Science.gov

Sample records for exon-primed intron-crossing epic

  1. Genetic Structure of Aedes aegypti in Australia and Vietnam Revealed by Microsatellite and Exon Primed Intron Crossing Markers Suggests Feasibility of Local Control Options

    PubMed Central

    ENDERSBY, N. M.; HOFFMANN, A. A.; WHITE, V. L.; LOWENSTEIN, S.; RITCHIE, S.; JOHNSON, P. H.; RAPLEY, L. P.; RYAN, P. A.; NAM, V. S.; YEN, N. T.; KITTIYAPONG, P.; WEEKS, A. R.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Australia is currently restricted to northern Queensland, but it has been more extensive in the past. In this study, we evaluate the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations in Australia and Vietnam and consider genetic differentiation between mosquitoes from these areas and those from a population in Thailand. Six microsatellites and two exon primed intron crossing markers were used to assess isolation by distance across all populations and also within the Australian sample. Investigations of founder effects, amount of molecular variation between and within regions and comparison of FST values among Australian and Vietnamese populations were made to assess the scale of movement of Ae. aegypti. Genetic control methods are under development for mosquito vector populations including the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The success of these control methods will depend on the population structure of the target species including population size and rates of movement among populations. Releases of modified mosquitoes could target local populations that show a high degree of isolation from surrounding populations, potentially allowing new variants to become established in one region with eventual dispersal to other regions. PMID:19769038

  2. Population Genetic Structure of the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in India as Inferred from EPIC-PCR DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Gajanan Tryambak; Tay, Wee Tek; Russell, Derek Alan; Kranthi, Keshav Raj; Batterham, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is an important pest of cotton and other agricultural crops in the Old World. Its wide host range, high mobility and fecundity, and the ability to adapt and develop resistance against all common groups of insecticides used for its management have exacerbated its pest status. An understanding of the population genetic structure in H. armigera under Indian agricultural conditions will help ascertain gene flow patterns across different agricultural zones. This study inferred the population genetic structure of Indian H. armigera using five Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC)-PCR markers. Nested alternative EPIC markers detected moderate null allele frequencies (4.3% to 9.4%) in loci used to infer population genetic structure but the apparently genome-wide heterozygote deficit suggests in-breeding or a Wahlund effect rather than a null allele effect. Population genetic analysis of the 26 populations suggested significant genetic differentiation within India but especially in cotton-feeding populations in the 2006–07 cropping season. In contrast, overall pair-wise FST estimates from populations feeding on food crops indicated no significant population substructure irrespective of cropping seasons. A Baysian cluster analysis was used to assign the genetic make-up of individuals to likely membership of population clusters. Some evidence was found for four major clusters with individuals in two populations from cotton in one year (from two populations in northern India) showing especially high homogeneity. Taken as a whole, this study found evidence of population substructure at host crop, temporal and spatial levels in Indian H. armigera, without, however, a clear biological rationale for these structures being evident. PMID:23326431

  3. PCR survey of 50 introns in animals: cross-amplification of homologous EPIC loci in eight non-bilaterian, protostome and deuterostome phyla.

    PubMed

    Gérard, K; Guilloton, E; Arnaud-Haond, S; Aurelle, D; Bastrop, R; Chevaldonné, P; Derycke, S; Hanel, R; Lapègue, S; Lejeusne, C; Mousset, S; Ramšak, A; Remerie, T; Viard, F; Féral, J-P; Chenuil, A

    2013-12-01

    Exon Primed Intron Crossing (EPIC) markers provide molecular tools that are susceptible to be variable within species while remaining amplifiable by PCR using potentially universal primers. In this study we tested the possibility of obtaining PCR products from 50 EPIC markers on 23 species belonging to seven different phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Echinodermata) using 70 new primer pairs. A previous study had identified and tested those loci in a dozen species, including another phylum, Urochordata (Chenuil et al., 2010). Results were contrasted among species. The best results were achieved with the oyster (Mollusca) where 28 loci provided amplicons susceptible to contain an intron according to their size. This was however not the case with the other mollusk Crepidula fornicata, which seems to have undergone a reduction in intron number or intron size. In the Porifera, 13 loci appeared susceptible to contain an intron, a surprisingly high number for this phylum considering its phylogenetic distance with genomic data used to design the primers. For two cnidarian species, numerous loci (24) were obtained. Ecdysozoan phyla (arthropods and nematodes) proved less successful than others as expected considering reports of their rapid rate of genome evolution and the worst results were obtained for several arthropods. Some general patterns among phyla arose, and we discuss how the results of this EPIC survey may give new insights into genome evolution of the study species. This work confirms that this set of EPIC loci provides an easy-to-use toolbox to identify genetic markers potentially useful for population genetics, phylogeography or phylogenetic studies for a large panel of metazoan species. We then argue that obtaining diploid sequence genotypes for these loci became simple and affordable owing to Next-Generation Sequencing development. Species surveyed in this study belong to several genera (Acanthaster, Alvinocaris, Aplysina

  4. EPICS overview

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This overview describes basic attributes, hardware, IOC software platforms, database access and scanning, record support, database monitors, channel access, client services, search server, connection management, OPI tools, and core software of the EPICS system.

  5. EPICS performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Botlo, M.; Jagielski, M.; Romero, A.

    1993-09-01

    The authors report on the software architecture, some CPU and memory issues, and the performance of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Specifically, they subject each EPICS software layer to a series of tests and extract quantitative results that should be useful to system architects planning to use EPICS for control applications.

  6. Teaching the Epic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret, Ed.

    Assembled to aid high school literature teachers in exploring the epic with their students, materials in this book approach the epic as a product of a specific culture which presents vivid pictures of earlier societies. Following the introduction and the opening essay, "The Role of the Supernatural in the Epic," chapters are grouped under the…

  7. EPIC Computer Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and Flight Engineer Don Pettit work on installing hardware for the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) upgrade of the International Space Sta...

  8. American Epic: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the epic of America as frontier and vast land of freedom has been replaced by an epic that emphasizes racial and ethnic diversity in America, whether in an optimistic or pessimistic mood. The old epic was connected with an available frontier, but the new epic is city-centered in the stories of minorities. (SLD)

  9. EPIC/JANUS user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-30

    EPIC/JANUS, the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Publication and Interactive Composition System, is a software system the allows text, tables, halftones, and graphics to be combined interactively in a single document. In essence, it automates the entire process of composition and production of camera-ready copy. EPIC is a machine-independent document management and translation system developed by EIA. JANUS is an interactive document composition system which formats and typesets a document. This User's Guide provides complete information on how to use the EPIC/JANUS system. Included in the discussion are sections on getting started, the EPIC system and EIA Standard Text Codes, EPIC interactive commands, graphics in EPIC/JANUS, tables in EPIC/JANUS, EPIC Error messages, MVS and VM listings from EPIC/JANUS, using JANUS interactively, mathematical formula, and producing EPIC/JANUS publications through a displaywriter. Appendices contain a quick reference guide to text codes and text code examples. (DWL)

  10. EPICS system: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Kramper, B.J.; Lahey, T.E.; MacKinnon, B.A.; West, R.E.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the EPICS control system at FERMILAB. EPICS is a distributed, multi-user, interactive system for the control and monitoring of particle beamlines at a high-energy experimental physics laboratory. The overview discusses the operating environment of the control system, the requirements which determined the design decisions, the hardware and software configurations, and plans for the future growth and enhancement of the present system. This paper is the first of three related papers on the EPICS system. The other two cover (1) the system structure and user interface and (2) RSX implementation issues.

  11. Perspectives on Epic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1999-07-14

    An electron-proton/ion polarized beam collider (EPIC) with high luminosity and center of mass energy square root s = 25 GeV would be a valuable facility for fundamental studies of proton and nuclear structure and tests of quantum chromodynamics, I review a sample of prospective EPIC topics, particularly semi-exclusive reactions, studies of the proton fragmentation region, heavy quark electroproduction, and a new probe of odderon/pomeron interference.

  12. EPICS-DDS

    SciTech Connect

    Malitsky,N.; Shah, J.; Hasabnis, N.

    2009-05-04

    This paper presents a new extension to EPICS, approaching the Data Distributed Service (DDS) interface based on the Channel Access protocol. DDS is the next generation of middleware industrial standards, bringing a data-centric publish-subscribe paradigm to distributed control systems. In comparison with existing middleware technologies, the data-centric approach is able to provide a consistent consolidated model supporting difference data dissemination scenarios and integrating many important issues, such as quality of service, user-specific data structures, and others. The paper considers different features of the EPICS-DDS layer in the context of the high-level accelerator environment.

  13. EPIC'S PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPIC completes approximately 150 site characterizations annually using current and historical aerial photographs. This work is done in support of EPA Regional and Program
    offices. Site characterization provides detailed information about a site and its history, often going ba...

  14. The Owens Valley Epics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Donald

    2007-01-01

    One of the best-studied, least-discussed texts of Native American oral literature is a long Mojave "epic" taken down from a man named Inyo-kutavere by Alfred Kroeber in 1902 and published in 1951. The text was published in twenty-nine pages along with forty-eight pages of commentary and twenty-five pages of notes. In 1999, Arthur Hatto, an…

  15. Overview of EPIC2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, D. J.

    2002-12-01

    The tropical eastern Pacific is a region in which coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models do a particularly poor job. In particular, the seasonal cycle is inadequately simulated in most cases. This is probably because certain physical processes are not properly represented in such models. The purpose of EPIC2001 is to develop a better understanding of key physical processes in this region with an eye to improving the associated model parameterizations. In this overview the aspects of the east Pacific which potentially can give climate models problems are outlined in the context of idealized theories of the behavior of the ocean-atmosphere system in the region. These aspects have been identified to be \\begin{itemize} the factors controlling the location and variability of east Pacific deep atmospheric convection; airmass transformations in the low-level cross-equatorial flow driven by the latitudinal sea surface temperature gradient; the effect of air-sea coupling on ocean mixed layer dynamics and SST in the east Pacific warm pool; the processes in the upper ocean that affect the structure and evolution of the shallow thermocline in this region; and dynamical, radiative, and microphysical factors affecting the energy balance in the widespread region of stratus-covered ocean south of the equator. This talk will give an overview of how the various aspects of the EPIC2001 field program are designed to address these problems and will serve as background for subsequent more specialized talks.

  16. EPICS system: RSX implementation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, T.E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Kramper, B.J.; MacKinnon, B.A.; West, R.E.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents implementation details of the Experimental Physics Interactive Control System (EPICS). EPICS is used to control accelerated particle beams for high-energy physics experiments at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The topics discussed are: interprocessor communication, support of beamline terminals and devices, resource management, mapping, various problems, some solutions to the problems, performance measurement, and modifications and extensions to RSX-11M. This paper is the third of three related papers on the EPICS system. The other two cover (1) the system overview and (2) the system structure and user interface.

  17. DSCOVR_EPIC_L1A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-09-29

    DSCOVR_EPIC_L1A Full sun-light Earth images calibrated with ... 680NM 688NM 551NM LAGRANGE L1B IMAGERY EPIC DSCOVR 325NM Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool: Order Data Readme Files:  EPIC Data Format Control Book Read Software Files :  ...

  18. EPICS system: system structure and user interface

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Lahey, T.E.; Kramper, B.J.; MacKinnon, B.A.

    1984-02-01

    This paper present the user's view of and the general organization of the EPICS control system at Fermilab. Various subsystems of the EPICS control system are discussed. These include the user command language, software protection, the device database, remote computer interfaces, and several application utilities. This paper is related to two other papers on EPICS: an overview paper and a detailed implementation paper.

  19. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    EPIC is a NASA mission being studied to detect and characterize Jovian and superEarth planets, and, the dust/debris disks surrounding the parent star. It will be launched into a heliocentric Earth trailing orbit and operate for 5 years. EPIC would operate over the wavelength range of 480 - 960 nm with spectral resolutions of R < 50 and employs a visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) to suppress the starlight, yielding contrast ratios of greater than 9 orders of magnitude. We will discuss the science mission, and its role in the search for habitable planets.

  20. Industrial partnerships yield EPIC results

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.

    1996-08-01

    With a new era of competition approaching in the electricity supply industry, utilities are getting closer than ever to their industrial customers, in many cases making direct alliances as partners to help customers become more efficient, productive, and competitive. The EPRI Partnership for Industrial Competitiveness (EPIC) program aims to help industrial customers address critical priorities in environmental impact, efficiency, and productivity with the ultimate goals of long-term profitability and job retention. By offering in-plant consultant evaluations of systems and processes, EPIC helps industrial customers develop strategic insights into their operations and leverage technology and productivity solutions for competitive business advantage.

  1. The EPIC Brief: A Description of the EPIC Evaluation Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPIC Evaluation Center, Tucson, AZ.

    This initial issue describes the development, organization, staff, and facilities of the EPIC (Evaluative Programs for Innovative Curriculums) Evaluation Center, a cooperative effort of the U.S. Office of Education (under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act), the University of Arizona (College of Education), and the public and…

  2. Industrial partnerships yield EPIC results

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.

    1996-01-01

    With a new era of competition approaching in the electricity supply industry, utilities are getting closer than ever to their industrial customers, in many cases making direct alliances as partners to help customers become more efficient, productive, and competitive. The EPRI Partnership for Industrial Competitiveness-EPIC-program aims to help industrial customers address critical priorities in environmental impact, efficiency and productivity with the ultimate goals of long-term profitability and job retention. By offering in-plant consultant evaluations of systems and processes, EPIC helps industrial customers develop strategic insights into their operations and leverage technology and productivity solutions for competitive business advantage. This paper describes these strategies, areas of focus, investments and benefits.

  3. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Exoplanet Probe mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature and architecture of a variety of planets in other solar systems. Initially, it will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses and characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques. It will also observe the inner spatial structure of exozodiacal disks. EPIC has a heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 5 year mission lifetime. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument. The instrument achieves a contrast ratio of 10^9 over a 5 arcsecond field-of-view with an unprecedented inner working angle of 0.13 arcseconds over the spectral range of 440-880 nm. The telescope is a 1.65 meter off-axis Cassegrain with an OTA wavefront error of lambda/9, which when coupled to the VNC greatly reduces the requirements on the large scale optics.

  4. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-19

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes.

  5. EPIC: E-field Parallel Imaging Correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Beardsley, Adam P.; Bowman, Judd D.; Morales, Miguel F.

    2015-11-01

    E-field Parallel Imaging Correlator (EPIC), a highly parallelized Object Oriented Python package, implements the Modular Optimal Frequency Fourier (MOFF) imaging technique. It also includes visibility-based imaging using the software holography technique and a simulator for generating electric fields from a sky model. EPIC can accept dual-polarization inputs and produce images of all four instrumental cross-polarizations.

  6. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Melnick, Gary; Lyon, Richard; Kenyon, Scott; Sasselov, Dimitar; Tolls, Volker; Ford, Holland; Golimowski, David; Petro, Larry; Hartig, George; Sparks, William; Illingworth, Garth; Lin, Doug; Seager, Sara; Weinberger, Alycia; Harwit, Martin; Marley, Mark; Schneider, Jean; Shao, Michael; Levine, Marty; Ge, Jian; Woodruff, Robert

    2006-06-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets in orbits with semi-major axes between 2 and 10 AU. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature of a variety of planets in other solar systems complimenting radial velocity (RV) and astrometric planet searches. It will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses, characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques, and observe the inner spatial structure and colors of debris disks. EPIC has a proposed launch date of 2012 to heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 3 year mission lifetime (5 year goal), and will revisit planets at least three times at intervals of 9 months. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument. The instrument achieves a contrast ratio of 109 over a 4.84 arcsecond field-of-view with an unprecedented inner working angle of 0.14 arcseconds over the spectral range of 440-880 nm, with spectral resolutions from 10 - 150. The telescope is a 1.5 meter offaxis Cassegrain with an OTA wavefront error of λ/9, which when coupled to the VNC greatly reduces the requirements on the large scale optics, compressing them to stability requirements within the relatively compact VNC optical chain. The VNC features two integrated modular nullers, a spatial filter array (SFA), and an E2V-L3 photon counting CCD. Direct null control is accomplished from the science focal mitigating against complex wavefront and amplitude sensing and control strategies.

  7. Experience using EPICS on PC platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemire, K.U.

    1998-03-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of implementations have used UNIX workstations as clients, and VME- or VXI-based processors for distributed input output controllers. Recently, a significant portion of EPICS has been ported to personal computer (PC) hardware platforms running Microsoft`s operating systems, and also Wind River System`s real time vxWorks operating system. This development should significantly reduce the cost of deploying EPICS systems, and the prospect of using EPICS together with the many high quality commercial components available for PC platforms is also encouraging. A hybrid system using both PC and traditional platforms is currently being implemented at LANL for LEDA, the low energy demonstration accelerator under construction as part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project. To illustrate these developments the authors compare their recent experience deploying a PC-based EPICS system with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional (UNIX-hosted) EPICS hardware and software platforms.

  8. Integrating commercial and legacy systems with EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemir, K.U.; Kowalkowski, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software toolkit, developed by a worldwide collaboration, which significantly reduces the level of effort required to implement a new control system. Recent developments now also significantly reduce the level of effort required to integrate commercial, legacy and/or site-authored control systems with EPICS. This paper will illustrate with an example both the level and type of effort required to use EPICS with other control system components as well as the benefits that may arise.

  9. Next generation epics interface to abstract data.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. O.; Lange, R.

    2001-01-01

    The set of externally visible properties associated with process variables in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is predefined in the EPICS base distribution and is therefore not extensible by plug-compatible applications. We believe that this approach, while practical for early versions of the system with a smaller user base, is now severely limiting expansion of the high-level application tool set for EPICS. To eliminate existing barriers, we propose a new C++ based interface to abstract containerized data. This paper describes the new interface, its application to message passing in distributed systems, its application to direct communication between tightly coupled programs co-resident in an address space, and its paramount position in an emerging role for EPICS -- the integration of dissimilar systems.

  10. The Experimental Projectile Impact Chamber (EPIC), Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormö, J.; Melero-Asensio, I.; Housen, K.; Wünnemann, K.; Elbeshausen, D.; Collins, G.

    2015-09-01

    We show that EPIC dry sand experiments are consistent with previous experimental work within the pi-group scaling framework, and use the craters as ground truth for the validation of numerical impact models, before moving forward with wet targets.

  11. EPIC View of Moon Transiting the Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation features actual satellite images of the far side of the moon, illuminated by the sun, as it crosses between the DSCOVR spacecraft's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and tele...

  12. Primers for low-copy nuclear genes in Metrosideros and cross-amplification in Myrtaceae1

    PubMed Central

    Pillon, Yohan; Johansen, Jennifer; Sakishima, Tomoko; Chamala, Srikar; Barbazuk, W. Brad; Stacy, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Primers were developed to amplify low-copy nuclear genes in Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae). • Methods and Results: Data from a pooled 454 Titanium run of the partial transcriptomes of four Metrosideros taxa were used to identify the loci of interest. Ten exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) markers were amplified and sequenced directly with success in Metrosideros, as well as in a representative selection of Myrtaceae, including Syzygium, Psidium, and Melaleuca for most of the markers. The loci amplified ranged between 500 and 1100 bp, and up to 117 polymorphic sites were observed within an individual gene alignment. Two introns contained microsatellites in some of the species. • Conclusions: These novel primer pairs should be useful for phylogenetic analysis and population genetics of a broad range of Myrtaceae, particularly the diverse fleshy-fruited tribes Syzygieae and Myrteae. PMID:25309837

  13. Bottomless barrel-sponge species in the Indo-Pacific?

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Edwin; Voogd, Nicole J De; Wörheide, Gert; Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The use of nuclear markers, in addition to traditional mitochondrial markers, helps to clarify hidden patterns of genetic structure in natural populations (Palumbi & Baker, 1994). This is particularly evident among demosponges that possess slow mitochondrial evolutionary rates compared to Bilateria, where nuclear intron markers can aid in the understanding of shallow level phylogenetic relationships (Shearer et al., 2002). Ideally, these nuclear markers (i) are evolutionary well-conserved across different lineages, (ii) produce amplicons holding a number of sites with sufficient variability to answer the relevant phylogenetic question, (iii) derive from single copy genes (see review in Zhang & Hewitt, 2003). A popular method to amplify intron markers uses EPIC (Exon-Primed, Intron-Crossing) primers that anneal to the more conserved flanking exon regions and subsequently bridge the intron during amplification (Palumbi & Baker, 1994). PMID:27395725

  14. The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, I. G.; Mandell, M. J.; Kuharski, R. A.; Davis, V. A.; Gardner, B. M.; Minor, J.

    2004-01-01

    Science Applications International Corporation is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code, EPIC, as part of a project sponsored by the Space Environments and Effects Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Now in its second year of development, EPIC is an interactive computer tool that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of a variety of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. These interactions may include erosion of surfaces due to sputtering and re-deposition of sputtered materials, surface heating, torque on the spacecraft, and changes in surface properties due to erosion and deposition. This paper describes the overall capability of EPIC and provides an outline of the physics and algorithms that comprise many of its computational modules.

  15. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  16. Centrally managed name resolution schemes for EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, D.; Bryan, D.; Watson, W.

    1997-12-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) uses a broadcast method to locate resources and controls distributed across control servers. There are many advantages offered by using a centrally managed name resolution method, in which resources are located using a repository. The suitability of DCE Directory Service as a name resolution method is explored, and results from a study involving DCE are discussed. An alternative nameserver method developed and in use at the Thomas Jefferson national Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is described and results of integrating this new method with existing EPICS utilities presented. The various methods discussed in the paper are compared.

  17. The EPICS process variable gateway -- Version 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    The EPICS Process Variable Gateway is both a Channel Access Server and Channel Access Client that provides a means for many clients, typically on different subnets, to access a process variable while making only one connection to the server that owns the process variable. It also provides additional access security beyond that implemented on the server. It thus protects critical servers while providing suitably restricted access to needed process variables. The original version of the Gateway worked with EPICS Base 3.13 but required a special version, since the changes necessary for its operation were never incorporated into EPICS Base. Version 2 works with any standard EPICS Base 3.14.6 or later and has many improvements in both performance and features over the older version. The Gateway is now used at many institutions and has become a stable, high-performance application. It is capable of handling tens of thousands of process variables with hundreds of thousands of events per second. It has run for over three months in a production environment without having to be restarted. It has many internal process variables that can be used to monitor its state using standard EPICS client tools, such as MEDM and StripTool. Other internal process variables can be used to stop the Gateway, make several kinds of reports, or change the access security without stopping the Gateway. It can even be started on remote workstations from MEDM by using a Secure Shell script. This paper will describe the new Gateway and how it is used. The Gateway is both a server (like an EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC)) and a client (like the EPICS Motif Editor and Display Manager (MEDM), StripTool, and others). Clients connect to the server side, and the client side connects to IOCs and other servers, possibly other Gateways. See Fig. 1. There are perhaps three principal reasons for using the Gateway: (1) it allows many clients to access a process variable while making only one connection to

  18. Reflections on the Epic Challenge, 1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiers, Marion

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Marion Meiers reflects on the often-cited address "Literacy: The Epic Challenge Beyond Progressivism" by Garth Boomer at the 1989 joint National Conference of the Australian Reading Association (now the Australian Literacy Educator's Association) and the Australian Association for the Teaching of English at Darin…

  19. EPIC: Building a Structured Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhead, Martin D.

    This paper outlines work in progress at the University of Edinburgh on the construction of a small World Wide Web-based interactive learning environment (EPIC) developed for the teaching of high performance computing. The paper begins by outlining work done in cognitive science on how people make use of structure in physical environments. Within…

  20. ET: EPICS TCL/TK interface

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the tc1 command and command types which are used to communicate with EPICS database servers. The application libraries upon which et is built include tc1, tk, tc1-dp, and blt. The reader of this document is assumed to be familiar with tc1/tk.

  1. Education for Change: Epic Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The student-centered school model of Epic Charter School in Oakland, California, framed around a hero's journey empowers middle school students with sense of unity and purpose in life, where they can feel part of a culture with a shared experience and with more opportunities to experiences growth and accomplishment. Design and engineering is front…

  2. The success and the future of EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Thuot; M. Clausen; L.R. Dalesio; T. Katoh; M.R. Kraimer; R. Mueller; H. Shoaee; W.A. Watson

    1996-08-01

    During the past five years, the control system software toolkit called EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), has developed from a comparatively small code co-development effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory into an international collaboration on real-time distributed control systems. The wide application of this set of tools is the result of a combination of high performance, scaleable distributed control and well defined open interfaces between system layers that encourage users to add extensions. These extensions can subsequently be reused by others, adding to the utility of the tools. This paper will describe the architectural features that have supported these extensions, some of the new extensions produced by the 58 projects currently using EPICS and some of the new functions and interfaces we are planning to add to this control system toolkit.

