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Sample records for exonuclease activity residing

  1. DNA binding induces active site conformational change in the human TREX2 3'-exonuclease.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Udesh; Perrino, Fred W; Hollis, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    The TREX enzymes process DNA as the major 3'-->5' exonuclease activity in mammalian cells. TREX2 and TREX1 are members of the DnaQ family of exonucleases and utilize a two metal ion catalytic mechanism of hydrolysis. The structure of the dimeric TREX2 enzyme in complex with single-stranded DNA has revealed binding properties that are distinct from the TREX1 protein. The TREX2 protein undergoes a conformational change in the active site upon DNA binding including ordering of active site residues and a shift of an active site helix. Surprisingly, even when a single monomer binds DNA, both monomers in the dimer undergo the structural rearrangement. From this we have proposed a model for DNA binding and 3' hydrolysis for the TREX2 dimer. The structure also shows how TREX proteins potentially interact with double-stranded DNA and suggest features that might be involved in strand denaturation to provide a single-stranded substrate for the active site. PMID:19321497

  2. Metastasis Suppressor Function of NM23-H1 Requires its 3’–5’ Exonuclease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingbei; McCorkle, Joseph R.; Novak, Marian; Yang, Mengmeng; Kaetzel, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The metastasis suppressor NM23-H1 possesses three enzymatic activities in vitro, a nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), a protein histidine kinase, and a more recently characterized 3’–5’ exonuclease. While the histidine kinase has been implicated in suppression of motility in breast carcinoma cell lines, potential relevance of the NDPK and 3’-5 exonuclease to metastasis suppressor function has not been addressed in detail. To this end, site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical analyses of bacterially-expressed mutant NM23-H1 proteins have identified mutations that disrupt the 3’–5’ exonuclease alone (Glu5 to Ala, or E5A), the NDPK and histidine kinase activities tandemly (Y52A, H118F), or all three activities simultaneously (K12Q). While forced expression of NM23-H1 potently suppressed spontaneous lung metastasis of subcutaneous tumor explants derived from the human melanoma cell line 1205LU, no significant metastasis suppressor activity was obtained with the exonuclease-deficient variants E5A and K12Q. The H118F mutant which lacked both the NDPK and histidine kinase while retaining the 3’-5 exonuclease, also exhibited compromised suppressor activity. In contrast, each mutant retained the ability to suppress motility and invasive characteristics of 1205LU cells in culture, indicating the NM23-H1 molecule possesses an additional activity(s) mediating these suppressor functions. These studies provide the first demonstration that the 3’-5 exonuclease activity of NM23-H1is necessary for metastasis suppressor function, and further indicate cooperativity of the three enzymatic activities of the molecule on suppression of the metastatic process. PMID:20209495

  3. Phosphatase activity in commercial spleen exonuclease decreases the recovery of benzo[a]pyrene and N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling.

    PubMed

    Adams, S P; Laws, G M; Selden, J R; Nichols, W W

    1994-05-15

    Spleen exonuclease, which degrades nucleic acids into single 3'-nucleotides, is used in the detection of DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling. Contamination of the exonuclease with phosphatase activity can reduce the recovery of benzo[a]pyrene and N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling. Four preparations of spleen exonuclease containing varying levels of phosphatase activity (< 1-62% of the unmodified 3'-nucleotides being dephosphorylated) were used to hydrolyze the DNA. The exonuclease with the lowest phosphatase activity produced a recovery of up to 9.60 mumol of benzo[a]pyrene adducts per mole of DNA. Recovery of benzo[a]pyrene adducts was reduced to 0.56 mumol of adduct per mole of DNA using the exonuclease with the highest phosphatase activity. Phosphatase in the exonucleases also dephosphorylated N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine DNA adducts. Surprisingly, recovery of these DNA adducts was nearly 10 times greater using nuclease P1 than when using 1-butanol extraction for adduct enrichment, since arylamine DNA adducts have previously been reported to be poorly detected by 32P-postlabeling after nuclease P1 treatment. Our data indicate that the hydrolysis of DNA by spleen exonuclease may be an important source of variability in both qualitative and quantitative analysis of adducts by 32P-postlabeling. PMID:8059938

