processes, the results show different values, but comparable trends.

  20. The Association between Morphological Awareness and Literacy in English Language Learners from Different Language Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Siegel, Linda S.; Mazabel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main goal of this study was to examine whether the morphological structure of a child's first language determined the strength of association between morphological awareness and reading and spelling skills in English, their second language. Methods: The sample consisted of 888 Grade six students who had English as their first language…

  1. Comparative analysis of movement characteristics of lancelet and fish spermatozoa having different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Sumio

    2012-06-01

    The movement characteristics of the sperm and their flagella obtained from a lancelet and 35 species from almost all orders of fishes were examined using high-speed video microscopy. The aim was to clarify the relationship between the motility parameters of the spermatozoa having different morphologies and how these motility parameters affect the swimming speed of the spermatozoa. The motility parameters representing the flagellar waveform, the wavelength, and the amplitude were neither very different between the spermatozoa of the different species nor related to the swimming speed. In contrast, the beat frequency was remarkably changed in the different spermatozoa and was proportional to the swimming speed. The maximum shear angle of the flagellar wave, which is directly related to the maximum sliding displacement between the doublet microtubules, remained nearly constant while the beat frequency varied widely; therefore, the spermatozoa beat in the constant sliding displacement mode. An analysis of the relationship between swimming speed and flagellar length revealed that short flagella were at a disadvantage in developing swimming speed; however, so were extra-long flagella. The ratio of the swimming speed to the wave velocity calculated from the wavelength and the beat frequency depended on the distance from the glass surface. The swimming speeds calculated using the original resistive-force theory were greater than the measured values. To rationalize the measured values, the ratio between the normal and tangential drag coefficient in the resistive-force theory was corrected; namely, 1.99 at 1 μm and 1.63 at 3 μm from the glass surface. PMID:22815370

  2. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  3. Motor unit potential morphology differences in individuals with non-specific arm pain and lateral epicondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Calder, Kristina M; Stashuk, Daniel W; McLean, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of non-specific arm pain (NSAP) is unclear and the diagnosis is made by excluding other specific upper limb pathologies, such as lateral epicondylitis or cervical radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine: (i) if the quantitative parameters related to motor unit potential morphology and/or motor unit firing patterns derived from electromyographic (EMG) signals detected from an affected muscle of patients with NSAP are different from those detected in the same muscle of individuals with lateral epicondylitis (LE) and/or control subjects and (ii) if the quantitative EMG parameters suggest that the underlying pathophysiology in NSAP is either myopathic or neuropathic in nature. Methods Sixteen subjects with NSAP, 11 subjects with LE, eight subjects deemed to be at-risk for developing a repetitive strain injury, and 37 control subjects participated. A quantitative electromyography evaluation was completed using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG). Needle- and surface-detected EMG signals were collected during low-level isometric contractions of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscle. DQEMG was used to extract needle-detected motor unit potential trains (MUPTs), and needle-detected motor unit potential (MUP) and surface detected motor unit potential (SMUP) morphology and motor unit (MU) firing rates were compared among the four groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey's pairwise comparisons. Results Significant group differences were found for all MUP variables and for MU firing rate (p < 0.006). The post-hoc analyses revealed that patients with NSAP had smaller MUP amplitude and SMUP amplitude and area compared to the control and LE groups (p < 0.006). MUP duration and AAR values were significantly larger in the NSAP, LE and at-risk groups compared to the control group (p < 0.006); while MUP amplitude, duration and AAR values were

  4. Osteocyte morphology in human tibiae of different bone pathologies with different bone mineral density--is there a role for mechanosensing?

    PubMed

    van Hove, Ruud P; Nolte, Peter A; Vatsa, Aviral; Semeins, Cornelis M; Salmon, Philip L; Smit, Theo H; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2009-08-01

    Matrix strains due to external loading are different in bones of different pathologies with different bone mineral density (BMD), and are likely sensed by the osteocytes, the putative bone mechanosensors. The mechanosensitivity of osteocytes appears to be strongly influenced by their morphology. In this study, we explored the possibility that osteocyte morphology might play a role in various bone pathologies with different BMD. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and nano-CT were used to quantitatively determine 3D morphology and alignment of osteocytes and osteocyte lacunae in human proximal tibial bone with relatively low (osteopenic), medium (osteoarthritic), and high (osteopetrotic) BMD. Osteopenic osteocytes were relatively large and round (lengths 8.9:15.6:13.4 microm), osteopetrotic osteocytes were small and discoid shaped (lengths 5.5:11.1:10.8 microm), and osteoarthritic osteocytes were large and elongated (lengths 8.4:17.3:12.2 microm). Osteopenic osteocyte lacunae showed 3.5 fold larger volume and 2.2 fold larger surface area than osteoarthritic lacunae, whereas osteopetrotic lacunae were 1.9 fold larger and showed 1.5 fold larger surface area than osteoarthritic lacunae. Osteopetrotic osteocyte lacunae had lower alignment than osteopenic and osteoarthritic lacunae as indicated by their lower degree of anisotropy. The differences in 3D morphology of osteocytes and their lacunae in long bones of different pathologies with different BMD might reflect an adaptation to matrix strain due to different external loading conditions. Moreover, since direct mechanosensing of matrix strain likely occurs by the cell bodies, the differences in osteocyte morphology and their lacunae might indicate differences in osteocyte mechanosensitivity. The exact relationship between osteocyte morphology and bone architecture, however, is complex and deserves further study. PMID:19398046

  5. Variations in clast morphology for different till fractions: implementation of digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominiczak, Aleksander

    2014-05-01

    The form of clastic particles provides information about debris history including abrasion and transportation which are vital to geomorphological research because of its usefulness for differentiating subglacial debris form englacialy, supraglacialy and fluvially transported sediments, and for understanding subglacial processes. There are numerous attempts to clastic particles form assessment, both qualitative and quantitative and advance in technology enables the use of digital imaging and image processing in order to calculate the precise indicators of shape and roundness (small-scale surface features superimposed on shape and roundness are not a subject of this study). Computer calculations are fast, reliable and objective and its use decrease probability of errors. They are applicable to till deposits analysis and may help in understanding the processes of glacial deposition. Till deposits consist of a mixture of various fractions of sediment, where coarser and thinner grains are together activated, entrained in ice, transported, deposited and post-depositional transformed together in the same time and conditions. That implies similarity of processes acting on the particles, but not necessarily theirs effects. Physical properties of grain are of great significance for its vulnerability to acting forces. An important feature of the tills is grain size, which has a high volatility in a sample. The hypothesis of this issue suggests it is possible that different fractions of till sediment have significantly different form characteristics. Verification of the thesis is important because standardly only one fraction is selected to analysis and to draw conclusions from. Main objective is to test differences in clast morphology for different till fraction. In order to answer the research problem, the author has examined samples from a contemporary glaciated region, Nordenskiöld glacier foreland in central Spitsbergen. During the field work samples were collected from

  6. Self-referential forces are sufficient to explain different dendritic morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Memelli, Heraldo; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Kozloski, James

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic morphology constrains brain activity, as it determines first which neuronal circuits are possible and second which dendritic computations can be performed over a neuron's inputs. It is known that a range of chemical cues can influence the final shape of dendrites during development. Here, we investigate the extent to which self-referential influences, cues generated by the neuron itself, might influence morphology. To this end, we developed a phenomenological model and algorithm to generate virtual morphologies, which are then compared to experimentally reconstructed morphologies. In the model, branching probability follows a Galton–Watson process, while the geometry is determined by “homotypic forces” exerting influence on the direction of random growth in a constrained space. We model three such homotypic forces, namely an inertial force based on membrane stiffness, a soma-oriented tropism, and a force of self-avoidance, as directional biases in the growth algorithm. With computer simulations we explored how each bias shapes neuronal morphologies. We show that based on these principles, we can generate realistic morphologies of several distinct neuronal types. We discuss the extent to which homotypic forces might influence real dendritic morphologies, and speculate about the influence of other environmental cues on neuronal shape and circuitry. PMID:23386828

  7. Morphologic contrasts between Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles, Mars: Evidence of different crustal properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, David J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Winchell, Philip J.

