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Sample records for exile helping distressed

  1. Emotional distress in doctors: sources, effects and help sought.

    PubMed Central

    King, M B; Cockcroft, A; Gooch, C

    1992-01-01

    All doctors in a London Teaching Hospital were sent a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, to study past episodes of emotional distress. We inquired about frequency of past and current emotional distress, sources of distress, effects on work and home life, type of help sought and perceived outcome of that help. Of 320 doctors, 210 (66%) responded. One hundred and forty-one (68%) reported previous episodes of moderate or severe emotional distress. Logistic regression revealed that distress was significantly more common in younger doctors and in women. Many respondents reported work problems as causing their distress and work was frequently adversely affected by episodes of distress. Professional help was rarely sought; non-professional help was from family and friends. Current emotional distress was related to a history of past distress, especially among the most junior doctors. We conclude that past emotional distress is reported by most doctors, with work pressures an important contributing factor. Doctors do not appear to use available sources of professional help. Our findings confirm that doctors have difficulty disclosing psychological problems. Specific programmes aimed at prevention and management of distress in doctors need to be initiated and evaluated. PMID:1433036

  2. Seeking Help for Psychological Distress in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Based on data gathered through a household survey of 1,474 urban residents in Beijing, this study examines Chinese help-seeking behaviors in times of psychological distress and perceived barriers to seeking professional help. The results demonstrate that most respondents rely on informal means of seeking help whereas mental health and medical…

  3. Cyber-Porn Dependence: Voices of Distress in an Italian Internet Self-Help Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaglion, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives of cyber-porn users and defines major patterns of distress as self-reported by contributors to a self-help group in the Internet. It applies narrative analysis methodology to 2000 messages sent by 302 members of an Italian self-help Internet community for cyber-porn dependents ("noallapornodipendenza"). This paper…

  4. Altruism in the wild: when affiliative motives to help positive people overtake empathic motives to help the distressed.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David J; Preston, Stephanie D; Stansfield, R Brent

    2014-06-01

    Psychological theories of human altruism suggest that helping results from an evolved tendency in caregiving mammals to respond to distress or need with empathy and sympathy. However, theories from biology, economics, and social psychology demonstrate that social animals also evolved to affiliate with and help desirable social partners. These models make different predictions about the affect of those we should prefer to help. Empathic models predict a preference to help sad, distressed targets in need, while social affiliative models predict a preference for happy, positive, successful targets. We compared these predictions in 3 field studies that measured the tendency to help sad, happy, and neutral confederates in a real-world, daily context: holding the door for a stranger in public. People consistently held the door more for happy over sad or neutral targets. To allow empathic motivations to compete more strongly against social affiliative ones, a 4th study examined a more consequential form of aid for hypothetical hospital patients in clear need. These conditions enhanced the preference to help a sad over a happy patient, because sadness made the patient appear sicker and in greater need. However, people still preferred the happy patient when the aid required a direct social interaction, attesting to the strength of social affiliation motives, even for sick patients. Theories of prosocial behavior should place greater emphasis on the role of social affiliation in motivating aid, particularly in everyday interpersonal contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24364686

  5. Helping behavior induced by empathic concern attenuates anterior cingulate activation in response to others' distress.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sugawara, Sho K; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Makita, Kai; Hamano, Yuki H; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-04-01

    Helping behavior is motivated by empathic concern for others in distress. Although empathic concern is pervasive in daily life, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. Empathic concern involves the suppression of the emotional response to others' distress, which occurs when individuals distance themselves emotionally from the distressed individual. We hypothesized that helping behavior induced by empathic concern, accompanied by perspective-taking, would attenuate the neural activation representing aversive feelings. We also predicted reward system activation due to the positive feeling resulting from helping behavior. Participant underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing a virtual ball-toss game. In some blocks ("concern condition"), one player ("isolated player") did not receive ball-tosses from other players. In this condition, participants increased ball-tosses to the isolated player (helping behavior). Participants then evaluated the improved enjoyment of the isolated player resulting from their helping behavior. Anterior cingulate activation during the concern condition was attenuated by the evaluation of the effect of helping behavior. The right temporoparietal junction, which is involved in perspective-taking and the dorsal striatum, part of the reward system, were also activated during the concern condition. These results suggest that humans can attenuate affective arousal by anticipating the positive outcome of empathic concern through perspective-taking. PMID:26032190

  6. Language, Identity, and Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdinast-Vulcan, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The exilic mode of being, a living on boundary-lines, produces a constant relativization of one's home, one's culture, one's language, and one's self, through the acknowledgement of otherness. It is a homesickness without nostalgia, without the desire to return to the same, to be identical to oneself. The encounter with the other which produces a…

  7. Wittgenstein as Exile: A Philosophical Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that Wittgenstein considered himself an exile and indeed was a self-imposed exile from his native Vienna; that this condition of exile is important for understanding Wittgenstein the man and his philosophy; and that exile as a condition has become both a central characteristic condition of late modernity (as much as alienation…

  8. The Clinical Ethnographic Interview: A user-friendly guide to the cultural formulation of distress and help seeking

    PubMed Central

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Shimabukuro, Shizuka

    2013-01-01

    Transcultural nursing, psychiatry, and medical anthropology have theorized that practitioners and researchers need more flexible instruments to gather culturally relevant illness experience, meaning, and help seeking. The state of the science is sufficiently developed to allow standardized yet ethnographically sound protocols for assessment. However, vigorous calls for culturally adapted assessment models have yielded little real change in routine practice. This paper describes the conversion of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV, Appendix I Outline for Cultural Formulation into a user-friendly Clinical Ethnographic Interview (CEI), and provides clinical examples of its use in a sample of highly distressed Japanese women. PMID:22194348

  9. Professional Distress and Meaning in Health Care: Why Professional Empathy Can Help.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Eve; Halpern, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    For human service care providers working in hospitals, balancing the motivation for interpersonal engagement with patients alongside self-protective emotional boundaries is a familiar struggle. Empathy is a critical, although not thoroughly understood, aspect of patient care as well as an important ingredient for feeling work satisfaction and meaning. However, empathy can lead to feelings of sympathetic emotional distress and even burnout. This article uses an illustrative case study from a medical social worker in the emergency room to explore these themes of empathy, burnout, and the search for meaning in work. The discussion examines areas for further empirical study and intervention to support care-provider empathy and avoid burnout. PMID:26317765

  10. Philosophical and Psychopathological Perspective of Exile: On Time and Space Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Silva Rojas, Matías; Armijo Nuñez, Julio; Nuñez Erices, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the experience of exile from an interdisciplinary perspective (philosophy and psychiatry). The main purpose is to try to understand the experience of exile by rehearsing a psychopathological perspective to address it, so it can help with the treatment of disorders that come with this experience. Furthermore, the article tries to explore the experience and reflection of philosophers and thinkers who, being exiled themselves, tried to understand and explain this radical human experience, focusing on the experience of time and space. PMID:26074825

  11. Helping physicians in distress. Developing a physician assessment and referral service.

    PubMed Central

    Fish, J. S.; Steinert, Y.

    1995-01-01

    In 1987, a Physician Assessment and Referral Service was created in the Department of Family Medicine of a large urban hospital to help physicians and their families. This article describes the rationale, development, accomplishments, and limitations of the service in light of 5 years' experience. Although this program was developed for family physicians in particular, it has value for all medical specialties. PMID:7734998

  12. Relationships between Adolescents' Preferred Sources of Help and Emotional Distress, Ambivalence over Emotional Expression, and Causal Attribution of Symptoms: A Singapore Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boon-Ooi

    2009-01-01

    Past research has shown that many adolescents with depression and anxiety disorders do not consult mental health professionals. This study examines how emotional distress, ambivalence over emotional expression, and causal attribution of depressive and anxious symptoms are related to adolescents' preferred sources of help for these symptoms. 300…

  13. Wittgenstein as Exile: A Philosophical Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Exilic thought is a kind of uprooted thought developed away from "home" under conditions of displacement and uncertainty, often in a different mother tongue, language tradition and culture. Exilic thought is sometimes the self-imposed discipline of the "stranger" who develops his or her identity as an "alien" or immigrant against the conventions…

  14. Self-help interventions for symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress in patients with physical illnesses: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Matcham, F; Rayner, L; Hutton, J; Monk, A; Steel, C; Hotopf, M

    2014-03-01

    Psychological distress, depression and anxiety are common in most physical diseases, and self-help interventions, if effective, might be an important approach to improve outcomes as they are inexpensive to provide to large numbers of patients. The primary aim of this review was to assess randomised controlled trials examining the impact of self-help interventions on symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress in patients with physical illness. Systematic searches of electronic databases resulted in twenty-five eligible studies for meta-analysis (n=4211). The results of the primary meta-analyses revealed a significant improvement in depression symptoms, in favour of the intervention group (SMD=-0.13, 95% CI: -0.25, -0.02, p=0.02, I(2)=50%). There were no significant differences in symptoms of anxiety (SMD=-0.10, 95% CI: -0.24, 0.05, p=0.20, I(2)=63%) or psychological distress (SMD=-0.14, 95% CI: -0.40, 0.12, p=0.30, I(2)=72%) between intervention and control conditions. Several subgroup and sensitivity analyses improved effect sizes, suggesting that optimal mental health outcomes may be obtained in patients without neurological conditions, and with interventions based on a therapeutic model (such as cognitive behavioural therapy), and with stress management components. This review demonstrates that with appropriate design and implementation, self-help interventions may potentially improve symptoms of depression in patients with physical conditions. PMID:24508685

  15. Holocaust und exil im gymnasialen Deutschunterricht: Ein Blick auf ein deutsches Curriculum (Holocaust and Exile in the German Class in the Gymnasium: A Look at the German Curriculum).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajak, Clauss Peter

    1999-01-01

    The processing of Germany's Nazi past with the help of exile and holocaust literature has already been an important component of the teaching of literature in the schools of the Federal Republic of Germany for some time. This article analyzes an exemplary German curriculum for the Baden-Wuerttemberg gymnasium level. (DMK)

  16. Three Scales Assessing High School Students' Attitudes and Perceived Norms about Seeking Adult Help for Distress and Suicide Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R.; Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Validated measures that can be administered to school populations are needed to advance knowledge of help-seeking processes and to evaluate suicide prevention programs that target help-seeking. With 6,370 students from 22 high schools, we assessed the psychometric properties of three brief measures: Help-Seeking Acceptability at School, Adult Help…

  17. On psychopathology of exile. An essay.

    PubMed

    Pivnicki, D

    1980-01-01

    A historical sketch of the problems of exile has been presented. A few case histories of immigrants have been reviewed. Hypotheses have been offered how to understand difficulties of exiles starting with nostalgia and extracting 'objective' problems; new language environment, social decline with a complicated path of habilitation in the new place, and the importance of time, both in terms of settling and achieving, as well as the time as an irretrievable loss, and finally xenophobia. However, the more severe the psychiatric disorder, the less important is the fact of the exodus in the etiology of it. The obstacles to psychiatric treatment have been mentioned. PMID:6998649

  18. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms. PMID:19249025

  19. Respiratory Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  20. Giving birth in exile: motherhood as reterritorialization.

    PubMed

    Pestre, Elise

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the effects of exile on the subjectivity of pregnant migrant women through the lens of the processes of deterritorialization and reterritorialization. Having escaped the gaze of the parental superego, the subject's encounter with sexuality becomes possible. However, in addition to the emancipatory aspects of migration, we observe particular somatic-psychical effects on reproductive ability. These "exile" pregnancies are generally experienced as difficult and painful, laying bare a symptomatology that is as much psychical as somatic, and which highlights the cost of a desire for independence. In this context, where perinatal risks must be evaluated and treated through an interdisciplinary approach, a clinical accompaniment proves to be indispensable for the maternity to progress smoothly on foreign soil. PMID:26356776

  1. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in assuring strong…

  2. Exile as a Means for the Meeting and Construction of Pedagogies: The Exiled Spanish Republican Teachers in Mexico in 1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civera, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    There has been little study of political exile as a means for transferring pedagogic ideas and models, which has been important in Latin America, especially in the case of the Spaniards exiled in Mexico after the defeat of the Second Republic at the end of the 1930s. The Mexican government's sympathy with the Second Republic allowed many teachers…

  3. Development of a Self-Help Web-Based Intervention Targeting Young Cancer Patients With Sexual Problems and Fertility Distress in Collaboration With Patient Research Partners

    PubMed Central

    Obol, Claire Micaux; Lampic, Claudia; Eriksson, Lars E; Pelters, Britta; Wettergren, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet should be suitable for delivery of interventions targeting young cancer patients. Young people are familiar with the technologies, and this patient group is small and geographically dispersed. Still, only few psycho-educational Web-based interventions are designed for this group. Young cancer patients consider reproductive health, including sexuality, an area of great importance and approximately 50% report sexual problems and fertility-related concerns following cancer treatment. Therefore, we set out to develop a self-help Web-based intervention, Fex-Can, to alleviate such problems. To improve its quality, we decided to involve patients and significant others as research partners. The first 18 months of our collaboration are described in this paper. The intervention will subsequently be tested in a feasibility study followed by a randomized controlled trial. Objective The study aims to describe the development of a Web-based intervention in long-term collaboration with patient research partners (PRPs). Methods Ten former cancer patients and two significant others participated in building the Web-based intervention, using a participatory design. The development process is described according to the design step in the holistic framework presented by van Gemert-Pijnen et al and evaluates the PRPs’ impact on the content, system, and service quality of the planned intervention. Results The collaboration between the research group and the PRPs mainly took place in the form of 1-day meetings to develop the key components of the intervention: educational and behavior change content, multimedia (pictures, video vignettes, and audios), interactive online activities (eg, self-monitoring), and partial feedback support (discussion forum, tailored feedback from experts). The PRPs influenced the intervention’s content quality in several ways. By repeated feedback on prototypes, the information became more comprehensive, relevant, and understandable

  4. [Growing old in exile: a double punishment or a double luck?].

    PubMed

    Griner-Abraham, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Between the situation of the exile, for whom all points of reference have been lost, and the clinical presentation of elderly patients, the symptomatology is similar. So what is the situation regarding the ageing of exiled patients? Exile is a trauma typically marked by five clinical phases. A clinical approach to exile between nostalgia, ageing and belonging: this reflection is based on an assessment of existing circumstances and on the epidemiological and clinical aspects relating to treatments. PMID:25095591

  5. Newborn Respiratory Distress.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Christian L; Mahajan, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies. Clinicians should be familiar with updated neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Initial evaluation includes a detailed history and physical examination. The clinician should monitor vital signs and measure oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry, and blood gas measurement may be considered. Chest radiography is helpful in the diagnosis. Blood cultures, serial complete blood counts, and C-reactive protein measurement are useful for the evaluation of sepsis. Most neonates with respiratory distress can be treated with respiratory support and noninvasive methods. Oxygen can be provided via bag/mask, nasal cannula, oxygen hood, and nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Ventilator support may be used in more severe cases. Surfactant is increasingly used for respiratory distress syndrome. Using the INSURE technique, the newborn is intubated, given surfactant, and quickly extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Newborns should be screened for critical congenital heart defects via pulse oximetry after 24 hours but before hospital discharge. Neonatology consultation is recommended if the illness exceeds the clinician's expertise and comfort level or when the diagnosis is unclear in a critically ill newborn. PMID:26760414

  6. Race and Place in the Adaptation of Mariel Exiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skop, Emily H.

    2001-01-01

    The influx of lower class Cuban emigres during the 1980 Mariel Boatlift complicates the success story image of previous waves of Cuban exiles. Argues that place of incorporation should be a necessary ingredient in illuminating diverse adjustment experiences among immigrants and refugees to the United States. Concludes by discussing the Cuban…

  7. Distress Screening in a Multidisciplinary Lung Cancer Clinic: Prevalence and Predictors of Clinically-Significant Distress

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Arnold, Susanne M.; Love, Celia L.; Kirsh, Kenneth L.; Moore, Pamela G.; Passik, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Screening for distress in cancer patients is recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and a Distress Thermometer has previously been developed and empirically-validated for this purpose. The present study sought to determine the rates and predictors of distress in a sample of patients being seen in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic. Consecutive patients (N = 333) were recruited from an outpatient multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic to complete the Distress Thermometer, an associated Problem Symptom List, and two questions about interest in receiving help for symptoms. Over half (61.6%) of patients reported distress at a clinically significant level, and 22.5% of patients indicated interest in receiving help with their distress and/or symptoms. Problems in the areas of family relationships, emotional functioning, lack of information about diagnosis/treatment, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning were associated with higher reports of distress. Specific symptoms of depression, anxiety, pain and fatigue were most predictive of distress. Younger age was also associated with higher levels of distress. Distress was not associated with other clinical variables, including stage of illness or medical treatment approach. Similar results were obtained when individuals who had not yet received a definitive diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 134) were excluded from analyses; however, family problems and anxiety were no longer predictive of distress. Screening for distress in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic is feasible and a significant number of patients can be expected to meet clinical criteria for distress. Results also highlight younger age and specific physical and psychosocial symptoms as predictive of clinically-significant distress. Identification of the presence and predictors of distress are the first steps toward appropriate referral and treatment of symptoms and problems that contribute to cancer patients’ distress. PMID

  8. Exile Has Its Place: A High School Principal Reflects on School Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, T. Elijah

    2011-01-01

    Exile has its place. As an age-old human response to conflict, its potential value to the healthy maturation of students and the school community should not be discounted. Exile or ostracism goes by various names in school. Students are told: Move your desk. Leave the classroom and wait in the hall. Go to the office. Go to detention. You're…

  9. [Getting old on foreign earth: more suffering from exile].