  3. The success and the future of EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Thuot, M.E., Dalesio, L.R.; Clausen, M.; Katoh, T.

    1996-09-01

    During the past 5 years, the control system software toolkit EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) has developed from a small code co-development effort between LANL and ANL into an international collaboration on real-time distributed control system (for an accelerator facility, etc.). The wide application of this set of tools is the result of a combination of high performance, scaleable distributed control, and well defined open interfaces between system layers that encourage users to add extensions. These extensions can subsequently be reused by others, adding to the utility of the tools. This paper describes the architectural features that have supported these extensions, some of the new extensions produced by the 58 projects currently using EPICS and some of the new functions and interfaces being planned to be added to this control system toolkit.

  4. EPICS Version 4 - Implementing Complex Data Types

    SciTech Connect

    Marty Kraimer,; John dalesio

    2012-11-27

    Through phase 1 and phase 2 SBIR grants, s fully functional I/O Controller and communication protocol for version 4 of EPICS is completed. This new software architecture provides a flexible and extendible architecture. Version 4 is implemented fully in Java. The performance metrics look promising. The final portion of phase 2 is to optimize the communication mechanisms. Subsequent work on different aspects of this are required to provide a viable solutions in various areas. Version 3 of EPICS is able to provide a platform for implementing channel based control, because the channel and attributes for time stamping, alarm, display and control were narrow, well defined, and complete. To extend EPICS functionality beyond this, it is necessary to define attributes needed for archive data, array, image data, and directory services. The proper handling of several array types enables the development of middle layer servers such as orbit and bump control in accelerators. Phase 1 should produce a well defined, reviewed, and agreed upon definition of the metadata required for these services. A Phase 2 grant would provide tools that implemented archiving, general array, imaging, and directory applications.

  5. EPICS: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epics Development Team

    2013-02-01

    EPICS is a set of software tools and applications developed collaboratively and used to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators and telescopes. Such distributed control systems typically comprise tens or even hundreds of computers, networked together to allow communication between them and to provide control and feedback of the various parts of the device from a central control room, or even remotely over the internet. EPICS uses Client/Server and Publish/Subscribe techniques to communicate between the various computers. A Channel Access Gateway allows engineers and physicists elsewhere in the building to examine the current state of the IOCs, but prevents them from making unauthorized adjustments to the running system. In many cases the engineers can make a secure internet connection from home to diagnose and fix faults without having to travel to the site. EPICS is used by many facilities worldwide, including the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, Fermilab, Keck Observatory, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Australian Synchrotron, and Stanford Linear Accellerator Center.

  6. Reweaving the Fabric of Rural Vermont: The EPIC Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jean

    1998-01-01

    A Vermont project, the Environmental Programs/Partnerships in Communities (EPIC) project provides a transferable model for rural development. The program is sensitive to people and environmental needs, and emphasizes long-term functioning of the entire community system, not just specific outcomes. EPIC has supported leadership training, local…

  7. Evaluation Report: The EPIC Leadership Development Model and Pilot Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    New Leaders created the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative in 2006 to learn from educators driving achievement gains in high-need urban schools. EPIC identifies school leaders and teachers whose students are making significant achievement gains and financially rewards these educators in exchange for sharing and documenting…

  8. The EPIC Leadership Development Program Evaluation Report. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders for New Schools (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    New Leaders for New Schools created the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative in 2006 to learn from educators driving achievement gains in high-need urban schools. EPIC identifies school leaders and teachers whose students are making significant achievement gains and financially rewards these educators in exchange for sharing…

  9. EPIC and APEX: Model use, calibration, and validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) and Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) models have been developed to assess a wide variety of agricultural water resource, water quality, and other environmental problems. The EPIC model is designed to be applied at a field-scale leve...

  10. EPIC: A Framework for Using Video Games in Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrier, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Ethics education can potentially be supplemented through the use of video games. This article proposes a novel framework (Ethics Practice and Implementation Categorization [EPIC] Framework), which helps educators choose games to be used for ethics education purposes. The EPIC Framework is derived from a number of classic moral development,…

  11. Modular Curriculum: English. Comparative Literature: The Epic Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Barbara; Wiley, Shirley

    This independent course of study is designed to be completed within a one-year period. The course centers on the epic tradition, analyzing several well-known epics and comparing them from a critic's point of view. It is emphasized that many aspects of the course involve questions for which there are no ready answers. The introductions following…

  12. Perfusion Electronic Record Documentation Using Epic Systems Software.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeffrey B; Justison, George A

    2015-12-01

    The authors comment on Steffens and Gunser's article describing the University of Wisconsin adoption of the Epic anesthesia record to include perfusion information from the cardiopulmonary bypass patient experience. We highlight the current-day lessons and the valuable quality and safety principles the Wisconsin-Epic model anesthesia-perfusion record provides. PMID:26834289

  13. EPIC: Helping School Life and Family Support Each Other.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, David

    1992-01-01

    Born out of a 1981 murder, Buffalo (New York) Public Schools' EPIC (Effective Parenting Information for Children) program successfully combines parenting, effective teaching, and community programs to help family and school life support each other. Under EPIC, teachers are advised to help students acquire 23 skills involving self-esteem, rules,…

  14. AN OVERVIEW OF EPA ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory



    The EPA Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) supports the EPA Regions and Program Offices with remote sensing based technical support and research and development products. Since 1972, EPIC has provided both imagery and imagery-derived products to the E...

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF THE EPA ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory



    The EPA Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) supports the EPA Regions and Program Offices with remote sensing based technical support and research and development products. Since 1972, EPIC has provided both imagery and imagery-derived products to the E...

  16. 77 FR 73655 - Epic Marketplace, Inc., and Epic Media Group, LLC; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... site for a fee (``publishers'') and advertisers who wish to have their advertisements placed on Web sites. Epic purchases advertising space on publishers' Web sites and contracts with advertisers to place... advertising space as the Epic Marketplace Network, which includes over 45,000 publishers. The...

  17. A MySQL Based EPICS Archiver

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Slominski

    2009-10-01

    Archiving a large fraction of the EPICS signals within the Jefferson Lab (JLAB) Accelerator control system is vital for postmortem and real-time analysis of the accelerator performance. This analysis is performed on a daily basis by scientists, operators, engineers, technicians, and software developers. Archiving poses unique challenges due to the magnitude of the control system. A MySQL Archiving system (Mya) was developed to scale to the needs of the control system; currently archiving 58,000 EPICS variables, updating at a rate of 11,000 events per second. In addition to the large collection rate, retrieval of the archived data must also be fast and robust. Archived data retrieval clients obtain data at a rate over 100,000 data points per second. Managing the data in a relational database provides a number of benefits. This paper describes an archiving solution that uses an open source database and standard off the shelf hardware to reach high performance archiving needs. Mya has been in production at Jefferson Lab since February of 2007.

  18. ORAL PRESENTATION:EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of the remote sensing technical support and research and development activities of the Environmental Photographic Interprettion Center (EPIC). It is the basis for a presentation given at the EPA's Office of Acquisition Management's Annual C...

  19. Students Speak With Gary Cox, EPIC Project Manager

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center Gary Cox EPIC Project Manager, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at South Effingham Middle School...

  20. Operational experience from a large EPICS-based accelerator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarlette, D.J.; Gerig, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation x-ray light source which uses the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) to operate its linear accelerator, positron accumulator ring, booster synchrotron, and storage ring equipment. EPICS has been used at the APS since the beginning of installation and commissioning. Currently, EPICS controls approximately 100 VME crates containing over 100,000 process variables. With this complexity, the APS has had to review some of the methods originally employed and make changes as necessary. In addition, due to commissioning and operational needs, higher-level operator software needed to be created. EPICS has been flexible enough to allow this.

  1. Experience with EPICS in a wide variety of applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.; Clausen, M.; Lupton, W.; Watson, C.

    1997-08-01

    Currently more than 70 organizations have obtained permission to use the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), a set of software packages for building real-time control systems. In this paper representatives from four of these sites discuss the reasons their sites chose EPICS, provide a brief discussion of their control system development, and discuss additional control system tools obtained elsewhere or developed locally.

  2. Aerosol Retrieval and Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lyapustin, A.; Marshak, A.; Korkin, S.; Herman, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    EPIC is a multi-spectral imager onboard planned Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) designed for observations of the full illuminated disk of the Earth with high temporal and coarse spatial resolution (10 km) from Lagrangian L1 point. During the course of the day, EPIC will view the same Earth surface area in the full range of solar and view zenith angles at equator with fixed scattering angle near the backscattering direction. This talk will describe a new aerosol retrieval/atmospheric correction algorithm developed for EPIC and tested with EPIC Simulator data. This algorithm uses the time series approach and consists of two stages: the first stage is designed to periodically re-initialize the surface spectral bidirectional reflectance (BRF) on stable low AOD days. Such days can be selected based on the same measured reflectance between the morning and afternoon reciprocal view geometries of EPIC. On the second stage, the algorithm will monitor the diurnal cycle of aerosol optical depth and fine mode fraction based on the known spectral surface BRF. Testing of the developed algorithm with simulated EPIC data over continental USA showed a good accuracy of AOD retrievals (10-20%) except over very bright surfaces.

  3. Real-Time performance measurements of EPICS IOCcore.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Kraimer, M. R.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    As the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is used in an increasing number of accelerator control systems, EPICS IOCcore is ported to a wider variety of OS platforms and thus the performance of EPICS IOCcore on different hardware and software platforms becomes more important. This paper provides real-time performance measurements of EPICS IOCcore on a VME hardware platform and on three different OS platforms: vxWorks, RTEMS, and Linux. EPICS Input/Output Controller core (IOCcore) software has been ported to several different operating systems (OSs) and many hardware platforms. This paper compares the EPICS IOCcore runtime performance on one hardware platform (MVME2100 PowerPC) and three popular Operating Systems: vxWorks, RTEMS, and Linux. For Linux the following versions were tested: Linux 2.4.2 hard hat 2.0, standard Linux 2.4.30, and Linux 2.6.13. For Linux 2.6.13, the kernel was built both preemptive and non-preemptive. Three real-time parameters are measured: interrupt, context switch, and total response latency. On Linux, more detailed interrupt latencies are measured: interrupt top half to bottom half, and interrupt bottom half to user space interrupt service routine. To implement the tests, several software components were developed. In order to port to other operating systems or hardware platforms only, one component has to be implemented.

  4. Aerosol Retrieval and Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for EPIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yujie; Lyapustin, Alexei; Marshak, Alexander; Korkin, Sergey; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    EPIC is a multi-spectral imager onboard planned Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) designed for observations of the full illuminated disk of the Earth with high temporal and coarse spatial resolution (10 km) from Lagrangian L1 point. During the course of the day, EPIC will view the same Earth surface area in the full range of solar and view zenith angles at equator with fixed scattering angle near the backscattering direction. This talk will describe a new aerosol retrieval/atmospheric correction algorithm developed for EPIC and tested with EPIC Simulator data. This algorithm uses the time series approach and consists of two stages: the first stage is designed to periodically re-initialize the surface spectral bidirectional reflectance (BRF) on stable low AOD days. Such days can be selected based on the same measured reflectance between the morning and afternoon reciprocal view geometries of EPIC. On the second stage, the algorithm will monitor the diurnal cycle of aerosol optical depth and fine mode fraction based on the known spectral surface BRF. Testing of the developed algorithm with simulated EPIC data over continental USA showed a good accuracy of AOD retrievals (10-20%) except over very bright surfaces.

  5. Pelagic Life and Depth: Coastal Physical Features in West Africa Shape the Genetic Structure of the Bonga Shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Guinand, Bruno; Dodson, Julian J.; Lecomte, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The bonga shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata, is a West African pelagic species still abundant in most habitats of its distribution range and thought to be only recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction or fishing pressure). Its presence in a wide range of coastal habitats characterised by different hydrodynamic processes, represents a case study useful for evaluating the importance of physical structure of the west African shoreline on the genetic structure of a small pelagic species. To investigate this question, the genetic diversity of E. fimbriata was assessed at both regional and species range scales, using mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear DNA markers. Whereas only three panmictic units were identified with mtDNA at the large spatial scale, nuclear genetic markers (EPIC: exon-primed intron-crossing) indicated a more complex genetic pattern at the regional scale. In the northern-most section of shad’s distribution range, up to 4 distinct units were identified. Bayesian inference as well as spatial autocorrelation methods provided evidence that gene flow is impeded by the presence of deep-water areas near the coastline (restricting the width of the coastal shelf), such as the Cap Timiris and the Kayar canyons in Mauritania and Senegal, respectively. The added discriminatory power provided by the use of EPIC markers proved to be essential to detect the influence of more subtle, contemporary processes (e.g. gene flow, barriers, etc.) acting within the glacial refuges identified previously by mtDNA. PMID:24130890

  6. EvolMarkers: a database for mining exon and intron markers for evolution, ecology and conservation studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenhong; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2012-09-01

    Recent innovations in next-generation sequencing have lowered the cost of genome projects. Nevertheless, sequencing entire genomes for all representatives in a study remains expensive and unnecessary for most studies in ecology, evolution and conservation. It is still more cost-effective and efficient to target and sequence single-copy nuclear gene markers for such studies. Many tools have been developed for identifying nuclear markers, but most of these have focused on particular taxonomic groups. We have built a searchable database, EvolMarkers, for developing single-copy coding sequence (CDS) and exon-primed-intron-crossing (EPIC) markers that is designed to work across a broad range of phylogenetic divergences. The database is made up of single-copy CDS derived from BLAST searches of a variety of metazoan genomes. Users can search the database for different types of markers (CDS or EPIC) that are common to different sets of input species with different divergence characteristics. EvolMarkers can be applied to any taxonomic group for which genome data are available for two or more species. We included 82 genomes in the first version of EvolMarkers and have found the methods to be effective across Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropod, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata and plants. We demonstrate the effectiveness of searching for CDS markers within annelids and show how to find potentially useful intronic markers within the lizard Anolis. PMID:22805179

  7. EPICS : Extensible record and device support.

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, L. R.; Kraimer, M. R.

    1997-11-18

    Although the design of extensible support was not intentionally object oriented, the design does have an object-oriented flavor. Here we discuss the good and bad aspects of using object-oriented ideas. Since the structures generated from a Record Description File contain only data and not methods, they are not similar to Java or C++ classes. Because methods are not present, a clear separation between static and run-time database access is possible. This is a good feature and should be kept. It also allows generation of C structures that can be used by either C or C++ code. The record and device support entry tables are almost like Java interfaces or pure abstract C++ classes. We can state that EPICS databases are defined via a Database Definition Language and an Abstract Interface Definition. The two main shortcomings of the existing implementation are (1) only two interfaces are defined RSETS and DSETS (actually a third called a driver entry table is also defined), and (2) the way hardware links are implemented makes it extremely difficult to support arbitrary bus types and additional hardware configuration information.

  8. The EPIC Professional Learning Model: A Review of EPIC's Alignment with Leadership Development Research and Professional Learning National Standards. The Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC). Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Perreira-Leon, Maura

    2010-01-01

    With the creation of the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC), New Leaders for New Schools hoped to accomplish two broad and ambitious goals. The first was to identify and reward leadership practices driving significant achievement gains in high-poverty, urban schools. The second was to learn from those practices and make them more widely…

  9. AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION FOR SITE CHARACTERIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch (LEB), Environmental Sciences Division - Las Vegas, Office of Research and Development EPIC provides remote sensing technical support to help the Agency achieve its mult...

  10. EPIC'S NEW REMOTE SENSING DATA AND INFORMATION TOOLS AVAILABLE FOR EPA CUSTOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory



    EPIC's New Remote Sensing Data and Information Tools Available for EPA Customers Donald Garofalo Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) Landscape Ecology Branch Environmental Sciences Division National Exposure Research Laboratory

    Several new too...

  11. DOE`s Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC) is a computer system intended for the exchange of pollution prevention information DOE-wide. EPIC is being developed as a distributed system that will allow access to other databases and applications. The first prototype of EPIC (Prototype I) was put on-line in January 1994. Prototype I contains information on EM-funded pollution prevention projects; relevant laws, regulations, guidance, and policy; facility and DOE contacts; and meetings and conferences. Prototype I also gives users access to the INEL Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS) and to information contained on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPNS) Pollution Prevention Infbrmation Exchange System (PIES) as a test of the distributed system concept. An initial user group of about 35 is testing and providing feedback on Prototype I. Prototype II, with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is planned for the end of CY94. This paper describes the current state of EPIC in terms of architecture, user interface, and information content. Plans for Prototype II and the final system are then discussed. The EPIC development effort is being coordinated with EPA and US Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to develop or upgrade their pollution prevention information exchange systems.

  12. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Jeff A. Nichols; Schuchart, Joseph; Kline, Keith L.; Wei, Yaxing; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Post, Wilfred M.; Izaurralde, R. Cesar

    2014-12-31

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmental effects.

  13. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Jeff A. Nichols; Schuchart, Joseph; Kline, Keith L.; Wei, Yaxing; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Post, Wilfred M.; Izaurralde, R. Cesar

    2014-12-31

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmentalmore » effects.« less

  14. Science with EPICS, the E-ELT planet finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Raffaele; Kasper, Markus; Vérinaud, Christophe; Bonavita, Mariangela; Schmid, Hans M.

    2011-11-01

    EPICS is the proposed planet finder for the European Extremely Large Telescope. EPICS is a high contrast imager based on a high performing extreme adaptive optics system, a diffraction suppression module, and two scientific instruments: an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) for the near infrared (0.95-1.65 μm), and a differential polarization imager (E-POL). Both these instruments should allow imaging and characterization of planets shining in reflected light, possibly down to Earth-size. A few high interesting science cases are presented.

  15. EPICS: A control system software co-development success story

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, M.; Gurd, D.; Lewis, S.; Thuot, M.

    1993-11-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Systems (EPICS) is the result of a software sharing and co-development effort of major importance now underway. The initial two participants, LANL and ANL, have now been joined by three other labs, and an earlier version of the software has been transferred to three commercial firms and is currently undergoing separate development. The reasons for EPICS`s success may be useful to enumerate and explain and the desire and prospects for its continued development are certainly worth examining.

  16. Compilation of a standardised international folate database for EPIC.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Geneviève; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Vignat, Jérôme; Knaze, Viktoria; Huybrechts, Inge; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the methodology applied for compiling an "international end-user" folate database. This work benefits from the unique dataset offered by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) (N=520,000 subjects in 23 centres). Compilation was done in four steps: (1) identify folate-free foods then find folate values for (2) folate-rich foods common across EPIC countries, (3) the remaining "common" foods, and (4) "country-specific" foods. Compiled folate values were concurrently standardised in terms of unit, mode of expression and chemical analysis, using information in national food composition tables (FCT). 43-70% total folate values were documented as measured by microbiological assay. Foods reported in EPIC were either matched directly to FCT foods, treated as recipes or weighted averages. This work has produced the first standardised folate dataset in Europe, which was used to calculate folate intakes in EPIC; a prerequisite to study the relation between folate intake and diseases. PMID:26433299

  17. "El Norte," Deracination and Circularity: An Epic Gone Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakel, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Early journalistic reviews (e.g., Gold, Ebert, and Kael) of "El Norte" (1983), Gregory Nava's first major film, identify it as an epic. In "El Norte" the siblings Enrique and Rosa, two Guatemalan Amerindians, leave their native village on a quest to what for them is the mythical land in the North. Although "El Norte" corresponds to the general…

  18. Simulating field-scale soil organic carbon dynamics using EPIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models integrate our understanding of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics and are useful tools for evaluating impacts of crop management on soil C sequestration, yet, they require local calibration. Our objectives were to calibrate the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model, and e...

  19. The Epic Tradition in Science Fiction and Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Robert Lee

    1987-01-01

    Claims that some of the finest works of contemporary science fiction and fantasy borrow heavily from the epic tradition. Proposes that science fiction and fantasy can avoid the disbelief problem by the simple expedient of removing the "here and now," and, thereby, the realistic diminishment of causes and heroes. (JD)

  20. Becoming Teachers' Little Epics: What Digital Storytelling Might Reveal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Linda; Aitken, Avril

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses pre-service teachers' use of multi-modal tools to produce three-minute films in light of critical moments in their teaching practice. Two cases are considered; each centers on a film, a "little epic" that was produced by a future teacher who attempts to work within an anti-racist framework for social justice.…

  1. The Epic of Sundiata: Using African Literature in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Lo Piccolo

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the "Epic of Sundiata" which chronicles the rise of the Empire of Mali in the grasslands of northwestern Africa in the 13th century. This work is a compelling drama that bears comparison to such other hero tales as "The Iliad" and the Arthurian legend. Includes suggested teaching activities. (MJP)

  2. The Epic inside Us: Using Intuitive Play to Teach Beowulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, J. Beth Haase

    2004-01-01

    The element of play is underutilized in the secondary classroom in spite of the fact that play produces unique opportunities for meaningful learning. The ways in which the elements of epic poetry, Beowulf, and the Old English diction differed from the modern usage is discussed.

  3. The E.P.I.C. Journey Sanctioning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fueglein, Jennifer S.; Price, Kevin S.; Alicea-Rodriguez, Adriana; McKinney, Jan Wilson; Jimenez, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    As universities look for more effective ways to address violations of behavioral standards, a proposed solution is to infuse intentional development into well-established conduct processes inherently focused on legal mandates and due process. The E.P.I.C. Journey Sanctioning Model was designed to refocus the outcomes of the conduct process to…

  4. An efficient method to find potentially universal population genetic markers, applied to metazoans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the impressive growth of sequence databases, the limited availability of nuclear markers that are sufficiently polymorphic for population genetics and phylogeography and applicable across various phyla restricts many potential studies, particularly in non-model organisms. Numerous introns have invariant positions among kingdoms, providing a potential source for such markers. Unfortunately, most of the few known EPIC (Exon Primed Intron Crossing) loci are restricted to vertebrates or belong to multigenic families. Results In order to develop markers with broad applicability, we designed a bioinformatic approach aimed at avoiding multigenic families while identifying intron positions conserved across metazoan phyla. We developed a program facilitating the identification of EPIC loci which allowed slight variation in intron position. From the Homolens databases we selected 29 gene families which contained 52 promising introns for which we designed 93 primer pairs. PCR tests were performed on several ascidians, echinoderms, bivalves and cnidarians. On average, 24 different introns per genus were amplified in bilaterians. Remarkably, five of the introns successfully amplified in all of the metazoan genera tested (a dozen genera, including cnidarians). The influence of several factors on amplification success was investigated. Success rate was not related to the phylogenetic relatedness of a taxon to the groups that most influenced primer design, showing that these EPIC markers are extremely conserved in animals. Conclusions Our new method now makes it possible to (i) rapidly isolate a set of EPIC markers for any phylum, even outside the animal kingdom, and thus, (ii) compare genetic diversity at potentially homologous polymorphic loci between divergent taxa. PMID:20836842

  5. An Evaluation of EPIC's Analysis of School Practice & Knowledge System. The Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC). Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Pereira-Leon, Maura; Honeyford, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Established in 2006 by New Leaders for New Schools[TM], the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative rewards high-need urban schools showing significant gains in student achievement. In exchange, schools agree to share the practices helping to drive those gains, which they do through an in-depth study of practice, aided by the EPIC…

  6. EPICS : input / output controller (IOC) application developer's guide. EPICS release 3.12 specific documentation.[Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M. R.

    2002-01-30

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. EPICS consists of a set of software components and tools that Application Developers use to create a control system. The basic components are: OPI--Operator Interface. This is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; IOC--Input/Output Controller. This is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a processor, various I/O modules and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB; and LAN--Local Area Network. This is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. EPICS provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers. This report is intended for anyone developing EPICS IOC databases and/or new record/device/driver support.

