Science.gov

Sample records for existing cng infrastructure

  1. CNG and Fleets: Building Your Business Case

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Two online resources help fleets evaluate the economic soundness of a compressed natural gas program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE 2.0) model and the accompanying report, Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications, are uniquely designed for fleet managers considering an investment in CNG and can help ensure wise investment decisions about CNG vehicles and infrastructure.

  2. Compressed natural gas (CNG) measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Z.D.; Goodson, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    The increased level of environmental awareness has raised concerns about pollution. One area of high attention is the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine in and of itself is not a major pollution threat. However, the vast number of motor vehicles in use release large quantities of pollutants. Recent technological advances in ignition and engine controls coupled with unleaded fuels and catalytic converters have reduced vehicular emissions significantly. Alternate fuels have the potential to produce even greater reductions in emissions. The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) has been a significant alternative to accomplish the goal of cleaner combustion. Of the many alternative fuels under investigation, compressed natural gas (CNG) has demonstrated the lowest levels of emission. The only vehicle certified by the State of California as an Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) was powered by CNG. The California emissions tests of the ULEV-CNG vehicle revealed the following concentrations: Non-Methane Hydrocarbons 0.005 grams/mile Carbon Monoxide 0.300 grams/mile Nitrogen Oxides 0.040 grams/mile. Unfortunately, CNG vehicles will not gain significant popularity until compressed natural gas is readily available in convenient locations in urban areas and in proximity to the Interstate highway system. Approximately 150,000 gasoline filling stations exist in the United States while number of CNG stations is about 1000 and many of those CNG stations are limited to fleet service only. Discussion in this paper concentrates on CNG flow measurement for fuel dispensers. Since the regulatory changes and market demands affect the flow metering and dispenser station design those aspects are discussed. The CNG industry faces a number of challenges.

  3. Technical aspects of CNG

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, J.; Jones, K.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the following information: the volumetric Efficiency of Engines using Liquid and Gaseous Fuels (Why do CNG vehicles suffer a power loss.); Facilities and Procedures for CNG Testing at the University of Auckland. (What tests are the University of Auckland CNG Research Group able to do.); Carbon Monoxide Exhaust Emissions and the CNG Engine. (How can a CO exhaust emissions analyser be used to get the best fuel economy.); Ignition Timing and the Performance of a Dual-Fuel CNG-Petrol Engine. (How should ignition timing be set.); Ignition System Performance and Requirements for Dual Fuel CNG-Petrol Operation. (What are the spark plug temperature and voltage requirements.)

  4. Flexible Reconfiguration of Existing Urban Water Infrastructure Systems.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Lina Sela; Allen, Michael; Preis, Ami; Iqbal, Mudasser; Whittle, Andrew J

    2015-11-17

    This paper presents a practical methodology for the flexible reconfiguration of existing water distribution infrastructure, which is adaptive to the water utility constraints and facilitates in operational management for pressure and water loss control. The network topology is reconfigured into a star-like topology, where the center node is a connected subset of transmission mains, that provides connection to water sources, and the nodes are the subsystems that are connected to the sources through the center node. In the proposed approach, the system is first decomposed into the main and subsystems based on graph theory methods and then the network reconfiguration problem is approximated as a single-objective linear programming problem, which is efficiently solved using a standard solver. The performance and resiliency of the original and reconfigured systems are evaluated through direct and surrogate measures. The methodology is demonstrated using two large-scale water distribution systems, showing the flexibility of the proposed approach. The results highlight the benefits and disadvantages of network decentralization. PMID:26465822

  5. COMPARISON OF CLEAN DIESEL BUSES TO CNG BUSES

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.

    2003-08-24

    Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

  6. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-03-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and qualitatively demonstrated in tests on three different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  7. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2003-10-01

    This report documents work performed in the fourth quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: second field test; test data analysis for the first field test; operational optimization plans.

  8. Integrating smart container technology into existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriere, Dale; Pysareva, Khrystyna; Rucinski, Andrzej

    2006-05-01

    While there has been important research and development in the area of smart container technologies, no system design methodologies have yet emerged for integrating this technology into the existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure. A successful deployment of smart containers requires a precise understanding of how to integrate this new technology into the existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure, how to establish communication interoperability, and how to establish procedures and protocols related to the operation of smart containers. In addition, this integration needs to be seamless, unobtrusive to commerce, and cost-effective. In order to address these issues, we need to answer the following series of questions: 1) Who will own and operate the smart container technology; 2) Who will be responsible for monitoring the smart container data and notifying first responders; 3) What communication technologies currently used by first responders might be adopted for smart container data transmission; and 4) How will existing cargo manifest data be integrated into smart container data. In short, we need to identify the best practices for smart container ownership and operation. In order to help provide answers to these questions, we have surveyed a sample group of representatives from law enforcement, first responder, regulatory, and private sector organizations. This paper presents smart container infrastructure best practices recommendations obtained from the results of the survey.

  9. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-08-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infracture''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and tested on four different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  10. Environmental engineering of navigation infrastructure: a survey of existing practices, challenges, and potential opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fredette, Thomas J; Foran, Christy M; Brasfield, Sandra M; Suedel, Burton C

    2012-01-01

    Navigation infrastructure such as channels, jetties, river training structures, and lock-and-dam facilities are primary components of a safe and efficient water transportation system. Planning for such infrastructure has until recently involved efforts to minimize impacts on the environment through a standardized environmental assessment process. More recently, consistent with environmental sustainability concepts, planners have begun to consider how such projects can also be constructed with environmental enhancements. This study examined the existing institutional conditions within the US Army Corps of Engineers and cooperating federal agencies relative to incorporating environmental enhancements into navigation infrastructure projects. The study sought to (1) investigate institutional attitudes towards the environmental enhancement of navigation infrastructure (EENI) concept, (2) identify potential impediments to implementation and solutions to such impediments, (3) identify existing navigation projects designed with the express intent of enhancing environmental benefit in addition to the primary project purpose, (4) identify innovative ideas for increasing environmental benefits for navigation projects, (5) identify needs for additional technical information or research, and (6) identify laws, regulations, and policies that both support and hinder such design features. The principal investigation tool was an Internet-based survey with 53 questions. The survey captured a wide range of perspectives on the EENI concept including ideas, concerns, research needs, and relevant laws and policies. Study recommendations included further promotion of the concept of EENI to planners and designers, documentation of existing projects, initiation of pilot studies on some of the innovative ideas provided through the survey, and development of national goals and interagency agreements to facilitate implementation. PMID:21796771

  11. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-10-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report documents the second series of tests performed on a GMW10 engine/compressor after modifications to add high pressure Fuel and a Turbocharger. It also presents baseline testing for air balance investigations and initial simulation modeling of the air manifold for a Cooper GMVH6.

  12. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-07-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report documents the second series of tests performed on a turbocharged HBA-6T engine/compressor. It also presents baseline testing for air balance investigations and initial simulation modeling of the air manifold for a Cooper GMVH6.

  13. Helix Nebula: Enabling federation of existing data infrastructures and data services to an overarching cross-domain e-infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengert, Wolfgang; Farres, Jordi; Lanari, Riccardo; Casu, Francesco; Manunta, Michele; Lassalle-Balier, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Helix Nebula has established a growing public private partnership of more than 30 commercial cloud providers, SMEs, and publicly funded research organisations and e-infrastructures. The Helix Nebula strategy is to establish a federated cloud service across Europe. Three high-profile flagships, sponsored by CERN (high energy physics), EMBL (life sciences) and ESA/DLR/CNES/CNR (earth science), have been deployed and extensively tested within this federated environment. The commitments behind these initial flagships have created a critical mass that attracts suppliers and users to the initiative, to work together towards an "Information as a Service" market place. Significant progress in implementing the following 4 programmatic goals (as outlined in the strategic Plan Ref.1) has been achieved: × Goal #1 Establish a Cloud Computing Infrastructure for the European Research Area (ERA) serving as a platform for innovation and evolution of the overall infrastructure. × Goal #2 Identify and adopt suitable policies for trust, security and privacy on a European-level can be provided by the European Cloud Computing framework and infrastructure. × Goal #3 Create a light-weight governance structure for the future European Cloud Computing Infrastructure that involves all the stakeholders and can evolve over time as the infrastructure, services and user-base grows. × Goal #4 Define a funding scheme involving the three stake-holder groups (service suppliers, users, EC and national funding agencies) into a Public-Private-Partnership model to implement a Cloud Computing Infrastructure that delivers a sustainable business environment adhering to European level policies. Now in 2014 a first version of this generic cross-domain e-infrastructure is ready to go into operations building on federation of European industry and contributors (data, tools, knowledge, ...). This presentation describes how Helix Nebula is being used in the domain of earth science focusing on geohazards. The

  14. LNG to CNG refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    While the fleet operator is concerned about the environment, he or she is going to make the choice based primarily on economics. Which fuel provides the lowest total operating cost? The calculation of this costing must include the price-per-gallon of the fuel delivered, as well as the tangible and intangible components of fuel delivery, such as downtime for vehicles during the refueling process, idle time for drivers during refueling, emissions costings resulting from compressor oil blow-by, inclusion of non-combustible constituents in the CNG, and energy consumption during the refueling process. Also, the upfront capital requirement of similar delivery capabilities must be compared. The use of LNG as the base resource for the delivered CNG, in conjunction with the utilization of a fully temperature-compressed LNG/CNG refueling system, eliminates many of the perceived shortfalls of CNG. An LNG/CNG refueling center designed to match the capabilities of the compressor-based station will have approximately the same initial capital requirement. However, because it derives its CNG sales product from the {minus}260 F LNG base product, thus availing itself of the natural physical properties of the cryogenic product, all other economic elements of the system favor the LNG/CNG product.

  15. Analyzing existing conventional soil information sources to be incorporated in thematic Spatial Data Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Domínguez, J.; Andreu, V.

    2012-04-01

    New information technologies give the possibility of widespread dissemination of spatial information to different geographical scales from continental to local by means of Spatial Data Infrastructures. Also administrative awareness on the need for open access information services has allowed the citizens access to this spatial information through development of legal documents, such as the INSPIRE Directive of the European Union, adapted by national laws as in the case of Spain. The translation of the general criteria of generic Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) to thematic ones is a crucial point for the progress of these instruments as large tool for the dissemination of information. In such case, it must be added to the intrinsic criteria of digital information, such as the harmonization information and the disclosure of metadata, the own environmental information characteristics and the techniques employed in obtaining it. In the case of inventories and mapping of soils, existing information obtained by traditional means, prior to the digital technologies, is considered to be a source of valid information, as well as unique, for the development of thematic SDI. In this work, an evaluation of existing and accessible information that constitutes the basis for building a thematic SDI of soils in Spain is undertaken. This information framework has common features to other European Union states. From a set of more than 1,500 publications corresponding to the national territory of Spain, the study was carried out in those documents (94) found for five autonomous regions of northern Iberian Peninsula (Asturias, Cantabria, Basque Country, Navarra and La Rioja). The analysis was performed taking into account the criteria of soil mapping and inventories. The results obtained show a wide variation in almost all the criteria: geographic representation (projections, scales) and geo-referencing the location of the profiles, map location of profiles integrated with edaphic

  16. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-01-24

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report presents results of design analysis performed on the TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  17. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-10-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first summarizes key results from survey site tests performed on an HBA-6 installed at Duke Energy's Bedford compressor station, and on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. The report then presents results of design analysis performed on the Bedford HBA-6 to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  18. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-07-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey site test performed on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. This test completes planned screening efforts designed to guide selection of one or more units for design analysis and testing with emphasis on identification and reduction of compressor losses. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  19. Software augmented buildings: Exploiting existing infrastructure to improve energy efficiency and comfort in commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bharathan

    Commercial buildings consume 19% of energy in the US as of 2010, and traditionally, their energy use has been optimized through improved equipment efficiency and retrofits. Beyond improved hardware and infrastructure, there exists a tremendous potential in reducing energy use through better monitoring and operation. We present several applications that we developed and deployed to support our thesis that building energy use can be reduced through sensing, monitoring and optimization software that modulates use of building subsystems including HVAC. We focus on HVAC systems as these constitute 48-55% of building energy use. Specifically, in case of sensing, we describe an energy apportionment system that enables us to estimate real-time zonal HVAC power consumption by analyzing existing sensor information. With this energy breakdown, we can measure effectiveness of optimization solutions and identify inefficiencies. Central to energy efficiency improvement is determination of human occupancy in buildings. But this information is often unavailable or expensive to obtain using wide scale sensor deployment. We present our system that infers room level occupancy inexpensively by leveraging existing WiFi infrastructure. Occupancy information can be used not only to directly control HVAC but also to infer state of the building for predictive control. Building energy use is strongly influenced by human behaviors, and timely feedback mechanisms can encourage energy saving behavior. Occupants interact with HVAC using thermostats which has shown to be inadequate for thermal comfort. Building managers are responsible for incorporating energy efficiency measures, but our interviews reveal that they struggle to maintain efficiency due to lack of analytical tools and contextual information. We present our software services that provide energy feedback to occupants and building managers, improves comfort with personalized control and identifies energy wasting faults. For wide

  20. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  1. Biophysics of CNG Ion Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Peter H.; Qu, Wei; Moorhouse, Andrew J.

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels are cation-selective, opened by intracellular cyclic nucleotides like cAMP and cGMP, and present in many different neurons and non-neuronal cells. This chapter will concentrate primarily on the biophysical aspects of retinal and olfactory CNG channels, with special reference to ion permeation and selectivity and their underlying molecular basis, and will include a brief overview of the physiological function of CNG channels in both olfaction and phototransduction. We will review the subunit composition and molecular structure of the CNG channel and its similarity to the closely related potassium channels, and will also briefly outline the currently accepted molecular basis underlying activation of the channel and the location of the channel `gate'. We will then outline some general methodologies for investigating ion permeation and selectivity, before reviewing the ion permeation and selectivity properties of native and recombinant CNG channels. We will discuss divalent ion permeation through the channel and the mechanism of channel block by divalent ions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the results of recent experiments to investigate the molecular determinants of cation-anion selectivity in the channel.

  2. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Dodge Ram Wagon Van - Hydrogen/CNG Operations Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-16

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle, a Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 22,816 miles of testing for the Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operating on CNG fuel, and a blended fuel of 15% hydrogen-85% CNG.

  3. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Dodge Ram Wagon Van -- Hydrogen/CNG Operations Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle, a Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 22,816 miles of testing for the Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operating on CNG fuel, and a blended fuel of 15% hydrogen–85% CNG.

  4. When the New Application Smell Is Gone: Traditional Intranet Best Practices and Existing Web 2.0 Intranet Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoose, Becky

    2010-01-01

    With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?…

  5. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-05-31

    This project has documented and demonstrated the feasibility of technologies and operational choices for companies who operate the large installed fleet of integral engine compressors in pipeline service. Continued operations of this fleet is required to meet the projected growth of the U.S. gas market. Applying project results will meet the goals of the DOE-NETL Natural Gas Infrastructure program to enhance integrity, extend life, improve efficiency, and increase capacity, while managing NOx emissions. These benefits will translate into lower cost, more reliable gas transmission, and options for increasing deliverability from the existing infrastructure on high demand days. The power cylinders on large bore slow-speed integral engine/compressors do not in general combust equally. Variations in cylinder pressure between power cylinders occur cycle-to-cycle. These variations affect both individual cylinder performance and unit average performance. The magnitude of the variations in power cylinder combustion is dependent on a variety of parameters, including air/fuel ratio. Large variations in cylinder performance and peak firing pressure can lead to detonation and misfires, both of which can be damaging to the unit. Reducing the variation in combustion pressure, and moving the high and low performing cylinders closer to the mean is the goal of engine balancing. The benefit of improving the state of the engine ''balance'' is a small reduction in heat rate and a significant reduction in both crankshaft strain and emissions. A new method invented during the course of this project is combustion pressure ratio (CPR) balancing. This method is more effective than current methods because it naturally accounts for differences in compression pressure, which results from cylinder-to-cylinder differences in the amount of air flowing through the inlet ports and trapped at port closure. It also helps avoid compensation for low compression pressure by the addition of excess fuel

  6. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen–50% CNG fuel.

  7. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, D.; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

  8. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  9. Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; John, M.

    1999-05-03

    This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles and the cost of operating the CNG vehicles compared to gasoline vehicles. The study results reveal that the CNG vehicles operated by this fleet offer both economic and environmental advantages. The total operating costs of the CNG vehicles were about 25% lower than those of the gasoline vehicles. The CNG vehicles performed as well as the gasoline vehicles, and were just as reliable. Barwood representatives and drivers have come to consider the CNG vehicles an asset to their business and to the air quality of the local community.

  10. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

  11. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  15. Expanding the Usefulness of Existing Data-Collection Infrastructure with Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.

    2009-12-01

    Throughout the world, considerable effort has been expended to construct data collection networks with real-time data collection. The U.S. Geological Survey’s streamflow-gaging stations compose one such network, with over 7,000 stations providing hourly data nationwide primarily via GOES satellite telemetry. Real-time telemetry is a critical component of a robust data collection protocol, allowing problems to be identified as they occur. These existing data collection networks offer a significant opportunity for expansion with wireless sensor networks. Common to nearly every USGS gaging station, and many other real-time networks, is a data logger with an SDI-12 interface for connecting sensors. SDI-12 is an ASCII text-based serial protocol that provides a standardized method for data loggers to communicate with sensors (www.sdi-12.org). A hardware/firmware module recently developed at USGS bridges this SDI-12 interface on data loggers with commercially available wireless sensor network hardware, such as Crossbow MICA2 motes or ZigBee mesh radios. The module appears as a single SDI-12 sensor to the data logger. With each measurement command from the data logger to the module, a request for data is sent out to each node in the wireless sensor network. These data are then formatted into the appropriate SDI-12 response from the module to the data logger, with tags identifying the measurement node. The combined data from all sensors is then transmitted by the data logger to the USGS National Water Information System database, where it is parsed and stored under the appropriate sensor location. The main advantages of bridging the SDI-12 interface with wireless sensor networks are (1) sensors can be deployed in the general vicinity of gaging stations or other platforms, to take advantage of existing real-time telemetry, without being constrained by physical cabling, (2) the wireless sensor network is seen as a single SDI-12 sensor at the data logger, with consequent

  16. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  17. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-22

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

  18. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-22

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen-50% CNG fuel.

  19. Conceptualization of a Health Care Coalition Framework in Georgia Based on the Existing Regional Coordinating Hospital Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Harris, Curtis; Waltz, Tawny; O'Neal, James Patrick; Nadeau, Kelly; Crumpton, Matthew; Ervin, Sara

    2016-02-01

    The watershed events of September 11, 2001; the anthrax attacks; Hurricane Katrina; and H1N1 necessitated that the United States define alternative mechanisms for disaster response. Specifically, there was a need to shift from a capacity building approach to a capabilities based approach that would place more emphasis on the health care community rather than just first responders. Georgia responded to this initiative by creating a Regional Coordinating Hospital (RCH) infrastructure that was responsible for coordinating regional responses within their individual geographic footprint. However, it was quickly realized that hospitals could not accomplish community-wide preparedness as a single entity and that siloed planning must come to an end. To reconcile this issue, Georgia responded to the 2012 US Department of Health and Human Services concept of coalitions. Georgia utilized the existing RCH boundaries to define its coalition regions and began inviting all medical and nonmedical response partners to the planning table (nursing homes, community health centers, volunteer groups, law enforcement, etc). This new collaboration effectively enhanced emergency response practices in Georgia, but also identified additional preparedness-related gaps that will require attention as our coalitions continue to grow and mature. PMID:27303765

  20. CNG process, a new approach to physical-absorption acid-gas removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hise, R.E.; Massey, L.G.; Adler, R.J.; Brosilow, C.B.; Gardner, N.C.; Brown, W.R.; Cook, W.J.; Petrik, M.

    1982-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process embodies three novel features: (1) scrubbing with liquid carbon dioxide to remove all sulfurous molecules and other trace contaminants; (2) triple-point crystallization of carbon dioxide to concentrate sulfurous molecules and produce pure carbon dioxide; and (3) absorption of carbon dioxide with a slurry of solid carbon dioxide in organic carrier liquid. The CNG process is discussed and contrasted with existing acid gas removal technology as represented by the Benfield, Rectisol, and Selexol acid gas removal processes.

  1. Case studies: Application of SEA in provincial level expressway infrastructure network planning in China - Current existing problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Kaiyi; Sheate, William R.

    2011-11-15

    Since the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment was enacted in 2003 and Huanfa 2004 No. 98 was released in 2004, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been officially being implemented in the expressway infrastructure planning field in China. Through scrutinizing two SEA application cases of China's provincial level expressway infrastructure (PLEI) network plans, it is found that current SEA practice in expressway infrastructure planning field has a number of problems including: SEA practitioners do not fully understand the objective of SEA; its potential contributions to strategic planning and decision-making is extremely limited; the employed application procedure and prediction and assessment techniques are too simple to bring objective, unbiased and scientific results; and no alternative options are considered. All these problems directly lead to poor quality SEA and consequently weaken SEA's effectiveness.

  2. Dodge B2500 dedicated CNG van

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.

    2000-04-19

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. The authors tested a 1999 B2500 dedicated CNG Ram Wagon with a 5.2L V8 engine. The vehicle was run through a series of tests explained briefly in this fact sheet.

  3. Hydrogen, CNG, and HCNG Dispenser System – Prototype Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is currently testing a prototype gaseous fuel dispenser developed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC). The dispenser (Figure 1) delivers three types of fuels: 100% hydrogen, 100% compressed natural gas (CNG), and blends of hydrogen and CNG (HCNG) using two independent single nozzles (Figure 2). The nozzle for the 100% hydrogen dispensing is rated at 5,000 psig and used solely for 100% hydrogen fuel. The second nozzle is rated at 3,600 psig and is used for both CNG and HCNG fuels. This nozzle connects to both a CNG supply line and a hydrogen supply line and blends the hydrogen and CNG to supply HCNG levels of 15, 20, 30, and 50% (by volume).

  4. Drought Assessment Using Tritium River Water Measurements for Existing Dam Infrastructure in the Ishikari River basin, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M.; Morgenstern, U.; Stewart, M. K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kashiwaya, K.; Kuribayashi, D.; Sawano, H.; Iwami, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A proposed methodology is based on estimated groundwater volumes from tritium river water measurements in the Ishikari River basin of Hokkaido Island, Japan. In our drought assessment, we characterize a groundwater storage that is available and can be used for the water supply during prolonged droughts. For the groundwater storage estimation, we utilized tritium river water measurements obtained during baseflows to estimate water mean transit times (MTTs). Tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses in river water samples with MTTs times up to 200 years. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface. In Hokkaido, river water samples were collected in June, July and October 2014 at selected river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations record hourly water levels, have catchment areas between 45 and 377 km2 and are located upstream of MLIT dams at altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL. The measured tritium ranged between 4.065 TU (±0.07) and 5.290 TU (±0.09) with both lowest and highest tritium values analysed in June river samples at Tougeshita and Okukatsura stations, respectively. For the MTT estimation, we selected exponential(80%)-piston(20%) Lumped Parameter Model (LPM) with constructed tritium in Hokkaido precipitation and obtained a non-unique fit of young (1-11 years) and old (16-98 years) groundwater MTTs. This result indicates that the bomb-peak tritium is still present in Japanese groundwater and may take several years to flush out. From the MTTs and baseflow discharges, the calculated groundwater volume ranges between 13 MCM and 12500 MCM and indicates potentially available groundwater storage during prolonged droughts in the Hokkaido headwater catchments. In the future studies, the accuracy of the estimated groundwater volume can be increased by conducting another tritium sampling at

  5. National-level infrastructure and economic effects of switchgrass cofiring with coal in existing power plants for carbon mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Morrow; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-05-15

    We update a previously presented Linear Programming (LP) methodology for estimating state level costs for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from existing coal-fired power plants by cofiring switchgrass, a biomass energy crop, and coal. This paper presents national level results of applying the methodology to the entire portion of the United States in which switchgrass could be grown without irrigation. We present incremental switchgrass and coal cofiring carbon cost of mitigation curves along with a presentation of regionally specific cofiring economics and policy issues. The results show that cofiring 189 million dry short tons of switchgrass with coal in the existing U.S. coal-fired electricity generation fleet can mitigate approximately 256 million short tons of carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2}) per year, representing a 9% reduction of 2005 electricity sector CO{sub 2} emissions. Total marginal costs, including capital, labor, feedstock, and transportation, range from $20 to $86/ton CO{sub 2} mitigated, with average costs ranging from $20 to $45/ton. If some existing power plants upgrade to boilers designed for combusting switchgrass, an additional 54 million tons of switchgrass can be cofired. In this case, total marginal costs range from $26 to $100/ton CO{sub 2} mitigated, with average costs ranging from $20 to $60/ton. Costs for states east of the Mississippi River are largely unaffected by boiler replacement; Atlantic seaboard states represent the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation. The central plains states west of the Mississippi River are most affected by the boiler replacement option and, in general, go from one of the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation regions to the highest. We explain the variation in transportation expenses and highlight regional cost of mitigation variations as transportation overwhelms other cofiring costs. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. National-level infrastructure and economic effects of switchgrass cofiring with coal in existing power plants for carbon mitigation.

    PubMed

    Morrow, William R; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2008-05-15

    We update a previously presented Linear Programming (LP) methodology for estimating state level costs for reducing CO2 emissions from existing coal-fired power plants by cofiring switchgrass, a biomass energy crop, and coal. This paper presents national level results of applying the methodology to the entire portion of the United States in which switchgrass could be grown without irrigation. We present incremental switchgrass and coal cofiring carbon cost of mitigation curves along with a presentation of regionally specific cofiring economics and policy issues. The results show that cofiring 189 million dry short tons of switchgrass with coal in the existing U.S. coal-fired electricity generation fleet can mitigate approximately 256 million short tons of carbon-dioxide (CO2) per year, representing a 9% reduction of 2005 electricity sector CO2 emissions. Total marginal costs, including capital, labor, feedstock, and transportation, range from $20 to $86/ton CO2 mitigated,with average costs ranging from $20 to $45/ton. If some existing power plants upgrade to boilers designed for combusting switchgrass, an additional 54 million tons of switchgrass can be cofired. In this case, total marginal costs range from $26 to $100/ton CO2 mitigated, with average costs ranging from $20 to $60/ton. Costs for states east of the Mississippi River are largely unaffected by boiler replacement; Atlantic seaboard states represent the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation. The central plains states west of the Mississippi River are most affected by the boiler replacement option and, in general, go from one of the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation regions to the highest. We explain the variation in transportation expenses and highlight regional cost of mitigation variations as transportation overwhelms other cofiring costs. PMID:18546680

  7. Seismotectonic characteristics of the Krško Basin with relation to seismic safety of existing and planned nuclear infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavec, Miloš; Atanackov, Jure; Jamšek Rupnik, Petra

    2015-04-01

    The Kr\\vsko Basin hosts complex infrastructure and is being investigated as a potential site for several future projects including a new NPP and a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository. A large database of geological, geophysical and geotechnical data has been accumulated, producing increasingly detailed tectonic and seismotectonic models of the Kr\\vsko Basin. The first tectonic and seismotectonic investigation campaign was undertaken in the 1970s for the first Kr\\vsko NPP (Arsovski et al., 1973). The next study (Fajfar et al., 1994) was followed by an extensive geophysical survey in in which basin axis-trending syncline was reevaluated (Persoglia, ed., 2000). In 2004 the geological, tectonic and seismotectonic characteristics of the Kr\\vsko Basin were readdressed by performing a periodic seismic hazard assessment for the NPP (Swan et al., 2004). After which, a series of field investigations were conducted for the potential radwaste repository site evaluation (Brenčič, ed., 2006; Petkovšek, ed., 2009). In 2008-2013 a set of geological, geotechnical and seismological investigations were performed for the proposed new NPP unit (Bazargan-Sabet et al., 2010). As part of this project the seismotectonic model and the seismic source model were updated (Bavec et al., 2010a,b). Particular attention was given to the Libna fault (Bavec et al., 2013), which was also the subject of a follow up study to further evaluate the age of deformed sediments in the basin (Cline et al., 2013). A new phase of geological, geophysical and geomorphic investigations is being undertaken in the Kr\\vsko basin by the team of Rizzo Associates and Geological Survey of Slovenia to refine on the geological and seismological inputs to the planned PSHA. The Basin has experienced moderate and dispersed seismic activity. The catalogue of known earthquakes in the region (ARSO, 2011) extends back to the early 17th century. The strongest earthquake in the Kr\\vsko basin was the

  8. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  9. Assessing the impact of transitions from centralised to decentralised water solutions on existing infrastructures--integrated city-scale analysis with VIBe.

    PubMed

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-12-15

    Traditional urban water management relies on central organised infrastructure, the most important being the drainage network and the water distribution network. To meet upcoming challenges such as climate change, the rapid growth and shrinking of cities and water scarcity, water infrastructure needs to be more flexible, adaptable and sustainable (e.g., sustainable urban drainage systems, SUDS; water sensitive urban design, WSUD; low impact development, LID; best management practice, BMP). The common feature of all solutions is the push from a central solution to a decentralised solution in urban water management. This approach opens up a variety of technical and socio-economic issues, but until now, a comprehensive assessment of the impact has not been made. This absence is most likely attributable to the lack of case studies, and the availability of adequate models is usually limited because of the time- and cost-intensive preparation phase. Thus, the results of the analysis are based on a few cases and can hardly be transferred to other boundary conditions. VIBe (Virtual Infrastructure Benchmarking) is a tool for the stochastic generation of urban water systems at the city scale for case study research. With the generated data sets, an integrated city-scale analysis can be performed. With this approach, we are able to draw conclusions regarding the technical effect of the transition from existing central to decentralised urban water systems. In addition, it is shown how virtual data sets can assist with the model building process. A simple model to predict the shear stress performance due to changes in dry weather flow production is developed and tested. PMID:24210508

  10. Assessing the impact of transitions from centralised to decentralised water solutions on existing infrastructures – Integrated city-scale analysis with VIBe

    PubMed Central

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional urban water management relies on central organised infrastructure, the most important being the drainage network and the water distribution network. To meet upcoming challenges such as climate change, the rapid growth and shrinking of cities and water scarcity, water infrastructure needs to be more flexible, adaptable and sustainable (e.g., sustainable urban drainage systems, SUDS; water sensitive urban design, WSUD; low impact development, LID; best management practice, BMP). The common feature of all solutions is the push from a central solution to a decentralised solution in urban water management. This approach opens up a variety of technical and socio-economic issues, but until now, a comprehensive assessment of the impact has not been made. This absence is most likely attributable to the lack of case studies, and the availability of adequate models is usually limited because of the time- and cost-intensive preparation phase. Thus, the results of the analysis are based on a few cases and can hardly be transferred to other boundary conditions. VIBe (Virtual Infrastructure Benchmarking) is a tool for the stochastic generation of urban water systems at the city scale for case study research. With the generated data sets, an integrated city-scale analysis can be performed. With this approach, we are able to draw conclusions regarding the technical effect of the transition from existing central to decentralised urban water systems. In addition, it is shown how virtual data sets can assist with the model building process. A simple model to predict the shear stress performance due to changes in dry weather flow production is developed and tested. PMID:24210508

  11. Touristic infrastructure of municipalities in the border section of Bug valley's Dołhobyczów-Włodawa in the context of existing protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kałamucka, Wioletta; Kałamucki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of research concerning tourist infrastructure in some districts located in the Bug river valley, in the context of protected areas. The territory examined includes 9 rural districts and 2 towns in the immediate neighborhood of the river. These administrative units are characterized by great natural value. Their total area is 687,7 km2 that makes 6,7% of the whole Lublin voivodship. On the other hand, the share of protected areas (without Natura 2000) is twice as high - 11,1%. Protected areas makes 37,6% of the territory under study. In some units, share of protected areas is very high: Dubienka - 72%, Horodło - 69,5%. In 2009 in the region examined there were 48 objects of collective accommodation - 16,8% of total number in the voivodship. 83,6% of all objects were situated in Włodawa. Characteristic feature of accommodation is seasonality. There are only 7 objects that functions the whole year and year-round lodging places (280) makes barely 9,3% of the totality. Comparing tourist management with presence of areas of the highest natural values, one can see strong correlation between these two indexes only in rural unit - Włodawa, located within the borders of Biosphere Reserves "Polesie Zachodnie" (West Polesie) In case of other units such a interdependance does not exist. On the contrary, there is opposite relation. In Dołhobyczów, Mircze, Horodło, where apart from areas of Natura 2000, in the Bug river valley landscapes protected areas and landscapes parks were created, tourist infrastructure is insignificant or even does not exist. The existence of large protected areas and natural value make it possible to develop various forms of environmentally friendly tourism - tourism qualified, especially fishing and canoeing, hiking, biking, nature education tourism. Tourist service centers should be located outside the valley. Due to the high natural values, caution is advisable to adapt the area for tourism. Such decisions should

  12. Alternative fuel information: Facts about CNG and LPG conversion

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, K.

    1994-06-01

    As new environmental and energy related laws begin to take effect, increasing numbers of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) will be required in federal, state, municipal, and private fleets across the country. The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, along with several new state and local laws, will require fleet managers to either purchase original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles, which are produced by automakers, or convert existing vehicles to run on alternative fuels. Because there is a limited availability and selection of OEM vehicles, conversions are seen as a transition to the time when automakers will produce more AFVs for public sale. A converted vehicle is any vehicle that originally was designed to operate on gasoline, and has been altered to run on an alternative fuel such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or propane (liquefied petroleum gas -- LPG), the two most common types of fuel conversions. In the United States, more than 25,000 vehicles already have been converted to COG, and 300,000 have been converted to LPG.

  13. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory in Alaska: Building on Existing Infrastructure to Provide a Platform for Integrated Research and Hazard-monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R. M.; Willoughby, H.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Enders, M.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's geodetic component in Alaska, the UNAVCO-operated Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, includes 139 continuous GPS sites and 41 supporting telemetry relays. These are spread across a vast area, from northern AK to the Aleutians. Forty-five of these stations were installed or have been upgraded in cooperation with various partner agencies and currently provide data collection and transmission for more than one group. Leveraging existing infrastructure normally has multiple benefits, such as easier permitting requirements and costs savings through reduced overall construction and maintenance expenses. At some sites, PBO-AK power and communications systems have additional capacity beyond that which is needed for reliable acquisition of GPS data. Where permits allow, such stations could serve as platforms for additional instrumentation or real-time observing needs. With the expansion of the Transportable Array (TA) into Alaska, there is increased interest to leverage existing EarthScope resources for station co-location and telemetry integration. Because of the complexity and difficulty of long-term O&M at PBO sites, however, actual integration of GPS and seismic equipment must be considered on a case-by-case basis. UNAVCO currently operates two integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, and three with the Alaska Volcano Observatory. By the end of 2014, PBO and TA plan to install another four integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While three of these are designed around existing PBO stations, one will be a completely new TA installation, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data collection in Alaska within the limited operations and maintenance phase of the project. We will present some of the design considerations, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing projects to integrate seismometers and other instrumentation at PBO-Alaska stations. Developing the PBO

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT CNG fleet conversion, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euritt, M. A.; Taylor, D. B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-08-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. A Texas program for alternate fuels includes compressed natural gas (CNG). Based on analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a natural gas vehicle (NGV) program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $47 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower-priced natural gas, infrastructure costs for a fast-fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $596, or about 4.9 cents more per vehicle mile of travel.

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT CNG fleet conversion, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euritt, M. A.; Taylor, D. B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-08-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed natural gas (CNG). Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a natural gas vehicle (NGV) program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $47 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower priced natural gas, infrastructure costs for a fast-fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $596, or about 4.9 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Based on the cost-effectiveness analysis and assumptions, there are currently no TxDOT stations suitable for conversion to compressed natural gas.

  16. Study on the development of composite CNG pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. S.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. B.; Joe, C. R.

    The development of composite CNG (compressed natural gas) pressure vessels with HDPE (high density polyethylene) liner and metal end nozzles was studied. The CNG environmental tests carried out for HDPE, resins and reinforcing fibres showed no significant damages. The metal end nozzles and the dome contour of the liner were designed, respectively. The stacking sequence was analysed and applied in filament winding of the pressure vessels. They showed satisfactory results when subjected to burst tests. The fibre volume fractions, Vf, were obtained by image analyser and the average Vfs were 54.09% and 53.49% in hoop and helical regions, respectively.

  17. Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E. Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO )

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

  18. Ignition study of a petrol/CNG single cylinder engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    Benefits of laser ignition over the electrical ignition system for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines have fuelled automobile industry and led to an extensive research on basic characteristics to switch over to the emerging technologies. This study was undertaken to determine the electrical and physical characteristics of the electric spark ignition of single cylinder petrol/CNG engine to determine minimum ignition requirements and timeline of ignition events to use in subsequent laser ignition study. This communication briefly reviews the ongoing research activities and reports the results of this experimental study. The premixed petrol and CNG mixtures were tested for variation of current and voltage characteristics of the spark with speed of engine. The current magnitude of discharge circuit was found to vary linearly over a wide range of speed but the stroke to stroke fire time was found to vary nonlinearly. The DC voltage profiles were observed to fluctuate randomly during ignition process and staying constant in rest of the combustion cycle. Fire to fire peaks of current amplitudes fluctuated up to 10% of the peak values at constant speed but increased almost linearly with increase in speed. Technical barriers of laser ignition related to threshold minimum ignition energy, inter-pulse durations and firing sequence are discussed. Present findings provide a basic initiative and background information for designing suitable timeline algorithms for laser ignited leaner direct injected CNG engines.

  19. Combustion of CNG in Charged Spark Ignition Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitianiec, Wladyslaw

    2009-12-01

    The paper describes mixing of injected CNG with air and combustion process in spark ignition internal combustion engine. Because of higher ignition temperature of CNG the SI engines have more effective ignition system than conventional engines. The gas motion, turbulence, charge temperature and obviously electrical energy of the ignition coil have a big influence on the ignition and burning process in the combustion chamber. The paper includes theoretical and experimental investigations of ignition process in the high charged SI engines with direct CNG injection by using LES technique in KIVA program. Simulation of CNG combustion in the caloric chamber was carried in the environment of OpenFOAM program with LES model and also the experimental test was carried out for comparison of results in the chamber with the same geometry. The influence of the "tumble" and "swirl" on the sparking is shown by modelling of this process in premixed charge by using LES technique. The charge motion and also considerably turbulence effect influence strongly on the ignition process.