    PubMed

    Stitou, Rajaa

    2008-03-01

    This paper, which refers to psychoanalysis and anthropology, is devoted to the clinical impact of suffering to get old on foreign earth, at the junction of singularity and culture, on psychic and social sides. It presents some elements on: the discontentment or even the misery of those called foreign workers and who, however, live more and more their retirement and their old age far from the world which contains their language and their culture; the necessity of a redevelopment of settings for listening, when confronted to a suffering whose expressive forms exceed the logic underlying the classical conceptual frames, and disturbs the social and caregiver professionals. This approach leaves place, at first, to the subjective resonance of exile without which one cannot understand what old subjects have to pass through. This exile, which cannot be reduced to emigration, and which sometimes is again actualized with violence during the passage to retirement and aging, reminds to each one his incompleteness and mortality. It disturbs the self-feeling and the relation to others, which require to pass by cultural references to feel being protected and humanized. Listening, to be efficient, should not break or emphasize their difference, but has to be attentive to the peculiar link which connects him to its culture; link which allows him to give sense in every decisive moment of existence. PMID:18364293

  10. Living in exile when disaster strikes at home.

    PubMed

    Stige, Signe Hjelen; Sveaass, Nora

    2010-01-01

    As the number of migrants,- forced or voluntary,- increases, there is a growing need to understand how negative events in the country of origin influence those residing abroad. This issue has been actualized by the recent earthquakes in Haiti and Chile. Persons in exile have frequently been exposed to severe human rights violations and other stressors prior to emigration. The present study explored possible associations between ongoing and former stressors and mental health problems among persons living in exile as the Tsunami disaster of 2004 struck their country of origin. The contribution of former exposure and exilerelated difficulties in explaining current mental health problems was explored together with Tsunami related bereavement and social support. Following the Tsunami disaster of 2004 a questionnaire was administered to individuals of Tamil and Acehnese origin residing in Norway. The results suggest an independent contribution of exilerelated difficulties, former exposure and social support in explaining current mental health problems in this group. The study also disclosed methodological challenges involved both in relation to recruiting participants and in isolating the contribution of a particular stressor in populations with high levels of former exposure as well as ongoing stress. PMID:20952824

  11. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... Neonatal RDS occurs in infants whose lungs have not yet fully ... disease is mainly caused by a lack of a slippery substance in ...

  12. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... include: Bluish color of the skin and mucus membranes (cyanosis) Brief stop in breathing (apnea) Decreased urine ...

  13. Distress in Older Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hurria, Arti; Li, Daneng; Hansen, Kurt; Patil, Sujata; Gupta, Ravi; Nelson, Christian; Lichtman, Stuart M.; Tew, William P.; Hamlin, Paul; Zuckerman, Enid; Gardes, Jonathan; Limaye, Sewanti; Lachs, Mark; Kelly, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the predictors of distress in older patients with cancer. Patients and Methods Patients age ≥ 65 years with a solid tumor or lymphoma completed a questionnaire that addressed these geriatric assessment domains: functional status, comorbidity, psychological state, nutritional status, and social support. Patients self-rated their level of distress on a scale of zero to 10 using a validated screening tool called the Distress Thermometer. The relationship between distress and geriatric assessment scores was examined. Results The geriatric assessment questionnaire was completed by 245 patients (mean age, 76 years; standard deviation [SD], 7 years; range, 65 to 95 years) with cancer (36% stage IV; 71% female). Of these, 87% also completed the Distress Thermometer, with 41% (n = 87) reporting a distress score of ≥ 4 on a scale of zero to 10 (mean score, 3; SD, 3; range, zero to 10). Bivariate analyses demonstrated an association between higher distress (≥ 4) and poorer physical function, increased comorbid medical conditions, poor eyesight, inability to complete the questionnaire alone, and requiring more time to complete the questionnaire. In a multivariate regression model based on the significant bivariate findings, poorer physical function (increased need for assistance with instrumental activities of daily living [P = .015] and lower physical function score on the Medical Outcomes Survey [P = .018]) correlated significantly with a higher distress score. Conclusion Significant distress was identified in 41% of older patients with cancer. Poorer physical function was the best predictor of distress. Further studies are needed to determine whether interventions that improve or assist with physical functioning can help to decrease distress in older adults with cancer. PMID:19652074

  14. Exilic effects of illness and pain in Solzhenitsyn's Cancer Ward: how sharpening the moral imagination can facilitate repatriation.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Daniel S

    2009-03-01

    This essay uses Solzhenitsyn's Cancer Ward to explore the exilic effects of illness and pain. The novel is uniquely suited for such an analysis given the theme of exile that predominates both in the narrative and in the composition of multiple characters within that narrative. I argue that illness, and in particular pain, is a liminal state, an existential hinterlands. The ethical approach to literature and medicine may suggest, as a response to these exilic effects, the need to cultivate connection and empathy by sharpening the moral imagination. If pain and illness exile the sufferer, the imperative to reach out takes on ethical content. PMID:18946635

  15. Moral distress and moral conflict in clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Carina

    2015-02-01

    Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both. PMID:24602097

  16. Exiling children, creating orphans: when immigration policies hurt citizens.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Luis H; Bradlee, Mollie H

    2014-04-01

    Citizen-children born in the United States to undocumented immigrants have become collateral damage of immigration enforcement. These children suffer the effects of immigration laws designed to deport large numbers of people. In removal proceedings, parents often must decide to either leave their citizen-children behind in the care of others or take them to a country the child may have never known. Accordingly, immigration policy frequently creates two de facto classes of children: exiles and orphans. In discussing these classes, the authors offer a summary of how U.S. citizen-children come into contact with the immigration enforcement system. The article explores the impact of detention and deportation on the health, mental health, and developmental trajectories of citizen-children and argues for reforms in policy and practice that will adhere to the highest standards of child welfare practice. By integrating these children into the immigration discourse, practitioners and policymakers will be better able to understand the effects of immigration enforcement, reduce harm to children, and provide for the protection of their rights. PMID:24855866

  17. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies. PMID:22038841

  18. Innovative solutions: the effect of a workshop on reducing the experience of moral distress in an intensive care unit setting.

    PubMed

    Beumer, Catherine M

    2008-01-01

    Moral distress is the knowledge of the ethically appropriate action to take but the inability to act upon it. This phenomenon is one experienced in the critical care setting. To help staff members cope with moral distress, a team conducted workshops at one facility to help the staff identify and cope with this distress. The workshop consisted of discussions of distressing situations in the intensive care unit, didactic information on moral distress, formulation of an individual plan to reduce stress, and strategies to deal with moral distress in the intensive care unit. This article discusses the workshop and its effect on participants' coping with moral distress. PMID:18953194

  19. Navigating moral distress using the moral distress map.

    PubMed

    Dudzinski, Denise Marie

    2016-05-01

    The plethora of literature on moral distress has substantiated and refined the concept, provided data about clinicians' (especially nurses') experiences, and offered advice for coping. Fewer scholars have explored what makes moral distress moral If we acknowledge that patient care can be distressing in the best of ethical circumstances, then differentiating distress and moral distress may refine the array of actions that are likely to ameliorate it. This article builds upon scholarship exploring the normative and conceptual dimensions of moral distress and introduces a new tool to map moral distress from emotional source to corrective actions. The Moral Distress Map has proven useful in clinical teaching and ethics-related debriefings. PMID:26969723

  20. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yadam, Suman; Bihler, Eric; Balaan, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious inflammatory disorder with high mortality. Its main pathologic mechanism seems to result from increased alveolar permeability. Its definition has also changed since first being described according to the Berlin definition, which now classifies ARDS on a severity scale based on PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen, arterial)/FIO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) ratio. The cornerstone of therapy was found to be a low tidal volume strategy featuring volumes of 6 to 8 mL per kg of ideal body weight that has been shown to have decreased mortality as proven by the ARDSnet trials. There are other areas of treatment right now that include extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, as well for severe refractory hypoxemia. Other methods that include prone positioning for ventilation have also shown improvements in oxygenation. Positive end-expiratory pressure with lung recruitment maneuvers has also been found to be helpful. Other therapies that include vasodilators and neuromuscular agents are still being explored and need further studies to define their role in ARDS. PMID:26919679

  1. Dynamics of H II regions around exiled O stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Langer, Norbert; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.

    2013-11-01

    At least 25 per cent of massive stars are ejected from their parent cluster, becoming runaways or exiles, travelling with often-supersonic space velocities through the interstellar medium (ISM). Their overpressurized H II regions impart kinetic energy and momentum to the ISM, compress and/or evaporate dense clouds, and can constrain properties of both the star and the ISM. Here, we present one-, two- and (the first) three-dimensional simulations of the H II region around a massive star moving supersonically through a uniform, magnetized ISM, with properties appropriate for the nearby O star ζ Oph. The H II region leaves an expanding overdense shell behind the star and, inside this, an underdense wake that should be filled with hot gas from the shocked stellar wind. The gas column density in the shell is strongly influenced by the ISM magnetic field strength and orientation. Hα emission maps show that H II region remains roughly circular, although the star is displaced somewhat from the centre of emission. For our model parameters, the kinetic energy feedback from the H II region is comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the stellar wind, and the momentum feedback rate is >100 times larger than that from the wind and ≈10 times larger than the total momentum input rate available from radiation pressure. Compared to the star's eventual supernova explosion, the kinetic energy feedback from the H II region over the star's main-sequence lifetime is >100 times less, but the momentum feedback is up to 4 times larger. H II region dynamics are found to have only a small effect on the ISM conditions that a bow shock close to the star would encounter.

  2. Moral distress reconsidered.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Joan; Deady, Rick

    2008-03-01

    Moral distress has received much attention in the international nursing literature in recent years. In this article, we describe the evolution of the concept of moral distress among nursing theorists from its initial delineation by the philosopher Jameton to its subsequent deployment as an umbrella concept describing the impact of moral constraints on health professionals and the patients for whom they care. The article raises worries about the way in which the concept of moral distress has been portrayed in some nursing research and expresses concern about the fact that research, so far, has been largely confined to determining the prevalence of experiences of moral distress among nurses. We conclude by proposing a reconsideration, possible reconstruction and multidisciplinary approach to understanding the experiences of all health professionals who have to make difficult moral judgements and decisions in complex situations. PMID:18272615

  3. Ever Ready to Go: The Multiple Exiles of Leo Szilard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Tibor

    2005-06-01

    I argue that to understand the life and work of Leo Szilard (1898 1964) we have to understand, first, that he was driven by events to numerous departures, escapes, and exiles, changing his religion, his language, his country of residence, and his scientific disciplines; second, that he was a man haunted by major moral dilemmas throughout his life, burdened by a sincere and grave sense of responsibility for the fate of the world; and third, that he experienced a terrible sense of déjà vu: his excessive sensitivity and constant alertness were products of his experiences as a young student in Budapest in 1919. The mature Szilard in Berlin of 1933, and forever after, was always ready to move. I proceed as follows:After a brief introduction to his family background, youth, and education in Budapest, I discuss the impact of his army service in the Great War and of the tumultous events in Hungary in 1918 1919 on his life and psyche, forcing him to leave Budapest for Berlin in late 1919. He completed his doctoral degree under Max von Laue (1879 1960) at the University of Berlin in 1922 and his Habilitationsschrift in 1925. During the 1920s and early 1930s, he filed a number of patents, several of them jointly with Albert Einstein (1879 1955). He left Berlin in March 1933 for London where he played a leading role in the rescue operations for refugee scientists and scholars from Nazi Germany. He also carried out notable research in nuclear physics in London and Oxford before immigrating to the United States at the end of 1938. He drafted Einstein’s famous letter of August 2, 1939, to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, worked in the Manhattan Project during World War II, initiated a petition to President Harry S. Truman not to use the bomb on Japan, and immediately after the war was a leader in the scientists’ movement that resulted in civilian control of nuclear energy. In 1946 he turned to biology, in which his most significant contribution was to formulate a theory of

  4. Lessons from the Exile for the Instruction of the Church in Ecological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    Points out the centrality of imagery in the educational process and argues that images from the Exile period of Hebrew history could provide analogies and metaphors for study of the current ecological crisis. Explores parallels between these historical eras. Urges humans to see themselves as connected to nature rather than dominating nature. (DB)

  5. Women's Exile and Transatlantic Epistolary Ties in the Work of Pilar de Zubiaurre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Allende, Iker

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I analyze Pilar de Zubiaurre's experience of exile by focusing on the articles she published in the magazine "Euzko Deya" and the letters she wrote and received in Mexico. Among the letters Zubiaurre received, I study those from Maria Martos de Baeza. My main argument is that for Zubiaurre, writing became a fundamental way to…

  6. Leader and Spokesman for a People in Exile: Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Samvit

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses Chief Joseph's surrender that marked the beginning of his diplomatic stand for justice in Indian Territory, where his tribe was forcibly exiled in accordance with American Indian policy of the time. Joseph battled for the repatriation of the Nez Perce through protests and other legal means, winning the support of the growing…

  7. Resisting Exile in the Homeland: He Mo'oleno No La'ie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikau, Hokulani K.

    2008-01-01

    Kanaka Maoli are under constant threat of becoming exiles in their homeland. With the steady encroachment of development such as new luxury subdivisions on Moloka'i, high-rise condominiums in Waikiki, and new multi-million-dollar homes on the beaches of all the major islands, they are being pushed off their land and replaced by new wealthy…

  8. Memory, Childhood and Exile: Self-Representation in Post-Colonial Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrad, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Using the works of writers like Thomas Wolfe, Christopher Koch, Raja Rao, and Albert Wendt, it is demonstrated that memory is a central element in postcolonial narratives and is associated with two important domains of cognition--recall of childhood and awareness of exile. (57 references) (JL)

  9. Helping Kids Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  10. Factors associated with distress in relatives of a family member experiencing recent-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Barrowclough, Christine; Gooding, Patricia; Hartley, Samantha; Lee, Gary; Lobban, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Factors associated with distress in relatives of people experiencing recent-onset psychosis are unclear, but subjective appraisals of the illness seem to be implicated. We aimed to identify the contribution of illness perceptions to predicting distress in relatives of people experiencing recent-onset psychosis. The relatives were assessed on measures including distress and illness perceptions, and these were repeated 6 months later. Almost half of the relatives had significant distress that persisted at 6 months. Where symptoms of the service users were more severe, and for the older relatives, distress showed less improvement. Perceptions of greater perceived future negative consequences and a more chronic timeline predicted greater distress at 6 months, whereas increased perceived coping efficacy of the relatives predicted a reduction in distress. Distress in relatives is evident early on in psychosis, but assessment of appraisals of relatives may help identify those at risk for enduring problems and offers opportunity for clinical intervention. PMID:24375211

  11. Correlates and Predictors of Psychological Distress among Afghan Refugees in San Diego County

    PubMed Central

    James, Sigrid; Siddiq, Hafifa; Montgomery, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The psychological effects of war and resulting displacement continue to negatively impact Afghan refugees. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that are associated with and predict psychological distress symptoms among Afghan refugees. We analyzed data from a diverse sample of 130 Afghan refugees recruited through non-random sampling in the San Diego area. Participants completed self-report questionnaires consisting of a culturally validated measure of psychological distress, the Afghan Symptom Checklist [ASCL] alongside standardized measures of acculturation, social support, and perceived stress. In bivariate analyses, older age, older age at migration, female gender, being widowed, having lower education, being unemployed, unable to comfortably pay monthly bills, lower acculturation and social support, and higher levels of perceived stress were associated with psychological distress. However, only few variables – female gender, being widowed, unable to comfortably pay monthly bills, and perceived stress – remained significant in multivariate analysis. The findings from this study contribute to understanding the social determinants of distress that affect Afghans in exile even after long-term resettlement in the US. These reported outcomes support the need for continued research with Afghans, alongside the implementation of culturally relevant psychosocial interventions that emphasize prevention of post-resettlement stressors immediately upon resettlement. PMID:26543500

  12. Helping as a Function of Empathic Responses and Sociopathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Edward L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated helping as a function of empathic anxiety (anxiety in response to modeled distress) and individual differences in sociopathic tendencies. Results indicated modeled distress produces increases in anxiety which are positively associated with helping and sociopathic individuals are less likely to help than are nonsociopathic individuals.…

  13. Tester for Distress Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Distress beacons on aircraft and boats checked for proper operation with aid of onboard monitor. Monitor mounted in aircraft cockpit or at wheel of boat. Connected to beacon electronics by cable. Monitor used with interface circuitry in beacon, which acts as buffer so that operation of beacon is not adversely affected if monitor is removed or if connecting cable is accidentally short circuited.