  7. Expression, purification, and characterization of EpiC, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the lantibiotic epidermin, and sequence analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis epiC mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Kupke, T; Gotz, F

    1996-01-01

    The plasmid-encoded epidermin biosynthetic gene epiC of Staphylococcus epidermidis Tü3298 was expressed in Escherichia coli by using the T7 RNA polymerase-promoter system, and the gene product EpiC was identified by Western blotting (immunoblotting) with an anti-EpiC-peptide antiserum. EpiC was a hydrophobic but soluble protein. EpiC was purified by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography. The determined amino-terminal amino acid sequence was M I N I N N I .... The electrophoretic migration behavior of EpiC depended on the oxidation state of the enzyme, indicating the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bridge between C-274 and C-321. The cysteine residues in the motifs WC-274YG and C-321HG of EpiC are conserved in all lantibiotic enzymes of the C type (so-called LanC proteins) and in the CylM protein. Mutated epiC genes from S. epidermidis epiC mutants were cloned and expressed in E. coli. Sequence analysis revealed that the mutations occurred in the two motifs -S-X-X-X-G-X-X-G- and -N-X-G-X-A-H-G-X-X-G-, which are conserved in all LanC proteins. For the investigation of EpiC-EpiA interactions, precursor peptide EpiA was coupled to N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated Sepharose High Performance Material (HiTrap). Under reducing conditions, EpiC was retarded on the EpiA-HiTrap column. In the incubation experiments, EpiC did not react with EpiA, with proepidermin, or with oxidative decarboxylated peptides. PMID:8631710

  8. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, M.

    2011-09-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  9. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Mark L.

    2010-06-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  10. EPICS SCA CLIENTS ON THE .NET X64 PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Timossi, Chris; Nishimura, Hiroshi

    2006-10-19

    We have developed a .NET assembly, which we call SCA.NET,which we have been using for building EPICS based control roomapplications at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). In this paper we reporton our experiences building a 64-bit version of SCA.NET and theunderlying channel access libraries for Windows XP x64 (using a dual coreAMD Athlon CPU). We also report on our progress in building newaccelerator control applications for this environment.

  11. Simulating Field-Scale Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics Using EPIC

    SciTech Connect

    Causarano, Hector J.; Shaw, Joey N.; Franzluebbers, A. J.; reeves, D. W.; Raper, Randy L.; Balkcom, Kipling S.; Norfleet, M. L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar

    2007-07-01

    Simulation models integrate our knowledge of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics and are useful tools for evaluating impacts of crop management on soil C sequestration; yet, they require local calibration. Our objectives were to calibrate the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model, and evaluate its performance for simulating SOC fractions as affected by soil landscape and management. An automated parameter optimization procedure was used to calibrate the model for a site-specific experiment in the Coastal Plain of central Alabama. The ability of EPIC to predict corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields and SOC dynamics on different soil landscape positions (summit, sideslope and drainageway) during the initial period of conservation tillage adoption (5 years) was evaluated using regression and mean squared deviations. Simulated yield explained 88% of measured yield variation, with greatest disagreement on the sideslope position and highest agreement in the drainageway. Simulations explained approximately 1, 34 and 40% of the total variation in microbial biomass C (MBC), particulate organic C (POC) and total organic C (TOC), respectively. Lowest errors on TOC simulations (0-20 cm) were found on the sideslope and summit. We conclude that the automated parameterization was generally successful, although further work is needed to refine the MBC and POC fractions, and to improve EPIC predictions of SOC dynamics with depth. Overall, EPIC was sensitive to spatial differences in C fractions that resulted from differing soil landscape positions. The model needs additional refinement for accurate simulations of field-scale SOC dynamics affected by short-term management decisions.

  12. Structuring an EPICS System to Optimize Reliability, Performance and Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bickley, Matthew; White, Karen S

    2005-10-10

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) uses EPICS as the basis for its control system, effectively operating a number of plants at the laboratory, including the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator (CEBA), a Free Electron Laser (FEL), Central Helium Liquefier, and several ancillary systems. We now use over 200 distributed computers running over a complex segmented network with 350,000 EPICS records and 50,000 control points to support operation of two machines for three experimental halls, along with the supporting infrastructure. During the 10 years that EPICS has been in use we have made a number of design and implementation choices in the interest of optimizing control system reliability, performance, security and cost. At the highest level, the control system is divided into a number of distinct segments, each controlling a separate operational plant. This supports operational independence, and therefore reliability, and provides a more flexible environment for maintenance and support. The control system is relatively open, allowing any of the 300 account holders to look at data from any segment. However security and operational needs mandate restricted write access to the various control points based on each user's job function and the operational mode of the facility. Additionally, the large number of simultaneous users, coupled with the amount of available data, necessitates the use of throttling mechanisms such as a Nameserver, which effectively reduces broadcast traffic and improves application initialization performance. Our segmented approach provides natural boundaries for managing data flow and restricting access, using tools such as the EPICS Gateway and Channel Access Security. This architecture enables cost optimizations by allowing expensive resources, such as Oracle, to be effectively shared throughout the control system, while minimizing the impact of a failure in any single area. This paper discusses the various design

  13. EPICS V4 Evaluation for SNS Neutron Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Pearson, Matthew R; Guyotte, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    Version 4 of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit allows defining application-specific structured data types (pvData) and offers a network protocol for their efficient exchange (pvAccess). We evaluated V4 for the transport of neutron events from the detectors of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to data acquisition and experiment monitoring systems. This includes the comparison of possible data structures, performance tests, and experience using V4 in production on a beam line.

  14. Cloud Detection with the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Lyapustin, Alexei; Torres, Omar; Wang, Yugie

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on board the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) would provide a unique opportunity for Earth and atmospheric research due not only to its Lagrange point sun-synchronous orbit, but also to the potential for synergistic use of spectral channels in both the UV and visible spectrum. As a prerequisite for most applications, the ability to detect the presence of clouds in a given field of view, known as cloud masking, is of utmost importance. It serves to determine both the potential for cloud contamination in clear-sky applications (e.g., land surface products and aerosol retrievals) and clear-sky contamination in cloud applications (e.g., cloud height and property retrievals). To this end, a preliminary cloud mask algorithm has been developed for EPIC that applies thresholds to reflected UV and visible radiances, as well as to reflected radiance ratios. This algorithm has been tested with simulated EPIC radiances over both land and ocean scenes, with satisfactory results. These test results, as well as algorithm sensitivity to potential instrument uncertainties, will be presented.

  15. A brave new world for an old world pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tay, Wee Tek; Soria, Miguel F; Walsh, Thomas; Thomazoni, Danielle; Silvie, Pierre; Behere, Gajanan T; Anderson, Craig; Downes, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta) within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas. PMID:24260345

  16. A Brave New World for an Old World Pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Thomas; Thomazoni, Danielle; Silvie, Pierre; Behere, Gajanan T.; Anderson, Craig; Downes, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta) within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas. PMID:24260345

  17. Correspondence and Contradiction in Ancient Greek Society and Education: Homer's Epic Poetry and Plato's Early Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, Betty A.

    1983-01-01

    Homer's epic poetry illustrates correspondence between society's needs and the values stressed in education, while Socrates' thought uncovers contradictions between social and educational values and seeks a new form of correspondence. Examples from the Epics and Plato's early dialogues trace changing educational attitudes among the Classical…

  18. An Evaluation of OCLC's EPIC as a Resource for Subject Access to Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of OCLC's EPIC service and standard video reference tools revealed that EPIC was more comprehensive in finding video titles on the popular or specialized topics of bonsai, genealogy, karate, and holography, because of its keyword searching ability on the massive OCLC database. (11 references) (EA)

  19. Evaluating EPIC-based Harvest Index Approach for Yield Prediction and Response to Soil Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The EPIC-based plant growth model has been used in many national modeling efforts such as WEPP, WEPPS, SWAT, and GPFARM. Many approaches are used in simulation models to predict final crop harvestable yield. The EPIC-based plant growth model uses the harvest index (HI, defined here as the ratio of h...

  20. Teaching about Indian Culture through Its Epic Literature: "The Mahabharata" and "the Ramayana."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Patrick S.

    Two epic poems from India, "The Mahabharata" and "The Ramayana" have endured for more than 2,000 years as important parts of Indian culture, and the study of these epics can yield insights into Indian life and religion. This paper contains a list of the major characters and an explanation of the major themes in both books. The themes include good…

  1. EPIC Simulations of Crop Yields and Soil Organic Carbon in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on management, soil organic carbon is source or sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model is a useful tool for predicting impacts of soil management on crop yields and soil organic carbon. We used EPIC-Century to simulate changes in soil o...

  2. The "epic" challenge of optimizing antimicrobial stewardship: the role of electronic medical records and technology.

    PubMed

    Kullar, Ravina; Goff, Debra A; Schulz, Lucas T; Fox, Barry C; Rose, Warren E

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are established means for institutions to improve patient outcomes while reducing the emergence of resistant bacteria. With the increased adoption and evolution of electronic medical records (EMRs), there is a need to assimilate the tools of ASPs into EMRs, using decision support and feedback. Third-party software vendors provide the mainstay for integration of individual institutional EMR and ASP efforts. Epic is the leading implementer of EMR technology in the United States. A collaboration of physicians and pharmacists are working closely with Epic to provide a more comprehensive platform of ASP tools that may be institutionally individualized. We review the historical relationship between ASPs and the EMR, cite examples of Epic stewardship tools from 3 academic medical centers' ASPs, discuss limitations of these Epic tools, and conclude with the current process in evolution to integrate ASP tools and decision support capacities directly into Epic's EMR. PMID:23667260

  3. EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) Record Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    This manual describes all supported EPICS record types. The first chapter gives introduction and describes the field summary table. The second chapter describes the fields in database common, i.e. the fields that are present in every record type. The third chapter describes the input and output field that are common to many record types and have the same usage wherever they are used. Following the third chapter is a separate chapter for each record type containing a description of all the fields for that record type except those in database common.

  4. EPICS and WANs: Tradeoffs between Isolation, Security, Robustness, and Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hill; K. Furukawa; S. Hunt; A. Johnson; R. Lange; J. Sage; E. Williams

    2003-10-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)[1] was originally designed for use in local area networks (LANs). Today, the system is routinely deployed into complex wide area networks (WANs) using specialized configuration options and proxy gateways. There are advantages to the current approach including robustness and control over isolation and security. However, some important features are missing including WAN transparent configuration, resource location monitoring, detection of name space collisions during installation, and wildcard queries into the resource attribute space. The paper discusses these issues in detail exploring the relative tradeoffs between different solutions and including our plans for future enhancements.

  5. Perfusion Electronic Record Documentation Using Epic Systems Software

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Thomas G.; Gunser, John M.; Saviello, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This paper describes the design and use of Epic Systems software for documentation of perfusion activities as part of the patient electronic medical record. The University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics adapted the Anesthesia software module and developed an integrated perfusion/anesthesia record for the documentation of cardiac and non-cardiac surgical procedures. This project involved multiple committees, approvals, and training to successfully implement. This article will describe our documentation options, concepts, design, challenges, training, and implementation during our initial experience. PMID:26834288

  6. EPIC: an Error Propagation/Inquiry Code. [EPIC estimates the variance of a materials balance closed about a materials balance area in a processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The use of a computer program EPIC (Error Propagation/Inquiry Code) will be discussed. EPIC calculates the variance of a materials balance closed about a materials balance area (MBA) in a processing plant operated under steady-state conditions. It was designed for use in evaluating the significance of inventory differences in the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear plants. EPIC rapidly estimates the variance of a materials balance using average plant operating data. The intent is to learn as much as possible about problem areas in a process with simple straightforward calculations assuming a process is running in a steady-state mode. EPIC is designed to be used by plant personnel or others with little computer background. However, the user should be knowledgeable about measurement errors in the system being evaluated and have a limited knowledge of how error terms are combined in error propagation analyses. EPIC contains six variance equations; the appropriate equation is used to calculate the variance at each measurement point. After all of these variances are calculated, the total variance for the MBA is calculated using a simple algebraic sum of variances. The EPIC code runs on any computer that accepts a standard form of the BASIC language. 2 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. The EPIC-MOS Particle-Induced Background Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Sowden, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    In order to analyse diffuse emission that fills the field of view, one must accurately characterize the instrumental backgrounds. For the XMM-Newton EPIC instrument these backgrounds include a temporally variable "quiescent" component. as well as the strongly variable soft proton contamination. We have characterized the spectral and spatial response of the EPIC detectors to these background components and have developed tools to remove these backgrounds from observations. The "quiescent" component was characterized using a combination of the filter-wheel-closed data and a database of unexposed-region data. The soft proton contamination was characterized by differencing images and spectra taken during flared and flare-free intervals. After application of our modeled backgrounds, the differences between independent observations of the same region of "blank sky" are consistent with the statistical uncertainties except when there is clear spectral evidence of solar wind charge exchange emission. Using a large sample of blank sky data, we show that strong magnetospheric SWCX emission requires elevated solar wind fluxes; observations through the densest part of the magnetosheath are not necessarily strongly contaminated with SWCX emission.

  8. Characteristics of the Eclipsing Triple System EPIC 202062176

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Kathryn Victoria; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Time series photometry from the Kepler K2 mission has led to the discovery of a number of particularly interesting eclipsing binary systems. One of these is EPIC 202062176, a young, eccentric binary found in the star forming region NGC 2175. Our analysis of the light curve from K2 Campaign 0 and spectra from the CHIRON spectrograph and CTIO's 1.5m telescope indicates that EPIC 202062176 is actually a triple system composed of a hot B-type star and a distant pair of less massive stars. We determined the pulsation frequency of the hot star with Period04, removed this signal from the light curve, and then modeled the eclipses of the companion binary with the Eclipsing Light Curve (ELC) program. We estimated the effective temperature and flux contribution for the hot star by comparison with TLUSTY model spectra, and we completed a radial velocity analysis of the hot star using cross-correlation methods. We present the characteristics of the triple system, including the stellar parameters of the primary B0V star and the orbital elements of the companion eclipsing binary system.

  9. JBluIce-EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography.

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, S.; Makarov, O.; Hilgart, M.; Pothineni, S.; Urakhchin, A.; Devarapalli, S.; Yoder, D.; Becker, M.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Nagarajan, V.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline component. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallographic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallography.

  10. Data acquisition system for KOMAC beam monitoring using EPICS middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2015-10-01

    The beam diagnostics instrument used to measure the beam properties is one of the important devices for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator of the KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). A data acquisition system (DAQ) is required to collect the output beam signals conditioned in the analog front-end circuitry of a beam loss monitor (BLM) and a beam position monitor (BPM). The electrical beam signal must be digitized, and the sampling has to be synchronized to a global timing system that produces a pulse signal for the pulsed beam operation. The digitized data must be accessible by the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS)-based control system, which manages all accelerator control. An input output controller (IOC), which runs Linux on a central process unit (CPU) module with a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) express-based Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) card, has been adopted to satisfy the requirements. An associated Linux driver and EPICS device support module have also been developed. The IOC meets the requirements, and the development and maintenance of software for the IOC is very efficient. In this paper, the details of the DAQ system for the BLM and the BPM with the introduction of the KOMAC beam-diagnostics devices, along with the performance, are described.

  11. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  12. Assessment of Spacecraft Systems Integration Using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Mandell, Myron J.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    SAIC is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code 'EPIC', an interactive computer tool that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. EPIC unites different computer tools to address the complexity associated with the interaction processes. This paper describes the overall architecture and capability of EPIC including the physics and algorithms that comprise its various components. Results from selected modeling efforts of different spacecraft-thruster systems are also presented.

  13. EPIC 2.0: a second youth for XMM-Newton's workhorse.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molendi, S.

    2016-06-01

    While much has been achieved with the EPIC experiment on board XMM-Newton, in several areas, we can get even more. In this presentation I will discuss results we have recently obtained, including those from an "all archive" analysis of the EPIC background. I will show how these, along with others, can be used to improve measures of diffuse low surface brightness sources. I will also illustrate how the work we are doing on EPIC is contributing to the design of experiments on the next Large European X-ray mission: Athena.

  14. Monitoring commercial conventional facilities control with the APS control system: The Metasys-to-EPICS interface

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, G.J.; Seaver, C.L.; Kowalkowski, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    As controls needs at the Advanced Photon Source matured from an installation phase to an operational phase, the need to monitor the existing conventional facilities control system with the EPICS-based accelerator control system was realized. This existing conventional facilities control network is based on a proprietary system from Johnson Controls called Metasys. Initially read-only monitoring of the Metasys parameters will be provided; however, the ability for possible future expansion to full control is available. This paper describes a method of using commercially available hardware and existing EPICS software as a bridge between the Metasys and EPICS control systems.

  15. Experience with the EPICS PV Gateway at the APS.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Smith, M.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2006-01-01

    The EPICS Process Variable Gateway has become a stable, high-performance application that provides access to process variables while minimizing the impact on critical Input-Output Controllers (IOCs) and implementing additional access security. The additional access security typically prevents write access but is highly configurable. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) currently uses 40 Gateways running on 11 workstations to provide access to the machine subnet from the offices and for the individual experimental teams. These include reverse Gateways that allow administration of all 40 APS Gateways from a single MEDM screen, even though the Gateways are running on separate networks. This administration includes starting, stopping, making and viewing reports, and viewing and editing access security files. There is one Gateway that provides process variable renaming. This paper provides an overview of the Gateways at the APS and describes the procedures that have been set up to use and administer them.

  16. Using EPICS enabled industrial hardware for upgrading control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorkland, Eric A; Veeramani, Arun; Debelle, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with National Instruments (NI) and Cosy lab to implement EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) software that runs directly on NI CompactRIO Real Time Controller (RTC) and communicates with NI LabVIEW through a shared memory interface. In this presentation, we will discuss our current progress in upgrading the control system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Centre (LANSCE) and what we have learned about integrating CompactRIO into large experimental physics facilities. We will also discuss the implications of using Channel Access Server for LabVIEW which will enable more commercial hardware platforms to be used in upgrading existing facilities or in commissioning new ones.

  17. Neutron Source Facility Training Simulator Based on EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Young Soo; Wei, Thomas Y.; Vilim, Richard B.; Grelle, Austin L.; Dworzanski, Pawel L.; Gohar, Yousry

    2015-01-01

    A plant operator training simulator is developed for training the plant operators as well as for design verification of plant control system (PCS) and plant protection system (PPS) for the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology Neutron Source Facility. The simulator provides the operator interface for the whole plant including the sub-critical assembly coolant loop, target coolant loop, secondary coolant loop, and other facility systems. The operator interface is implemented based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which is a comprehensive software development platform for distributed control systems. Since its development at Argonne National Laboratory, it has been widely adopted in the experimental physics community, e.g. for control of accelerator facilities. This work is the first implementation for a nuclear facility. The main parts of the operator interface are the plant control panel and plant protection panel. The development involved implementation of process variable database, sequence logic, and graphical user interface (GUI) for the PCS and PPS utilizing EPICS and related software tools, e.g. sequencer for sequence logic, and control system studio (CSS-BOY) for graphical use interface. For functional verification of the PCS and PPS, a plant model is interfaced, which is a physics-based model of the facility coolant loops implemented as a numerical computer code. The training simulator is tested and demonstrated its effectiveness in various plant operation sequences, e.g. start-up, shut-down, maintenance, and refueling. It was also tested for verification of the plant protection system under various trip conditions.

  18. JBluIce–EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg; Hilgart, Mark; Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Urakhchin, Alex; Devarapalli, Satish; Yoder, Derek; Becker, Michael; Ogata, Craig; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline com­ponent. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallo­graphic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallo­graphy. PMID:21358048

  19. Lessons learned enhancing EPICS CA for LANSCE timed and flavored data

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Jeffrey O

    2009-01-01

    A previous paper described an upgrade to EPICS enabling client side tools at LANSCE to receive subscription updates filtered selectively to match a logical configuration of LANSCE beam gates, as configured by the control room. The upgrade required fundamental changes in the EPICS core components. First, the event queue in the EPICS server was upgraded to buffer record (function block) and device specific parameters accessed generically via software interfaces for introspection of 3rd party data. In contrast, event queues in previous versions of EPICS were strictly limited to buffering only value, timestamp, and alarm status tuples. Second, the Channel Access server is being upgraded to filter subscription updates. In this follow on paper some necessary design changes mid-project and the lessons learned during the software development will be described.

  20. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Biofuel Crops and Parameterization in the EPIC Biogeochemical Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes year 1 field measurements of N2O fluxes and crop yields which are used to parameterize the EPIC biogeochemical model for the corresponding field site. Initial model simulations are also presented.

  1. EPIC Radiance Simulator for Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyapustin, Alexei; Marshak, Alexander; Wang, Yujie; Korkin, Sergey; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) is a planned space weather mission for the Sun and Earth observations from the Lagrangian L1 point. Onboard of DSCOVR is a multispectral imager EPIC designed for unique observations of the full illuminated disk of the Earth with high temporal and 10 km spatial resolution. Depending on latitude, EPIC will observe the same Earth surface area during the course of the day in a wide range of solar and view zenith angles in the backscattering view geometry with the scattering angle of 164-172 . To understand the information content of EPIC data for analysis of the Earth clouds, aerosols and surface properties, an EPIC radiance Simulator was developed covering the UV -VIS-NIR range including the oxygen A and B-bands (A=340, 388, 443, 555, 680, 779.5, 687.7, 763.3 nm). The Simulator uses ancillary data (surface pressure/height, NCEP wind speed) as well as MODIS-based geophysical fields such as spectral surface bidirectional reflectance, column water vapor, and properties of aerosols and clouds including optical depth, effective radius, phase and cloud top height. The original simulations are conducted at 1 km resolution using the look-up table approach and then are averaged to 10 km EPIC radiances. This talk will give an overview of the EPIC Simulator with analysis of results over the continental USA and northern Atlantic.

  2. An autonomous observation and control system based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Peng-yi; Jia, Ming-hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jia-jing; Zhang, Hong-fei

    2016-01-01

    For unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS-(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2-(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of open source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2, respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfil the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfil the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 directly. For the specification and requirement of control system of telescope in Antarctic, core components named Executor and Auto-focus for autonomous observation is designed and implemented with remote operation user interface based on browser-server mode. The whole system including the telescope is tested in Lijiang Observatory in Yunnan Province for practical observation to complete the autonomous observation and control, including telescope control, camera control, dome control, weather information acquisition with the local and remote operation.

  3. Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC): Recent Enhancements and Goals for Future Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Barbara M.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Davis, Victoria A.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC) is the leading interactive computer tool for assessing the effects of electric thruster plumes on spacecraft subsystems. EPIC, developed by SAIC under the sponsorship of the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has three primary modules. One is PlumeTool, which calculates plumes of electrostatic thrusters and Hall-effect thrusters by modeling the primary ion beam as well as elastic scattering and charge-exchange of beam ions with thruster-generated neutrals. ObjectToolkit is a 3-D object definition and spacecraft surface modeling tool developed for use with several SEE Program codes. The main EPIC interface integrates the thruster plume into the 3-D geometry of the spacecraft and calculates interactions and effects of the plume with the spacecraft. Effects modeled include erosion of surfaces due to sputtering, re-deposition of sputtered materials, surface heating, torque on the spacecraft, and changes in surface properties due to erosion and deposition. In support of Prometheus I (JIMO), a number of new capabilities and enhancements were made to existing EPIC models. Enhancements to EPIC include adding the ability to scale and view individual plume components, to import a neutral plume associated with a thruster (to model a grid erosion plume, for example), and to calculate the plume from new initial beam conditions. Unfortunately, changes in program direction have left a number of desired enhancements undone. Variable gridding over a surface and resputtering of deposited materials, including multiple bounces and sticking coefficients, would significantly enhance the erosion/deposition model. Other modifications such as improving the heating model and the PlumeTool neutral plume model, enabling time dependent surface interactions, and including EM1 and optical effects would enable EPIC to better serve the aerospace engineer and electric propulsion systems integrator

  4. Orbit and Atmospheric Composition of the Warm Sub-Saturn EPIC-2037b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petigura, Erik; Deck, Katherine; Benneke, Bjoern; Knutson, Heather; Deming, Drake; Werner, Michael; Livingston, John; Crossfield, Ian

    2015-10-01

    We propose a joint Spitzer/HST proposal to observe transits of two warm, sub-Saturn sized planets orbiting EPIC-203771098 (EPIC-2037 hereafter), a bright G dwarf observed by K2. EPIC-2037b and c are 5.7±0.6 and 7.6±0.8 Earth-radii. Sine the two planets are close to the 2:1 mean-motion resonance, transit timing variations (TTVs) are expected to be large (several hours). Our proposed Spitzer transit observations will yield precise transit times for EPIC-2037b and c. We will model the TTVs to constrain the eccentricities of EPIC-2037b and c which are linked to the formation pathway for this system. EPIC-2037b and c have low densities of 0.4 g/cc and 0.2 g/cc, respectively. Their large size and low surface gravities make these planets favorable targets for transmission spectroscopy by Spitzer, HST, and JWST. In addition to their favorable observability, the planets have low equilibrium temperatures of ~710 K and ~560 K, respectively. These temperatures have not been well-explored in previous studies with transmission spectroscopy. While over a dozen HST+Spitzer transmission spectra have been published in the literature, only GJ1214b, GJ346b, HAT-P-11b, and HAT-P-12b have comparable temperatures. While Spitzer can detect wavelength-dependent variation in transit depth, the Spitzer measurements alone cannot discriminate between various atmospheric compositions. Therefore we propose to use HST/WFC3 to probe the atmosphere of EPIC-2037b. The HST transmission spectrum will probe water vapor in the atmosphere, which reflects the planet?s oxygen abundance, a proxy for the planet?s heavy element enrichment.