    1987-01-01

    Photoclinometric measurements were made of sidewall slopes in Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles and these results were interpreted in terms of the geologic setting and a simple geomorphic model to provide insights into the physical properties of crustal materials in these areas. Nirgal was interpreted to be a runoff channel and Auqakuh to be a fretted channel. Geomorphologic arguments for the sapping origin of Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles were presented. The morphologies of the channels, however, differ greatly: the tributaries of Nirgal end abruptly in theater-headed canyons, whereas the heads of tributaries of Auqakuh shallow gradually. The plateau surface surrounding both channels appears to be covered by smooth materials, presumably lava flows; they are continuous and uneroded in the Nirgal area, but at Auqakuh they are largely eroded and several layers are exposed that total about 200 m in thickness. For Nirgal Valles, the measurements show that sidewalls in the ralatively shallow upper reaches of the channel have average slopes near 30 degrees and, in the lower reaches, sidewall slopes exceed 50 degrees. Auqakuh, on the other hand, has maximum sidewall slopes of 14 degrees and an approximate maximum depth of 1000 m. Faint, horizontal layering in portions of the lower reaches of Nirgal may indicate inhomogeneity in either composition or topography.

  8. Morphological differences in BMP-2-induced ectopic bone between solid and crushed hyaluronan hydrogel templates.

    PubMed

    Hulsart-Billström, Gry; Piskounova, Sonya; Gedda, Lars; Andersson, Britt-Marie; Bergman, Kristoffer; Hilborn, Jöns; Larsson, Sune; Bowden, Tim

    2013-05-01

    The possibility to affect bone formation by using crushed versus solid hydrogels as carriers for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was studied. Hydrogels, based on chemical crosslinking between hyaluronic acid and poly(vinyl alcohol) derivatives, were loaded with BMP-2 and hydroxyapatite. Crushed and solid forms of the gels were analyzed both in vitro via a release study using ¹²⁵I radioactive labeling of BMP-2, and in vivo in a subcutaneous ectopic bone model in rats. Dramatically different morphologies were observed for the ectopic bone formed in vivo in the two types of gels, even though virtually identical release profiles were observed in vitro. Solid hydrogels induced formation of a dense bone shell around non-degraded hydrogel, while crushed hydrogels demonstrated a uniform bone formation throughout the entire sample. These results suggest that by crushing the hydrogel, the construct's three-dimensional network becomes disrupted. This could expose unreacted functional groups, making the fragment's surfaces reactive and enable limited chemical fusion between the crushed hydrogel fragments, leading to similar in vitro release profiles. However, in vivo these interactions could be broken by enzymatic activity, creating a macroporous structure that allows easier cell infiltration, thus, facilitating bone formation. PMID:23392969

  9. [Effects of different contraceptives upon the ovulation changes of the morphological study of the ovaries].

    PubMed

    Bedoya Havia, M; Kesseur, E; Garcia La Madrid, M

    1967-12-01

    Bilateral ovarian wedges were performed on 46 patients scheduled for laparotomies for medical reasons. Prior to the operation, the patients were divided into 5 groups and treated as follows: 1 for control (5 patients); 1 that was given 1 of 3 different combined oral contraceptives, i.e., Anovlar, Gynovlar, or Engynon (22 patients); 1 that was given Sequens (3 patients); 1 that was injected with 200 mg of norethindrone enanthate (14 cases); and 1 given IUDs (2 cases). It was established that all experienced ovulatory cycles prior to therapy. The laparotomies were done between the 22nd-28th day of the menstrual cycle; hormonal therapy was begun between the 3rd-6th day. All but 1 of the group on combined preparations had anovulatory cycles. Detained follicles Grade 3 or 4 with precocious cystic atresic involution were observed. Of the 3 on the sequential preparation, 2 had involuted cystic corpora lutea and 1 had atresic follicles with thecal luteinization. The patients who received the injectable ovulated. There were no morphological or substantial changes in the corpora lutea of the control and IUD groups. PMID:12277382

  10. Characteristics of the electrical response of YBCO films with different morphologies to optical irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Frack, E.K.; Madhavrao, L.; Patl, R.; Drake, R.E.; Radparvar, M. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors have fabricated YBCO films of varying thicknesses (300 {Angstrom} - 3000 {Angstrom}) and morphologies, and measured their electrical response to optical radiation. This paper reports on these measurements, emphasizing the dependence on temperature, light chopping frequency, and cryogenic environment. The temperature dependence of the film resistance is determined in part by the film morphology. This morphology may be represented by a simple model consisting of a two-dimensional array of coupled grains. The magnitude of the bolometric response correlates as expected with the sharpness of the superconducting transition. The increased response observed at lower temperatures (non-equilibrium) correlates with the temperature dependence of the resistance above the transition.

  11. Syntheses and characterization of AgI nano-structures by ultrasonic method: Different morphologies under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Amir Reza; Morsali, Ali

    2010-03-01

    Nano-structures of AgI have been prepared by reaction between AgNO(3) and KI under ultrasound irradiation. Some of parameters such as effect of stirring, temperature, sonicating time in growth and morphology of the nano-structures have been studied. The sizes distributions depend slighter on reaction conditions. But, morphology of nano-structure depends strongly on reaction parameters. With change of solvent concentration and sonicating time, nanoparticles structures changed to nanowires. An increasing of temperature results in an increasing of solubility. As a result, nuclei with small sizes become unstable and dissolve back into the solution. Attendance or non-attendance of stirring is another parameter that effects on morphology of nano-structures. In some conditions, non-attendance of stirring led to nanowires structure and in the other conditions, nanoparticles structures were prepared. The samples were characterized with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:19959390

  12. Fractal Geometry Enables Classification of Different Lung Morphologies in a Model of Experimental Asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obert, Martin; Hagner, Stefanie; Krombach, Gabriele A.; Inan, Selcuk; Renz, Harald

    2015-06-01

    Animal models represent the basis of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma and are of central importance in the preclinical development of drug therapies. The characterization of irregular lung shapes is a major issue in radiological imaging of mice in these models. The aim of this study was to find out whether differences in lung morphology can be described by fractal geometry. Healthy and asthmatic mouse groups, before and after an acute asthma attack induced by methacholine, were studied. In vivo flat-panel-based high-resolution Computed Tomography (CT) was used for mice's thorax imaging. The digital image data of the mice's lungs were segmented from the surrounding tissue. After that, the lungs were divided by image gray-level thresholds into two additional subsets. One subset contained basically the air transporting bronchial system. The other subset corresponds mainly to the blood vessel system. We estimated the fractal dimension of all sets of the different mouse groups using the mass radius relation (mrr). We found that the air transporting subset of the bronchial lung tissue enables a complete and significant differentiation between all four mouse groups (mean D of control mice before methacholine treatment: 2.64 ± 0.06; after treatment: 2.76 ± 0.03; asthma mice before methacholine treatment: 2.37 ± 0.16; after treatment: 2.71 ± 0.03; p < 0.05). We conclude that the concept of fractal geometry allows a well-defined, quantitative numerical and objective differentiation of lung shapes — applicable most likely also in human asthma diagnostics.