  14. Girls in Distress in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Yosepha

    The typical girl in distress in Israel comes from a Jewish family of oriental origin. Her distress is partially due to the strains of immigrating to Israel from, in most cases, North Africa. Authority models in distressed girls' families feature either the role of the father as the commanding familial authority figure; the mother as the dominant…

  15. Organ sales and moral distress.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Lopez, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The possibility that organ sales by living adults might be made legal is morally distressing to many of us. However, powerful arguments have been provided recently supporting legalisation (I consider two of those arguments: the Consequentialist Argument and the Autonomy Argument). Is our instinctive reaction against a market of organs irrational then? The aim of this paper is not to prove that legalization would be immoral, all things considered, but rather to show, first, that there are some kinds of arguments, offered in favour of legalisation, that are, in an important sense, illegitimate, and second, that even if legalisation might not be wrong all things considered, there are good reasons for our negative moral intuitions. Moreover, identifying these reasons will help highlight some features of moral decisions in non-ideal situations, which in turn might be relevant to some other moral or policy choices. PMID:16683325

  16. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Communications § 80.1111 Distress alerting. (a) The transmission of a distress alert indicates that a mobile unit or person is in distress and requires immediate assistance. The distress alert is a... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Safety Communications § 80.1111 Distress alerting. (a) The transmission of a distress alert indicates that a mobile unit or person is in distress and requires immediate assistance. The distress alert is a... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Safety Communications § 80.1111 Distress alerting. (a) The transmission of a distress alert indicates that a mobile unit or person is in distress and requires immediate assistance. The distress alert is a... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Safety Communications § 80.1111 Distress alerting. (a) The transmission of a distress alert indicates that a mobile unit or person is in distress and requires immediate assistance. The distress alert is a... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Safety Communications § 80.1111 Distress alerting. (a) The transmission of a distress alert indicates that a mobile unit or person is in distress and requires immediate assistance. The distress alert is a... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be...

  1. Stress and distress.

    PubMed

    Selye, H

    1975-12-01

    I must ask the reader's indulgence for this article's concern with applications of the stress concept, which are distinct from, although related to clinical medicine. It has not been my object to deal with the way physicians have been aided by stress research in the practice of medicine--that information is already widely available. Rather, I have attempted to sketch briefly the history of the stress theory and to demonstrate how this information can help anyone, physician or layman, lead a more complete and satisfying life. The applications of the stress theory have been dealt with at length elsewhere. I believe that we can find within scientifically verified observations the basis of a code of behavior suited to our century. The great laws of nature that regulate the defenses of living beings against stress of any kind are essentially the same at all levels of life, from individual cells to entire complex human organisms and societies. It helps a great deal to understand the fundamental advantages and disadvantages of catatoxic and syntoxic attitudes by studying the biologic basis of self-preservation as reflected in syntoxic and catatoxic chemical mechanisms. When applied to everyday problems, this understanding should lead to choices most likely to provide us the pleasant eustress (from the Greek eu meaning good, as in euphoria) involved in achieving fulfillment and victory, thereby avoiding the self-destructive distress of frustration and failure. So the translation of the laws governing resistance of cells and organs to a code of behavior comes down to three basic precepts: 1. Find your own natural stress level. People differ with regard to the amount and kind of work they consider worth doing to meet the exigencies of daily life and to assure their future security and happiness. In this respect, all of us are influenced by hereditary predispositions and the expectations of our society. Only through planned self-analysis can we establish what we really want

  2. [Turkish exile of women and their contribution to the science of Turkey from 1933 to 1945].

    PubMed

    Erichsen, Regine

    2005-12-01

    When the National-Socialists from the year 1933 forced Jewish civil-servants and professionals to leave their jobs with restrictive laws against different professional groups, among those who left the country in order do find new openings were many women. For many of them the exile meant the break up of their academic career. However, those who found a new occupation in the Turkish university reform the Turkish state started in 1933 made an important contribution to a successful project of science transfer the large group of emigrants from Germany and Austria carried out in Turkey between 1933 and 1945. The article shows how exiled German and Austrian women especially in the medical professions took part in the innovational shift of science and learning of the Turkish universities and the clinical practice in the institutions of public health. PMID:17153363

  3. A programme of mental health for political refugees: dealing with the invisible pain of political exile.

    PubMed

    Barudy, J

    1989-01-01

    Political persecution, state terrorism, torture, political assassinations, kidnapping and forced exile have become common occurrences in many parts of the world. Several researchers have tried to determine the impact of these situations on the mental health of those affected. At the same time, different types of aid programmes have been developed to prevent and treat the effects of violence on mental health. In this article we present clinical materials collected for 10 years by the Latin American Collective of Psychosocial Work [Colectivo Latinamericano de Trabajo Psicosocial (Colat)], a medical-psychosocial assistance programme for political refugees. The programme was under the academic supervision of the Catholic Universities of Leuven (KUL, ULC), Belgium. The concept of identity is the central theme of a model which tries to understand and explain the suffering of exiles. We try to identify and expose the mechanisms of political violence that have traumatized an individual's self-esteem and disordered his familial and social bonds. In the second part of this article, the central ideas which support the medical-psychosocial practice of the programme are presented. This programme seeks to heal the damage caused by repression and exile through the active participation of those affected. Only in a context of communal action is it possible to develop a therapy to promote an individual recovery. It is in this sense that the strategic goal of the programme is to permit elaboration of the suffering at an individual, familial and group level, and to facilitate group dynamics which can trigger the potential of the exiles to transform the conditions of violence that originated and maintain their pain. PMID:2652324

  4. Idioms of distress among trauma survivors: subtypes and clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    In this introduction to the Special Issue on Trauma and Idioms of Distress, we provide an overview of the concept and typology of "idioms of distress," focusing particularly on their clinical utility. This includes the role of idioms as indicators of trauma exposure, of various types of psychopathology and of levels of distress, risk and functioning. It likewise includes the fact that idioms of distress may profoundly influence the personal meaning of having a trauma-related disorder, may shape the interpersonal course of the disorder and may pattern help-seeking and self-treatment. Finally, it illustrates the fact that idioms may also help clinicians understand sufferers' views of the causes of their distress, constitute key therapeutic targets and help increase therapeutic empathy and treatment adherence. This special issue focuses on the role played by idioms of distress in the local trauma ontology, the associations between the idioms and psychiatric disorders occurring in the context of trauma and the mechanisms by which the idioms profoundly influence the personal and interpersonal course of trauma-related disorders. PMID:20407812

  5. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting. PMID:2785158

  6. The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Peter E.

    1990-08-01

    The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) is discussed with respect to its initial planning, the communication network, and other details, including the fully automated Maritime Safety Information service and the implementation of the whole system. GMDSS is the result of international cooperation over a period of about 10 years and provides the maritime community with an integrated distress and safety communication system which significantly enhances the safety of life and property in the harsh environment of the sea. Probably the most essential element of the GMDSS is the provision of an adequate communication network which will permit ships in need of assistance to notify responsible authorities, discuss the help they need, and allow the search and rescue activities to be coordinated by the most appropriate center.

  7. First results of the (n,γ) EXILL campaigns at the Institut Laue Langevin using EXOGAM and FATIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolie, J.; Régis, J.-M.; Wilmsen, D.; Ahmed, S.; Pfeiffer, M.; Saed-Samii, N.; Warr, N.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T.; Simpson, G.; de France, G.; Urban, W.; Bruce, A. M.; Roberts, O. J.; Fraile, L. M.; Paziy, V.; Ignatov, A.; Ilieva, S.; Kröll, Th; Scheck, M.; Thürauf, M.; Ivanova, D.; Kisyov, S.; Lalkovski, S.; Podolyak, Zs; Regan, P. H.; Korten, W.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G.; Ur, C. A.

    2014-09-01

    At the PF1B cold neutron beam line at the Institut Laue Langevin the EXILL array consisting of EXOGAM, GASP and LOHENGRIN detectors was used to perform (n,γ) measurements under very high coincidence rates. About ten different reactions were then measured in autumn 2012. In spring 2013 the EXOGAM array was combined with 16 LaBr3(Ce) scintillators in the FATIMA@EXILL campaign for the measurement of lifetimes using the generalised centroid difference method. We report on the properties of both set-ups and present first results on Pt isotopes from both campaigns.

  8. Acute Respiratory Distress in Children: Croup and Acute Asthma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B S; Shekhawat, Dhananjay S; Sharma, Prity; Meena, Chetan; Mohan, Hari

    2015-07-01

    Acute respiratory distress is one of the most common reason for emergency visits in children under 5 y of age. An accurate understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases, identification of risk factors and etiology is critical for successful treatment and prevention of related mortality. The cause of acute respiratory distress varies in etiology, and hence is amenable to different treatment modalities. Depending on the predominant symptoms and signs, a child presenting to the clinician can be divided into six groups, viz., stridor; cough, fever and difficulty in breathing or fast breathing; wheezing; mediastinal shift with severe respiratory distress; slow or irregular breathing in absence of any pulmonary sign; and respiratory distress with cardiac findings. A detailed history followed by a thorough clinical examination and laboratory evaluation assisted by imaging modalities if indicated, helps to establish the exact cause of respiratory distress in the child. Early recognition and prompt institution of appropriate management or referral can significantly improve the outcome of this illness. This article offers clinicians a brief update on the general management guidelines of respiratory distress in pediatric patients. Specific treatment depends on the exact cause, however croup and acute severe asthma have been discussed in this article. PMID:25257964

  9. Underwater observations of dolphin reactions to a distressed conspecific.

    PubMed

    Kuczaj, Stan A; Frick, Erin E; Jones, Brittany L; Lea, James S E; Beecham, Dan; Schnöller, Fabrice

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the epimeletic (or "caregiving") behavior produced by members of a group of Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and the possible role of the ailing animal's distress call in eliciting such behavior. Epimeletic behavior in cetaceans most typically involves forms of support provided to a distressed, injured, or dying animal (Caldwell & Caldwell, 1966). Analyses of underwater video and corresponding acoustic recordings revealed a distressed dolphin (the DD) that frequently produced what are most likely distress calls, often paired with the emission of long bubble streams. The frequency of her whistle production was positively correlated with the frequency of the supporting behaviors the DD received from other dolphins. These helping behaviors included raft formations, lifts, and stimulating pushes that were predominantly directed toward the upper third of the DD's body, all of which appeared to be directed towards bringing the DD toward the surface so that she could breathe. This is the first documented underwater account of multiple wild bottlenose dolphins providing epimeletic care to a distressed conspecific, and highlights the possible role of distress calls in such scenarios. PMID:25898942

  10. Physical and psychological sequelae to torture. A controlled clinical study of exiled asylum applicants.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P

    1988-10-01

    The study comprised 24 male Lebanese refugees living in Denmark. Twelve of them alleged having been tortured in Lebanon during the period 1981-85. The remaining twelve had neither been imprisoned nor tortured and thus acted as control persons. All the testimonies were found to be valid according to a method previously used by the author. The most common forms of torture were blows against the head, body and foot soles, suspension and asphyxiation. Threats and solitary confinement were frequent, and sexual violations were also reported. At the time of examination (March-November 1986), the main complaints were headaches, various cardiopulmonary symptoms, sleep disturbances with nightmares, impaired concentration and memory, and emotional lability. Suicide attempts were reported. Prior to the torture all the probands had been healthy except for several cases of gunshot wounds. The clinical examination revealed different scars possibly related to torture in nearly all the cases. Missing or fractured teeth, peripheral nerve damage and mental depression were also found. The 12 controls had several mental and physical complaints, but significantly fewer than the probands. Almost all of them had scars from gunshot wounds. The present study clearly indicates that torture plus exilation has a more deteriorating effect on the health status than exilation alone. PMID:3209147

  11. Burmese political dissidents in Thailand: trauma and survival among young adults in exile.

    PubMed Central

    Allden, K; Poole, C; Chantavanich, S; Ohmar, K; Aung, N N; Mollica, R F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the self-reported mental health, physical health, and social functioning of young adult political exiles and relates their psychiatric symptoms to their trauma and survival strategies. METHODS: A 1992/93 survey of Burmese who fled to Bangkok, Thailand, after participating in a 1988 uprising against Burma's government elicited information on employment, education, disability, trauma, survival strategies, and depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms. RESULTS: The 104 participants reported a mean of 30 trauma events, including interrogation (89%), imprisonment (78%), threats of deportation (70%), and torture (38%). Many reported poor health and lack of social supports, but few reported substantial social disability. The prevalence of elevated symptom scores was 38% for depressive symptoms and 23% for criterion symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Symptoms of avoidance and of increased arousal were the most strongly related to cumulative trauma. Two survival strategies, camaraderie and a Buddhist concept of self-confidence (weria), were associated with somewhat reduced levels of both classes of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Burmese political exiles in Thailand are young adults adversely affected by severe trauma. Their psychosocial well-being may deteriorate further without legal protections to reduce the continuing stress and violence. PMID:8916521

  12. Stories of pre-war, war and exile: Bosnian refugee children in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Goldin, S; Levin, L; Persson, L A; Hägglof, B

    2001-01-01

    While standardized questionnaires produce counts of isolated events, a semi-structured interview derives a story, a complex narrative in time and place. Ninety Bosnian refugee children and adolescents (ages 1-20), resettled in Sweden, were assessed in a semi-structured clinical interview designed to identify and offer support to children at risk. A family-child account of traumatic exposure was analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Type-stories or clusters of experience were identified for three distinct periods: prior to war, during war, and after war in exile. The extent of trauma-stress exposure during each of these periods proved unrelated. Pre-war experience presented as preponderantly good and safe. Differences in child exposure during war and exile could be understood in relation to identifiable socio-demographic factors; particularly ethnic background, social class, child age and family size. Further, the stories derived cast light on the equity of Swedish refugee reception, exposing both egalitarian and discriminatory tendencies. PMID:11339342

  13. Writing Germany in Exile--The Bilingual Author as Cultural Mediator: Klaus Mann, Stefan Heym, Rudolf Arnheim and Hannah Arendt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Verena

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the process of self-translation undertaken by German exile writers who translated their own works, written in English, the language of their host country, back into their mother tongue, German. It postulates that the necessary precondition for self-translation is not just bilinguality but also biculturality and that it is this…

  14. Culture, Context, and the Internalizing Distress of Mexican American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Antonio J.; Lopez, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Latino youth appear to be at higher risk for depression relative to youth from other ethnic groups. This study assessed the relationship between nativity and several forms of internalizing distress among Mexican American middle school students as well as sociocultural factors that may help explain this relationship. Immigrant Mexican American…

  15. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Is ARDS? ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads to low oxygen levels in the blood. ARDS can be life threatening because your body's organs need oxygen-rich ...

  16. Tackling science's distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    If arguments for limiting support for science continue to dominate the public discourse about science, “we will be talking our way into scientific decline,” said Frank Press, president of the National Academy of Sciences, to the academy's annual meeting on April 30. Press is the latest in a number of prominent figures on the Washington science scene, from George E. Brown, Jr. (D-Calif.), chairman of the House Science Committee, to Mary L. Good, head of the National Science Board, to take stock of the U.S. science enterprise.Press lauded President Bush's current budget request for science, calling it the best one in recent years. The new federal budget caps, however, provide a counterweight by creating a “fixed pie” for spending. Added to this, the university science community is in severe distress, Press said, suffering from outmoded laboratories, rising costs, budget cuts, and new and expensive government regulations, among other burdens. The budget caps also force federally funded laboratories and universities to compete with each other for support.

  17. Understanding Distress in People with Severe Communication Difficulties: Developing and Assessing the Disability Distress Assessment Tool (DisDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnard, C.; Reynolds, Joanna; Watson, Bill; Matthews, Dorothy; Gibson, Lynn; Clarke, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Background: Meaningful communication with people with profound communication difficulties depends on the ability of carers to recognize and translate many different verbal cues. Carers appear to be intuitively skilled at identifying distress cues, but have little confidence in their observations. To help in this process, a number of pain tools…

  18. Entering exile: trauma, mental health, and coping among Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Emily; Rosenfeld, Barry; Lhewa, Dechen; Rasmussen, Andrew; Keller, Allen

    2008-04-01

    Each year thousands of Tibetans escape Chinese-controlled Tibet. The authors present findings on the experiences, coping strategies, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, somatization, and posttraumatic stress disorder) of 769 Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India (2003-2004). Distress increased significantly with greater trauma exposure. However, despite a high prevalence of potentially traumatizing events, levels of psychological distress were extremely low. Coping activity (primarily religious) and subjective appraisals of trauma severity appeared to mediate the psychological effects of trauma exposure. The potential impact of other variables, including culturally determined attitudes about trauma and timing of assessment, are discussed. PMID:18404641

  19. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure = 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 = 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial. PMID:27576283

  20. The Exile of Hansen's Disease Patients to Moloka'i: A Diffusion of Innovations Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pitman Harris, Adrea; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    This article analyzes the exile of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) to Moloka'i (Hawaii) by applying the diffusion of innovations (DoI) theory. Developed by Rogers, DoI posits that an innovation (i.e., idea, movement, or trend) is initiated within a culture. Then, it is diffused via particular channels across diverse cultures. Instead of evolving independently, innovations diffuse from one culture to another through various forms of contact and communication. In the context of this analysis, the objective is to examine how the diffusion of certain ideas, namely, abolishing the stigma associated with leprosy, could have improved the lives of Hawaiians. An important premise of this article is that the Hawaiian government barely applied the tenets of DoI, which is the reason why many people lost their lives. So, this article seeks to explore what could have been done to improve their situation and what pitfalls should be avoided in the future. PMID:27105179

  1. [Burden and capability of damaged parents--how refugee children can grow in exile].