  5. Investigating the Impact of EPIC Professional Development on Perspectives Charter School Principals. An Evaluation of the EPIC Professional Learning Model. Evaluation Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Pereira-Leon, Maura; Honeyford, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In 2009-10, New Leaders for New Schools partnered with the Perspectives Charter School Network in Chicago to pilot an innovative leadership development program for principals. The program is part of the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative, which was created by New Leaders in 2006 to identify, reward, and share effective…

  6. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-07-15

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and other confounders (for BMI of 30.0-34.9 versus 18.5-25.0, hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.84). The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up time. Conversely, after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were significantly positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight loss resulting from preclinical lung cancer that was present at baseline. Residual confounding by smoking could also have influenced our findings. PMID:27370791

  7. The EPIC-MOS Particle-Induced Background Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a method for constructing a spectrum of the particle-induced instrumental background of the XMM-Newton EPIC MOS detectors that can be used for observations of the diffuse background and extended sources that fill a significant fraction of the instrument field of view. The strength and spectrum of the particle-induced background, that is, the background due to the interaction of particles with the detector and the detector surroundings, is temporally variable as well as spatially variable over individual chips. Our method uses a combination of the filter-wheel-closed data and a database of unexposed-region data to construct a spectrum of the "quiescent" background. We show that, using this method of background subtraction, the differences between independent observations of the same region of "blank sky" are consistent with the statistical uncertainties except when there is clear evidence of solar wind charge exchange emission. We use the blank sky observations to show that contamination by SWCX emission is a strong function of the solar wind proton flux, and that observations through the flanks of the magnetosheath appear to be contaminated only at much higher solar wind fluxes. We have also developed a spectral model of the residual soft proton flares, which allows their effects to be removed to a substantial degree during spectral fitting.

  8. The Calibration of the DSCOVR EPIC Multiple Visible Channel Instrument Using MODIS and VIIRS as a Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, Conor; Doeling, David; Minnis, Patrick; Bhatt, Rajendra; Scarino, Benjamin; Gopalan, Arun

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched on 11 February 2015, is a satellite positioned near the Lagrange-1 (L1) point, carrying several instruments that monitor space weather, and Earth-view sensors designed for climate studies. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard DSCOVR continuously views the sun-illuminated portion of the Earth with spectral coverage in the UV, VIS, and NIR bands. Although the EPIC instrument does not have any onboard calibration abilities, its constant view of the sunlit Earth disk provides a unique opportunity for simultaneous viewing with several other satellite instruments. This arrangement allows the EPIC sensor to be inter-calibrated using other well-characterized satellite instrument reference standards. Two such instruments with onboard calibration are MODIS, flown on Aqua and Terra, and VIIRS, onboard Suomi-NPP. The MODIS and VIIRS reference calibrations will be transferred to the EPIC instrument using both all-sky ocean and deep convective clouds (DCC) ray-matched EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. An automated navigation correction routine was developed to more accurately align the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS granules. The automated navigation correction routine dramatically reduced the uncertainty of the resulting calibration gain based on the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. The SCIAMACHY-based spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) applied to the MODIS/ VIIRS radiances were found to successfully adjust the reference radiances to the spectral response of the specific EPIC channel for over-lapping spectral channels. The SBAF was also found to be effective for the non-overlapping EPIC channel 10. Lastly, both ray-matching techniques found no discernable trends for EPIC channel 7 over the year of publically released EPIC data.

  9. Collaborative development of the EPICS Qt framework Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayssat, Robert E.

    2015-01-15

    At Lyncean, a private company spun-off from technology developed at the SLAC National Lab, we have been using EPICS for over a decade. EPICS is ubiquitous on our flagship product – the Compact Light Source. EPICS is not only used to control our laser and accelerator systems, but also to control our x-ray beamlines. The goal of this SBIR is for Lyncean Technologies to spearhead a worldwide collaborative effort for the development of control system tools for EPICS using the Qt framework, a C++-based coding environment that could serve as a competitive alternative to the Java-based Control System Studio (CSS). This grant's Phase I, not unlike a feasibility study, is designed for planning and scoping the preparatory work needed for Phase II or other funding opportunities. The three main objectives of this Phase I are (1) to become better acquainted with the existing EPICS Qt software and Qt framework in order to evaluate the best options for ongoing development, (2) to demonstrate that our engineers can lead the EPICS community and jump-start the Qt collaboration, and (3) to identify a scope for our future work with solicited feedback from the EPICS community. This Phase I report includes key technical findings. It clarifies the differences between the two apparently-competing EPICS Qt implementations, caQtDM and the QE Framework; it explains how to create python-bindings, and compares Qt graphical libraries. But this report is also a personal story that narrates the birth of a collaboration. Starting a collaboration is not the work of a single individual, but the work of many. Therefore this report is also an attempt to publicly give credit to many who supported the effort. The main take-away from this grant is the successful birth of an EPICS Qt collaboration, seeded with existing software from the PSI and the Australian Synchrotron. But a lot more needs to be done for the collaboration founders' vision to be realized, and for the collaboration to reach its full

  10. 75 FR 8322 - EPIC Merchant Energy NJ/PA, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC, Coaltrain Energy, LP, Complainants, v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EPIC Merchant Energy NJ/PA, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC, Coaltrain Energy, LP... Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2009), EPIC Merchant Energy NJ/PA, LP,...

  11. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer`s guide. APS Release 3.12

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers.

  12. Quality assurance of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft).

    PubMed

    Crispim, Sandra P; Nicolas, Genevieve; Casagrande, Corinne; Knaze, Viktoria; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Huybrechts, Inge; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific 'note files' that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data. PMID:24001201

  13. Uncertainties in cloud phase and optical thickness retrievals from the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Yang, Yuekui; Platnick, Steven

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the expected uncertainties of a single-channel cloud optical thickness (COT) retrieval technique, as well as a simple cloud-temperature-threshold-based thermodynamic phase approach, in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. DSCOVR cloud products will be derived from Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) observations in the ultraviolet and visible spectra. Since EPIC is not equipped with a spectral channel in the shortwave or mid-wave infrared that is sensitive to cloud effective radius (CER), COT will be inferred from a single visible channel with the assumption of appropriate CER values for liquid and ice phase clouds. One month of Aqua MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daytime granules from April 2005 is selected for investigating cloud phase sensitivity, and a subset of these granules that has similar EPIC Sun-view geometry is selected for investigating COT uncertainties. EPIC COT retrievals are simulated with the same algorithm as the operational MODIS cloud products (MOD06), except using fixed phase-dependent CER values. Uncertainty estimates are derived by comparing the single-channel COT retrievals with the baseline bi-spectral MODIS retrievals. Results show that a single-channel COT retrieval is feasible for EPIC. For ice clouds, single-channel retrieval errors are minimal (< 2 %) due to the particle size insensitivity of the assumed ice crystal (i.e., severely roughened aggregate of hexagonal columns) scattering properties at visible wavelengths, while for liquid clouds the error is mostly limited to within 10 %, although for thin clouds (COT < 2) the error can be higher. Potential uncertainties in EPIC cloud masking and cloud temperature retrievals are not considered in this study.

  14. Warm Eddy Structure Observed During EPIC in Eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, L. K.; Jaimes, B.; Brewster, J.

    2007-05-01

    During the NSF/NOAA sponsored Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) field program in Sept. and Oct. 2001, oceanic current, temperature and salinity profiles were acquired by deploying expendable profilers from research aircraft flights above the warm pool grid centered on the TAO mooring at 10oN 95oW and the R/V Ron Brown, and along the 95oW transect from the NOAA WP-3D and the NCAR WC-130, respectively. Analyses of mooring, ship and aircraft observations suggest the propagation of a wind-forced, warm eddy in accord with remotely sensed fields from radar altimetry and TRMM microwave imager (TMI) measurements. This anti- cyclonically rotating warm eddy, consistent with Rossby wave dynamics, impacted both the oceanic and atmospheric mixed layer structure. To examine the evolving characteristics of this oceanic feature, SSTs, isotherm depths and oceanic heat content variations (relative to the 26oC isotherm depth referred to as OHC) were compared at the TAO buoy. Satellite- based OHC variations were estimated by inferring isotherm depths (20oC, 26oC) from blended and objectively mapped, altimeter-derived surface height anomaly (SHA) fields based on climatology and TMI-derived SSTs. Based on sequential maps of the SHA, the observed warm eddy had SHA elevation of 12 to 14 cm that indicated a propagation speed of 13 cm s-1 towards the southwest. Inferred isotherm depths and OHC variations agreed with those from the TAO mooring and profiler measurements. For example, the 26oC isotherm depth ranged from 35 to 40 m with OHC values of 40 kJ cm-2. Understanding the evolving 3-D structure of these features is central to assessing the upper ocean's role in hurricane intensity fluctuations in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This approach is now being applied to several years of in situ and remotely sensed measurements in this regime to assess uncertainties in satellite retrievals to build climatology for use with hurricane intensity forecast models as in the Atlantic Ocean

  15. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon in a Semiarid Region of Kazakhstan Using EPIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inappropriate land use and soil mismanagement produced wide-scale soil and environmental degradation to the short-grass steppe ecosystem in the semiarid region of Kazakhstan. We used the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to study long-term impacts of land use changes and soil mana...

  16. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  17. Measuring School and Teacher Effectiveness in EPIC Charter School Consortium--Year 2. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potamites, Liz; Booker, Kevin; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric

    2009-01-01

    New Leaders for New Schools, a nonprofit organization committed to training school principals, heads the Effective Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to effective educators. Through this initiative, New Leaders offers financial awards to educators in two urban school districts and a consortium of…

  18. Estimating plant available water for general crop simulations in ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-based simulation models ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT contain generalized plant growth subroutines to predict biomass and crop yield. Environmental constraints typically restrict plant growth and yield. Water stress is often an important limiting factor; it is calculated as the sum of water use f...

  19. DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS REPORTS: THE CONVERSION OF EPIC'S TRADITIONAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION PRODUCT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past several years EPIC has been exploring the practicality and cost-effectiveness of providing its traditional hard-copy report product in digital form. This conversion has a number of practical uses including- 1) compatibility for use as data layers in a GIS; 2) transp...

  20. EPIC Simulation of Landscape and Management Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models integrate our understanding of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics and are useful tools for evaluating impacts of crop management on soil C sequestration. Our objectives were to calibrate the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and evaluate its performance for simulating...

  1. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anindya Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-15

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  2. Theological presuppositions of the evolutionary epic: From Robert Chambers to E. O. Wilson.

    PubMed

    Megill, Allan

    2016-08-01

    We can trace the "evolutionary epic" (named by E. O. Wilson, 1978) back to earlier writers, beginning with Robert Chambers (1844). Its basic elements are: fixation on seeing human history as rooted in biology; an aspiration toward telling the whole history of humankind (in its essential features); and insistence on the overall coherence of the projected narrative. The claim to coherence depends on assuming either that the universe possesses an "embedded rationality," or that it is guided by divine purpose. This article proposes the term "idealism" to refer to these two assumptions taken together, for in practice they were closely linked. Nietzsche (1881) was perhaps the first thinker to point out the evolutionary epic's dependence on such an idealism, and he also pointed out that the assumptions of embedded rationality and of divine purpose are closely connected. Darwin's theory of descent with modification (1859) was sharply inconsistent with these assumptions: he was not an "idealist" in the sense indicated here, and not a proponent of the evolutionary epic. Proclaiming his "materialism," Wilson (1978) failed to acknowledge that the epic depends on idealist assumptions; other adherents of the genre (M. Dowd, L. Rue) resurrect (knowingly or not) its theological roots. PMID:26775028

  3. The Epic Narrative of Intellectual Culture as a Framework for Curricular Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a proposed middle school curriculum designed to coordinate the major subject areas around a single coherent story line and tell the epic tale of the development of formal intellectual culture from its distant origins to the present day. Ourstory explores the history of scientific culture from the perspective of foundational disciplines…

  4. The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterno, Domenica R.

    David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as a story setting;…

  5. The Einstein polarization interferometer for cosmology (EPIC) and the millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer (MBI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timbie, P. T.; Tucker, G. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ali, S.; Bierman, E.; Bunn, E. F.; Calderon, C.; Gault, A. C.; Hyland, P. O.; Keating, B. G.; Kim, J.; Korotkov, A.; Malu, S. S.; Mauskopf, P.; Murphy, J. A.; O'Sullivan, C.; Piccirillo, L.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We provide an overview of a mission concept study underway for the Einstein Inflation Probe (EIP). Our study investigates the advantages and tradeoffs of using an interferometer (EPIC) for the mission. We also report on the status of the millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer (MBI), a ground-based pathfinder optimized for degree-scale CMB polarization measurements at 90 GHz.

  6. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay 1,000 yards... place on November 5, 2010, on the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay, 1,000 yards off Epic Roasthouse...) Location. This temporary safety zone is established for the waters of San Francisco Bay 1,000 yards...

  7. Integrating the Epic Model with spatially defined land use, soil, weather and tillage data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land-use and soil management (including tillage and crop rotations) affect soil organic carbon (SOC) balance and can be significant for the improvement of soil quality and productivity, and greenhouse gas emissions. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to study the long ...

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Evidence-Based Practice Confidence (EPIC) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach, Nancy M.; Jaglal, Susan B.; Williams, Jack I.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The reliability, minimal detectable change (MDC), and construct validity of the evidence-based practice confidence (EPIC) scale were evaluated among physical therapists (PTs) in clinical practice. Methods: A longitudinal mail survey was conducted. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated using Cronbach's alpha…

  9. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R B; Nandy, Partha P; Yadav, R C; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system. PMID:25832222

  10. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother metaphors found in the…

  11. Simulating soil C dynamics with EPIC: Model description and testing against long-term data

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Mcgill, William B.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

    2006-01-01

    Soil carbon sequestration (SCS) has emerged as a technology with significant potential to help stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thus reduce the threat of global warming. Methods and models are needed to evaluate and recommend SCS practices based on their effects on carbon dynamics and environmental quality. EPIC (Environment Policy Integrated Climate) is a widely used and tested model for simulating many agroecosystem processes including plant growth, crop yield, tillage, wind and water erosion, runoff, soil density, and leaching. Here we describe new C and N modules developed in EPIC built on concepts from the Century model to connect the simulation of soil C dynamics to crop management, tillage methods, and erosion processes. The added C and N routines interact directly with soil moisture, temperature, erosion, tillage, soil density, leaching, and translocation functions in EPIC. Equations were also added to describe the effects of soil texture on soil C stabilization. Lignin concentration is modeled as a sigmoidal function of plant age. EPIC was tested against data from a Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) 6-yr experiment at five sites in three U.S. Great Plains states and a 61-y long-term agronomic experiment in Canada. Mean Square Deviations (MSD) calculated for CRP sites were less than 0.01 kg C2 m2, except for one site where it reached 0.025 kg2 C2 m. MSD values in the 61-y experiment ranged between 0.047 and 0.077 kg C2 m2. In conclusion, the version of the EPIC model presented and tested here contains the necessary algorithms to simulate SCS and improve understanding of the interactions among soil erosion, C dynamics, and tillage. A strength of the model as tested is its ability to explain the variability in crop production, C inputs and SOC and N cycling over a wised range soil, cropping and climatic conditions over periods from 6 to 61 years. For example, at the Breton site over 61 years, EPIC accounted for 69% of the variability in grain

  12. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in an International Study Setting: Report from the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T.; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Quirós, Jose R.; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M.; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A.; Key, Timothy J.; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocké, Marga C.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M.; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. Conclusion/Significance The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs

  13. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) input/output controller (IOC) application developer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-05-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The plan of the book is: EPICS overview, IOC test facilities, general purpose features, database locking - scanning - and processing, static database access, runtime database access, database scanning, record and device support, device support library, IOC database configuration, IOC initialization, and database structures. Other than the first chapter this document describes only core IOC software. Thus it does not describe other EPICS tools such as the sequencer. It also does not describe Channel Access, a major IOC component.

  14. Potential substitution of mineral P fertilizer by manure: EPIC development and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Ligia B.; Vadas, Peter A.; Balkovič, Juraj; Skalský, Rastislav; Folberth, Christian; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Sources of mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizers are non-renewable. Although the longevity of P mines and the risk of future P depletion are highly debated P scarcity may be detrimental to agriculture in various ways. Some of these impacts include increasing food insecurity and nitrogen (N) and P imbalances, serious fluctuations in the global fertilizer and crop market prices, and contribution in geopolitical conflicts. P-rich waste produced from livestock production activities (i.e. manure) are an alternative to mineral P fertilizer. The substitution of mineral fertilizer with manure (1) delays the depletion of phosphate rock stocks, (2) reduces the vulnerability of P fertilizer importing countries to sudden changes in the fertilizer market, (3) reduces the chances of geopolitical conflicts arising from P exploitation pressures, (4) avoids the need for environmental protection policies in livestock systems, (5) is an opportunity for the boosting of crop yields in low nutrient input agricultural systems, and (6) contributes to the inflow of not only P but also other essential nutrients to agricultural soils. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC) is a widely used process-based, crop model integrating various environmental flows relevant to crop production as well as environmental quality assessments. We simulate crop yields using a powerful computer cluster infra-structure (known as EPIC-IIASA) in combination with spatially-explicit EPIC input data on climate, management, soils, and landscape. EPIC-IIASA contains over 131,000 simulation units and it has 5 arc-min resolution. In this work, we implement two process-based models of manure biogeochemistry into EPIC-IIASA, i.e. SurPhos (for P) and Manure DNDC (for N and carbon) and a fate model model describing nutrient outflows from fertilizer via runoff. For EGU, we will use EPIC-IIASA to quantify the potential of mineral P fertilizer substitution with manure. Specifically, we will estimate the relative

  15. Estimating the nucleotide diversity in Ceratodon purpureus (Ditrichaceae) from 218 conserved exon-primed, intron-spanning nuclear loci1

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Stuart F.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Jones, Kelly S.; Payton, Adam C.; Quatrano, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We developed and tested primers for 218 nuclear loci for studying population genetics, phylogeography, and genome evolution in bryophytes. • Methods and Results: We aligned expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Ceratodon purpureus to the Physcomitrella patens genome sequence, and designed primers that are homologous to conserved exons but span introns in the P. patens genome. We tested these primers on four isolates from New York, USA; Otavalo, Ecuador; and two laboratory isolates from Austria (WT4 and GG1). The median genome-wide nucleotide diversity was 0.008 substitutions/site, but the range was large (0–0.14), illustrating the among-locus heterogeneity in the species. • Conclusions: These loci provide a valuable resource for finely resolved, genome-wide population genetic and species-level phylogenetic analyses of C. purpureus and its relatives. PMID:25202534

  16. Multipurpose Controller with EPICS integration and data logging: BPM application for ESS Bilbao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, I.; del Campo, M.; Echevarria, P.; Jugo, J.; Etxebarria, V.

    2013-10-01

    This work presents a multipurpose configurable control system which can be integrated in an EPICS control network, this functionality being configured through a XML configuration file. The core of the system is the so-called Hardware Controller which is in charge of the control hardware management, the set up and communication with the EPICS network and the data storage. The reconfigurable nature of the controller is based on a single XML file, allowing any final user to easily modify and adjust the control system to any specific requirement. The selected Java development environment ensures a multiplatform operation and large versatility, even regarding the control hardware to be controlled. Specifically, this paper, focused on fast control based on a high performance FPGA, describes also an application approach for the ESS Bilbao's Beam Position Monitoring system. The implementation of the XML configuration file and the satisfactory performance outcome achieved are presented, as well as a general description of the Multipurpose Controller itself.

  17. HPC-EPIC for High Resolution Simulations of Environmental and Sustainability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dali; Post, Wilfred M; Kang, Shujiang; Nichols, Dr Jeff A

    2011-01-01

    Multiple concerns over the impact of wide scale changes in land management have motivated comprehensive analyses of environmental sustainability of food and biofuel production. These call for high-resolution land management tools that enable comprehensive analyses of natural resources for decision-making. The agroecosystem simulation models with the most biophysical detail are point models, which often have a user interface that allows users to provide inputs and examine results for agricultural field scale analyses. These are not able to meet the needs of high-resolution regional or national simulations. We describe an efficient computational approach for deployment of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model at high-resolution spatial scales using high performance computing (HPC) techniques. We developed an integrated procedure for executing the millions of simulations required for high-resolution, regional studies, and also address building databases for model initialization, model forcing data, and model outputs. We first ported EPIC from Windows to an HPC platform and validated output from both platforms. We then developed methods of packaging simulations for efficient, unattended parallel execution on the HPC cluster. The job queuing system, Portable Batch System (PBS) is employed to control job submission. Simulation outputs are extracted to PostgreSQL database for analysis. In a case study covering four counties in central Wisconsin using HPC-EPIC, we finished over 140 K simulations in a total of 10 h on an HPC cluster using 20 nodes. This is a speedup of 40 times. More nodes could be used to achieve larger speedups. The HPC-EPIC model developed in this study is anticipated to provide information useful for high-resolution land use management and decision making. The framework for high-performance computing can be extended to other traditional, point-based biophysical simulation models.

  18. Using electronic polarization from the internal continuum (EPIC) for intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Truchon, Jean-François; Nicholl's, Anthony; Grant, J Andrew; Iftimie, Radu I; Roux, Benoît; Bayly, Christopher I

    2010-03-01

    Recently, the vacuum-phase molecular polarizability tensor of various molecules has been accurately modeled (Truchon et al., J Chem Theory Comput 2008, 4, 1480) with an intramolecular continuum dielectric model. This preliminary study showed that electronic polarization can be accurately modeled when combined with appropriate dielectric constants and atomic radii. In this article, using the parameters developed to reproduce ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) molecular polarizability tensors, we extend the application of the "electronic polarization from internal continuu" (EPIC) approach to intermolecular interactions. We first derive a dielectric-adapted least-square-fit procedure similar to RESP, called DRESP, to generate atomic partial charges based on a fit to a QM abinitio electrostatic potential (ESP). We also outline a procedure to adapt any existing charge model to EPIC. The ability of this to reproduce local polarization, as opposed to uniform polarization, is also examined leading to an induced ESP relative root mean square deviation of 1%, relative to ab initio, when averaged over 37 molecules including aromatics and alkanes. The advantage of using a continuum model as opposed to an atom-centered polarizable potential is illustrated with a symmetrically perturbed atom and benzene. We apply EPIC to a cation-pi binding system formed by an atomic cation and benzene and show that the EPIC approach can accurately account for the induction energy. Finally, this article shows that the ab initio electrostatic component in the difficult case of the H-bonded 4-pyridone dimer, a highly polar and polarized interaction, is well reproduced without adjusting the vacuum-phase parameters. PMID:19598266

  19. Enhanced Monitoring for the Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes (EPIC) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, M. F.; Bond, N.; Fairall, C.; Hare, J.; McPhaden, M. J.; Weller, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes (EPIC) is a five-year experiment designed to improve understanding of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), its interactions with the cold tongue of water that extends along the equator, and the physics of the cloud deck that forms over the cool waters off South America. EPIC fieldwork began in 1999 and involves short-term process studies, embedded within longer-term (3-4 years) enhanced monitoring, built on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) observing system. As part of EPIC enhanced monitoring, an IMET mooring was deployed at 20°S, 85°W in the stratus deck region, and the easternmost (95°W) Tropical Atmosphere and Ocean (TAO) line of moorings was enhanced with additional sensors and moorings. With 10 EPIC-enhanced TAO moorings between 8°S, 95°W and 12°N, 95°W, the 95°W mooring line provides a picket fence of time series of heat, moisture and momentum fluxes and upper ocean temperature, salinity, and horizontal currents from the stratocumulus region, across the cold tongue / ITCZ complex and into the northeastern tropical Pacific warm pool. Six-monthly TAO maintenance cruises were also specially equipped to monitor air-sea fluxes and boundary layer properties. In this presentation we combine ship transect measurements with moored time series to show the structure and evolution of the cold tongue / ITCZ complex. In addition, southern moorings along 95°W are compared with the 20°S, 85°W stratus mooring to show the meridional extent of the cold season stratiform. Implications for understanding and modeling eastern tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions will be discussed.