  20. Pollution dilemma in Asian population: CNG and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Chekarova, Irina; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Nasir, Amir; Ashraf, Muhammad; Lim, Chae Woong

    2009-11-01

    Automobile exhaust constituents contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas and compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered one of the most promising fuel alternatives for the future. CNG-powered four-stroke engine auto-rickshaws are ubiquitous in South Asian cities as taxi and for commercial transportation. Automotive exhaust contains several toxins, which are overwhelmingly toxic to the processes of wound healing. By utilizing the in vivo mouse model of wound healing, this report analyzes the effects of CNG-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws smoke solution (4SARSS) on different events of wound healing; dermal matrix regeneration, re-epithelialization and neovascularization. A total of 72 adult mice, divided in eight groups were exposed to 4SARSS for 12 days. A highly significant reduction (P<0.001) in wound closure was observed among all 4SARSS treated groups, at each time point of the experiment. An immature development in both the neoepidermis and the neodermis was observed among all 4SARSS treated wounds with defective re-epithelialization, dermal matrix regeneration and maturation of collagen bundles. Abbott curve, angular spectrum, 3D surface topographies, and histological investigations of wounds explicated highly significant activation (P<0.001) of delayed-neovascularization among 4SARSS treated wounds. All these annotations advocate excessive toxicity of emission from CNG-powered auto-rickshaws to the process of wound healing and people occupationally exposed to this toxic emissions may suffer varying degree of delayed wound healing. PMID:21784023

  1. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2013-05-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel-1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs) showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg

  2. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2012-10-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA 3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro II-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 8.0 ± 3.1 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF =2.8 ± 1.6 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 × 1015 (kg fuel-1). In the accelerating mode size-resolved EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg fuel)-1. An anti

  3. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  4. CNG transit fueling station handbook. Final report, October 1993-June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.R.; Pennington, M.D.

    1997-02-01

    This manual has been complied for use by a Transit Authority Engineer or an Engineering Company who is involved in the design of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fueling facilities. It is intended to provide a convenient and comprehensive reference document, to supplement but not replace codes and other reference documents. It is also intended to be used as a basis for the design of a broad range of CNG fueling facilities. The scope is limited to straight CNG and hence Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) or LNG vaporization to CNG has not been addressed. Similarly, this document does not deal with the facility modifications which may be required to park, service, or fuel CNG buses indoors. Additional information on actual gas fueling is available from the Gas Research Institute.

  5. Hydrogen effects on materials for CNG/H2 blends.

    SciTech Connect

    Farese, David; Keller, Jay O.; Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-09-01

    No concerns for Hydrogen-Enriched Compressed Natural gas (HCNG) in steel storage tanks if material strength is < 950 MPa. Recommend evaluating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in higher strength steels at H{sub 2} partial pressure in blend. Limited fatigue testing on higher strength steel cylinders in H{sub 2} shows promising results. Impurities in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (e.g., CO) may provide extrinsic mechanism for mitigating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in steel tanks.

  6. In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

  7. Infrastructure sensing.

    PubMed

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors. PMID:27499845

  8. SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Evaluation--Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.

    2000-12-07

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies is to promote the development and deployment of transportation technologies that reduce US dependence on foreign oil, while helping to improve the nation's air quality and promoting US competitiveness. In support of this mission, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of alternative fuel vehicles. NREL has undertaken several fleet study projects, which seek to provide objective real-world fleet experiences with AFVs. For this type of study we collect, analyze, and report on operational, cost, emissions, and performance data from AFVs being driven in a fleet application. The primary purpose of such studies is to make real-world information on AFVs available to fleet managers and other potential AFV purchasers. For this project, data was collected from 13 passenger vans operating in the Boulder/Denver, Colorado area. The study vehicles were all 1999 Ford E-350 passenger vans based at SuperShuttle's Boulder location. Five of the vans were dedicated CNG, five were bi-fuel CNG/gasoline, and three were standard gasoline vans that were used for comparison.

  9. CNG Cylinder Safety - Education, Outreach, and Next Steps (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Schroeder, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mr. Schroeder discussed the work that NREL is performing for the U.S. Department of Transportation on compressed natural gas cylinder end-of-life requirements. CNG vehicles are different from most other vehicles in that the CNG fuel storage cylinders have a pre-determined lifetime that may be shorter than the expected life of the vehicle. The end-of-life date for a cylinder is based on construction and test protocols, and is specific to the construction and material of each cylinder. The end-of-life date is important because it provides a safe margin of error against catastrophic cylinder failure or rupture. The end-of-life dates range from 15 to 25 years from the date of manufacture. NREL worked to develop outreach materials to increase awareness of cylinder end-of-life dates, has provided technical support for individual efforts related to cylinder safety and removal, and also worked with CVEF to document best practices for cylinder removal or inspection after an accident. Mr. Smith discussed the engagement of the DOE Clean Fleets Partners, which were surveyed to identify best practices on managing cylinder inventories and approached to provide initial data on cylinder age in a fleet environment. Both DOE and NREL will continue to engage these fleets and other stakeholders to determine how to best address this issue moving forward.

  10. Comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) used by transit agencies in Texas. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lede, N.W.

    1997-09-01

    This study is a detailed comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG). The study provides data on two alternative fuels used by transit agencies in Texas. First, we examine the `state-of-the- art` in alternative fuels to established a framework for the study. Efforts were made to examine selected characteristics of two types of natural gas demonstrations in terms of the following properties: energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, operations, maintenance, reliability, safety costs, and fuel availability. Where feasible, two alternative fuels were compared with conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Environmental considerations relative to fuel distribution and use are analyzed, with a focus on examining flammability an other safety-related issues. The objectives of the study included: (1) assess the state-of-the-art and document relevant findings pertaining to alternative fuels; (2) analyze and synthesize existing databases on two natural gas alternatives: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG): and (3) compare two alterative fuels used by transit properties in Texas, and address selected aspects of alternative fuels such as energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, safety, costs, maintenance and operations, environmental and related issues.

  11. UPS CNG Truck Fleet Final Results: Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-08-01

    This report provides transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational and emissions characteristics of CNG as one alternative to conventional diesel fuel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  12. Dispersion of CNG following a high-pressure release. Final report, February 1995-March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gaumer, R.L.; Raj, P.K.

    1996-05-01

    The research described in the report was designed to evaluate the adequacy of the current convention concerning safeguards against CNG-related fires in transit buildings where CNG powered buses are fueled, stored, or maintained. The convention embraces the belief that precautions need to be taken only at or near the ceiling of the buildings. It is based on the premise that, since CNG is primarily methane and methane is approximately one-half the density of air at ambient temperature and pressure, any natural gas released would immediately rise to the ceiling as a buoyant plume. The experiments described here tested theoretical predictions that challenge this premise. During the tests, infrared imaging was used to track the movement of CNG following release from a high-pressure source close to the floor.

  13. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  14. Technology demonstration of dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles at Ft. Bliss, Texas. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.A.; Yost, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    A technology demonstration program of dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles was conducted at FL Bliss, Texas to demonstrate the use of CNG as an alternative fuel. The demonstration program at FL Bliss was the first Army initiative with CNG-fueled vehicles under the legislated Alternative Motor Fuels Act. This Department of Energy (DOE)-supported fleet demonstration consisted of 48 General Services Administration (GSA)-owned, Army-leased 1992 dedicated CNG General Motors (GM) 3/4-ton pickup trucks and four 1993 gasoline-powered Chevrolet 3/4-ton pickup trucks.

  15. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J E

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  16. Effect of CNG start - gasoline run on emissions from a 3/4 ton pick-up truck

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, K.J.; Smith, L.R.; Dickinson, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes experiments to determine the effect on exhaust emissions of starting on compressed natural gas (CNG) and then switching to gasoline once the catalyst reaches operating temperature. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and detailed exhaust hydrocarbon speciation data were obtained for dedicated CNG, then unleaded gasoline, and finally CNG start - gasoline run using the Federal Test Procedure at 24{degree}C and at -7{degree}C. The results was a reductiopn in emissions from the gasoline baseline, especially at -7{degree}C. It was estimated that CNG start - gasoline run resulted in a 71 percent reduction in potential ozone formation per mile. 3 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. On-road emission characteristics of CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Cao, Xinyue; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xintong; He, Kebin

    2014-09-01

    To alleviate air pollution and lessen the petroleum demand from the motor vehicle sector in China, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been rapidly developed over the last several years. However, the understanding of the real-world emissions of NGVs is very limited. In this study, the emissions from 20 compressed-natural-gas-fueled bi-fuel taxis were measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual driving conditions in Yichang, China. The emission characteristics of the tested vehicles were analyzed, revealing that the average CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the tested compressed-natural-gas (CNG) taxis under urban driving conditions were 1.6, 4.0, 2.0 and 0.98 times those under highway road conditions, respectively. The CO, HC and NOx emissions from Euro 3 CNG vehicles were approximately 40%, 55% and 44% lower than those from Euro 2 vehicles, respectively. Compared with the values for light-duty gasoline vehicles reported in the literature, the CO2 and CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were clearly lower; however, significant increases in the HC and NOx emissions were observed. Finally, we normalized the emissions under the actual driving cycles of the entire test route to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)-based emissions using a VSP modes method developed by North Carolina State University. The simulated NEDC-based CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were better than the corresponding emissions standards, whereas the simulated NEDC-based HC and NOx emissions greatly exceeded the standards. Thus, more attention should be paid to the emissions from CNG vehicles. As for the CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis currently in use, the department of environmental protection should strengthen their inspection and supervision to reduce the emissions from these vehicles. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding and controlling emissions from CNG-fueled bi-fuel vehicles in China.

  18. An Infrastructure Roadmap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furgeson, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a master infrastructure plan for electrical and mechanical systems can help determine annual maintenance budgets, form annual capital-improvement budgets, take a snapshot of existing conditions, and lead to better energy management. Discusses important elements in such plans. (EV)

  19. CNG and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions in Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, A.; Kado, N.; Okamoto, R.; Gebel, M. Rieger, P.; Kobayashi, R.; Kuzmicky, P.

    2003-08-24

    Over the past three years, the California Air Resources Board (CARB), in collaboration with the University of California and other entities, has investigated the tailpipe emissions from three different latemodel, in-use heavy-duty transit buses in five different configurations. The study has focused on the measurement of regulated emissions (NOX, HC, CO, total PM), other gaseous emissions (CO2, NO2, CH4, NMHC), a number of pollutants of toxic risk significance (aromatics, carbonyls, PAHs, elements), composition (elemental and organic carbon), and the physical characterization (size-segregated number count and mass) of the particles in the exhaust aerosol. Emission samples are also tested in a modified Ames assay. The impact of oxidation catalyst control for both diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) buses and a passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) were evaluated over multiple driving cycles (idle, 55 mph cruise, CBD, UDDS, NYBC) using a chassis dynamometer. For brevity, only CBD results are discussed in this paper and particle sizing results are omitted. The database of results is large and some findings have been reported already at various forums including last year's DEER conference. The goal of this paper is to offer an overview of the lessons learned and attempt to draw overall conclusions and interpretations based on key findings to date.

  20. Modeling of diesel/CNG mixing in a pre-injection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahhab, H. A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Nasif, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines performance can be improved by adding combustible gases to the liquid diesel. In this paper, the propagation of a two phase flow liquid-gas fuel mixture into a pre-mixer is investigated numerically by computational fluid dynamics simulation. CNG was injected into the diesel within a cylindrical conduit operates as pre-mixer. Four injection models of Diesel-CNG were simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT commercial software. Two CNG jet diameters were used of 1 and 2 mm and the diesel pipe diameter was 9 mm. Two configurations were considered for the gas injection. In the first the gas was injected from one side while for the second two side entries were used. The CNG to Diesel pressure ratio was varied between 1.5 and 3. The CNG to Diesel mass flow ratios were varied between 0.7 and 0.9. The results demonstrate that using double-sided injection increased the homogeneity of the mixture due to the swirl and acceleration of the mixture. Mass fraction, in both cases, was found to increase as the mixture flows towards the exit. As a result, this enhanced mixing is likely to lead to improvement in the combustion performance.

  1. A comparative study of emission motorcycle with gasoline and CNG fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasongko, M. N.; Wijayanti, W.; Rahardja, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    A comparison of the exhaust emissions of the engine running gasoline and Compressed Natural Gas have been performed in this study. A gasoline engine 4 stroke single-cylinder with volume of 124.8 cc and compression ratio of 9.3:1 was converted to a CNG gaseous engine. The fuel injector was replaced with a solenoid valve system for injecting CNG gas to engine. The concentrations of CO, CO2, O2 and HC in the exhaust gas of engine were measured over the range of fuel flow rate from 25.32 mg/s to 70.22 mg/s and wide range of Air Fuel Ratio. The comparative analysis of this study showed that CNG engine has a lower HC, CO2 and CO emission at the stoichiometry mixture of fuel and air combustion. The emissions increased when the Air-Fuel ratio was switched from the stoichiometry condition. Moreover, CNG engine produced a lower HC and CO emission compared to the gasoline for difference air flow rate. The average of HC and CO emissions of the CNG was 92 % and 78 % lower than that of the gasoline

  2. In-Use Performance Comparison of Hybrid Electric, CNG, and Diesel Buses at New York City Transit

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R. A.

    2008-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hybrid electric (equipped with BAE Systems? HybriDrive propulsion system) transit buses at New York City Transit (NYCT). CNG, Gen I and Gen II hybrid electric propulsion systems were compared on fuel economy, maintenance and operating costs per mile, and reliability.

  3. Selective loss of cone function in mice lacking the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel CNG3

    PubMed Central

    Biel, Martin; Seeliger, Mathias; Pfeifer, Alexander; Kohler, Konrad; Gerstner, Andrea; Ludwig, Andreas; Jaissle, Gesine; Fauser, Sascha; Zrenner, Eberhart; Hofmann, Franz

    1999-01-01

    Two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones, coexist in the vertebrate retina. An in-depth analysis of the retinal circuitry that transmits rod and cone signals has been hampered by the presence of intimate physical and functional connections between rod and cone pathways. By deleting the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel CNG3 we have generated a mouse lacking any cone-mediated photoresponse. In contrast, the rod pathway is completely intact in CNG3-deficient mice. The functional loss of cone function correlates with a progressive degeneration of cone photoreceptors but not of other retinal cell types. CNG3-deficient mice provide an animal model to dissect unequivocally the contribution of rod and cone pathways for normal retinal function. PMID:10377453

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    SciTech Connect

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus networks.

  5. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  6. Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications. Final subcontract report, June 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

  7. Assessment of air quality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Wauters, Eric; Tyagi, Sushil K; Mor, Suman; Van Grieken, René

    2006-04-01

    Public transport in Delhi was amended by the Supreme Court of India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) instead of diesel or petrol. After the implementation of CNG since April 2001, Delhi has the highest fraction of CNG-run public vehicles in the world and most of them were introduced within 20 months. In the present study, the concentrations of various criteria air pollutants (SPM, PM(10), CO, SO(2) and NO(x)) and organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed before and after the implementation of CNG. A decreasing trend was found for PAHs, SO(2) and CO concentrations, while the NO(x) level was increased in comparison to those before the implementation of CNG. Further, SPM, PM(10), and BTX concentrations showed no significant change after the implementation of CNG. However, the BTX concentration demonstrated a clear relation with the benzene content of gasoline. In addition to the impact of the introduction of CNG the daily variation in PAHs levels was also studied and the PAHs concentrations were observed to be relatively high between 10 pm to 6 am, which gives a proof of a relation with the limited day entry and movement of heavy vehicles in Delhi. PMID:16614782

  8. PACS-1 Mediates Phosphorylation-Dependent Ciliary Trafficking of the CNG Channel in Olfactory Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Paul M.; Zhang, Lian; Thomas, Gary; Martens, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Impaired ciliary protein transport in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) leads to anosmia, and is a newly recognized clinical manifestation of a class of human disorders called ciliopathies. Surprisingly little is known regarding the mechanisms controlling trafficking to this unique neuronal compartment. Here, we show a novel role for phosphofurin acidic cluster-sorting protein 1 (PACS-1) in the ciliary trafficking of the olfactory CNG channel. PACS-1 is an intracellular sorting protein that mediates its effects through the binding of acidic clusters on cargo protein. This interaction is dependent on CK2 phosphorylation of both PACS-1 and its cargo. We show that CNGB1b contains two putative PACS-1 binding sites, which are phosphorylated by the serine/threonine protein kinase, CK2. Additionally, we show that PACS-1 is expressed in OSNs and interacts in complex with the CNG channel. CK2 inhibition in native OSNs causes a loss of CNG channel from cilia and subsequent olfactory dysfunction, while adenoviral expression of mutant PACS-1 causes similar mislocalization. These results provide a mechanism for the subunit-dependent ciliary trafficking of the CNG channel and offer insight into the mechanisms of ciliary transport. PMID:19710307

  9. The combustion behavior of diesel/CNG mixtures in a constant volume combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heikal, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The stringent emissions and needs to increase fuel efficiency makes controlled auto-ignition (CAI) based combustion an attractive alternative for the new combustion system. However, the combustion control is the main obstacles in its development. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) that employs two fuels with significantly different in reactivity proven to be able to control the combustion. The RCCI concept applied in a constant volume chamber fuelled with direct injected diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) was tested. The mixture composition is varied from 0 - 100% diesel/CNG at lambda 1 with main data collection are pressure profile and combustion images. The results show that diesel-CNG mixture significantly shows better combustion compared to diesel only. It is found that CNG is delaying the diesel combustion and at the same time assisting in diesel distribution inside the chamber. This combination creates a multipoint ignition of diesel throughout the chamber that generate very fast heat release rate and higher maximum pressure. Furthermore, lighter yellow color of the flame indicates lower soot production in compared with diesel combustion.

  10. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  11. Air quality and climate impacts due to CNG conversion of motor vehicles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wadud, Zia; Khan, Tanzila

    2013-12-17

    Dhaka had recently experienced rapid conversion of its motor vehicle fleet to run on compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper quantifies ex-post the air quality and climate benefits of the CNG conversion policy, including monetary valuations, through an impact pathway approach. Around 2045 (1665) avoided premature deaths in greater Dhaka (City Corporation) can be attributed to air quality improvements from the CNG conversion policy in 2010, resulting in a saving of around USD 400 million. Majority of these health benefits resulted from the conversion of high-emitting diesel vehicles. CNG conversion was clearly detrimental from climate change perspective using the changes in CO2 and CH4 only (CH4 emissions increased); however, after considering other global pollutants (especially black carbon), the climate impact was ambiguous. Uncertainty assessment using input distributions and Monte Carlo simulation along with a sensitivity analysis show that large uncertainties remain for climate impacts. For our most likely estimate, there were some climate costs, valued at USD 17.7 million, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the air quality benefits. This indicates that such policies can and should be undertaken on the grounds of improving local air pollution alone and that precautions should be taken to reduce the potentially unintended increases in GHG emissions or other unintended effects. PMID:24195736

  12. ASE Program Certification Standards for Light/Medium Duty CNG/LPG Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This publication provides the evaluation policies, procedures, and standards to which a compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) technician training program must adhere to be granted certification by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence. The policies section has three parts: the automobile areas that may…

  13. UPS CNG Truck Fleet Start Up Experience: Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.

    2001-08-14

    UPS operates 140 Freightliner Custom Chassis compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles with Cummins B5.9G engines. Fifteen are participating in the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project being funded by DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies and the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies.

  14. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  15. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  16. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus

  17. Influence of extensive compressed natural gas (CNG) usage on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Sikder, Helena Akhter; Jones, Charlotte Emily; Kato, Shungo; Kunimi, Hitoshi; Mohammed Hamidul Kabir, Abu Naser; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2012-07-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is an inexpensive, indigenous energy resource which currently accounts for the majority of automobile and domestic energy consumption in Bangladesh. This extensive CNG usage, particularly within the capital city, Dhaka, heavily influences the atmospheric composition (and hence air quality), yet to date measurements of trace gases in regions dominated by CNG emissions are relatively limited. Here we report continuous observations of the atmospherically important trace gases O3, CO, SO2, NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC), in ambient air in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, during May 2011. The average mixing ratios of O3, CO, SO2, and NOx for the measurement period were 18.9, 520.9, 7.6 and 21.5 ppbv, respectively. The ratios of CO to NO reveal that emissions from gasoline and CNG-fuelled vehicles were dominant during the daytime (slope of ˜26), while in contrast, owing to restrictions imposed on diesel fuelled vehicles entering Dhaka City, emissions from these vehicles only became significant during the night (slope of ˜10). The total VOC mixing ratio in Dhaka was ˜5-10 times higher than the levels reported in more developed Asian cities such as Tokyo and Bangkok, which consequently gives rise to a higher ozone formation potential (OFP). However, the most abundant VOC in Dhaka were the relatively long-lived ethane and propane (with mean mixing ratios of ˜115 and ˜30 ppbv, respectively), and as a consequence, the ozone formation potential per ppb carbon (ppbC) was lower in Dhaka than in Tokyo and Bangkok. Thus the atmospheric composition of air influenced by extensive CNG combustion may be characterized by high VOC mixing ratios, yet mixing ratios of the photochemical pollutant ozone do not drastically exceed the levels typical of Asian cities with considerably lower VOC levels.

  18. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  19. A structural, functional, and computational analysis suggests pore flexibility as the base for the poor selectivity of CNG channels.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Luisa Maria Rosaria; Bisha, Ina; De March, Matteo; Marchesi, Arin; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Demitri, Nicola; Mazzolini, Monica; Rodriguez, Alex; Magistrato, Alessandra; Onesti, Silvia; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels, despite a significant homology with the highly selective K(+) channels, do not discriminate among monovalent alkali cations and are permeable also to several organic cations. We combined electrophysiology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and X-ray crystallography to demonstrate that the pore of CNG channels is highly flexible. When a CNG mimic is crystallized in the presence of a variety of monovalent cations, including Na(+), Cs(+), and dimethylammonium (DMA(+)), the side chain of Glu66 in the selectivity filter shows multiple conformations and the diameter of the pore changes significantly. MD simulations indicate that Glu66 and the prolines in the outer vestibule undergo large fluctuations, which are modulated by the ionic species and the voltage. This flexibility underlies the coupling between gating and permeation and the poor ionic selectivity of CNG channels. PMID:26100907

  20. Effect of CNG start-gasoline run on emissions from a 3/4 ton pick-up truck

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, K.J.; Smith, L.R.; Dickinson, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes experiments to determine the effect on exhaust emissions of starting on compressed natural gas (CNG) and then switching to gasoline once the catalyst reaches operating temperature. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and detailed exhaust hydrocarbon speciation data were obtained for dedicated CNG, then unleaded gasoline, and finally CNG start-gasoline run using the Federal Test Procedure at 24{degree}C and at -7{degree}C. The result was a reduction in emissions from the gasoline baseline, especially at -7{degree}C. It was estimated that CNG start - gasoline run resulted in a 71 percent reduction in potential ozone formation per mile. 3 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. A structural, functional, and computational analysis suggests pore flexibility as the base for the poor selectivity of CNG channels

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Luisa Maria Rosaria; Bisha, Ina; De March, Matteo; Marchesi, Arin; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Demitri, Nicola; Mazzolini, Monica; Rodriguez, Alex; Magistrato, Alessandra; Onesti, Silvia; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels, despite a significant homology with the highly selective K+ channels, do not discriminate among monovalent alkali cations and are permeable also to several organic cations. We combined electrophysiology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and X-ray crystallography to demonstrate that the pore of CNG channels is highly flexible. When a CNG mimic is crystallized in the presence of a variety of monovalent cations, including Na+, Cs+, and dimethylammonium (DMA+), the side chain of Glu66 in the selectivity filter shows multiple conformations and the diameter of the pore changes significantly. MD simulations indicate that Glu66 and the prolines in the outer vestibule undergo large fluctuations, which are modulated by the ionic species and the voltage. This flexibility underlies the coupling between gating and permeation and the poor ionic selectivity of CNG channels. PMID:26100907

  2. Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-10-15

    Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (± 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (± 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis. PMID:24053762

  3. Complex Networks and Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setola, Roberto; de Porcellinis, Stefano

    The term “Critical Infrastructures” indicates all those technological infrastructures such as: electric grids, telecommunication networks, railways, healthcare systems, financial circuits, etc. that are more and more relevant for the welfare of our countries. Each one of these infrastructures is a complex, highly non-linear, geographically dispersed cluster of systems, that interact with their human owners, operators, users and with the other infrastructures. Their augmented relevance and the actual political and technological scenarios, which have increased their exposition to accidental failure and deliberate attacks, demand for different and innovative protection strategies (generally indicate as CIP - Critical Infrastructure Protection). To this end it is mandatory to understand the mechanisms that regulate the dynamic of these infrastructures. In this framework, an interesting approach is those provided by the complex networks. In this paper we illustrate some results achieved considering structural and functional properties of the corresponding topological networks both when each infrastructure is assumed as an autonomous system and when we take into account also the dependencies existing among the different infrastructures.

  4. Calmodulin permanently associates with rat olfactory CNG channels under native conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jonathan; Bönigk, Wolfgang; Yau, King-Wai; Frings, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    An important mechanism by which vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons rapidly adapt to odorants is feedback modulation of the Ca2+ permeable cyclic nucleotide–gated (CNG) transduction channels. Extensive heterologous studies of homomeric CNGA2 channels have led to a molecular model of channel modulation based on the binding of calcium-calmodulin to a site on the cytoplasmic amino terminus of CNGA2. Native rat olfactory CNG channels, however, are heteromeric complexes of three homologous but distinct subunits. Notably, in heteromeric channels, we found no role for CNGA2 in feedback modulation. Instead, an IQ-type calmodulin-binding site on CNGB1b and a similar but previously unidentified site on CNGA4 are necessary and sufficient. These sites seem to confer binding of Ca2+-free calmodulin (apocalmodulin), which is then poised to trigger inhibition of native channels in the presence of Ca2+. PMID:15195096

  5. Deciphering the function of the CNGB1b subunit in olfactory CNG channels

    PubMed Central

    Nache, Vasilica; Wongsamitkul, Nisa; Kusch, Jana; Zimmer, Thomas; Schwede, Frank; Benndorf, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels are key players in the signal transduction cascade of olfactory sensory neurons. The second messengers cAMP and cGMP directly activate these channels, generating a depolarizing receptor potential. Olfactory CNG channels are composed of two CNGA2 subunits and two modulatory subunits, CNGA4, and CNGB1b. So far the exact role of the modulatory subunits for channel activation is not fully understood. By measuring ligand binding and channel activation simultaneously, we show that in functional heterotetrameric channels not only the CNGA2 subunits and the CNGA4 subunit but also the CNGB1b subunit binds cyclic nucleotides and, moreover, also alone translates this signal to open the pore. In addition, we show that the CNGB1b subunit is the most sensitive subunit in a heterotetrameric channel to cyclic nucleotides and that it accelerates deactivation to a similar extent as does the CNGA4 subunit. In conclusion, the CNGB1b subunit participates in ligand-gated activation of olfactory CNG channels and, particularly, contributes to rapid termination of odorant signal in an olfactory sensory neuron. PMID:27405959

  6. Deciphering the function of the CNGB1b subunit in olfactory CNG channels.

    PubMed

    Nache, Vasilica; Wongsamitkul, Nisa; Kusch, Jana; Zimmer, Thomas; Schwede, Frank; Benndorf, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels are key players in the signal transduction cascade of olfactory sensory neurons. The second messengers cAMP and cGMP directly activate these channels, generating a depolarizing receptor potential. Olfactory CNG channels are composed of two CNGA2 subunits and two modulatory subunits, CNGA4, and CNGB1b. So far the exact role of the modulatory subunits for channel activation is not fully understood. By measuring ligand binding and channel activation simultaneously, we show that in functional heterotetrameric channels not only the CNGA2 subunits and the CNGA4 subunit but also the CNGB1b subunit binds cyclic nucleotides and, moreover, also alone translates this signal to open the pore. In addition, we show that the CNGB1b subunit is the most sensitive subunit in a heterotetrameric channel to cyclic nucleotides and that it accelerates deactivation to a similar extent as does the CNGA4 subunit. In conclusion, the CNGB1b subunit participates in ligand-gated activation of olfactory CNG channels and, particularly, contributes to rapid termination of odorant signal in an olfactory sensory neuron. PMID:27405959

  7. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. PMID:27219504

  8. Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.

    2014-11-01

    When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

  9. Strategic plan for infrastructure optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, C.D.

    1998-05-27

    This document represents Fluor Daniel Hanford`s and DynCorp`s Tri-Cities Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 1998--2002, the road map that will guide them into the next century and their sixth year of providing safe and cost effective infrastructure services and support to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Hanford Site. The Plan responds directly to the issues raised in the FDH/DOE Critical Self Assessment specifically: (1) a strategy in place to give DOE the management (systems) and physical infrastructure for the future; (2) dealing with the barriers that exist to making change; and (3) a plan to right-size the infrastructure and services, and reduce the cost of providing services. The Plan incorporates initiatives from several studies conducted in Fiscal Year 1997 to include: the Systems Functional Analysis, 200 Area Water Commercial Practices Plan, $ million Originated Cost Budget Achievement Plan, the 1OO Area Vacate Plan, the Railroad Shutdown Plan, as well as recommendations from the recently completed Review of Hanford Electrical Utility. These and other initiatives identified over the next five years will result in significant improvements in efficiency, allowing a greater portion of the infrastructure budget to be applied to Site cleanup. The Plan outlines a planning and management process that defines infrastructure services and structure by linking site technical base line data and customer requirements to work scope and resources. The Plan also provides a vision of where Site infrastructure is going and specific initiatives to get there.

  10. Network Infrastructure for Electric Vehicle Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yujin; Park, Jaesung; Ahn, Sanghyun

    Controlled charging of electric vehicles can take care of fluctuating electricity supply. In this paper, we design network infrastructure to collect and deliver data of charging data of electric vehicles to remote monitoring center. In our network infrastructure, we analyze and compare the existing routing mechanisms for multi-hop wireless networks from aspect of the control overhead for the path establishment.

  11. Study of CNG/diesel dual fuel engine's emissions by means of RBF neural network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-tao; Fei, Shao-mei

    2004-08-01

    Great efforts have been made to resolve the serious environmental pollution and inevitable declining of energy resources. A review of Chinese fuel reserves and engine technology showed that compressed natural gas (CNG)/diesel dual fuel engine (DFE) was one of the best solutions for the above problems at present. In order to study and improve the emission performance of CNG/diesel DFE, an emission model for DFE based on radial basis function (RBF) neural network was developed which was a black-box input-output training data model not require priori knowledge. The RBF centers and the connected weights could be selected automatically according to the distribution of the training data in input-output space and the given approximating error. Studies showed that the predicted results accorded well with the experimental data over a large range of operating conditions from low load to high load. The developed emissions model based on the RBF neural network could be used to successfully predict and optimize the emissions performance of DFE. And the effect of the DFEmain performance parameters, such as rotation speed, load, pilot quantity and injection timing, were also predicted by means of this model. In resumé, an emission prediction model for CNG/diesel DFE based on RBF neural network was built for analyzing the effect of the main performance parameters on the CO, NOx, emissions of DFE. The predicted results agreed quite well with the traditional emissions model, which indicated that the model had certain application value, although it still has some limitations, because of its high dependence on the quantity of the experimental sample data. PMID:15473052

  12. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  13. Health monitoring of full composite CNG tanks using long-gauge fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glisic, Branko; Inaudi, Daniele

    2004-07-01

    The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) used as a carburant in automotive industry offers low cost and notably less pollution. Full composite tank used to store the CNG onboard features low weight and extended lifespan. However, the safety issues and maintenance fees remain a challenge for its use in ordinary cars. The structural health monitoring of tanks with accent to damage detection can significantly increase the safety and decrease the maintenance fees. Structural health monitoring and damage detection of composite tanks impose important challenges to the monitoring strategy and monitoring system to be used. The issues of non-intrusive installation of sensors, their topologies and network, and particularly analysis and interpretation of resulting data are very complex. The long-gage interferometric sensors of SOFO type, for direct embedding in the full composite tank during production are developed. The sensor consists of single mode optical fiber embedded into the very thin composite tape. Such packaging offers to optical fiber excellent protection during handling and embedding and makes sensor non-intrusive to the tank material. Appropriate topologies of the sensors are combined in single sensor network used to monitor strain state and damage. The results of monitoring are analyzed at several levels, and the damage is detected using algorithms combining the global deformation and changes in both the tank stiffness and sensors cross-correlation. The monitoring strategy, sensors used in full composite tank monitoring, installation issues and the results of the structural health monitoring performed in laboratory are presented in details in this paper.

  14. The effects of refueling system operating pressure on LNG and CNG economics

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, A.J.; Barclay, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Natural gas (NG) liquefaction and compression are energy intensive processes which make up a significant portion of the overall delivered price of liquefied NG (LNG) and compressed NG (CNG). Increases in system efficiency and/or process changes which reduce the required amount of work will improve the overall economics of NG as a vehicle fuel. This paper describes a method of reducing the delivered cost of LNG by liquefying the gas above ambient pressures. Higher pressure LNG is desirable because OEM NG engine manufacturers would like NG delivered to the engine intake manifold at elevated pressures to avoid compromising engine performance. Producing LNG at higher pressures reduces the amount of work required for liquefaction but it is only practical when the LNG is liquefied on-site. Using a thermo-economic approach, it is shown that NG fuel costs can be reduced by as much as 10% when producing LNG at higher pressures. A reduction in the delivered cost is also demonstrated for CNG produced on-site from high pressure LNG.

  15. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  16. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  17. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    climate change. Extra maintenance activity is needed for existence infrastructure to stay operable. Engineers should run climate models under the most pessimistic scenarios when planning new infrastructure projects. That would allow reducing the potential shortcomings related to the permafrost thawing.

  18. EML1 (CNG-Modulin) Controls Light Sensitivity in Darkness and under Continuous Illumination in Zebrafish Retinal Cone Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Milap; Tserentsoodol, Nomingerel; Postlethwait, John H.; Rebrik, Tatiana I.

    2013-01-01

    The ligand sensitivity of cGMP-gated (CNG) ion channels in cone photoreceptors is modulated by CNG-modulin, a Ca2+-binding protein. We investigated the functional role of CNG-modulin in phototransduction in vivo in morpholino-mediated gene knockdown zebrafish. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified the orthologue gene of CNG-modulin in zebrafish, eml1, an ancient gene present in the genome of all vertebrates sequenced to date. We compare the photoresponses of wild-type cones with those of cones that do not express the EML1 protein. In the absence of EML1, dark-adapted cones are ∼5.3-fold more light sensitive than wild-type cones. Previous qualitative studies in several nonmammalian species have shown that immediately after the onset of continuous illumination, cones are less light sensitive than in darkness, but sensitivity then recovers over the following 15–20 s. We characterize light sensitivity recovery in continuously illuminated wild-type zebrafish cones and demonstrate that sensitivity recovery does not occur in the absence of EML1. PMID:24198367

  19. CNG-modulin: a novel Ca-dependent modulator of ligand sensitivity in cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Rebrik, Tatiana I; Botchkina, Inna; Arshavsky, Vadim Y; Craft, Cheryl M; Korenbrot, Juan I

    2012-02-29

    The transduction current in several different types of sensory neurons arises from the activity of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels. The channels in these sensory neurons vary in structure and function, yet each one demonstrates calcium-dependent modulation of ligand sensitivity mediated by the interaction of the channel with a soluble modulator protein. In cone photoreceptors, the molecular identity of the modulator protein was previously unknown. We report the discovery and characterization of CNG-modulin, a novel 301 aa protein that interacts with the N terminus of the β subunit of the cGMP-gated channel and modulates the cGMP sensitivity of the channels in cone photoreceptors of striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Immunohistochemistry and single-cell PCR demonstrate that CNG-modulin is expressed in cone but not rod photoreceptors. Adding purified recombinant CNG-modulin to cone membrane patches containing the native CNG channels shifts the midpoint of cGMP dependence from ∼91 μM in the absence of Ca(2+) to ∼332 μM in the presence of 20 μM Ca(2+). At a fixed cGMP concentration, the midpoint of the Ca(2+) dependence is ∼857 nM Ca(2+). These restored physiological features are statistically indistinguishable from the effects of the endogenous modulator. CNG-modulin binds Ca(2+) with a concentration dependence that matches the calcium dependence of channel modulation. We conclude that CNG-modulin is the authentic Ca(2+)-dependent modulator of cone CNG channel ligand sensitivity. CNG-modulin is expressed in other tissues, such as brain, olfactory epithelium, and the inner ear, and may modulate the function of ion channels in those tissues as well. PMID:22378887

  20. On-road measurement of regulated pollutants from diesel and CNG buses with urea selective catalytic reduction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiadong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Lijun; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Jiaqiang; Feng, Xiangyu

    2014-12-01

    In this study, emissions from 13 buses operated in Beijing, including two Euro-III diesel buses, four Euro-IV diesel buses, three Euro-V diesel buses and four Euro-V CNG buses, were characterized in real world conditions. All of the buses tested were fitted with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems except for the Euro-III diesel buses. A SEMTECH-DS was used for testing the gaseous pollutants, and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used for measuring of particle numbers and size distributions. A comparison was made based on emission performance of these buses by employing the VSP approach and fuel- based emissions factors. Diesel buses emitted less CO and THC but more NOx and PM pollutants than CNG buses. The NOx reduction efficiencies of the SCR systems for CNG buses were higher because of the high exhaust temperature and high NO2/NOx ratio, whereas the efficiencies for diesel buses were lower. This resulted in extremely low NOx emissions from CNG buses, but the high NO2/NOx ratio needs further study. Failures of urea injection in the SCR systems were detected in this research, which resulted in very high NOx emissions. The CNG buses also emitted smaller numbers of particles and less particle mass with the presence of oxidation catalysts. Diesel buses satisfying the Euro-V standard performed better than Euro-IV and Euro-III diesel buses in terms of emission performance, except for more nuclei mode particles. Most of time, the Euro-IV diesel buses show no advantages in CO and NOx emissions compared with the Euro-III diesel buses.