    PubMed

    Adam, Hubertus; Walter, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    In trauma, dialectical tension arises between the inner perspective of the traumatized subject and the outside perspective (objective situation), between environmental stress and the subjective attribution of meaning, as well as between experience and behaviour. The traumatic process--the subject's endeavour to comprehend the overwhelming, often inconceivable experience and integrate it into its concepts of self and world--is understood against the backdrop of these interacting dimensions. The process phases "emerge from each other, run parallel, and permeate each other" (Fischer u. Riedesser, 2003). Problems that arise in the aftermath of trauma are rarely overcome by the victims alone. Attempts to process and self-heal have a social dimension, and family members are affected by war, persecution and flight in individual, varying ways. The impacts of violence experienced by parents from different crisis regions are examined in case studies with regard to the psychological development of indirectly impacted children growing up in exile. PMID:23155785

  2. Exploring the Relationship Among Moral Distress, Coping, and the Practice Environment in Emergency Department Nurses.

    PubMed

    Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich; Chan, Garrett K

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) nurses practice in environments that are highly charged and unpredictable in nature and can precipitate conflict between the necessary prescribed actions and the individual's sense of what is morally the right thing to do. As a consequence of multiple moral dilemmas, ED staff nurses are at risk for experiencing distress and how they cope with these challenges may impact their practice. To examine moral distress in ED nurses and its relationship to coping in that specialty group. Using survey methods approach. One hundred ninety-eight ED nurses completed a moral distress, coping, and demographic collection instruments. Advanced statistical analysis was completed to look at relationships between the variables. Data analysis did show that moral distress is present in ED nurses (M = 80.19, SD = 53.27), and when separated into age groups, the greater the age, the less the experience of moral distress. A positive relationship between moral distress and some coping mechanisms and the ED environment was also noted. This study's findings suggest that ED nurses experience moral distress and could receive some benefit from utilization of appropriate coping skills. This study also suggests that the environment in which ED nurses practice has a significant impact on the experience of moral distress. Because health care is continuing to evolve, it is critical that issues such as moral distress and coping be studied in ED nurses to help eliminate human suffering. PMID:27139135

  3. Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Clark, Dustin

    2012-04-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students (N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also tested, but failed to support, a mediational model with Time 2 (mid-semester) procrastination as a hypothesized mechanism through which Time 1 (early-semester) perfectionism would affect Time 3 (end-semester) psychological distress. An alternative model with Time 2 perfectionism as a mediator of the procrastination-distress association also was not supported. Within-time analyses revealed generally consistent strength of effects in the correlations between the 3 constructs over the course of the semester. A significant interaction effect also emerged. Time 1 procrastination had no effect on otherwise high levels of psychological distress at the end of the semester for highly perfectionistic students, but at low levels of Time 1 perfectionism, the most distressed students by the end of the term were those who were more likely to have procrastinated earlier in the semester. Implications of the stability of the constructs and their association over time, as well as the moderating effects of procrastination, are discussed in the context of maladaptive perfectionism and problematic procrastination. PMID:22352949

  4. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. PMID:26308751

  5. Help-seeking atititudes among Israeli adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tishby, O; Turel, M; Gumpel, O; Pinus, U; Lavy, S B; Winokour, M; Sznajderman, S

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the willingness of Israeli adolescents to seek help for emotional and health problems, and their preference for various helping agents. Nearly fifteen hundred students in grades 7-12 participated in a comprehensive survey of attitudes, health status, and concerns, and the data were analyzed. Gender and age were identified as factors associated with help-seeking attitudes. Females reported a higher level of distress and greater willingness to seek help than did males. Younger adolescents tended to state that they would turn to parents for help, whereas older adolescents increasingly preferred peers. In general, the adolescents preferred to seek help from family and peers for emotional and social problems, rather than turning to professionals. Adolescents in grades 9-10 reported the highest level of distress and were least willing to seek help for interpersonal problems and depressed mood. Overall, level of distress was not directly related to willingness to seek help. In subgroups of depressed and suicidal adolescents, an inverse relationship was found between willingness to seek help and levels of depression and suicidal ideation. Recommendations for health care services and counseling programs are discussed. PMID:11572304

  6. Mindfulness and bodily distress.

    PubMed

    Fjorback, Lone Overby

    2012-11-01

    We have created a mindfulness approach to treat patients who experience multiple, persistent, and disabling physical symptoms that cannot be explained by a well-defined medical or surgical condition. Randomized controlled trials in this area are few, and research is hampered by the lack of clear definitions. Bodily distress syndrome (BDS) or bodily stress is an empirically defined definition unifying various conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and somatization disorder. In the present PhD, we explored whether patients suffering from BDS may be committed to mental training in the form of mindfulness therapy, which is a mindfulness program specifically targeted patients suffering from BDS. The theoretical model for including mindfulness training in the treatment of BDS is based on identified neurobiological impairments in these patients and the neurobiological improvements that mindfulness training may offer. BDS is a major public health issue possibly associated with the pathology of the immuno-endocrine and autonomic nervous system. BDS patients are often stigmatized, and effective treatment is rarely delivered, which leaves these patients isolated, left by themselves, vulnerable to potentially harming medical and/or alternative treatments. Accordingly, there is a need for non-harming practical tools that patients can learn to master so that they can improve the ability to take responsibility for their own health and wellbeing. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group program that employs mindfulness practice to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is designed to prevent depressive relapse. Paper I and II present systematic literature reviews only of randomized controlled trials on MBSR and MBCT. The effect of MBSR has been explored on fibromyalgia in three studies, none of them showed convincing results, but gave some indications as to

  7. Sera-therapy, exile and Franco's regime. The survival strategy of the Ravetllat-Pla Institute in postwar Spain.

    PubMed

    Estapé Egea, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific and commercial survival strategy of the Ravetllat-Pla Institute after the Spanish Civil War. Founded in 1923 by Ramon Pla (1880-1956) and Joaquim Ravetllat (1872-1923), it produced two sera: 'Hemo-antitoxin' and the 'Ravetllat-Pla serum'. When the Civil War ended and Ramon Pla was forced into exile, management of this laboratory was taken over by his daughter, Núia Pla Monseny (1918- 2011) who had to deal with an extremely difficult economic, political and commercial situation. In this paper, I analyse the means by which the Institute survived. These involved the Institute's ability to construct different political symbols from 'Hemo-antitoxin'. I study how Franco's repression influenced this survival strategy and Ramon Pla's role in exile. I also analyse the part played in this scientific and commercial process by the Institute's scientific and commercial network in Chile. PMID:26054212

  8. Psychological Distress in Afghan Refugees: A Mixed-Method Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alemi, Qais; James, Sigrid; Cruz, Romalene; Zepeda, Veronica; Racadio, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems disproportionately affect Afghan refugees and asylum seekers who continue to seek international protection with prolonged exposure to war. We performed a systematic review aimed at synthesizing peer-reviewed literature pertaining to mental health problems among Afghans resettled in industrialized nations. We used five databases to identify studies published between 1979 and 2013 that provided data on distress levels, and subjective experiences with distress. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria consisting of 1 mixed-method, 7 qualitative, and 9 quantitative studies. Themes from our qualitative synthesis described antecedents for distress being rooted in cultural conflicts and loss, and also described unique coping mechanisms. Quantitative findings indicated moderate to high prevalence of depressive and posttraumatic symptomatology. These findings support the need for continued mental health research with Afghans that accounts for: distress among newly resettled groups, professional help-seeking utilization patterns, and also culturally relevant strategies for mitigating distress and engaging Afghans in research. PMID:23784146

  9. Psychological distress in afghan refugees: a mixed-method systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alemi, Qais; James, Sigrid; Cruz, Romalene; Zepeda, Veronica; Racadio, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Mental health problems disproportionately affect Afghan refugees and asylum seekers who continue to seek international protection with prolonged exposure to war. We performed a systematic review aimed at synthesizing peer-reviewed literature pertaining to mental health problems among Afghans resettled in industrialized nations. We used five databases to identify studies published between 1979 and 2013 that provided data on distress levels, and subjective experiences with distress. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria consisting of 1 mixed-method, 7 qualitative, and 9 quantitative studies. Themes from our qualitative synthesis described antecedents for distress being rooted in cultural conflicts and loss, and also described unique coping mechanisms. Quantitative findings indicated moderate to high prevalence of depressive and posttraumatic symptomatology. These findings support the need for continued mental health research with Afghans that accounts for: distress among newly resettled groups, professional help-seeking utilization patterns, and also culturally relevant strategies for mitigating distress and engaging Afghans in research. PMID:23784146

  10. Predictors of psychological distress and interest in mental health services in individuals with cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Hea, Erin L; Monahan, Brigitte R; Cutillo, Alexandra; Person, Sharina D; Grissom, Grant; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2016-06-01

    Identifying risk factors for psychological distress in patients with cancer may help providers more efficiently screen, identify, and manage distress. This article presents predictors of psychological distress in a large heterogeneous sample of cancer patients. In total, 836 patients were enrolled in a large randomized control trial and completed computerized psychosocial assessments Mental Health Assessment and Dynamic Referral for Oncology. Multivariate regressions examined predictors of distress and interest in mental health services. Final models suggest that psychological distress was related to six variables, and interest in mental health services was related to previous history of mental health counseling, total number of cancer-related symptoms, and race/ethnicity. Results may be used to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from proactive psychosocial interventions. PMID:25205777

  11. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not... Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.324 Transmission of distress message by... ship, aircraft, or other vehicle not in distress, or for the land station, believes that further...

  12. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not... Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.324 Transmission of distress message by... ship, aircraft, or other vehicle not in distress, or for the land station, believes that further...

  13. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not... Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.324 Transmission of distress message by... ship, aircraft, or other vehicle not in distress, or for the land station, believes that further...

  14. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not... Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.324 Transmission of distress message by... ship, aircraft, or other vehicle not in distress, or for the land station, believes that further...

  15. Back Pain and Emotional Distress

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as analgesic medications, manual therapy and/or physical therapy for symptomatic relief. Questions You Need to Ask In order to minimize emotional distress, it is important to ask your health care provider ques- tions about your back pain so you do not leave the office uncertain ...

  16. Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…

  17. Psychological distress, perceived stigma, and coping among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hui Chien; Ibrahim, Norhayati; Wahab, Suzaily

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. "Community rejection" was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with "positive reframing". Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. PMID:27574475

  18. Psychological distress, perceived stigma, and coping among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hui Chien; Ibrahim, Norhayati; Wahab, Suzaily

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. “Community rejection” was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with “positive reframing”. Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. PMID:27574475

  19. Moving from conceptual ambiguity to knowledgeable action: using a critical realist approach to studying moral distress.

    PubMed

    Musto, Lynn C; Rodney, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Moral distress is a phenomenon that has been receiving increasing attention in nursing and other health care disciplines. Moral distress is a concept that entered the nursing literature - and subsequently the health care ethics lexicon - in 1984 as a result of the work done by American philosopher and bioethicist Andrew Jameton. Over the past decade, research into moral distress has extended beyond the profession of nursing as other health care disciplines have come to question the impact of moral constraint on individual practitioners, professional practice, and patient outcomes. Along with increased interest in the phenomenon of moral distress have come increasing critiques - critiques that in their essence point to a serious lack of conceptual clarity in the definition, study, and application of the concept. Foundational to gaining conceptual clarity in moral distress in order to develop strategies to prevent and ameliorate the experience is a careful revisiting of the epistemological assumptions underpinning our knowledge and use of the concept of moral distress. It is our contention that the conceptual challenges reveal flaws in the original understanding of moral distress that are based on an epistemological stance that holds a linear conception of cause and effect coupled with a simplistic perspective of 'constraint' and 'agency'. We need a more nuanced approach to our study of moral distress such that our ontological and epistemological stances help us to better appreciate the complexity of moral agents acting in organizational contexts. We believe that critical realism offers such a nuanced approach. PMID:26466559

  20. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  1. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  2. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  3. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  4. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  5. Sexual assault related distress and drinking: the influence of daily reports of social support and coping control.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hassija, Christina M; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Introduction. A history of sexual assault (SA) is often associated with increased distress and heavy drinking. One's ability to cope with the distress and seek social support has been associated with drinking more generally. However, SA-related distress, drinking, and the extent to which a woman engages in adaptive coping or seeks social support is known to vary day-to-day. The goal of the present investigation was to examine the moderating influence of perceived coping control and social support on the event-level association between SA-related distress and drinking. Methods. This study included 133 college women with a history of SA who reported recent heavy drinking. Participants provided daily reports of their SA-related distress, perceived coping control, perceived social support, and alcohol consumption every day for 30days. Results. Results of generalized estimating equation models suggest that coping control moderated the association between distress and drinking such that those with less perceived coping control drank more as their SA-related distress increased from their average. Although social support did not moderate between distress and drinking, decreases in perceived social support were associated with more drinking on that day. Conclusions. The results suggest that daily deviations in SA-related distress may influence alcohol consumption more than average levels of distress, especially among women with low coping control. Interventions for women with SA histories should help them build coping skills as well as adequate social support in order to reduce drinking. PMID:25437266

  6. Sources of distress among New Zealand adolescents.

    PubMed

    McGee, R; Stanton, W R

    1992-09-01

    This study examined sources of distress experienced by 15-year-old adolescents in a large sample from the general population. We identified four types of stressful life circumstances relating to problems of self-image and independence, academic and physical competence, parental conflict, and moving residence and schools. Girls reported higher levels of distress for the first three types of circumstance. Reports of distress were associated with poor family social support, maternal depression and parental separation. Both DSM-III disorder and poor social competence were associated with differential patterns of distress. Lastly, poor social competence and high distress were independent and additive predictors of mental health disorders. PMID:1400695

  7. Understanding gastrointestinal distress: a framework for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Brennan M R; Khanna, Dinesh; Bolus, Roger; Agarwal, Nikhil; Khanna, Puja; Chang, Lin

    2011-03-01

    We describe a framework to help clinicians think about health-related quality of life in their gastrointestinal (GI) patients. We introduce "GI distress" as a clinically relevant concept and explain how it may result from physical symptoms, cognitions, and emotions. The GI distress framework suggests that providers should divide GI physical symptoms into four categories: pain, gas/bloat, altered defecation, and foregut symptoms. We describe how these physical symptoms can be amplified by maladaptive cognitions, including external locus of control, catastrophizing, and anticipation anxiety. We suggest determining the level of embarrassment from GI symptoms and asking about stigmatization. GI patients may also harbor emotional distress from their illness and may exhibit visceral anxiety marked by hypervigilance, fear, and avoidance of GI sensations. Look for signs of devitalization, indicated by inappropriate fatigue. When appropriate, screen for suicidal ideations. Finally, we provide a list of high-yield questions to screen for these maladaptive cognitions and emotions, and explain how the GI distress framework can be used in clinical practice. PMID:21378758

  8. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients. PMID:26911178

  9. Premenstrual Distress Among Japanese High School Students: Self-Care Strategies and Associated Physical and Psychosocial Factors.

    PubMed

    Otsuka-Ono, Hiroko; Sato, Iori; Ikeda, Mari; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify self-care strategies and assess physical and psychosocial factors associated with premenstrual distress among high school students. A cross-sectional survey of 217 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years was conducted in October 2009. Most (84.3 percent) had at least one or more symptoms of premenstrual distress. Premenstrual distress interfered with normal school activity in 51.2 percent. Most participants (57.1 percent) did not perform any self-care strategies for premenstrual distress. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. Comprehension of one's own physical and mental states during premenstrual phases mediated the relationship between neuroticism and premenstrual distress. Activity restrictions due to menstrual distress mediated the relationship between the family's understanding of one's behavior during premenstrual phases and premenstrual distress. Findings suggest that, even if girls have neuroticism, it will be important to teach them to address the comprehension of one's own physical and mental states so that perceptions of both premenstruation and menstruation become more positive. Findings also suggest that the family's understanding was associated with alleviation of premenstrual distress. This study suggests the need for education to help adolescent girls and their families manage premenstrual distress and increase awareness of the benefit of managing its associated symptoms. PMID:26086453

  10. Commentary: medical student distress: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2011-07-01

    Studies have found a high prevalence of psychological distress among medical students both in the United States and abroad. Distress among medical students has serious professional ramifications, including damaging effects on empathy, ethical conduct, and professionalism, as well as personal consequences such as substance abuse, broken relationships, and suicidal ideation. Given the effect of physician distress on quality of care, self-care (including personal appraisal of well-being, wellness promotion, and recognition of when help is needed) should be recognized as a core competency for physicians. In this issue of Academic Medicine, investigators at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine explore the benefits of teaching students to employ a cognitive behavioral approach to improving self-care. Beyond its demonstrated short-term efficacy, the approach they propose also has potential to help students develop the skills necessary to assess and promote resilience throughout their careers. Medical schools' responsibility to promote student wellness, however, goes beyond teaching students self-care skills and includes establishing an appropriate organizational culture and learning environment to promote student health. Achieving competency in self-care is a shared responsibility of the individual physician/resident/medical student and the organizational environment in which he or she functions. PMID:21715992

  11. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station not itself in distress. (a) A mobile station or a land station which learns that a mobile station... has not been acknowledged. When a mobile station transmits such a distress message, it must notify...