  13. Exploring topographic methods for monitoring morphological changes in mountain channels of different size and slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theule, Joshua; Bertoldi, Gabriele; Comiti, Francesco; Macconi, Pierpaolo; Mazzorana, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    High resolution digital elevation models (DEM) can easily be obtained using either laser scanning technology or photogrammetry with structure from motion (SFM). The scale, resolution, and accuracy can vary according to how the data is acquired, such as by helicopter, drone, or extendable pole. In the Autonomous Province of Bozen-Bolzano (Northern Italy), we had the opportunity to compare several of these techniques at different scales in mountain streams ranging from low-gradient braided rivers to steep debris flow channels. The main objective is to develop protocols for efficient monitoring of morphologic changes in different parts of the river systems. For SFM methods, we used the software "Photoscan Professional" (Agisoft) to generate densified point clouds. Both artificial and natural targets were used to georeference them. In some cases, targets were not even necessary and point clouds could be aligned with older point clouds by using the iterative closest point algorithm in the freeware "CloudCompare". At the Mareit/Mareta River, a restored braided river, an airborne laser scan survey (2011) was compared to a SFM DEM derived from a helicopter photo survey (2014) carried out (by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano) at approximately 100 m above ground. Photogrammetry point clouds had an alignment error of 1.5 cm and had three times more data coverage than laser scanning. Indeed, the large spacing and clustering of 2011 ALS swaths led to areas of no data when a 10-cm grid is developed. In the Gadria basin, a debris flow monitoring catchment, we used a sediment retention basin to compare debris flow volumes resulting from i) a drone (by the "Mavtech" company) survey at 10 m above ground (with GoPro camera), ii) a 5-m pole-mounted camera (with Canon EOS 700D) and iii) a 3-m pole-mounted camera (with GoPro Hero Silver3+) to a iv) TLS survey. As the drone had limited load capacity (especially at high elevations) we used the lightweight GoPro Hero 3+, but due to the

  14. The Morphologic Difference between Crater Slopes with and without Gullies on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, S. J.; Mangold, N.; Balme, M. R.; Ansan, V.

    2012-04-01

    Gullies on Mars are km-scale landforms that resemble small fluvial features on Earth. Their discovery [1] challenged the paradigm that over the last ~2 Ga, Mars has been a dry, frozen desert. The gullies are found commonly in the mid-latitudes, have a pole-facing preference [e.g., 2] and are found many kinds of steep slope (valley wall, dunes, etc.). We have chosen to concentrate on gullies found on impact crater interior wall slopes, as this is the most common type [2]. The aim of our study is to determine whether the morphology of crater walls with and without gullies is different. We chose three study areas, two in the southern hemisphere (where gullies are most common), Terra Cimmeria and Noachis Terra and one in the northern hemisphere, Acidalia Planum. All study areas extend over at least 30° of latitude, from ~25° to 55° North or South. We mapped all craters using the catalog of [3] as a basis. We used HRSC elevation data at better than 100 m/pix to extract the slope and curvature of crater walls in the four cardinal directions. We mapped all the gullies on crater walls in the three areas with the aid of HiRISE, MOC, CTX and HRSC images, using polygons to delimit a slope section that contained gullies. Consistent with previous investigations we found gullies concentrated around 40° latitude, with a pole-facing preference. We also found that east-facing gullies were common in both hemispheres. Gullies were most common in Terra Cimmeria and uncommon in Noachis Terra. We found that for a given latitude band and orientation gullies tend to be found on craters with the steepest slopes and the highest curvature. The lack of gullies in Noachis Terra can be explained by the lack of steep, concave slopes in the mid-latitudes of this region. In Terra Cimmeria we found that almost all steep, concave crater slopes hosted gullies, whereas in Acidalia, in the north, only 10-20% of steep concave slopes had gullies. Crater slopes with gullies in the north are steeper

  15. Comparison of craniofacial morphology, head posture and hyoid bone position with different breathing patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Ekizer, Abdullah; Uysal, Tancan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in craniofacial morphology, head posture and hyoid bone position between mouth breathing (MB) and nasal breathing (NB) patients. Methods Mouth breathing patients comprised 34 skeletal Class I subjects with a mean age of 12.8 ± 1.5 years (range: 12.0–15.2 years). Thirty-two subjects with skeletal Class I relationship were included in the NB group (mean 13.5 ± 1.3 years; range: 12.2–14.8 years). Twenty-seven measurements (15 angular and 12 linear) were used for the craniofacial analysis. Additionally, 12 measurements were evaluated for head posture (eight measurements) and hyoid bone position (four measurements). Student’s t-test was used for the statistical analysis. Probability values <0.05 were accepted as significant. Results Statistical comparisons showed that sagittal measurements including SNA (p < 0.01), ANB (p < 0.01), A to N perp (p < 0.05), convexity (p < 0.05), IMPA (p < 0.05) and overbite (p < 0.05) measurements were found to be lower in MB patients compared to NB. Vertical measurements including SN-MP (p < 0.01) and PP-GoGn (p < 0.01), S-N (p <0.05) and anterior facial height (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in MB patients, while the odontoid proses and palatal plane angle (OPT-PP) was greater and true vertical line and palatal plane angle (Vert-PP) was smaller in MB patients compared to NB group (p < 0.05 for both). No statistically significant differences were found regarding the hyoid bone position between both groups. Conclusions The maxilla was more retrognathic in MB patients. Additionally, the palatal plane had a posterior rotation in MB patients. However, no significant differences were found in the hyoid bone position between MB and NB patients. PMID:23960542

  16. Morphology and gene analysis of hybrids between two congeneric sea stars with different modes of development.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kaori; Komatsu, Miéko; Murakami, Manabu; Hori, Isao; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2008-08-01

    The sea star Astropecten scoparius has feeding bipinnarian larvae, whereas its congener Astropecten latespinosus has nonfeeding barrel-shaped larvae. To investigate evolutionary changes in the development of asteroids, we performed reciprocal crosses between these two species with different larval forms. In the cross between A. scoparius eggs and A. latespinosus sperm, embryos developed into bipinnaria-like larvae. The larvae exhibited either a functional digestive system (a maternal feature) or a nonfunctional digestive system with the tip of the archenteron not connected to the stomodeum (a paternal characteristic). However, in the reciprocal cross between A. latespinosus eggs and A. scoparius sperm, barrel-shaped larvae resembling those of A. latespinosus were produced, in addition to bipinnaria-like larvae, some with functional digestive systems and some with nonfunctional ones. Juveniles were produced from all types of crosses. 18S rDNA was used as a gene marker in cycle sequencing analysis to investigate the genetic features of these juveniles. The sequences of juveniles from bipinnaria-like larvae showed double-peak nucleotide signals, indicating a biparental genome. On the other hand, juveniles from barrel-shaped larvae from A. latespinosus eggs and A. scoparius sperm showed the same sequence as A. latespinosus juveniles. This suggests that bipinnaria-like larvae of both crosses are always hybrids, whereas barrel-shaped larvae develop parthenogenetically. PMID:18723640

  17. Breeding on the leading edge of a northward range expansion: differences in morphology and the stress response in the arctic Gambel's white-crowned sparrow.