  1. MOEMS industrial infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

    2004-08-01

    numbers they want (several millions per year). The crossover point where building a dedicated facility becomes a realistic option, can differ very much depending on technology complexity, numbers and market value. Also history plays a role, companies with past experience in the production of a product and the necessary facilities and equipment will tend to achieve captive production. Companies not having a microtechnology history will tend to outsource, offering business opportunities for foundries. The number of foundries shows a steady growth over the years. The total availability of foundries, however, and their flexibility will, undoubtedly, rely on market potential and its size. Unlike design houses, foundries need to realise a substantial return on the "large" investments they make in terms of capital and infrastructure. These returns will be maximised through mass-produced products aimed at "killer" applications (accelerometers are only one example). The existence of professional suppliers of MOEMS packaging and assembly is an essential element in the supply chain and critical for the manufacturing and commercialisation of MOEMS products. In addition, the incorporation of packaging and assembly techniques at the front-end of the engineering cycle will pay back in terms of financial savings and shorter timescales to market. Packaging and assembly for MOEMS are, in general, more costly than their equivalents for standard integrated circuits. This is, primarily, due to the diversity of the interconnections (which are multi-functional and may incorporate: electrical, optical, fluidic etc). In addition, the high levels of accuracy and the potential sensitivity of the devices to mechanical and external influences play a major role in the cost aspects of the final MNT product. This article will give an overview of the package/assembly providers and foundry business models and analyse their contribution to the MOEMS supply chain illustrated with some typical examples. As

  2. Fuzzy architecture assessment for critical infrastructure resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, George

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for the selection of alternative architectures in a connected infrastructure system to increase resilience of the overall infrastructure system. The paper begins with a description of resilience and critical infrastructure, then summarizes existing approaches to resilience, and presents a fuzzy-rule based method of selecting among alternative infrastructure architectures. This methodology includes considerations which are most important when deciding on an approach to resilience. The paper concludes with a proposed approach which builds on existing resilience architecting methods by integrating key system aspects using fuzzy memberships and fuzzy rule sets. This novel approach aids the systems architect in considering resilience for the evaluation of architectures for adoption into the final system architecture.

  3. Infrastructure of electronic information management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twitchell, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    The information technology infrastructure of an organization, whether it is a private, non-profit, federal, or academic institution, is key to delivering timely and high-quality products and services to its customers and stakeholders. With the evolution of the Internet and the World Wide Web, resources that were once "centralized" in nature are now distributed across the organization in various locations and often remote regions of the country. This presents tremendous challenges to the information technology managers, users, and CEOs of large world-wide corporations who wish to exchange information or get access to resources in today's global marketplace. Several tools and technologies have been developed over recent years that play critical roles in ensuring that the proper information infrastructure exists within the organization to facilitate this global information marketplace Such tools and technologies as JAVA, Proxy Servers, Virtual Private Networks (VPN), multi-platform database management solutions, high-speed telecommunication technologies (ATM, ISDN, etc.), mass storage devices, and firewall technologies most often determine the organization's success through effective and efficient information infrastructure practices. This session will address several of these technologies and provide options related to those that may exist and can be readily applied within Eastern Europe. ?? 2004 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

  4. Air quality assessment in Delhi: before and after CNG as fuel.

    PubMed

    Chelani, Asha B; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-02-01

    A number of policy measures have been activated in India in order to control the levels of air pollutants such as particulate matter, sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Delhi, which is one of the most polluted cities in the world, is also going through the implementation phase of the control policies. Ambient air quality data monitored during 2000 to 2003, at 10 sites in Delhi, were analyzed to assess the impact of implementation of these measures, specifically fuel change in vehicles. This paper presents the impact of policy measures on ambient air quality levels and also the source apportionment. CO and NO(2) concentration levels in ambient air are found to be associated with the mobile sources. The temporal variation of air quality data shows the significant effect of shift to CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) in vehicles. PMID:17219243

  5. City and County of Denver: Technical comparison between hythane, CNG and gasoline fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The City and County of Denver, in cooperation with the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force of Public Technology, Inc. has completed a unique two-year research and development project designed to test and compare the technical merits of three transportation fuels. Comparisons of the tailpipe emissions from Hythane - a new, blended, alternative motor fuel comprised of 85% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15% hydrogen measured by volume - to the emissions from gasoline and 100% CNG were conducted. This project has been one of the first pioneering studies of a hydrogen blended fuel and, through its success, has prompted eight additional Hythane research projects to date. Phase I of the project provided results from the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing of a light duty pick-up truck operating on Hythane. The purpose of this testing was to quantify any decrease in tailpipe emissions and to determine whether Hythane could meet the California Ultra Low Emission Vehicle standard (ULEV) for light duty trucks. During Phase I, FTP analyses were conducted in both Colorado (high altitude testing) and California (sea level testing) on a converted Chevrolet S-10, pick-up truck by Hydrogen Consultants (HCl), the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) and the California Air Resource Board (CARB). Currently, the only other non-electric vehicle which is capable of meeting the ULEV standard is Chrysler`s natural gas vehicle. There was additional interest in the role Hythane could play as a transitional fuel in the introduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen, a renewable energy carrier, may soon be categorized as a ZEV fuel by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. This factor may encourage the use of Hythane as a transportation fuel that not only meets the ULEV standard, but may provide the bridge necessary to the eventual widespread use of hydrogen.

  6. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  7. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  8. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

  9. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners. PMID:27256149

  10. Early flame development image comparison of low calorific value syngas and CNG in DI SI gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Ftwi Yohaness Hagos, A. Rashid A.; Sulaiman, Shaharin A.

    2013-06-01

    The early flame development stage of syngas and CNG are analysed and compared from the flame images taken over 20° CA from the start of ignition. An imitated syngas with a composition of 19.2% H2, 29.6% CO, 5.3% CH4 and balance with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which resembles the typical product of wood biomass gasification, was used in the study. A CCD camera triggered externally through the signals from the camshaft and crank angle sensors was used in capturing of the images. The engine was accessed through an endoscope access and a self-illumination inside the chamber. The results of the image analysis are further compared with the mass fraction burn curve of both syngas and CNG analysed from the pressure data. The analysis result of the flame image of syngas validates the double rapid burning stage of the mass fraction burn of syngas analysed from in-cylinder pressure data.

  11. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

  12. DEFECTIVE TRAFFICKING OF CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CNG CHANNELS INDUCES THE UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE AND ER STRESS-ASSOCIATED CELL DEATH

    PubMed Central

    Duricka, Deborah L.; Brown, R. Lane; Varnum, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Mutations that perturb the function of photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are associated with several human retinal disorders, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to photoreceptor dysfunction and degeneration remain unclear. Many loss-of-function mutations result in intracellular accumulation of CNG channel subunits. Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is known to cause ER stress and trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR), an evolutionarily conserved cellular program that results in either adaptation via increased protein processing capacity or apoptotic cell death. We hypothesize that defective trafficking of cone photoreceptor CNG channels can induce UPR-mediated cell death. To test this idea, CNGA3 subunits bearing the R563H and Q655X mutations were expressed in photoreceptor-derived 661W cells with CNGB3 subunits. Compared to wild type, R563H and Q655X subunits displayed altered degradation rates and/or were retained in the ER. ER retention was associated with increased expression of UPR-related markers of ER stress and with decreased cell viability. Chemical and pharmacological chaperones (TUDCA, 4PBA, and the cGMP analog CPT-cGMP) differentially reduced degradation and/or promoted plasma-membrane localization of defective subunits. Improved subunit maturation was concordant with reduced expression of ER stress markers and improved viability of cells expressing localization-defective channels. These results indicate that ER stress can arise from expression of localization defective CNG channels, and may represent a contributing factor for photoreceptor degeneration. PMID:21992067

  13. COOPEUS - connecting research infrastructures in environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Waldmann, Christoph; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The COOPEUS project was initiated in 2012 bringing together 10 research infrastructures (RIs) in environmental sciences from the EU and US in order to improve the discovery, access, and use of environmental information and data across scientific disciplines and across geographical borders. The COOPEUS mission is to facilitate readily accessible research infrastructure data to advance our understanding of Earth systems through an international community-driven effort, by: Bringing together both user communities and top-down directives to address evolving societal and scientific needs; Removing technical, scientific, cultural and geopolitical barriers for data use; and Coordinating the flow, integrity and preservation of information. A survey of data availability was conducted among the COOPEUS research infrastructures for the purpose of discovering impediments for open international and cross-disciplinary sharing of environmental data. The survey showed that the majority of data offered by the COOPEUS research infrastructures is available via the internet (>90%), but the accessibility to these data differ significantly among research infrastructures; only 45% offer open access on their data, whereas the remaining infrastructures offer restricted access e.g. do not release raw data or sensible data, demand user registration or require permission prior to release of data. These rules and regulations are often installed as a form of standard practice, whereas formal data policies are lacking in 40% of the infrastructures, primarily in the EU. In order to improve this situation COOPEUS has installed a common data-sharing policy, which is agreed upon by all the COOPEUS research infrastructures. To investigate the existing opportunities for improving interoperability among environmental research infrastructures, COOPEUS explored the opportunities with the GEOSS common infrastructure (GCI) by holding a hands-on workshop. Through exercises directly registering resources

  14. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method ofmore » Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.« less

  15. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  16. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method of Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.

  17. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  18. Building safeguards infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Mcclelland - Kerr, John

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  19. A web service infrastructure for thermochemical data.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Christopher P; Bhattacharjee, Subrata

    2008-07-01

    W3C standardized Web Services are becoming an increasingly popular middleware technology used to facilitate the open exchange of chemical data. While several projects in existence use Web Services to wrap existing commercial and open-source tools that mine chemical structure data, no Web Service infrastructure has yet been developed to compute thermochemical properties of substances. This work presents an infrastructure of Web Services for thermochemical data retrieval. Several examples are presented to demonstrate how our Web Services can be called from Java, through JavaScript using an AJAX methodology, and within commonly used commercial applications such as Microsoft Excel and MATLAB for use in computational work. We illustrate how a JANAF table, widely used by chemists and engineers, can be quickly reproduced through our Web Service infrastructure. PMID:18543903

  20. A sociotechnical framework for understanding infrastructure breakdown and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, Benjamin H

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at how and why infrastructure is repaired. With a new era of infrastructure spending underway, policymakers need to understand and anticipate the particular technical and political challenges posed by infrastructure repair. In particular, as infrastructure problems are increasingly in the public eye with current economic stimulus efforts, the question has increasingly been asked: why has it been so difficult for the United Statesto devote sustained resources to maintaining and upgrading its national infrastructure? This paper provides a sociotechnical framework for understanding the challenges of infrastructure repair, and demonstrates this framework using a case study of seismic retrofit of freeway bridges in California. The design of infrastructure is quite different from other types of design work even when new infrastructure is being designed. Infrastructure projects are almost always situated within, and must work with, existing infrastructure networks. As a result, compared to design of more discrete technological artifacts, the design of infrastructure systems requires a great deal of attention to interfaces as well as adaptation of design to the constraints imposed by existing systems. Also, because of their scale, infrastructural technologies engage with social life at a level where explicit political agendas may playa central role in the design process. The design and building of infrastructure is therefore often an enormously complex feat of sociotechnical engineering, in which technical and political agendas are negotiated together until an outcome is reached that allows the project to move forward. These sociotechnical settlements often result in a complex balancing of powerful interests around infrastructural artifacts; at the same time, less powerful interests have historically often been excluded or marginalized from such settlements.

  1. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory. PMID:26025654

  2. Space Station Freedom commercial infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barquinero, Kevin; Cassidy, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    NASA policy concerning the commercial infrastructure of the Space Station is examined. Plans for receiving and evaluating unsolicited proposals to provide commercial infrastructure are outlined. The guidelines for development of the commercial infrastructure and examples of opportunities for industry are listed. Also, a program for industry feedback concerning the commercial infrastructure policy is discussed.

  3. An explosion of a CNG fuel vessel in an urban bus.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Seong; Jeon, Seung-Won; Moon, Jung-Eun; Lee, Kyu-Jung

    2010-03-01

    An investigation is presented of the explosion of a CNG (compressed natural gas) fuel vessel, called a liner, in an urban bus. The explosion happened at a gas station 10 min after filling was completed. There were no traces of soot and flames at the failed liner, which would be indicative of explosion by ignition of the gas. The filling process of the station was automatically monitored and recorded in a computer. There was no unusual record of the filling system that indicated excess pressure at the time of the accident. There were cracks on the liner that were initiated at the outer surface of the cylindrical shell located at a point 4 cm above the lower dome where cracks did not originate easily as a result of overload. Chemical analysis was performed on a specimen that was cut from the liner, and there was no peculiarity in the mix. Mechanical analysis was performed on the specimens and showed that the hardness was not in the specified range because of inadequate heat treatment of the metal. The hardness of the liner was strictly controlled in the manufacturing process. All the liners that were manufactured at the same period with the failed liner were recalled for examination. PMID:20141553

  4. Evaluation of aftermarket CNG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Rowley, P.F.; Grimes, J.W.

    1995-07-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) was contracted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate three compressed natural gas (CNG) conversion systems using a 1993 Chevrolet Lumina baseline vehicle. A fourth conversion system was added to the test matrix through funding support from Brooklyn Union. The objective of this project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of the different conversion systems, and to compare the performance to gasoline-fueled operation and each other. Different natural gas compositions were selected to represent the 10th percentile, mean, and 90th percentile compositions distributed in the Continental United States. Testing with these different compositions demonstrated the systems` ability to accommodate the spectrum of gas found in the United States. Each compressed natural gas conversion system was installed and adjusted according to the manufacturer`s instructions. In addition to the FTP testing, an evaluation of the comparative installation times and derivability tests (based on AGA and CRC guidelines) were conducted on each system.

  5. Temporal variability of benzene concentration in the ambient air of Delhi: a comparative assessment of pre- and post-CNG periods.

    PubMed

    Khillare, P S; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul; Shridhar, Vijay; Agarwal, Tripti; Balachandran, S

    2008-06-15

    CNG (compressed natural gas) was fully implemented in public transport system in Delhi in December 2002. The study assesses the benzene concentration trends at two busy traffic intersections and a background site in Delhi, India. Monitoring was done for two different time periods viz; in the year 2001-2002 (pre-CNG) and two winter months (January and February) of the year 2007 (post-CNG) to assess the impact of various policy measures adopted by the government of Delhi to improve the air quality in the city. Annual average benzene concentration for the pre-CNG period was found to be 86.47+/-53.24 microg m(-3). Average benzene concentrations for the winter months (January-February) of pre- and post-CNG periods were 116.32+/-51.65 microg m(-3) and 187.49+/-22.50 microg m(-3), respectively. Enhanced values could be solely attributed to the increase in the vehicular population from 3.5 million in the year 2001-2002 to approximately 5.1 millions in the year 2007. PMID:18082950

  6. Utility and infrastructure needs for private tank waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    This document supports the development of the Draft TWRS Privatization RFP. The document provides summaries of a wide variety of utility infrastructure and support services that are available at the Hanford Site. The needs of the privatization contractors are estimated and compared to the existing infrastructure. Recommendations are presented on the preferred and alternate routes of supplying the identifies requirements.

  7. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    . The maturity of individual scientific domains differs considerably. • Technologically and organisationally many different RI components have to be integrated. Individual systems are often complex and have a long-term history. Existing approaches are on different maturity levels, e.g. in relation to the standardisation of interfaces. • The concrete implementation process consists of independent and often parallel development activities. In many cases no detailed architectural blue-print for the envisioned system exists. • Most of the funding currently available for RI implementation is provided on a project basis. To increase the synergies in infrastructure development the authors propose a specific RI Maturity Model (RIMM) that is specifically qualified for open system-of-system environments. RIMM is based on the concepts of Capability Maturity Models for organisational development, concretely the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM) specifying the technical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation [1]. The model is complemented by the identification and integration of growth factors (according to the Nolan Stages Theory [2]). These factors include supply and demand factors. Supply factors comprise available resources, e.g., data, services and IT-management capabilities including organisations and IT-personal. Demand factors are the overall application portfolio for RIs but also the skills and requirements of scientists and communities using the infrastructure. RIMM thus enables a balanced development process of RI and RI components by evaluating the status of the supply and demand factors in relation to specific levels of interoperability. [1] Tolk, A., Diallo, A., Turnitsa, C. (2007): Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 5 - Number 5. [2

  8. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    . The maturity of individual scientific domains differs considerably. • Technologically and organisationally many different RI components have to be integrated. Individual systems are often complex and have a long-term history. Existing approaches are on different maturity levels, e.g. in relation to the standardisation of interfaces. • The concrete implementation process consists of independent and often parallel development activities. In many cases no detailed architectural blue-print for the envisioned system exists. • Most of the funding currently available for RI implementation is provided on a project basis. To increase the synergies in infrastructure development the authors propose a specific RI Maturity Model (RIMM) that is specifically qualified for open system-of-system environments. RIMM is based on the concepts of Capability Maturity Models for organisational development, concretely the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM) specifying the technical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation [1]. The model is complemented by the identification and integration of growth factors (according to the Nolan Stages Theory [2]). These factors include supply and demand factors. Supply factors comprise available resources, e.g., data, services and IT-management capabilities including organisations and IT-personal. Demand factors are the overall application portfolio for RIs but also the skills and requirements of scientists and communities using the infrastructure. RIMM thus enables a balanced development process of RI and RI components by evaluating the status of the supply and demand factors in relation to specific levels of interoperability. [1] Tolk, A., Diallo, A., Turnitsa, C. (2007): Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 5 - Number 5. [2

  9. Infrastructure Survey 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

  10. An Infrastructure Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to let their students' imaginations soar as they become part of a team that will design a whole new kind of living technological museum, a facility that celebrates the world of infrastructure. In this activity, a new two-story building will be built, occupying a vacant corner parcel of land, approximately 150…

  11. Compact structures of d(CNG)n oligonucleotides in solution and their possible relevance to fragile X and related human genetic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J E; Newbury, S F; McClellan, J A

    1995-01-01

    We show that oligonucleotides of CNG tracts readily adopt compact DNA structures that move unusually fast on gels. Base composition does not explain this, and non-CNG triplets (including GNC) do not form such structures. Chemical probing and melting experiments suggest that the structures probably are not hairpins. Although both long and short tracts can adopt compact structures, the structure formed by longer tracts is more compact than that formed by shorter ones. We note the possibility that such structures may form in vivo, and be instrumental in normal and/or abnormal function of human genes. Images PMID:7596812

  12. Launch facilities as infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trial, Mike

    The idea is put forth that launch facilities in the U.S. impose inefficiencies on launch service providers due to the way they have been constructed. Rather than constructing facilities for a specific program, then discarding them when the program is complete, a better use of the facilities investment would be in constructing facilities flexible enough for use by multiple vehicle types over the course of a 25-year design lifetime. The planned National Launch System (NLS) program offers one possible avenue for the federal government to provide a nucleus of launch infrastructure which can improve launch efficiencies. The NLS goals are to develop a new space launch system to meet civil and national needs. The new system will be jointly funded by DOD and NASA but will actively consider commercial space needs. The NLS will improve reliability, responsiveness, and mission performance, and reduce operating costs. The specifics of the infrastructure concept are discussed.

  13. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  14. DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years.

  15. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations

  16. Operational models of infrastructure resilience.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David L; Brown, Gerald G; Carlyle, W Matthew

    2015-04-01

    We propose a definition of infrastructure resilience that is tied to the operation (or function) of an infrastructure as a system of interacting components and that can be objectively evaluated using quantitative models. Specifically, for any particular system, we use quantitative models of system operation to represent the decisions of an infrastructure operator who guides the behavior of the system as a whole, even in the presence of disruptions. Modeling infrastructure operation in this way makes it possible to systematically evaluate the consequences associated with the loss of infrastructure components, and leads to a precise notion of "operational resilience" that facilitates model verification, validation, and reproducible results. Using a simple example of a notional infrastructure, we demonstrate how to use these models for (1) assessing the operational resilience of an infrastructure system, (2) identifying critical vulnerabilities that threaten its continued function, and (3) advising policymakers on investments to improve resilience. PMID:25808298

  17. Unregulated emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses configured with and without oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Robert A; Kado, Norman Y; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Ayala, Alberto; Kobayashi, Reiko

    2006-01-01

    The unregulated emissions from two in-use heavy-duty transit buses fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and equipped with oxidation catalyst (OxiCat) control were evaluated. We tested emissions from a transit bus powered by a 2001 Cummins Westport C Gas Plus 8.3-L engine (CWest), which meets the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) 2002 optional NOx standard (2.0 g/bhp-hr). In California, this engine is certified only with an OxiCat, so our study did not include emissions testing without it. We also tested a 2000 New Flyer 40-passenger low-floor bus powered by a Detroit Diesel series 50G engine (DDCs50G) that is currently certified in California without an OxiCat. The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) offers a "low-emission" package for this bus that includes an OxiCat for transit bus applications, thus, this configuration was also tested in this study. Previously, we reported that formaldehyde and other volatile organic emissions detected in the exhaust of the DDCs50G bus equipped with an OxiCat were significantly reduced relative to the same DDCs50G bus without OxiCat. In this paper, we examine othertoxic unregulated emissions of significance. The specific mutagenic activity of emission sample extracts was examined using the microsuspension assay. The total mutagenic activity of emissions (activity per mile) from the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus was generally lower than that from the DDC bus without the OxiCat. The CWest bus emission samples had mutagenic activity that was comparable to that of the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus. In general, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were lower forthe OxiCat-equipped buses, with greater reductions observed for the volatile and semivolatile PAH emissions. Elemental carbon (EC) was detected in the exhaust from the all three bus configurations, and we found that the total carbon (TC) composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions was primarily organic carbon (OC). The amount of carbon emissions far exceeded the

  18. Agile Infrastructure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2014-06-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  19. Tool Gear: Infrastructure for Parallel Tools

    SciTech Connect

    May, J; Gyllenhaal, J

    2003-04-17

    Tool Gear is a software infrastructure for developing performance analysis and other tools. Unlike existing integrated toolkits, which focus on providing a suite of capabilities, Tool Gear is designed to help tool developers create new tools quickly. It combines dynamic instrumentation capabilities with an efficient database and a sophisticated and extensible graphical user interface. This paper describes the design of Tool Gear and presents examples of tools that have been built with it.

  20. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    PubMed

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power. PMID:21399415

  1. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  2. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  3. EEW Implementation into Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In FP7 MARsite project WP9, the integration algorithm of existing strong motion networks with the critical infrastructures strong motion networks have been studied. In Istanbul, the existing Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (IEEW) strong motion network consists of 15 stations including 10 on land and 5 ocean bottom stations. The system provides continuous online data and earthquake early warning alert depending on the exceedance of the threshold levels in ground motion acceleration in certain number of station within the certain time interval. The data transmission is provided through the fiber optic cable and satellite line alternatively. The early warning alert is transmitted to the critical infrastructures of Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line and Marmaray Tube Tunnel line in order to activate the local strong motion networks for the automatic shut-off mechanism. Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line has 1.800km steel and 15.200km polyethylene in total 18.000km gas pipeline in Istanbul. There are in total 750 district regulators in the city where the gas pressure is reduced from 20bar to 4bar and from there the gas is transmitted with polyethylene lines to service boxes. Currently, Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) has its own strong motion network with 110 strong motion stations installed at the 110 of 750 district regulators. Once the IGDAS strong motion network is activated by the IEEW network, depending on the exceedance of the ground motion parameters threshold levels the gas flow is stopped at the district regulators. Other than the Earthquake Early Warning operation in IGDAS strong motion network, having the calculated ground motion parameters in the network provides damage maps for the buildings and natural gas pipeline network. The Marmaray Tube Tunnel connects the Europe and Asian sides of Istanbul City by a rail line. The tunnel is 1.4km length and consists of 13segments. There is strong motion monitoring network in the tunnel

  4. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  5. Governance of Large Scale Research Infrastructures: Tailoring Infrastructures to Fit the Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, E.; Pedersen, H.; Clémenceau, A.; Evans, R.

    2012-04-01

    The legal and governance structures of a pan-European large scale research infrastructure (RI) are critical. They shape the very operation of the undertaking - decision making processes, allocation of tasks and resources, and the relationships amongst the various interested parties - and its eventual success is crucially dependent on choosing these structures wisely. The experience of several examples is used to illustrate how legal and governance schemes for pan-European Research Infrastructures can be used as vehicles to tailor the infrastructure according to its scientific objectives. Indeed, the chosen model can: 1) foster multi-disciplinary research by having representatives of different communities deciding on joint programs; 2) better coordinate scattered communities, both geographically and thematically, increasing their cooperation; 3) implement an innovative Research organization; 4) leverage additional funding; 5) develop a strong identity and elevate international visibility for the communities served; 6) clarify responsibilities, accountability and authority. The ESFRI roadmap has extended the "classical" concept of single-sited RIs (as exemplified in the field of physics by facilities such as CERN) to that of distributed and virtual infrastructures but these raise new issues, especially regarding data exchange and management. As this concept of infrastructure at a European level is relatively new to the major part of the science community, it is especially important that governance models are thoroughly discussed and carefully adapted to fit the specific needs of each of these new distributed facilities. Alongside the legal frameworks which have previously been used for existing infrastructures, the European Commission has established a new legal vehicle, the European Research Infrastructure Consortium or "ERIC", to meet the requirements of the pan-European facilities. It will be shown that this flexible model can be used in a "customized" way to meet

  6. The dependence of educational infrastructure on clinical infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Cimino, C

    1998-01-01

    The Albert Einstein College of Medicine needed to assess the growth of its infrastructure for educational computing as a first step to determining if student needs were being met. Included in computing infrastructure are space, equipment, software, and computing services. The infrastructure was assessed by reviewing purchasing and support logs for a six year period from 1992 to 1998. This included equipment, software, and e-mail accounts provided to students and to faculty for educational purposes. Student space has grown at a constant rate (averaging 14% increase each year respectively). Student equipment on campus has grown by a constant amount each year (average 8.3 computers each year). Student infrastructure off campus and educational support of faculty has not kept pace. It has either declined or remained level over the six year period. The availability of electronic mail clearly demonstrates this with accounts being used by 99% of students, 78% of Basic Science Course Leaders, 38% of Clerkship Directors, 18% of Clerkship Site Directors, and 8% of Clinical Elective Directors. The collection of the initial descriptive infrastructure data has revealed problems that may generalize to other medical schools. The discrepancy between infrastructure available to students and faculty on campus and students and faculty off campus creates a setting where students perceive a paradoxical declining support for computer use as they progress through medical school. While clinical infrastructure may be growing, it is at the expense of educational infrastructure at affiliate hospitals. PMID:9929262

  7. Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, P. S.; Moritz, H. R.; White, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal infrastructure can be highly vulnerable to changing climate, including increasing sea levels and altered frequency and intensity of coastal storms. Existing coastal infrastructure may be of a sufficient age that it is already experiencing noticeable impacts from global sea level rise, and require a variety of potential preparedness and resilience measures to adapt to changing climate. Methods to determine vulnerability to changing sea level and support planning of potential future adaptation measures are needed for application to projects having multiple purposes (e.g., navigation, coastal risk reduction). Here we describe a potential framework for assessing projects with several components typical of existing coastal infrastructure spanning a range of engineering disciplines (e.g., hydrology, geotechnical, structural, electrical, and mechanical). The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Climate Preparedness and Resilience Register (CPRR) framework is currently under development. It takes a tiered approach as described in earlier USACE guidance (Engineer Technical Letter 1100-2-1) using the three scenarios prescribed by Engineer Regulation ER 1100-2-8162. Level 1 is a qualitative assessment defining the major sea level change-related impacts and ranks them in order of soonest occurrence. Level 2 is a quantitative evaluation that analyzes current and future performance of individual project components, including electrical, mechanical and structural components and functions using the sea level change scenarios prescribed by ER 1100-2-8162. Level 3 proposes adaptation measures per ETL 1100-2-1 and evaluates changes in sea level change-related impacts.

  8. Distributed Data Integration Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, T; Ludaescher, B; Vouk, M; Pu, C

    2003-02-24

    The Internet is becoming the preferred method for disseminating scientific data from a variety of disciplines. This can result in information overload on the part of the scientists, who are unable to query all of the relevant sources, even if they knew where to find them, what they contained, how to interact with them, and how to interpret the results. A related issue is keeping up with current trends in information technology often taxes the end-user's expertise and time. Thus instead of benefiting from this information rich environment, scientists become experts on a small number of sources and technologies, use them almost exclusively, and develop a resistance to innovations that can enhance their productivity. Enabling information based scientific advances, in domains such as functional genomics, requires fully utilizing all available information and the latest technologies. In order to address this problem we are developing a end-user centric, domain-sensitive workflow-based infrastructure, shown in Figure 1, that will allow scientists to design complex scientific workflows that reflect the data manipulation required to perform their research without an undue burden. We are taking a three-tiered approach to designing this infrastructure utilizing (1) abstract workflow definition, construction, and automatic deployment, (2) complex agent-based workflow execution and (3) automatic wrapper generation. In order to construct a workflow, the scientist defines an abstract workflow (AWF) in terminology (semantics and context) that is familiar to him/her. This AWF includes all of the data transformations, selections, and analyses required by the scientist, but does not necessarily specify particular data sources. This abstract workflow is then compiled into an executable workflow (EWF, in our case XPDL) that is then evaluated and executed by the workflow engine. This EWF contains references to specific data source and interfaces capable of performing the desired

  9. Education, Infrastructure and America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley-Braun, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., a recognized advocate for federal funding of educational facilities, describes the strategy of placing school infrastructure in the same category as commercial and transportation infrastructure. Three researchers in the facilities field present empirical evidence that facility conditions directly affect…

  10. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  11. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  12. The 1990 direct support infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The airport and cargo terminal were individually analyzed in depth as the principal direct infrastructure components having cross impacts with aircraft carrying cargo. Containerization was also addressed in depth as an infrastructure component since it categorically is linked with and cross impacted by the aircraft, the cargo terminal, the surface transport system, the shipper and consignee, and the actual cargo being moved.

  13. Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides an overview of the development of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). Metering has historically served as the cash register for the utility industry. It measured the amount of energy used and supported the billing of customers for that usage. However, utilities are starting to look at meters in a whole different way, viewing them as the point of contact with customers in supporting a number of operational imperatives. The combination of smart meters and advanced communications has opened up a variety of methods for utilities to reduce operating costs while offering new services to customers. A concise look is given at what's driving interest in AMI, the components of AMI, and the creation of a business case for AMI. Topics covered include: an overview of AMI including the history of metering and development of smart meters; a description of the key technologies involved in AMI; a description of key government initiatives to support AMI; an evaluation of the current market position of AMI; an analysis of business case development for AMI; and, profiles of 21 key AMI vendors.

  14. LIGA Micromachining: Infrastructure Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Alfredo M. Morales; Barry V. Hess; Dale R. Boehme; Jill M. Hruby; John S. Krafcik; Robert H. Nilson; Stewart K. Griffiths; William D. Bonivert

    1999-02-01

    LIGA is a micromachining technology that uses high energy x-rays from a synchrotron to create patterns with small lateral dimensions in a deep, non-conducting polymeric resist. Typical dimensions for LIGA parts are microns to tens of microns in lateral size, and hundreds of microns to millimeters in depth. Once the resist is patterned, metal is electrodeposited in the features to create metal microparts, or to create a metal mold for subsequent replication. The acronym LIGA comes from the German words for lithography, electroforming, and molding, and the technology has been under worldwide development for more than a decade. over the last five years, a full-service capability to produce metal microparts using the LIGA process has been established at Sandia national Laboratories, California. This report describes the accomplishments made during the past two years in infrastructure establishment funded by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''LIGA Micromachining.'' Specific topics include photoresist processing for LIGA mask making, x-ray scanning equipment, plating bath instrumentation, plating uniformity, and software architecture.

  15. Global information infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, D A

    1994-01-01

    The High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCC) is a multiagency federal initiative under the leadership of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, established by the High Performance Computing Act of 1991. It has been assigned a critical role in supporting the international collaboration essential to science and to health care. Goals of the HPCC are to extend USA leadership in high performance computing and networking technologies; to improve technology transfer for economic competitiveness, education, and national security; and to provide a key part of the foundation for the National Information Infrastructure. The first component of the National Institutes of Health to participate in the HPCC, the National Library of Medicine (NLM), recently issued a solicitation for proposals to address a range of issues, from privacy to 'testbed' networks, 'virtual reality,' and more. These efforts will build upon the NLM's extensive outreach program and other initiatives, including the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), MEDLARS, and Grateful Med. New Internet search tools are emerging, such as Gopher and 'Knowbots'. Medicine will succeed in developing future intelligent agents to assist in utilizing computer networks. Our ability to serve patients is so often restricted by lack of information and knowledge at the time and place of medical decision-making. The new technologies, properly employed, will also greatly enhance our ability to serve the patient. PMID:8125625

  16. Meeting Hanford's Infrastructure Requirements - 12505

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Hanford, by all accounts, is an enormous and complex project, with thousands of disparate, but co-mingled activities in motion on any given day. The primary target of the mission at Hanford is cleanup of the 586 square-mile site, but there is the equally vital mission of site services and infrastructure. Without functions like the well-maintained site roads, electricity, water, and emergency management services, not a single cleanup project could be undertaken. As the cleanup projects evolve - with new work-scope emerging, while existing projects are completed - there becomes a very real need to keep projects integrated and working to the same 'blueprint'. And the Hanford blueprint extends for years and includes myriad variables that come with meeting the challenges and complexities associated with Hanford cleanup. Because of an innovative and unique contracting strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) found a way to keep the cleanup projects un-encumbered from the side task of having to self-provide their individual essential site services, thus allowing the cleanup contractors to concentrate their efforts on their primary mission of cleaning up the site. These infrastructure and support services also need to be provided efficiently and cost effectively - done primarily through 'right-sizing' efforts. The real innovation came when DOE had the foresight to include a second provision in this contract which specifically asked for a specialized role of site integrator and innovator, with a special emphasis placed on providing substantial cost savings for the government. The need for a true site integrator function was necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of projects at Hanford and the progression of cleanup at others. At present, there are two main DOE offices overseeing the cleanup work and six primary contractors performing that work. Each of these contractors works to separate schedules and cleanup milestones, and the nature of the cleanup differs, but

  17. A Science Information Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, C. A.; Hawkins, I.; Malina, R. F.; Dow, K.; Murray, S.

    1994-12-01

    We have created a partnership of science museums, research institutions, teachers, and other centers of informal science education to enable access to the rich resources of remote sensing data available from NASA and other sources and to deliver this information to the general community. We are creating science resource centers in the nation's science museums and planetarium facilities, linking them together through a national Science Information Infrastructure (SII). The SII framework is being founded on Internet connections between the resource centers, which are in turn linked to research institutions. The most up-to-date and exciting science data, related information, and interpretive material will be available from the research institutions. The science museums will present this information in appropriate ways that respond to the needs and interest of the general public and K--12 communities. The science information will be available through the World Wide Web using a Mosaic interface that individuals will use to explore the on-line materials through self-guided learning modules. K--12 teachers will have access to the materials and, in a workshop forum, learn to find and use the information to create lesson plans and curricula for their classrooms. Eventually, as the connectivity of schools and libraries improves, students and teachers will have access to the resource centers from their own locations. The core partnership of the SII includes the Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA), and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Exploratorium, Lawrence Hall of Science, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Science Museum of Virginia, New York Hall of Science, Adler Museum of Chicago, University of California Museum of Paleontology, Boston Museum of Science, and the Earth Observing Satellite Company (EOSAT). A demonstration of the application of resource center materials in the K--12 community is being conducted through the Science On-Line project at the Center

  18. Applying Climate Science to Urban Water Infrastructure Planning in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asante, K. O.; Khimsara, P.; Brown, K.

    2013-12-01

    Operators of urban water systems in California routinely develop long-range infrastructure plans to keep the communities they serve informed and to facilitate financing of planned projects. These plans compare baseline water supplies and demands to future projections, and they assess the adequacy of existing infrastructure for delivering water from raw water sources to customer connections under a variety of scenarios. In spite of these planning efforts, urban infrastructure projects are vulnerable to extreme climate and socioeconomic events. This paper examines the challenges facing infrastructure planners seeking to adapt urban water infrastructure to climate change using the current generation of climate predictions. A case study of small urban water systems in Lompoc Valley in California highlights the gap between climate variables available from global climate model predictions and decision parameters used in water infrastructure planning. Solutions are proposed for addressing some of the challenges encountered during climate impact analysis and vulnerability assessment. The paper also highlights outstanding gaps in our understanding of climate change and societal responses which could have profound impacts on urban water use and infrastructure needs.

  19. A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although multidisciplinary and team-based approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most pressing contemporary health challenges, many researchers struggle with a lack of infrastructure to facilitate and formalise the requisite collaborations. Specialised research centres have emerged as an important organisational solution, yet centre productivity and sustainability are frequently dictated by the availability and security of infrastructure funds. Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts. The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning. A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation. PMID:20925953

  20. A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Coen, Stephanie E; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Ratner, Pamela A

    2010-01-01

    Although multidisciplinary and team-based approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most pressing contemporary health challenges, many researchers struggle with a lack of infrastructure to facilitate and formalise the requisite collaborations. Specialised research centres have emerged as an important organisational solution, yet centre productivity and sustainability are frequently dictated by the availability and security of infrastructure funds.Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts.The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning.A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation. PMID:20925953

  1. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jon A Bakken et al.

    2003-02-06

    Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework.

  2. Specific interoperability problems of security infrastructure services.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Communication and co-operation in healthcare and welfare require a well-defined set of security services based on a standards-based interoperable security infrastructure and provided by a Trusted Third Party. Generally, the services describe status and relation of communicating principals, corresponding keys and attributes, and the access rights to both applications and data. Legal, social, behavioral and ethical requirements demand securely stored patient information and well-established access tools and tokens. Electronic signatures as means for securing integrity of messages and files, certified time stamps and time signatures are important for accessing and storing data in Electronic Health Record Systems. The key for all these services is a secure and reliable procedure for authentication (identification and verification). While mentioning technical problems (e.g. lifetime of the storage devices, migration of retrieval and presentation software), this paper aims at identifying harmonization and interoperability requirements of securing data items, files, messages, sets of archived items or documents, and life-long Electronic Health Records based on a secure certificate-based identification. It's commonly known that just relying on existing and emerging security standards does not necessarily guarantee interoperability of different security infrastructure approaches. So certificate separation can be a key to modern interoperable security infrastructure services. PMID:17095833

  3. Low-carbon infrastructure strategies for cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, C. A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hoornweg, D.

    2014-05-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to avert potentially disastrous global climate change requires substantial redevelopment of infrastructure systems. Cities are recognized as key actors for leading such climate change mitigation efforts. We have studied the greenhouse gas inventories and underlying characteristics of 22 global cities. These cities differ in terms of their climates, income, levels of industrial activity, urban form and existing carbon intensity of electricity supply. Here we show how these differences in city characteristics lead to wide variations in the type of strategies that can be used for reducing emissions. Cities experiencing greater than ~1,500 heating degree days (below an 18 °C base), for example, will review building construction and retrofitting for cold climates. Electrification of infrastructure technologies is effective for cities where the carbon intensity of the grid is lower than ~600 tCO2e GWh-1 whereas transportation strategies will differ between low urban density (<~6,000 persons km-2) and high urban density (>~6,000 persons km-2) cities. As nation states negotiate targets and develop policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, attention to the specific characteristics of their cities will broaden and improve their suite of options. Beyond carbon pricing, markets and taxation, governments may develop policies and target spending towards low-carbon urban infrastructure.