  12. Helping Children Help Themselves. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    Youth leaders and parents can use this activity oriented publication to help children six to twelve years of age become more independent by acquiring daily living skills. The publication consists of five units, each of which contains an introduction, learning activities, and lists of resource materials. Age-ability levels are suggested for…

  13. Help Us to Help Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Local authorities have a strong tradition of supporting communities to help themselves, and this is nowhere better illustrated than in the learning they commission and deliver through the Adult Safeguarded Learning budget. The budget was set up to protect at least a minimum of provision for adult liberal education, family learning and learning for…

  14. Social support, marital adjustment, and psychological distress among women with primary infertility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience. PMID:25837531

  15. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  16. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  17. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  18. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  19. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  20. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Oates, Gary L; Goode, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity's being particularly beneficial to blacks' emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery's being primarily helpful to whites'. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks' emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race. PMID:23762783

  1. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Gary L.; Goode, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity’s being particularly beneficial to blacks’ emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery’s being primarily helpful to whites’. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks’ emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race. PMID:23762783

  2. Chronic medical problems and distressful thoughts of suicide in primary care patients: mitigating role of happiness

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Unützer, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Chronic medical problems might amplify suicide risk in later life. Feelings of happiness may reduce this risk. We tested the hypothesis that happiness attenuates the association between number of self-reported chronic diseases and suicidal distress. Methods A sample of 1,801 depressed, primary care patients. 60 years of age or older, entering a clinical trial, were assessed for the presence of positive emotion, suicidal distress and self-reported chronic medical problems. Results Chronic medical problems are associated with suicide ideation and, as hypothesized, happiness attenuates the relationship between self-reported diseases and suicidal distress. Conclusions Decreased risk for distressing thoughts of suicide in the context of medical illness is predicted by the presence of positive emotions. Our results suggest that treatments designed to help older primary care patients identify sources of joy and enhance happiness might decrease suicide risk. PMID:19145577

  3. Differentiating causes of respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark; Holliday, Jack

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory emergencies will continue to make up a large percentage of our EMS calls. Many of these conditions will be managed in the same fashion early on with a focus on oxygenation and adequate ventilation. Once the ABCs have been stabilized, use your assessment skills to create a differential diagnosis for respiratory distress. Once a field impression has been made, you can better direct a specific treatment. As always, follow your local treatment protocols established by your medical director. Practice your assessment skills and attend as much training as you can on airway and respiratory emergencies. PMID:15743124

  4. The acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure. Its development leads to high rates of mortality, as well as short- and long-term complications, such as physical and cognitive impairment. Therefore, early recognition of this syndrome and application of demonstrated therapeutic interventions are essential to change the natural course of this devastating entity. In this review article, we describe updated concepts in ARDS. Specifically, we discuss the new definition of ARDS, its risk factors and pathophysiology, and current evidence regarding ventilation management, adjunctive therapies, and intervention required in refractory hypoxemia. PMID:25829644

  5. A New Measure for Distress during Child Sexual Abuse Examinations: The Genital Examination Distress Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gully, Kevin J.; Britton, Helen; Hansen, Karen; Goodwill, Kristopher; Nope, Joni L.

    1999-01-01

    A study (n=242) investigated the effectiveness of a simple seven-item scale designed to quantify indices of emotional distress during the rectal-genital phase of a child sexual-abuse examination. The Genital Examination Distress Scale found increased distress was associated with positive physical findings. (CR)

  6. Personal distress and the influence of bystanders on responding to an emergency.

    PubMed

    Hortensius, Ruud; Schutter, Dennis J L G; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous helping behavior during an emergency is influenced by the personality of the onlooker and by social situational factors such as the presence of bystanders. Here, we sought to determine the influences of sympathy, an other-oriented response, and personal distress, a self-oriented response, on the effect of bystanders during an emergency. In four experiments, we investigated whether trait levels of sympathy and personal distress predicted responses to an emergency in the presence of bystanders by using behavioral measures and single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Sympathy and personal distress were expected to be associated with faster responses to an emergency without bystanders present, but only personal distress would predict slower responses to an emergency with bystanders present. The results of a cued reaction time task showed that people who reported higher levels of personal distress and sympathy responded faster to an emergency without bystanders (Exp. 1). In contrast to our predictions, perspective taking but not personal distress was associated with slower reaction times as the number of bystanders increased during an emergency (Exp. 2). However, the decrease in motor corticospinal excitability, a direct physiological measure of action preparation, with the increase in the number of bystanders was solely predicted by personal distress (Exp. 3). Incorporating cognitive load manipulations during the observation of an emergency suggested that personal distress is linked to an effect of bystanders on reflexive responding to an emergency (Exp. 4). Taken together, these results indicate that the presence of bystanders during an emergency reduces action preparation in people with a disposition to experience personal distress. PMID:27126708

  7. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert by a station... of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress. (a) A station in the mobile or mobile-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert by a station... of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress. (a) A station in the mobile or mobile-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert by a station... of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress. (a) A station in the mobile or mobile-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert by a station... of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress. (a) A station in the mobile or mobile-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress. (a) A station in the mobile or mobile-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress alert relay in any of the following cases: (1) When the mobile unit in distress is not itself in a position...

  12. Empathy and Responsibility in the Motivation of Children's Helping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    To investigate affective and dispositional factors in the motivation of children's helping, 60 children ranging from preschool to sixth grade were observed in laboratory distress incidents. Results indicated that helping tended to be positively correlated with positive affect and negatively correlated with negative and neutral affect. (Author/RH)

  13. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of relationship between parental alcoholism and psychological distress and mediating effects of social support and hardiness among undergraduates. Suggests parental alcoholism is positively related to psychological distress and higher levels of social support and hardiness are associated with lower levels of psychological…

  14. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  15. Conflict in Maritally Distressed Military Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William A.; Morgan, Allison R.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated whether 30 maritally distressed military couples differed from 30 distressed civilian couples using marital satisfaction questionnaires. Found same-sex differences across groups, and cross-sex differences within groups. Found military wives were more likely to be physically abused than were civilian wives, and more often requested…

  16. Psychological Distress After Orthopedic Trauma: Prevalence in Patients and Implications for Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Heather K; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Vincent, Kevin R; Brisbane, Sonya T; Sadasivan, Kalia K

    2015-09-01

    Orthopedic trauma is an unforeseen life-changing event. Serious injuries include multiple fractures and amputation. Physical rehabilitation has traditionally focused on addressing functional deficits after traumatic injury, but important psychological factors also can dramatically affect acute and long-term recovery. This review presents the effects of orthopedic trauma on psychological distress, potential interventions for distress reduction after trauma, and implications for participation in rehabilitation. Survivors commonly experience post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety, all of which interfere with functional gains and quality of life. More than 50% of survivors have psychological distress that can last decades after the physical injury has been treated. Early identification of patients with distress can help care teams provide the resources and support to offset the distress. Several options that help trauma patients navigate their short-term recovery include holistic approaches, pastoral care, coping skills, mindfulness, peer visitation, and educational resources. The long-term physical and mental health of the trauma survivor can be enhanced by strategies that connect the survivor to a network of people with similar experiences or injuries, facilitate support groups, and social support networking (The Trauma Survivors Network). Rehabilitation specialists can help optimize patient outcomes and quality of life by participating in and advocating these strategies. PMID:25772720

  17. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) ‘preference for positive reinterpretation and growth’ coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) ‘preference for mental disengagement’ coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) ‘social support-seeking’ coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of ‘denial’ as a coping style and insight or distress. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others. PMID:17561377

  18. Infant colic, distress, and crying.

    PubMed

    Hewson, P; Oberklaid, F; Menahem, S

    1987-02-01

    The literature regarding infant colic is critically reviewed. Although there have been a number of theories proposed as to etiology of colic, the literature is characterized by difficulties in definition, methodologic problems, and numerous claims as to both etiology and management that are anecdotal. Infant colic is best conceptualized as the end result of a complex transaction between the infant and his environment, with multiple factors responsible for the crying and distress of an infant. The most important factors in appropriate intervention are a physician's receptivity and sensitivity toward the stressed mother, together with an interested and practical approach to providing adequate support while delineating the individual stresses acting on both mother and baby. Future research is needed to delineate markers for those subgroups of infants who may present with crying as a manifestation of specific clinical situations. PMID:3802693

  19. Psychological Distress and Problem Drinking.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Roberts, Bayard; Suhrcke, Marc; McKee, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We examine the influence of harmful alcohol use on mental health using a flexible two-step instrumental variables approach and household survey data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union. Using alcohol advertisements to instrument for alcohol, we show that problem drinking has a large detrimental effect on psychological distress, with problem drinkers exhibiting a 42% increase in the number of mental health problems reported and a 15% higher chance of reporting very poor mental health. Ignoring endogeneity leads to an underestimation of the damaging effect of excessive drinking. Findings suggest that more effective alcohol policies and treatment services in the former Soviet Union may have added benefits in terms of reducing poor mental health. PMID:25640167

  20. Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

  1. Helping individuals to help themselves.

    PubMed

    Costain, Lyndel; Croker, Helen

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is a serious and increasing health issue. Approximately two-thirds of adults in the UK are now overweight or obese. Recent public health reports firmly reinforce the importance of engaging individuals to look after their health, including their weight. They also spell out the need for individuals to be supported more actively, on many levels, to enable this 'engagement'. Meanwhile, national surveys indicate that approximately two-thirds of adults are concerned about weight control, with one-third actively trying to lose weight. This finding is hardly surprising considering current weight statistics, plus the plethora of popular diets on offer. Weight-loss methods include diet clubs, diet books, exercise, meal replacements, advice from healthcare professionals and following a self-styled diet. Obesity is a multi-factorial problem, and losing weight and, in particular, maintaining weight loss is difficult and often elusive. It is argued that the modern obesogenic or 'toxic' environment has essentially taken body-weight control from an instinctive 'survival' process to one that needs sustained cognitive and skill-based control. The evidence suggests that health professionals can help individuals achieve longer-term weight control by supporting them in making sustainable lifestyle changes using a range of behavioural techniques. These techniques include: assessing readiness to change; self-monitoring; realistic goal setting; dietary change; increased physical activity; stimulus control; cognitive restructuring; relapse management; establishing ongoing support. Consistently working in a client-centred way is also being increasingly advocated and incorporated into practice to help motivate and encourage, rather than hinder, the individual's progress. PMID:15877927

  2. Constructs of depression and distress in diabetes: time for an appraisal.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Frank J; Bremmer, Marijke A; Hermanns, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    Depression presents in roughly 20% of people with diabetes worldwide, and adversely affects quality of life and treatment outcomes. The causes of depression in diabetes are poorly understood, but research suggests a bi-directional association, at least for type 2 diabetes. Inconsistent findings regarding prevalence and depression treatment outcomes in patients with diabetes seem partly attributable to inconsistencies in the definition and measurement of depression and in distinguishing it from diabetes-distress, a psychological concept related to depression. We review evidence suggesting that diabetes-distress and depression are correlated and overlapping constructs, but are not interchangeable. Importantly, diabetes-distress seems to mediate the association between depression and glycaemic control. We propose a model to explain the direct and indirect effects of depression and diabetes-distress on glycaemic control. Additionally, using emerging insights from data-driven approaches, we suggest three distinct symptom profiles to define depression in patients with diabetes that could help explain differential associations between depression and metabolic abnormalities, and to tailor interventions for depression. Future research should focus on further refining depression profiles in patients with diabetes, taking into account the natural history of diabetes and depression, clinical characteristics, and diabetes-distress. The assessment of diabetes-distress and depression in research and clinical practice will be essential to identify high-risk patients with different mental health needs. PMID:25995123

  3. Insights into preferences for psycho-oncology services among women with gynecologic cancer following distress screening.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sylvie D; Kelly, Brian; Boyes, Allison; Cameron, Alexander; Adams, Catherine; Proietto, Anthony; Girgis, Afaf

    2014-06-01

    Much attention has been given to implementing routine screening programs in cancer care to improve the management of distress following diagnosis. Although patients might screen positive for distress, several studies have found that most then refuse additional psychosocial support. To inform the development of successful models of distress screening, this qualitative study explored preferences for psychosocial care among 18 women diagnosed with a gynecologic cancer who scored at least 4 on the Distress Thermometer (DT). Participants were recruited from a gynecologic oncology outpatient clinic in Newcastle, Australia, and interviewed. Unanimously, participants felt that completing the DT was an integral part of their cancer care. However, half then refused the referral to see a psychologist. These women typically reported that a referral was not needed, because their rating on the DT reflected transient stressors or physical distress. Many also spoke about their need to cope with the challenges they were facing on their own and the extensive social support they already had in place to help them overcome these challenges. In contrast, women who accepted referral to the psychologist often struggled to cope with several losses they felt had existential and long-term effects. Commonly, these women reported not having the social support they needed, managing several concurrent life stressors, and/or not having the repertoire of coping skills they required to "remain afloat." Findings from this study begin to bridge the gap between clinicians' and patients' expectations of how psychosocial services should be used in response to distress screening. PMID:24925200

  4. Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Recent Update

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Young

    2016-01-01

    Severe sepsis or septic shock is characterized by an excessive inflammatory response to infectious pathogens. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating complication of severe sepsis, from which patients have high mortality. Advances in treatment modalities including lung protective ventilation, prone positioning, use of neuromuscular blockade, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, have improved the outcome over recent decades, nevertheless, the mortality rate still remains high. Timely treatment of underlying sepsis and early identification of patients at risk of ARDS can help to decrease its development. In addition, further studies are needed regarding pathogenesis and novel therapies in order to show promising future treatments of sepsis-induced ARDS. PMID:27066082

  5. Psychological and physical distress of sheltered battered women.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, J; Lee, K; Neylan, T; Marmar, C

    2001-06-01

    We explored the physical and psychological distress of sheltered battered women. A convenience sample of 50 ethnically diverse women was obtained from women who had resided in two shelters for at least 21 days. Participants had experienced multiple traumatic events (8.1+/-4.6); however, only 19 (38.8%) of the participants were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When we analyzed biopsychosocial variables, we saw beneficial effects of support (financial, social, spiritual). These findings reinforce the need to enhance the resources of battered women, to help them identify existing opportunities, and to fortify self-caring strategies that give them strength. PMID:11813787

  6. The relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school females

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nutrition pattern is one of the important factors predicting menstrual distress, which varies among different cultures and countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school girls from Mashhad. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 using a two-stage sampling method on 407 high school female students from Mashhad who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects completed questionnaires of demographic characteristics, food frequency, and Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) during three phases of the menstrual cycle (a week before bleeding, during menstrual bleeding period, and a week after menstruation). The collected data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient test, independent Student's t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Results showed that 87.7% of the students were at moderate economic status, 82.2% were exposed to cigarette smoke, 94.8% had mothers without university education, and 9.4% had working mothers. About 71% of the students reported minor pre-menstruation distress, 81% reported minor distress during bleeding, and 39% reported minor post-menstruation distress. In addition, the mean (SD) values for sweet–fatty foods, salty–fatty foods, fast foods, and caffeine were 3.6, 3.3, 1.3, and 10.2 per week, respectively. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed no significant correlation between total menstruation distress and food frequency (P > 0.05). Conclusions: With regard to the inappropriate food frequency and high intensity of menstrual distress among high school students and as health care and educational efforts for prevention and health promotion in society are among the duties of health workers, the results of this study can help the officials involved in education to emphasize on nutrition and the menstrual health of students. PMID:26793254

  7. Help-Negation and Suicidal Ideation: The Role of Depression, Anxiety and Hopelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Help-negation is expressed behaviorally by the refusal or avoidance of available help and cognitively by the inverse relationship between self-reported symptoms of psychological distress and help-seeking intentions. The current study examined the association between suicidal ideation and intentions to seek help from friends, family and…

  8. Pavement distress detection and severity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, E.; Bao, G.

    2011-03-01

    Automatic recognition of road distresses has been an important research area since it reduces economic loses before cracks and potholes become too severe. Existing systems for automated pavement defect detection commonly require special devices such as lights, lasers, etc, which dramatically increase the cost and limit the system to certain applications. Therefore, in this paper, a low cost automatic pavement distress evaluation approach is proposed. This method can provide real-time pavement distress detection as well as evaluation results based on the color images captured from a camera installed on a survey vehicle. The entire process consists of two main parts: pavement surface extraction followed by pavement distress detection and classification. In the first part, a novel color segmentation method based on a feed forward neural network is applied to separate the road surface from the background. In the second part, a thresholding technique based on probabilistic relaxation is utilized to separate distresses from the road surface. Then, by inputting the geometrical parameters obtained from the detected distresses into a neural network based pavement distress classifier, the defects can be classified into different types. Simulation results are given to show that the proposed method is both effective and reliable on a variety of pavement images.