  20. Experience with the SNS LabVIEW/EPICS-Based Diagnostics Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Assadi, Saeed

    2004-11-10

    The SNS Diagnostics Group uses rack-mounted PCs running LabVIEW and EPICS to implement its instruments as network attached devices. Many of these instruments, such as wire scanners and beam position monitors, come from the partner labs. The final integration and testing is done at SNS. We have now gone through several commissioning runs with success. This paper describes the integration, the commissioning, and the physics performance of the devices.

  1. EPIC modeling of soil organic carbon sequestration in croplands of Iowa.

    PubMed

    Causarano, Hector J; Doraiswamy, Paul C; McCarty, Gregory W; Hatfield, Jerry L; Milak, Sushil; Stern, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    Depending on management, soil organic carbon (SOC) is a potential source or sink for atmospheric CO(2). We used the EPIC model to study impacts of soil and crop management on SOC in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) croplands of Iowa. The National Agricultural Statistics Service crops classification maps were used to identify corn-soybean areas. Soil properties were obtained from a combination of SSURGO and STATSGO databases. Daily weather variables were obtained from first order meteorological stations in Iowa and neighboring states. Data on crop management, fertilizer application and tillage were obtained from publicly available databases maintained by the NRCS, USDA-Economic Research Service (ERS), and Conservation Technology Information Center. The EPIC model accurately simulated state averages of crop yields during 1970-2005 (R(2) = 0.87). Simulated SOC explained 75% of the variation in measured SOC. With current trends in conservation tillage adoption, total stock of SOC (0-20 cm) is predicted to reach 506 Tg by 2019, representing an increase of 28 Tg with respect to 1980. In contrast, when the whole soil profile was considered, EPIC estimated a decrease of SOC stocks with time, from 1835 Tg in 1980 to 1771 Tg in 2019. Hence, soil depth considered for calculations is an important factor that needs further investigation. Soil organic C sequestration rates (0-20 cm) were estimated at 0.50 to 0.63 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) depending on climate and soil conditions. Overall, combining land use maps with EPIC proved valid for predicting impacts of management practices on SOC. However, more data on spatial and temporal variation in SOC are needed to improve model calibration and validation. PMID:18574164

  2. Modeling Seasons in the Outer Solar System: Enabling EPIC to Roar on 1 Watt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Sussman, M. G.; Greathouse, T. K.; Chanover, N. J.

    2012-10-01

    We describe solutions to key technical problems that arise in GCMs when modeling the circulations of Uranus and Neptune, and provide an update to the EPIC model radiative transfer (RT) package, with application to seasonal forcing of Saturn and Uranus. The primary challenges in ice-giant circulation modeling stem from the low value of the solar insolation ( 1 Wm-2), which results in slow ( 10-3 ms-1) meridional-plane circulations that are coupled to fast ( 102 ms-1) zonal winds. Computational modes that are negligible for inner solar-system atmospheric modeling because of high insolation are not negligible for Uranus and Neptune, and hence must be reduced or eliminated. We describe a new, high-order hyperviscosity algorithm that is non-dimensional, efficient, and has well-behaved boundary conditions at the poles. A 12th-order application to Uranus permits EPIC to run for multiple Uranus years without degrading the 11th-order zonal-wind model of Sromovsky et al. (2009). Additional EPIC (Ver. 5.0) improvements include a runtime RT package based on the Greathouse et al. (2010 EGU) Saturn seasonal model that employs our fast and accurate DISORT c_twostr rewrite, a pressure vertical-coordinate option, a dynamic convective adjustment scheme which incorporates improvements to the turbulent Prandtl number by Zilitinkevich et al. (2007), and an accurate analemma, or Sun-in-sky position as a function of time and location on the planet, for Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. These improvements make EPIC a versatile tool for dynamic 3D modeling of stratospheric temperatures and hydrocarbon distributions. This research is funded by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, Grant NNX08AEG4G.

  3. The Improved Physical Activity Index for Measuring Physical Activity in EPIC Germany

    PubMed Central

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40–0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33–0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC. PMID:24642812

  4. New Radiative Transfer Capability in the EPIC Atmospheric Model with Application to Saturn and Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Timothy Edward; Greathouse, T. K.; Sussman, M. G.; Chanover, N. J.

    2010-10-01

    We have adapted radiative transfer (RT) schemes from the gas-giant seasonal models of Greathouse et al. (EGU 2010) and Sussman et al. (AGU 2009) into the EPIC atmospheric model, and applied them to Saturn and Uranus. These additions give EPIC a hierarchy of RT options to account for solar heating via CH4 absorption from 5 microns to the UV, and radiative cooling due to thermal emission of CH4, C2H2, C2H6, and collision-induced opacity between 0 and 1600 cm-1. We have written an IDL tool to calculate radiative-equilibrium T(p) profiles for model initialization. We have ported the versatile DISORT RT model (Stamnes et al. 1988) from Fortran to C, and are incorporating it into an IDL post-processing tool to allow us to create synthetic spectra from EPIC output that accounts for thermal emission, reflected solar light, and aerosol and Rayleigh scattering. We give an update of applications to simulations of middle-atmosphere temperatures for Saturn and zonal-wind spin-up experiments for Uranus. This research is supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX08AE64G and NSF Planetary Astronomy grant AST-0807989.

  5. Association between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and utilization of colonoscopy in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Silke; Friedrich, Susanne; Haug, Ulrike; Rohrmann, Sabine; Becker, Nikolaus; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to describe the utilization of colonoscopy and its association with sociodemographic characteristics within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort study. We included 15 014 study participants (43% men) of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort recruited between 1994 and 1998. At baseline recruitment, as well as in the 3-yearly follow-up surveys, study participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, socioeconomic background variables, health status, and use of medications and medical services, including colonoscopy examinations. The present analyses focused on participants who completed the question on colonoscopy examination in all follow-up rounds. Our results show that by the end of the fourth follow-up round, more than half of all participants of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort had had a colonoscopy. Colonoscopy was associated with some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics: a positive association with vocational training level as well as overall socioeconomic status level [International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) classification]. A negative association was found for household size and employment status. Colonoscopy usage increased steeply within the subgroup of participants older than 55 years of age and decreased again within the subgroup of participants older than 75 years of age. Organized colorectal cancer screening should include a written invitation system, to overcome the problem of sociodemographic-related differential awareness of and attendance at colonoscopy examinations. Also, the high proportion of prescreened individuals should be taken into account to avoid unnecessary re-examinations. PMID:25244156

  6. Extended Magnetohydrodynamics with Embedded Particle-in-Cell (XMHD-EPIC) Simulations of Magnetospheric Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Gabor; Gombosi, Tamas; Jia, Xianzhe; Welling, Daniel; Chen, Yuxi; Haiducek, John; Jordanova, Vania; Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    We have recently developed a new modeling capability to embed the implicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the BATS-R-US extended magnetohydrodynamic model. The PIC domain can cover the regions where kinetic effects are most important, such as reconnection sites. The BATS-R-US code with its block-adaptive grid can efficiently handle the rest of the computational domain where the MHD or Hall MHD description is sufficient. The current implementation of the MHD-EPIC model allows two-way coupled simulations in two and three dimensions with multiple embedded PIC regions. The MHD and PIC grids can have different grid resolutions and grid structures. The MHD variables and the moments of the PIC distribution functions are interpolated and message passed in an efficient manner through the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). Both BATS-R-US and iPIC3D are massively parallel codes fully integrated into, run by and coupled through the SWMF. We have successfully applied the MHD-EPIC code to model Ganymede's and Mercury's magnetospheres. We compared our results with Galileo and MESSENGER magnetic observations, respectively, and found good overall agreement. We will report our progress on modeling the Earth magnetosphere with MHD-EPIC with the goal of providing direct comparison with and global context for the MMS observations.

  7. When is pile-up important in the XMM-Newton EPIC cameras?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Saxton, R.; Guainazzi, M.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P.; Stuhlinger, M.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Pile-up in X-ray charged couple device (CCD) detectors is defined as the reconstruction of independent events in the same detection cell as a single event during a read-out cycle. Pile-up can seriously compromise the spectral performance, modifying both the flux and the spectral shape of celestial sources. Aims: In this paper we define rigorous metrics to characterise the effect of pile-up in terms of flux loss and spectral distortion. Methods: We extend analytical formulae derived for pile-up on CCD detectors with the inclusion of the calibrated energy-dependence of the point spread function. We validated our analytical results through both Monte-Carlo simulations of the EPIC cameras on-board XMM-Newton and comparison with pile-up diagnostics in observed data. Results: We estimate new count rate levels corresponding to a given degree of flux loss and spectral distortion for each EPIC imaging acquisition mode and provide guidance to observers wishing to estimate these values in their own observations. Conclusions: We strongly recommend using these thresholds in planning future observations with the EPIC cameras.

  8. Quantitative Assessment of Articular Cartilage Morphology via EPIC-μCT

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liqin; Lin, Angela S.P.; Levenston, Marc E.; Guldberg, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of the present study was to validate the ability of EPIC-μCT to nondestructively assess cartilage morphology in the rat model. Design An appropriate contrast agent (Hexabrix) concentration and incubation time for equilibration were determined for reproducible segmentation of femoral articular cartilage from contrast-enhanced μCT scans. Reproducibility was evaluated by triplicate scans of six femora, and the measured articular cartilage thickness was independently compared to thickness determined from needle probe testing and histology. The validated technique was then applied to quantify age-related differences in articular cartilage morphology between 4, 8, and 16-week old (n=5 each) male Wistar rats. Results A 40% Hexabrix/60% PBS solution with 30 minute incubation was optimal for segmenting cartilage from the underlying bone tissue and other soft tissues in the rat model. High reproducibility was indicated by the low coefficient of variation (1.7-2.5%) in cartilage volume, thickness and surface area. EPIC-μCT evaluation of thickness showed a strong linear relationship and good agreement with both needle probing (r2=0.95, slope=0.81, p<0.01, mean difference 11±22μm, n=43) and histology (r2=0.99, slope=0.97, p<0.01, mean difference 12±10μm, n=30). Cartilage volume and thickness significantly decreased with age while surface area significantly increased. Conclusion EPIC-μCT imaging has the ability to nondestructively evaluate three-dimensional articular cartilage morphology with high precision and accuracy in a small animal model. PMID:18789727

  9. Implementation of Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Wilford, Joseph D.; Howard, Wanita; Dane, Susan K.; Davis, Scott R.; Karandikar, Nitin J.; Blau, John L.; Ford, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology (CP) is a relatively new laboratory information system (LIS) operating within the Epic suite of software applications. To date, there have not been any publications describing implementation of Beaker CP. In this report, we describe our experience in implementing Beaker CP version 2012 at a state academic medical center with a go-live of August 2014 and a subsequent upgrade to Beaker version 2014 in May 2015. The implementation of Beaker CP was concurrent with implementations of Epic modules for revenue cycle, patient scheduling, and patient registration. Methods: Our analysis covers approximately 3 years of time (2 years preimplementation of Beaker CP and roughly 1 year after) using data summarized from pre- and post-implementation meetings, debriefings, and the closure document for the project. Results: We summarize positive aspects of, and key factors leading to, a successful implementation of Beaker CP. The early inclusion of subject matter experts in the design and validation of Beaker workflows was very helpful. Since Beaker CP does not directly interface with laboratory instrumentation, the clinical laboratories spent extensive preimplementation effort establishing middleware interfaces. Immediate challenges postimplementation included bar code scanning and nursing adaptation to Beaker CP specimen collection. The most substantial changes in laboratory workflow occurred with microbiology orders. This posed a considerable challenge with microbiology orders from the operating rooms and required intensive interventions in the weeks following go-live. In postimplementation surveys, pathology staff, informatics staff, and end-users expressed satisfaction with the new LIS. Conclusions: Beaker CP can serve as an effective LIS for an academic medical center. Careful planning and preparation aid the transition to this LIS. PMID:26955505

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2 EPIC stellar properties for 138600 targets (Huber+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, D.; Bryson, S. T.; Haas, M. R.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; Howell, S. B.; Sharma, S.; Stello, D.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-06-01

    The K2 Mission uses the Kepler spacecraft to obtain high-precision photometry over ~80 day campaigns in the ecliptic plane. The Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) provides coordinates, photometry, and kinematics based on a federation of all-sky catalogs to support target selection and target management for the K2 mission. We describe the construction of the EPIC, as well as modifications and shortcomings of the catalog. Kepler magnitudes (Kp) are shown to be accurate to ~0.1mag for the Kepler field, and the EPIC is typically complete to Kp~17 (Kp~19 for campaigns covered by Sloan Digital Sky Survey). We furthermore classify 138600 targets in Campaigns 1-8 (~88% of the full target sample) using colors, proper motions, spectroscopy, parallaxes, and galactic population synthesis models, with typical uncertainties for G-type stars of ~3% in Teff, ~0.3dex in logg~40% in radius, ~10% in mass, and ~40% in distance. Our results show that stars targeted by K2 are dominated by K-M dwarfs (~41% of all selected targets), F-G dwarfs (~36%), and K giants (~21%), consistent with key K2 science programs to search for transiting exoplanets and galactic archeology studies using oscillating red giants. However, we find significant variation of the fraction of cool dwarfs with galactic latitude, indicating a target selection bias due to interstellar reddening and increased contamination by giant stars near the galactic plane. We discuss possible systematic errors in the derived stellar properties, and differences with published classifications for K2 exoplanet host stars. (1 data file).

  11. EPIC: A C++ Service Oriented Inter-process Messaging Framework and its Usage in the PFS Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, C.; Chabaud, P.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    We present EPIC: a C++ library for managing inter process communication in the Prime Focus Spectrograph Data Reduction Pipeline (PFS/DRP). The aim of EPIC is to provide a consistent framework for building distributed softwares that can be efficiently used in various kind of astronomical data processing pipeline. The Prime Focus Spectrograph multi-fiber system will allow more than 2000 simultaneous spectral observations of astronomical targets at the same time, leading the need of a high throughput system for processing data reduction of each observations. This framework provide a load balanced, messages and services oriented system, where nodes communicate with each other using a set of C++ APIs.

  12. Incorporation of a PbSe Array Based Spectrograph into EPICS using LabView at the JLab FEL Facility

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hardy; S.V. Benson; Michelle D. Shinn; S. Zhang

    2005-08-21

    A real-time spectrograph with a 1Hz update rate was designed and installed at the JLab FEL facility using a Cal Sensors PbSe array and a Roper Scientific SpectraPro 300 monochrometer. This paper describes the implementation of EPICS channel access on a remote PC running LabView with modification of vendor supplied LabView VI's to allow display of FEL light spectra in real-time on a remote workstation. This allows PC based diagnostics to be used in EPICS.

  13. ["Expanded prostate cancer index composite" (EPIC-26): Results of functional treatment in patients with localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Beyer, B; Huland, H; Feick, G; Graefen, M

    2015-11-01

    The standardized collation of the quality of treatment is a subject of discussion both nationally and internationally. This article presents the work of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) and the validated German translation of the expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC-26). This questionnaire allows a standardized interdisciplinary collation of the quality of treatment for all therapy modalities of localized prostate cancer. Use of the ICHOM standard set and the EPIC-26 achieves a possibility for comparison of each form of therapy with respect to the curative success and the effect on health and quality of life of patients. PMID:26347350

  14. 75 FR 40815 - Black Oak Energy, LLC, EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Black Oak Energy, LLC, EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v... Oak Energy, LLC, et al. v. PJM Interconnection, LLC, 131 FERC ] 61,024 (2010) (April 15 Order)....

  15. Antibody levels against BK virus and prostate, kidney and bladder cancers in the EPIC-Oxford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Newton, R; Ribeiro, T; Casabonne, D; Alvarez, E; Touzé, A; Key, T; Coursaget, P

    2005-01-01

    In a case–control study nested within the EPIC-Oxford cohort, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence or titre of antibodies against BK virus measured in plasma taken prior to diagnosis between cases with cancer of the prostate (n=31), kidney (n=5) or bladder (n=9) and controls (n=45). PMID:16304559

  16. “Nitrogen Budgets for the Mississippi River Basin using the linked EPIC-CMAQ-NEWS Models”

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation on the results from the 3 linked models, EPIC (USDA), CMAQ and NEWS to analyze a scenario of increased corn production related to biofuels together with Clean Air Act emission reductions across the US and the resultant effect on nitrogen loading to the Gulf of Mexico...

  17. 75 FR 12230 - Black Oak Energy, L.L.C., EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Oak Energy, L.L.C., EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing March 8, 2010. Take notice that on March 1, 2010, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. filed a report of refund pursuant to the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  18. Intrarectal Amifostine During External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Produces Significant Improvements in Quality of Life Measured by EPIC Score

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Nicole L.; Menard, Cynthia; Soule, Benjamin P.; Albert, Paul S.; Guion, Peter; Smith, Sharon; Godette, Denise; Crouse, Nancy S.; Sciuto, Linda C.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman; Singh, Anurag K. E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether intrarectal amifostine limits symptoms of radiation proctitis, measured by using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity score and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) score. Methods and Materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer received amifostine as a rectal suspension 30-45 minutes before daily three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The first 18 patients received 1 g of amifostine, and the next 12 patients received 2 g. Toxicity was assessed at baseline, during treatment, and at follow-up visits by using RTOG grading and the EPIC Quality of Life (QoL) 50-item questionnaire. The Bowel Function subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BF), which targets symptom severity, and the Bowel Bother subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BB), which assesses QoL, were evaluated and compared with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Results: Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 18-36 months). Overall, EPIC-BF and EPIC-BB scores both tracked closely with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of RTOG Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18 patients) compared with 0% (0/12 patients) in the 2-g group and trended toward statistical significance (p = 0.06). A significant difference between amifostine groups was observed using the EPIC-BF score at 7 weeks (p = 0.04). A difference in EPIC-BB scores between dose groups was evident at 7 weeks (p = 0.07) and was significant at 12 months (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher doses of amifostine produced significant improvements in acute and late bowel QoL (up to 1 year after therapy), measured using the EPIC score.

  19. Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

    2012-06-01

    This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

  20. Observations of transits of K2 exoplanet discoveries EPIC 203371098b&c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Beichmani, Charles; Akeson, Rachel; Ciardi, Dave; Christiansen, Jessie; Crossfield, Ian; Petigura, Erik; Krick, Jessica

    2015-08-01

    We request DDT time to observe transits of two super-Neptune planets orbiting a bright G star, EPIC 203371098. Erik Petigura has brought to our attention a particularly interesting K2 discovery that consists of two sub-Saturn-sized planets (5.9 RE and 7.8 RE) orbiting EPIC-203371098, a bright G star (K = 9.2). The orbital periods of the planets are 20.9 d and 42.4 d, respectively. The planets have sizes between that of Neptune and Saturn; sizes not represented among the Solar System planets. Due to the brightness of the host star, this system is an ideal laboratory to study this new class of planets. Over the past two months, our team has conducted radial velocity (RV) follow up of EPIC-203371098 with Keck/HIRES. Our preliminary measurements suggest these planets have low densities, ~0.6 g/cc and ~0.4 g/cc, respectively. Low planet masses translate into larger atmospheric scale heights, which sets the amplitude of the features in planet transmission spectra. The apparent commensurability of their orbits suggest that this is a resonant system where transit timing variations may be particularly large. Our Spitzer observations, compared with the previous K2 first epoch observations, can provide initial evidence for TTVs and set the stage for future campaigns from Spitzer and other telescopes which will independently determine the planetary masses; they will also pin down the ephemerides of these interesting planets - including the hard to capture orbital eccentricity - for possible JWST study.It is important to carry out these observations in the upcoming apparition of this star in the October-December time frame because multiple observations are required for accurate studies of TTVs, and to prevent secular errors in timing from building up to a point where the system is hard to recover. The size of these planets and the brightness of the star shows us that we will achieve S/N>20 per transit on each planet.We will propose to observe one transit of each planet

  1. EPICS Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sherry

    2005-01-01

    With a satisfying "Whoompf!" the air cannon sends a tennis ball the length of the school gym. The successful launch is met with cheers from the science club members and their partners--college engineering students from a local university. This air cannon activity was one of many learning opportunities that grew out of a partnership between the…

  2. Implementation of an EPICS IOC on an Embedded Soft Core Processor Using Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Curry; Alicia Hofler; Hai Dong; Trent Allison; J. Hovater; Kelly Mahoney

    2005-09-20

    At Jefferson Lab, we have been evaluating soft core processors running an EPICS IOC over {mu}Clinux on our custom hardware. A soft core processor is a flexible CPU architecture that is configured in the FPGA as opposed to a hard core processor which is fixed in silicon. Combined with an on-board Ethernet port, the technology incorporates the IOC and digital control hardware within a single FPGA. By eliminating the general purpose computer IOC, the designer is no longer tied to a specific platform, e.g. PC, VME, or VXI, to serve as the intermediary between the high level controls and the field hardware. This paper will discuss the design and development process as well as specific applications for JLab's next generation low-level RF controls and Machine Protection Systems.

  3. 36-cm2 large monolythic pn-CCD detector for EPIC on XMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Peter; Braeuninger, Heinrich W.; Briel, Ulrich G.; Hartmann, R.; Hartner, Gisela D.; Hauff, D.; Kemmer, Josef; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Krause, N.; Lechner, Peter; Maier, B.; Meidinger, Norbert; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Pflueger, Bernhard; Popp, M.; Reppin, Claus; Richter, R. H.; Riedel, J.; Soltau, Heike; Stoetter, Diana; Strueder, Lothar; Truemper, Joachim; von Zanthier, Christoph

    1997-10-01

    Monolithic arrays of 12 CCDs, 3 by 1 cm(superscript 2) each, have been developed and produced for the focal plane instrumentation of the European photon imaging camera (EPIC) on XMM and the German ABRIXAS x-ray satellite mission. The design parameters have been optimized to match the properties of the x-ray imaging optics as well as the x-ray intensity, energy bandwidth and characteristic time constants of the objects to observe. The pixel size is 150 by 150 micrometer(superscript 2); readout is performed in parallel; low noise, spectroscopic performance is realized by on-chip integrated JFET electronics; highohmic, ultrapure bulk material allows full depletion and enhances the efficiency for higher energy x-ray detection. The fabrication process, the layout topology and the operating conditions guarantee for a ten year operation in space without performance degradation.

  4. HPC-EPIC for High Resolution Simulations of Environmental and Sustainability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Jeffrey A.; Kang, Shujiang; Post, W. M.; Wang, Dali; Bandaru, Varaprasad; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2011-11-01

    Multiple concerns over the impact of wide scale changes in land management have motivated comprehensive analyses of environmental sustainability of food and biofuel production. These call for high-resolution, spatial-temporal information of lands using tools that enable comprehensive analyses of natural resources for decision-making. Most agroecosystem simulation models are point models with a user interface that allows users to provide inputs and examine results for agricultural field scale analyses, and they aren’t able to meet the needs of the regional and national simulation with high spatial resolutions. We describe an efficient computational approach over deployment of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model at high-resolution scales using a high performance computing (HPC) technique in this study. We concentrate on an integrated procedure for executing millions of simulations required, but also address building databases for model initialization and forcing the simulations, and post-processing model outputs.

  5. Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkänen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Virta, Marko PJuhani; Alm, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells. PMID:26394010

  6. The peculiar dipping events in the disk-bearing young-stellar object EPIC 204278916

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, S.; Manara, C. F.; Barenfeld, S. A.; Groot, P. J.; Isella, A.; Kenworthy, M. A.; Knigge, C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Ricci, L.; Ansdell, M.