  4. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  5. 76 FR 81956 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, January 10, 2012, at the National Press Club... CONTACT: Nancy Wong, National Infrastructure Advisory Council Designated Federal Officer, Department...

  6. Virtual infrastructure management in private and hybrid clouds.

    SciTech Connect

    Sotomayor, B.; Montero, R. S.; Llorente, I. M.; Foster, I.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. Complutense of Madrid

    2009-01-01

    One of the many definitions of 'cloud' is that of an infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) system, in which IT infrastructure is deployed in a provider's data center as virtual machines. With IaaS clouds growing popularity, tools and technologies are emerging that can transform an organization's existing infrastructure into a private or hybrid cloud. OpenNebula is an open source, virtual infrastructure manager that deploys virtualized services on both a local pool of resources and external IaaS clouds. Haizea, a resource lease manager, can act as a scheduling back end for OpenNebula, providing features not found in other cloud software or virtualization-based data center management software.

  7. Review of CERN Data Centre Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, P.; Bell, T.; van Eldik, J.; McCance, G.; Panzer-Steindel, B.; Coelho dos Santos, M.; Traylen and, S.; Schwickerath, U.

    2012-12-01

    The CERN Data Centre is reviewing strategies for optimizing the use of the existing infrastructure and expanding to a new data centre by studying how other large sites are being operated. Over the past six months, CERN has been investigating modern and widely-used tools and procedures used for virtualisation, clouds and fabric management in order to reduce operational effort, increase agility and support unattended remote data centres. This paper gives the details on the project's motivations, current status and areas for future investigation.

  8. Front Range Infrastructure Resources project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    Project goal: To provide the public and decision makers with objective information about the location and characteristics of land, natural aggregate, water, and energy resources that are vital to sustaining an area and its infrastructure.

  9. Sovereign cat bonds and infrastructure project financing.

    PubMed

    Croson, David; Richter, Andreas

    2003-06-01

    We examine the opportunities for using catastrophe-linked securities (or equivalent forms of nondebt contingent capital) to reduce the total costs of funding infrastructure projects in emerging economies. Our objective is to elaborate on methods to reduce the necessity for unanticipated (emergency) project funding immediately after a natural disaster. We also place the existing explanations of sovereign-level contingent capital into a catastrophic risk management framework. In doing so, we address the following questions. (1) Why might catastrophe-linked securities be useful to a sovereign nation, over and above their usefulness for insurers and reinsurers? (2) Why are such financial instruments ideally suited for protecting infrastructure projects in emerging economies, under third-party sponsorship, from low-probability, high-consequence events that occur as a result of natural disasters? (3) How can the willingness to pay of a sovereign government in an emerging economy (or its external project sponsor), who values timely completion of infrastructure projects, for such instruments be calculated? To supplement our treatment of these questions, we use a multilayer spreadsheet-based model (in Microsoft Excel format) to calculate the overall cost reductions possible through the judicious use of catastrophe-based financial tools. We also report on numerical comparative statics on the value of contingent-capital financing to avoid project disruption based on varying costs of capital, probability and consequences of disasters, the feasibility of strategies for mid-stage project abandonment, and the timing of capital commitments to the infrastructure investment. We use these results to identify high-priority applications of catastrophe-linked securities so that maximal protection can be realized if the total number of catastrophe instruments is initially limited. The article concludes with potential extensions to our model and opportunities for future research. PMID

  10. Infrastructure dynamics: A selected bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Bencosme, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The term infrastructure is used to denote the set of life support and public service systems which is necessary for the development of growth of human settlements. Included are some basic references in the field of dynamic simulation, as well as a number of relevant applications in the area of infrastructure planning. The intent is to enable the student or researcher to quickly identify such applications to the extent necessary for initiating further work in the field.

  11. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  12. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    organization will attack critical infrastructure. In other words, this research investigates: (1) why terrorists choose to attack critical infrastructure rather than other targets; (2) how groups make such decisions; (3) what, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack critical infrastructure targets; and (4) which types of critical infrastructure terrorists prefer to attack and why. In an effort to address the above questions as comprehensively as possible, the project team employed four discrete investigative approaches in its research design. These include: (1) a review of existing terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist target selection, as well as to identify theoretical approaches that might be valuable to analysts and decision-makers who are seeking to understand such terrorist group decision-making processes; (2) the preparation of several concise case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played significant roles in leading some terrorist groups to attack critical infrastructure; (3) the creation of a new database--the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITC)--to capture a large sample of empirical CI attack data that might be used to illuminate the nature of such attacks to date; and (4) the development of a new analytical framework--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions (DECIDe) Framework--designed to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in any future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target critical infrastructure. Although each is addressed separately in the following chapters, none of the four aspects of this study were developed in isolation. Rather, all the constituent elements of the project informed--and were informed by--the others. For example, the review of the available literature on terrorist target selection made possible the identification of several target selection

  13. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E.

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  14. RISK DISCLOSURE AGAINST ATTACK ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.

  15. SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Boden, T.; Riggs, J.; Nettles, W. R.; Hook, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data activities CDIAC performs are design and implementation of the data systems. One current example is the data system and network for SPRUCE experiment. The SPRUCE experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. Experimental work in the 8.1-ha S1 bog will be a climate change manipulation focusing on the combined responses to multiple levels of warming at ambient or elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels. The experiment provides a platform for testing mechanisms controlling the vulnerability of organisms, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems to climatic change (e.g., thresholds for organism decline or mortality, limitations to regeneration, biogeochemical limitations to productivity, the cycling and release of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere). The manipulation will evaluate the response of the existing biological communities to a range of warming levels from ambient to +9°C, provided via large, modified open-top chambers. The ambient and +9°C warming treatments will also be conducted at eCO2 (in the range of 800 to 900 ppm). Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. SPRUCE provides wide range continuous and discrete measurements. To successfully manage SPRUCE data flow

  16. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  17. Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

  18. Toward modeling and simulation of critical national infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Albert T.; Son, Young-Jun; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Min, Hyeung-Sik Jason; Brown, Theresa Jean

    2005-08-01

    Modern society's physical health depends vitally upon a number of real, interdependent, critical infrastructure networks that deliver power, petroleum, natural gas,water, and communications. Its economic health depends on a number of other infrastructure networks, some virtual and some real, that link residences, industries, commercial sectors, and transportation sectors. The continued prosperity and national security of the US depends on our ability to understand the vulnerabilities of and analyze the performance of both the individual infrastructures and the entire interconnected system of infrastructures. Only then can we respond to potential disruptions in a timely and effective manner. Collaborative efforts among Sandia, other government agencies, private industry, and academia have resulted in realistic models for many of the individual component infrastructures. In this paper, we propose an innovative modeling and analysis framework to study the entire system of physical and economic infrastructures. That framework uses the existing individual models together with system dynamics, functional models, and nonlinear optimization algorithms. We describe this framework and demonstrate its potential use to analyze, and propose a response for, a hypothetical disruption.

  19. Exploring Existence Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madariaga, Bruce; McConnell, Kenneth E.

    1987-05-01

    The notion that individuals value the preservation of water resources independent of their own use of these resources is discussed. Issues in defining this value, termed "existence value," are explored. Economic models are employed to assess the role of existence value in benefit-cost analysis. The motives underlying existence value are shown to matter to contingent valuation measurement of existence benefits. A stylized contingent valuation experiment is used to study nonusers' attitudes regarding projects to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Survey results indicate that altruism is one of the motives underlying existence value and that goods other than environmental and natural resources may provide existence benefits.

  20. LCG/AA build infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkins, Alex Liam; Diez, Victor; Hegner, Benedikt

    2012-12-01

    The Software Process & Infrastructure (SPI) project provides a build infrastructure for regular integration testing and release of the LCG Applications Area software stack. In the past, regular builds have been provided using a system which has been constantly growing to include more features like server-client communication, long-term build history and a summary web interface using present-day web technologies. However, the ad-hoc style of software development resulted in a setup that is hard to monitor, inflexible and difficult to expand. The new version of the infrastructure is based on the Django Python framework, which allows for a structured and modular design, facilitating later additions. Transparency in the workflows and ease of monitoring has been one of the priorities in the design. Formerly missing functionality like on-demand builds or release triggering will support the transition to a more agile development process.

  1. Infrastructure for the Geospatial Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Ron; Farley, Jim

    Geospatial data and geoprocessing techniques are now directly linked to business processes in many areas. Commerce, transportation and logistics, planning, defense, emergency response, health care, asset management and many other domains leverage geospatial information and the ability to model these data to achieve increased efficiencies and to develop better, more comprehensive decisions. However, the ability to deliver geospatial data and the capacity to process geospatial information effectively in these domains are dependent on infrastructure technology that facilitates basic operations such as locating data, publishing data, keeping data current and notifying subscribers and others whose applications and decisions are dependent on this information when changes are made. This chapter introduces the notion of infrastructure technology for the Geospatial Web. Specifically, the Geography Markup Language (GML) and registry technology developed using the ebRIM specification delivered from the OASIS consortium are presented as atomic infrastructure components in a working Geospatial Web.

  2. Cyberspace Policy For Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkin, Dorsey; Raines, Richard; Williams, Paul; Hopkinson, Kenneth

    The first step in preparing any battlespace is to define the domain for attack and maneuver. The various military service components have directed authority to focus their efforts in specific domains of operations (e.g., naval operations are mainly in the maritime domain). However, cyberspace operations pose challenges because they span multiple operational domains. This paper focuses on U.S. cyberspace policy related to defending and exploiting critical infrastructure assets. Also, it examines the issues involved in delineating responsibility for U.S. defensive and offensive operations related to critical infrastructures.

  3. Robotic tele-existence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tachi, Susumu; Arai, Hirohiko; Maeda, Taro

    1989-01-01

    Tele-existence is an advanced type of teleoperation system that enables a human operator at the controls to perform remote manipulation tasks dexterously with the feeling that he or she exists in the remote anthropomorphic robot in the remote environment. The concept of a tele-existence is presented, the principle of the tele-existence display method is explained, some of the prototype systems are described, and its space application is discussed.

  4. FOREWORD: Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhishen; Fujino, Yozo

    2005-06-01

    This special issue collects together 19 papers that were originally presented at the First International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-1'2003), held in Tokyo, Japan, on 13-15 November 2003. This conference was organized by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) with partial financial support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology, Japan. Many related organizations supported the conference. A total of 16 keynote papers including six state-of-the-art reports from different counties, six invited papers and 154 contributed papers were presented at the conference. The conference was attended by a diverse group of about 300 people from a variety of disciplines in academia, industry and government from all over the world. Structural health monitoring (SHM) and intelligent materials, structures and systems have been the subject of intense research and development in the last two decades and, in recent years, an increasing range of applications in infrastructure have been discovered both for existing structures and for new constructions. SHMII-1'2003 addressed progress in the development of building, transportation, marine, underground and energy-generating structures, and other civilian infrastructures that are periodically, continuously and/or actively monitored where there is a need to optimize their performance. In order to focus the current needs on SHM and intelligent technologies, the conference theme was set as 'Structures/Infrastructures Sustainability'. We are pleased to have the privilege to edit this special issue on SHM and intelligent infrastructure based on SHMII-1'2003. We invited some of the presenters to submit a revised/extended version of their paper that was included in the SHMII-1'2003 proceedings for possible publication in the special issue. Each paper included in this special issue was edited with the same

  5. RIDE: the Research Infrastructure Database for EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailo, Daniele; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Jeffery, Keith G.; Clemenceau, Alice; Hoffmann, Thomas L.

    2013-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is a European initiative which aims to promote and make possible innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes laying behind natural events and geo-science phenomena (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes and tsunamis etc.) by integrating existing national and trans-national Research Infrastructures (RIs). Such integration will increase access and use of the multidisciplinary data recorded by solid Earth monitoring networks, acquired in laboratory experiments and/or produced by computational simulations. Here we present the Research Infrastructures Database for EPOS (RIDE), a database containing technical information about the different RIs declared by EPOS partners and EPOS associate partners, which will eventually compose the EPOS distributed Research Infrastructure. The main goals of RIDE are (i) to allow the EPOS RI to be organized, with interactive access and information mining available to a broad community of users and stakeholders, (ii) to have a first set of information to be stored in the EPOS catalogue, which will be used as a basis for the development of EPOS Core Services, (iii) to enable EPOS partners to revise and update the current RI information, (iv) to show the contents of the EPOS integration plan to all stakeholders, (v) to facilitate the dissemination of existing data infrastructures to different communities and to promote a discussion within the community to implement the present data infrastructures. RIDE - whose driving technology is Apache CouchDB - contains at the current status detailed information on more than 200 Research Infrastructures. It enables any user to visualize RIs and sensors on a map, to carry out statistics on the stored data and to browse through the details of any RI. Based on the content of RIDE it is now possible to estimate the potential size of the new EPOS distributed RI: EPOS is going to integrate more than 7000 sensors (seismic

  6. Research e-infrastructure for "Geophysics" mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, V.; Mogilevsky, M.; Nazirov, R.; Eismont, N.; Melnik, A.

    2009-04-01

    Space mission "Geophysics" intended for monitoring of ionospheric plasma parameters, electromagnetic emission and solar activity. In the frame of the project will be launched five small satellites on solar-synchronous orbits: two satellites on circular orbit, altitude ~700 km, orbit plane - morning-evening, another two satellites at the same altitude but orbit plane - day-night and the last satellite - on elliptic orbit with ~1200 km apogee and ~400 km perigee. Such choice of spacecraft constellation configuration is so some extent similar to the configuration usually used for the Earth remote sensing tasks. It gives advantages for the project because it allows to apply technologies of remote sensing satellites practically off shelved. From the other side it gives new possibilities for geophysics experiments followed from the fact that the measurements may be considered as the ones done by the instruments having the size of the Earth scale. However it brings more strict requirements for information support of the mission in general and for ground segment particularly. In needs not only on-line processing but on-line interpretation too, operative feedback link between interpretation and operation subsystems etc. Satisfaction of such strict requirements from one side and necessity for using of existing ground resources (taking in account budget limitations) implied creating of unified ground information infrastructure for target payload of the mission. This e-infrastructure will cover traditional ground systems which are treated as systems based on Resource-Oriented Architecture (ROA) and will produce unified integration platform based on Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) which will collects all needed services and provides access to them in frame of unified cyber-infrastructure. The article describes technology and methodology aspects of design of this system.

  7. Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated fast desensitization by the B1b subunit of the CNG channel affects response termination but not sensitivity to recurring stimulation in olfactory sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yijun; Cygnar, Katherine D.; Sagdullaev, Botir; Valley, Matthew; Hirsh, Sarah; Stephan, Aaron; Reisert, Johannes; Zhao, Haiqing

    2008-01-01

    Summary Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated negative feedback is a prototypical regulatory mechanism for Ca2+ permeable ion channels. In olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) such regulation on the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel is considered a major mechanism of OSN adaptation. To determine the role of Ca2+/calmodulin desensitization of the olfactory CNG channel, we introduced a mutation in the channel subunit CNGB1b in mice that rendered the channel resistant to fast desensitization by Ca2+/calmodulin. Contrary to expectations, mutant OSNs showed normal receptor current adaptation to repeated stimulation. Rather, they displayed slower response termination and consequently, a reduced ability to transmit olfactory information to the olfactory bulb. They also displayed reduced response decline during sustained odorant exposure. These results suggest that Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated CNG channel fast desensitization is less important in regulating the sensitivity to recurring stimulation than previously thought and instead functions primarily to terminate OSN responses. PMID:18466748

  8. EPA's Ongoing Green Infrastructure Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is a concept originating in the United States in the mid-1990's that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning. In particular there is an emphasis on the “life support” functions provided by the natural environm...

  9. Managing Mission-Critical Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    In the library context, they depend on sophisticated business applications specifically designed to support their work. This infrastructure consists of such components as integrated library systems, their associated online catalogs or discovery services, and self-check equipment, as well as a Web site and the various online tools and services…

  10. 2009 Infrastructure Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass program‘s Infrastructure platform review meeting, held on February 19, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  11. Graduates' Perceptions towards UKM's Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Ramli; Khoon, Koh Aik; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Ahmadan, Siti Rohayu

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the surveys which were conducted between 2006 and 2008 on graduates' perceptions towards the infrastructure at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). It covered three major aspects pertaining to learning, living and leisure on campus. Eight out of 14 components received overwhelming approval from our graduates. (Contains 1…

  12. The Neuronal Infrastructure of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menenti, Laura; Segaert, Katrien; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Models of speaking distinguish producing meaning, words and syntax as three different linguistic components of speaking. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain's integrated neuronal infrastructure for speech production. We investigated semantic, lexical and syntactic aspects of speaking using fMRI. In a picture description task, we…

  13. A modeling framework for resource-user-infrastructure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneepeerakul, R.; Qubbaj, M.; Anderies, J. M.; Aggarwal, R.; Janssen, M.

    2012-12-01

    A compact modeling framework is developed to supplement a conceptual framework of coupled natural-human systems. The framework consists of four components: resource (R), users (U), public infrastructure (PI), and public infrastructure providers (PIP), the last two of which have not been adequately addressed in many existing modeling studies. The modeling approach employed here is a set of replicator equations describing the dynamical frequencies of social strategies (of U and PIP), whose payoffs are explicit and dynamical functions of biophysical components (R and PI). Model development and preliminary results from specific implementation will be reported and discussed.

  14. Engineering Infrastructures: Problems of Safety and Security in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhutov, Nikolay A.; Reznikov, Dmitry O.; Petrov, Vitaly P.

    Modern society cannot exist without stable and reliable engineering infrastructures (EI), whose operation is vital for any national economy. These infrastructures include energy, transportation, water and gas supply systems, telecommunication and cyber systems, etc. Their performance is commensurate with storing and processing huge amounts of information, energy and hazardous substances. Ageing infrastructures are deteriorating — with operating conditions declining from normal to emergency and catastrophic. The complexity of engineering infrastructures and their interdependence with other technical systems makes them vulnerable to emergency situations triggered by natural and manmade catastrophes or terrorist attacks.

  15. EPOS e-infrastructure and EUDAT: the development of a Collaborative Data Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiameni, Giuseppe; Michelini, Alberto; Cacciari, Claudio; Lauciani, Valentino; Fares, Massimo; Mariani, Giacomo; Morgotti, Marcello

    2013-04-01

    The EUDAT project aims to contribute to the development of a Collaborative Data Infrastructure (CDI). The project's target is to provide a pan-European solution to the challenge of data proliferation in Europe's scientific and research communities, and at the core of e-infrastructures under construction within (and across) the different communities. EUDAT addresses the development of basic core services which include, but not limited to, the replication, the staging, the access control and the description of scientific data sets. These services are of great interest for the EPOS community as they can be employed to expand or replace existing ones and to form a more reliable and robust infrastructure upon which build new and better services. Within the EUDAT consortium, EPOS is represented by INGV partnering primarily with CINECA for the design and implementation of the collaborative data infrastructure. During the first year of activity, EUDAT has been focusing on five main service cases: a) safe replication of data among different sites to allow communities to replicate reliably data to selected data centers for long term preservation. This service includes the adoption of an effective PID system that can be used within and among the communities to uniquely identify and retrieve data; b) staging of data to enable communities to transfer data between EUDAT resources and HPC/HTC resources for computational purposes; c) the introduction and use of common Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure to provide users a federated access to available services; d) the development of a joint meta-data domain, including a searchable catalogue, for all data which are stored by EUDAT data centers; e) an easy-to-use service to enable researchers and scientists to upload, store and share smaller data which are not part of the officially-managed data sets of the research communities. The poster will describe the EUDAT project as a whole while focusing on the services which

  16. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  17. ELECTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY, TRAINING, AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    TREMEL, CHARLES L

    2007-06-28

    The objective of this Electric Infrastructure Technology, Training and Assessment Program was to enhance the reliability of electricity delivery through engineering integration of real-time technologies for wide-area applications enabling timely monitoring and management of grid operations. The technologies developed, integrated, tested and demonstrated will be incorporated into grid operations to assist in the implementation of performance-based protection/preventive measures into the existing electric utility infrastructure. This proactive approach will provide benefits of reduced cost and improved reliability over the typical schedule-based and as needed maintenance programs currently performed by utilities. Historically, utilities have relied on maintenance and inspection programs to diagnose equipment failures and have used the limited circuit isolation devices, such as distribution main circuit breakers to identify abnormal system performance. With respect to reliable problem identification, customer calls to utility service centers are often the sole means for utilities to identify problem occurrences and determine restoration methodologies. Furthermore, monitoring and control functions of equipment and circuits are lacking; thus preventing timely detection and response to customer outages. Finally, the two-way flow of real-time system information is deficient, depriving decision makers of key information required to effectively manage and control current electric grid demands to provide reliable customer service in abnormal situations. This Program focused on advancing technologies and the engineering integration required to incorporate them into the electric grid operations to enhance electrical system reliability and reduce utility operating costs.

  18. A national-scale authentication infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R.; Engert, D.; Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.; Tuecke, S.; Volmer, J.; Welch, V.; National Center for Supercomputing Applications; Univ. of Chicago; USC Information Sciences Institute

    2000-12-01

    Today, individuals and institutions in science and industry are increasingly forming virtual organizations to pool resources and tackle a common goal. Participants in virtual organizations commonly need to share resources such as data archives, computer cycles, and networks - resources usually available only with restrictions based on the requested resource's nature and the user's identity. Thus, any sharing mechanism must have the ability to authenticate the user's identity and determine if the user is authorized to request the resource. Virtual organizations tend to be fluid, however, so authentication mechanisms must be flexible and lightweight, allowing administrators to quickly establish and change resource-sharing arrangements. However, because virtual organizations complement rather than replace existing institutions, sharing mechanisms cannot change local policies and must allow individual institutions to maintain control over their own resources. Our group has created and deployed an authentication and authorization infrastructure that meets these requirements: the Grid Security Infrastructure. GSI offers secure single sign-ons and preserves site control over access policies and local security. It provides its own versions of common applications, such as FTP and remote login, and a programming interface for creating secure applications.

  19. Integrating Cluster Data into the VO Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, P. J.; Perry, C. H.

    2007-12-01

    The UK Cluster Data Centre (UKCDC) has provided access to Cluster data products since the launch of the Cluster spacecraft in 2000. In keeping with the aim of providing the widest possible access to the Space Physics community, the UKCDC has participated in several projects to advance the interoperability of their data holdings within the emerging international VO infrastructure. These activities include AstroGrid in the UK, ESA's SpaceGrid and participation in the NASA led Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) Consortium. Although, as demonstrated by SpaceGrid, the technology exists to build the VO infrastructure, the main obstacle to progress has been the absence of a metadata standard used by Data Centres and other data providers. The Cluster Active Archive (CAA), which is providing an archive of Cluster high resolution data, has a comprehensive metadata dictionary which is used to describe all Cluster data products. The UKCDC is ingesting into the CAA the summary and primary data products being used during the mission for event monitoring. As part of this activity, the CAA metadata is also being translated into SPASE metadata and the UKCDC is in the process of building a SPASE registry of the data products available at the UKCDC and also data access services developed according to the SPASE standards. The experience gained as the SPASE standard matures will form the basis for building a SPASE registry and services for access to the Cluster archive.

  20. Temperature- and Touch-Sensitive Neurons Couple CNG and TRPV Channel Activities to Control Heat Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu; Schulze, Ekkehard; Baumeister, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Background Any organism depends on its ability to sense temperature and avoid noxious heat. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to noxious temperatures exceeding ∼35°C and also senses changes in its environmental temperature in the range between 15 and 25°C. The neural circuits and molecular mechanisms involved in thermotaxis have been successfully studied, whereas details of the thermal avoidance behavior remain elusive. In this work, we investigate neurological and molecular aspects of thermonociception using genetic, cell biological and physiological approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings We show here that the thermosensory neurons AFD, in addition to sensing temperature within the range within which the animals can thrive, also contribute to the sensation of noxious temperatures resulting in a reflex-like escape reaction. Distinct sets of interneurons are involved in transmitting thermonociception and thermotaxis, respectively. Loss of AFD is partially compensated by the activity of a pair of multidendritic, polymodal neurons, FLP, whereas laser ablation of both types of neurons abrogated the heat response in the head of the animals almost completely. A third pair of heat sensory neurons, PHC, is situated in the tail. We find that the thermal avoidance response requires the cell autonomous function of cGMP dependent Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated (CNG) channels in AFD, and the heat- and capsaicin-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) channels in the FLP and PHC sensory neurons. Conclusions/Significance Our results identify distinct thermal responses mediated by a single neuron, but also show that parallel nociceptor circuits and molecules may be used as back-up strategies to guarantee fast and efficient responses to potentially detrimental stimuli. PMID:22448218

  1. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    ; what can we conclude and what is the way forward? • The project has evaluated relevant existing interoperable infrastructures revealing a typology of infrastructures that may be useful models for the EGDI; • Planning for the EGDI also need to be integrated with other relevant international initiatives and programs such as GMES, GEO and EPOS, and with legally binding regulations like INSPIRE. The outcomes of these relevant evaluations and activities will contribute to the implementation plan for the EGDI including the prioritization of relevant datasets and the most important functional, technical (design, use of standards), legal and organizational requirements.

  2. Optimal recovery sequencing for critical infrastructure resilience assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Turnquist, Mark Alan

    2010-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the identification of optimal recovery strategies that maximize resilience. To this goal, we formulate a bi-level optimization problem for infrastructure network models. In the 'inner' problem, we solve for network flows, and we use the 'outer' problem to identify the optimal recovery modes and sequences. We draw from the literature of multi-mode project scheduling problems to create an effective solution strategy for the resilience optimization model. We demonstrate the application of this approach to a set of network models, including a national railroad model and a supply chain for Army munitions production.

  3. Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education

    SciTech Connect

    John Bernard

    2010-12-13

    The decision to implement the Innovation in Nuclear Infrastructure and Engineering Program (INIE) was an important first step towards ensuring that the United States preserves its worldwide leadership role in the field of nuclear science and engineering. Prior to INIE, university nuclear science and engineering programs were waning, undergraduate student enrollment was down, university research reactors were being shut down, while others faced the real possibility of closure. For too long, cutting edge research in the areas of nuclear medicine, neutron scattering, radiochemistry, and advanced materials was undervalued and therefore underfunded. The INIE program corrected this lapse in focus and direction and started the process of drawing a new blueprint with positive goals and objectives that supports existing as well the next generation of educators, students and researchers.

  4. The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, William R.

    2015-09-01

    The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure (AMSI) is a set of libraries and tools developed to support the development, implementation, and execution of general multimodel simulations. Using a minimal set of simulation meta-data AMSI allows for minimally intrusive work to adapt existent single-scale simulations for use in multi-scale simulations. Support for dynamic runtime operations such as single- and multi-scale adaptive properties is a key focus of AMSI. Particular focus has been spent on the development on scale-sensitive load balancing operations to allow single-scale simulations incorporated into a multi-scale simulation using AMSI to use standard load-balancing operations without affecting the integrity of the overall multi-scale simulation.

  5. Analysis of Critical Infrastructure Dependencies and Interdependencies

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Frederic; Verner, Duane; Brannegan, David; Buehring, William; Dickinson, David; Guziel, Karen; Haffenden, Rebecca; Phillips, Julia; Peerenboom, James

    2015-06-01

    The report begins by defining dependencies and interdependencies and exploring basic concepts of dependencies in order to facilitate a common understanding and consistent analytical approaches. Key concepts covered include; Characteristics of dependencies: upstream dependencies, internal dependencies, and downstream dependencies; Classes of dependencies: physical, cyber, geographic, and logical; and Dimensions of dependencies: operating environment, coupling and response behavior, type of failure, infrastructure characteristics, and state of operations From there, the report proposes a multi-phase roadmap to support dependency and interdependency assessment activities nationwide, identifying a range of data inputs, analysis activities, and potential products for each phase, as well as key steps needed to progress from one phase to the next. The report concludes by outlining a comprehensive, iterative, and scalable framework for analyzing dependencies and interdependencies that stakeholders can integrate into existing risk and resilience assessment efforts.

  6. The MED-SUV Multidisciplinary Interoperability Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; D'Auria, Luca; Reitano, Danilo; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Roncella, Roberto; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In accordance with the international Supersite initiative concept, the MED-SUV (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes) European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to enable long-term monitoring experiment in two relevant geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: Mt. Vesuvio/Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. This objective requires the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases and novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters. Moreover, MED-SUV is also a direct contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as one the volcano Supersites recognized by the Group on Earth Observation (GEO). To achieve its goal, MED-SUV set up an advanced e-infrastructure allowing the discovery of and access to heterogeneous data for multidisciplinary applications, and the integration with external systems like GEOSS. The MED-SUV overall infrastructure is conceived as a three layer architecture with the lower layer (Data level) including the identified relevant data sources, the mid-tier (Supersite level) including components for mediation and harmonization , and the upper tier (Global level) composed of the systems that MED-SUV must serve, such as GEOSS and possibly other global/community systems. The Data level is mostly composed of existing data sources, such as space agencies satellite data archives, the UNAVCO system, the INGV-Rome data service. They share data according to different specifications for metadata, data and service interfaces, and cannot be changed. Thus, the only relevant MED-SUV activity at this level was the creation of a MED-SUV local repository based on Web Accessible Folder (WAF) technology, deployed in the INGV site in Catania, and hosting in-situ data and products collected and generated during the project. The Supersite level is at the core of the MED-SUV architecture, since it must mediate between the disparate data sources in the layer below, and provide a harmonized view to

  7. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    The population growth coupled with increasing urbanization is predicted to exert a huge demand on the growth and retrofit of urban infrastructure, particularly in water and energy systems. The U.S. population is estimated to grow by 23% (UN, 2009) between 2005 and 2030. The corresponding increases in energy and water demand were predicted as 14% (EIA, 2009) and 20% (Elcock, 2008), respectively. The water-energy nexus needs to be better understood to satisfy the increased demand in a sustainable manner without conflicting with environmental and economic constraints. Overall, 4% of U.S. power generation is used for water distribution (80%) and treatment (20%). 3% of U.S. water consumption (100 billion gallons per day, or 100 BGD) and 40% of U.S. water withdrawal (340 BGD) are for thermoelectric power generation (Goldstein and Smith, 2002). The water demand for energy production is predicted to increase most significantly among the water consumption sectors by 2030. On the other hand, due to the dearth of conventional water sources, energy intensive technologies are increasingly in use to treat seawater and brackish groundwater for water supply. Thus comprehending the interrelation and interdependency between water and energy system is imperative to evaluate sustainable water and energy supply alternatives for cities. In addition to the water-energy nexus, decentralized or distributed concept is also beneficial for designing sustainable water and energy infrastructure as these alternatives require lesser distribution lines and space in a compact urban area. Especially, the distributed energy infrastructure is more suited to interconnect various large and small scale renewable energy producers which can be expected to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the case of decentralized water infrastructure, on-site wastewater treatment facility can provide multiple benefits. Firstly, it reduces the potable water demand by reusing the treated water for non-potable uses

  8. A Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Buntinas, Darius; Bosilca, George; Graham, Richard L; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Watson, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

  9. Overview of NASA communications infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Ray J.; Fuechsel, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The infrastructure of NASA communications systems for effecting coordination across NASA offices and with the national and international research and technological communities is discussed. The offices and networks of the communication system include the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA), which manages all NASA missions, and the Office of Space Operations, which furnishes communication support through the NASCOM, the mission critical communications support network, and the Program Support Communications network. The NASA Science Internet was established by OSSA to centrally manage, develop, and operate an integrated computer network service dedicated to NASA's space science and application research. Planned for the future is the National Research and Education Network, which will provide communications infrastructure to enhance science resources at a national level.

  10. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand & Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.

    2006-05-18

    Presentation given at the 2006 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Merit Review in Washington, D.C., May 16-19, 2006, discusses potential future hydrogen demand and the infrastructure needed to support hydrogen vehicles.

  11. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public:...

  12. 77 FR 39247 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, July 17, 2012, at the Department of Transportation's... at the meeting location. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy Wong, National...

  13. Planned infrastructure serving NAOMI site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartleib, Rodney D.; Bennett, Harold E.

    1995-04-01

    The National Advanced Optics Mission Initiative (NAOMI) consists of two proposed programs, the SpacE Laser ENErgy (SELENE) which includes the site, and the Advanced Telescope Technology Integrated Large Array (ATTILA). The infrastructure of the SELENE facility requires a systems engineering approach. There are several large scale projects for the water, power, access, and communications all of which are interactive elements. These projects need to be designed and constructed concurrently while taking environmental concerns into account before the SELENE facility becomes operational.

  14. National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Berscheid, Alan P.

    2012-07-30

    National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) mission is to: (1) Improve the understanding, preparation, and mitigation of the consequences of infrastructure disruption; (2) Provide a common, comprehensive view of U.S. infrastructure and its response to disruptions - Scale & resolution appropriate to the issues and All threats; and (3) Built an operations-tested DHS capability to respond quickly to urgent infrastructure protection issues.

  15. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term critical infrastructure means, in the context of a particular covered transaction, a system or asset, whether physical...

  16. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term critical infrastructure means, in the context of a particular covered transaction, a system or asset, whether physical...

  17. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term critical infrastructure means, in the context of a particular covered transaction, a system or asset, whether physical...

  18. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term critical infrastructure means, in the context of a particular covered transaction, a system or asset, whether physical...

  19. 78 FR 40487 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet Monday, July 29, 2013, at the United States Access Board, 1331 F... meeting location. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy Wong, National Infrastructure Advisory...

  20. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term critical infrastructure means, in the context of a particular covered transaction, a system or asset, whether physical...

  1. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  2. Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seungju; Hu, Shaohua; Kado, Norman Y.; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Collins, John F.; Gautam, Mridul; Herner, Jorn D.; Ayala, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled transit buses with stoichiometric combustion engines and three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust control systems were measured using a chassis dynamometer testing facility and compared to the data from earlier CNG engine and exhaust control technologies. Gaseous and particulate matter emissions from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were lower by more than 99% compared to buses with lean-burn engines. Elemental and organic carbons (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were effectively controlled and significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Potential mutagenicity measured using a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella/microsome assay was lower by more than 99% for buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC, compared to buses with lean-burn engines and OxC.

  3. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  4. A Messaging Infrastructure for WLCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, James; Cons, Lionel; Lapka, Wojciech; Paladin, Massimo; Skaburskas, Konstantin

    2011-12-01

    During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.

  5. Tool Gear: Infrastructure for Building Parallel Programming Tools

    SciTech Connect

    May, J M; Gyllenhaal, J

    2002-12-09

    Tool Gear is a software infrastructure for developing performance analysis and other tools. Unlike existing integrated toolkits, which focus on providing a suite of capabilities, Tool Gear is designed to help tool developers create new tools quickly. It combines dynamic instrumentation capabilities with an efficient database and a sophisticated and extensible graphical user interface. This paper describes the design of Tool Gear and presents examples of tools that have been built with it.

  6. Performance characteristics of Jefferson Lab's new SRF infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Denny, Philip; Reilly, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    In the past two years, Jefferson Lab has reconfigured and renovated its SRF support infrastructure as part of the Technology and Engineering Development Facility project, TEDF. The most significant changes are in the cleanroom and chemistry facilities. We report the initial characterization data on the new ultra-pure water systems, cleanroom facilities, describe the reconfiguration of existing facilities and also opportunities for flexible growth presented by the new arrangement.

  7. Data hosting infrastructure for primary biodiversity data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Today, an unprecedented volume of primary biodiversity data are being generated worldwide, yet significant amounts of these data have been and will continue to be lost after the conclusion of the projects tasked with collecting them. To get the most value out of these data it is imperative to seek a solution whereby these data are rescued, archived and made available to the biodiversity community. To this end, the biodiversity informatics community requires investment in processes and infrastructure to mitigate data loss and provide solutions for long-term hosting and sharing of biodiversity data. Discussion We review the current state of biodiversity data hosting and investigate the technological and sociological barriers to proper data management. We further explore the rescuing and re-hosting of legacy data, the state of existing toolsets and propose a future direction for the development of new discovery tools. We also explore the role of data standards and licensing in the context of data hosting and preservation. We provide five recommendations for the biodiversity community that will foster better data preservation and access: (1) encourage the community's use of data standards, (2) promote the public domain licensing of data, (3) establish a community of those involved in data hosting and archival, (4) establish hosting centers for biodiversity data, and (5) develop tools for data discovery. Conclusion The community's adoption of standards and development of tools to enable data discovery is essential to sustainable data preservation. Furthermore, the increased adoption of open content licensing, the establishment of data hosting infrastructure and the creation of a data hosting and archiving community are all necessary steps towards the community ensuring that data archival policies become standardized. PMID:22373257

  8. Unifying theory for terrestrial research infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirtl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will elaborate on basic steps needed for building a common theoretical base between Research Infrastructures focusing on terrestrial ecosystems. This theoretical base is needed for developing a better cooperation and integrating in the near future. An overview of different theories will be given and ways to a unifying approach explored. In the second step more practical implications of a theory-guided integration will be developed alongside the following guiding questions: • How do the existing and planned European environmental RIs map on a possible unifying theory on terrestrial ecosystems (covered structures and functions, scale; overlaps and gaps) • Can a unifying theory improve the consistent definition of RÍs scientific scope and focal science questions? • How could a division of tasks between RIs be organized in order to minimize parallel efforts? • Where concretely do existing and planned European environmental RIs need to interact to respond to overarching questions (top down component)? • What practical fora and mechanisms (across RIs) would be needed to bridge the gap between PI driven (bottom up) efforts and the centralistic RI design and operations?