  9. Student Distress in Clinical Workplace Learning: Differences in Social Comparison Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raat, A. N. Janet; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; van Hell, E. Ally; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2015-01-01

    In medical education, student distress is known to hamper learning and professional development. To address this problem, recent studies aimed at helping students cope with stressful situations. Undergraduate students in clinical practice frequently use experiences of surrounding peers to estimate their abilities to master such challenging…

  10. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334... § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any indication... distress alert is prohibited and may be subject to the provisions of part 1, subpart A of this chapter...

  11. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334... § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any indication... distress alert is prohibited and may be subject to the provisions of part 1, subpart A of this chapter...

  12. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334... § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any indication... distress alert is prohibited and may be subject to the provisions of part 1, subpart A of this chapter...

  13. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334... § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any indication... distress alert is prohibited and may be subject to the provisions of part 1, subpart A of this chapter...

  14. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334... § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any indication... distress alert is prohibited and may be subject to the provisions of part 1, subpart A of this chapter...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  18. Previous Mental Distress May Slow Concussion Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Concussion Recovery If 'psychosomatic symptoms' were present before head injury, it took twice as long for most athletes ... and pains caused by mental distress -- before their head injury, new research suggests. The study included 127 high ...

  19. Distressing behaviour of schizophrenics at home.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, P S; Chaturvedi, S K

    1992-09-01

    The care of mentally ill people at home is being encouraged nowadays. As a result, the family members feel an increased burden of care and find it difficult to cope with the care of a schizophrenic patient at home. We interviewed the relatives of 62 schizophrenics systematically regarding the behaviour of the patients that was perceived to be distressful. This was done using the Scale for Assessment of Family Distress. It was noted that behaviours related to activity and self-care were perceived to be most distressful, and not aggressive or psychotic behaviour. Distress was more often reported by younger relatives and those with more education. The findings have implications in planning appropriate family intervention methods. PMID:1414410

  20. Happiness and death distress: two separate factors.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between happiness and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) in 275 volunteer Kuwaiti undergraduates. They responded to the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Death Anxiety Scale, the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Death Depression Scale-Revised, and the Death Obsession Scale. Gender differences were significant on all 5 scales, with women showing a lower mean score of happiness and a higher mean score for the death distress. All the correlations between happiness and the death distress scales were non-significant except one pertaining to happiness and death depression (negative) in women. Two oblique factors were extracted: death distress and happiness. Therefore, these constructs represent 2 distinct and independent factors. PMID:16265799

  1. Psychological distress, hopelessness and welfare.

    PubMed

    Petterson, S M; Friel, L V

    2001-01-01

    This article assesses the validity of the claim that welfare in itself has deleterious psychological consequences for single mothers. The analysis compares single mothers who are recipients of AFDC with single mothers who are not recipients in terms of their depressive symptoms (as measured by the CES-D) and hopelessness (as measured by Pearlin Mastery Scale). The analysis uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the National Survey of Families and Households. The authors find that higher levels of both depression and hopelessness among welfare recipients can be explained by their material hardship rather than the stigma attached to welfare. They show that AFDC recipients report similar levels of depression and hopelessness as jobless non-recipients as well as low-wage non-recipients. An additional finding is that long-term welfare recipients do not experience greater emotional problems than short-term welfare recipients. Finally, the paper shows that feelings of hopelessness mediate the relationship between material deprivation and psychological distress for both recipients and non-recipients. PMID:11463067

  2. [Exploring moral distress among clinical nurses].

    PubMed

    Lovato, Sabrina; Lovato, Liliana; Cunico, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Moral distress in nursing practice is described as a suffering situation that arises when the nurse is unable to act her/his ethical choices, when institutional constraints interfere with acting in the way she/he believes to be right. The aim is to describe nursing practice situations causing moral distress resulting from the recognition of the ethical appropriate actions combined with the impossibility to pursue it; to describe how nurses manage moral distress situations and the strategies to cope with them. A focus group was conducted in three wards of a large teaching-hospital in the north of Italy. In another ward the nurses were asked to write a moral distress experience. A total of 40 nurses were involved and 50 experiences collected. The experiences' analysis has shown 5 source areas of moral distress: 1) clinical decision; 2) nursing competences; 3) nurse-physician collaboration; 4) organization of care; 5) safe care. For each area the most frequent themes were highlighted.Areas of clinical decision, nursing competences, nurse-physician collaboration involve nurse leaders in identification and implementation of strategies for managing moral distress. PMID:23121880

  3. Registered nurses' and student nurses' assessment of pain and distress related to specific patient and nurse characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Larsson, Bodil Wilde

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies examining the influence of patient and nurse characteristics on assessments of pain and distress are not consistent in their results. Few studies have focused on the influence of nurses' personality factors on the assessment of pain and distress. The aims of this study were to compare registered nurses' and student nurses' assessments of patients' pain and distress and to identify if the assessment relate to specific patient and nurse characteristics. Seventy-one registered nurses and 184 student nurses assessed pain and distress in three hypothetical cases and responded to personality factors scales. The assessments of pain and distress regarding the patients showed significant differences. The respondents were divided into two groups, respectively, for each patient according to whether the patient's experiences of pain and distress were assessed as more or less intense. Both the groups of registered nurses and student nurses showed significantly differences on personality factors. The groups of student nurses also differed on nursing experience. Patients' age, and type and stage of illness, personality factors, and nursing experience influenced the respondents' assessments. These findings can be used to help educators in nursing to develop strategies to improve skills and knowledge in the assessment at pain and distress. PMID:16412537

  4. The Impact of Miscarriage and Parity on Patterns of Maternal Distress in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine patterns of state anxiety and pregnancy-specific distress across pregnancy in a diverse sample of women with (n = 113) and without (n = 250) prior miscarriage. For both groups, state anxiety and pregnancy-specific distress were highest in the first trimester and decreased significantly over the course of pregnancy. Compared to women without prior miscarriage, women with prior miscarriage experienced greater state anxiety in the second and third trimesters. Having a living child did not buffer state anxiety in women with a prior miscarriage. Attention to patterns of distress can contribute to delivery of appropriate support resources to women experiencing pregnancy after miscarriage and may help reduce risk for stress-related outcomes. PMID:20544819

  5. Pathobiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sapru, Anil; Flori, Heidi; Quasney, Michael W; Dahmer, Mary K

    2015-06-01

    The unique characteristics of pulmonary circulation and alveolar-epithelial capillary-endothelial barrier allow for maintenance of the air-filled, fluid-free status of the alveoli essential for facilitating gas exchange, maintaining alveolar stability, and defending the lung against inhaled pathogens. The hallmark of pathophysiology in acute respiratory distress syndrome is the loss of the alveolar capillary permeability barrier and the presence of protein-rich edema fluid in the alveoli. This alteration in permeability and accumulation of fluid in the alveoli accompanies damage to the lung epithelium and vascular endothelium along with dysregulated inflammation and inappropriate activity of leukocytes and platelets. In addition, there is uncontrolled activation of coagulation along with suppression of fibrinolysis and loss of surfactant. These pathophysiological changes result in the clinical manifestations of acute respiratory distress syndrome, which include hypoxemia, radiographic opacities, decreased functional residual capacity, increased physiologic deadspace, and decreased lung compliance. Resolution of acute respiratory distress syndrome involves the migration of cells to the site of injury and re-establishment of the epithelium and endothelium with or without the development of fibrosis. Most of the data related to acute respiratory distress syndrome, however, originate from studies in adults or in mature animals with very few studies performed in children or juvenile animals. The lack of studies in children is particularly problematic because the lungs and immune system are still developing during childhood and consequently the pathophysiology of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome may differ in significant ways from that seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. This article describes what is known of the pathophysiologic processes of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome as we know it today while also presenting the much

  6. The prospective effects of perceived and laboratory indices of distress tolerance on cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nadeem S; Babson, Kimberly A; Banducci, Anne N; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-12-01

    The majority of individuals who attempt to quit using cannabis do not seek formalized treatment. To better understand which malleable factors contribute to cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt, we concurrently examined 2 measures of distress tolerance (DT) as prospective predictors of cannabis use post quit attempt. We hypothesized that veterans with higher in relation to lower levels of DT would be less likely to use cannabis following a self-guided quit attempt. In this study, we included 103 cannabis-dependent veterans (Mage = 50, 95% male, 37% White, 36% Black, 14% Hispanic, 14% other) who reported being motivated to quit using cannabis. Veterans completed 2 measures of DT, the Distress Tolerance Scale (perceived distress tolerance) and the Mirror-Tracing Persistence Task (laboratory analogue of distress tolerance). Findings indicated that veterans with greater perceived distress tolerance used less cannabis over the quit period than did veterans with less perceived distress tolerance. However, contrary to expectations, baseline performance on a laboratory analogue of distress tolerance was not related to cannabis use over the quit period. Results suggest that veterans' perceived ability to tolerate distress is an important predictor of cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt. Thus, the Distress Tolerance Scale could serve as an important tool for helping to identify veterans at risk for cannabis use postquit. PMID:26727009

  7. Automated real-time pavement distress detection using fuzzy logic and neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Heng-Da

    1996-11-01

    Conventional visual and manual pavement distress analysis approaches are very costly, time-consuming, dangerous, labor-intensive, tedious, subjective, having high degree of variability, unable to provide meaningful quantitative information, and almost always leading to inconsistencies in distress detail over space and across evaluations. In this paper, a novel system for multipurpose automated real-time pavement distress analysis based on fuzzy logic and neural networks will be studied. The proposed system can: provide high data acquisition rates; effectively and accurately identify the type, severity and extent of surface distress; improve the safety and efficiency of data collection; offer an objective standard of analysis and classification of distress; help identify cost effective maintenance and repair plans; provide images and examples through information highway to other user/researchers; provide image/sample back for training or as the benchmark for testing new algorithms. The proposed system will reduce the cost for maintenance/repair greatly, and can contribute to other research in pavement maintenance, repair and rehabilitation.

  8. Assessment of psychological distress in prospective bone marrow transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Trask, P C; Paterson, A; Riba, M; Brines, B; Griffith, K; Parker, P; Weick, J; Steele, P; Kyro, K; Ferrara, J

    2002-06-01

    Patient psychological distress is associated with many aspects of the bone marrow transplantation (BMT) process and has been linked with poor treatment outcomes. We assessed psychological distress in potential BMT candidates, and compared patient and nurse coordinator ratings of emotional distress at the time of initial BMT consultation. Fifty patients self-reported psychological distress using both the NCCN Distress Thermometer (DT) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Coordinators rated patient emotional distress using the DT and Coordinator Rating Scales that measure anxiety and depression. Fifty and 51% of patients self-reported clinically significant levels of emotional distress and anxiety, respectively, but only 20% self-reported clinically significant levels of depression. There was good correlation between ratings using the brief DT and the more comprehensive HADS. There was significant but only moderate agreement between patient and coordinator ratings of emotional distress and anxiety, with coordinators underestimating the number of patients with high levels of emotional distress. In addition, coordinator ratings of patient emotional distress primarily reflected anxiety, whereas anxiety and depression together only minimally accounted for patient self-reports of psychological distress. These findings suggest that: (1) the DT can be a useful screening device; (2) approximately half of patients at the time of initial consultation for BMT already experience significant levels of psychological distress; and (3) coordinators observe emotional distress primarily as anxiety, but patients experience psychological distress as something more than anxiety and depression. PMID:12080358

  9. Maternal and Adolescent Distress Tolerance: The Moderating Role of Gender

    PubMed Central

    Daughters, Stacey B.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Rutherford, Helena J.V.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Distress tolerance is defined behaviorally as the ability to maintain goal directed behavior while experiencing physical or psychological distress. Distress tolerance is closely related to emotion regulation, and is a clinically relevant construct contributing to psychopathology across adults and adolescents, yet limited research has examined the development of this construct. A number of studies suggest the importance of parenting in the emergence of emotion regulation capacities in childhood and adolescence. In the current study, we utilize a behavioral measure of distress tolerance to examine whether maternal distress tolerance is related to adolescent distress tolerance, and if this association differs as a function of gender. We also examine the influence of family emotional climate, namely maternal response to adolescent distress and adolescent attachment. Results indicate a significant maternal distress tolerance by adolescent gender interaction, such that maternal distress tolerance predicts adolescent distress tolerance in daughters, but not sons. The family emotional climate variables were unrelated to maternal or adolescent distress tolerance. Taken together, data indicate that maternal distress tolerance is significantly related to the distress tolerance of adolescent daughters, and indicates the potential utility of addressing maternal distress tolerance in clinical work with adolescents. PMID:24364854

  10. Medical Student Attitude toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kligfeld, Marnin; Hoffman, Kaaren I.

    1979-01-01

    To explore the antecedents of emotional distress among physicians, the relationship between year in medical school and student attitude toward seeking professional psychological help was investigated using students at the University of Southern California. For women, no attitudinal changes were noted; an early, significant positive change was…

  11. Help-Seeking by Young People with Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders commonly occur for the first time during adolescence and often become a recurring source of distress and impairment. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of adolescents with depressive disorders receive help from professional services, and there is evidence that adolescents with higher levels of depressive symptoms may be…

  12. The Perceived Helpfulness of Rendering Emotional First Aid via Email

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilat, Itzhak; Reshef, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the perceived helpfulness of an increasingly widespread mode of psychological assistance, namely, emotional first aid via email. The sample comprised 62 naturally occurring email interactions between distressful clients and trained volunteers operating within the framework of the Israeli Association for Emotional…

  13. Do Ravens Show Consolation? Responses to Distressed Others

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Orlaith N.; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from an uninvolved bystander to the conflict victim) may represent an expression of empathy in which the bystander consoles the victim to alleviate the victim's distress (“consolation”). However, alternative hypotheses for the function of bystander affiliation also exist. Determining whether ravens spontaneously offer consolation to distressed partners may not only help us to understand how animals deal with the costs of aggressive conflict, but may also play an important role in the empathy debate. Methodology/Principal findings This study investigates the post-conflict behavior of ravens, applying the predictive framework for the function of bystander affiliation for the first time in a non-ape species. We found weak evidence for reconciliation (post-conflict affiliation between former opponents), but strong evidence for both bystander affiliation and solicited bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from the victim to a bystander). Bystanders involved in both interactions were likely to share a valuable relationship with the victim. Bystander affiliation offered to the victim was more likely to occur after intense conflicts. Renewed aggression was less likely to occur after the victim solicited affiliation from a bystander. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that in ravens, bystanders may console victims with whom they share a valuable relationship, thus alleviating the victims' post-conflict distress. Conversely victims may affiliate with bystanders after a conflict in order to reduce the likelihood of renewed aggression. These results stress the importance of relationship quality in determining the occurrence and function of post-conflict interactions, and show that ravens may be sensitive to the emotions of others. PMID:20485685

  14. Moral repugnance, moral distress, and organ sales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2015-06-01

    Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons' feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez argues that such instinctive distress is an appropriate response to the (rationally defensible) perception that certain kinds of arguments that are offered in favor of legalizing organ sales are "in an important sense, illegitimate." Having argued that repugnance should not ground the prohibition of markets in human organs, I will also argue that the moral distress that some feel towards certain arguments that favor such markets is not rationally defensible, either. PMID:25908777

  15. Gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Aden, A S; Dahlgren, L; Tarsitani, G

    2004-01-01

    Political upheaval and poverty at home has been forcing many Somalis to immigrate. These immigrants do not only leave their physical house, families, relatives, loved ones, friends, but also familiarities, culture, customs, and often they do end up in no man's land being between their own and new home culture. Available reports suggest that there are about 15,000 Somalis in Sweden and their majority came here from late 1989 to 1996. About one third these immigrants live in and around the city of Gothenburg. This paper explores and describes gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden. A qualitative sociological in-depth interviews with 6 women and 7 men was performed during May 1999 to January 2000. A follow up focus group interviews with 10 people (2 women and 8 men) was also carried on. The results show that both the Somali culture and Muslim religion do not support the children being taught sex education in schools or the names of the sex organs being pronounced other than to be used as metaphors. The girls, unlike their age group males, experience a very painful and terrifying process during childhood in which their self-esteem is downgraded by means of serious degrading traditional active violence such as female genital mutilation and visible virginity control. The narratives tell stories in which Somali women are degraded and expected to obey in situations characterised by their man's arbitrariness. They are subject to a very extensive form of social control, which is especially pronounced on issues regarding sexuality. Their integrity as women is, consequently set aside. When Somali refugees came to Sweden some of them came to adopt much of the modern lifestyle and cultural norm systems, preferable young people and some of the females. Relating to a new culture with its new expectations on the norm obedience also created changes in self-esteem. Exile situation tends to generate