    PubMed

    Krause, Jesse S; Chmura, Helen E; Pérez, Jonathan H; Quach, Lisa N; Asmus, Ashley; Word, Karen R; McGuigan, Michaela A; Sweet, Shannan K; Meddle, Simone L; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie; Wingfield, John C

    2016-01-01

    Individuals at the forefront of a range shift are likely to exhibit phenotypic traits that distinguish them from the population breeding within the historic range. Recent studies have examined morphological, physiological and behavioral phenotypes of individuals at the edge of their range. Several studies have found differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in response to acute restraint stress in individuals at the range limits. HPA axis activation leads to elevations in glucocorticoids that regulate physiology and behavior. Here we compare the hormonal profiles and morphometrics from Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) breeding at the northern limit of the population's range to those birds breeding within the historic population range. Birds breeding at the northern limit experienced a harsher environment with colder temperatures; however, we found no differences in arthropod prey biomass between the northern limit and more southern (historic) sites. Males at the northern limit had higher body condition scores (mass corrected for body size) compared to individuals within the historic range, but no differences were found in beak and tarsus lengths, wing chord, muscle profile or fat stores. In males during the pre-parental stage, before breeding commenced, HPA axis activity was elevated in birds at the northern limit of the range, but no differences were found during the parental or molt stages. Females showed no differences in HPA axis activity during the parental stage. This study suggests that "pioneering" individuals at the limits of their breeding range exhibit physiology and morphology that are distinct from individuals within the historic range. PMID:26423267

  18. The luminosity function for different morphological types in the CfA Redshift Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzke, Ronald O.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.; Corwin, Harold G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the luminosity function for different morphological types in the original CfA Redshift Survey (CfA1) and in the first two slices of the CfA Redshift Survey Extension (CfA2). CfA1 is a complete sample containing 2397 galaxies distributed over 2.7 steradians with m(sub z) less than or equal 14.5. The first two complete slices of CfA2 contain 1862 galaxies distributed over 0.42 steradians with m(sub z)=15.5. The shapes of the E-S0 and spiral luminosity functions (LF) are indistinguishable. We do not confirm the steeply decreasing faint end in the E-S0 luminosity function found by Loveday et al. for an independent sample in the southern hemisphere. We demonstrate that incomplete classification in deep redshift surveys can lead to underestimates of the faint end of the elliptical luminosity function and could be partially responsible for the difference between the CfA survey and other local field surveys. The faint end of the LF for the Magellanic spirals and irregulars is very steep. The Sm-Im luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function with M*=-18.79, alpha=-1.87, and phi*=0.6x10(exp -3) for M(sub z) less than or equal to -13. These galaxies are largely responsible for the excess at the faint end of the general CfA luminosity function. The abundance of intrinsically faint, blue galaxies nearby affects the interpretation of deep number counts. The dwarf population increases the expected counts at B=25 in a no-evolution, q(sub 0)=0.05 model by a factor of two over standard no-evolution estimates. These dwarfs change the expected median redshift in deep redshift surveys by less than 10 percent . Thus the steep Sm-Im LF may contribute to the reconciliation of deep number counts with deep redshift surveys.

  19. DNA variation and brain region-specific expression profiles exhibit different relationships between inbred mouse strains: implications for eQTL mapping studies

    PubMed Central

    Hovatta, Iiris; Zapala, Matthew A; Broide, Ron S; Schadt, Eric E; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Lockhart, David J; Barlow, Carrolee

    2007-01-01

    Background Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping is used to find loci that are responsible for the transcriptional activity of a particular gene. In recent eQTL studies, expression profiles were derived from either homogenized whole brain or collections of large brain regions. However, the brain is a very heterogeneous organ, and expression profiles of different brain regions vary significantly. Because of the importance and potential power of eQTL studies in identifying regulatory networks, we analyzed gene expression patterns in different brain regions from multiple inbred mouse strains and investigated the implications for the design and analysis of eQTL studies. Results Gene expression profiles of five brain regions in six inbred mouse strains were studied. Few genes exhibited a significant strain-specific expression pattern, whereas a large number of genes exhibited brain region-specific patterns. We constructed phylogenetic trees based on the expression relationships between the strains and compared them with a DNA-level relationship tree. The trees based on the expression of strain-specific genes were constant across brain regions and mirrored DNA-level variation. However, the trees based on region-specific genes exhibited a different set of strain relationships, depending on the brain region. An eQTL analysis showed enrichment of cis-acting regulators among strain-specific genes, whereas brain region-specific genes appear to be mainly regulated by trans-acting elements. Conclusion Our results suggest that many regulatory networks are highly brain region specific and indicate the importance of conducting eQTL mapping studies using data from brain regions or tissues that are physiologically and phenotypically relevant to the trait of interest. PMID:17324278

  20. Growth development and morphological differences among native and non-native prickly nightshades (Solanum spp.) of the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prickly nightshades are troublesome weeds of natural habitats pastures, feed lots, right-of-ways, and croplands. Native and non-native invasive weedy species of prickly nightshades were compared to determine growth, development, and morphological differences. Tables were developed from new and exis...

  1. Fe-tannic acid complex dye as photo sensitizer for different morphological ZnO based DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Çakar, Soner; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-06-15

    In this paper we have synthesized different morphological ZnO nanostructures via microwave hydrothermal methods at low temperature within a short time. We described different morphologies of ZnO at different Zn(NO3)2/KOH mole ratio. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. All ZnO structures have hexagonal wurtzite type structures. The FESEM images showed various morphologies of ZnO such as plate, rod and nanoparticles. Dye sensitized solar cells have been assembled by these different morphological structures photo electrode and tannic acid or Fe-tannic acid complex dye as sensitizer. We have achieved at maximum efficiencies of photovoltaic cells prepared with ZnO plate in all dye systems. The conversion efficiencies of dye sensitized solar cells are 0.37% and 1.00% with tannic acid and Fe-tannic acid complex dye, respectively. PMID:27043871

  2. Fe-tannic acid complex dye as photo sensitizer for different morphological ZnO based DSSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakar, Soner; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have synthesized different morphological ZnO nanostructures via microwave hydrothermal methods at low temperature within a short time. We described different morphologies of ZnO at different Zn(NO3)2/KOH mole ratio. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. All ZnO structures have hexagonal wurtzite type structures. The FESEM images showed various morphologies of ZnO such as plate, rod and nanoparticles. Dye sensitized solar cells have been assembled by these different morphological structures photo electrode and tannic acid or Fe-tannic acid complex dye as sensitizer. We have achieved at maximum efficiencies of photovoltaic cells prepared with ZnO plate in all dye systems. The conversion efficiencies of dye sensitized solar cells are 0.37% and 1.00% with tannic acid and Fe-tannic acid complex dye, respectively.

  3. Shipibo-Spanish: Differences in Residual Transfer at the Syntax-Morphology and the Syntax-Pragmatics Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Liliana; Camacho, Jose; Ulloa, Jose Elias

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a study that tests the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace and Filiaci, 2006) at the syntax-pragmatics interface and its possible extension to the syntax-morphology interface in two groups of first language (L1) speakers of Shipibo with different levels of formal instruction in Spanish as a second language (L2). Shipibo is a…

  4. Evolution of morphology and structure of Pb thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at different substrate temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lorusso, Antonella Maiolo, Berlinda; Perrone, Alessio; Gontad, Francisco; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Tasco, Vittorianna

    2014-03-15

    Pb thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on a Si (100) substrate at different growth temperatures to investigate their morphology and structure. The morphological analysis of the thin metal films showed the formation of spherical submicrometer grains whose average size decreased with temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that growth temperature influences the Pb polycrystalline film structure. A preferred orientation of Pb (111) normal to the substrate was achieved at 30 °C and became increasingly pronounced along the Pb (200) plane as the substrate temperature increased. These thin films could be used to synthesize innovative materials, such as metallic photocathodes, with improved photoemission performances.