  9. Does Unconscious Racism Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillian, Lincoln

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues for the existence of a form of unconscious racism. Research on implicit prejudice provides good evidence that most persons have deeply held negative associations with minority groups that can lead to subtle discrimination without conscious awareness. The evidence for implicit attitudes is briefly reviewed. Criticisms of the…

  10. Understanding existing exposure situations.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J-F

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 removed the distinction between practices and interventions, and introduced three types of exposure situation: existing, planned, and emergency. It also emphasised the optimisation principle in connection with individual dose restrictions for all controllable exposure situations. Existing exposure situations are those resulting from sources, natural or man-made, that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken. They have common features to be taken into account when implementing general recommendations, such as: the source may be difficult to control; all exposures cannot be anticipated; protective actions can only be implemented after characterisation of the exposure situation; time may be needed to reduce exposure below the reference level; levels of exposure are highly dependent on individual behaviour and present a wide spread of individual dose distribution; exposures at work may be adventitious and not considered as occupational exposure; there is generally no potential for accident; many stakeholders have to be involved; and many factors need to be considered. ICRP is currently developing a series of reports related to the practical implementation of Publication 103 to various existing exposure situations, including exposure from radon, exposure from cosmic radiation in aviation, exposure from processes using naturally occurring radioactive material, and exposure from contaminated sites due to past activities. PMID:26975365

  11. Optimization of HEP Analysis Activities Using a Tier2 Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arezzini, S.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Ciampa, A.; Coscetti, S.; Mazzoni, E.; Sarkar, S.; Taneja, S.

    2012-12-01

    While the model for a Tier2 is well understood and implemented within the HEP Community, a refined design for Analysis specific sites has not been agreed upon as clearly. We aim to describe the solutions adopted at the INFN Pisa, the biggest Tier2 in the Italian HEP Community. A Standard Tier2 infrastructure is optimized for Grid CPU and Storage access, while a more interactive oriented use of the resources is beneficial to the final data analysis step. In this step, POSIX file storage access is easier for the average physicist, and has to be provided in a real or emulated way. Modern analysis techniques use advanced statistical tools (like RooFit and RooStat), which can make use of multi core systems. The infrastructure has to provide or create on demand computing nodes with many cores available, above the existing and less elastic Tier2 flat CPU infrastructure. At last, the users do not want to have to deal with data placement policies at the various sites, and hence a transparent WAN file access, again with a POSIX layer, must be provided, making use of the soon-to-be-installed 10 Gbit/s regional lines. Even if standalone systems with such features are possible and exist, the implementation of an Analysis site as a virtual layer over an existing Tier2 requires novel solutions; the ones used in Pisa are described here.

  12. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  13. Government Services Information Infrastructure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.

  14. Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, S. M.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Kelly, T. K.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-12-01

    The notion that our nation's critical infrastructures are highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways, both physically and through a host of information and communications technologies (so-called 'cyberbased systems'), is more than an abstract, theoretical concept. As shown by the 1998 failure of the Galaxy 4 telecommunications satellite, the prolonged power crisis in California, and many other recent infrastructure disruptions, what happens to one infrastructure can directly and indirectly affect other infrastructures, impact large geographic regions and send ripples throughout the national a global economy. This article presents a conceptual framework for addressing infrastructure interdependencies that could serve as the basis for further understanding and scholarship in this important area. We use this framework to explore the challenges and complexities of interdependency. We set the stage for this discussion by explicitly defining the terms infrastructure, infrastructure dependencies, and infrastructure interdependencies and introducing the fundamental concept of infrastructures as complex adaptive systems. We then focus on the interrelated factors and system conditions that collectively define the six dimensions. Finally, we discuss some of the research challenges involved in developing, applying, and validating modeling and simulation methodologies and tools for infrastructure interdependency analysis.

  15. Perspectives on the Use of Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management in Cleveland and Milwaukee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, Melissa; Koburger, Althea; Dolowitz, David P.; Medearis, Dale; Nickel, Darla; Shuster, William

    2013-06-01

    Green infrastructure is a general term referring to the management of landscapes in ways that generate human and ecosystem benefits. Many municipalities have begun to utilize green infrastructure in efforts to meet stormwater management goals. This study examines challenges to integrating gray and green infrastructure for stormwater management, informed by interviews with practitioners in Cleveland, OH and Milwaukee WI. Green infrastructure in these cities is utilized under conditions of extreme fiscal austerity and its use presents opportunities to connect stormwater management with urban revitalization and economic recovery while planning for the effects of negative- or zero-population growth. In this context, specific challenges in capturing the multiple benefits of green infrastructure exist because the projects required to meet federally mandated stormwater management targets and the needs of urban redevelopment frequently differ in scale and location.

  16. Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Fernandez, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events

  17. Existence of hyperbolic calorons

    PubMed Central

    Sibner, Lesley; Sibner, Robert; Yang, Yisong

    2015-01-01

    Recent work of Harland shows that the SO(3)-symmetric, dimensionally reduced, charge-N self-dual Yang–Mills calorons on the hyperbolic space H3×S1 may be obtained through constructing N-vortex solutions of an Abelian Higgs model as in the study of Witten on multiple instantons. In this paper, we establish the existence of such minimal action charge-N calorons by constructing arbitrarily prescribed N-vortex solutions of the Witten type equations.

  18. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Moscowitz, P.D.; Reaven, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes model approaches to designing an institutional infrastructure for the recycling of decommissioned photovoltaic modules; more detailed discussion of the information presented in this paper is contained in Reaven et al., (1996)[1]. The alternative approaches are based on experiences in other industries, with other products and materials. In the aluminum, scrap iron, and container glass industries, where recycling is a long-standing, even venerable practice, predominantly private, fully articulated institutional infrastructures exist. Nevertheless, even in these industries, arrangements are constantly evolving in response to regulatory changes, competition, and new technological developments. Institutional infrastructures are less settled for younger large- scale recycling industries that target components of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, such as cardboard and newspaper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastics, and textiles. In these industries the economics, markets, and technologies are rapidly changing. Finally, many other industries are developing projects to ensure that their products are recycled (and recyclable) e.g., computers, non-automotive batteries, communications equipment, motor and lubrication oil and oil filters, fluorescent lighting fixtures, automotive plastics and shredder residues, and bulk industrial chemical wastes. The lack of an an adequate recycling infrastructure, attractive end-markets, and clear the economic incentives, can be formidable impediments to a self- sustaining recycling system.

  19. Increasing impacts of climate extremes on critical infrastructures in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Bianchi, Alessandra; Feyen, Luc; Silva, Filipe Batista e.; Marin, Mario; Lavalle, Carlo; Leblois, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    The projected increases in exposure to multiple climate hazards in many regions of Europe, emphasize the relevance of a multi-hazard risk assessment to comprehensively quantify potential impacts of climate change and develop suitable adaptation strategies. In this context, quantifying the future impacts of climatic extremes on critical infrastructures is crucial due to their key role for human wellbeing and their effects on the overall economy. Critical infrastructures describe the existing assets and systems that are essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, health, safety, security, economic or social well-being of people, and the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact as a result of the failure to maintain those functions. We assess the direct damages of heat and cold waves, river and coastal flooding, droughts, wildfires and windstorms to energy, transport, industry and social infrastructures in Europe along the 21st century. The methodology integrates in a coherent framework climate hazard, exposure and vulnerability components. Overall damage is expected to rise up to 38 billion €/yr, ten time-folds the current climate damage, with drastic variations in risk scenarios. Exemplificative are drought and heat-related damages that could represent 70% of the overall climate damage in 2080s versus the current 12%. Many regions, prominently Southern Europe, will likely suffer multiple stresses and systematic infrastructure failures due to climate extremes if no suitable adaptation measures will be taken.

  20. Building a North American Spatial Data Infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.J.; Nebert, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the state of spatial data infrastructures within North America in late 1997. After providing some background underlying the philosophy and development of the SDI concept, the authors discuss effects of technology, institutions, and standardization that confront the cohesive implementation of a common infrastructure today. The paper concludes with a comparative framework and specific examples of elements and initiatives defining respective spatial data infrastructure initiatives in the United States and Canada.

  1. The EPOS e-Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is integrating geoscientific information concerning earth movements in Europe. We are approaching the end of the PP (Preparatory Project) phase and in October 2014 expect to continue with the full project within ESFRI (European Strategic Framework for Research Infrastructures). The key aspects of EPOS concern providing services to allow homogeneous access by end-users over heterogeneous data, software, facilities, equipment and services. The e-infrastructure of EPOS is the heart of the project since it integrates the work on organisational, legal, economic and scientific aspects. Following the creation of an inventory of relevant organisations, persons, facilities, equipment, services, datasets and software (RIDE) the scale of integration required became apparent. The EPOS e-infrastructure architecture has been developed systematically based on recorded primary (user) requirements and secondary (interoperation with other systems) requirements through Strawman, Woodman and Ironman phases with the specification - and developed confirmatory prototypes - becoming more precise and progressively moving from paper to implemented system. The EPOS architecture is based on global core services (Integrated Core Services - ICS) which access thematic nodes (domain-specific European-wide collections, called thematic Core Services - TCS), national nodes and specific institutional nodes. The key aspect is the metadata catalog. In one dimension this is described in 3 levels: (1) discovery metadata using well-known and commonly used standards such as DC (Dublin Core) to enable users (via an intelligent user interface) to search for objects within the EPOS environment relevant to their needs; (2) contextual metadata providing the context of the object described in the catalog to enable a user or the system to determine the relevance of the discovered object(s) to their requirement - the context includes projects, funding, organisations

  2. Emergent Risks In Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynes, Scott

    Firms cannot function successfully without managing a host of internal and external organizational and process interdependencies. Part of this involves business continuity planning, which directly aects how resilient arm and its business sector are in the face of disruptions. This paper presents the results of eld studies related to information risk management practices in the health care and retail sectors. The studies explore information risk management coordinating signals within and across rms in these sectors as well as the potential eects of cyber disruptions on the rms as stand-alone entities and as part of a critical infrastructure. The health care case study investigates the impact of the Zotob worm on the ability to deliver medical care and treatment. The retail study examines the resilience of certain elements of the food supply chain to cyber disruptions.

  3. Benefits and Challenges of Linking Green Infrastructure and Highway Planning in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, Daniel J.; Jordan, Lauren M.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape-level green infrastructure creates a network of natural and semi-natural areas that protects and enhances ecosystem services, regenerative capacities, and ecological dynamism over long timeframes. It can also enhance quality of life and certain economic activity. Highways create a network for moving goods and services efficiently, enabling commerce, and improving mobility. A fundamentally profound conflict exists between transportation planning and green infrastructure planning because they both seek to create connected, functioning networks across the same landscapes and regions, but transportation networks, especially in the form of highways, fragment and disconnect green infrastructure networks. A key opportunity has emerged in the United States during the last ten years with the promotion of measures to link transportation and environmental concerns. In this article we examined the potential benefits and challenges of linking landscape-level green infrastructure planning and implementation with integrated transportation planning and highway project development in the United States policy context. This was done by establishing a conceptual model that identified logical flow lines from planning to implementation as well as the potential interconnectors between green infrastructure and highway infrastructure. We analyzed the relationship of these activities through literature review, policy analysis, and a case study of a suburban Maryland, USA landscape. We found that regionally developed and adopted green infrastructure plans can be instrumental in creating more responsive regional transportation plans and streamlining the project environmental review process while enabling better outcomes by enabling more targeted mitigation. In order for benefits to occur, however, landscape-scale green infrastructure assessments and plans must be in place before integrated transportation planning and highway project development occurs. It is in the transportation

  4. Cooperative Drought Adaptation: Integrating Infrastructure Development, Conservation, and Water Transfers into Adaptive Policy Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply policies that integrate portfolios of short-term management decisions with long-term infrastructure development enable utilities to adapt to a range of future scenarios. An effective mix of short-term management actions can augment existing infrastructure, potentially forestalling new development. Likewise, coordinated expansion of infrastructure such as regional interconnections and shared treatment capacity can increase the effectiveness of some management actions like water transfers. Highly adaptable decision pathways that mix long-term infrastructure options and short-term management actions require decision triggers capable of incorporating the impact of these time-evolving decisions on growing water supply needs. Here, we adapt risk-based triggers to sequence a set of potential infrastructure options in combination with utility-specific conservation actions and inter-utility water transfers. Individual infrastructure pathways can be augmented with conservation or water transfers to reduce the cost of meeting utility objectives, but they can also include cooperatively developed, shared infrastructure that expands regional capacity to transfer water. This analysis explores the role of cooperation among four water utilities in the 'Research Triangle' region of North Carolina by formulating three distinct categories of adaptive policy pathways: independent action (utility-specific conservation and supply infrastructure only), weak cooperation (utility-specific conservation and infrastructure development with regional transfers), and strong cooperation (utility specific conservation and jointly developed of regional infrastructure that supports transfers). Results suggest that strong cooperation aids the utilities in meeting their individual objections at substantially lower costs and with fewer irreversible infrastructure options.

  5. Co-location and Self-Similar Topologies of Urban Infrastructure Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhamer, Christopher; Zhan, Xianyuan; Ukkusuri, Satish; Elisabeth, Krueger; Paik, Kyungrock; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    The co-location of urban infrastructure is too obvious to be easily ignored. For reasons of practicality, reliability, and eminent domain, the spatial locations of many urban infrastructure networks, including drainage, sanitary sewers, and road networks, are well correlated. However, important questions dealing with correlations in the network topologies of differing infrastructure types remain unanswered. Here, we have extracted randomly distributed, nested subnets from the urban drainage, sanitary sewer, and road networks in two distinctly different cities: Amman, Jordan; and Indianapolis, USA. Network analyses were performed for each randomly chosen subnet (location and size), using a dual-mapping approach (Hierarchical Intersection Continuity Negotiation). Topological metrics for each infrastructure type were calculated and compared for all subnets in a given city. Despite large differences in the climate, governance, and populace of the two cities, and functional properties of the different infrastructure types, these infrastructure networks are shown to be highly spatially homogenous. Furthermore, strong correlations are found between topological metrics of differing types of surface and subsurface infrastructure networks. Also, the network topologies of each infrastructure type for both cities are shown to exhibit self-similar characteristics (i.e., power law node-degree distributions, [p(k) = ak-γ]. These findings can be used to assist city planners and engineers either expanding or retrofitting existing infrastructure, or in the case of developing countries, building new cities from the ground up. In addition, the self-similar nature of these infrastructure networks holds significant implications for the vulnerability of these critical infrastructure networks to external hazards and ways in which network resilience can be improved.

  6. Cislunar space infrastructure: Lunar technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, W.; Hoehn, A.; Johnson, S.; Moos, P.; Wiltberger, N.

    1989-01-01

    Continuing its emphasis on the creation of a cisluar infrastructure as an appropriate and cost-effective method of space exploration and development, the University of Colorado explores the technologies necessary for the creation of such an infrastructure, namely (1) automation and robotics; (2) life support systems; (3) fluid management; (4) propulsion; and (5) rotating technologes. The technological focal point is on the development of automated and robotic systems for the implementation of a Lunar Oasis produced by automation and robotics (LOARS). Under direction from the NASA Office of Exploration, automation and robotics have been extensively utilized as an initiating stage in the return to the Moon. A pair of autonomous rovers, modular in design and built from interchangeable and specialized components, is proposed. Utilizing a 'buddy system', these rovers will be able to support each other and to enhance their individual capabilities. One rover primarily explores and maps while the second rover tests the feasibility of various materials-processing techniques. The automated missions emphasize availability and potential uses of lunar resources and the deployment and operations of the LOAR program. An experimental bio-volume is put into place as the precursor to a Lunar Environmentally Controlled Life Support System. The bio-volume will determine the reproduction, growth and production characteristics of various life forms housed on the lunar surface. Physiochemical regenerative technologies and stored resources will be used to buffer biological disturbances of the bio-volume environment. The in situ lunar resources will be both tested and used within this bio-volume. Second phase development on the lunar surface calls for manned operations. Repairs and reconfiguration of the initial framework will ensue. An autonomously initiated, manned Lunar Oasis can become an essential component of the United States space program. The Lunar Oasis will provide support to

  7. Tools for 21st Century infrastructure protection

    SciTech Connect

    Trost, S.R.

    1997-07-01

    The President`s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCEP) was formed under Executive Order 13010 to recommend a national strategy for protecting and assuring critical infrastructures. Eight critical infrastructure elements have been identified. This paper provides an overview of tools necessary to conduct in depth analysis and characterization of threats, vulnerabilities, and interdependencies of critical infrastructure subsystems, and their interaction with each other. Particular emphasis is placed on research requirements necessary to develop the next generation of tools. In addition to tools, a number of system level research suggestions are made including developing a system architecture, data flow models, national level resources, and a national test bed.

  8. PKA and cAMP/CNG Channels Independently Regulate the Cholinergic Ca(2+)-Response of Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Pavot, Pierre; Carbognin, Elena; Martin, Jean-René

    2015-01-01

    The mushroom bodies (MBs), one of the main structures in the adult insect brain, play a critical role in olfactory learning and memory. Though historical genes such as dunce and rutabaga, which regulate the level of cAMP, were identified more than 30 years ago, their in vivo effects on cellular and physiological mechanisms and particularly on the Ca(2+)-responses still remain largely unknown. In this work, performed in Drosophila, we took advantage of in vivo bioluminescence imaging, which allowed real-time monitoring of the entire MBs (both the calyx/cell-bodies and the lobes) simultaneously. We imaged neuronal Ca(2+)-activity continuously, over a long time period, and characterized the nicotine-evoked Ca(2+)-response. Using both genetics and pharmacological approaches to interfere with different components of the cAMP signaling pathway, we first show that the Ca(2+)-response is proportional to the levels of cAMP. Second, we reveal that an acute change in cAMP levels is sufficient to trigger a Ca(2+)-response. Third, genetic manipulation of protein kinase A (PKA), a direct effector of cAMP, suggests that cAMP also has PKA-independent effects through the cyclic nucleotide-gated Ca(2+)-channel (CNG). Finally, the disruption of calmodulin, one of the main regulators of the rutabaga adenylate cyclase (AC), yields different effects in the calyx/cell-bodies and in the lobes, suggesting a differential and regionalized regulation of AC. Our results provide insights into the complex Ca(2+)-response in the MBs, leading to the conclusion that cAMP modulates the Ca(2+)-responses through both PKA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, the latter through CNG-channels. PMID:26464971

  9. Leveraging Internal Partnerships and Existing Data Infrastructure to Track and Assess Community Engagement across the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Valerie L.; Jettner, Jennifer F.; Early, Jennifer L.; Shaw, Kathleen K.

    2015-01-01

    Universities increasingly see community engagement as a means to achieve their mission. In order to assess the impact of these efforts, it is necessary to gather and analyze data from across the institution on community-engaged activities. This article presents a case study of Virginia Commonwealth University's efforts in developing enterprise…

  10. Cryogenic Infrastructure for Fermilab's Ilc Vertical Cavity Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.

    2008-03-01

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R&D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

  11. CRYOGENIC INFRASTRUCTURE FOR FERMILAB'S ILC VERTICAL CAVITY TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.

    2008-03-16

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R and D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

  12. Cryogenic infrastructure for Fermilab's ILC vertical cavity test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R&D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

  13. Enhanced INL Power Grid Test Bed Infrastructure – Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Carol Ann; West, Grayson Shawn; McBride, Scott Alan

    2014-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory, owns, operates, and maintains transmission and distribution power grid infrastructure to support the INL multi program mission. Sections of this power infrastructure, known as the INL Power Grid Test Bed, have been and are being used by government and industry to develop, demonstrate, and validate technologies for the modern grid, including smart grid, on a full scale utility test bed. INL’s power grid includes 61 miles of 140 MW, 138 kV rated electrical power transmission supplying seven main substations, each feeding a separate facility complex (or ‘city’) within the INL’s 890 square mile Site. This power grid is fed by three commercial utilities into the INL’s main control substation, but is operated independently from the commercial utility through its primary substation and command and control center. Within the INL complex, one of the seven complexes, the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC), has been designated as the INL complex for supporting critical infrastructure research and testing. This complex includes its own substation and 13.8kV distribution network, all configurable and controlled by the INL research and development programs. Through investment partnership with the DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE OE), INL is enhancing its existing distribution infrastructure to expand the types of testing that can be conducted and increase flexibility for testing configurations. The enhancement of the INL Power Grid Test Bed will enable development and full scale testing of smart-grid-related technologies and smart devices including testing interoperability, operational performance, reliability, and resiliency contribution at multiple distribution voltage classes, specifically 15kV, 25kV, and 35kV. The expected time frame for completion of the Phase I portion of the enhancement would be 4th quarter fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  14. Robust Engineering Designs for Infrastructure Adaptation to a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, C.; Cook, L.

    2015-12-01

    Infrastructure systems are expected to be functional, durable and safe over long service lives - 50 to over 100 years. Observations and models of climate science show that greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities have changed climate, weather and extreme events. Projections of future changes (albeit with uncertainties caused by inadequacies of current climate/weather models) can be made based on scenarios for future emissions, but actual future emissions are themselves uncertain. Most current engineering standards and practices for infrastructure assume that the probabilities of future extreme climate and weather events will match those of the past. Climate science shows that this assumption is invalid, but is unable, at present, to define these probabilities over the service lives of existing and new infrastructure systems. Engineering designs, plans, and institutions and regulations will need to be adaptable for a range of future conditions (conditions of climate, weather and extreme events, as well as changing societal demands for infrastructure services). For their current and future projects, engineers should: Involve all stakeholders (owners, financers, insurance, regulators, affected public, climate/weather scientists, etc.) in key decisions; Use low regret, adaptive strategies, such as robust decision making and the observational method, comply with relevant standards and regulations, and exceed their requirements where appropriate; Publish design studies and performance/failure investigations to extend the body of knowledge for advancement of practice. The engineering community should conduct observational and modeling research with climate/weather/social scientists and the concerned communities and account rationally for climate change in revised engineering standards and codes. This presentation presents initial research on decisionmaking under uncertainty for climate resilient infrastructure design.

  15. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B < 1E10 G) or alternatively very high (B>1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  16. The EPOS e-Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is integrating geoscientific information concerning earth movements in Europe. We are approaching the end of the PP (Preparatory Project) phase and in October 2014 expect to continue with the full project within ESFRI (European Strategic Framework for Research Infrastructures). The key aspects of EPOS concern providing services to allow homogeneous access by end-users over heterogeneous data, software, facilities, equipment and services. The e-infrastructure of EPOS is the heart of the project since it integrates the work on organisational, legal, economic and scientific aspects. Following the creation of an inventory of relevant organisations, persons, facilities, equipment, services, datasets and software (RIDE) the scale of integration required became apparent. The EPOS e-infrastructure architecture has been developed systematically based on recorded primary (user) requirements and secondary (interoperation with other systems) requirements through Strawman, Woodman and Ironman phases with the specification - and developed confirmatory prototypes - becoming more precise and progressively moving from paper to implemented system. The EPOS architecture is based on global core services (Integrated Core Services - ICS) which access thematic nodes (domain-specific European-wide collections, called thematic Core Services - TCS), national nodes and specific institutional nodes. The key aspect is the metadata catalog. In one dimension this is described in 3 levels: (1) discovery metadata using well-known and commonly used standards such as DC (Dublin Core) to enable users (via an intelligent user interface) to search for objects within the EPOS environment relevant to their needs; (2) contextual metadata providing the context of the object described in the catalog to enable a user or the system to determine the relevance of the discovered object(s) to their requirement - the context includes projects, funding, organisations

  17. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  18. 76 FR 22113 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Information Collection Request in the Federal Register on November 4, 2010 at 75 FR 67989, for a 60-day public... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure... Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information Collection Request to the Office...

  19. Civil infrastructure monitoring for IVHS using optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Marten J.; Arya, Vivek; Grinder, C. R.; Murphy, Kent A.; Claus, Richard O.

    1995-01-01

    8Early deployment of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems would necessitate the internal instrumentation of infrastructure for emergency preparedness. Existing quantitative analysis and visual analysis techniques are time consuming, cost prohibitive, and are often unreliable. Fiber optic sensors are rapidly replacing conventional instrumentation because of their small size, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and extremely high information carrying capability. In this paper research on novel optical fiber sensing techniques for health monitoring of civil infrastructure such as highways and bridges is reported. Design, fabrication, and implementation of fiber optic sensor configurations used for measurements of strain are discussed. Results from field tests conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of fiber sensors at determining quantitative strain vector components near crack locations in bridges are presented. Emerging applications of fiber sensors for vehicle flow, vehicle speed, and weigh-in-motion measurements are also discussed.

  20. Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS): Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Mandl, Kenneth D; Kohane, Isaac S; McFadden, Douglas; Weber, Griffin M; Natter, Marc; Mandel, Joshua; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Weiler, Sarah; Klann, Jeffrey G; Bickel, Jonathan; Adams, William G; Ge, Yaorong; Zhou, Xiaobo; Perkins, James; Marsolo, Keith; Bernstam, Elmer; Showalter, John; Quarshie, Alexander; Ofili, Elizabeth; Hripcsak, George; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    We describe the architecture of the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) funded Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS, http://www.SCILHS.org) clinical data research network, which leverages the $48 billion dollar federal investment in health information technology (IT) to enable a queryable semantic data model across 10 health systems covering more than 8 million patients, plugging universally into the point of care, generating evidence and discovery, and thereby enabling clinician and patient participation in research during the patient encounter. Central to the success of SCILHS is development of innovative ‘apps’ to improve PCOR research methods and capacitate point of care functions such as consent, enrollment, randomization, and outreach for patient-reported outcomes. SCILHS adapts and extends an existing national research network formed on an advanced IT infrastructure built with open source, free, modular components. PMID:24821734

  1. Cyber-Infrastructure and Synergistic Opportunities Across the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Basil; Pearthree, Genevieve; Cutcher-Gershenfeld, Joel

    2013-12-01

    To enable transformational research and education within and across geoscience disciplines, as part of the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) EarthCube initiative, over the past 2 years NSF has sponsored 26 end user workshops in diverse geoscience domains. EarthCube is a collaboration among NSF, other government agencies, and the geoscience and cyber-infrastructure communities. The workshops engaged more than 1200 participants from the academic, government, and private sectors of the Earth, atmospheric, ocean, computer, information, and social science communities with the overarching objectives of better understanding the limitations of existing cyber-infrastructure and identifying synergistic opportunities that will help make Web-based technologies for sharing data, tools, and models accessible to the majority of geoscientists.

  2. Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS): architecture.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Kenneth D; Kohane, Isaac S; McFadden, Douglas; Weber, Griffin M; Natter, Marc; Mandel, Joshua; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Weiler, Sarah; Klann, Jeffrey G; Bickel, Jonathan; Adams, William G; Ge, Yaorong; Zhou, Xiaobo; Perkins, James; Marsolo, Keith; Bernstam, Elmer; Showalter, John; Quarshie, Alexander; Ofili, Elizabeth; Hripcsak, George; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    We describe the architecture of the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) funded Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS, http://www.SCILHS.org) clinical data research network, which leverages the $48 billion dollar federal investment in health information technology (IT) to enable a queryable semantic data model across 10 health systems covering more than 8 million patients, plugging universally into the point of care, generating evidence and discovery, and thereby enabling clinician and patient participation in research during the patient encounter. Central to the success of SCILHS is development of innovative 'apps' to improve PCOR research methods and capacitate point of care functions such as consent, enrollment, randomization, and outreach for patient-reported outcomes. SCILHS adapts and extends an existing national research network formed on an advanced IT infrastructure built with open source, free, modular components. PMID:24821734

  3. Security middleware infrastructure for DICOM images in health information systems.

    PubMed

    Kallepalli, Vijay N V; Ehikioya, Sylvanus A; Camorlinga, Sergio; Rueda, Jose A

    2003-12-01

    In health care, it is mandatory to maintain the privacy and confidentiality of medical data. To achieve this, a fine-grained access control and an access log for accessing medical images are two important aspects that need to be considered in health care systems. Fine-grained access control provides access to medical data only to authorized persons based on priority, location, and content. A log captures each attempt to access medical data. This article describes an overall middleware infrastructure required for secure access to Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) images, with an emphasis on access control and log maintenance. We introduce a hybrid access control model that combines the properties of two existing models. A trust relationship between hospitals is used to make the hybrid access control model scalable across hospitals. We also discuss events that have to be logged and where the log has to be maintained. A prototype of security middleware infrastructure is implemented. PMID:14747934

  4. Orion Navigation Sensitivities to Ground Station Infrastructure for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getchius, Joel; Kukitschek, Daniel; Crain, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will replace the Space Shuttle and serve as the next-generation spaceship to carry humans to the International Space Station and back to the Moon for the first time since the Apollo program. As in the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs, the Mission Control Navigation team will utilize radiometric measurements to determine the position and velocity of the CEV. In the case of lunar missions, the ground station infrastructure consisting of approximately twelve stations distributed about the Earth and known as the Apollo Manned Spaceflight Network, no longer exists. Therefore, additional tracking resources will have to be allocated or constructed to support mission operations for Orion lunar missions. This paper examines the sensitivity of Orion navigation for lunar missions to the number and distribution of tracking sites that form the ground station infrastructure.

  5. Infrastructure Systems for Advanced Computing in E-science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzo, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    In the e-science field are growing needs for having computing infrastructure more dynamic and customizable with a model of use "on demand" that follow the exact request in term of resources and storage capacities. The integration of grid and cloud infrastructure solutions allows us to offer services that can adapt the availability in terms of up scaling and downscaling resources. The main challenges for e-sciences domains will on implement infrastructure solutions for scientific computing that allow to adapt dynamically the demands of computing resources with a strong emphasis on optimizing the use of computing resources for reducing costs of investments. Instrumentation, data volumes, algorithms, analysis contribute to increase the complexity for applications who require high processing power and storage for a limited time and often exceeds the computational resources that equip the majority of laboratories, research Unit in an organization. Very often it is necessary to adapt or even tweak rethink tools, algorithms, and consolidate existing applications through a phase of reverse engineering in order to adapt them to a deployment on Cloud infrastructure. For example, in areas such as rainfall monitoring, meteorological analysis, Hydrometeorology, Climatology Bioinformatics Next Generation Sequencing, Computational Electromagnetic, Radio occultation, the complexity of the analysis raises several issues such as the processing time, the scheduling of tasks of processing, storage of results, a multi users environment. For these reasons, it is necessary to rethink the writing model of E-Science applications in order to be already adapted to exploit the potentiality of cloud computing services through the uses of IaaS, PaaS and SaaS layer. An other important focus is on create/use hybrid infrastructure typically a federation between Private and public cloud, in fact in this way when all resources owned by the organization are all used it will be easy with a federate

  6. The Information Infrastructure and Technology Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Albert, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This statement by Senator Albert Gore, Jr., on introduction of the Information Infrastructure and Technology Act of 1992 highlights examples of applications of high-performance computing, the components of the Information Infrastructure Development Program (i.e., education, libraries, manufacturing, and health care), and participating agencies. A…

  7. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  8. USEPA ORD Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes research that is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program, which will help U.S. water infrastructure to be more effectively and sustainably managed. The AWI research program see...

  9. 49 CFR 536.5 - Trading infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Every manufacturer subject to fuel economy standards under 49 CFR parts 531 or 533 is automatically an... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trading infrastructure. 536.5 Section 536.5... infrastructure. (a) Accounts. NHTSA maintains “accounts” for each credit holder. The account consists of...

  10. 49 CFR 536.5 - Trading infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Every manufacturer subject to fuel economy standards under 49 CFR parts 531 or 533 is automatically an... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trading infrastructure. 536.5 Section 536.5... infrastructure. (a) Accounts. NHTSA maintains “accounts” for each credit holder. The account consists of...

  11. 49 CFR 536.5 - Trading infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Every manufacturer subject to fuel economy standards under 49 CFR parts 531 or 533 is automatically an... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trading infrastructure. 536.5 Section 536.5... infrastructure. (a) Accounts. NHTSA maintains “accounts” for each credit holder. The account consists of...

  12. The Missing Support Infrastructure in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.; Clifford, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Noting that current programs for young children outside the home lack a comprehensive infrastructure or support system to stand behind the delivery of services to the child and family, this paper proposes the development of a support infrastructure designed to provide continuing and effective assistance to those who work with young children. A…

  13. Cyber Security and Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Onyeji, Ijeoma; Bazilian, Morgan; Bronk, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Both the number and security implications of sophisticated cyber attacks on companies providing critical energy infrastructures are increasing. As power networks and, to a certain extent, oil and gas infrastructure both upstream and downstream, are becoming increasingly integrated with information communication technology systems, they are growing more susceptible to cyber attacks.

  14. Development of a Water Infrastructure Knowledge Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a methodology for developing a national database, as applied to water infrastructure systems, which includes both drinking water and wastewater. The database is branded as "WATERiD" and can be accessed at www.waterid.org. Water infrastructure in the U.S. is ag...

  15. 77 FR 19300 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, April 17, 2012, 1310 N. Courthouse Road, Suite 300..., go to www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy Wong, National...

  16. 49 CFR 536.5 - Trading infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Every manufacturer subject to fuel economy standards under 49 CFR parts 531 or 533 is automatically an... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trading infrastructure. 536.5 Section 536.5... infrastructure. (a) Accounts. NHTSA maintains “accounts” for each credit holder. The account consists of...

  17. The Infrastructure of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marshall S.; Wang, Phoenix M.

    2007-01-01

    The success of OER is likely to depend on a flexible, extendable infrastructure that will meet the challenges of an evolving World Wide Web. In this article, the authors examine three key dimensions of this infrastructure--technical, legal/cultural/social/political, and research--and discuss possible directions for development. (Contains 1 table…

  18. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  19. Modeling and Managing Risk in Billing Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiardi, Fabrizio; Telmon, Claudio; Sgandurra, Daniele

    This paper discusses risk modeling and risk management in information and communications technology (ICT) systems for which the attack impact distribution is heavy tailed (e.g., power law distribution) and the average risk is unbounded. Systems with these properties include billing infrastructures used to charge customers for services they access. Attacks against billing infrastructures can be classified as peripheral attacks and backbone attacks. The goal of a peripheral attack is to tamper with user bills; a backbone attack seeks to seize control of the billing infrastructure. The probability distribution of the overall impact of an attack on a billing infrastructure also has a heavy-tailed curve. This implies that the probability of a massive impact cannot be ignored and that the average impact may be unbounded - thus, even the most expensive countermeasures would be cost effective. Consequently, the only strategy for managing risk is to increase the resilience of the infrastructure by employing redundant components.

  20. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site`s infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford`s infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition.

  1. The impact of natural hazard on critical infrastructure systems: definition of an ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimauro, Carmelo; Bouchon, Sara; Frattini, Paolo; Giusto, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    According to the Council of the European Union Directive (2008), 'critical infrastructure' means an asset, system or part thereof which is essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, health, safety, security, economic or social well-being of people, and the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact as a result of the failure to maintain those functions. Critical infrastructure networks are exposed to natural events, such as floods, storms, landslides, earthquakes, etc. Recent natural disasters show that socio-economic consequences can be very much aggravated by the impact on these infrastructures. Though, there is still a lack of a recognized approach or methodology to assess the vulnerability of critical infrastructure assets against natural threats. The difficulty to define such an approach is increased by the need to consider a very high number of natural events, which differ in nature, magnitude and probability, as well as the need to assess the vulnerability of a high variety of infrastructure assets (e.g. bridges, roads, tunnels, pipelines, etc.) To meet this challenge, the objective of the THREVI2 EU-CIPS project is to create a database linking the relationships between natural hazards and critical infrastructure assets. The query of the database will allow the end-users (critical infrastructure protection authorities and operators) to identify the relevant scenarios according to the own priorities and criteria. The database builds on an ontology optimized for the assessment of the impact of threats on critical infrastructures. The ontology aims at capturing the existing knowledge on natural hazards, critical infrastructures assets and their related vulnerabilities. Natural phenomena that can threaten critical infrastructures are classified as "events", and organized in a genetic-oriented hierarchy. The main attributes associated to each event are the probability, the magnitude and the "modus". The modus refers to the

  2. Scaling Agile Infrastructure to People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.; McCance, G.; Traylen, S.; Barrientos Arias, N.

    2015-12-01

    When CERN migrated its infrastructure away from homegrown fabric management tools to emerging industry-standard open-source solutions, the immediate technical challenges and motivation were clear. The move to a multi-site Cloud Computing model meant that the tool chains that were growing around this ecosystem would be a good choice, the challenge was to leverage them. The use of open-source tools brings challenges other than merely how to deploy them. Homegrown software, for all the deficiencies identified at the outset of the project, has the benefit of growing with the organization. This paper will examine what challenges there were in adapting open-source tools to the needs of the organization, particularly in the areas of multi-group development and security. Additionally, the increase in scale of the plant required changes to how Change Management was organized and managed. Continuous Integration techniques are used in order to manage the rate of change across multiple groups, and the tools and workflow for this will be examined.

  3. Infrastructure for distributed enterprise simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.M.; Yoshimura, A.S.; Goldsby, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Traditional discrete-event simulations employ an inherently sequential algorithm and are run on a single computer. However, the demands of many real-world problems exceed the capabilities of sequential simulation systems. Often the capacity of a computer`s primary memory limits the size of the models that can be handled, and in some cases parallel execution on multiple processors could significantly reduce the simulation time. This paper describes the development of an Infrastructure for Distributed Enterprise Simulation (IDES) - a large-scale portable parallel simulation framework developed to support Sandia National Laboratories` mission in stockpile stewardship. IDES is based on the Breathing-Time-Buckets synchronization protocol, and maps a message-based model of distributed computing onto an object-oriented programming model. IDES is portable across heterogeneous computing architectures, including single-processor systems, networks of workstations and multi-processor computers with shared or distributed memory. The system provides a simple and sufficient application programming interface that can be used by scientists to quickly model large-scale, complex enterprise systems. In the background and without involving the user, IDES is capable of making dynamic use of idle processing power available throughout the enterprise network. 16 refs., 14 figs.

  4. IT Infrastructure Components for Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Prokosch, H.U.; Beck, A.; Ganslandt, T.; Hummel, M.; Kiehntopf, M.; Sax, U.; Ückert, F.; Semler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Within translational research projects in the recent years large biobanks have been established, mostly supported by homegrown, proprietary software solutions. No general requirements for biobanking IT infrastructures have been published yet. This paper presents an exemplary biobanking IT architecture, a requirements specification for a biorepository management tool and exemplary illustrations of three major types of requirements. Methods We have pursued a comprehensive literature review for biobanking IT solutions and established an interdisciplinary expert panel for creating the requirements specification. The exemplary illustrations were derived from a requirements analysis within two university hospitals. Results The requirements specification comprises a catalog with more than 130 detailed requirements grouped into 3 major categories and 20 subcategories. Special attention is given to multitenancy capabilities in order to support the project-specific definition of varying research and bio-banking contexts, the definition of workflows to track sample processing, sample transportation and sample storage and the automated integration of preanalytic handling and storage robots. Conclusion IT support for biobanking projects can be based on a federated architectural framework comprising primary data sources for clinical annotations, a pseudonymization service, a clinical data warehouse with a flexible and user-friendly query interface and a biorepository management system. Flexibility and scalability of all such components are vital since large medical facilities such as university hospitals will have to support biobanking for varying monocentric and multicentric research scenarios and multiple medical clients. PMID:23616851

  5. Polymer Nanocomposites for Infrastructure Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, M. R.; Goertzen, W. K.