  16. Predictors of enduring clinical distress in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N N; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Aaronson, Neil K; van Abbema, Doris L; den Boer, Mathilda D; van Hezewijk, Marjan; Immink, Marcelle; Kaptein, Ad A; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E; Reyners, Anna K L; Russell, Nicola S; Schriek, Manon; Sijtsema, Sieta; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2016-08-01

    To date, little is known about enduring clinical distress as measured with the commonly used distress thermometer. We therefore used the distress thermometer to examine: (a) the prevalence of enduring clinical distress, distress-related problems, and subsequent wish for referral of women with breast cancer, and (b) sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of enduring clinical distress. The study had a multicenter, prospective, observational design. Patients with primary breast cancer completed a questionnaire at 6 and 15 months postdiagnosis. Medical data were retrieved from chart reviews. Enduring clinical distress was defined as heightened distress levels over time. The prevalence of enduring clinical distress, problems, and wish for referral was examined with descriptive analyses. Associations between predictors and enduring clinical distress were examined with multivariate analyses. One hundred sixty-four of 746 patients (22 %) reported having enduring clinical distress at 6 and 15 months postdiagnosis. Of these, 10 % wanted to be referred for care. Fatigue was the most frequently reported problem by patients with and without clinical distress, at both time points. Lack of muscle strength (OR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.12-2.98), experience of a low level of life satisfaction (OR = 0.77, 95 % CI 0.67-0.89), more frequent cancer worry (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.05-1.89), and neuroticism (OR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.00-1.18) were predictors of enduring clinical distress. In conclusion, one in five women with breast cancer develops enduring clinical distress. Oncologists, nurse practitioners, and cancer nurses are advised to use single-item questions about distress and distress-related problems to ensure timely detection of high-risk patients. Providers should also routinely assess fatigue and its causes, as fatigue is the most frequently reported distress-related problem over time. PMID:27417105

  17. Happiness and Death Distress: Two Separate Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between happiness and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) in 275 volunteer Kuwaiti undergraduates. They responded to the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Death Anxiety Scale, the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Death Depression Scale-Revised, and the…

  18. Women's Feminist Consciousness, Anger, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.; Good, Glenn E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to bring together several lines of research and theory on women's feminist consciousness from psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Past literatures had suggested bivariate links between feminist identity development and psychological distress, feminist identity and anger, feminist identity and interpersonal conflict,…

  19. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  20. [Acute respiratory distress revealing severe pulmonary leptospirosis].

    PubMed

    Sekkach, Y; Qaçif, H; Jira, M; El Qatni, M; El omri, N; Ghafir, D

    2007-01-01

    We return a clinical case of leptospirose revelated by a complicated febrile harp pneumopathie of a sharp respiratory distress syndrome having required a transfer in resuscitation. The goal of our article is to recall that it is necessary to think systematically about a pulmonary shape of leptospirose facing an atypical pneumopahie. PMID:17141924

  1. Discrimination Distress among Chinese American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Liang, Belle

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses contradictions between common perceptions of Asian Americans as a "model minority" and growing evidence of discrimination and its negative psychological implications for this group. The current study examined Chinese American early adolescents' distress from experiences of discrimination, its relationship with mental health…

  2. Intrusive Cognitive Content and Postdeployment Distress.

    PubMed

    Shipherd, Jillian C; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn; Matza, Alexis

    2016-08-01

    Although intrusive cognitions (ICs) are common posttrauma, little is known about trauma-related IC content, or associations between IC content and posttraumatic adjustment. A mixed-method cross-sectional approach was used in a secondary analysis of IC content and postdeployment distress. Participants were 1,521 U.S. Army soldiers 3-12 months postdeployment reporting their most distressing postdeployment ICs (mean number of ICs reported was 1.20). ICs were transcribed and content was categorized by 13 emergent themes. The most commonly reported ICs were of injury or death (48.2%) and combat (43.5%), and soldiers with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 187) were more likely to report the presence of these ICs, χ(2) s(1) = 35.27, ps < .001, φs < .16 than those without probable PTSD (n = 1,331). Other domains also emerged frequently, including ICs about friends (31.0%), family (15.8%), and leadership concerns (13.8%). IC content was a small, but significant correlate of distress after adjusting for combat exposure (ΔR(2) ≥ .02, ps ≤ .001). The presence of ICs of injury or death, combat, military sexual trauma, health, leadership, and family (βs > .06, ps < .02) were unique correlates of distress. Results suggested that ICs about a wide range of topics should be addressed in postdeployment interventions. PMID:27405098

  3. Acute respiratory distress caused by Neosartorya udagawae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first reported case of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributed to Neosartorya infection. The mold grew rapidly in culture of both sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from a previously healthy 43-year-old woman with ARDS, which developed as the culmination of a...

  4. Relief and Distress after Marital Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.; Thompson, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Examined relief and distress as responses to the termination of marriage in a study of 205 individuals soon after their final separation. Results showed that relief is a frequent response to marital separation. Group differences in response were associated with the rewards and costs of ending a marriage. (JAC)

  5. Substance Use, Distress, and Adolescent School Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…

  6. Once Distressed, Jackson County Moves On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981, Jackson County, North Carolina, appeared on the first list of "distressed counties" in Appalachia. Since then, the rural county has made significant improvements by investing in its physical infrastructure (which also promotes tourism); fostering economic-development partnerships among governments, small businesses, and local colleges;…

  7. Religion and Psychological Distress in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces data from a new random sample of Japanese adults. Findings show that reporting of distress symptoms are: (1. positively associated with a religious coping index (i.e., beliefs that religion or supernatural beings provide comfort, support or protection), (2. associated in different directions with ownership of different…

  8. Psychological Distress Among Elderly Mexican Americans and Anglos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markides, Kyriakos S.; And Others

    Psychological distress is investigated in a sample of elderly Mexican Americans and Anglos residing in a four-census tract area in southwest San Antonio. Comparisons of the two ethnic groups using the Computer Derived Mental Health Rating as the measure of psychological distress show that Mexican Americans exhibit more distress than Anglos. This…

  9. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114... Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts....

  10. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114... Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts....

  11. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114... Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts....

  12. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114... Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts....

  13. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114... Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts....

  14. 46 CFR 25.25-19 - Visual distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Lifesaving Equipment § 25.25-19 Visual distress signals. Each uninspected passenger vessel must meet the visual distress signal requirements of 33 CFR part 175 applicable to the vessel. ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visual distress signals. 25.25-19 Section...

  15. 46 CFR 25.25-19 - Visual distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Other Lifesaving Equipment § 25.25-19 Visual distress signals. Each uninspected passenger vessel must meet the visual distress signal requirements of 33 CFR part 175 applicable to the vessel. ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Visual distress signals. 25.25-19 Section...

  16. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  17. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  18. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  19. 13 CFR 301.3 - Economic distress levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic distress levels. 301.3 Section 301.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Economic Distress Criteria § 301.3 Economic distress levels. (a) Part 305...

  20. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a)...

  2. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  3. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  4. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a)...

  6. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1109 - Distress, urgency, and safety communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress, urgency, and safety communications. 80.1109 Section 80.1109 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1109 Distress, urgency, and...

  8. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pyrotechnic distress signals. 169.553 Section 169.553... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.553 Pyrotechnic distress signals. (a) All pyrotechnic distress signals must be of an approved type. (b) Replacement must be made...

  9. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pyrotechnic distress signals. 169.553 Section 169.553... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.553 Pyrotechnic distress signals. (a) All pyrotechnic distress signals must be of an approved type. (b) Replacement must be made...

  10. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pyrotechnic distress signals. 169.553 Section 169.553... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.553 Pyrotechnic distress signals. (a) All pyrotechnic distress signals must be of an approved type. (b) Replacement must be made...

  11. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pyrotechnic distress signals. 169.553 Section 169.553... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.553 Pyrotechnic distress signals. (a) All pyrotechnic distress signals must be of an approved type. (b) Replacement must be made...

  12. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pyrotechnic distress signals. 169.553 Section 169.553... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.553 Pyrotechnic distress signals. (a) All pyrotechnic distress signals must be of an approved type. (b) Replacement must be made...

  13. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome: a review of the Berlin definition].

    PubMed

    de Luis Cabezón, N; Sánchez Castro, I; Bengoetxea Uriarte, U X; Rodrigo Casanova, M P; García Peña, J M; Aguilera Celorrio, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is due to many causes. The absence of a universal definition up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive diagnosis. The incidences of ARDS and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) vary widely in the current literature. The American-European Consensus Conference definition has been applied since its publication in 1994 and has helped to improve knowledge about ARDS. However, 18 years later, in 2011, the European Intensive Medicine Society, requested a team of international experts to meet in Berlin to review the ARDS definition. The purpose of the Berlin definition is not to use it as a prognostic tool, but to improve coherence between research and clinical practice. PMID:24780650

  14. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-29

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  15. A case–control study of psychological distress in survivors of farmers' suicides in Wardha District in central India

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Manik Changoji; Behere, Prakash Balkrushna

    2016-01-01

    Context: Lack of literature on psychological aspects of survivors of farmers' suicides is hurdle in devising effective helping strategies for rising number of survivors across the country. Aims and Objectives: To assess the psychological distress and its correlates in survivors of farmers' suicides. Settings and Design: Case–control study design was used in Wardha District of Vidarbha region in the central India. Materials and Methods: A predesigned and pretested semistructured questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic variables. Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 was used to evaluate psychological distress in 98 survivors of farmers' suicides and 98 age, sex, and occupation-matched controls. Statistical Analysis: Significance of differences between case and control groups were assessed using Chi-square test or Fisher's two-tailed exact test for class variables. For continuous variables, Student's t-test was used P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Significantly higher proportion of survivors had psychological distress than controls. Female survivors, spouse and parents of suicide victims had a high risk of distress. Psychological distress was commonly expressed by depressive and somatic symptoms. Conclusions: Survivors of farmers' suicides are suffering from significant psychological distress. PMID:27385846

  16. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  17. Sexual Assault Disclosure Recipients' Experiences: Emotional Distress and Changes in the Relationship With the Victim.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Jennifer; Paul, Lisa A; Sasson, Sapir; Porter, Abigail; Hasulube, Jemi

    2016-01-01

    Sexual assault victims are more likely to disclose their experience to friends and family than formal support sources (e.g., police, counselors). As such, disclosure receipt is a relatively common occurrence, but little is known about the recipients' disclosure experience. This study examined predictors of recipient emotional distress and positive and negative changes in the victim-recipient relationship postdisclosure among 69 female undergraduates at 3 universities. Predictors of distress included greater self-rated closeness to the victim and greater confusion about how to help. Positive changes were predicted by greater closeness and less responsibility attributed to the victim, and negative changes were predicted by less closeness, greater assigned responsibility, and greater perceived ineffectiveness of one's help. Implications for improving the disclosure experience via psychoeducational interventions are presented. PMID:27074789

  18. Psychological distress: precursor or consequence of dating infidelity?

    PubMed

    Hall, Julie H; Fincham, Frank D

    2009-02-01

    Research on infidelity-related distress has focused on victims with little attention to perpetrators. Two studies therefore explore the psychological functioning of individuals who have engaged in dating infidelity. Study 1 showed that, compared to faithful partners, individuals who had engaged in infidelity showed more psychological distress. Study 2 investigated the interrelationships among infidelity, psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction over time. Results suggested that initial levels of psychological distress predicted later infidelity but infidelity did not predict subsequent psychological distress. Findings are interpreted in light of the broader infidelity literature, potential mechanisms are suggested, and avenues for future research are recommended. PMID:19060221

  19. Parents’ Empathic Responses and Pain and Distress in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Louis A.; Cline, Rebecca J. W.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Harper, Felicity W. K.; Peterson, Amy M.; Taub, Jeffrey M.; Ruckdeschel, John C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between parents’ empathic responses prior to their children undergoing cancer treatment procedures and children’s pain/distress during the procedures. We hypothesized: (1) parents’ empathic distress would be positively associated with children’s pain/distress, (2) parents’ empathic concern would be negatively associated with children’s pain/distress; and (3) parents’ enduring dispositions and social support would be associated with their empathic responses. Parents completed: (1) measures of dispositions and perceived social support several weeks before their children underwent the procedures, and (2) state measures of empathic distress and empathic concern just before the procedures. Empathic distress was positively associated with children’s pain; empathic concern was negatively associated with children’s pain/distress. Predictions about dispositions and social support were also substantially confirmed. PMID:20514359

  20. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Child Welfare Workers: A Comparative Analysis of Occupational Distress across Professional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprang, Ginny; Craig, Carlton; Clark, James

    2011-01-01

    This study describes predictors of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in a national sample of helping professionals, with a specific focus on the unique responses of child welfare (CW) workers. Specific worker and exposure characteristics are examined as possible predictors of these forms of occupational distress in a sample of 669…

  1. The dynamic financial distress prediction method of EBW-VSTW-SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Li, Hui; Chang, Pei-Chann; He, Kai-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Financial distress prediction (FDP) takes important role in corporate financial risk management. Most of former researches in this field tried to construct effective static FDP (SFDP) models that are difficult to be embedded into enterprise information systems, because they are based on horizontal data-sets collected outside the modelling enterprise by defining the financial distress as the absolute conditions such as bankruptcy or insolvency. This paper attempts to propose an approach for dynamic evaluation and prediction of financial distress based on the entropy-based weighting (EBW), the support vector machine (SVM) and an enterprise's vertical sliding time window (VSTW). The dynamic FDP (DFDP) method is named EBW-VSTW-SVM, which keeps updating the FDP model dynamically with time goes on and only needs the historic financial data of the modelling enterprise itself and thus is easier to be embedded into enterprise information systems. The DFDP method of EBW-VSTW-SVM consists of four steps, namely evaluation of vertical relative financial distress (VRFD) based on EBW, construction of training data-set for DFDP modelling according to VSTW, training of DFDP model based on SVM and DFDP for the future time point. We carry out case studies for two listed pharmaceutical companies and experimental analysis for some other companies to simulate the sliding of enterprise vertical time window. The results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible and efficient to help managers improve corporate financial management.

  2. Examining behavioural coping strategies as mediators between work-family conflict and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097

  3. Neglect and perceived stigmatization impact psychological distress of orphans in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hermenau, Katharin; Eggert, Ina; Landolt, Markus A.; Hecker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys). We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans. PMID:26589257

  4. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097

  5. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gumuchian, Stephanie T.; Peláez, Sandra; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Jewett, Lisa R.; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Fortune, Catherine; Hudson, Marie; Impens, Ann; Körner, Annett; Persmann, Jennifer; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Bartlett, Susan J.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood. Objectives To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions. Methods Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French) with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis. Results Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a) facing a new reality; (b) the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c) handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d) changing family roles; (e) social interactions; and (f) navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants’ lives. Conclusion Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease. PMID:27008209

  6. Support Service Use and Interest in Support Services among Distressed Family Caregivers of Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Champion, Victoria L.; Hanna, Nasser; Jalal, Shadia I.; Fakiris, Achilles J.; Birdas, Thomas J.; Okereke, Ikenna C.; Kesler, Kenneth A.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Given, Barbara A.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined support service use and interest in support services among distressed family caregivers of patients recently entering a comprehensive cancer care facility. Methods Primary family caregivers of lung cancer patients (N = 83) were recruited from three medical centers within 12 weeks of the patient’s new visit to the oncology clinic. All family caregivers were screened for psychological distress and those reporting significant anxiety or depressive symptoms were eligible for this study. Caregivers completed a baseline assessment of support service use (i.e., use of mental health services and complementary and alternative medicine [CAM]) and interest in support services. Support service use was also assessed three months later. Results Although all caregivers reported clinically meaningful distress, only 26% used mental health and 39% used CAM services during the 3-month study period. Patients’ receipt of chemotherapy was positively associated with caregivers’ mental health service use, whereas greater education and receiving assistance with caregiving tasks were associated with CAM use. Forty percent of caregivers who did not use CAM at baseline were interested in CAM. In addition, 29% of caregivers who did not receive mental health services at baseline were interested in professional psychosocial support, and 29% of caregivers who did not receive staff assistance with practical needs at baseline were interested in this service. Conclusions Findings suggest that distressed family caregivers of lung cancer patients underuse mental health services and that a sizable minority are interested in professional help with psychosocial and practical needs. PMID:22941782

  7. Patterns of psychological distress in mothers of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; Santos, Hudson; Levy, Janet; White-Traut, Rosemary; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Mothers of preterm infants experience significant psychological distress, with elevated levels of inter-correlated depressive, stress, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In a sample of racially and ethnically diverse mothers of preterm infants, we identified differing patterns of psychological distress during infant hospitalization and examined the effect of these psychological distress patterns on longitudinal trajectories of each psychological distress measure and on maternal perceptions of the child over the first year of the infant's life. Mothers of preterm infants (N=232) completed five questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, stress due to infant appearance, and stress due to parental role alteration during enrollment during the neonatal hospitalization, discharge, and at 2, 6, and 12 months of age adjusted for prematurity. Latent class analysis on the enrollment psychological distress variables allowed us to identify five sub-groups of mothers exhibiting similar patterns of psychological distress, differing primarily in degree and type: low distress, moderate distress, high NICU-related distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress. These classes continued to show different longitudinal trajectories for the psychological distress measures through 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class and, to a lesser degree, mothers in the high depressive and anxiety symptom class remained at risk of significant psychological distress one year after discharge and had less positive perceptions of their child (greater worry and higher perceptions of child vulnerability). In conclusion, distinctive sub-groups of mothers during hospitalization had different patterns of psychological distress throughout the 12-month period and may require different interventions in the NICU. PMID:26495909

  8. Petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry of calcite-silica deposits at Exile Hill, Nevada, compared with local spring deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and petrographic analyses of siliceous calcretes from Exile Hill east of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, indicate that pedogenic processes alone account for the formation of the calcretes. These calcretes have been interpreted by some observers as evidence of seismically triggered eruptions of deep water. Such an origin could have important consequences if Yucca Mountain is developed as an unsaturated site for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. At odds with this hypothesis are the absence of features that should be present at fault-fed springs (e.g., fissure-ridge mounds with microterraces) and the preservation within root casts of delicate pedogenic microfossils, such as calcified filaments and needle-fiber calcites. Mineral-chemical evidence of pedogenic origin is found in heavy-mineral concentrations, reflected in Fe and Sc enrichments. These concentrations, which occur in the most massive of the vein calcretes, require derivation of detritus from a mixture of weathered and eolian materials that occur in the overlying B soil horizons, as opposed to direct incorporation of adjacent unweathered bedrock. Carbonate and silica abundances and accumulation rates are well within the scope of pedogenic processes. Calcium is derived from rainwater or eolian sources, whereas silica is derived in part by dissolution of local volcanic glasses or from dissolution of unstable silica minerals that are abundant in the local tuffs. In contrast with local deposits that are of spring or seep origin, the siliceous calcretes at Yucca Mountain are pedogenic in origin as well as evolution and provide no evidence in support of conjectured spring activity.