  5. Alignment of liquid crystals doped with nickel nanoparticles containing different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongyu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Xiaopeng; Tian, Yu; Guo, Lin; Yang, Huai

    2011-12-22

    Uniform homeotropic and homogeneous alignment of liquid crystals (LCs) is facilely achieved by dispersing Ni nanoparticles (Ni NPs) into the LCs. The alignment mode depends on the morphology of the Ni NPs. The mechanism of NP-induced LC alignment is elucidated clearly, indicating that the perfect orientation arises from the adsorption of Ni NPs on the substrate. PMID:22102432

  6. Morphogenesis of Candida albicans and cytoplasmic proteins associated with differences in morphology, strain, or temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Manning, M; Mitchell, T G

    1980-01-01

    The extent of change in cytoplasmic proteins which accompanies yeast-to-mycelium morphogenesis of Candida albicans was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Pure cultures of yeasts and true hyphae (i.e., without concomitant production of pseudohyphae) were grown in a synthetic low-sulfate medium. The two strains selected for this study were strain 4918, which produces pure mycelial cultures in low-sulfate medium at 37 degrees C and yeast cells at 24 degrees C, and strain 2252, which produces yeast cells exclusively at both 24 and 37 degrees C in low-sulfate medium. The proteins of both strains were labeled at both temperatures with [35S]sulfate, cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by mechanical disruption and ultracentrifugation, and the labeled proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Highly reproducible protein spot patterns were obtained which defined hundreds of proteins in each extract. Ten protein spots were identified on the two-dimensional gels of the 4918 mycelial-phase extract which were not present in the 4918 yeast-phase extract. These proteins appeared to be modifications of preexisting yeast-phase proteins rather than proteins synthesized de novo in the mycelial cells because 5 were absorbed by rabbit anti-yeast-phase immunoglobulin and each of the 10 was also present in extracts of strain 2252 grown at 24 and 37 degrees C, indicating that they were neither unique to filamentous cells nor sufficient for induction or maintenance of the mycelial morphology. Thirty-three proteins were identified in the 4918 yeast-phase extract which were not present in the 4918 mycelial-phase extract. Pulse-chase experiments revealed the synthesis of new proteins during yeast-to-mycelial conversion, but none of these was unique to mycelial cells. No differences in the major cytoplasmic proteins of any of the yeast- or mycelial-phase extracts were identified. This finding suggests that the major structural proteins of the cytoplasm are not

  7. Morphological changes in the cellulose and lignin components of biomass occur at different stages of steam pretreatment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Urban, Volker S.; Petridis, Loukas; Davison, Brian H.; Langan, Paul

    2014-01-09

    Morphological changes to the different components of lignocellulosic biomass were observed as they occurred during steam pretreatment by placing a pressure reaction cell in a neutron beam and collecting time-resolved neutron scattering data. Changes to cellulose morphology occurred mainly in the heating phase, whereas changes in lignin morphology occurred mainly in the holding and cooling phases. During the heating stage, water is irreversibly expelled from cellulose microfibrils as the elementary fibrils coalesce. During the holding phase lignin aggregates begin to appear and they increase in size most noticeably during the cooling phase. This experiment demonstrates the unique information that inmore » situ small angle neutron scattering studies of pretreatment can provide. This approach is potentially useful in optimizing the heating, holding and cooling stages of pretreatments to allow the exact size and nature of lignin aggregates to be controlled in order to enhance enzyme accessibility to cellulose and therefore the efficiency of biomass conversion.« less

  8. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Anagrus 'atomus' Group (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) Individuals from Different Geographic Areas and Plant Hosts in Europe.

    PubMed

    Zanolli, P; Martini, M; Mazzon, L; Pavan, F

    2016-01-01

    Morphological identification and molecular study on the COI gene were simultaneously conducted on Anagrus Haliday 'atomus' group individuals collected in the field in Italy or supplied from a UK biofactory. Females were morphologically identified as A. atomus L. and A. parvus Soyka sensu Viggiani (=A. ustulatus sensu Chiappini). Alignment of COI gene sequences from this study permitted recognition of a total of 34 haplotypes. Phylogenetic and network analyses of molecular data not only confirmed that A. atomus is a species distinct from A. parvus, but also suggested that two species may be included within morphologically identified A. parvus. Different geographical distribution and frequency of haplotypes were also evidenced. For males considered in this study, morphometric analyses revealed a character that could be useful to discriminate A. atomus from A. parvus Both species were found in vineyards and surrounding vegetation, confirming the potential role of spontaneous vegetation as a source of parasitoids for leafhopper control in vineyards. PMID:27126961

  9. Morphological changes in the cellulose and lignin components of biomass occur at different stages of steam pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Urban, Volker S.; Petridis, Loukas; Davison, Brian H.; Langan, Paul

    2014-01-09

    Morphological changes to the different components of lignocellulosic biomass were observed as they occurred during steam pretreatment by placing a pressure reaction cell in a neutron beam and collecting time-resolved neutron scattering data. Changes to cellulose morphology occurred mainly in the heating phase, whereas changes in lignin morphology occurred mainly in the holding and cooling phases. During the heating stage, water is irreversibly expelled from cellulose microfibrils as the elementary fibrils coalesce. During the holding phase lignin aggregates begin to appear and they increase in size most noticeably during the cooling phase. This experiment demonstrates the unique information that in situ small angle neutron scattering studies of pretreatment can provide. This approach is potentially useful in optimizing the heating, holding and cooling stages of pretreatments to allow the exact size and nature of lignin aggregates to be controlled in order to enhance enzyme accessibility to cellulose and therefore the efficiency of biomass conversion.

  10. Morphology and photocatalysis of mesoporous titania thin films annealed in different atmosphere for degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qing; Qin, Tian Pang; Liu, Shao Jun; Weng, Lv Qian; Dong, Wen Yi

    2011-07-01

    The effect of different annealing atmosphere on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by dip-coating technique is investigated. The annealing temperature and atmosphere causes significant change of the morphology, thermal stability, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO2 films. As-prepared mesoporous thin films have an amorphous structure that is transformed to crystalline TiO2 with well-maintained mesoporous structure at 450°C in various annealing atmosphere except that the mesoporous structure is fully destroyed for films annealed in air. Films annealed in N2 show the enhanced UV photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) resulting from the enhanced crystallinity in these films evidenced by XRD and Raman spectra. These findings can be used to tailor the structure and morphology of mesoporous TiO2 films and thus improve their photocatalytic activity for efficient removal of dye effluents in wastewater.

  11. Phenotypic differences in a cryptic predator: factors influencing morphological variation in the terciopelo Bothrops asper (Garman, 1884; Serpentes: Viperidae).

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica María; Sasa, Mahmood; Pardo, Rodrigo; Méndez, Marco Antonio

    2009-12-01

    The terciopelo Bothrops asper, is a cryptic lancehead pitviper widely distributed in humid environments of Middle America and the north-western portion of South America. Throughout its extensive distribution range, the terciopelo exhibits great morphological variation in external characters, a situation that has complicated its proper separation from other related species. In this paper, we analyzed the phenotypic variation of B. asper based in a sample of 514 specimens from nine distinct physiographic regions. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated great phenotypic differentiation among most pre-established groups, and the pattern is fairly congruent between sexes. However, no correspondence was observed between morphological variation and molecular divergence, inferred from mDNA sequences, between individuals representing the physiographical regions under study. Geographic variation in the number of interrictals, ventral scales, subcaudal scales and dorsal blotches was positively correlated with latitude and number of dry months, but inversely related with precipitation. However, other variables do not exhibit such an effect. The observed relationships between scale counts and environmental variables are explained in terms of selective pressures to improve water balance along the distributional range of the species. PMID:19505490

  12. Effects of Nitrogen and Shading on Root Morphologies, Nutrient Accumulation, and Photosynthetic Parameters in Different Rice Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shenggang; Liu, Haidong; Mo, Zhaowen; Patterson, Bob; Duan, Meiyang; Tian, Hua; Hu, Shuijing; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and illumination intensity are two key factors which affect rice growth. However, their influences on total nitrogen accumulation, photosynthetic rate, root morphologies, and yields are not fully understood. We conducted two field experiments to (1) evaluate the effects of shading under different N treatments on photosynthetic parameters, root morphologies, total nutrient accumulation, and grain yields of rice; and (2) elucidate the relationship between total nutrient accumulation and root morphologies under different shading conditions and nitrogen treatments. Three nitrogen rates, three shading treatments, and three different rice cultivars were used in two field experiments. Double shading during the grain-filling stage decreased total nutrient accumulation, altered root morphological characteristics, and decreased yields in rice. There were also significant interaction effects between nitrogen and shading on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. Significant interactions were found among cultivars and shading for photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate. Correlation analysis revealed that total nitrogen accumulation (TNA) and potassium accumulation (TKA) were significantly positively correlated with total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. N application could alleviate the detrimental effects of shading on total nutrient accumulation and grain yield in rice. PMID:27557779