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are becoming increasingly important in the structural repair and rehabilitation of damaged infrastructure - from pipelines to buildings to bridges. For example, composite overwraps are used to repair corroded steel pipelines because the repair can be completed in a relatively short amount of time and the fluid transmission in the piping system can remain undisrupted while the repair is being made. Often in these applications, a primer and filler adhesive is used to fill defects in the substrate so that load can be adequately transferred to the continuous fiber composite. In this work we discuss various nano-scale reinforcements such as fumed silica, alumina, nanoclay, and carbon nanotubes as additives to this filler adhesive in order to improve mechanical properties and to tailor the thermal expansion of the composite to match the underlying substrate being repaired. The thermal expansion mismatch is especially important in applications where temperature fluctuations are present. We highlight our results from rheology, thermal expansion, and dynamic mechanical analysis testing of nanosilica/cyanate ester composites and show that the incorporation of the nano-scale fillers can result in improvement of the thermo-mechanical behavior of the composites.

  6. Sharing information among existing data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, W. R., III

    1999-01-01

    The sharing of information between law enforcement agencies is a premise for the success of all jurisdictions. A wealth of information resides in both the databases and infrastructures of local, state, and regional agencies. However, this information is often not available to the law enforcement professionals who require it. When the information is, available, individual investigators must not only know that it exists, but where it resides, and how to retrieve it. In many cases, these types of cross-jurisdictional communications are limited to personal relationships that result from telephone calls, faxes, and in some cases, e-mail. As criminal elements become more sophisticated and distributed, law enforcement agencies must begin to develop infrastructures and common sharing mechanisms that address a constantly evolving criminal threat. Historically, criminals have taken advantage of the lack of communication between law enforcement agencies. Examples of this are evident in the search for stolen property and monetary dealings. Pawned property, cash transactions, and failure to supply child support are three common cross- jurisdictional crimes that could be better enforced by strengthening the lines of communication. Criminal behavior demonstrates that it is easier to profit from their actions by dealing in separate jurisdictions. For example, stolen property is sold outside of the jurisdiction of its origin. In most cases, simply traveling a short distance to the adjoining county or municipality is sufficient to ensure that apprehension of the criminal or seizure of the stolen property is highly unlikely. In addition to the traditional burglar, fugitives often sell or pawn property to finance their continued evasion from the law. Sharing of information in a rapid manner would increase the ability of law enforcement personnel to track and capture fugitives, as well as criminals. In an example to combat this threat, the State of Florida recently acted on the need to

  7. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  8. Emergency navigation without an infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  9. Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. S.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Scott, J. P.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Hix, W. R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Chae, K.; Guidry, M. W.; Hard, C. C.; Sharp, J. E.; Kozub, R. L.; Meyer, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    The Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics is a platform-independent, online suite of computer codes developed by the ORNL Nuclear Data Project that makes a rapid connection between laboratory nuclear physics results and astrophysical models. It enables users to evaluate cross sections, process them into thermonuclear reaction rates, and parameterize (with a few percent accuracy) these rates that vary by up to 30 orders of magnitude over the temperatures of interest. Users can then properly format these rates for input into astrophysical computer simulations, create and manipulate libraries of rates, as well as run and visualize sample post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations. For example, we have developed animated nuclide charts that show how predicted abundances (represented by a user-defined color scale) change in time. With this unique suite, users can within a very short time quantify the astrophysical impact of a newly measured or calculated cross section, or a newly created customized reaction rate library, and then document and share their results with the scientific community. The suite has a straightforward interface with a "Windows Wizard" motif whereby users progress through complicated calculations in a step-by-step fashion. Users can upload their own files for processing and save their work on our server, as well as work with files that other users wish to share. These tools are currently being used to investigate novae and X-ray bursts. The suite is available through nucastrodata.org, a website that also hyperlinks available nuclear data sets relevant for nuclear astrophysics research. New features are continually being added to this software, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Low Energy Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Data Programs. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  10. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  11. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Eliza J T; Latty, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  12. "New Infrastructure" Needs in Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Reports study of auto supply, apparel/textile, chemicals, tourism, instruments/telecommunications equipment industries, showing how Appalachia's ability to compete with other regions lies in access to capital, technology, and a skilled workforce. Concludes capitalizing on existing strengths will require action by all levels of government and the…

  13. A Cis-Lunar Propellant Infrastructure for Flexible Path Exploration and Space Commerce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a space infrastructure concept that exploits lunar water for propellant production and delivers it to users in cis-lunar space. The goal is to provide responsive economical space transportation to destinations beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) and enable in-space commerce. This is a game changing concept that could fundamentally affect future space operations, provide greater access to space beyond LEO, and broaden participation in space exploration. The challenge is to minimize infrastructure development cost while achieving a low operational cost. This study discusses the evolutionary development of the infrastructure from a very modest robotic operation to one that is capable of supporting human operations. The cis-lunar infrastructure involves a mix of technologies including cryogenic propellant production, reusable lunar landers, propellant tankers, orbital transfer vehicles, aerobraking technologies, and electric propulsion. This cislunar propellant infrastructure replaces Earth-launched propellants for missions beyond LEO. It enables users to reach destinations with smaller launchers or effectively multiplies the user s existing payload capacity. Users can exploit the expanded capacity to launch logistics material that can then be traded with the infrastructure for propellants. This mutually beneficial trade between the cis-lunar infrastructure and propellant users forms the basis of in-space commerce.

  14. Assessing the vulnerability of infrastructure to climate change on the Islands of Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhruddin, S. H. M.

    2015-03-01

    Pacific Islanders have been exposed to risks associated with climate change. Samoa as one of the Pacific Islands are prone to climatic hazards that will likely increase in coming decades, affecting coastal communities and infrastructure around the islands. Climate models do not predict a reduction of such disaster events in the future in Samoa; indeed, most predict an increase in such events. This paper identifies key infrastructure and their functions and status in order to provide an overall picture of relative vulnerability to climate-related stresses of such infrastructure on the island. By reviewing existing reports as well as holding a series of consultation meetings, a list of critical infrastructures were developed and shared with stakeholders for their consideration. An indicator-based vulnerability model (SIVM) was developed in collaboration with stakeholders to assess the vulnerability of selected infrastructure systems on the Samoan Islands. Damage costs were extracted from the Evan cyclone recovery needs document. On the other hand, criticality and capacity to repair data were collected from stakeholders. Having stakeholder perspectives on these two issues was important because (a) criticality of a given infrastructure could be viewed differently among different stakeholders, and (b) stakeholders were the best available source (in this study) to estimate the capacity to repair non-physical damage to such infrastructure. Analysis of the results suggested rankings from most vulnerable to least vulnerable sectors are the transportation sector, the power sector, the water supply sector and the sewerage system.

  15. Assessing the vulnerability of infrastructure to climate change on the Islands of Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhruddin, S. H. M.; Babel, M. S.; Kawasaki, A.

    2015-06-01

    Pacific Islanders have been exposed to risks associated with climate change. Samoa, as one of the Pacific Islands, is prone to climatic hazards that will likely increase in the coming decades, affecting coastal communities and infrastructure around the islands. Climate models do not predict a reduction of such disaster events in the future in Samoa; indeed, most predict an increase. This paper identifies key infrastructure and their functions and status in order to provide an overall picture of relative vulnerability to climate-related stresses of such infrastructure on the island. By reviewing existing reports as well as holding a series of consultation meetings, a list of critical infrastructure was developed and shared with stakeholders for their consideration. An indicator-based vulnerability model (SIVM) was developed in collaboration with stakeholders to assess the vulnerability of selected infrastructure systems on the Samoan Islands. Damage costs were extracted from the Cyclone Evan recovery needs document. Additionally, data on criticality and capacity to repair damage were collected from stakeholders. Having stakeholder perspectives on these two issues was important because (a) criticality of a given infrastructure could be viewed differently among different stakeholders, and (b) stakeholders were the best available source (in this study) to estimate the capacity to repair non-physical damage to such infrastructure. Analysis of the results suggested a ranking of sectors from the most vulnerable to least vulnerable are: the transportation sector, the power sector, the water supply sector and the sewerage system.

  16. Climate Indicators for Energy and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbanks, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Two of the key categories of climate indicators are energy and infrastructure. For energy supply and use, many indicators are available for energy supply and consumption; and some indicators are available to assess implications of climate change, such as changes over time in heating and cooling days. Indicators of adaptation and adaptive capacity are more elusive. For infrastructure, which includes more than a dozen different sectors, general indicators are not available, beyond counts of major disasters and such valuable contributions as the ASCE "report cards." In this case, research is needed, for example to develop credible metrics for assessing the resilience of built infrastructures to climate change and other stresses.

  17. Transforming the U.S. Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible and economic in the world. On the other hand, the U.S. energy infrastructure is excessively reliant on foreign sources of energy, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG). This report presents a Technology Based Strategy to achieve a full transformation of the U.S. energy infrastructure that corrects these negative factors while retaining the positives.

  18. Airborne biological hazards and urban transport infrastructure: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Christie, Nicola; Colbeck, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure. The unification of security and public health research, inclusion of public health security concepts at the design and planning phase, and a holistic system approach involving all the stakeholders over the life cycle of transport infrastructure hold the key to mitigate the challenges posed by biological hazards in the twenty-first century transport infrastructure. PMID:27318484

  19. Stochastic Coloured Petrinet Based Healthcare Infrastructure Interdependency Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukavarapu, Nivedita; Durbha, Surya

    2016-06-01

    The Healthcare Critical Infrastructure (HCI) protects all sectors of the society from hazards such as terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. HCI plays a significant role in response and recovery across all other sectors in the event of a natural or manmade disaster. However, for its continuity of operations and service delivery HCI is dependent on other interdependent Critical Infrastructures (CI) such as Communications, Electric Supply, Emergency Services, Transportation Systems, and Water Supply System. During a mass casualty due to disasters such as floods, a major challenge that arises for the HCI is to respond to the crisis in a timely manner in an uncertain and variable environment. To address this issue the HCI should be disaster prepared, by fully understanding the complexities and interdependencies that exist in a hospital, emergency department or emergency response event. Modelling and simulation of a disaster scenario with these complexities would help in training and providing an opportunity for all the stakeholders to work together in a coordinated response to a disaster. The paper would present interdependencies related to HCI based on Stochastic Coloured Petri Nets (SCPN) modelling and simulation approach, given a flood scenario as the disaster which would disrupt the infrastructure nodes. The entire model would be integrated with Geographic information based decision support system to visualize the dynamic behaviour of the interdependency of the Healthcare and related CI network in a geographically based environment.

  20. Integration of implant planning workflows into the PACS infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessat, Michael; Strauß, Gero; Burgert, Oliver

    2008-03-01

    The integration of imaging devices, diagnostic workstations, and image servers into Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) has had an enormous effect on the efficiency of radiology workflows. The standardization of the information exchange between the devices with the DICOM standard has been an essential precondition for that development. For surgical procedures, no such infrastructure exists. With the increasingly important role computerized planning and assistance systems play in the surgical domain, an infrastructure that unifies the communication between devices becomes necessary. In recent publications, the need for a modularized system design has been established. A reference architecture for a Therapy Imaging and Model Management System (TIMMS) has been proposed. It was accepted by the DICOM Working Group 6 as the reference architecture for DICOM developments for surgery. In this paper we propose the inclusion of implant planning systems into the PACS infrastructure. We propose a generic information model for the patient specific selection and positioning of implants from a repository according to patient image data. The information models are based on clinical workflows from ENT, cardiac, and orthopedic surgery as well as technical requirements derived from different use cases and systems. We show an exemplary implementation of the model for application in ENT surgery: the selection and positioning of an ossicular implant in the middle ear. An implant repository is stored in the PACS. It makes use of an experimental implementation of the Surface Mesh Module that is currently being developed as extension to the DICOM standard.

  1. Evolution of the Virtualized HPC Infrastructure of Novosibirsk Scientific Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adakin, A.; Anisenkov, A.; Belov, S.; Chubarov, D.; Kalyuzhny, V.; Kaplin, V.; Korol, A.; Kuchin, N.; Lomakin, S.; Nikultsev, V.; Skovpen, K.; Sukharev, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Novosibirsk Scientific Center (NSC), also known worldwide as Akademgorodok, is one of the largest Russian scientific centers hosting Novosibirsk State University (NSU) and more than 35 research organizations of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences including Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Institute of Computational Technologies, and Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics (ICM&MG). Since each institute has specific requirements on the architecture of computing farms involved in its research field, currently we've got several computing facilities hosted by NSC institutes, each optimized for a particular set of tasks, of which the largest are the NSU Supercomputer Center, Siberian Supercomputer Center (ICM&MG), and a Grid Computing Facility of BINP. A dedicated optical network with the initial bandwidth of 10 Gb/s connecting these three facilities was built in order to make it possible to share the computing resources among the research communities, thus increasing the efficiency of operating the existing computing facilities and offering a common platform for building the computing infrastructure for future scientific projects. Unification of the computing infrastructure is achieved by extensive use of virtualization technology based on XEN and KVM platforms. This contribution gives a thorough review of the present status and future development prospects for the NSC virtualized computing infrastructure and the experience gained while using it for running production data analysis jobs related to HEP experiments being carried out at BINP, especially the KEDR detector experiment at the VEPP-4M electron-positron collider.

  2. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  3. Impact of increased electric vehicle use on battery recycling infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Hammel, C.; Jungst, R.

    1996-12-01

    State and Federal regulations have been implemented that are intended to encourage more widespread use of low-emission vehicles. These regulations include requirements of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and regulations pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the Energy Policy Act. If the market share of electric vehicles increases in response to these initiatives, corresponding growth will occur in quantities of spent electric vehicle batteries for disposal. Electric vehicle battery recycling infrastructure must be adequate to support collection, transportation, recovery, and disposal stages of waste battery handling. For some battery types, such as lead-acid, a recycling infrastructure is well established; for others, little exists. This paper examines implications of increasing electric vehicle use for lead recovery infrastructure. Secondary lead recovery facilities can be expected to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead-acid electric vehicle battery recycling. However, they face stringent environmental constraints that may curtail capacity use or new capacity installation. Advanced technologies help address these environmental constraints. For example, this paper describes using backup power to avoid air emissions that could occur if electric utility power outages disable emissions control equipment. This approach has been implemented by GNB Technologies, a major manufacturer and recycler of lead-acid batteries. Secondary lead recovery facilities appear to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead waste from electric vehicles, but growth in that capacity could be constrained by environmental regulations. Advances in lead recovery technologies may alleviate possible environmental constraints on capacity growth.

  4. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  5. 78 FR 57644 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) Plenary Meeting will be... substantive commentary that must pertain only to matters involving critical infrastructure security...

  6. The MEUST deep sea infrastructure in the Toulon site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamare, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The MEUST infrastructure (Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies) is a permanent deep sea cabled infrastructure currently being deployed off shore of Toulon, France. The design and the status of the infrastructure are presented.

  7. 75 FR 21011 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Notice of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) charter... Information Sharing Office, Partnership and Outreach Division, Office of Infrastructure Protection,...

  8. 76 FR 20995 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Security (DHS) announced the establishment of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council..., Partnership and Outreach Division, Office of Infrastructure Protection, National Protection and...

  9. 77 FR 32655 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Security (DHS) announced the establishment of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council... Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council, Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and...

  10. 75 FR 60771 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and..., Partnership and Outreach Division, Office of Infrastructure Protection, National Protection and Programs... Infrastructure Protection, National Protection and Programs Directorate, United States Department of...

  11. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information... Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program (PSCP). DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal...

  12. 77 FR 35700 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey AGENCY: National Protection...), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection Division (IICD), will submit the following Information Collection...

  13. 77 FR 64818 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) in a Federal Register Notice (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March... SECURITY The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Quarterly Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council membership...

  14. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance...

  15. 78 FR 20934 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: National Protection and... Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet Monday, April 8, 2013, at... CONTACT: Nancy Wong, National Infrastructure Advisory Council Designated Federal Officer, Department...

  16. 78 FR 16861 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) in a Federal Register Notice (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March... SECURITY The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Quarterly Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council membership...

  17. 78 FR 38723 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...: The National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet July 17, August 14, and September 17... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy Wong, National Infrastructure Advisory Council Designated...

  18. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  19. Increasing the resilience and security of the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States' power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power infrastructure control and distribution paradigms by utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Understanding how these systems behave in real-world conditions will lead to new ways to make our power infrastructure more resilient and secure. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the aging networks protecting them are becoming easier to attack.

  20. Reliability centered maintenance in astronomical infrastructure facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansorge, W. R.

    2006-06-01

    Hundreds of mirror segment, thousands of high precision actuators, highly complex mechanical, hydraulic, electrical and other technology subsystems, and highly sophisticated control systems: an ELT system consists of millions of individual parts and components, each of them may fail and lead to a partial or complete system breakdown. The traditional maintenance concepts characterized by predefined preventive maintenance activities and rigid schedules are not suitable for handling this large number of potential failures and malfunctions and the extreme maintenance workload. New maintenance strategies have to be found suitable to increase reliability while reducing the cost of needless maintenance services. The Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) methodology is already used extensively by airlines, and in industrial and marine facilities and even by scientific institutions like NASA. Its application increases the operational reliability while reducing the cost of unnecessary maintenance activities and is certainly also a solution for current and future ELT facilities. RCM is a concept of developing a maintenance scheme based on the reliability of the various components of a system by using "feedback loops between instrument / system performance monitoring and preventive/corrective maintenance cycles." Ideally RCM has to be designed within a system and should be located in the requirement definition, the preliminary and final design phases of new equipment and complicated systems. However, under certain conditions, an implementation of RCM into the maintenance management strategy of already existing astronomical infrastructure facilities is also possible. This presentation outlines the principles of the RCM methodology, explains the advantages, and highlights necessary changes in the observatory development, operation and maintenance philosophies. Presently, it is the right time to implement RCM into current and future ELT projects and to save up to 50% maintenance

  1. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  2. Powering the Network: The Forgotten Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses systems that power the telecommunications infrastructure. Highlights include power for central telephone company offices; private branch exchange systems; power interruptions and power irregularities; uninterruptible power systems; problems in the systems; and photovoltaic systems. (LRW)

  3. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  4. Orbital Aggregation and Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Antol, Jeffrey; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Chato, David J.; Saucillo, Rudolf J.; Blue, Douglas R.; Carey, David; Krizan, Shawn A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a NASA lead study performed to identify synergistic opportunities and concepts between human exploration initiatives and commercialization of space. The goal of this initiative, called Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), is to develop an in-space architecture and associated concepts that provide common infrastructure for enabling a large class of space missions. The concepts include communications, navigation and power systems, propellant modules, tank farms, habitats, and in-space transportation systems using several propulsion technologies. OASIS features in-space aggregation of systems and resources in support of mission objectives. The concepts feature a high level of reusability and are supported by inexpensive launch of propellant and logistics payloads from the Earth/moon system. Industry, NASA and other users could share infrastructure costs. The anticipated benefits of synergistic utilization of space infrastructure are reduced mission costs and increased mission flexibility for future space exploration and commercialization initiatives.

  5. A technological infrastructure to sustain Internetworked Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mattina, Ernesto; Savarino, Vincenzo; Vicari, Claudia; Storelli, Davide; Bianchini, Devis

    In the Web 3.0 scenario, where information and services are connected by means of their semantics, organizations can improve their competitive advantage by publishing their business and service descriptions. In this scenario, Semantic Peer to Peer (P2P) can play a key role in defining dynamic and highly reconfigurable infrastructures. Organizations can share knowledge and services, using this infrastructure to move towards value networks, an emerging organizational model characterized by fluid boundaries and complex relationships. This chapter collects and defines the technological requirements and architecture of a modular and multi-Layer Peer to Peer infrastructure for SOA-based applications. This technological infrastructure, based on the combination of Semantic Web and P2P technologies, is intended to sustain Internetworked Enterprise configurations, defining a distributed registry and enabling more expressive queries and efficient routing mechanisms. The following sections focus on the overall architecture, while describing the layers that form it.

  6. Green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  7. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Lindauer, Alicia

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Infrastructure Platform Review meeting.

  8. LCA as a Tool to Evaluate Green Infrastructure's Environmental Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano De Sousa, M.; Erispaha, A.; Spatari, S.; Montalto, F.

    2011-12-01

    Decentralized approaches to managing urban stormwater through use of green infrastructure (GI) often lead to system-wide efficiency gains within the urban watershed's energy supply system. These efficiencies lead to direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions savings, and also restore some ecosystem functions within the urban landscape. We developed a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) model to estimate the life cycle energy, global warming potential (GWP), and payback times for each if GI were applied within a select neighborhood in New York City. We applied the SIMAPRO LCA software and the economic input-output LCA (EIO-LCA) tool developed by Carnegie Mellon University. The results showed that for a new intersection installation highlighted in this study a conventional infrastructure construction would emit and use approximately 3 times more for both CO2 and energy than a design using GI. Two GI benefits were analyzed with regards to retrofitting the existing intersection. The first was related to the savings in energy and CO2 at the Waste Water Treatment Plant via runoff reduction accrued from GI use. The second benefit was related to the avoided environmental costs associated with an additional new grey infrastructure installation needed to prevent CSO in case of no GI implementation. The first benefit indicated a high payback time for a GI installation in terms of CO2 and energy demand (80 and 90 years respectively) and suggest a slow energy and carbon recovery time. However, concerning to the second benefit, GI proved to be a sustainable alternative considering the high CO2 releases (429 MTE) and energy demand (5.5 TJ) associated with a grey infrastructure construction.

  9. The German Landslide Database: A Tool to Analyze Infrastructure Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, Bodo; Klose, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany has long been among the few European countries that lack a national landslide database. Systematic collection and inventory of landslide data over broad geographic areas and for different types of critical infrastructures was thus widely exceptional up until today. This has changed in recent years with the launch of a database initiative aimed at closing the data gap existing at national level. The present contribution reports on this database project that is focused on the development of a comprehensive pool of landslide data for systematic analysis of landslide hazard impacts in Germany. Major purpose of the database is to store and provide detailed scientific data on all types of landslides affecting critical infrastructures (transportation systems, industrial facilities, etc.) and urban areas. The database evolved over the last 15 years to a database covering large parts of Germany and offers a collection of data sets for more than 4,200 landslides with over 13,000 single data files. Data collection is based on a bottom-up approach that involves in-depth archive works and acquisition of data by close collaboration with infrastructure agencies and municipal offices. This enables to develop a database that stores geospatial landslide information and detailed data sets on landslide causes and impacts as well as hazard mitigation. The database is currently migrated to a spatial database system in PostgreSQL/PostGIS. This contribution gives an overview of the database content and its application in landslide impact research. It deals with the underlying strategy of data collection and presents the types of data and their quality to perform damage statistics and analyses of infrastructure exposure. The contribution refers to different case studies and regional investigations in the German Central Uplands.

  10. Informatics Infrastructure for the Materials Genome Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Alden; Bhaskarla, Sunil; Becker, Chandler; Brady, Mary; Campbell, Carelyn; Dessauw, Philippe; Hanisch, Robert; Kattner, Ursula; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Newrock, Marcus; Peskin, Adele; Plante, Raymond; Li, Sheng-Yen; Rigodiat, Pierre-François; Amaral, Guillaume Sousa; Trautt, Zachary; Schmitt, Xavier; Warren, James; Youssef, Sharief

    2016-07-01

    A materials data infrastructure that enables the sharing and transformation of a wide range of materials data is an essential part of achieving the goals of the Materials Genome Initiative. We describe two high-level requirements of such an infrastructure as well as an emerging open-source implementation consisting of the Materials Data Curation System and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Materials Resource Registry.

  11. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: Socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2010-09-15

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmental policy and claimed to serve sustainability goals. They are considered to serve (proclaimed) public interests, while the adverse impact or risk that mainly concerns environmental values as well is concentrated at a smaller scale, for example in local communities. The social acceptance of environmental policy infrastructure is institutionally determined. The institutional capacity for learning in infrastructure decision-making processes in the following three domains is compared: 1.The implementation of wind power as a renewable energy innovation; 2.The policy on space-water adaptation, with its claim to implement a new style of management replacing the current practice of focusing on control and 'hard' infrastructure; 3.Waste policy with a focus on sound waste management and disposal, claiming a preference for waste minimization (the 'waste management hierarchy'). All three cases show a large variety of social acceptance issues, where the appraisal of the impact of siting the facilities is confronted with the desirability of the policies. In dealing with environmental conflict, the environmental capacity of the Netherlands appears to be low. The policies are frequently hotly contested within the process of infrastructure decision-making. Decision-making on infrastructure is often framed as if consensus about the objectives of environmental policies exists. These claims are not justified, and therefore stimulating the emergence of environmental conflicts that discourage social acceptance of the policies. Authorities are frequently involved in planning infrastructure that conflicts with their officially proclaimed policy objectives. In these circumstances, they are

  12. Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

  13. Research infrastructure support to address ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Predicting the evolution of ecosystems to climate change or human pressures is a challenge. Even understanding past or current processes is complicated as a result of the many interactions and feedbacks that occur within and between components of the system. This talk will present an example of current research on changes in landscape evolution, hydrology, soil biogeochemical processes, zoological food webs, and plant community succession, and how these affect feedbacks to components of the systems, including the climate system. Multiple observations, experiments, and simulations provide a wealth of data, but not necessarily understanding. Model development on the coupled processes on different spatial and temporal scales is sensitive for variations in data and of parameter change. Fast high performance computing may help to visualize the effect of these changes and the potential stability (and reliability) of the models. This may than allow for iteration between data production and models towards stable models reducing uncertainty and improving the prediction of change. The role of research infrastructures becomes crucial is overcoming barriers for such research. Environmental infrastructures are covering physical site facilities, dedicated instrumentation and e-infrastructure. The LifeWatch infrastructure for biodiversity and ecosystem research will provide services for data integration, analysis and modeling. But it has to cooperate intensively with the other kinds of infrastructures in order to support the iteration between data production and model computation. The cooperation in the ENVRI project (Common operations of environmental research infrastructures) is one of the initiatives to foster such multidisciplinary research.

  14. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify new research

  15. Practical Use of the GEOSS Common Infrastructure by Environmental Research Infrastructures - Lessons from a COOPEUS-GEOSS Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, H. C.; Koop-Jakobsen, K.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) enables earth observations data providers to make their resources available in a global context and allow users of earth observations data to search, access and use data, tools and services available through the Global Earth Observation System of Systems. COOPEUS views the GCI as an important platform promoting cross-disciplinary approaches in the studies of multifaceted environmental challenges, and the research infrastructures (RIs) in COOPEUS are currently in the process of registering resources and services within the GCI. To promote this work, COOPEUS and GEOSS held a joint workshop in July 2014, where the main scope was to get data managers of the COOPEUS RIs involved and establish the GCI as part of the COOPEUS interoperability framework. The workshop revealed that data policies of the individual RIs can often be the first impediment for their use of the GCI. As many RIs are administering data from many sources, permission to distribute the data must be in place before registration in the GCI. Through hands-on exercises registering resources from the COOPEUS RIs, the first steps were taken to implement the GCI as a platform for documenting the capabilities of the COOPEUS RIs. These exercises gave important feedback for the practical implementation of the GCI as well as the challenges lying ahead. For the COOPEUS RIs providing data the benefits includes improved discovery and access to data and information, increased visibility of available data, information and services, which will promote the structuring of the existing environmental research infrastructure landscape and improve the interoperability. However, in order to attract research infrastructures to use the GCI, the registration process must be simplified and accelerated like for instance allowing for bulk data registration; the resource registration and feedback by COOPEUS partners can play an important role in these efforts.

  16. [Dutch government invests in existing biobanks].

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Margreet; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Wijmenga, Cisca; Kiemeney, Lambertus A

    2010-01-01

    Modern research, aimed at discovering factors that influence health and disease, requires large collections of data and samples. Collaboration between biobanks is therefore essential. The Dutch hub in the network of biobanks, the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-NL), is one of the major Dutch biobanking initiatives. It is sponsored by the Dutch government through the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). BBMRI-NL sets up collaboration between approximately 150 existing clinical and population biobanks in the Netherlands, and forms the link with the European BBMRI initiative. BBMRI-NL aims at enrichment and harmonization of existing Dutch biobanks, at data management and analysis, and at laying the legal, social and ethical foundations, in order to improve access and inter-operability, and to render the information and organization up to date. Other major Dutch initiatives are String of Pearls and LifeLines. Together these will create the conditions needed for Dutch researchers to further develop their strong position in the international biobanking field. PMID:21029488

  17. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters at ground level are fundamentally essential for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting and for various applications in agriculture, hydrology, transportation and more. The accuracy of existing instruments, however, is often limited as a result of technical and practical constraints. Existing technologies such as satellite systems cover large areas but may experience lack of precision at near surface level. On the other hand, ground based in-situ sensors often suffer from low spatial representativity. In addition, these conventional monitoring instruments are costly to implement and maintain. At frequencies of tens of GHz, various atmospheric hydrometeors affect microwave beams, causing perturbations to radio signals. Consequently, commercial wireless links that constitute the infrastructure for data transport between cellular base stations can be considered as a built in environmental monitoring facility (Messer et al., Science, 2006). These microwave links are widely deployed worldwide at surface level altitudes and can provide measurements of various atmospheric phenomena. The implementation costs are minimal since the infrastructure is already situated in the field. This technique has been shown to be applicable for 2D rainfall monitoring (e.g. Overeem et al., PNAS, 2013; Liberman et al., AMT, 2014) and potentially for water vapor observations (David et al., ACP, 2009; Chwala et al., Atmos. Res., 2013). Moreover, it has been recently shown that the technology has strong potential for detection of fog and estimation of its intensity (David et al., JGR-Atmos., 2013; David et al., BAMS, 2014). The research conducted to this point forms the basis for the initiation of a research project in this newly emerging field at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Cornell University. The presentation will provide insights into key capabilities of the novel approach. The potential to monitor various

  18. EUDAT: A New Cross-Disciplinary Data Infrastructure For Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecarpentier, Damien; Michelini, Alberto; Wittenburg, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In recent years significant investments have been made by the European Commission and European member states to create a pan-European e-Infrastructure supporting multiple research communities. As a result, a European e-Infrastructure ecosystem is currently taking shape, with communication networks, distributed grids and HPC facilities providing European researchers from all fields with state-of-the-art instruments and services that support the deployment of new research facilities on a pan-European level. However, the accelerated proliferation of data - newly available from powerful new scientific instruments, simulations and the digitization of existing resources - has created a new impetus for increasing efforts and investments in order to tackle the specific challenges of data management, and to ensure a coherent approach to research data access and preservation. EUDAT is a pan-European initiative that started in October 2011 and which aims to help overcome these challenges by laying out the foundations of a Collaborative Data Infrastructure (CDI) in which centres offering community-specific support services to their users could rely on a set of common data services shared between different research communities. Although research communities from different disciplines have different ambitions and approaches - particularly with respect to data organization and content - they also share many basic service requirements. This commonality makes it possible for EUDAT to establish common data services, designed to support multiple research communities, as part of this CDI. During the first year, EUDAT has been reviewing the approaches and requirements of a first subset of communities from linguistics (CLARIN), solid earth sciences (EPOS), climate sciences (ENES), environmental sciences (LIFEWATCH), and biological and medical sciences (VPH), and shortlisted four generic services to be deployed as shared services on the EUDAT infrastructure. These services are data

  19. Risk assessment for physical and cyber attacks on critical infrastructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Bryan J.; Sholander, Peter E.; Phelan, James M.; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2005-08-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies. Existing risk assessment methodologies consider physical security and cyber security separately. As such, they do not accurately model attacks that involve defeating both physical protection and cyber protection elements (e.g., hackers turning off alarm systems prior to forced entry). This paper presents a risk assessment methodology that accounts for both physical and cyber security. It also preserves the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay and respond, while accounting for the possibility that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the results of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology provides a means for ranking those assets most at risk from malevolent attacks. Because the methodology is automated the analyst can also play 'what if with mitigation measures to gain a better understanding of how to best expend resources towards securing the facilities. It is simple enough to be applied to large infrastructure facilities without developing highly complicated models. Finally, it is applicable to facilities with extensive security as well as those that are less well-protected.

  20. Earthquake warning system for infrastructures : a scoping analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; O'Connor, Sharon L.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Fogleman, William E.; Vugrin, Eric D.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Brown, Theresa Jean

    2011-09-01

    This report provides the results of a scoping study evaluating the potential risk reduction value of a hypothetical, earthquake early-warning system. The study was based on an analysis of the actions that could be taken to reduce risks to population and infrastructures, how much time would be required to take each action and the potential consequences of false alarms given the nature of the action. The results of the scoping analysis indicate that risks could be reduced through improving existing event notification systems and individual responses to the notification; and production and utilization of more detailed risk maps for local planning. Detailed maps and training programs, based on existing knowledge of geologic conditions and processes, would reduce uncertainty in the consequence portion of the risk analysis. Uncertainties in the timing, magnitude and location of earthquakes and the potential impacts of false alarms will present major challenges to the value of an early-warning system.

  1. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part I--Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Baird, Philip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-04-01

    This is a two-part review describing the planning, engineering, and design considerations for building a new repository for biological and environmental samples. Part I addresses the physical infrastructure requirements for a repository; Part II will cover equipment and costing. Planning for construction of a new repository is a complex process requiring comprehensive preplanning and adherence to many regulatory and safety requirements. Guidance and a planning timeline are provided for many of the physical aspects and large capital acquisition costs for the expansion of an existing repository, or the creation of a new repository facility, using an available unoccupied building such as a former warehouse. This article provides a comprehensive set of information about every aspect of repository construction and operation to be considered in the planning process, and also addresses all aspects of designing and constructing a new repository in an existing structure. The engineering and design parameters for the repository are discussed in detail. PMID:26886580

  2. Final Report on National NGV Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    GM Sverdrup; JG DeSteese; ND Malcosky

    1999-01-07

    This report summarizes work fimded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to (1) identi& barriers to establishing sustainable natural gas vehicle (NGV) infrastructure and (2) develop planning information that can help to promote a NGV infrastructure with self-sustaining critical maw. The need for this work is driven by the realization that demand for NGVS has not yet developed to a level that provides sufficient incentives for investment by the commercial sector in all necessary elements of a supportive infrastructure. The two major objectives of this project were: (1) to identifi and prioritize the technical barriers that may be impeding growth of a national NGV infrastructure and (2) to develop input that can assist industry in overcoming these barriers. The approach used in this project incorporated and built upon the accumulated insights of the NGV industry. The project was conducted in three basic phases: (1) review of the current situation, (2) prioritization of technical infrastructure btiiers, and (3) development of plans to overcome key barriers. An extensive and diverse list of barriers was obtained from direct meetings and telephone conferences with sixteen industry NGV leaders and seven Clean Cities/Clean Corridors coordinators. This information is filly documented in the appendix. A distillation of insights gained in the interview process suggests that persistent barriers to developing an NGV market and supporting infrastructure can be grouped into four major categories: 1. Fuel station economics 2. Value of NGVs from the owner/operator perspective 3. Cooperation necessary for critical mass 4. Commitment by investors. A principal conclusion is that an efficient and effective approach for overcoming technical barriers to developing an NGV infrastructure can be provided by building upon and consolidating the relevant efforts of the NGV industry and government. The major recommendation of this project is the

  3. Local Legal Infrastructure and Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Dana J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the association between the legal infrastructure of local public health, as expressed in the exercise of local fiscal and legislative authority, and local population health outcomes. Methods. Our unit of analysis was public health jurisdictions with at least 100 000 residents. The dependent variable was jurisdiction premature mortality rates obtained from the Mobilize Action Toward Community Health (MATCH) database. Our primary independent variables represented local public health’s legal infrastructure: home rule status, board of health power, county government structure, and type of public health delivery system. Several control variables were included. We used a regression model to test the relationship between the varieties of local public health legal infrastructure identified and population health status. Results. The analyses suggested that public health legal infrastructure, particularly reformed county government, had a significant effect on population health status as a mediator of social determinants of health. Conclusions. Because states shape the legal infrastructure of local public health through power-sharing arrangements, our findings suggested recommendations for state legislation that positions local public health systems for optimal impact. Much more research is needed to elucidate the complex relationships among law, social capital, and population health status. PMID:22897523

  4. Controlling Infrastructure Costs: Right-Sizing the Mission Control Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Keith; Sen-Roy, Michael; Heiman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center is a space vehicle, space program agnostic facility. The current operational design is essentially identical to the original facility architecture that was developed and deployed in the mid-90's. In an effort to streamline the support costs of the mission critical facility, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) has sponsored an exploratory project to evaluate and inject current state-of-the-practice Information Technology (IT) tools, processes and technology into legacy operations. The general push in the IT industry has been trending towards a data-centric computer infrastructure for the past several years. Organizations facing challenges with facility operations costs are turning to creative solutions combining hardware consolidation, virtualization and remote access to meet and exceed performance, security, and availability requirements. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) organization at the Johnson Space Center has been chartered to build and evaluate a parallel Mission Control infrastructure, replacing the existing, thick-client distributed computing model and network architecture with a data center model utilizing virtualization to provide the MCC Infrastructure as a Service. The OTF will design a replacement architecture for the Mission Control Facility, leveraging hardware consolidation through the use of blade servers, increasing utilization rates for compute platforms through virtualization while expanding connectivity options through the deployment of secure remote access. The architecture demonstrates the maturity of the technologies generally available in industry today and the ability to successfully abstract the tightly coupled relationship between thick-client software and legacy hardware into a hardware agnostic "Infrastructure as a Service" capability that can scale to meet future requirements of new space programs and spacecraft. This paper discusses the benefits

  5. Universal Basic Education in Nigeria: Availability of Schools' Infrastructure for Effective Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikoya, Peter O.; Onoyase, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the availability and adequacy of schools' infrastructural facilities for implementation of the Universal Basic Education program in Nigeria. Adopting the "ex post facto" design, the researchers used existing school data on physical facilities, including a survey of key stakeholders in the education sector. Data analysed…

  6. Youth and Lifelong Education: After-School Programmes as a Vital Component of Lifelong Education Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Allan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that after-school programmes need to be considered an essential part of lifelong learning infrastructure, particularly in light of the dominance of the economic discourse in both lifelong learning literature and the initial schooling literature. The paper, which is based upon existing literature, begins by providing an overview…

  7. Communication: Essential for Leadership to a Public Good--an Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Robert F., Jr.