  4. Human exonuclease 1 (EXO1) activity characterization and its function on flap structures

    PubMed Central

    Keijzers, Guido; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (EXO1) is involved in multiple DNA metabolism processes, including DNA repair and replication. Most of the fundamental roles of EXO1 have been described in yeast. Here, we report a biochemical characterization of human full-length EXO1. Prior to assay EXO1 on different DNA flap structures, we determined factors essential for the thermodynamic stability of EXO1. We show that enzymatic activity and stability of EXO1 on DNA is modulated by temperature. By characterization of EXO1 flap activity using various DNA flap substrates, we show that EXO1 has a strong capacity for degrading double stranded DNA and has a modest endonuclease or 5′ flap activity. Furthermore, we report novel mechanistic insights into the processing of flap structures, showing that EXO1 preferentially cleaves one nucleotide inwards in a double stranded region of a forked and nicked DNA flap substrates, suggesting a possible role of EXO1 in strand displacement. PMID:26182368

  5. Fluorescent assay for alkaline phosphatase activity based on graphene oxide integrating with λ exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Guo; Xing, Xiao-Jing; Li, Bo; Guo, Yong-Ming; Zhang, Ye-Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Feng

    2016-07-15

    A novel fluorescence turn-on strategy for the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is developed based on the preferential binding of graphene oxide (GO) to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) over double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) coupled with λ exonuclease (λ exo) cleavage. Specifically, in the absence of ALP, the substrate-dsDNA constructed by one oligonucleotide with a fluorophore at the 3'-end (F-DNA) and its complementary sequence modified with a 5'-phosphoryl termini (p-DNA), is promptly cleaved by λ exo, and the resulting F-DNA is adsorbed on GO surface, allowing fluorescence quenching. Whereas the introduction of ALP leads to the hydrolysis of the P-DNA, and the yielding 5'-hydroxyl end product hampers the λ exo cleavage, inducing significant fluorescence enhancement due to the weak binding of dsDNA with GO. Under the optimized conditions, the approach exhibits high sensitivity and specificity to ALP with a detection limit of 0.19 U/L, and the determination of ALP in spiked human serum samples has also been realized. Notably, this new approach not only provides a novel and sensitive platform for the ALP activity detection but also promotes the exploitation of the GO-based biosensing for the detection of the protein with no specific binding element, and thus extending the GO-based sensing applications into a new field. PMID:27015149

  6. Studies of the 5' exonuclease and endonuclease activities of CPSF-73 in histone pre-mRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-cui; Sullivan, Kelly D; Marzluff, William F; Dominski, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Processing of histone pre-mRNA requires a single 3' endonucleolytic cleavage guided by the U7 snRNP that binds downstream of the cleavage site. Following cleavage, the downstream cleavage product (DCP) is rapidly degraded in vitro by a nuclease that also depends on the U7 snRNP. Our previous studies demonstrated that the endonucleolytic cleavage is catalyzed by the cleavage/polyadenylation factor CPSF-73. Here, by using RNA substrates with different nucleotide modifications, we characterize the activity that degrades the DCP. We show that the degradation is blocked by a 2'-O-methyl nucleotide and occurs in the 5'-to-3' direction. The U7-dependent 5' exonuclease activity is processive and continues degrading the DCP substrate even after complete removal of the U7-binding site. Thus, U7 snRNP is required only to initiate the degradation. UV cross-linking studies demonstrate that the DCP and its 5'-truncated version specifically interact with CPSF-73, strongly suggesting that in vitro, the same protein is responsible for the endonucleolytic cleavage of histone pre-mRNA and the subsequent degradation of the DCP. By using various RNA substrates, we define important space requirements upstream and downstream of the cleavage site that dictate whether CPSF-73 functions as an endonuclease or a 5' exonuclease. RNA interference experiments with HeLa cells indicate that degradation of the DCP does not depend on the Xrn2 5' exonuclease, suggesting that CPSF-73 degrades the DCP both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18955505

  7. A "turn-on" carbon nanotube-Ag nanoclusters fluorescent sensor for sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ with cyclic amplification of exonuclease III activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangfeng; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-21

    With exonuclease III activity on DNA hybrids containing thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine, a label-free ultrasensitive "turn-on" fluorescent sensor involving "quenching" and "reappearing" processes based on a carbon nanotube-Ag nanoclusters system is demonstrated for amplified determination of Hg(2+). PMID:24292243

  8. Characterization of two nuclear mammalian homologous DNA-pairing activities that do not require associated exonuclease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Akhmedov, A T; Bertrand, P; Corteggiani, E; Lopez, B S