  13. Effects of Nitrogen and Shading on Root Morphologies, Nutrient Accumulation, and Photosynthetic Parameters in Different Rice Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shenggang; Liu, Haidong; Mo, Zhaowen; Patterson, Bob; Duan, Meiyang; Tian, Hua; Hu, Shuijing; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and illumination intensity are two key factors which affect rice growth. However, their influences on total nitrogen accumulation, photosynthetic rate, root morphologies, and yields are not fully understood. We conducted two field experiments to (1) evaluate the effects of shading under different N treatments on photosynthetic parameters, root morphologies, total nutrient accumulation, and grain yields of rice; and (2) elucidate the relationship between total nutrient accumulation and root morphologies under different shading conditions and nitrogen treatments. Three nitrogen rates, three shading treatments, and three different rice cultivars were used in two field experiments. Double shading during the grain-filling stage decreased total nutrient accumulation, altered root morphological characteristics, and decreased yields in rice. There were also significant interaction effects between nitrogen and shading on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. Significant interactions were found among cultivars and shading for photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate. Correlation analysis revealed that total nitrogen accumulation (TNA) and potassium accumulation (TKA) were significantly positively correlated with total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. N application could alleviate the detrimental effects of shading on total nutrient accumulation and grain yield in rice. PMID:27557779

  14. Phonon properties of nanosized MnWO 4 with different size and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mączka, MirosŁaw; Ptak, Maciej; Kurnatowska, Michalina; Kępiński, Leszek; Tomaszewski, PaweŁ; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2011-09-01

    Highly hierarchical barlike and flowerlike MnWO 4 microcrystals have been synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal method, where ethanolamine (EA) and cetyltrimethylamonnium bromide (CTAB) play important roles in directing growth and self-assembly of these structures. The possible formation process has been proposed. In addition, platelike nanosized MnWO 4 was also synthesized by annealing of a precursor obtained by coprecipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman and IR methods. Raman spectra showed relatively weak dependence on particle size and morphology of the particles. In contrast to this behavior, IR-active bands showed pronounced shifts and changes in relative intensities on particle size and the morphology. Origin of this behavior is discussed.

  15. Biocompatible mesoporous silica nanoparticles with different morphologies for animal cell membrane penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Trewyn, B.; Nieweg, J.; Zhao, Y,; Lin, V.

    2007-11-24

    Two MCM-41 type, fluorescein-labeled mesoporous silica nanomaterials (MSNs) consisting of spherical and tube-shaped particles were synthesized and characterized. Both materials have hexagonally arranged mesopores with high surface area (>950 m{sup 2}/g) and a narrow distribution of pore diameters. The cellular uptake efficiency and kinetics of both MSNs were measured in a cancer cell line (CHO) and a noncancerous cell line (fibroblasts) by flow cytometry and fluorescence confocal microscopy. The correlation between the particle morphology and aggregation of MSNs to the effectiveness of cellular uptake was investigated. We envision that our study on the morphology dependent endocytosis of MSNs would lead to future developments of efficient transmembrane nanodevices for intracellular sensing and gene/drug delivery.

  16. Differences among Tennis Players Aged 12, 14 And 16 Years in Certain Morphological Characteristics: A Croatian Prospective.

    PubMed

    Novak, Dario; Milanović, Dragan; Barbaros-Tudor, Petar

    2015-09-01

    A sample of young tennis players aged 12, 14 and 16 in Croatia. Sixty (60) tennis players ranked on the scale of the Croatian Tennis Association were analyzed through differences in morphological characteristics, as identified by a standard laboratory diagnostic procedure in Sports-diagnostic Centre of the Faculty of Kinesiology at the University of Zagreb. Significant differences were obtained in most of the monitored measures for the assessment of the morphological characteristics but the most significant differences were reflected in the variables for assessment of longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton and body mass and voluminosity of the body. The statistical significance was defined at p<0.05. These differences may lead to decelerating the development of important fitness abilities (i.e., coordination), but also highlights the importance for changing the official propositions for the category of players between the ages due to the significant differences in certain morphological characteristics among all age categories. This study indicates an importance of understand grow characteristics of young players in order to effectively define tennis players playing style. PMID:26898054

  17. Lung Fibroblasts from Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Exhibit Genome-Wide Differences in DNA Methylation Compared to Fibroblasts from Nonfibrotic Lung

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Steven K.; Scruggs, Anne M.; McEachin, Richard C.; White, Eric S.; Peters-Golden, Marc

    2014-01-01

    results demonstrate that IPF fibroblasts exhibit global differences in DNA methylation that may contribute to the excessive fibroproliferation associated with this disease. PMID:25215577

  18. Androgen receptor expression and morphology of forebrain and neuromuscular systems in male green anoles displaying individual differences in sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Jennifer K.; Wade, Juli

    2010-01-01

    Investigating individual differences in sexual performance in unmanipulated males is important for understanding natural relationships between behavior and morphology, and the mechanisms regulating them. Among male green anole lizards, some court and copulate frequently (studs) and others do not (duds). To evaluate potential factors underlying differences in the level of these behaviors, morphology and androgen receptor expression in neuromuscular courtship and copulatory structures, as well as in the preoptic area and amygdala, were compared in males displaying varying degrees of sexual function. This study revealed that individual differences in behavior among unmanipulated males, in particular the extension of a throat fan (dewlap) used during courtship, were positively correlated with the size of fibers in the associated muscle and with soma size in the amygdala. The physiological response to testosterone, as indicated by the height of cells in an androgen-sensitive portion of the kidney, was also correlated with male sexual behavior, and predicted it better than plasma androgen levels. Androgen receptor expression was not related to the display of courtship or copulation in any of the tissues examined. The present data indicate that higher levels of male courtship behavior result in (or are the result of) enhanced courtship muscle and amygdala morphology, and that androgen-sensitive tissue in studs may be more responsive to testosterone than duds. However, some mechanism(s) other than androgen receptor expression likely confer this difference in responsiveness. PMID:17531996

  19. Androgen receptor expression and morphology of forebrain and neuromuscular systems in male green anoles displaying individual differences in sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jennifer K; Wade, Juli

    2007-08-01

    Investigating individual differences in sexual performance in unmanipulated males is important for understanding natural relationships between behavior and morphology, and the mechanisms regulating them. Among male green anole lizards, some court and copulate frequently (studs) and others do not (duds). To evaluate potential factors underlying differences in the level of these behaviors, morphology and androgen receptor expression in neuromuscular courtship and copulatory structures, as well as in the preoptic area and amygdala, were compared in males displaying varying degrees of sexual function. This study revealed that individual differences in behavior among unmanipulated males, in particular the extension of a throat fan (dewlap) used during courtship, were positively correlated with the size of fibers in the associated muscle and with soma size in the amygdala. The physiological response to testosterone, as indicated by the height of cells in an androgen-sensitive portion of the kidney, was also correlated with male sexual behavior, and predicted it better than plasma androgen levels. Androgen receptor expression was not related to the display of courtship or copulation in any of the tissues examined. The present data indicate that higher levels of male courtship behavior result in (or are the result of) enhanced courtship muscle and amygdala morphology, and that androgen-sensitive tissue in studs may be more responsive to testosterone than duds. However, some mechanism(s) other than androgen receptor expression likely confer this difference in responsiveness. PMID:17531996