    This paper discusses the central role of effective communication in library leadership and how a leadership role in the library and information community can define and help establish an information infrastructure in our society. The opportunity for this leadership to exist in the convergence of libraries and computer centers is examined in a…

  8. Developing an Information Infrastructure To Support Information Retrieval: Towards a Theory of Clustering Based in Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micco, Mary; Popp, Rich

    Techniques for building a world-wide information infrastructure by reverse engineering existing databases to link them in a hierarchical system of subject clusters to create an integrated database are explored. The controlled vocabulary of the Library of Congress Subject Headings is used to ensure consistency and group similar items. Each database…

  9. Options for a Federal Role in Infrastructure Development at Tribal Colleges & Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, Washington, DC.

    Due to rapidly increasing enrollments and inadequate existing facilities, the federal government must play a stronger role in supporting infrastructure development at tribal colleges. The federal government's role stems from its trust relationship with American Indian tribes and from the fact that the tribal colleges missed the height of federal…

  10. Infrastructure of the Gemini Observatory control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim K.; Walker, Shane

    1998-07-01

    Construction of the first Gemini 8-m telescope is well underway. The software that provides the user interface and high-level control of the observatory, the observatory control system (OCS), is also proceeding on track. The OCS provides tools that assist the astronomer from the proposal submission phase through planning, observation execution, and data review. A capable and flexible software infrastructure is required to support this comprehensive approach. New software technologies and industry standards have played a large part in the implementation of this infrastructure. For instance, the use of CORBA has provided many benefits in the software including object distribution, an interface definition language, and implementation language independence. In this paper, we describe the infrastructure of the OCS that supports observation planning and execution. Important software decisions and interfaces that allow Internet access and the ability to substitute alternate implementations easily are discussed as a model for other similar projects.

  11. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  12. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  13. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  14. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  15. Towards a multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, Stefano; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Cossu, Roberto; Santoto, Mattia; Martini, Marcello; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The MED-SUV European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to design and implement a multidisciplinary infrastructure for the volcanic risk management life-cycle in southern Italy. The MED-SUV infrastructure will rely upon the improvements of the understanding of geophysical processes underlying the volcanic systems of Vesuvius / Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. It will also achieve the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases, novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters, and tools for data analysis and process modelling. This effort will contribute to GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems - http://www.earthobservations.org/geoss.shtml) as one the volcano Supersite recognized by GEO (Group on Earth Observation) -see http://supersites.earthobservations.org/. To achieve its goals, MED-SUV needs an advanced e-infrastructure allowing: (a) heterogeneous data and processing systems to provide and share their resources, and (b) supersite Users to run their workflows and generate significant products. This presentation discusses the general interoperability approach and architecture characterizing the MED-SUV e-infrastructure. The MED-SUV e-infrastructure considered the concepts and solutions adopted by the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). The architecture requirements and system technologies builds on the experience done by relevant European projects in the framework of GEOSS and ESFRI (e.g. EuroGEOSS, GENESI, GEOWOW). MED-SUV e-infrastructure adopts three-tiers approach distinguishing among: (a) local and distributed Data/Information Providers; (b) the MED-SUV Brokering framework for harmonization and interoperability; (c) the MED-SUV e-collaboration environment for the generation and publication of advanced products. MED-SUV e-infrastructure development considers interoperability with the other two FP7 supersite projects: MARSITE and FUTUREVOLC, as well as EPOS.

  16. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  17. Securing energy assets and infrastructure 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-15

    This report describes in detail the energy industry's challenges and solutions for protecting critical assets including oil and gas infrastructure, transmission grids, power plants, storage, pipelines, and all aspects of strategic industry assets. It includes a special section on cyber-terrorism and protecting control systems. Contents: Section I - Introduction; U.S Energy Trends; Vulnerabilities; Protection Measures. Section II - Sector-wise Vulnerabilities Assessments and Security Measures: Coal, Oil and Petroleum, Natural Gas, Electric Power, Cybersecurity and Control Systems, Key Recommendations; Section III - Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts: Government Initiatives, Agencies, and Checklists.

  18. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  19. Infrastructure Retrofit Design via Composite Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos, C.; Gotsis,Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Select applications are described to illustrate the concept for retrofitting reinforced concrete infrastructure with fiber reinforced plastic laminates. The concept is first illustrated by using an axially loaded reinforced concrete column. A reinforced concrete arch and a dome are then used to illustrate the versatility of the concept. Advanced methods such as finite element structural analysis and progressive structural fracture are then used to evaluate the retrofitting laminate adequacy. Results obtains show that retrofits can be designed to double and even triple the as-designed load of the select reinforced concrete infrastructures.

  20. NASA World Wind: Infrastructure for Spatial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The world has great need for analysis of Earth observation data, be it climate change, carbon monitoring, disaster response, national defense or simply local resource management. To best provide for spatial and time-dependent information analysis, the world benefits from an open standards and open source infrastructure for spatial data. In the spirit of NASA's motto "for the benefit of all" NASA invites the world community to collaboratively advance this core technology. The World Wind infrastructure for spatial data both unites and challenges the world for innovative solutions analyzing spatial data while also allowing absolute command and control over any respective information exchange medium.

  1. GOES-R GS Product Generation Infrastructure Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanton, M.; Gundy, J.

    2012-12-01

    GOES-R GS Product Generation Infrastructure Operations: The GOES-R Ground System (GS) will produce a much larger set of products with higher data density than previous GOES systems. This requires considerably greater compute and memory resources to achieve the necessary latency and availability for these products. Over time, new algorithms could be added and existing ones removed or updated, but the GOES-R GS cannot go down during this time. To meet these GOES-R GS processing needs, the Harris Corporation will implement a Product Generation (PG) infrastructure that is scalable, extensible, extendable, modular and reliable. The primary parts of the PG infrastructure are the Service Based Architecture (SBA), which includes the Distributed Data Fabric (DDF). The SBA is the middleware that encapsulates and manages science algorithms that generate products. The SBA is divided into three parts, the Executive, which manages and configures the algorithm as a service, the Dispatcher, which provides data to the algorithm, and the Strategy, which determines when the algorithm can execute with the available data. The SBA is a distributed architecture, with services connected to each other over a compute grid and is highly scalable. This plug-and-play architecture allows algorithms to be added, removed, or updated without affecting any other services or software currently running and producing data. Algorithms require product data from other algorithms, so a scalable and reliable messaging is necessary. The SBA uses the DDF to provide this data communication layer between algorithms. The DDF provides an abstract interface over a distributed and persistent multi-layered storage system (memory based caching above disk-based storage) and an event system that allows algorithm services to know when data is available and to get the data that they need to begin processing when they need it. Together, the SBA and the DDF provide a flexible, high performance architecture that can meet

  2. DRIHM: Distributed Research Infrastructure for HydroMeteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Predicting weather and climate and its impacts on the environment, including hazards such as floods and landslides, is still one of the main challenges of the 21st century with significant societal and economic implications. At the heart of this challenge lies the ability to have easy access to hydrometeorological data and models, and facilitate the collaboration between meteorologists, hydrologists, and Earth science experts for accelerated scientific advances in hydrometeorological research (HMR). to face these problems the DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project intends to develop a prototype e-Science environment to facilitate this collaboration and provide end-to-end HMR services (models, datasets and post-processing tools) at the European level, with the ability to expand to global scale. The objectives of DRIHM are to lead the definition of a common long-term strategy, to foster the development of new HMR models and observational archives for the study of severe hydrometeorological events, to promote the execution and analysis of high-end simulations, and to support the dissemination of predictive models as decision analysis tools. DRIHM combines the European expertise in HMR, in Grid and High Performance Computing (HPC). Joint research activities will improve the efficient use of the European e-Infrastructures, notably Grid and HPC, for HMR modelling and observational databases, model evaluation tool sets and access to HMR model results. Networking activities will disseminate DRIHM results at the European and global levels in order to increase the cohesion of European and possibly worldwide HMR communities and increase the awareness of ICT potential for HMR. Service activities will deploy the end-to-end DRIHM services and tools in support of HMR networks and virtual organizations on top of the existing European e-Infrastructures.

  3. Utilizing Instructional Media for Teaching Infrastructure Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajriah, Ulfah Nur; Churiyah, Madziatul

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to produce instructional media Corel VideoStudio Pro X7-based on teaching infrastructure administration at class XI of APK in SMKN 1 Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia. This study uses Research and Development research design (R & D) through 10 steps, namely: (1) the potential and problems, (2) data collection, (3) the design of the…

  4. Infrastructure and Administrative Support for Online Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John D.; Barefield, Amanda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the availability and effectiveness of administrative support elements for online teaching faculty, and introduce a faculty validated Matrix for use as a guide in development of administrative support for online programs. When administrators make decisions about the infrastructure support needs of a current…

  5. Spending on School Infrastructure: Does Money Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to further develop an emerging thread of quantitative research that grounds investment in school infrastructure in a unified theoretical framework of investment in human, social, and physical capital. Design/methodology/approach: To answer the research question, what is the impact of investment in human,…

  6. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  7. The development of a cislunar space infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, C. A.; Johnson, A. S.; Mcglinchey, J. M.; Ryan, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this Advanced Mission Design Program is to define the general characteristics and phased evolution of a near-Earth space infrastructure. The envisioned foundation includes a permanently manned, self-sustaining base on the lunar surface, a space station at the Libration Point between earth and the moon (L1), and a transportation system that anchors these elements to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) station. The implementation of this conceptual design was carried out with the idea that the infrastructure is an important step in a larger plan to expand man's capabilities in space science and technology. Such expansion depends on low cost, reliable, and frequent access to space for those who wish to use the multiple benefits of this environment. The presence of a cislunar space infrastructure would greatly facilitate the staging of future planetary missions, as well as the full exploration of the lunar potential for science and industry. The rationale for, and a proposed detailed scenario in support of, the cislunar space infrastructure are discussed.

  8. The ICT Infrastructure: A Driver of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the influence of information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure changes on higher education. Addresses issues such as ICT hardware, networks, and leadership and skills; budgets; policy (including access to information, information privacy, information security, and ownership of faculty course materials); changes in…

  9. A review of four distribution infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, J.; Edwards, N.; Cole, R.

    1994-06-01

    The paper describes experiences in designing and implementing a groupware application (a shared whiteboard) on four different distribution infrastructures. We describe the application and how its design was influenced by reliability requirements. We review the four platforms and discuss the useful, and not so useful, features of each platform.

  10. Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This 16th annual report highlights up-to-date information on the programs supported through the Chancellor's Office Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program (TTIP). To summarize 2012-13, one would describe it as a year of planning and preparation. The system-wide budget cuts of the past few years, reports of impacted classes, staff…

  11. Plan to mitigate infrastructure development released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell released a new strategy on 10 April 2014 to advance landscape-scale, science-based management of America's public lands and wildlife. The strategy will implement mitigation policies and practices at the Department of the Interior that can encourage infrastructure development while protecting natural and cultural resources.

  12. The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Microcomputers for Information Management, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the National Information Infrastructure and the role of the government. Topics include private sector investment; universal service; technological innovation; user orientation; information security and network reliability; management of the radio frequency spectrum; intellectual property rights; coordination with other levels of…

  13. Distribution of green infrastructure along walkable roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-income and minority neighborhoods frequently lack healthful resources to which wealthier communities have access. Though important, the addition of facilities such as recreation centers can be costly and take time to implement. Urban green infrastructure, such as street trees...

  14. CP corrosion control of municipal infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    Since its introduction in 1824, cathodic protection (CP) technology has developed to become a fundamental tool for preventing corrosion on municipal infrastructure. Potable water storage tanks and piping, prestressed concrete cylinder pipe, reinforced concrete structures, bridges, parking structures, underground fuel tanks, and effluent treatment clarifiers now benefit from this technology.

  15. Is the Infrastructure of EHDI Programs Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Hoffman, Jeff; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the EHDI program infrastructure area, 47 coordinators responded with a total of 292 items, and themes were identified in each…

  16. Building the Digital Library Infrastructure: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbetts, Diane R.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a framework for examining the complex infrastructure needed to successfully implement a digital library. Highlights include database development, online public-access catalogs, interactive technical services, full-text documents, hardware and wiring, licensing, access, and security issues. (Author/LRW)

  17. PACS infrastructure supporting e-learning.

    PubMed

    Mildenberger, Peter; Brüggemann, Kerstin; Rösner, Freya; Koch, Katja; Ahlers, Christopher

    2011-05-01

    Digital imaging is becoming predominant in radiology. This has implications for teaching support, because conventional film-based concepts are now obsolete. The IHE Teaching File and Clinical Study Export (TCE) profile provides an excellent platform to enhance PACS infrastructure with educational functionality. This can be supplemented with dedicated e-learning tools. PMID:20619986

  18. 76 FR 36137 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... the committee has completed its business. For additional information, please consult the NIAC Web site.... Written comments may be sent to Nancy Wong, Department of Homeland Security, National Protection...

  19. GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: Rain Gardens

    EPA Science Inventory

    the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) rain garden evaluation is part of a larger collection of long-term research that evaluates a variety of stormwater management practices. The U.S. EPA recognizes the potential of rain gardens as a green infrastructure manag...

  20. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-05-01

    This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

  1. Telecommunications Infrastructure Objectives and Implementation Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Government Information, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Presents objectives and implementation goals formulated by the Information Industry Association for the anticipated rapid expansion of the telecommunications infrastructure. Highlights include market forces; the role of state, national, and international governments; competition versus regulation; maintenance of reasonable rates; worldwide public…

  2. ACRF Data Collection and Processing Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Macduff, M; Egan, D

    2004-12-01

    We present a description of the data flow from measurement to long-term archive. We also discuss data communications infrastructure. The data handling processes presented include collection, transfer, ingest, quality control, creation of Value-Added Products (VAP), and data archiving.

  3. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  4. Information Infrastructure, National Policy, and Global Competitiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, John L.; Kraemer, Kenneth L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of national policy formation for information technology in the context of the national information infrastructure in the United States. Reviews technological forces shaping the convergence of computers and communications, describes current and future services, service providers and markets, and concludes with implications for…

  5. The internal social sustainability of sanitation infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Jessica A; Javernick-Will, Amy N

    2014-09-01

    While the construction of sanitation infrastructure is one of humankind's greatest public health and environmental engineering achievements, its benefits are not yet enjoyed by all. In addition to the billions of people not yet reached by sanitation infrastructure, at least half of systems constructed in developing contexts are abandoned in the years following initial construction. In this research, we target the problem of postconstruction onsite sanitation infrastructure abandonment in rural Guatemala using legitimacy and status theory. Legitimacy and status are established theoretical concepts from organizational theory that reflect cultural alignment and normative support. Crisp set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA), which uses Boolean algebra to discover combinations of theoretical conditions that produce an outcome of interest, allowed us to describe the various pathways that have caused socially sustainable uptake. We find that three combinations of legitimacy and status theory explain 85% of household cases at a consistency of 0.97. The most practically useful pathway covers 50% of household cases and shows that the combination of consequential legitimacy (a moral understanding of outcomes) and comprehensibility legitimacy (a cognitive model connecting outcomes to processes) is a powerful way to achieve socially sustainable sanitation infrastructure. PMID:25102164

  6. The Challenge of Space Infrastructure Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Colombano, Silvano P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the range of technologies that will contribute to the construction of space infrastructure that will both enable and, in some cases, provide the motivation for space exploration. Five parts are addressed: Managing complexity, robotics based construction, materials acquisition, manufacturing, and self-sustaining systems.

  7. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  8. Elastic Cloud Computing Infrastructures in the Open Cirrus Testbed Implemented via Eucalyptus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baun, Christian; Kunze, Marcel

    Cloud computing realizes the advantages and overcomes some restrictionsof the grid computing paradigm. Elastic infrastructures can easily be createdand managed by cloud users. In order to accelerate the research ondata center management and cloud services the OpenCirrusTM researchtestbed has been started by HP, Intel and Yahoo!. Although commercialcloud offerings are proprietary, Open Source solutions exist in the field ofIaaS with Eucalyptus, PaaS with AppScale and at the applications layerwith Hadoop MapReduce. This paper examines the I/O performance ofcloud computing infrastructures implemented with Eucalyptus in contrastto Amazon S3.

  9. Supporting Infrastructure and Acceptability Issues Associated With Two New Generation Vehicles: P2000 and EXS2

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S

    2000-06-06

    As the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) has been proceeding with the development of designs for high-fuel-economy vehicles, it also has been assessing whether impediments exist to the transition to these vehicles. Toward that end, as materials options and vehicle designs have been developed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been conducting analyses related to the attendant materials infrastructure requirements. This report addresses the question, what are the infrastructure requirements, acceptance issues, and life-cycle impacts associated with PNGV vehicles constructed of lightweight materials.

  10. The Component Model of Infrastructure: A Practical Approach to Understanding Public Health Program Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P.

    2014-01-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

  11. Assuring the Performance of Buildings and Infrastructures: Report of Discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Regina L.

    1999-05-28

    How to ensure the appropriate performance of our built environment in the face of normal conditions, natural hazards, and malevolent threats is an issue of emerging national and international importance. As the world population increases, new construction must be increasingly cost effective and at the same time increasingly secure, safe, and durable. As the existing infrastructure ages, materials and techniques for retrofitting must be developed in parallel with improvements in design, engineering, and building codes for new construction. Both new and renovated structures are more often being subjected to the scrutiny of risk analysis. An international conference, "Assuring the Performance of Buildings and Infrastructures," was held in May 1997 to address some of these issues. The conference was co-sponsored by the Architectural Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the American Institute of Architects, and Sandia National Laboratories and convened in Albuquerque, NM. Many of the papers presented at the conference are found within this issue of Techno20~. This paper presents some of the major conference themes and summarizes discussions not found in the other papers.

  12. MEDWISE: an innovative public health information system infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Celikkan, Ufuk

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present MedWise, a high level design of a medical information infrastructure, and its architecture. The proposed system offers a comprehensive, modular, robust and extensible infrastructure to be used in public health care systems. The system gathers reliable and evidence based health data, which it then classifies, interprets and stores into a particular database. It creates a healthcare ecosystem that aids the medical community by providing for less error prone diagnoses and treatment of diseases. This system will be standards-compliant; therefore it would be complementary to the existing healthcare and clinical information systems. The key objective of the proposed system is to provide as much medical historical and miscellaneous data as possible about the patients with minimal consultation, thus allowing physicians to easily access Patients' Ancillary Data (PAD) such as hereditary, residential, travel, custom, meteorological, biographical and demographical data before the consultation. In addition, the system can help to diminish problems and misdiagnosis situations caused by language barriers-disorders and misinformation. MedWise can assist physicians to shorten time for diagnosis and consultations, therefore dramatically improving quality and quantity of the physical examinations of patients. Furthermore, since it intends to supply a significant amount of data, it may be used to improve skills of students in medical education. PMID:21110075

  13. Information Infrastructure, Information Environments, and Long-Term Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, K. S.; Pennington, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Information infrastructure that supports collaborative science is a complex system of people, organizational arrangements, and tools that require co-management. Contemporary studies are exploring how to establish and characterize effective collaborative information environments. Collaboration depends on the flow of information across the human and technical system components through mechanisms that create linkages, both conceptual and technical. This transcends the need for requirements solicitation and usability studies, highlighting synergistic interactions between humans and technology that can lead to emergence of group level cognitive properties. We consider the ramifications of placing priority on establishing new metaphors and new types of learning environments located near-to-data-origin for the field sciences. In addition to changes in terms of participant engagement, there are implications in terms of innovative contributions to the design of information systems and data exchange. While data integration occurs in the minds of individual participants, it may be facilitated by collaborative thinking and community infrastructure. Existing learning frameworks - from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to organizational learning - require modification and extension if effective approaches to decentralized information management and systems design are to emerge. Case studies relating to data integration include ecological community projects: development of cross-disciplinary conceptual maps and of a community unit registry.

  14. Clinical Trials Infrastructure as a Quality Improvement Intervention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Avram; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Joffe, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that participation in clinical trials confers neither advantage nor disadvantage on those enrolled. Narrow focus on the question of a "trial effect," however, distracts from a broader mechanism by which patients may benefit from ongoing clinical research. We hypothesize that the existence of clinical trials infrastructure-the organizational culture, systems, and expertise that develop as a product of sustained participation in cooperative clinical trials research-may function as a quality improvement lever, improving the quality of care and outcomes of all patients within an institution or region independent of their individual participation in trials. We further contend that this "infrastructure effect" can yield particular benefits for patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The hypothesis of an infrastructure effect as a quality improvement intervention, if correct, justifies enhanced research capacity in LMIC as a pillar of health system development. PMID:27216089

  15. Designing a concept for an IT-infrastructure for an integrated research and treatment center.

    PubMed

    Stäubert, Sebastian; Winter, Alfred; Speer, Ronald; Löffler, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare and medical research in Germany are heading to more interconnected systems. New initiatives are funded by the German government to encourage the development of Integrated Research and Treatment Centers (IFB). Within an IFB new organizational structures and infrastructures for interdisciplinary, translational and trans-sectoral working relationship between existing rigid separated sectors are intended and needed. This paper describes how an IT-infrastructure of an IFB could look like, what major challenges have to be solved and what methods can be used to plan such a complex IT-infrastructure in the field of healthcare. By means of project management, system analyses, process models, 3LGM2-models and resource plans an appropriate concept with different views is created. This concept supports the information management in its enterprise architecture planning activities and implies a first step of implementing a connected healthcare and medical research platform. PMID:20841898

  16. Utilizing Semantic Big Data for realizing a National-scale Infrastructure Vulnerability Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Supriya; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2016-01-01

    Critical Infrastructure systems(CIs) such as energy, water, transportation and communication are highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways. Robust modeling of CIs interconnections is crucial to identify vulnerabilities in the CIs. We present here a national-scale Infrastructure Vulnerability Analysis System (IVAS) vision leveraging Se- mantic Big Data (SBD) tools, Big Data, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tools. We survey existing ap- proaches on vulnerability analysis of critical infrastructures and discuss relevant systems and tools aligned with our vi- sion. Next, we present a generic system architecture and discuss challenges including: (1) Constructing and manag- ing a CI network-of-networks graph, (2) Performing analytic operations at scale, and (3) Interactive visualization of ana- lytic output to generate meaningful insights. We argue that this architecture acts as a baseline to realize a national-scale network based vulnerability analysis system.

  17. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  18. Trust and Reputation Management for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Filipe; Monteiro, Edmundo; Simões, Paulo

    Today's Critical Infrastructures (CI) depend of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to deliver their services with the required level of quality and availability. ICT security plays a major role in CI protection and risk prevention for single and also for interconnected CIs were cascading effects might occur because of the interdependencies that exist among different CIs. This paper addresses the problem of ICT security in interconnected CIs. Trust and reputation management using the Policy Based Management paradigm is the proposed solution to be applied at the CI interconnection points for information exchange. The proposed solution is being applied to the Security Mediation Gateway being developed in the European FP7 MICIE project, to allow for information exchange among interconnected CIs.

  19. Interconnecting Multidiscilinary Data Infrastructures: From Federation to Brokering Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Standardization and federation activities have been played an essential role to push interoperability at the disciplinary and cross-disciplinary level. However, they demonstrated not to be sufficient to resolve important interoperability challenges, including: disciplinary heterogeneity, cross-organizations diversities, cultural differences. Significant international initiatives like GEOSS, IODE, and CEOS demonstrated that a federation system dealing with global and multi-disciplinary domain turns out to be rater complex, raising more the already high entry level barriers for both Providers and Users. In particular, GEOSS demonstrated that standardization and federation actions must be accompanied and complemented by a brokering approach. Brokering architecture and its implementing technologies are able to implement an effective interoperability level among multi-disciplinary systems, lowering the entry level barriers for both data providers and users. This presentation will discuss the brokering philosophy as a complementary approach for standardization and federation to interconnect existing and heterogeneous infrastructures and systems. The GEOSS experience will be analyzed, specially.

  20. Artificial intelligence and signal processing for infrastructure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaleh, Khaled; Shanableh, Tamer; Yehia, Sherif

    2015-04-01

    The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is being recognized as an effective nondestructive evaluation technique to improve the inspection process. However, data interpretation and complexity of the results impose some limitations on the practicality of using this technique. This is mainly due to the need of a trained experienced person to interpret images obtained by the GPR system. In this paper, an algorithm to classify and assess the condition of infrastructures utilizing image processing and pattern recognition techniques is discussed. Features extracted form a dataset of images of defected and healthy slabs are used to train a computer vision based system while another dataset is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm. Initial results show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect the existence of defects with about 77% success rate.

  1. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Adrian R.; Martin, Mitchell Tyler; Hamlet, Jason; Stout, William M.S.; Lee, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  2. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  3. Design and optimization of photovoltaics recycling infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2010-11-15

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States. PMID:20886824

  4. Engineering Information Infrastructure for Product Lifecycle Managment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Fumihiko

    For proper management of total product life cycle, it is fundamentally important to systematize design and engineering information about product systems. For example, maintenance operation could be more efficiently performed, if appropriate parts design information is available at the maintenance site. Such information shall be available as an information infrastructure for various kinds of engineering operations, and it should be easily accessible during the whole product life cycle, such as transportation, marketing, usage, repair/upgrade, take-back and recycling/disposal. Different from the traditional engineering database, life cycle support information has several characteristic requirements, such as flexible extensibility, distributed architecture, multiple viewpoints, long-time archiving, and product usage information, etc. Basic approaches for managing engineering information infrastructure are investigated, and various information contents and associated life cycle applications are discussed.

  5. Hazard Management with DOORS: Rail Infrastructure Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Dave; Saeed, Amer

    LOI is a major rail infrastructure project that will contribute to a modernised transport system in time for the 2012 Olympic Games. A review of the procedures and tool infrastructure was conducted in early 2006, coinciding with a planned move to main works. A hazard log support tool was needed to provide: an automatic audit trial, version control and support collaborative working. A DOORS based Hazard Log (DHL) was selected as the Tool Strategy. A systematic approach was followed for the development of DHL, after a series of tests and acceptance gateways, DHL was handed over to the project in autumn 2006. The first few months were used for operational trials and he Hazard Management rocedure was modified to be a hybrid approach that used the strengths of DHL and Excel. The user experience in the deployment of DHL is summarised and directions for future improvement identified.

  6. Health monitoring for effective management of infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Catbas, Fikret N.; Grimmelsman, Kirk A.; Pervizpour, Mesut; Curtis, Joshua M.; Shen, Kaizhen; Qin, Xiaoli

    2002-06-01

    Significance of effectively managing civil infrastructure systems (CIS) throughout CIS life-cycles, and especially during and after natural or man-made disasters is well recognized. Disaster mitigation includes preparedness for hazards to avoid casualties and human suffering, as well as to ensure that critical CIS components can become operational within a short amount of time following a disaster. It follows that mitigating risk due to disasters and CIS managementare intersecting and interacting societal concerns. A coordinated, multi-disciplinary approach that integrates field, theoretical and laboratory research is necessary for innovating both hazard mitigation and infrastructure management. Health monitoring (HM) of CIS is an emerging paradigm for effective management, including emergency response and recovery management. Challenges and opportunities in health monitoring enabled by recent advances in information technology are discussed in this paper. An example of HM research on an actual CIS test-bed is presented.

  7. Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N. )

    1992-02-01

    There are 122 commercial nuclear facilities from which spent nuclear fuel will be accepted by the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). Since some facilities share common sites and some facilities are on adjacent sites, 76 sites were identified for the Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) project. The objective of the NSTI project was to identify the options available for transportation of spent-fuel casks from each of these commercial nuclear facility sites to the main transportation routes -- interstate highways, commercial rail lines and navigable waterways available for commercial use. The near-site transportation infrastructure from each site was assessed, based on observation of technical features identified during a survey of the routes and facilities plus data collected from referenced information sources. The potential for refurbishment of transportation facilities which are not currently operational was also assessed, as was the potential for establishing new transportation facilities.

  8. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  9. African electricity infrastructure, interconnections and exchanges

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Taher, F.; Gulstone, A.B.; Blyden, B.K.; Johnston, R.; Isekemanga, E.; Paluku, K.; Calitz, A.C.; Simanga, N.N.

    1997-01-01

    A 1996 IEEE PES Summer Meeting panel session focused on African Electricity Infrastructure, Interconnections, and Electricity Exchanges. The session was sponsored by the PES Energy Development and Power Generation Committee and organized/moderated by T.J. Hammons, chair of the International Practices Subcommittee. Panelists discussed energy resources, feasibility studies to interconnect power systems, the present state of the electric power sector, future expansion of African power systems, interconnections and power exchanges, and the impact of the private sector on electricity supply. The presentations were as follows: Prospects of the Evolution of a Unified Interconnection Power System in Africa, Fouad Taher; The World Bank`s Involvement with African Electricity Infrastructure, Alfred Gulstone; Towards the implementation of an Integrated African Grid, Bai K. Blyden, Raymond Johnston; Grand Inga Interconnection Projects, Elese Isekemanga, K. Paluku; The Innovative Southern African Kilowatt Hour, Andries C. Calitz; Report on Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire, Ngove-Ngulu Simanga.

  10. 15 CFR 292.4 - Information infrastructure projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.4 Information infrastructure... services and pilots. These projects will aid manufacturing extension organizations and smaller... should show the relevance and cost effectiveness of the financial plan for meeting the objectives of...

  11. 78 FR 37648 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching (STIM) Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching (STIM) Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of non-availability of Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants in FY 2013. SUMMARY: The Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) will...

  12. 77 FR 14462 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Space... proposals to continue the development of a Commercial Space Transportation infrastructure system...

  13. New Assistance for Low-Income Areas and Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in federal policy affecting rural development in economically distressed areas in 2001 include new markets initiatives, establishment of the (Mississippi River) Delta Regional Authority, and increased infrastructure funding. Infrastructure priorities include highway construction, airport improvements, public works grants, rural…

  14. Lick Run: Green Infrastructure in Cincinnati and Beyond

    EPA Science Inventory

    By capturing and redistributing rain water or runoff in plant-soil systems such as green roofs, rain gardens or swales, green infrastructure restores natural hydrologic cycles and reduces runoff from overburdened gray infrastructure. Targeted ecosystem restoration, contaminant fi...

  15. 76 FR 48807 - Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Certificate Action Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Certificate Action Form ACTION.... Abstract The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) uses Public Key Infrastructure...

  16. Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S. P.; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  17. Healthcare Information Technology Infrastructures in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, M.; Ertürkmen, G. L.; Kabak, Y.; Namli, T.; Yıldız, M. H.; Ay, Y.; Ceyhan, B.; Hülür, Ü.; Öztürk, H.; Atbakan, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for “Health-Net”), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. Methods The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Results Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients’ Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. Conclusion With the introduction of the “Health Transformation Program” in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality. PMID:24853036

  18. CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Leitner; David Bodde; Dennis Wiese; John Skardon; Bethany Carter

    2011-09-28

    The goal of this project was to establish an innovation center to accelerate the transition to a 'hydrogen economy' an infrastructure of vehicles, fuel resources, and maintenance capabilities based on hydrogen as the primary energy carrier. The specific objectives of the proposed project were to: (a) define the essential attributes of the innovation center; (b) validate the concept with potential partners; (c) create an implementation plan; and (d) establish a pilot center and demonstrate its benefits via a series of small scale projects.

  19. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  20. Green Infrastructure, Groundwater and the Sustainable City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    The management of water is among the most important attributes of urbanization. Provision of sufficient quantities and quality of freshwater, treatment and disposal of wastewater and flood protection are critical for urban sustainability. Over the last century, two major shifts in water management paradigms have occurred, the first to improve public health with the provision of infrastructure for centralized sanitary effluent collection and treatment, and the rapid drainage and routing of stormwater. A current shift in paradigm is now occurring in response to the unintended consequences of sanitary and stormwater management, which have degraded downstream water bodies and shifted flood hazard downstream. Current infrastructure is being designed and implemented to retain, rather than rapidly drain, stormwater, with a focus on infiltration based methods. In urban areas, this amounts to a shift in hydrologic behavior to depression focused recharge. While stormwater is defined as surface flow resulting from developed areas, an integrated hydrologic systems approach to urban water management requires treatment of the full critical zone. In urban areas this extends from the top of the vegetation and building canopy, to a subsurface depth including natural soils, fill, saprolite and bedrock. In addition to matric and network flow in fracture systems, an urban "karst" includes multiple generations of current and past infrastructure, which has developed extensive subsurface pipe networks for supply and drainage, enhancing surface/groundwater flows and exchange. In this presentation, Band will discuss the need to focus on the urban critical zone, and the development and adaptation of new modeling and analytical approaches to understand and plan green infrastructure based on surface/groundwater/ecosystem interactions, and implications for the restoration and new design of cities.

  1. Reconceptualizing the Role of Infrastructure in Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Sheahan, Thomas C.

    2014-08-01

    The Sustainable Adaptive Gradients in the Coastal Environment (SAGE) research collaboration network is composed of U.S., Caribbean, and European engineers, geoscientists, ecologists, social scientists, planners, and policy makers. The goal of SAGE is to establish international, cross-disciplinary networks of researchers working on resilient coastal infrastructure (gray, green, and cultural), with a focus on understanding how varying coastal characteristics contribute toward resilient adaptation strategies (funded under National Science Foundation grant ICER-1338767).

  2. Decline in Radiation Hardened Microcircuit Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Two areas of radiation hardened microcircuit infrastructure will be discussed: 1) The availability and performance of radiation hardened microcircuits, and, and 2) The access to radiation test facilities primarily for proton single event effects (SEE) testing. Other areas not discussed, but are a concern include: The challenge for maintaining radiation effects tool access for assurance purposes, and, the access to radiation test facilities primarily for heavy ion single event effects (SEE) testing. Status and implications will be discussed for each area.

  3. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  4. Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

  5. Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).

    PubMed

    Ezell, Barry Charles

    2007-06-01

    Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS). PMID:17640208

  6. NGNP Infrastructure Readiness Assessment: Consolidation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brian K Castle

    2011-02-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project supports the development, demonstration, and deployment of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The NGNP project is being reviewed by the Nuclear Energy Advisory Council (NEAC) to provide input to the DOE, who will make a recommendation to the Secretary of Energy, whether or not to continue with Phase 2 of the NGNP project. The NEAC review will be based on, in part, the infrastructure readiness assessment, which is an assessment of industry's current ability to provide specified components for the FOAK NGNP, meet quality assurance requirements, transport components, have the necessary workforce in place, and have the necessary construction capabilities. AREVA and Westinghouse were contracted to perform independent assessments of industry's capabilities because of their experience with nuclear supply chains, which is a result of their experiences with the EPR and AP-1000 reactors. Both vendors produced infrastructure readiness assessment reports that identified key components and categorized these components into three groups based on their ability to be deployed in the FOAK plant. The NGNP project has several programs that are developing key components and capabilities. For these components, the NGNP project have provided input to properly assess the infrastructure readiness for these components.

  7. The PHEV Charging Infrastructure Planning (PCIP) Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Dashora, Yogesh; Barnes, J. Wesley; Pillai, Rekha S; Combs, Todd E; Hilliard, Michael R; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

    2010-01-01

    Increasing debates over a gasoline independent future and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has led to a surge in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) being developed around the world. The majority of PHEV related research has been directed at improving engine and battery operations, studying future PHEV impacts on the grid, and projecting future PHEV charging infrastructure requirements. Due to the limited all-electric range of PHEVs, a daytime PHEV charging infrastructure will be required for most PHEV daily usage. In this paper, for the first time, we present a mixed integer mathematical programming model to solve the PHEV charging infrastructure planning (PCIP) problem for organizations with thousands of people working within a defined geographic location and parking lots well suited to charging station installations. Our case study, based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) campus, produced encouraging results, indicates the viability of the modeling approach and substantiates the importance of considering both employee convenience and appropriate grid connections in the PCIP problem.

  8. Methane Gas Emissions - is Older Infrastructure Leakier?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, L. P.; Caulton, D.; Zondlo, M. A.; Lane, H.; Lu, J.; Golston, L.; Pan, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large gains in natural gas production from hydraulic fracturing is reinvigorating the US energy economy. It is a clean burning fuel with lower emissions than that of coal or oil. Studies show that methane (CH4) leaks from natural gas infrastructure vary widely. A broader question is whether leak rates of methane might offset the benefits of combustion of natural gas. Excess methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas with a radiative forcing constant of 25 times that of CO2 when projected over a 100-year period. An extensive field study of 250 wells in the Marcellus Shale conducted in July 2015 examined the emission rates of this region and identifed super-emitters. Spud production data will provide information as to whether older infrastructure is responsible for more of the emissions. Quantifying the emission rate was determined by extrapolating methane releases at a distance from private well pads using an inverse Gaussian plume model. Wells studied were selected by prevailing winds, distance from public roads, and topographical information using commercial (ARCGIS and Google Earth), non-profit (drillinginfo), and government (State of PA) databases. Data were collected from the mobile sensing lab (CH4, CO2 and H2O sensors), as well as from a stationary tower. Emission rates from well pads will be compared to their original production (spud dates) to evaluate whether infrastructure age and total production correlates with the observed leak rates. Very preliminary results show no statistical correlation between well pad production rates and observed leak rates.

  9. Data Updating Methods for Spatial Data Infrastructure that Maintain Infrastructure Quality and Enable its Sustainable Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, S.; Takemoto, T.; Ito, Y.

    2012-07-01

    The Japanese government, local governments and businesses are working closely together to establish spatial data infrastructures in accordance with the Basic Act on the Advancement of Utilizing Geospatial Information (NSDI Act established in August 2007). Spatial data infrastructures are urgently required not only to accelerate computerization of the public administration, but also to help restoration and reconstruction of the areas struck by the East Japan Great Earthquake and future disaster prevention and reduction. For construction of a spatial data infrastructure, various guidelines have been formulated. But after an infrastructure is constructed, there is a problem of maintaining it. In one case, an organization updates its spatial data only once every several years because of budget problems. Departments and sections update the data on their own without careful consideration. That upsets the quality control of the entire data system and the system loses integrity, which is crucial to a spatial data infrastructure. To ensure quality, ideally, it is desirable to update data of the entire area every year. But, that is virtually impossible, considering the recent budget crunch. The method we suggest is to update spatial data items of higher importance only in order to maintain quality, not updating all the items across the board. We have explored a method of partially updating the data of these two geographical features while ensuring the accuracy of locations. Using this method, data on roads and buildings that greatly change with time can be updated almost in real time or at least within a year. The method will help increase the availability of a spatial data infrastructure. We have conducted an experiment on the spatial data infrastructure of a municipality using those data. As a result, we have found that it is possible to update data of both features almost in real time.