    2016-08-01

    EPIC 204278916 has been serendipitously discovered from its K2 light curve which displays irregular dimmings of up to 65% for ≈25 consecutive days out of 78.8 days of observations. For the remaining duration of the observations, the variability is highly periodic and attributed to stellar rotation. The star is a young, low-mass (M-type) pre-main-sequence star with clear evidence of a resolved tilted disk from ALMA observations. We examine the K2 light curve in detail and hypothesise that the irregular dimmings are caused by either a warped inner-disk edge or transiting cometary-like objects in either circular or eccentric orbits. The explanations discussed here are particularly relevant for other recently discovered young objects with similar absorption dips.

  7. Average energetic ion flux variations associated with geomagnetic activity from EPIC/STICS on Geotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.; Gloeckler, G.; Eastman, T. E.; McEntire, R. W.; Roelef, E. C.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Williams, D. J.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Kokubun, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Kojima, H.; Mukai, T.; Saito, Y.; Yamamoto, T.

    1996-01-01

    The magnetotail ion flux measurements from the Geotail spacecraft are analyzed both with and without the application of selection criteria that identify the plasma regime in which an observation is obtained. The different results are compared with each other. The initial results on the changes of energetic ion flux and composition correlated to average substorm activity in different magnetotail plasma regimes are discussed. The energetic ions are measured using the energetic particles and ion composition (EPIC) experiment and the suprathermal ion composition spectrometer (STICS). The plasma, wave and field instruments of the Geotail satellite were used to identify the principle magnetotail plasma regimes of plasma sheet, lobe, and magnetospheric boundary layer, as well as the magnetosheath and solar wind. Energetic O and H ions were observed in all the plasma regimes.

  8. Enhancement of real-time EPICS IOC PV management for the data archiving system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Ha

    2015-10-01

    The operation of a 100-MeV linear proton accelerator, the major driving values and experimental data need to be archived. According to the experimental conditions, different data are required. Functions that can add new data and delete data in real time need to be implemented. In an experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) input output controller (IOC), the value of process variables (PVs) are matched with the driving values and data. The PV values are archived in text file format by using the channel archiver. There is no need to create a database (DB) server, just a need for large hard disk. Through the web, the archived data can be loaded, and new PV values can be archived without stopping the archive engine. The details of the implementation of a data archiving system with channel archiver are presented, and some preliminary results are reported.

  9. Cloud Information Content Analysis for EPIC's Oxygen A- and B-band Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. B.; Sanghavi, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) will have two molecular oxygen channels: one for the well-known ``A'' band at~764 nm and one for the weaker ``B'' band at 688~nm. In both cases, a channel-integrated relative measurement of absorption is possible using an ``in-band'' channel and a nearby ``reference'' channel. Together, these four observations enable a rudimentary differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of O2 in the characteristic retro-reflection geometry of the L1 vantage point. A priori, we thus have at best two new pieces of cloud information to access. EPIC's pixels have 10x10 km2 footprints at nadir (center of the illuminated disk), more as the viewing angle increases away from local zenith. What new information can be learned about clouds from these data on a pixel-by-pixel basis? O2 A-band observations from space have been pioneered with CNES's POLDER, ESA's SCIAMACHY, and JAXA's GOSat. NASA's OCO-2, to be launched in early 2013, will also have A-band capability. POLDER has low spectral and spatial resolutions, but offers multiple viewing directions for every pixel; SCIAMACHY has higher spectral but worse spatial resolution and just one viewing angle. GOSat has very high spectral but rather low spatial resolutions, again with the possibility of dense angular sampling, but no imaging (just one pixel at a time). OCO-2, a narrow swath imager, will have similarly high spectral resolution and reasonably high ( ˜2~km) spatial resolution. Of these four LEO missions, two are focused on CO2 DOAS, with O2 being assayed operationally only to deliver it in ppm's. POLDER and SCIAMACHY however have official cloud products based on A-band measurements. They contain, at the least, an estimate of cloud top height and, at the most, that plus an estimate of cloud pressure thickness. Cloud optical depth and effective particle size are derived from other spectral data, including continuum values

  10. Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkänen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Juhani Virta, Marko P; Alm, Eric J

    2016-02-01

    Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells. PMID:26394010

  11. Cultural Trauma and Christian Identity in the Late Medieval Heroic Epic, The Siege of Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines scenes of violence in the late medieval poem The Siege of Jerusalem in order to reveal the ways in which trauma is used as the grounds upon which Christian/Jewish difference is established. In particular, I argue that this poem serves as an example of a widespread element in Christian chivalric identity, namely the need to manage the repetitive invocation of Christ's crucifixion (ritually repeated through liturgical and poetic invocation) as a means of asserting both the bodily and psychic integrity of the Christian subject in contrast to the violently abjected figure of the Jewish body. The failure of The Siege protagonist, Wespasian, to navigate the cultural trauma of the crucifixion is contrasted to the successful management of trauma by the martial hero, Tancred, in Tasso's epic, Gerusalemme Liberata, illustrating the range of imaginative possibilities for understanding trauma in pre-modern war literature. PMID:26949207

  12. EPIC 201585823, a rare triple-mode RR Lyrae star discovered in K2 mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Donald W.; Bowman, Dominic M.; Ebo, Simon J.; Moskalik, Paweł; Handberg, Rasmus; Lund, Mikkel N.

    2016-01-01

    We have discovered a new, rare triple-mode RR Lyr star, EPIC 201585823, in the Kepler K2 mission Campaign 1 data. This star pulsates primarily in the fundamental and first-overtone radial modes, and, in addition, a third non-radial mode. The ratio of the period of the non-radial mode to that of the first-overtone radial mode, 0.616 285, is remarkably similar to that seen in 11 other triple-mode RR Lyr stars, and in 260 RRc stars observed in the Galactic bulge. This systematic character promises new constraints on RR Lyr star models. We detected subharmonics of the non-radial mode frequency, which are a signature of period doubling of this oscillation; we note that this phenomenon is ubiquitous in RRc and RRd stars observed from space, and from ground with sufficient precision. The non-radial mode and subharmonic frequencies are not constant in frequency or in amplitude. The amplitude spectrum of EPIC 201585823 is dominated by many combination frequencies among the three interacting pulsation mode frequencies. Inspection of the phase relationships of the combination frequencies in a phasor plot explains the `upward' shape of the light curve. We also found that raw data with custom masks encompassing all pixels with significant signal for the star, but without correction for pointing changes, is best for frequency analysis of this star, and, by implication, other RR Lyr stars observed by the K2 mission. We compare several pipeline reductions of the K2 mission data for this star.

  13. MHD-Epic: Embedded Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Reconnection in Global 3D Extended MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daldorff, L. K. S.; Toth, G.; Borovikov, D.; Gombosi, T. I.; Lapenta, G.

    2014-12-01

    With the new modeling capability in the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) of embedding an implicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the BATS-R-US magnetohydrodynamics model (Daldorff et al. 2014, JCP, 268, 236) we are ready to locally handle the full physics of the reconnection and its implications on the full system where globally, away from the reconnection region, a magnetohydrodynamic description is satisfactory. As magnetic reconnection is one of the main drivers in magnetospheric and heliospheric plasma dynamics, the self-consistent description of the electron dynamics in the coupled MHD-EPIC model is well suited for investigating the nature of these systems. We will compare the new embedded MHD-EPIC model with pure MHD and Hall MHD simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  14. The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC): A Member of the NASA Space Environment and Effects Program (SEE) Toolset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Mandell, Myron J.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Davis, D. A.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Minor, Jody

    2003-01-01

    Science Applications International Corporation is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code, EPIC, as part of a project sponsored by the Space Environments and Effects Program at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Now in its second year of development, EPIC is an interactive computer toolset that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of a variety of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. This paper reports on the progress of EPZC including the recently added ability to exchange results the NASA Charging Analyzer Program, Nascap-2k. The capability greatly enhances EPIC's range of applicability. Expansion of the toolset's various physics models proceeds in parallel with the overall development of the software. Also presented are recent upgrades of the elastic scattering algorithm in the electric propulsion Plume Tool. These upgrades are motivated by the need to assess the effects of elastically scattered ions on the SIC for ion beam energies that exceed loo0 eV. Such energy levels are expected in future high-power (>10 kW) ion propulsion systems empowered by nuclear sources.

  15. Measuring and Predicting Prostate Cancer Related Quality of Life Changes using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP)

    PubMed Central

    Chipman, Jonathan J.; Sanda, Martin G.; Dunn, Rodney L.; Wei, John T.; Litwin, Mark S.; Crociani, Catrina M.; Regan, Meredith M.; Chang, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To expand the clinical usefulness of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) by evaluating its responsiveness to health related quality of life (HRQOL) changes, defining the minimally important differences (MID) for an individual patient's change in each domain, and applying it to a sexual outcome prediction model. Methods In 1,201 subjects from a previously described multi-center, longitudinal cohort, we modeled each treatment group's EPIC-CP domain scores at pre-treatment, short-term, and long-term follow-up. We considered post-treatment domain score changes from pre-treatment ≥ 0.5 standard deviations (SD) clinically significant and with a p-value ≤ 0.01 as statistically significant. We determined domain MIDs using the 0.5 pooled SD of the 2, 6, 12, and 24 month post-treatment changes from pre-treatment. We recalibrated an EPIC-CP-based nomogram model predicting 2-year post-prostatectomy functional erections from that developed using EPIC-26. Results For every HRQOL domain, EPIC-CP was sensitive to similar post-treatment HRQOL changes over time as had been observed using EPIC-26. The EPIC-CP MIDs for changes in the urinary incontinence, urinary irritation/obstruction, bowel, sexual, and vitality/hormonal domains are 1.0, 1.3, 1.2, 1.6, and 1.0, respectively. The EPIC-CP-based sexual prediction model performs well (AUC=0.76) and shows robust agreement with its EPIC-26-based counterpart, with predicted probability differences between models of ≤10% for 95% of individuals and a mean difference of 0.0 (SD=0.05) across all individuals. Conclusions EPIC-CP is responsive to HRQOL changes during convalescence, and can be used to predict 2-year post-prostatectomy sexual outcomes. Its use can facilitate shared medical decision-making and patient-centered care. PMID:24076307

  16. XMM-Newton EPIC observations of 21 low-redshift PG quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porquet, D.; Reeves, J. N.; O'Brien, P.; Brinkmann, W.

    2004-07-01

    We present an X-ray spectral analysis of 21 low redshift quasars observed with XMM-Newton EPIC. All the sources are Palomar Green quasars with redshifts between 0.05 and 0.4 and have low Galactic absorption along the line-of-sight. A large majority of quasars in the sample (19/21) exhibit a significant soft excess below ˜1-1.5 keV, whilst two objects (PG 1114+445 and I Zw1) show a deficit of soft X-ray flux due to the presence of a strong warm absorber. Indeed, contrary to previous studies with ASCA and ROSAT, we find that the presence of absorption features near 0.6-1.0 keV is common in our sample. At least half of the objects appear to harbor a warm absorber, as found previously in Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find significant detections of Fe Kα emission lines in at least twelve objects, whilst there is evidence for some broadening of the line profile, compared to the EPIC-pn resolution, in five of these quasars. The determination of the nature of this broadening (e.g., Keplerian motion, a blend of lines, relativistic effects) is not possible with the present data and requires either higher S/N or higher resolution spectra. In seven objects the line is located between 6.7-7 keV, corresponding to highly ionized iron, whereas in the other five objects the line energy is consistent with 6.4 keV, i.e. corresponding to near neutral iron. The ionized lines tend to be found in the quasars with the steepest X-ray spectra. We also find a correlation between the continuum power law index Γ and the optical Hβ width, in both the soft and hard X-ray bands, whereby the steepest X-ray spectra are found in objects with narrow Hβ widths, which confirms previous ROSAT and ASCA results. The soft and hard band X-ray photon indices are also strongly correlated, i.e. the steepest soft X-ray spectra correspond the steepest hard X-ray spectra. We propose that a high accretion rate and a smaller black hole mass is likely to be the physical driver responsible for these trends, with the

  17. Convection and Easterly Wave Structure Observed in the Eastern Pacific Warm-Pool during EPIC-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Walter A.; Cifelli, R.; Boccippio, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Fairall, C. W.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During September-October 2001, the East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System (EPIC-2001) ITCZ field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the warm-pool region of the East Pacific. In addition to the TAO mooring array, observational platforms deployed during the field phase included the NOAA ship RN Ronald H. Brown, the NSF ship RN Horizon, and the NOAA P-3 and NCAR C-130 aircraft. This study combines C-band Doppler radar, rawinsonde, and surface heat flux data collected aboard the RN Brown to describe ITCZ convective structure and rainfall statistics in the eastern Pacific as a function of 3-5 day easterly wave phase. Three distinct easterly wave passages occurred during EPIC-2001. Wind and thermodynamic data reveal that the wave trough axes exhibited positively correlated U and V winds and a slight westward phase tilt with height. A relatively strong (weak) northeasterly deep tropospheric shear followed the trough (ridge) axis. Temperature and humidity perturbations exhibited mid-to upper level cooling (warming) and drying (moistening) in the northerly (trough and southerly) phase. At low levels warming (cooling) occurred in the northerly (southerly) phase with little change in the relative humidity, though mixed layer mixing ratios were larger during the northerly phase. When composited, radar, sounding, lightning and surface heat flux observations suggest the following systematic behavior as a function of wave phase: approximately zero to one quarter wavelength ahead of (behind) the wave trough in northerly (southerly) flow, larger (smaller) CAPE, lower (higher) CIN, weaker (stronger) tropospheric shear, higher (lower) conditional mean rain rates, higher (lower) lightning flash densities, and more (less) robust convective vertical structure occurred. Latent and sensible heat fluxes reached a minimum in the northerly phase and then increased through the trough, reaching a peak during the ridge phase

  18. The new SCOS-based EGSE of the EPIC flight-spare on-ground cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Palombara, Nicola; Abbey, Anthony; Insinga, Fernando; Calderon-Riano, Pedro; Casale, Mauro; Kirsch, Marcus; Martin, James; Munoz, Ramon; Palazzo, Maddalena; Poletti, Mauro; Sembay, Steve; Vallejo, Juan C.; Villa, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    The XMM-Newton observatory, launched by the European Space Agency in 1999, is still one of the scientific community's most important high-energy astrophysics missions. After almost 15 years in orbit its instruments continue to operate smoothly with a performance close to the immediate post-launch status. The competition for the observing time remains very high with ESA reporting a very healthy over-subscription factor. Due to the efficient use of spacecraft consumables XMM-Newton could potentially be operated into the next decade. However, since the mission was originally planned for 10 years, progressive ageing and/or failures of the on-board instrumentation can be expected. Dealing with them could require substantial changes of the on-board operating software, and of the command and telemetry database, which could potentially have unforeseen consequences for the on-board equipment. In order to avoid this risk, it is essential to test these changes on ground, before their upload. To this aim, two flight-spare cameras of the EPIC experiment (one MOS and one PN) are available on-ground. Originally they were operated through an Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) system which was developed over 15 years ago to support the test campaigns up to the launch. The EGSE used a specialized command language running on now obsolete workstations. ESA and the EPIC Consortium, therefore, decided to replace it with new equipment in order to fully reproduce on-ground the on-board configuration and to operate the cameras with SCOS2000, the same Mission Control System used by ESA to control the spacecraft. This was a demanding task, since it required both the recovery of the detailed knowledge of the original EGSE and the adjustment of SCOS for this special use. Recently this work has been completed by replacing the EGSE of one of the two cameras, which is now ready to be used by ESA. Here we describe the scope and purpose of this activity, the problems faced during its

  19. Dietary lipids and geriatric depression scale score among elders: the EPIC-Greece cohort.

    PubMed

    Kyrozis, A; Psaltopoulou, T; Stathopoulos, P; Trichopoulos, D; Vassilopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A

    2009-05-01

    In a prospective epidemiological investigation aiming to identify dietary lipids potentially associated with affective state and depression, 610 healthy men and women aged 60 years or older, participating in the EPIC-Greece cohort and residing in the Attika region had dietary, sociodemographic, anthropometric, medical and lifestyle variables ascertained at enrollment. Six to 13 years later, affective state was evaluated through the 15-point geriatric depression scale (GDS) score along with cognitive function and medical variables. In multivariate linear regression analysis, while adjusting for potential confounders, GDS score was negatively associated with dietary intake of monounsaturated lipids (MUFA) and their main source, olive oil, and positively associated with intake of polyunsaturated lipids (PUFA) and one of their principal sources, seed oils. Intake of calories, total lipids, fish and seafood or saturated lipids did not exhibit significant association with GDS. Potential non-linearities were assessed by quantile multivariate regression analysis: The median GDS score was positively associated with PUFA and seed oils intake, while other lipid groups showed no appreciable associations. The 90th percentile of the GDS score (towards the high end) exhibited significant negative associations with MUFA and olive oil, weaker positive associations with PUFA and seed oils and no appreciable association with other lipid group dietary intakes. We conclude that among Attika elders, lower intake of seed oils and higher intake of olive oil prospectively predict a healthier affective state. Olive oil intake, in particular, predicts a lower chance of scoring in the highest part of the GDS. PMID:18952225

  20. Programming PLCS under EPICS at the SNS Project : Further Experiences in Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    P. A. Gurd; W. H. Strong; J. D. Creel

    2003-10-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source being built in Tennessee by a partnership of six national laboratories. The control system components for the SNS were produced by personnel at the collaborating laboratories, by vendors of the equipment, and by commercial contractors. A number of different approaches were used to provide the programming for both the programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and the input-output controllers (IOCs) which were all based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). For conventional facilities, both the PLCs and the IOCs were programmed under a commercial contract. The PLCs for the high power radio frequency system (HPRF) were programmed by the vendors of the equipment, while the IOCs were programmed by the collaborating laboratory. Finally, while the IOCs for the cryogenic systems were programmed at Oak Ridge, three different approaches were used to produce the PLC programming: some were programmed at Oak Ridge, some at TJNAF, and some at vendor sites. This paper discusses the status of the PLCs in the control system and the integration challenges encountered in the various approaches.

  1. MHD-EPIC: Extended Magnetohydrodynamics with Embedded Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Ganymede's Magnetosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, G.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Jia, X.; Gombosi, T. I.; Lapenta, G.

    2014-12-01

    We have recently developed a new modeling capability to embed theimplicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the BATS-R-USmagnetohydrodynamic model. The PIC domain can cover the regions wherekinetic effects are most important, such as reconnection sites. TheBATS-R-US code, on the other hand, can efficiently handle the rest ofthe computational domain where the MHD or Hall MHD description issufficient. As one of the very first applications of the MHD-EPICalgorithm (Daldorff et al. 2014, JCP, 268, 236) we simulate theinteraction between Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma with Ganymede'smagnetosphere, where the separation of kinetic and global scalesappears less severe than for the Earth's magnetosphere. Because theexternal Jovian magnetic field remains in an anti-parallel orientationwith respect to Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field, magneticreconnection is believed to be the major process that couples the twomagnetospheres. As the PIC model is able to describe self-consistentlythe electron behavior, our coupled MHD-EPIC model is well suited forinvestigating the nature of magnetic reconnection in thisreconnection-driven mini-magnetosphere. We will compare the MHD-EPICsimulations with pure Hall MHD simulations and compare both modelresults with Galileo plasma and magnetic field measurements to assess therelative importance of ion and electron kinetics in controlling theconfiguration and dynamics of Ganymede's magnetosphere.

  2. A good Darwinian? Winwood Reade and the making of a late Victorian evolutionary epic.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Ian

    2015-06-01

    In 1871 the travel writer and anthropologist W. Winwood Reade (1838-1875) was inspired by his correspondence with Darwin to turn his narrow ethnological research on West African tribes into the broadest history imaginable, one that would show Darwin's great principle of natural selection at work throughout the evolutionary history of humanity, stretching back to the origins of the universe itself. But when Martyrdom of Man was published in 1872, Reade confessed that Darwin would not likely find him a very good Darwinian, as he was unable to show that natural selection was anything more than a secondary law that arranges all details. When it came to historicising humans within the sweeping history of all creation, Reade argued that the primary law was that of development, a less contentious theory of human evolution that was better suited to Reade's progressive and teleological history of life. By focussing on the extensive correspondence between Reade and Darwin, this paper reconstructs the attempt to make an explicitly Darwinian evolutionary epic in order to shed light on the moral and aesthetic demands that worked to give shape to Victorian efforts to historicise humans within a vastly expanding timeframe. PMID:25716223

  3. 2D optical array probe analysis of precipitating cumulonimbus clouds during EPIC 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.

    2007-05-01

    During the 2001 East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) experiment, numerous measurements were made of the size distributions of raindrops in convective clouds that were developing over a region of the Mexican inter- tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). These measurements were made with optical array probes (PMS 2D-C and 2D-P) mounted on the National Science Foundation Hercules C-130, operated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. In addition to capturing shadow images of individual drops between 25 μm and 6400 μm, these instruments also record the distance between each drop via a measurement of arrival times in the spectrometers lasers. The separation distance, along with the drop size, provides detailed information about the microstructure of precipitation. The 2D probe measurements have been analyzed as a function of altitude above cloud base, horizontal distance from cloud edges, cloud droplet size distributions (2-50 μm) and vertical wind velocities. The objective of the analysis is to evaluate the spatial distribution of precipitation events with respect to the microphysical and dynamical processes that are related to the development and evolution of rain in tropical convective clouds. In addition, the reflectivity is calculated from the size distributions and evaluated to assess how inhomogeneities in the precipitation might be observed by meteorological radars.

  4. Area deprivation and age related macular degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nick; Foster, Paul J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between area deprivation, individual socio-economic status (SES) and age related macular degeneration (AMD). Study design Cross sectional study nested within a longitudinal cohort study. Methods Data were collected in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study by trained nurses, using standardized protocols and lifestyle questionnaires. The English Index of multiple deprivation 2010 (IMD) was derived from participants' postcodes. AMD was identified from standardized grading of fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between IMD, SES and AMD. Results 5344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Of 5182 participants with complete data, AMD was identified in 653 participants (12.60%, 95%CI = 11.7–13.5%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that people living in the most affluent 5% of areas had nearly half the odds of AMD compared to those living in comparatively more deprived areas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36–0.89, P = 0.02), after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and smoking. Conclusions The authors found that living in the most affluent areas exerted a protective effect on AMD, independently of education and social class. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms will inform potential interventions to reduce health inequalities relating to AMD. PMID:25687711

  5. Genetic Affinity of the Bhil, Kol and Gond Mentioned in Epic Ramayana

    PubMed Central

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kadian, Anurag; Bala, Saroj; Rao, Vadlamudi Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Kol, Bhil and Gond are some of the ancient tribal populations known from the Ramayana, one of the Great epics of India. Though there have been studies about their affinity based on classical and haploid genetic markers, the molecular insights of their relationship with other tribal and caste populations of extant India is expected to give more clarity about the the question of continuity vs. discontinuity. In this study, we scanned >97,000 of single nucleotide polymorphisms among three major ancient tribes mentioned in Ramayana, namely Bhil, Kol and Gond. The results obtained were then compared at inter and intra population levels with neighboring and other world populations. Using various statistical methods, our analysis suggested that the genetic architecture of these tribes (Kol and Gond) was largely similar to their surrounding tribal and caste populations, while Bhil showed closer affinity with Dravidian and Austroasiatic (Munda) speaking tribes. The haplotype based analysis revealed a massive amount of genome sharing among Bhil, Kol, Gond and with other ethnic groups of South Asian descent. On the basis of genetic component sharing among different populations, we anticipate their primary founding over the indigenous Ancestral South Indian (ASI) component has prevailed in the genepool over the last several thousand years. PMID:26061398

  6. Association between lifestyle factors and quality-adjusted life years in the EPIC-NL cohort.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Heidi P; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W J; Struijk, Ellen A; de Wit, G Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to relate four modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) to health expectancy, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in a prospective cohort study. Data of the prospective EPIC-NL study were used, including 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20-70 years at baseline (1993-7), followed until 31-12-2007 for occurrence of disease and death. Smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol) were investigated separately and combined into a healthy lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4. QALYs were used as summary measure of healthy life expectancy, combining a person's life expectancy with a weight for quality of life when having a chronic disease. For lifestyle factors analyzed separately the number of years living longer in good health varied from 0.12 year to 0.84 year, after adjusting for covariates. A combination of the four lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher QALYs (P-trend <0.0001). A healthy lifestyle score of 4 compared to a score of 0 was associated with almost a 2 years longer life in good health (1.75 QALYs [95% CI 1.37, 2.14]). PMID:25369457

  7. Chemical enrichment in the hot intra-cluster medium seen with XMM-Newton/EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Pinto, C.; Kaastra, J.; Kosec, P.; Zhang, Y.; Mao, J.; Werner, N.