  20. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leber, M.; Shandhi, M. M. H.; Hogan, A.; Solzbacher, F.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2016-03-01

    In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several methods such as laser ablation, focused ion beam, sputter etching, reactive ion etching (RIE) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The surface modification processes were optimized for the high aspect ratio silicon structures of the UEA. The increase in real surface area while maintaining the geometrical surface area was verified using scanning electron

  1. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor eIFiso4G1 and eIFiso4G2 Are Isoforms Exhibiting Distinct Functional Differences in Supporting Translation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2016-01-15

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G is required during protein synthesis to promote the assembly of several factors involved in the recruitment of a 40S ribosomal subunit to an mRNA. Although many eukaryotes express two eIF4G isoforms that are highly similar, the eIF4G isoforms in plants, referred to as eIF4G and eIFiso4G, are highly divergent in size, sequence, and domain organization but both can interact with eIF4A, eIF4B, eIF4E isoforms, and the poly(A)-binding protein. Nevertheless, eIF4G and eIFiso4G from wheat exhibit preferences in the mRNAs they translate optimally. For example, mRNA containing the 5'-leader (called Ω) of tobacco mosaic virus preferentially uses eIF4G in wheat germ lysate. In this study, the eIF4G isoform specificity of Ω was used to examine functional differences of the eIF4G isoforms in Arabidopsis. As in wheat, Ω-mediated translation was reduced in an eif4g null mutant. Loss of the eIFiso4G1 isoform, which is similar in sequence to wheat eIFiso4G, did not substantially affect Ω-mediated translation. However, loss of the eIFiso4G2 isoform substantially reduced Ω-mediated translation. eIFiso4G2 is substantially divergent from eIFiso4G1 and is present only in the Brassicaceae, suggesting a recent evolution. eIFiso4G2 isoforms exhibit sequence-specific differences in regions representing partner protein and RNA binding sites. Loss of any eIF4G isoform also resulted in a substantial reduction in reporter transcript level. These results suggest that eIFiso4G2 appeared late in plant evolution and exhibits more functional similarity with eIF4G than with eIFiso4G1 during Ω-mediated translation. PMID:26578519

  2. A Morphological Study of Poly(Butylene Succinate)/Poly(Butylene Adipate) Blends with Different Blend Ratios and Crystallization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Jerold; Wang, Haijun; Gan, Zhigua; Yan, Shouke

    2009-03-01

    Morphologies of blends of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS, m.p. 114 C) with poly(butylene adipate) (PBA, m.p. 60 C) varying in blend ratio and in crystallization temperature of the PBS component were studied using optical and atomic force microscopies. When PBS is crystallized at 75 C, subsequent PBA crystallization occurs only within PBS spherulites. When PBS is crystallized at 100 C, a portion of the PBA is rejected from the growing PBS. The morphological difference is also reflected in the time-dependence of the crystallization kinetics. The difference in behavior at these two temperatures reflects a large change in the diffusion length. Further, the location of PBA crystals within PBS spherulites depends on PBA concentration and on PBS crystallization temperature. Lower PBA concentrations lead to interlamellar segregation, while when PBA is the majority phase, interfibrillar crystallization crystallization dominates. Replace this text with your abstract body.

  3. Comparison of Impact Strength and Fracture Morphology of Different Heat Cure Denture Acrylic Resins: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, B; Babaji, Harsha V; Prasanna, B G; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; Shreeharsha, T V; Prashant, G M

    2014-01-01

    Background: The fracture of acrylic resin denture is rather common occurrence and causes inconvenience to the patients. This study was carried out to evaluate and compare the impact strength and fracture morphology of four different heat cure acrylic materials. Materials and Methods: Acrylic resin specimens were prepared using preformed metal die of dimension 65 × 10 × 3 mm. The specimens were finished, polished and subjected to impact strength evaluation using impact testing machine. The loads at which the specimens fracture are recorded and subjected to statistical analysis. Fracture surface analysis was done. Macroscopic analysis was performed by visual inspection of the fractured surfaces using a stereoscopic microscope. About 5 mm sections of all the fragments were subjected to scanning electron microscopy for microscopic analysis to verify fracture morphology. Results: Mean values of the impact strength were compared by statistical methods. The impact strength data were subjected to variance homogeneity tests. Fracture surface analysis data was analyzed by statistical methods. The mean impact strength of Lucitone 199 was higher than Acrylyn-H, DPI Heat cure & Trevalon. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the impact strength of the acrylic resins is affected by the reinforcement of fibers. Increased intermediate fractures increased impact strength. Brittle fractures morphology showed fewer undercuts and clearer surface. Intermediate fractures morphology showed more undercuts than clear surfaces. PMID:25395786

  4. Controlled synthesis of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles with different morphological structures and related properties in flame retardant ethylene vinyl acetate blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jianping; Qiu, Longzhen; Qu, Baojun

    2004-11-01

    Magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles with different morphological structures of needle-, lamellar- and rod-like nanocrystals have been synthesized by solution precipitation reactions of alkaline with magnesium chloride in the presence of complex dispersants and characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, crystal habits and thermal behaviour by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The sizes and morphologies of magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals can be controlled mainly by the reaction conditions of temperature, alkaline-injection rate and the concentrations of reactants. The data show that the needle-like morphology is of size 10 × 100 nm2, the lamellar shape 50 nm in diameter and estimated 10 nm in thickness, and the rod-like nanoparticles 4 µm in length and 95 nm in diameter, respectively. All three kinds of nanoparticles are of hexagonal structures. The needle- and lamellar-like nanoparticles can be obtained by the reactions of alkaline injected into magnesium chloride solution at about 2 and 20 °C, respectively, while the rod-like nanoparticles can be prepared by a slower alkaline-injection rate and lower aqueous ammonia concentration at about 10 °C. The results obtained from the ethylene-vinyl acetate nanocomposites blended with the lamellar-like nanoparticles show that magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals possess higher flame retardant efficiency and mechanical reinforcing effect by comparison with common micrometre grade magnesium hydroxide particles.

  5. Use of Descartes Folium Equation for Deriving a Relation between Total Aperture of Fractures after Uniaxial Compression and Strain Parameters of Different Rocks Exhibiting Negative Total Volumetric Strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchik, V.

    2014-11-01

    The axial, crack and total volumetric strains, porosity, elastic constants, crack damage stresses, uniaxial compressive strengths, as well as fracture apertures and number of fracture traces in rock samples surface after compression were defined for different chalk, basalt, dolomite, granite, limestone and sandstone samples exhibiting negative total volumetric strain at failure. It is established that the total (summed) aperture of vertical fractures obtained on the lateral surface of rock sample is related to three characteristic strain parameters: axial strain at the onset of negative total volumetric strain, axial failure strain and negative total volumetric strain at failure. The relation is based on Descartes folium equation, where the length of the loop of folium is equal to axial strain coordinate at the onset of negative total volumetric strain. This relation shows that the total aperture increases according to power law with increasing difference between axial failure strain and axial strain at the onset of negative total volumetric strain. Simultaneously, an increase in this difference leads to an increase in the value of negative total volumetric strain at failure. It is found that a direct correlation between total aperture of fractures and negative total volumetric strain at failure is relatively weak. Nevertheless, total aperture of fractures tends to increase with increasing absolute value of negative total volumetric strain at failure. It is revealed that there is no connection between the number of fracture traces and negative total volumetric strain at failure.