  10. Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2006-10-01

    In FY 2004 and 2005, NREL developed a proposed minimal infrastructure to support nationwide deployment of hydrogen vehicles by offering infrastructure scenarios that facilitated interstate travel. This report identifies key metropolitan areas and regions on which to focus infrastructure efforts during the early hydrogen transition.

  11. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  12. 76 FR 17935 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National... the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002, (Sections 211-215, Title II, Subtitle B of the... owners and operators of critical infrastructure and protected systems. The PCII Program is implemented...

  13. 15 CFR 292.4 - Information infrastructure projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information infrastructure projects... MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.4 Information infrastructure... support and act as a catalyst for the development and implementation of information...

  14. 15 CFR 292.4 - Information infrastructure projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information infrastructure projects... MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.4 Information infrastructure... support and act as a catalyst for the development and implementation of information...

  15. 15 CFR 292.4 - Information infrastructure projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Information infrastructure projects... MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.4 Information infrastructure... support and act as a catalyst for the development and implementation of information...

  16. Vision for a 21st Century Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    In order to ensure that the United States maintains an advanced information infrastructure, the Council on Competitiveness has started a project on the 21st century infrastructure. Participating in this project are the many different parties who are providing and using the infrastructure, including cable companies, regional Bell companies, long…

  17. IT Infrastructure Projects: A Framework for Analysis. ECAR Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grochow, Jerrold M.

    2014-01-01

    Just as maintaining a healthy infrastructure of water delivery and roads is essential to the functioning of cities and towns, maintaining a healthy infrastructure of information technology is essential to the functioning of universities. Deterioration in IT infrastructure can lead to deterioration in research, teaching, and administration. Given…

  18. Identification of spatial and topographical metrics for micro hydropower applications in irrigation infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Brian

    A recent agreement between the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the State of Colorado seeks to streamline regulatory review of small, low-head hydropower (micro hydropower) projects located in constrained waterways, (Governor's Energy Office, 2010). This regulatory change will likely encourage the development of micro hydropower projects, primarily as upgrades to existing infrastructure. Previous studies of low-head hydropower projects have estimated the combined capacity of micro hydro projects in Colorado between 664 MW to 5,003 MW (Connor, A.M., et al. 1998; Hall, D.G., et al. 2004, 2006). However, these studies did not include existing hydraulic structures in irrigation canals as possible hydropower sites. A Colorado Department of Agriculture study (Applegate Group, 2011) identified existing infrastructure categories for low head hydropower development in irrigation systems, which included diversion structures, line chutes, vertical drops, pipelines, check structures and reservoir outlets. However, an accurate assessment of hydropower capacity from existing infrastructures could not be determined due to low survey responses from irrigation water districts. The current study represents the first step in a comprehensive field study to quantify the type and quantity of irrigation infrastructure for potential upgrade to support micro hydropower production. Field surveys were conducted at approximately 230 sites in 6 of Colorado's 7 hydrographic divisions at existing hydraulic control structures. The United States Bureau of Reclamation contributed approximately 330 additional sample sites from the 17 western states. The work presented here describes a novel method of identifying geospatial metrics to support an estimation of total site count and resource availability of potential micro hydropower. The proposed technique is general in nature and could be utilized to assess micro hydropower resources in any region.

  19. The Information Technology Infrastructure for the Translational Genomics Core and the Partners Biobank at Partners Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Natalie; Holzbach, Ana; Mahanta, Lisa; Aldama, Jackie; Cerretani, Xander; Embree, Kevin; Leon, Irene; Rathi, Neeta; Vickers, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The Biobank and Translational Genomics core at Partners Personalized Medicine requires robust software and hardware. This Information Technology (IT) infrastructure enables the storage and transfer of large amounts of data, drives efficiencies in the laboratory, maintains data integrity from the time of consent to the time that genomic data is distributed for research, and enables the management of complex genetic data. Here, we describe the functional components of the research IT infrastructure at Partners Personalized Medicine and how they integrate with existing clinical and research systems, review some of the ways in which this IT infrastructure maintains data integrity and security, and discuss some of the challenges inherent to building and maintaining such infrastructure. PMID:26805892

  20. The Information Technology Infrastructure for the Translational Genomics Core and the Partners Biobank at Partners Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Natalie; Holzbach, Ana; Mahanta, Lisa; Aldama, Jackie; Cerretani, Xander; Embree, Kevin; Leon, Irene; Rathi, Neeta; Vickers, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The Biobank and Translational Genomics core at Partners Personalized Medicine requires robust software and hardware. This Information Technology (IT) infrastructure enables the storage and transfer of large amounts of data, drives efficiencies in the laboratory, maintains data integrity from the time of consent to the time that genomic data is distributed for research, and enables the management of complex genetic data. Here, we describe the functional components of the research IT infrastructure at Partners Personalized Medicine and how they integrate with existing clinical and research systems, review some of the ways in which this IT infrastructure maintains data integrity and security, and discuss some of the challenges inherent to building and maintaining such infrastructure. PMID:26805892

  1. Integrating research infrastructures for solid Earth science in Europe: the European Plate Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, M.; Giardini, D.; EPOS-PP Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) coordinates and integrates the research infrastructures in the European-Mediterranean region, to promote innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The EPOS 30-year plan aims at integrating the currently scattered, but highly advanced European facilities into one distributed, coherent multidisciplinary Research Infrastructure allowing sustainable long-term Earth science research strategies and an effective coordinated European-scale monitoring facility for solid Earth dynamics taking full advantage of new e-science opportunities. EPOS has been approved by ESFRI (the European Scientific Forum for Research Infrastructures) as one of the critical European Research Infrastructures, and the EPOS Preparatory Phase is supported by the European Commission FP7 program. The cooperation between EPOS and similar US infrastructures (i.e. Earthscope) will be ensured by dedicated NSF-EC funding. EPOS is integrating data from permanent national and regional geophysical monitoring networks (seismological, GPS), with the observations from "in-situ" observatories (volcano observatories, in-situ fault zone test sites) and temporary-monitoring and laboratory experiments through a cyber-infrastructure for data mining and processing, and facilities for data integration, archiving and exchange. The vision is to integrate these existing research infrastructures in order to increase the accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data from monitoring networks, laboratory experiments and computational simulations enhancing worldwide interoperability in Earth Science by establishing a leading integrated European infrastructure and services. More recently the EPOS and the satellite Earth Observation communities are collaborating in order to promote the integration of data from in-situ monitoring

  2. Does sporadic Leber's disease exist?

    PubMed

    Nikoskelainen, E; Nummelin, K; Savontaus, M L

    1988-12-01

    This study gives some illustrative case reports of the difficulties in the diagnosis of Leber's hereditary optic neuroretinopathy. It underlies the importance of careful family history and search for peripapillary microangiopathy in the maternal relatives of patients suspected to suffer from Leber's disease. The article casts doubt on the existence of so-called sporadic Leber's disease. PMID:2977137

  3. Building a Cloud Infrastructure for a Virtual Environmental Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-khatib, Y.; Blair, G. S.; Gemmell, A. L.; Gurney, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental science is often fragmented: data is collected by different organizations using mismatched formats and conventions, and models are misaligned and run in isolation. Cloud computing offers a lot of potential in the way of resolving such issues by supporting data from different sources and at various scales, and integrating models to create more sophisticated and collaborative software services. The Environmental Virtual Observatory pilot (EVOp) project, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, aims to demonstrate how cloud computing principles and technologies can be harnessed to develop more effective solutions to pressing environmental issues. The EVOp infrastructure is a tailored one constructed from resources in both private clouds (owned and managed by us) and public clouds (leased from third party providers). All system assets are accessible via a uniform web service interface in order to enable versatile and transparent resource management, and to support fundamental infrastructure properties such as reliability and elasticity. The abstraction that this 'everything as a service' principle brings also supports mashups, i.e. combining different web services (such as models) and data resources of different origins (in situ gauging stations, warehoused data stores, external sources, etc.). We adopt the RESTful style of web services in order to draw a clear line between client and server (i.e. cloud host) and also to keep the server completely stateless. This significantly improves the scalability of the infrastructure and enables easy infrastructure management. For instance, tasks such as load balancing and failure recovery are greatly simplified without the need for techniques such as advance resource reservation or shared block devices. Upon this infrastructure, we developed a web portal composed of a bespoke collection of web-based visualization tools to help bring out relationships or patterns within the data. The portal was

  4. Explorations Around "Graceful Failure" in Transportation Infrastructure: Lessons Learned By the Infrastructure and Climate Network (ICNet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Thomas, N.; Mo, W.; Kirshen, P. H.; Douglas, E. M.; Daniel, J.; Bell, E.; Friess, L.; Mallick, R.; Kartez, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Croope, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent events have demonstrated that the United States' transportation infrastructure is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events which will likely increase in the future. In light of the 60% shortfall of the $900 billion investment needed over the next five years to maintain this aging infrastructure, hardening of all infrastructures is unlikely. Alternative strategies are needed to ensure that critical aspects of the transportation network are maintained during climate extremes. Preliminary concepts around multi-tier service expectations of bridges and roads with reference to network capacity will be presented. Drawing from recent flooding events across the U.S., specific examples for roads/pavement will be used to illustrate impacts, disruptions, and trade-offs between performance during events and subsequent damage. This talk will also address policy and cultural norms within the civil engineering practice that will likely challenge the application of graceful failure pathways during extreme events.

  5. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to the fuel provider, while

  6. Toward the Automated Generation of Components from Existing Source Code

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Yi, Q; Kumfert, G; Epperly, T; Dahlgren, T; Schordan, M; White, B

    2004-12-02

    A major challenge to achieving widespread use of software component technology in scientific computing is an effective migration strategy for existing, or legacy, source code. This paper describes initial work and challenges in automating the identification and generation of components using the ROSE compiler infrastructure and the Babel language interoperability tool. Babel enables calling interfaces expressed in the Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL) to be implemented in, and called from, an arbitrary combination of supported languages. ROSE is used to build specialized source-to-source translators that (1) extract a SIDL interface specification from information implicit in existing C++ source code and (2) transform Babel's output to include dispatches to the legacy code.

  7. The Declining Infrastructure of the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Great effort has been dedicated to mapping the functional architecture of the brain in health and disease. The neural centers that support cognition and behavior are the “hubs” defining the salient geographic landmarks of the cerebral topography. Similar to urban cartography, however, the functionality of these hubs is critically dependent on the infrastructure permitting the transfer of relevant information from site to site, and this infrastructure is susceptible to deterioration. The groundwork of the brain lies in the form of the complexly organized myelinated nerve fibers responsible for the inter-regional transmission of electrical impulses among distinct neural areas. Damage to the myelin sheath and reduction in the total number of nerve fibers with aging are thought to result in a degradation in the efficiency of communication among neural regions and to contribute to the decline of function in older adults. This article describes selected studies that are relevant to understanding the deterioration in structural connectivity of the aging brain with a focus on potential consequences to functional network activity. First, the neural substrates of connectivity and techniques used in the study of connectivity are described with a focus on neuroimaging methodologies. This is followed with discussion of the negative effects of age on connective integrity, and the possible mechanisms and neural and cognitive consequences of this progressive disconnection. Given the potential for natural repair of certain elements of the connective network, understanding the basis of age-associated decline in connectivity could have important implications with regard to the amelioration of neural dysfunction and the restoration of the infrastructure necessary for optimal function in older adults. PMID:22432418

  8. Integrity Management Infrastructure for Trusted Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munetoh, Seiji; Nakamura, Megumi; Yoshihama, Sachiko; Kudo, Michiharu

    Computer security concerns have been rapidly increasing because of repeated security breaches and leakages of sensitive personal information. Such security breaches are mainly caused by an inappropriate management of the PCs, so maintaining integrity of the platform configuration is essential, and, verifying the integrity of the computer platform and software becomes more significant. To address these problems, the Trusted Computing Group (TCG) has developed various specifications that are used to measure the integrity of the platform based on hardware trust. In the trusted computing technology, the integrity data of each component running on the platform is recorded in the security chip and they are securely checked by a remote attestation. The infrastructure working group in the TCG is trying to define an Integrity Management Infrastructure in which the Platform Trust Services (PTS) is a new key component which deals with an Integrity Report. When we use the PTS in the target platform, it is a service component that collects and measures the runtime integrity of the target platform in a secure way. The PTS can also be used to validate the Integrity Reports. We introduce the notion of the Platform Validation Authority, a trusted third party, which verifies the composition of the integrity measurement of the target platform in the Integrity Reports. The Platform Validation Authority complements the role of the current Certificate Authority in the Public Key Infrastructure which attests to the integrity of the user identity as well as to related artifacts such as digital signatures. In this paper, we cover the research topics in this new area, the relevant technologies and open issues of the trusted computing, and the detail of our PTS implementation.

  9. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  10. Refining Gold from Existing Data

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Ted D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose is to review the arguments for increasing use of existing data in health research. Recent Findings The reuse of data in observational, exploratory and outcome studies, as well as in confirming other findings, is being justified on epistemological grounds as the major path to new knowledge and to the generalizing of findings to “real world” populations. It is also justified on grounds of cost, power and efficiency, even though data reuse comes with real informatics, scientific culture, societal and regulatory issues. Summary Data reuse is becoming more compelling. When contemplating new research for any purpose other than RCTs for efficacy, it is prudent to consider whether partnership with existing data holders should be part of the optimal research plan. PMID:24625777

  11. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  12. Geoscientific Workflows using Grid Computing Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Ryan; Woodcock, Robert; Rankine, Terry

    2010-05-01

    A major benefit of high-performance computing is the vast improvement it offers scientists and researchers in Australia when it comes to exploring large data problems. Thus, high performance computers and grid computing have become key components in exploration and mining applications in the past few years; anything from running numerical simulations to creating a virtual laboratories or providing a mechanism to discover and process geodetic information collected by GPS stations. However, scientists have previously been restricted in their abilities to access high-performance computing for these and other uses due to the fragmented nature of the infrastructure. Australia's high-performance centres host a range of different supercomputers from different manufacturers, with differing configurations, different architectures. Each supercomputer is different so users who want to use more than one supercomputer successfully need to know the difference between them all. CSIRO has found an answer to this dilemma via the AuScope Grid. AuScope Grid is creating an e-Research Infrastructure to federate and make nationally distributed datasets and high-performance computing resources interoperable. AuScope Grid is developing tools to manipulate large data volumes and establishing an appropriate governance framework to ensure sustainability. AuScope Grid's premise is to comprise distributed data storage hardware, high bandwidth network links, data management protocols, middleware and software. Major geoscience and geospatial data stores of the government agencies are deploying this technology for use internally and as an external face to their data. Combining this with high-performance compute resources and high-bandwidth networks the academic community can now tackle some of the science problems they have wanted to attempt for some time but have not been feasible until now. AuScope has deployed a grid computing platform which standardises access to high performance computers

  13. Distributed telemedicine for the National Information Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; Lee, Seong H.; Reverbel, F.C.

    1997-08-01

    TeleMed is an advanced system that provides a distributed multimedia electronic medical record available over a wide area network. It uses object-based computing, distributed data repositories, advanced graphical user interfaces, and visualization tools along with innovative concept extraction of image information for storing and accessing medical records developed in a separate project from 1994-5. In 1996, we began the transition to Java, extended the infrastructure, and worked to begin deploying TeleMed-like technologies throughout the nation. Other applications are mentioned.

  14. Computational infrastructure for law enforcement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lades, M.; Kunz, C.; Strikos, I.

    1997-02-01

    This project planned to demonstrate the leverage of enhanced computational infrastructure for law enforcement by demonstrating the face recognition capability at LLNL. The project implemented a face finder module extending the segmentation capabilities of the current face recognition so it was capable of processing different image formats and sizes and create the pilot of a network-accessible image database for the demonstration of face recognition capabilities. The project was funded at $40k (2 man-months) for a feasibility study. It investigated several essential components of a networked face recognition system which could help identify, apprehend, and convict criminals.

  15. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P.

    2016-06-01

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  16. Epos Working Group 10 Infrastructure for Georesources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanisław; Kwiatek, Grzegorz

    2013-04-01

    Working Group 10 "Infrastructure for Georesources" deals primarily with induced seismicity (IS) infrastructure. Established during the EPOS Annual Meeting in Utrecht, November 2011, WG10 aims to integrate the research infrastructure in the area of seismicity induced by human activity: tremors and rockbursts in underground mines, seismicity associated with conventional and unconventional oil and gas production, induced by geothermal energy extraction and by underground reposition and storage of liquids (e.g. water disposal associated with energy extraction) and gases (CO2 sequestration, inter alia) and triggered by filling surface water reservoirs, etc. Until now the research in the area of IS has been organized around induced technologies rather than physical problems, common for these shallow seismic processes. This has hampered the integration of IS research community and the research progress. WG10 intends to work out a first step towards changing the IS research perspective from the present, technology-oriented, to physical problems-oriented without, however, losing touch with technological conditions of IS generation. This will be achieved by the integration of IS Research Infrastructure (ISRI) and the creation of Induced Seismicity Node within EPOS. The ISRI to be integrated has three components: data, software and reports. The IS data consists of seismic data and auxiliary data: geological, displacement, geomechanical, geodetic, etc, and last, but by no means least, technological data. A research in the field of IS cannot do without this last data class. The IS software comprises common software tools for data handling and visualisation, standard and advanced software for research and software based on newly proposed algorithms for tests and development. The IS reports are both peer reviewed and unreviewed as well as an internet forum. In addition to that the IS Node will play a significant role in integrating IS community and accelerating research, it will

  17. Sensing Models and Sensor Network Architectures for Transport Infrastructure Monitoring in Smart Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Transport infrastructure monitoring and analysis is one of the focus areas in the context of smart cities. With the growing number of people moving into densely populated urban metro areas, precise tracking of moving people and goods is the basis for profound decision-making and future planning. With the goal of defining optimal extensions and modifications to existing transport infrastructures, multi-modal transport has to be monitored and analysed. This process is performed on the basis of sensor networks that combine a variety of sensor models, types, and deployments within the area of interest. Multi-generation networks, consisting of a number of sensor types and versions, are causing further challenges for the integration and processing of sensor observations. These challenges are not getting any smaller with the development of the Internet of Things, which brings promising opportunities, but is currently stuck in a type of protocol war between big industry players from both the hardware and network infrastructure domain. In this paper, we will highlight how the OGC suite of standards, with the Sensor Web standards developed by the Sensor Web Enablement Initiative together with the latest developments by the Sensor Web for Internet of Things community can be applied to the monitoring and improvement of transport infrastructures. Sensor Web standards have been applied in the past to pure technical domains, but need to be broadened now in order to meet new challenges. Only cross domain approaches will allow to develop satisfying transport infrastructure approaches that take into account requirements coming form a variety of sectors such as tourism, administration, transport industry, emergency services, or private people. The goal is the development of interoperable components that can be easily integrated within data infrastructures and follow well defined information models to allow robust processing.

  18. Perspectives in understanding open access to research data - infrastructure and technology challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    The Policy RECommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe (RECODE) project, started in February 2013 with a duration of two years, has the objective to identify a series of targeted and over-arching policy recommendations for Open Access to European research data, based on existing good practice and addressing such hindering factors as stakeholder fragmentation, technical and infrastructural issues, ethical and legal issues, and financial and institutional policies. In this work we focus on the technical and infrastructural aspect, where by "infrastructure" we mean the technological assets (hardware and software), the human resources, and all the policies, processes, procedures and training for managing and supporting its continuous operation and evolution. The context targeted by RECODE includes heterogeneous networks, initiatives, projects and communities that are fragmented by discipline, geography, stakeholder category (publishers, academics, repositories, etc.) as well as other boundaries. Many of these organizations are already addressing key technical and infrastructural barriers to Open Access to research data. Such barriers may include: lack of automatic mechanisms for policy enforcement, lack of metadata and data models supporting open access, obsolescence of infrastructures, scarce awareness about new technological solutions, lack of training and/or expertise on IT and semantics aspects. However, these organizations are often heterogeneous and fragmented by discipline, geography, stakeholder category (publishers, academics, repositories, etc.) as well as other boundaries, and often work in isolation, or with limited contact with one another. RECODE has addressed these challenges, and the possible solutions to mitigate them, engaging all the identified stakeholders in a number of ways, including an online questionnaire, case studies interviews, literature review, a workshop. The conclusions have been validated by the RECODE Advisory Board and

  19. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Cogeneration for existing alfalfa processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This study is designed to look at the application of gas-turbine generator cogeneration to a typical Nebraska alfalfa processing mill. The practicality is examined of installing a combustion turbine generator at a plant site and modifying existing facilities for generating electricity, utilizing the electricity generated, selling excess electricity to the power company and incorporating the turbine exhaust flow as a drying medium for the alfalfa. The results of this study are not conclusive but the findings are summarized.

  1. Why do stem cells exist?

    PubMed

    Heddle, J A; Cosentino, L; Dawod, G; Swiger, R R; Paashuis-Lew, Y

    1996-01-01

    Self-renewing tissues have a differentiation hierarchy such that the stem cells are the only permanent residents of the tissue, and it is in these cells that most cancerous mutations arise. The progeny of the stem cells either remain stem cells or enter a transient proliferating cell population that differentiates to produce the functional cells of the tissue. The reason that this differentiation hierarchy exists has not been established. We show here that alternative hierarchies, in which there would be no stem cells, are feasible and biologically plausible. We show that current evidence from somatic mutation frequencies at both transgenic and endogenous loci implicates cell division in the origin of most somatic mutations. We suggest, therefore, that the existence of stem cells is an evolutionary consequence of a selective pressure to avoid cancer by reducing the number of somatic mutations. The stem cell hierarchy reduces the number of cell divisions of those cells that reside permanently in the tissue, which reduces the number of somatic mutations and thus minimizes the cancer rate. In the small intestine, the existence of stem cells reduces the mutant frequency in the stem cells by about one order of magnitude. Since two or more mutations are required to transform a cell, the protective effect may be 100-fold or more. Similar factors may be expected in other tissues. PMID:8991061

  2. Nevada Infrastructure for Climate Change Science, Education, and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, G. L.; Lancaster, N.; Mensing, S. A.; Piechota, T.

    2008-12-01

    Great Basin Ranges, one anticipated on a mountain range in southern Nevada and the second to be located in north-central Nevada. Climatic, hydrologic and ecological data from these transects will be downloaded into high capacity data storage units and made available to researchers through creation of the Nevada climate change portal. Our research will aim to answer two interdisciplinary science questions key to understanding the effects of future climate change on Great Basin mountain ecosystems and the potential management strategies for responding to these changes: 1) How will climate change affect water resources and linked ecosystem resources and human systems? And 2) How will climate change affect disturbance regimes (e.g., wildland fires, invasive species, insect outbreaks, droughts) and linked systems? Infrastructure developed through this project will provide new interdisciplinary capability to detect, analyze, and model effects of regional climate change in mountainous regions of the west and provide a major contribution to existing climate change research and monitoring networks.

  3. DRIHM: Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, A.; Rebora, N.; Kranzlmueller, D.; Schiffers, M.; Clematis, A.; Tafferner, A.; Garrote, L. M.; Llasat Botija, M.; Caumont, O.; Richard, E.; Cros, P.; Dimitrijevic, V.; Jagers, B.; Harpham, Q.; Hooper, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    of European and possibly worldwide HMR communities and increase the awareness of ICT potential for HMR. Service activities will deploy the end-to-end DRIHM services and tools in support of HMR networks and virtual organizations on top of the existing European e-Infrastructures.

  4. A prototype catalogue: DOE National Laboratory technologies for infrastructure modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, J.W.; Wilfert, G.L.; March, F.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) with information about selected technologies under development in the Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Laboratory System and its Program Office operations. The technologies selected are those that have the potential to improve the performance of the nation's public works infrastructure. The product is a relational database that we refer to as a prototype catalogue of technologies.'' The catalogue contains over 100 entries of DOE-supported technologies having potential application to infrastructure-related problems. The work involved conceptualizing an approach, developing a framework for organizing technology information, and collecting samples of readily available data to be put into a prototype catalogue. In developing the catalogue, our objectives were to demonstrate the concept and provide readily available information to OTA. As such, the catalogue represents a preliminary product. The existing database is not exhaustive and likely represents only a fraction of relevant technologies developed by DOE. In addition, the taxonomy we used to classify technologies is based on the judgment of project staff and has received minimal review by individuals who have been involved in the development and testing of the technologies. Finally, end users will likely identify framework changes and additions that will strengthen the catalogue approach. The framework for the catalogue includes four components: a description of the technology, along with potential uses and other pertinent information; identification of the source of the descriptive information; identification of a person or group knowledgeable about the technology; and a classification of the described technology in terms of its type, application, life-cycle use, function, and readiness.

  5. Infrastructure optimisation via MBR retrofit: a design guide.

    PubMed

    Bagg, W K

    2009-01-01

    Wastewater management is continually evolving with the development and implementation of new, more efficient technologies. One of these is the Membrane Bioreactor (MBR). Although a relatively new technology in Australia, MBR wastewater treatment has been widely used elsewhere for over 20 years, with thousands of MBRs now in operation worldwide. Over the past 5 years, MBR technology has been enthusiastically embraced in Australia as a potential treatment upgrade option, and via retrofit typically offers two major benefits: (1) more capacity using mostly existing facilities, and (2) very high quality treated effluent. However, infrastructure optimisation via MBR retrofit is not a simple or low-cost solution and there are many factors which should be carefully evaluated before deciding on this method of plant upgrade. The paper reviews a range of design parameters which should be carefully evaluated when considering an MBR retrofit solution. Several actual and conceptual case studies are considered to demonstrate both advantages and disadvantages. Whilst optimising existing facilities and production of high quality water for reuse are powerful drivers, it is suggested that MBRs are perhaps not always the most sustainable Whole-of-Life solution for a wastewater treatment plant upgrade, especially by way of a retrofit. PMID:19182344

  6. Correcting Systemic Deficiencies in Our Scientific Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Scientific method is inherently self-correcting. When different hypotheses are proposed, their study would result in the rejection of the invalid ones. If the study of a competing hypothesis is prevented because of the faith in an unverified one, scientific progress is stalled. This has happened in the study of low dose radiation. Though radiation hormesis was hypothesized to reduce cancers in 1980, it could not be studied in humans because of the faith in the unverified linear no-threshold model hypothesis, likely resulting in over 15 million preventable cancer deaths worldwide during the past two decades, since evidence has accumulated supporting the validity of the phenomenon of radiation hormesis. Since our society has been guided by scientific advisory committees that ostensibly follow the scientific method, the long duration of such large casualties is indicative of systemic deficiencies in the infrastructure that has evolved in our society for the application of science. Some of these deficiencies have been identified in a few elements of the scientific infrastructure, and remedial steps suggested. Identifying and correcting such deficiencies may prevent similar tolls in the future. PMID:24910580

  7. Attending unintended transformations of health care infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Western health care is under pressure from growing demands on quality and efficiency. The development and implementation of information technology, IT is a key mean of health care authorities to improve on health care infrastructure. Theory and methods Against a background of theories on human-computer interaction and IT-mediated communication, different empirical studies of IT implementation in health care are analyzed. The outcome is an analytical discernment between different relations of communication and levels of interaction with IT in health care infrastructure. These relations and levels are synthesized into a framework for identifying tensions and potential problems in the mediation of health care with the IT system. These problems are also known as unexpected adverse consequences, UACs, from IT implementation into clinical health care practices. Results This paper develops a conceptual framework for addressing transformations of communication and workflow in health care as a result of implementing IT. Conclusion and discussion The purpose of the conceptual framework is to support the attention to and continuous screening for errors and unintended consequences of IT implementation into health care practices and outcomes. PMID:18043725

  8. Infrastructure for deployment of power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary effort in characterizing the types of stationary lunar power systems which may be considered for emplacement on the lunar surface from the proposed initial 100-kW unit in 2003 to later units ranging in power from 25 to 825 kW is presented. Associated with these power systems are their related infrastructure hardware including: (1) electrical cable, wiring, switchgear, and converters; (2) deployable radiator panels; (3) deployable photovoltaic (PV) panels; (4) heat transfer fluid piping and connection joints; (5) power system instrumentation and control equipment; and (6) interface hardware between lunar surface construction/maintenance equipment and power system. This report: (1) presents estimates of the mass and volumes associated with these power systems and their related infrastructure hardware; (2) provides task breakdown description for emplacing this equipment; (3) gives estimated heat, forces, torques, and alignment tolerances for equipment assembly; and (4) provides other important equipment/machinery requirements where applicable. Packaging options for this equipment will be discussed along with necessary site preparation requirements. Design and analysis issues associated with the final emplacement of this power system hardware are also described.

  9. Mesh infrastructure for coupled multiprocess geophysical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Garimella, Rao V.; Perkins, William A.; Buksas, Mike W.; Berndt, Markus; Lipnikov, Konstantin; Coon, Ethan; Moulton, John D.; Painter, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a sophisticated mesh infrastructure capability to support large scale multiphysics simulations such as subsurface flow and reactive contaminant transport at storage sites as well as the analysis of the effects of a warming climate on the terrestrial arctic. These simulations involve a wide range of coupled processes including overland flow, subsurface flow, freezing and thawing of ice rich soil, accumulation, redistribution and melting of snow, biogeochemical processes involving plant matter and finally, microtopography evolution due to melting and degradation of ice wedges below the surface. In addition to supporting the usual topological and geometric queries about the mesh, the mesh infrastructure adds capabilities such as identifying columnar structures in the mesh, enabling deforming of the mesh subject to constraints and enabling the simultaneous use of meshes of different dimensionality for subsurface and surface processes. The generic mesh interface is capable of using three different open source mesh frameworks (MSTK, MOAB and STKmesh) under the hood allowing the developers to directly compare them and choose one that is best suited for the application's needs. We demonstrate the results of some simulations using these capabilities as well as present a comparison of the performance of the different mesh frameworks.

  10. Mesh infrastructure for coupled multiprocess geophysical simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Garimella, Rao V.; Perkins, William A.; Buksas, Mike W.; Berndt, Markus; Lipnikov, Konstantin; Coon, Ethan; Moulton, John D.; Painter, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a sophisticated mesh infrastructure capability to support large scale multiphysics simulations such as subsurface flow and reactive contaminant transport at storage sites as well as the analysis of the effects of a warming climate on the terrestrial arctic. These simulations involve a wide range of coupled processes including overland flow, subsurface flow, freezing and thawing of ice rich soil, accumulation, redistribution and melting of snow, biogeochemical processes involving plant matter and finally, microtopography evolution due to melting and degradation of ice wedges below the surface. In addition to supporting the usual topological and geometric queries about themore » mesh, the mesh infrastructure adds capabilities such as identifying columnar structures in the mesh, enabling deforming of the mesh subject to constraints and enabling the simultaneous use of meshes of different dimensionality for subsurface and surface processes. The generic mesh interface is capable of using three different open source mesh frameworks (MSTK, MOAB and STKmesh) under the hood allowing the developers to directly compare them and choose one that is best suited for the application's needs. We demonstrate the results of some simulations using these capabilities as well as present a comparison of the performance of the different mesh frameworks.« less

  11. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A system infrastructure must be properly designed and integrated from the conceptual development phase to accommodate evolutionary intelligent technologies. Several technology development activities were identified that may have application to rendezvous and capture systems. Optical correlators in conjunction with fuzzy logic control might be used for the identification, tracking, and capture of either cooperative or non-cooperative targets without the intensive computational requirements associated with vision processing. A hybrid digital/analog system was developed and tested with a robotic arm. An aircraft refueling application demonstration is planned within two years. Initially this demonstration will be ground based with a follow-on air based demonstration. System dependability measurement and modeling techniques are being developed for fault management applications. This involves usage of incremental solution/evaluation techniques and modularized systems to facilitate reuse and to take advantage of natural partitions in system models. Though not yet commercially available and currently subject to accuracy limitations, technology is being developed to perform optical matrix operations to enhance computational speed. Optical terrain recognition using camera image sequencing processed with optical correlators is being developed to determine position and velocity in support of lander guidance. The system is planned for testing in conjunction with Dryden Flight Research Facility. Advanced architecture technology is defining open architecture design constraints, test bed concepts (processors, multiple hardware/software and multi-dimensional user support, knowledge/tool sharing infrastructure), and software engineering interface issues.

  12. AFDX Based Data Infrastructures in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Torsten

    2010-08-01

    An assessment on the requirements for the avionics infrastructure of future spacecraft like the Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle ARV has identified a distinctive lack of performance on the traditional MIL-STD-1553B installations and thus initiated a quest for an equally reliable but much more powerful successor. Ever increasing processing performance available for onboard computers opens opportunities for advanced applications like real time image processing for close range navigation. In a distributed data handling system these functions heavily rely on equally advanced and powerful network architecture. This paper will identify the requirements for modern avionics data-buses and evaluate the suitability of possible candidates. Subsequently a dedicated focus will be given to an Avionics Full DupleX Switched Ethernet (AFDX) infrastructure as backbone for future spacecraft control applications. A detailed section will focus on the central aspects that make AFDX an interesting choice for space network installations. It will cover specifically the enhancements of the underlying IEEE 802.3 Ethernet technology.

  13. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  14. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Daniel, A

    2008-05-30

    In this document we describe work done under the SciDAC-1 Project National Computerational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory. The objective of this project was to construct the computational infrastructure needed to study quantim chromodynamics (QCD). Nearly all high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States working on the numerical study of QCD are involved in the project, as are Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). A list of the serior participants is given in Appendix A.2. The project includes the development of community software for the effective use of the terascale computers, and the research and development of commodity clusters optimized for the study of QCD. The software developed as part of this effort is pubicly available, and is being widely used by physicists in the United States and abroad. The prototype clusters built with SciDAC-1 fund have been used to test the software, and are available to lattice guage theorists in the United States on a peer reviewed basis.

  15. Unbundled infrastructure firms: Competition and continuing regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogendorn, Christiaan Paul

    Unbundled infrastructure firms provide conduits for electricity transmission, residential communications, etc. but are vertically disintegrated from "content" functions such as electricity generation or world-wide-web pages. These conduits are being deregulated, and this dissertation examines whether the deregulated conduits will behave in an efficient and competitive manner. The dissertation presents three essays, each of which develops a theoretical model of the behavior of conduit firms in a market environment. The first essay considers the prospects for competition between multiple conduits in the emerging market for broadband (high-speed) residential Internet access. It finds that such competition is likely to emerge as demand for these services increase. The second essay shows how a monopoly electricity or natural gas transmission conduit can facilitate collusion between suppliers of the good. It shows that this is an inefficient effect of standard price-cap regulation. The third essay considers the supply chain of residential Internet access and evaluates proposed "open access" regulation that would allow more than one firm to serve customers over the same physical infrastructure. It shows that the amount of content available to consumers does not necessarily increase under open access.

  16. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, Richard C.

    2014-04-15

    SciDAC-2 Project The Secret Life of Quarks: National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, from March 15, 2011 through March 14, 2012. The objective of this project is to construct the software needed to study quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions of sub-atomic physics, and other strongly coupled gauge field theories anticipated to be of importance in the energy regime made accessible by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It builds upon the successful efforts of the SciDAC-1 project National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, in which a QCD Applications Programming Interface (QCD API) was developed that enables lattice gauge theorists to make effective use of a wide variety of massively parallel computers. This project serves the entire USQCD Collaboration, which consists of nearly all the high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States engaged in the numerical study of QCD and related strongly interacting quantum field theories. All software developed in it is publicly available, and can be downloaded from a link on the USQCD Collaboration web site, or directly from the github repositories with entrance linke http://usqcd-software.github.io

  17. Infrastructure development for human cell therapy translation.

    PubMed

    Dietz, A B; Padley, D J; Gastineau, D A

    2007-09-01

    The common conception of a drug is that of a chemical with defined medicinal effect. However, cells used as drugs remain critical to patient care. Cell therapy's origins began with the realization that complex tissues such as blood can retain function when transplanted to the patient. More complex transplantation followed, culminating with the understanding that transplantation of some tissues such as bone marrow may act medicinally. Administration of cells with an intended therapeutic effect is a hallmark of cellular therapy. While cells have been used as drugs for decades, testing a specific therapeutic effect of cells has begun clinical testing relatively recently. Lessons learned during the establishment of blood banking (including the importance of quality control, process control, sterility, and product tracking) are key components in the assurance of the safety and potency of cell therapy preparations. As more academic medical centers and private companies move toward exploiting the full potential of cells as drugs, needs arise for the development of the infrastructure necessary to support these investigations. Careful consideration of the design of the structure used to manufacture is important in terms of the significant capital outlay involved and the facility's role in achieving regulatory compliance. This development perspective describes the regulatory environment surrounding the infrastructure support for cell therapy and practical aspects for design consideration with particular focus on those activities associated with early clinical trials. PMID:17637785

  18. The CARMEN software as a service infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Michael; Jessop, Mark; Fletcher, Martyn; Hodge, Victoria; Jackson, Tom; Austin, Jim

    2013-01-28

    The CARMEN platform allows neuroscientists to share data, metadata, services and workflows, and to execute these services and workflows remotely via a Web portal. This paper describes how we implemented a service-based infrastructure into the CARMEN Virtual Laboratory. A Software as a Service framework was developed to allow generic new and legacy code to be deployed as services on a heterogeneous execution framework. Users can submit analysis code typically written in Matlab, Python, C/C++ and R as non-interactive standalone command-line applications and wrap them as services in a form suitable for deployment on the platform. The CARMEN Service Builder tool enables neuroscientists to quickly wrap their analysis software for deployment to the CARMEN platform, as a service without knowledge of the service framework or the CARMEN system. A metadata schema describes each service in terms of both system and user requirements. The search functionality allows services to be quickly discovered from the many services available. Within the platform, services may be combined into more complicated analyses using the workflow tool. CARMEN and the service infrastructure are targeted towards the neuroscience community; however, it is a generic platform, and can be targeted towards any discipline. PMID:23230159

  19. Encouraging an ecological evolution of data infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Infrastructure is often thought of as a complex physical construct usually designed to transport information or things (e.g. electricity, water, cars, money, sound, data…). The Research Data Alliance (RDA) takes a more holistic view and considers infrastructure as a complex body of relationships between people, machines, and organisations. This paper will describe how this more ecological perspective leads RDA to define and govern an agile virtual organization. We seek to harness the power of the volunteer, through an open problem solving approach that focusses on the problems of our individual members and their organisations. We focus on implementing solutions that make data sharing work better without defining a priori what is necessary. We do not judge the fitness of a solution, per se, but instead assess how broadly the solution is adopted, recognizing that adoption is often the social challenge of technical problem. We seek to encourage a bottoms up approach with light guidance on principles from the top. The goal is to develop community solutions that solve real problems today yet are adaptive to changing technologies and needs.

  20. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water