    2016-06-01

    The intra-cluster medium (ICM), permeating the large gravitational potential well of galaxy clusters and groups, is rich in metals, which can be detected via their emission lines in the soft X-ray band. These heavy elements (typically from O to Ni) have been synthesized by Type Ia (SNIa) and core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae within the galaxy members, and continuously enrich the ICM since the cosmic star formation peak (z ≃ 2-3). Because the predicted chemical yields of supernovae depend on either their explosion mechanisms (SNIa) or the initial mass and metallicity of their progenitors (SNcc), measuring the abundances in the ICM can help to constrain supernovae models. In this study, we use XMM-Newton/EPIC to measure the abundances of 9 elements (Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni) in a sample of 44 cool-core galaxy clusters, groups and ellipticals (the CHEERS catalog). Combining these results with the O and Ne abundances measured using RGS, we establish an average X/Fe abundance pattern in the ICM, and we determine the best-fit SNIa and SNcc models, as well as the relative fraction of SNIa/SNcc responsible for the enrichment.

  8. Chemical enrichment in the hot intra-cluster medium seen with XMM-Newton/EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Pinto, C.; Kaastra, J.; Kosec, P.; Zhang, Y.; Mao, J.; Werner, N.

    2016-06-01

    The intra-cluster medium (ICM), permeating the large gravitational potential well of galaxy clusters and groups, is rich in metals, which can be detected via their emission lines in the soft X-ray band. These heavy elements (typically from O to Ni) have been synthesized by Type Ia (SNIa) and core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae within the galaxy members, and continuously enrich the ICM since the cosmic star formation peak (z ≃ 2--3). Because the predicted chemical yields of supernovae depend on either their explosion mechanisms (SNIa) or the initial mass and metallicity of their progenitors (SNcc), measuring the abundances in the ICM can help to constrain supernovae models. In this study, we use XMM-Newton/EPIC to measure the abundances of 9 elements (Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni) in a sample of 44 cool-core galaxy clusters, groups and ellipticals (the CHEERS catalog). Combining these results with the O and Ne abundances measured using RGS, we establish an average X/Fe abundance pattern in the ICM, and we determine the best-fit SNIa and SNcc models, as well as the relative fraction of SNIa/SNcc responsible for the enrichment.

  9. EPIC211351816.01: A test of giant planet inflation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunblatt, Samuel Kai; Gaidos, Eric; Huber, Daniel; Howard, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Giant planets with high equilibrium temperatures have been observed with radii larger than pure gravitational contraction models of formation would allow. Although these anomalously inflated planets have been known about for over a decade, it is unclear whether their inflation is caused by energy deposition from the host star, or inhibited cooling of the planet. These processes can be distinguished if the planet orbits at a period such that it becomes highly irradiated only when the star evolves onto the red giant branch. We report the discovery of EPIC211351816.01, a 1.4 Rjup planet orbiting a low-luminosity red giant star with a period of 8.4 days. Stellar and planetary parameters were obtained with medium and high-resolution spectra, and transit and asteroseismic analysis of the K2 lightcurve. Radial velocity measurements confirm the planetary nature of this object. Preliminary estimates of this planet's radius suggest planets become inflated directly from incident stellar radiation rather than by delayed loss of heat from formation. Further studies of planets around red giant branch stars will confirm or contradict this inflation hypothesis, and may reveal a new class of re-inflated planets.

  10. Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab Is Conferred by Mutations in an ABC Transporter Subfamily A Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Wee Tek; Mahon, Rod J.; Heckel, David G.; Walsh, Thomas K.; Downes, Sharon; James, William J.; Lee, Sui-Fai; Reineke, Annette; Williams, Adam K.; Gordon, Karl H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of conventional chemical insecticides and bacterial toxins to control lepidopteran pests of global agriculture has imposed significant selection pressure leading to the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance. Transgenic crops (e.g., cotton) expressing the Bt Cry toxins are now used world wide to control these pests, including the highly polyphagous and invasive cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. Since 2004, the Cry2Ab toxin has become widely used for controlling H. armigera, often used in combination with Cry1Ac to delay resistance evolution. Isolation of H. armigera and H. punctigera individuals heterozygous for Cry2Ab resistance in 2002 and 2004, respectively, allowed aspects of Cry2Ab resistance (level, fitness costs, genetic dominance, complementation tests) to be characterised in both species. However, the gene identity and genetic changes conferring this resistance were unknown, as was the detailed Cry2Ab mode of action. No cross-resistance to Cry1Ac was observed in mutant lines. Biphasic linkage analysis of a Cry2Ab-resistant H. armigera family followed by exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) marker mapping and candidate gene sequencing identified three independent resistance-associated INDEL mutations in an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter gene we named HaABCA2. A deletion mutation was also identified in the H. punctigera homolog from the resistant line. All mutations truncate the ABCA2 protein. Isolation of further Cry2Ab resistance alleles in the same gene from field H. armigera populations indicates unequal resistance allele frequencies and the potential for Bt resistance evolution. Identification of the gene involved in resistance as an ABC transporter of the A subfamily adds to the body of evidence on the crucial role this gene family plays in the mode of action of the Bt Cry toxins. The structural differences between the ABCA2, and that of the C subfamily required for Cry1Ac toxicity, indicate differences in the detailed mode

  11. Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab Is Conferred by Mutations in an ABC Transporter Subfamily A Protein.

    PubMed

    Tay, Wee Tek; Mahon, Rod J; Heckel, David G; Walsh, Thomas K; Downes, Sharon; James, William J; Lee, Sui-Fai; Reineke, Annette; Williams, Adam K; Gordon, Karl H J

    2015-11-01

    The use of conventional chemical insecticides and bacterial toxins to control lepidopteran pests of global agriculture has imposed significant selection pressure leading to the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance. Transgenic crops (e.g., cotton) expressing the Bt Cry toxins are now used world wide to control these pests, including the highly polyphagous and invasive cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. Since 2004, the Cry2Ab toxin has become widely used for controlling H. armigera, often used in combination with Cry1Ac to delay resistance evolution. Isolation of H. armigera and H. punctigera individuals heterozygous for Cry2Ab resistance in 2002 and 2004, respectively, allowed aspects of Cry2Ab resistance (level, fitness costs, genetic dominance, complementation tests) to be characterised in both species. However, the gene identity and genetic changes conferring this resistance were unknown, as was the detailed Cry2Ab mode of action. No cross-resistance to Cry1Ac was observed in mutant lines. Biphasic linkage analysis of a Cry2Ab-resistant H. armigera family followed by exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) marker mapping and candidate gene sequencing identified three independent resistance-associated INDEL mutations in an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter gene we named HaABCA2. A deletion mutation was also identified in the H. punctigera homolog from the resistant line. All mutations truncate the ABCA2 protein. Isolation of further Cry2Ab resistance alleles in the same gene from field H. armigera populations indicates unequal resistance allele frequencies and the potential for Bt resistance evolution. Identification of the gene involved in resistance as an ABC transporter of the A subfamily adds to the body of evidence on the crucial role this gene family plays in the mode of action of the Bt Cry toxins. The structural differences between the ABCA2, and that of the C subfamily required for Cry1Ac toxicity, indicate differences in the detailed mode

  12. Combining multiple autosomal introns for studying shallow phylogeny and taxonomy of Laurasiatherian mammals: Application to the tribe Bovini (Cetartiodactyla, Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; An, Junghwa; Ropiquet, Anne; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Couloux, Arnaud

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondrial sequences are widely used for species identification and for studying phylogenetic relationships among closely related species or populations of the same species. However, many studies of mammals have shown that the maternal history of the mitochondrial genome can be discordant with the true evolutionary history of the taxa. In such cases, the analyses of multiple nuclear genes can be more powerful for deciphering interspecific relationships. Here, we designed primers for amplifying 13 new exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) autosomal loci for studying shallow phylogeny and taxonomy of Laurasiatherian mammals. Three criteria were used for the selection of the markers: gene orthology, a PCR product length between 600 and 1200 nucleotides, and different chromosomal locations in the bovine genome. Positive PCRs were obtained from different species representing the orders Carnivora, Cetartiodactyla, Chiroptera, Perissodactyla and Pholidota. The newly developed markers were analyzed in a phylogenetic study of the tribe Bovini (the group containing domestic and wild cattle, bison, yak, African buffalo, Asian buffalo, and saola) based on 17 taxa and 18 nuclear genes, representing a total alignment of 13,095 nucleotides. The phylogenetic results were compared to those obtained from analyses of the complete mitochondrial genome and Y chromosomal genes. Our analyses support a basal divergence of the saola (Pseudoryx) and a sister-group relationship between yak and bison. These results contrast with recent molecular studies but are in better agreement with morphology. The comparison of pairwise nucleotide distances shows that our nuDNA dataset provides a good signal for identifying taxonomic levels, such as species, genera, subtribes, tribes and subfamilies, whereas the mtDNA genome fails because of mtDNA introgression and higher levels of homoplasy. Accordingly, we conclude that the genus Bison should be regarded as a synonym of Bos, with the European bison

  13. Diet, metabolic polymorphisms and dna adducts: the EPIC-Italy cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Palli, D; Vineis, P; Russo, A; Berrino, F; Krogh, V; Masala, G; Munnia, A; Panico, S; Taioli, E; Tumino, R; Garte, S; Peluso, M

    2000-08-01

    DNA adducts in peripheral leukocytes are considered a reliable indicator of internal dose exposure to genotoxic agents and, possibly, of cancer risk. We investigated their association with diet and other individual characteristics in healthy adults. The prospective study EPIC-Italy, a section of a larger European project, enrolled 47,749 men and women, aged 35-64 years, in 5 centres: all provided individual information about dietary and life-style habits and a blood sample. In a cross-sectional study, approximately 100 volunteers were randomly selected from each of the three main geographical study areas (Northern, Central and Southern Italy). DNA adducts and four polymorphic metabolic genotypes were determined in peripheral leukocytes by using (32)P-postlabelling technique and PCR methods. Among 309 subjects (153 men), 72.8% had detectable levels of DNA adducts (mean: 8.1 +/- 0.6 per 10(9) nucleotides). Strong negative associations emerged with the reported frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and the intake of antioxidants. DNA adducts were higher in subjects with GSTT1 null genotype (p = 0.05). Significant differences between study centres emerged in multivariate analyses (mean levels: 11.0, 10.0, 7.2, 6.5 and 5.2 for Florence, Naples, Turin, Varese and Ragusa, respectively). A possible opposite seasonal variation was found according to latitude: adduct levels tended to be lower in winter in Florence and the southern centres, and during summer in the two northern centres. Frequent consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced levels of DNA adducts, possibly contributing to the role of diet in modulating cancer risk. PMID:10897053

  14. EPICE-HIV: An Epidemiologic Cost-Effectiveness Model for HIV Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vandewalle, Björn; Llibre, Josep M.; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Ustianowski, Andrew; Camacho, Ricardo; Smith, Colette; Miners, Alec; Ferreira, Diana; Félix, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish a new and innovative framework for cost-effectiveness modeling of HIV-1 treatment, simultaneously considering both clinical and epidemiological outcomes. EPICE-HIV is a multi-paradigm model based on a within-host micro-simulation model for the disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals and an agent-based sexual contact network (SCN) model for the transmission of HIV-1 infection. It includes HIV-1 viral dynamics, CD4+ T cell infection rates, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. Disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals is driven by the interdependent changes in CD4+ T cell count, changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA, accumulation of resistance mutations and adherence to treatment. The two parts of the model are joined through a per-sexual-act and viral load dependent probability of disease transmission in HIV-discordant couples. Internal validity of the disease progression part of the model is assessed and external validity is demonstrated in comparison to the outcomes observed in the STaR randomized controlled clinical trial. We found that overall adherence to treatment and the resulting pattern of treatment interruptions are key drivers of HIV-1 treatment outcomes. Our model, though largely independent of efficacy data from RCT, was accurate in producing 96-week outcomes, qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to the ones observed in the STaR trial. We demonstrate that multi-paradigm micro-simulation modeling is a promising tool to generate evidence about optimal policy strategies in HIV-1 treatment, including treatment efficacy, HIV-1 transmission, and cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:26870960

  15. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Colorectal Cancer in the Italian EPIC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vece, Marilena Monica; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Masala, Giovanna; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Diet has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology, but few studies on the influence of total dietary antioxidant intake on colorectal cancer risk have been performed. Methods We investigated the association between colorectal cancer risk and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, and also of intake of selected antioxidants, in 45,194 persons enrolled in 5 centers (Florence, Naples, Ragusa, Turin and Varese) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Italy study. TAC was estimated by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Hazard ratios (HRs) for developing colorectal cancer, and colon and rectal cancers separately, adjusted for confounders, were estimated for tertiles of TAC by Cox modeling, stratifying by center. Results Four hundred thirty-six colorectal cancers were diagnosed over a mean follow-up of 11.28 years. No significant association between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer incidence was found. However for the highest category of TAC compared to the lowest, risk of developing colon cancer was lower (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44–0.89, P trend: 0.008). By contrast, increasing TAC intake was associated with significantly increasing risks of rectal cancer (2nd tertile HR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.19–3.66; 3rd tertile 2.48 95%CI: 1.32–4.66; P trend 0.007). Intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, and ß-carotene were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the contrasting effects of high total antioxidant intake on risk of colon and rectal cancers. PMID:26565695

  16. A calibration procedure to improve global rice yield simulations with EPIC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Wei; Balkovic, Juraj; van der Velde, M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Skalsky, Rastislav; Lin, Erda; Mueller, Nathan; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Crop models are increasingly used to assess impacts of climate change/variability and management practices on productivity and environmental performance of alternative cropping systems. Calibration is an important procedure to improve reliability of model simulations, especially for large area applications. However, global-scale crop model calibration has rarely been exercised due to limited data availability and expensive computing cost. Here we present a simple approach to calibrate Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model for a global implementation of rice. We identify four parameters (potential heat unit – PHU, planting density – PD, harvest index – HI, and biomass energy ratio – BER) and calibrate them regionally to capture the spatial pattern of reported rice yield in 2000. Model performance is assessed by comparing simulated outputs with independent FAO national data. The comparison demonstrates that the global calibration scheme performs satisfactorily in reproducing the spatial pattern of rice yield, particularly in main rice production areas. Spatial agreement increases substantially when more parameters are selected and calibrated, but with varying efficiencies. Among the parameters, PHU and HI exhibit the highest efficiencies in increasing the spatial agreement. Simulations with different calibration strategies generate a pronounced discrepancy of 5–35% in mean yields across latitude bands, and a small to moderate difference in estimated yield variability and yield changing trend for the period of 1981–2000. Present calibration has little effects in improving simulated yield variability and trends at both regional and global levels, suggesting further works are needed to reproduce temporal variability of reported yields. This study highlights the importance of crop models’ calibration, and presents the possibility of a transparent and consistent up scaling approach for global crop simulations given current availability of

  17. Thermal Design and Analysis of a Multi-Stage 30K Radiative Cooling System for EPIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator further cools a large focal plane to approx.100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented approx. 45 degrees relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at approx. 0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  18. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Risk of Tooth Loss: The EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, T; Walter, C; Oluwagbemigun, K; Bergmann, M; Pischon, T; Pischon, N; Boeing, H

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cigarette smoking and smoking cessation and the prevalence and incidence of tooth loss in a large cohort study in Germany. We analyzed data of 23,376 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population in Potsdam and other parts of Brandenburg, Germany, who had complete data on cigarette smoking, tooth loss, and covariates. Negative binomial regression and tooth-specific logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the association between smoking and the baseline prevalence and incidence of tooth loss during follow-up, respectively. Cigarette smoking was associated with higher prevalence of tooth loss at baseline as well as higher incidence of tooth loss during follow-up. The association between smoking and the incidence of tooth loss was stronger in men than women and stronger in younger versus older individuals. Heavy smoking (≥15 cigarettes/d) was associated with >3 times higher risk of tooth loss in men (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.0, 4.4) and more than twice the risk of tooth loss in women (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1, 2.9) younger than 50 y when compared with never smokers. Smoking cessation was consistently associated with a reduction in tooth loss risk, with the risk of tooth loss approaching that of never smokers after approximately 10 to 20 y of cessation. PMID:26243734

  19. Inflammatory markers and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer by tumor subtypes: the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Jennifer; Schock, Helena; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopolou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; de Mesquita, H.Bas Bueno; Peeters, Petra H M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T; Sánchez, Soledad; Obon-Santacana, Mireia; Sànchez-Pérez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Ardanaz, Eva; Brändstedt, Jenny; Lundin, Eva; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Merrit, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée T

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests an etiologic role for inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis and heterogeneity between tumor subtypes and anthropometric indices. Prospective studies on circulating inflammatory markers and epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) have predominantly investigated overall risk; data characterizing risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis) and anthropometric indices are sparse. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and EOC risk by tumor characteristics. A total of 754 eligible EOC cases were identified; two controls (n=1,497) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to assess associations. Results CRP and IL-6 were not associated with overall EOC risk. However, consistent with prior research, CRP >10 vs. CRP ≤1 mg/L was associated with higher overall EOC risk (OR=1.67 [1.03 - 2.70]). We did not observe significant associations or heterogeneity in analyses by tumor characteristics. In analyses stratified by waist circumference, inflammatory markers were associated with higher risk among women with higher waist circumference; no association was observed for women with normal waist circumference: (e.g., IL-6: waist ≤80: ORlog2=0.97 [0.81 - 1.16]; waist >88: ORlog2=1.78 [1.28 - 2.48], pheterogeneity ≤0.01). Conclusions Our data suggest that high CRP is associated with increased risk of overall EOC, and that IL-6 and CRP may be associated with EOC risk among women with higher adiposity. Impact Our data add to global evidence that ovarian carcinogenesis may be promoted by an inflammatory milieu. PMID:25855626

  20. Educational level and risk of colorectal cancer in EPIC with specific reference to tumor location.

    PubMed

    Leufkens, Anke M; Van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Siersema, Peter D; Kunst, Anton E; Mouw, Traci; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Morois, Sophie; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Polidoro, Silvia; Palli, Domenico; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Goufa, Ioulia; Peeters, Petra H M; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Rodríguez, Laudina; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez-Pérez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Zackrisson, Sophia; Almquist, Martin; Hallmans, Goran; Palmqvist, Richard; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Gallo, Valentina; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2012-02-01

    Existing evidence is inconclusive on whether socioeconomic status (SES) and educational inequalities influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and whether low or high SES/educational level is associated with developing CRC. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between educational level and CRC. We studied data from 400,510 participants in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study, of whom 2,447 developed CRC (colon: 1,551, rectum: 896, mean follow-up 8.3 years). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis stratified by age, gender and center, and adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. We conducted separate analyses for tumor location, gender and geographical region. Compared with participants with college/university education, participants with vocational secondary education or less had a nonsignificantly lower risk of developing CRC. When further stratified for tumor location, adjusted risk estimates for the proximal colon were statistically significant for primary education or less (HR 0.73, 95%CI 0.57-0.94) and for vocational secondary education (HR 0.76, 95%CI 0.58-0.98). The inverse association between low education and CRC risk was particularly found in women and Southern Europe. These associations were statistically significant for CRC, for colon cancer and for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, CRC risk, especially in the proximal colon, is lower in subjects with a lower educational level compared to those with a higher educational level. This association is most pronounced in women and Southern Europe. PMID:21412763

  1. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk subtypes in the E3N-EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Fagherazzi, Guy; Vilier, Alice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of the associations between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk at adulthood, by type of alcohol and subtype of breast cancer. Between 1993 and 2008, 66,481 women from the French E3N-EPIC cohort were followed up and asked to report their alcohol consumption, by type of alcohol, through a 208-item diet-history questionnaire. A total of 2812 breast cancer cases were validated during the follow-up session. No association was found between high alcohol consumption, whatever its type, and increase in breast cancer risk in the premenopausal period. During the postmenopausal period, a linear association between total alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk was found (P<0.0001), mainly driven by the associations with wine and beer [hazard ratio=1.33 (1.11-1.58) and 1.85 (1.19-2.89)] for more than two glasses per day of wine and beer, respectively, compared with nondrinkers] and with ER+/PR+ breast cancer subtypes. In the postmenopausal period, we observed interactions between total alcohol and folate intake levels (P=0.1192) and BMI (P=0.0367), with higher increased risks observed for high alcohol intake among women with low folate intake or who were overweight or obese. Our results make precise the current body of knowledge on the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer subtypes. Interactions between alcohol and other factors should further be taken into account in public health nutrition programs. PMID:24743350

  2. Thermal design and analysis of a multi-stage 30 K radiative cooling system for EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2010-09-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator further cools a large Focal Plane to ˜100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented ˜45° relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at ˜0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  3. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Ermini, Ilaria; Occhini, Daniela; Sieri, Sabina; Brighenti, Furio; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Ambrogetti, Daniela; Palli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD) and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83%) and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories) with those with low MBD (N1+P1) through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048) while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further investigations. PMID

  4. Reproductive and menstrual factors and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Fournier, Agnes; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Tikk, Kaja; Fortner, Reneé T; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Sandström, Maria; Hennings, Joakim; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Romieu, Isabelle; Byrnes, Graham; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) is threefold more common in women than in men and, therefore, a role of female hormones in the etiology of differentiated TC has been suggested. We assessed these hypotheses in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Among 345,157 women (mean age 51) followed for an average of 11 years, 508 differentiated TC cases were identified. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. No significant associations were observed between differentiated TC risk and number of pregnancies, breast feeding, menopausal status, and age at menarche and at menopause. Significant associations were found with history of infertility problems (HR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.60), a recent pregnancy (HR for ≤ 5 vs. >5 years before recruitment 3.87; 95% CI 1.43-10.46), menopause type (HR for surgical vs. natural menopause: 2.16; 95% CI 1.41-3.31), oral contraceptive (OC) use at recruitment (HR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.25-0.92) and duration of OC use (HR for ≥ 9 vs. ≤ 1 year: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.50-0.89). An increased risk was also found with hormone replacement therapy use at recruitment (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.67), but this was not significant after adjustment for type of menopause (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.95-1.57). Overall, our findings do not support a strong role of reproductive and menstrual factors, and female hormone use in the etiology of differentiated TC. The few observed associations may be real or accounted for by increased surveillance in women who had infertility problems, recent pregnancies or underwent surgical menopause. PMID:25041790

  5. Modeling Microbial Processes in EPIC to Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions from soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, D. E.; Izaurralde, R. C.; McGill, W. B.; Williams, J. R.; Schmid, E.

    2009-12-01

    Emissions of trace gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) to the atmosphere from managed terrestrial ecosystems have been contributing significantly to the warming of Earth. Trace gas production is dominated by biospheric processes. An improved knowledge of the soil-plant-atmosphere interface is of key importance for understanding trace gas dynamics. In soils, microbial metabolism plays a key role in the release or uptake of trace gases. Here we present work on the biophysical and biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy/Integrated Climate) to extend its capabilities to simulate CO2 and N2O fluxes in managed and unmanaged ecosystems. Emphasis will be given to recently developed, microbially-based, denitrification and nitrification modules. The soil-atmosphere exchange of trace gases can be measured by using various equipments, but often these measurements exhibit extreme space-time variability. We use hourly time steps to account for the variability induced by small changes in environmental conditions. Soils are often studied as macroscopic systems, although their functions are predominantly controlled at a microscopic level; i.e. the level of the microorganisms. We include these processes to the extent that these are known and can be quantitatively described. We represent soil dynamics mathematically with routines for gas diffusion, Michael Menten processes, electron budgeting and other processes such as uptake and transformations. We hypothesize that maximization of energy capture form scarce substrates using energetic favorable reactions drives evolution and that competitive advantage can result by depriving a competitor from a substrate. This Microbe Model changes concepts of production of N-containing trace gases; it unifies understanding of N oxidation and reduction, predicts production and evolution of trace gases and is consistent with observations of anaerobic ammonium oxidation.