  6. Sex differences of Gray Matter Morphology in Cortico-limbic-striatal Neural System in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingtao; Chen, Kaiyuan; Womer, Fay; Jiang, Wenyan; Luo, Xingguang; Driesen, Naomi; Liu, Jie; Blumberg, Hilary; Tang, Yanqing; Xu, Ke; Wang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences are observed in both epidemiological and clinical aspects of major depressive disorder (MDD). The cortico-limbic-striatal neural system, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum, have shown sexually dimorphic morphological features and have been implicated in the dysfunctional regulation of mood and emotion in MDD. In this study, we utilized a whole-brain, voxel-based approach to examine sex differences in the regional distribution of gray matter (GM) morphological abnormalities in medication-naïve participants with MDD. Participants included 29 medication-naïve individuals with MDD (16 females and 13 males) and 33 healthy controls (HC) (17 females and 16 males). Gray matter morphology of the cortico-limbic-striatal neural system was examined using voxel-based morphometry analyses of high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. The main effect of diagnosis and interaction effect of diagnosis by sex on GM morphology were statistically significant (p<0.05, corrected) in the left ventral prefrontal cortex, right amygdala, right hippocampus and bilateral caudate when comparing the MDD and HC groups. Posthoc analyses showed that females with MDD had significant GM decreases in limbic regions (p<0.05, corrected), compared to female HC; while males with MDD demonstrated significant GM reduction in striatal regions, (p<0.05, corrected), compared to HC males. The observed sex-related patterns of abnormalities within the cortico-limbic-strial neural system, such as predominant prefrontal-limbic abnormalities in MDD females vs. predominant prefrontal-striatal abnormalities in MDD males, suggest differences in neural circuitry that may mediate sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and potential targets for sex-differentiated treatment of the disorder. PMID:23453566

  7. Variant of Helicobacter pylori CagA proteins induce different magnitude of morphological changes in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alfizah, Hanafiah; Ramelah, Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strains is associated with gastroduodenal diseases. The CagA protein is injected into gastric epithelial cells and supposedly induces morphological changes termed the 'hummingbird phenotype', which is associated with scattering and increased cell motility. The molecular mechanisms leading to the CagA-dependent morphological changes are only partially known. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of CagA variants on the magnitude of gastric epithelial cell morphological changes. Recombinant 3' terminal domains of cagA were cloned and expressed in a gastric epithelial cell line and the hummingbird phenotype was quantified by microscopy. The 3' region of the cagA gene of Malaysian H. pylori isolates showed six sub-genotypes that differed in the structural organization of the EPIYA repeat sequences. The percentage of hummingbird cells induced by CagA increased with duration of transfection. The hummingbird phenotype was observed to be more pronounced when CagA with 4 EPIYA motifs rather than 3 or 2 EPIYA motifs was produced. The activity of different CagA variants in the induction of the hummingbird phenotype in gastric epithelial cells depends at least in part on EPIYA motif variability. The difference in CagA genotypes might influence the potential of individual CagAs to cause morphological changes in host cells. Depending on the relative exposure of cells to CagA genotypes, this may contribute to the various disease outcomes caused by H. pylori infection in different individuals. PMID:22870595

  8. First evidence of root morphological and architectural variations in young Posidonia oceanica plants colonizing different substrate typologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestri, Elena; de Battisti, Davide; Vallerini, Flavia; Lardicci, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Root morphology and root system architecture of young Posidonia oceanica plants established on two contrasting substrate types, sand and rock, were examined to provide insights into the strategy of adaptation of seagrasses to their environment. After germination, seedlings were planted on sandy patches and on rock within the same area, and survived plants were collected five years later for measurements of the size of the entire root complex and analysis of individual morphological and architectural root traits. Collected plants exhibited up to nine highly intermingled root systems and approx. 2.5 m of total root length. Maximum horizontal extension, total biomass and total length of roots were not significantly affected by substrate. However, on sand roots grew vertically reaching up to 13 cm, while on rock they extended more horizontally and did not penetrate deeper than 5-7 cm leading to the formation of a shallow, densely packed root complex. On rock, the number and the length of second-order laterals on an individual root system were reduced and the topological index higher than on sand (0.8 vs. 0.7) reflecting a more simple (herringbone) branching pattern. Again, root diameter was greater than on sand. The results suggest that P. oceanica can adjust root traits early during plant development according to substrate typology to maximize anchorage and substrate exploration efficiency. This plasticity enables the species to establish and persist also on rocky bottoms which generally prevent establishment of the majority of seagrasses.

  9. Miscibility between differently shaped mesogens: structural and morphological study of a phthalocyanine-perylene binary system.

    PubMed

    Zucchi, Gaël; Viville, Pascal; Donnio, Bertrand; Vlad, Alexandru; Melinte, Sorin; Mondeshki, Mihail; Graf, Robert; Spiess, Hans Wolfgang; Geerts, Yves H; Lazzaroni, Roberto

    2009-04-23

    The thermotropic, structural, and morphological properties of blends of a disk-like liquid crystalline phthalocyanine derivative and a lath-shaped perylenetetracarboxidiimide mesogen derivative have been studied by combining differential scanning calorimetry, thermal polarized optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and atomic force microscopy. The two compounds are fully miscible for blends containing at least 60 mol % of the disk-like molecule. In such composition range, the homogeneous blends form a columnar hexagonal (Col(h)) mesophase for which the thermal stability is enhanced compared to that of the corresponding mesophase of the pure phthalocyanine. The miscible blends self-align homeotropically between two glass slides. For blends containing between 55 and 40 mol % of the disk-shaped molecule, the two components are fully miscible at high temperature but the perylene derivative forms a separate crystalline phase when the temperature is decreased. Phase separation is systematically observed in blends containing less than 40 mol % of the discotic molecule. In this case, the resulting Col(h) mesophase is less stabilized compared to the blends containing a larger amount of the phthalocyanine derivative. These phase-separated blends do not show any homeotropic alignment. AFM investigations confirm the formation of a single columnar morphology in the phthalocyanine-rich blends, consistent with the full miscibility between the two compounds. Solid-state NMR measurements on the mixed phase show the influence of the presence of the perylene molecules on the molecular dynamics of the molecules; remarkably, the presence of the host molecules improves the local order parameter in the phthalocyanine columnar phase. PMID:19301888

  10. A Real Time Investigation of Morphological Evolution During Solidification of Different Alloy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kaukler, W. F.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Solidification phenomenon which occur at the solid/liquid (s/I) interface play a major role in the determination of structure and hence the technologically important properties of a casting. However, metals being opaque, conclusions related to several important phenomenon such as boundary layer thickness, morphological evolution, and eutectic and cell spacing are deduced from quenching experiments and subsequent post solidification metallographic analysis. Consequently, limited information is obtained about the dynamics of the process. This paper will discuss the recent efforts at the Space Science Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, to view and quantify in-situ and in real time the dynamics of the solidification process and to measure interfacial undercooling. First, a high resolution x-ray transmission microscope (XTM) has been developed to monitor fundamental interfacial phenomena during directional solidification of metals and alloys. The XTM operates in the range of 10-100 KeV and through projection is capable of achieving magnification of up to 16OX. Secondly, an innovative collapsible furnace has been designed to quantify interfacial undercooling by measuring the temperature of a moving s/I interface in reference to a fixed s/l interface. This measurement technique is non-intrusive in nature and is based on the Seebeck principle. In this paper real time results obtained to characterize the dynamics of irregular eutectic spacing will be presented. As an example fiber to lamella or plate transition in the Al-Al2Au eutectic system will be discussed. Further, a resolution limit of 25 micron has permitted viewing in real time morphological instability and cellular growth in Al-Au and Al-Ag systems. Simultaneously, a systematic investigation has been carried out to measure interfacial undercooling for Pb-1 wt.% Sn at and near the marginal stability regime. In conjunction with the XTM observations this study attempts to validate existing relationships