  9. Finding a way back home: a spirituality of exile after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    DeMoor, Emily Ann

    2009-03-01

    Three years ago breath took the form of Hurricane Katrina and passed through our bodies and our lives, leaving us forever changed. We all breathed her, but for those of us living on the Gulf Coast our encounter with Katrina was more intimate, our breathing more conscious, our memory more charged, our lives forever changed. My story takes me from the winds of Hurricane Katrina blasting through the Gulf Coast, through the tube of a machine that helped keep my son's lung expanded, through the Sinai dessert and the valley of the dry bones, through the in-between spaces of grounded groundlessness, to the forests and rivers of the Berskhire Mountains, where I have relocated and started my life over. My spiritual journey "home" is a dynamic story of Earth, wind, fire, water, flesh, and Spirit. PMID:19229630

  10. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1984-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  11. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1983-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  12. Psychological distress of marital and cohabitation breakups.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lara Patrício; Aassve, Arnstein

    2013-11-01

    Using data from a large survey, the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), this paper explores the extent to which marital and cohabiting unions differ with respect to the short-term effects of union dissolution on mental health. We compare married individuals who divorced or separated with cohabitors whose first union ended and test the hypothesis that married individuals experience larger negative effects. Results show that initial differences are not statistically significant once the presence of children is controlled for, suggesting that the presence of children is a particularly significant source of increased psychological distress in union dissolutions. However, parenthood does not explain serious psychological distress, which appears to be associated with enduring traits (the personality trait neuroticism). PMID:24090854

  13. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Formal and Informal Help Seeking among Israeli Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Fishman, Gideon; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the willingness of Jewish and Arab Israeli adolescents to look for help in times of distress and explores the factors that are associated with the willingness of these adolescents to look for help from formal vs. informal sources. The sample consisted of 6017 randomly selected respondents, 14-18 years old, attending secondary…

  14. Racial and Ethnic Minority College Students' Stigma Associated with Seeking Psychological Help: Examining Psychocultural Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…

  15. Going Online: Helping Technical Communicators Help Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Patricia; Lord van Slyke, Melanie; Starke-Meyerring, Doreen; Thompson, Aimee

    1999-01-01

    Explains why technical communicators should help translators. Offers tips for creating "translation-friendly" documentation. Describes the research and design process used by the authors to create an online tutorial that provides technical communicators at a medical technology company the information they need to help them write and design…

  16. Emotional distress in junior house officers.

    PubMed Central

    Firth-Cozens, J

    1987-01-01

    In a study of 170 junior house officers who were followed up from their fourth year in medical school mean levels of stress were higher than in other reported occupational groups, and the estimated prevalence of emotional disturbance was 50%, with 28% of the subjects showing evidence of depression. Nearly a fifth of the subjects reported occasional or frequent bouts of heavy drinking, a quarter took drugs for physical illness, and a few took drugs for recreation. Those who were emotionally distressed at the initial study and the follow up were more empathetic and more self critical than those who had low levels of stress on both occasions. Overwork was the most stressful aspect of their jobs, though the number of hours worked was not related to stress levels, unlike diet and sleep. The more stressed they were the more unfavourably they viewed aspects of their jobs. The incidence of distress is unacceptably high in junior house officers, and both they and the hospitals need to deal with the causes of the distress. PMID:3117213

  17. Emotional distress in junior house officers.

    PubMed

    Firth-Cozens, J

    1987-08-29

    In a study of 170 junior house officers who were followed up from their fourth year in medical school mean levels of stress were higher than in other reported occupational groups, and the estimated prevalence of emotional disturbance was 50%, with 28% of the subjects showing evidence of depression. Nearly a fifth of the subjects reported occasional or frequent bouts of heavy drinking, a quarter took drugs for physical illness, and a few took drugs for recreation. Those who were emotionally distressed at the initial study and the follow up were more empathetic and more self critical than those who had low levels of stress on both occasions. Overwork was the most stressful aspect of their jobs, though the number of hours worked was not related to stress levels, unlike diet and sleep. The more stressed they were the more unfavourably they viewed aspects of their jobs. The incidence of distress is unacceptably high in junior house officers, and both they and the hospitals need to deal with the causes of the distress. PMID:3117213

  18. Children of traumatized and exiled refugee families: resilience and vulnerability. A case study report.

    PubMed

    Hosin, A A

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the main problems and outcomes of two children of a traumatized refugee family who have been in Britain since 1993. Their parents witnessed near death experiences and physical assaults, and suffered losses and a wide range of physical problems; the father manifests post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The children have been exposed regularly to episodic rage and violent behaviour by their father, and have developed separation problems and psychosomatic complaints. Their mother has coped better and is very resilient in her care and approach to problems. This report acknowledges the negative experience of trauma, but also the sources of resilience of parents, children's adjustment and cultural differences in coping styles. Refugee experiences devastate individual well-being and coping mechanisms if there is no hope, support and faith in one's own potential. Protective and risk factors that may affect the manifestation of trauma symptoms are highlighted. A variety of treatment approaches are required for both adult and child victims of multiple trauma. A wide range of techniques, such as group therapy, behaviour and cognitive therapy, and desensitization and relaxation training, can help sufferers to enhance their coping skills and deal effectively with devastating life events. PMID:11471915

  19. Evaluation of Youth Mental Health First Aid USA: A program to assist young people in psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Jennifer M; Lucksted, Alicia; Browning-McNee, Lea Ann

    2016-05-01

    Youth Mental Health First Aid USA (YMHFA) is a manualized training program designed to educate members of the public on common emotional problems and psychological disorders among youth and to provide trainees with tools anyone can use to assist young people in psychological distress. The present study used a pre versus post design to assess the ability of social service employees to generate appropriate strategies to use in hypothetical situations featuring a young person in distress, before versus after participation in the 8-hr YMHFA training. Trainee responses demonstrated significant overall improvement (M = 1.32, SD = 0.80 pretraining vs. M = 1.87, SD = 1.1 posttraining, t = 6.6, p < .001) by including four of the five central YMHFA strategies significantly more often after training. Increased confidence in, likelihood of, and comfort with helping a young person in emotional distress or crisis were also reported posttraining compared to pretraining (all p ≤ .001). Results suggest that individuals participating in YMHFA training are better informed regarding when to assess for risk of suicide, listen nonjudgmentally, encourage appropriate professional help, and encourage self-help strategies with young people in psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148946

  20. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    Matzka, Martin; Mayer, Hanna; Köck-Hódi, Sabine; Moses-Passini, Christina; Dubey, Catherine; Jahn, Patrick; Schneeweiss, Sonja; Eicher, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Objective Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships. Method A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL). Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables. Results Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163) = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI) = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]). Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59), and positively associated with activity level (β = .20). The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33) but not social support (β = .10, p = .12). Conclusion Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients

  1. Authenticity, life satisfaction, and distress: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Boyraz, Güler; Waits, J Brandon; Felix, Victoria A

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the reciprocal relationships between authenticity and measures of life satisfaction and distress using a 2-wave panel study design. Data were collected from 232 college students attending 2 public universities. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results of the cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that after controlling for temporal stability, initial authenticity (Time 1) predicted later distress and life satisfaction (Time 2). Specifically, higher levels of authenticity at Time 1 were associated with increased life satisfaction and decreased distress at Time 2. Neither distress nor life satisfaction at Time 1 significantly predicted authenticity at Time 2. However, the relationship between Time 1 distress and Time 2 authenticity was not significantly different from the relationship between Time 1 authenticity and Time 2 distress. Results are discussed in light of humanistic-existential theories and the empirical research on well-being. PMID:25019552

  2. A demedicalized view of maternal distress: conceptualization and instrument development.

    PubMed

    Arditti, Joyce A; Grzywacz, Jospeh G; Gallimore, Sara Wang

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this article was to describe instrument development of a demedicalized, multidomain view of maternal distress, with psychological, relational, and situational manifestations. We developed a pilot instrument derived from our previous grounded theory conceptualization of maternal distress and administered it to a purposive sample of 100 low-income single mothers. Analyses testing the relationship between maternal distress and depressive symptoms, guilt, child rearing stress, and community needs variables suggested that the maternal distress inventory had convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity. Not only was maternal distress distinct from depressive symptomology and generalized child rearing stress, it appeared to be more meaningfully associated with "real world" outcomes of interest to psychological service providers than purely psychological measures of the distress. PMID:22984879

  3. Distress in patients with acute leukemia: A concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Tara A.; Rosenzweig, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with acute leukemia require immediate and aggressive in-patient treatment that results in many weeks to months of hospitalization. Thus, it is not surprising that distress has been found in as many as 45.5% of patients. While distress is a regularly reported outcome measure in clinical research, currently there is a lack of a clear consistent and universal definition of this concept. Objective The purpose of this article is to examine the current state of the science surrounding the concept of distress and propose a model of distress for patients with acute leukemia. Interventions/Methods The Walker and Avant framework was used to guide the analysis of the concept of distress in patients with AL. The findings from this analysis were then used to generate a model guided by the current science. Results Distress in AL is generally accepted as multi-dimensional, quantifiable, subjective and temporal. Antecedents to distress include: demographics; intrinsic factors; social support; disease progression; treatment; and communication. Consequences to distress include: decreased quality of life; patient outcomes; as well as the severity of physical and psychological symptoms. Conclusions Distress is an outcome measure that is frequently assessed and reported within the literature. The operationalization of distress varies by investigator, limiting its generalizabiliy. Implications for Practice The proposed conceptual model may be used to guide further research on distress in patients with AL at high risk for negative outcomes. Improved understanding of patient distress may guide interventions aimed at managing the psychosocial needs for patients receiving treatment for AL. PMID:23632470

  4. CE: Moral Distress: A Catalyst in Building Moral Resilience.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Caldwell, Meredith; Kurtz, Melissa

    2016-07-01

    : Moral distress is a pervasive problem in the nursing profession. An inability to act in alignment with one's moral values is detrimental not only to the nurse's well-being but also to patient care and clinical practice as a whole. Moral distress has typically been seen as characterized by powerlessness and victimization; we offer an alternate view. Ethically complex situations and experiences of moral distress can become opportunities for growth, empowerment, and increased moral resilience. This article outlines the concept and prevalence of moral distress, describes its impact and precipitating factors, and discusses promising practices and interventions. PMID:27294668

  5. Distress tolerance in social versus solitary college student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Catherine L; Vik, Peter W; Wong, Maria M

    2015-11-01

    Low distress tolerance has been an inconsistent predictor of alcohol-related consequences in college students, but its relationships to depression and coping motives for alcohol have received stronger support. Research on college students who drink heavily in isolation suggests that this population is more likely to have a greater number and severity of alcohol-related problems, depression, and coping motives. Solitary heavy drinkers were therefore hypothesized to have lower distress tolerance than other drinkers. This study examined differences in self-reported and behavioral distress tolerance across two groups of university students: those who endorsed heavy solitary drinking (20.1%) versus those who endorsed other types of drinking. Students completed a self-report measure (Distress Intolerance Self-Report, or DISR) and behavioral measure of distress tolerance (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, or PASAT). Students who reported drinking heavily in isolation differed from other students on the DISR, F(1, 132) = 4.645, p = .033, η(2) = .034, but not on the PASAT, F(1, 132) = 0.056, p = .813. These students also endorsed more coping motives for alcohol. Distress tolerance did not predict drinking consequences directly, yet a mediation model linking distress tolerance to consequences through coping motives supports previous findings of distress tolerance as a distal, indirect predictor of drinking problems. The unique characteristics of solitary binge drinkers and the significance of distress tolerance as an indirect predictor of alcohol-related consequences are discussed. PMID:26114980

  6. 47 CFR 80.320 - Radiotelephone distress call and message transmission procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiotelephone distress call and message... Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.320 Radiotelephone distress call and message... signal (whenever possible); (2) The distress call; (3) The distress message. (b) The DSC...

  7. Relationship education in community settings: effectiveness with distressed and non-distressed low-income racial minority couples.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Kelley; Strokoff, Johanna; Owen, Jesse J; France, Tiffany; Bergen, Carrie

    2014-10-01

    Couple relationship education (CRE) programs are intended to prevent negative couple outcomes, however, some evidence suggests couples in greater distress may still benefit. The current study examined pre- and postchanges in relationship functioning of 362 low-income African American and Hispanic couples. Outcomes (dedication and communication) were assessed by examining differences between two distinct groupings of couples; distressed (both partners reporting clinically significant distress) and nondistressed (neither partner reporting clinically significant distress) couples. Distressed couples at predemonstrated large-sized gains in all outcome variables, as compared to nondistressed couples. Those who participated in the single-couple format demonstrated lower gains in positive communication as compared to those in the group format. Implications for distressed couples in CRE programs are offered. PMID:24974896

  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Lemierre's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Paul N.; Soghikian, Maida V.; Bhangoo, Munveer S.

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is an infectious disease defined by the presence of septic thrombophlebitis with associated embolic phenomenon, most commonly to the lungs. Here we present two cases from a single institution of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) developing as a result of Lemierre's syndrome in previously healthy young adult men. ARDS can occur as a consequence of pulmonary septic emboli and sepsis, both of which are well-described consequences of Lemierre's syndrome. We describe important diagnostic and management considerations in the care of patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure and Lemierre's syndrome. Essential components of management include prompt antibiotic therapy, lung-protective ventilation strategies, and supportive care. PMID:25143837

  9. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Lemierre's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hein, Paul N; Soghikian, Maida V; Bhangoo, Munveer S

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is an infectious disease defined by the presence of septic thrombophlebitis with associated embolic phenomenon, most commonly to the lungs. Here we present two cases from a single institution of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) developing as a result of Lemierre's syndrome in previously healthy young adult men. ARDS can occur as a consequence of pulmonary septic emboli and sepsis, both of which are well-described consequences of Lemierre's syndrome. We describe important diagnostic and management considerations in the care of patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure and Lemierre's syndrome. Essential components of management include prompt antibiotic therapy, lung-protective ventilation strategies, and supportive care. PMID:25143837

  10. Distressing near-death experiences: the basics.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nancy Evans; Greyson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Like the better-publicized pleasurable NDEs, distressing near-death experiences are both fascinating and frustrating as altered states of consciousness. Because of the deeply rooted concept of hell in Western culture and its Christian association with eternal physical torment, they pose serious challenges to the individuals who must shape their lives around such a profoundly durable event, and to their families, friends, and physicians. In the absence of clear-cut clinical data and universal cultural views, physicians are advised that neutrality of opinion and careful listening are likely to constitute best professional practice for addressing these difficult near-death experiences. PMID:25665233