  6. Long-term mortality of hospitalized pneumonia in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Myint, P K; Hawkins, K R; Clark, A B; Luben, R N; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Wilson, A M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about cause-specific long-term mortality beyond 30 days in pneumonia. We aimed to compare the mortality of patients with hospitalized pneumonia compared to age- and sex-matched controls beyond 30 days. Participants were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hospitalized pneumonia cases were identified from record linkage (ICD-10: J12-J18). For this study we excluded people with hospitalized pneumonia who died within 30 days. Each case identified was matched to four controls and followed up until the end June 2012 (total 15 074 person-years, mean 6·1 years, range 0·08-15·2 years). Cox regression models were constructed to examine the all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality using date of pneumonia onset as baseline with binary pneumonia status as exposure. A total of 2465 men and women (503 cases, 1962 controls) [mean age (s.d.) 64·5 (8·3) years] were included in the study. Between a 30-day to 1-year period, hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 7·3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5·4-9·9] and 5·9 (95% CI 3·5-9·7), respectively (with very few respiratory deaths within the same period) in cases compared to controls after adjusting for age, sex, asthma, smoking status, pack years, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, physical activity, waist-to-hip ratio, prevalent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. All outcomes assessed also showed increased risk of death in cases compared to controls after 1 year; respiratory cause of death being the most significant during that period (HR 16·4, 95% CI 8·9-30·1). Hospitalized pneumonia was associated with increased all-cause and specific-cause mortality beyond 30 days. PMID:26300532

  7. EPICE-HIV: An Epidemiologic Cost-Effectiveness Model for HIV Treatment.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Björn; Llibre, Josep M; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Ustianowski, Andrew; Camacho, Ricardo; Smith, Colette; Miners, Alec; Ferreira, Diana; Félix, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish a new and innovative framework for cost-effectiveness modeling of HIV-1 treatment, simultaneously considering both clinical and epidemiological outcomes. EPICE-HIV is a multi-paradigm model based on a within-host micro-simulation model for the disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals and an agent-based sexual contact network (SCN) model for the transmission of HIV-1 infection. It includes HIV-1 viral dynamics, CD4+ T cell infection rates, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. Disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals is driven by the interdependent changes in CD4+ T cell count, changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA, accumulation of resistance mutations and adherence to treatment. The two parts of the model are joined through a per-sexual-act and viral load dependent probability of disease transmission in HIV-discordant couples. Internal validity of the disease progression part of the model is assessed and external validity is demonstrated in comparison to the outcomes observed in the STaR randomized controlled clinical trial. We found that overall adherence to treatment and the resulting pattern of treatment interruptions are key drivers of HIV-1 treatment outcomes. Our model, though largely independent of efficacy data from RCT, was accurate in producing 96-week outcomes, qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to the ones observed in the STaR trial. We demonstrate that multi-paradigm micro-simulation modeling is a promising tool to generate evidence about optimal policy strategies in HIV-1 treatment, including treatment efficacy, HIV-1 transmission, and cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:26870960

  8. Droughts, epic droughts and droughty centuries - lessons from a California paleoclimatic record: a PACLIM 2001 meeting report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    During the early 1990s (but echoing studies by S.T. Harding at the University of California, from as early as the 1930s), several lines of paleoclimate evidence in and around the Sierra Nevada Range have provided the water community in California with some real horror stories. By studying ancient tree stumps submerged in Lake Tahoe and Tenaya Lake, stumps that were emerging from Mono Lake during its recent decline, and stumps that were exhumed in the Walker River bed during the floods of 1997, paleoclimatologists like Scott Stine of California State University, Hayward, assembled a picture of epic droughts in the central Sierra Nevada during the medieval period. These droughts had to be severe to drop water levels in the lakes and rivers low enough for the trees to grow in the first place, and then had to last for hundreds of years to explain tree-ring counts in these sizeable stumps. Worse yet, the evidence suggested at least two such epic droughts, one ending close to 1100 and the other close to 1350. These epic droughts challenged paleoclimatologists, as well as modern climatologists and hydrologists, to understand and, ultimately, to determine the likelihood that such droughts might recur in the foreseeable future. The first challenge, however, was to verify that such droughts were more than local events and as extreme as suggested. At this year’s Pacific Climate (PACLIM) Workshop, held March 18–21, 2001, at Asilomar (Pacific Grove, Calif.), special sessions brought together scientists to compare paleoclimatic reconstructions of ancient droughts and pluvial (wet) epidodes to try to determine the nature of decadal and centennial climate fluctuations in western North America, with emphasis on California. A companion session brought together modern climatologists to report on the latest explanations (and evidence) for decadal climate variations during the instrumental era of the 20th century.

  9. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T.; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as ‘probably carcinogenic’ to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results, and could not further examine histological subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) sub-cohort of women (n=325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method, and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10μg/day) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histological EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/day. No associations, and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/day:1.02, 95%CI:0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1:0.97, 95%CI:0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. PMID:25300475

  10. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H M; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta Castaño, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 μg/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. PMID:25300475

  11. Potential scientific output from the visible channels of EPIC spectroradiometer as part of the DSCOVR L1 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, A.; Herman, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    In addition to 4 UV channels, the EPIC spectroradiometer will provide measurements at 6 visible (and near IR) channels (443, 551, 680, 687.75, 764 and 779.9 nm) at roughly 10 km spatial resolution. The scattering angles are near backscattering and vary between 165 and 176 degree. Two pairs {680 and 687.75 nm} and {764 and 779.9 nm} represent O2 B- and A-bands (and their reference) channels; they will be used for cloud height measurements over land and ocean. The B-band channel will contribute to the more absorbing A-band measurements over bright vegetation. A pair {680 and 779.9 nm} will be used for retrieving vegetation properties. Due to the special EPIC geometry, the illuminated part of the leaves will be always observed. As a result, in additional to the traditional Leaf Area Index (LAI), these observations for the first time will provide the sunlit fraction of LAI. Since the sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different photosynthetic response to incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), these measurements will help to improve global ecological and biogeochemistry models. Finally, a pair {443 and 551 nm} will be used for atmospheric correction. As a by-product of the atmospheric correction algorithm, we also expect to get aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface bidirectional reflection function (BRF). The presentation will briefly overview the proposed science algorithms.

  12. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross-sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; Welch, Ailsa A.; Mulligan, Angela A.; Luben, Robert N.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  13. Cod liver oil supplement consumption and health: cross-sectional results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, Marleen A H; Welch, Ailsa A; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-10-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40-79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  14. Potential Scientific Output from the Visible Channels of EPIC Spectroradiometer as Part of the DSCOVR L1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    In addition to 4 UV channels, the EPIC spectroradiometer will provide measurements at 6 visible (and near IR) channels (443,551,680,687.75, 764 and 779.9 nm) at roughly 10 km spatial resolution. The scattering angles are near backscattering and vary between 165 and 176 degree. Two pairs {680 and 687.75 nm} and {764 and 779.9 nm} represent 02 B- and A-bands (and their references) channels; they will be used for cloud height measurements over land and ocean. The B-band channel will contribute to the more absorbing A-band measurements over bright vegetation. A pair {680 and 779.9 nm} will be used for retrieving vegetation properties. Due to the special EPIC geometry, the illuminated part of the leaves will be always observed. As a result, in additional to the traditional Leaf Area Index (LAI), these observations for the first time will provide the sunlit fraction of LAI. Since the sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different photosynthetic response to incident radiation, these measurements will help to improve global ecological and biogeochemistry models. Finally, a pair {443 and 551 nm} will be used for atmospheric correction. As a by-product of the atmospheric correction algorithm, we also expect to get aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface bidirectional reflection function (BRF). The presentation will briefly overview the proposed science algorithms.

  15. Identification of polymorphic and off-target probe binding sites on the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel L; Walker, Rosie M; Morris, Stewart W; McIntosh, Andrew M; Porteous, David J; Evans, Kathryn L

    2016-09-01

    Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation has now become a relatively inexpensive technique thanks to array-based methylation profiling technologies. The recently developed Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip interrogates methylation at over 850,000 sites across the human genome, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. This array supersedes the widely used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, which has permitted insights into the relationship between DNA methylation and a wide range of conditions and traits. Previous research has identified issues with certain probes on both the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and its predecessor, the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, which were predicted to affect array performance. These issues concerned probe-binding specificity and the presence of polymorphisms at target sites. Using in silico methods, we have identified probes on the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip that are predicted to (i) measure methylation at polymorphic sites and (ii) hybridise to multiple genomic regions. We intend these resources to be used for quality control procedures when analysing data derived from this platform. PMID:27330998

  16. EPIC Study of Two Enigmatic Sources: The Mouse and SNR 359.1-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, George

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the original proposal was to observe the Mouse pulsar wind nebula (associated with PSR J1744-2958) and the nearby supernova remnant G359.1-0.5, where the pulsar was probably born, with the XMM-Newton observatory to study the properties of these objects. SNR G359.1-0.5 was accepted as a Category C target and has not been observed. The Mouse was observed on April 27,2003 for 52 ks. The image analysis has shown that the Mouse is extended in the East-West direction, possibly along the direction of the pulsar's proper motion. The spectrum of this pulsar wind nebula can be described as an absorbed power law with the photon index GAMMA = 1.9 plus or minus 0.1, effective hydrogen column density n(sub H) = (2.6 plus or minus 0.1) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, and flux F = 1.8 x 10(exp -11) erg per square centimeter per second in the 1-10 keV energy range. Based on the n(sub H) value, the distance to the source is about 5 kpc, which results in the luminosity 3.7 x 10(exp 34) erg per second. We conclude that PSR J1744-2958 and the Mouse are not physically associated with G359.1-0.5, which lies at a larger distance. In addition to the Mouse, we also detected two Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300, in the EPIC MOS and PN fields of view. The latter of these objects showed a Type I X-ray burst during our observation, with a rise time of 5 s and decay time of 60 s. A very strong pileup during the burst made the analysis of the burst properties unreliable. The spectral analysis of the persistent radiation from SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300 yields the hydrogen column densities of 3.2 plus or minus 0.1 and (3.6 plus or minus 0.2) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, respectively, which suggests that the sources are close to the Galactic center (d = 8-9 kpc). The spectra can be reasonably well fitted with a blackbody plus thin disk model, with the blackbody temperatures of 1.7 plus or minus 0.2 and 1.8 plus or minus 0.2 keV, respectively.

  17. Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

    timeless. The story of mankind's endless fascination with the world of the Moon and the gallery of interesting characters who pursued the details of the lunar surface with often strange intensity is a modern-day epic. Many of the stories recounted for the first time here will still be recounted generations hence, when the Apollo explorations may seem a mere interlude in what has actually been a more sustained and more significant era of endeavour. It is possible that the names of Schroeter, Beer and Mädler, Webb and Schmidt may prove to be as memorable as those of Armstrong, Aldrin, Cernan and Schmitt.

  18. Effect of introduction of a new electronic anesthesia record (Epic) system on the safety and efficiency of patient care in a gastrointestinal endoscopy suite-comparison with historical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goudra, B; Singh, PM; Borle, A; Gouda, G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Use of electronic medical record systems has increased in the recent years. Epic is one such system gaining popularity in the USA. Epic is a private company, which invented the electronic documentation system adopted in our hospital. In spite of many presumed advantages, its use is not critically analyzed. Some of the perceived advantages are increased efficiency and protection against litigation as a result of accurate documentation. Materials and Methods: In this study, retrospective data of 305 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (wherein electronic charting was used - “Epic group”) were compared with 288 patients who underwent the same procedure with documentation saved on a paper chart (“paper group”). Time of various events involved in the procedure such as anesthesia start, endoscope insertion, endoscope removal, and transfer to the postanesthesia care unit were routinely documented. From this data, the various time durations were calculated. Results: Both “anesthesia start to scope insertion” times and “scope removal to transfer” times were significantly less in the Epic group compared to the paper group. Use of Epic system led to a saving of 4 min of procedure time per patient. However, the mean oxygen saturation was significantly less in the Epic group. Conclusion: In spite of perceived advantages of Epic documentation system, significant hurdles remain with its use. Although the system allows seamless flow of patients, failure to remove all artifacts can lead to errors and become a source of potential litigation hazard. PMID:27051360

  19. Excerpts from "The Lewis and Clark Journals: An Epic of Discovery, the Abridgment of the Definitive Nebraska Edition": The Journey across the Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Gary E.

    2003-01-01

    This article contains excerpts from "The Lewis and Clark Journals: An Epic of Discovery, The Abridgment of the Definitive Nebraska Edition," published by the University of Nebraska Press in 2003. Editor Gary E. Moulton chose a few daily entries from the journals to highlight the expedition from May 14-October 12, 1804.

  20. Project EPIC. Educational Preparation for Involvement in Careers. Career Education Demonstration. K-12 Low Income Students. Final Report, 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Public Schools, Louisville, KY. Office of Career Education.

    Project EPIC (Educational Preparation for Involvement in Careers) was designed for the needs of low income, inner city students (K-12). The curriculum was divided into three phases: awareness (focusing on a basic foundation in the areas of academics, work, self concept, decision making, and community for grades K-6); exploration (focusing on…

  1. The thin and medium filters of the EPIC camera on-board XMM-Newton: measured performance after more than 15 years of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Marco; Gastaldello, Fabio; Sciortino, Luisa; Agnello, Simonpietro; Buscarino, Gianpiero; Collura, Alfonso; La Palombara, Nicola; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Sartore, Nicola; Tiengo, Andrea; Varisco, Salvatore; Venezia, Anna Maria

    2016-08-01

    After more than 15 years of operation of the EPIC camera on board the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, we have reviewed the status of its Thin and Medium filters. We have selected a set of Thin and Medium back-up filters among those still available in the EPIC consortium and have started a program to investigate their status by different laboratory measurements including: UV/VIS transmission, Raman scattering, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Furthermore, we have investigated the status of the EPIC flight filters by performing an analysis of the optical loading in the PN offset maps to gauge variations in the optical and UV transmission. We both investigated repeated observations of single optically bright targets and performed a statistical analysis of the extent of loading versus visual magnitude at different epochs. We report the results of the measurements conducted up to now. Most notably, we find no evidence for change in the UV/VIS transmission of the back-up filters in ground tests spanning a 2 year period and we find no evidence for change in the optical transmission of the thin filter of the EPIC-pn camera from 2002 to 2012. We point out some lessons learned for the development and calibration programs of filters for X-ray detectors in future Astronomy missions.

  2. PLTW and Epics-High: Curriculum Comparisons to Support Problem Solving in the Context of Engineering Design. Research in Engineering and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd; Brenner, Daniel C.; Pieper, Jon T.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted to compare two approaches to engineering design curriculum between different schools (inter-school) and between two curricular approaches, "Project Lead the Way" (PLTW) and "Engineering Projects in Community Service" (EPIC High) (inter-curricular). The researchers collected curriculum materials, including…

  3. Using EPIC v. 3060 and the Soil Conditioning Index to predict soil organic carbon in cotton production systems of the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Conditioning Index (SCI) administered by the USDA-NRCS predicts the consequences of tillage practices and cropping systems on trends in SOC but does not represent an actual quantity or accumulation rate of SOC. We calibrated the EPIC model for three major land resource areas in the southea...

  4. I am Joaquin. Yo Soy Joaquin. An Epic Poem with a Chronology of People and Events in Mexican and Mexican American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Rodolfo

    Both Spanish and English versions of the epic poem "I Am Joaquin" are given in this book. "I Am Joaquin" is the first work of poetry to be published by Chicanos for Chicanos. It is a historical essay of the greatness and weakness of the Chicano people. Their psychological wounds, cultural genocide, social castration, nobility, courage,…

  5. Towards the Carbon credit and trading schemes: Estimation of soil Carbon storage as influenced by alternative cropping systems using the EPIC model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils are considered the largest carbon reservoir of the terrestrial carbon cycle and are therefore being targeted as greenhouse gas (GHG) sinks through soil carbon sequestration (SCS). Using the Erosion Policy Impact Climate Calculator (EPIC) simulation, we examined the differences in the capabilit...

  6. The K2 Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) and Stellar Classifications of 138,600 Targets in Campaigns 1-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Daniel; Bryson, Stephen T.; Haas, Michael R.; Barclay, Thomas; Barentsen, Geert; Howell, Steve B.; Sharma, Sanjib; Stello, Dennis; Thompson, Susan E.

    2016-05-01

    The K2 Mission uses the Kepler spacecraft to obtain high-precision photometry over ≈80 day campaigns in the ecliptic plane. The Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) provides coordinates, photometry, and kinematics based on a federation of all-sky catalogs to support target selection and target management for the K2 mission. We describe the construction of the EPIC, as well as modifications and shortcomings of the catalog. Kepler magnitudes (Kp) are shown to be accurate to ≈0.1 mag for the Kepler field, and the EPIC is typically complete to Kp ≈ 17 (Kp ≈ 19 for campaigns covered by Sloan Digital Sky Survey). We furthermore classify 138,600 targets in Campaigns 1–8 (≈88% of the full target sample) using colors, proper motions, spectroscopy, parallaxes, and galactic population synthesis models, with typical uncertainties for G-type stars of ≈3% in {T}{{eff}}, ≈0.3 dex in {log} g, ≈40% in radius, ≈10% in mass, and ≈40% in distance. Our results show that stars targeted by K2 are dominated by K–M dwarfs (≈41% of all selected targets), F–G dwarfs (≈36%), and K giants (≈21%), consistent with key K2 science programs to search for transiting exoplanets and galactic archeology studies using oscillating red giants. However, we find significant variation of the fraction of cool dwarfs with galactic latitude, indicating a target selection bias due to interstellar reddening and increased contamination by giant stars near the galactic plane. We discuss possible systematic errors in the derived stellar properties, and differences with published classifications for K2 exoplanet host stars. The EPIC is hosted at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST): http://archive.stsci.edu/k2/epic/search.php.

  7. Nondestructive Assessment of sGAG Content and Distribution in Normal and Degraded Rat Articular Cartilage via EPIC-μCT

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liqin; Lin, Angela S.P.; Guldberg, Robert E.; Levenston, Marc E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of quantifying the Equilibrium Partitioning of an Ionic Contrast agent via μCT (EPIC-μCT) to nondestructively assess sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content and distribution in rat articular cartilage ex vivo, and in doing so to establish a paradigm for extension of this technique to other small animal models. Design After determination of an appropriate incubation time for the anionic contrast agent, EPIC-μCT was used to examine age-related differences in cartilage sGAG content between 4-, 8-, and 16-week old (n=5 each) male Wistar rats and to evaluate sGAG depletion in the right femora of each age group after 60 minutes of digestion with chondroitinase ABC. The EPIC-μCT measurements were validated by histological safranin-O staining, and reproducibility was evaluated by triplicate scans of six femora. Results Cartilage attenuation gradually increased with cumulative digestion time and reached a plateau at approximately 60 minutes with a 16.0% temporal increase (p<0.01). Average femoral articular cartilage attenuation increased by 14.2% from 4 to 8 weeks of age (p<0.01) and further increased by 2.5% from 8 to 16 weeks (p<0.05). After 60 minutes of digestion, femoral articular cartilage attenuations increased by 15-17% in each age group (p<0.01). Correspondingly, sGAG optical density decreased with age and digestion, and showed a linear correlation (r=−0.88, slope=−1.26, p<0.01, n=30) with EPIC-μCT cartilage attenuation. High reproducibility was indicated by a low coefficient of variation (1.5%) in cartilage attenuation. Conclusions EPIC-μCT imaging provides high spatial resolution and sensitivity to assess sGAG content and three-dimensional distribution in rat femoral articular cartilage. PMID:19744590

  8. Droughts, epic droughts and droughty centuries - lessons from a California paleoclimatic record: a PACLIM 2001 meeting report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    During the early 1990s (but echoing studies by S.T. Harding at the University of California, from as early as the 1930s), several lines of paleoclimate evidence in and around the Sierra Nevada Range have provided the water community in California with some real horror stories. By studying ancient tree stumps submerged in Lake Tahoe and Tenaya Lake, stumps that were emerging from Mono Lake during its recent decline, and stumps that were exhumed in the Walker River bed during the floods of 1997, paleoclimatologists like Scott Stine of California State University, Hayward, assembled a picture of epic droughts in the central Sierra Nevada during the medieval period. These droughts had to be severe to drop water levels in the lakes and rivers low enough for the trees to grow in the first place, and then had to last for hundreds of years to explain tree-ring counts in these sizeable stumps. Worse yet, the evidence suggested at least two such epic droughts, one ending close to 1100 and the other close to 1350. These epic droughts challenged paleoclimatologists, as well as modern climatologists and hydrologists, to understand and, ultimately, to determine the likelihood that such droughts might recur in the foreseeable future. The first challenge, however, was to verify that such droughts were more than local events and as extreme as suggested. At this year’s Pacific Climate (PACLIM) Workshop, held March 18–21, 2001, at Asilomar (Pacific Grove, Calif.), special sessions brought together scientists to compare paleoclimatic reconstructions of ancient droughts and pluvial (wet) epidodes to try to determine the nature of decadal and centennial climate fluctuations in western North America, with emphasis on California. A companion session brought together modern climatologists to report on the latest explanations (and evidence) for decadal climate variations during the instrumental era of the 20th century. PACLIM is an annual workshop that, since 1983, has brought together

  9. A molecular epidemiology project on diet and cancer: the EPIC-Italy Prospective Study. Design and baseline characteristics of participants.

    PubMed

    Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Salvini, Simonetta; Ceroti, Marco; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Frasca, Graziella; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Fiorini, Laura; Celentano, Egidio; Galasso, Rocco; Decarli, Adriano; Krogh, Vittorio

    2003-01-01

    EPIC-Italy is the Italian section of a larger project known as EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), a prospective study on diet and cancer carried out in 10 European countries. In the period 1993-1998, EPIC-Italy completed the recruitment of 47,749 volunteers (15,171 men, 32,578 women, aged 35-65 years) in 4 different areas covered by cancer registries: Varese (12,083 volunteers) and Turin (10,604) in the Northern part of the country; Florence (13,597) and Ragusa (6,403) in Central and Southern Italy, respectively. An associate center in Naples enrolled 5,062 women. Detailed information for each individual volunteer about diet and life-style habits, anthropometric measurements and a blood sample was collected, after signing an informed consent form. A food frequency questionnaire specifically developed for the Italian dietary pattern was tested in a pilot phase. A computerized data base with the dietary and life-style information of each participant was completed. Blood samples were processed in the same day of collection, aliquoted (RBC, WBC, serum and plasma) and stored in liquid nitrogen containers. Follow-up procedures were validated and implemented for the identification of newly diagnosed cancer cases. Cancer incidence was related to dietary habits and biochemical markers of food consumption and individual susceptibility in order to test the role of diet-related exposure in the etiology of cancer and its interaction with other environmental or genetic determinants. The comparability of information in a prospective study design is much higher than in other studies. The availability of such a large biological bank linked to individual data on dietary and life-style exposures also provides the unique opportunity of evaluating the role of selected genotypes involved in the metabolism of chemical compounds and DNA repair, potentially related to the risk of cancer, in residents of geographic areas of Italy characterized by specific

  10. Diurnal Cycle of Convection in the East Pacific ITCZ during EPIC-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the EPIC-2001 intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ over the Mexican warm pool region (10N, 95W) of the East Pacific. This study focuses on the pronounced observed diurnal cycle of environmental and convective parameters within the experiment domain. Data from three primary sources are examined: the R/V Ronald H. Brown C-band weather radar, 4-hourly soundings from the Brown and the Global Atmospherics, Inc. National Lightning Detection Network (long range product). Satellite data from TRMM, GOES and OV-1 are also used. The domain boundary layer shows a robust daily evolution of moist enthalpy (as reflect by equivalent potential temperature, theta-e, or wet bulb potential temperature, theta-w), with contributions from changes in both dry and moist entropy. Peak theta-w is found after local nightfall; the average diurnal range of theta-w is approximately 1 deg C. A composite diurnal cycle of convective properties was derived from the C-band volume scans, sampled continuously through the experiment at 10 minute updates. Products derived from the volumetric data include a surface PPI, 15 and 30 dBZ echo top height, vertically integrated liquid, and 6 km (mixed phase region) reflectivity CAPPIs. For almost all products, the parameter means showed virtually no diurnal cycle. However, for the upper-level products, the parameter spectra showed a clear peak in the occurrence of deep/vigorous convection (the "tail end of the distribution") between 7-9 UTC (1-3 AM local), while overall frequency of occurrence peaked later, from 12-15 UTC (6-9 AM local). This represents a daily "outbreak" of isolated deep cells a couple of hours after sunset and subsequent growth, organization and decay through the nighttime hours. The coherence of the diurnal cycle of the convective spectrum is impressive given the wide variety of convective organization observed during the experiment, and given the modulation