    1995-01-01

    We have developed an assay to study homologous DNA-pairing activities in mammalian nuclear extracts. This assay is derived from the POM blot assay, described earlier, which was specific for RecA activity in bacterial crude extracts. In the present work, proteins from mammalian nuclear extracts were resolved by electrophoresis on SDS/polyacrylamide gels and then electrotransferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane coated with circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The blot obtained was incubated with a labeled homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Homologous pairing between the ssDNA and the labeled dsDNA was detected by autoradiography as a radioactive spot on the membrane. In nuclear extracts from mammalian cells, we found two major polypeptides of 100 and 75 kDa, able to promote the formation of stable plectonemic joints. Joint molecule formation required at least one homologous end on the dsDNA, but either end of the dsDNA could be recruited to initiate the reaction. For each polypeptide, the reaction required divalent cations such as Mg2+, Ca2+, or Mn2+. Although ATP was not necessary, ADP was inhibitory in each case. Unlike most of the known eukaryotic DNA-pairing proteins, both activities identified here were able to promote the formation of joint molecules without requiring an associated exonuclease activity. In addition, these two proteins were detected in cell lines from different tissues and from different mammalian species (human, mouse, and hamster). Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7878049

  9. The RNA exosome complex central channel controls both exonuclease and endonuclease Dis3 activities in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Drazkowska, Karolina; Tomecki, Rafal; Stodus, Krystian; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Czarnocki-Cieciura, Mariusz; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    The RNA exosome is an essential ribonuclease complex involved in RNA processing and decay. It consists of a 9-subunit catalytically inert ring composed of six RNase PH-like proteins forming a central channel and three cap subunits with KH/S1 domains located at the top. The yeast exosome catalytic activity is supplied by the Dis3 (also known as Rrp44) protein, which has both endo- and exoribonucleolytic activities and the nucleus-specific exonuclease Rrp6. In vitro studies suggest that substrates reach the Dis3 exonucleolytic active site following passage through the ring channel, but in vivo support is lacking. Here, we constructed an Rrp41 ring subunit mutant with a partially blocked channel that led to thermosensitivity and synthetic lethality with Rrp6 deletion. Rrp41 mutation caused accumulation of nuclear and cytoplasmic exosome substrates including the non-stop decay reporter, for which degradation is dependent on either endonucleolytic or exonucleolytic Dis3 activities. This suggests that the central channel also controls endonucleolytic activity. In vitro experiments performed using Chaetomium thermophilum exosomes reconstituted from recombinant subunits confirmed this notion. Finally, we analysed the impact of a lethal mutation of conserved basic residues in Rrp4 cap subunit and found that it inhibits digestion of single-stranded and structured RNA substrates. PMID:23404585

  10. Fluorescence detection of telomerase activity in cancer cell extracts based on autonomous exonuclease III-assisted isothermal cycling signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Ding, Caifeng; Li, Xiaoqian; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yaoyao

    2016-09-15

    Based on the extension reaction of a telomerase substrate (TS) primer in the presence of the telomerase, strand-displacement process to perform more stable longer duplex chain, and stepwise hydrolysis of mononucleotides from the blunt or the recessed 3'-hydroxyl termini of duplex DNA in the presence of Exonuclease III (Exo III), an amplified fluorescence detection of telomerase activity in the cancer cells was described in this manuscript. A fluorescence probe DNA, a quencher DNA, and a TS primer were mixed to construct a three-chain DNA structure and a two-chain DNA structure because the amount of the TS primer was less than the other two DNA. In the presence of the telomerase, the quencher DNA was replaced from the probe DNA and the telomerase activity could be determined with the fluorescence enhancement. The telomerase activity in HeLa extracts equivalent to 6-2000 cells was detected by this method. Moreover, the strategy was further proved by using telomerase extracted from Romas cells. With the multiple rounds of isothermal strand displacement and the hydrolysis process, constituted consecutive of signal amplification for the novel detection paradigm that allowed measuring of telomerase activity in crude cancer cell extracts confirmed the reliability and practicality of the protocol, which reveal this platform holds great promise in the biochemical assay for the telomerase activity in early diagnosis for cancers. PMID:27108253

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ngl3p is an active 3′–5′ exonuclease with a specificity towards poly-A RNA reminiscent of cellular deadenylases

    PubMed Central

    Feddersen, Ane; Dedic, Emil; Poulsen, Esben G.; Schmid, Manfred; Van, Lan Bich; Jensen, Torben Heick; Brodersen, Ditlev E.

    2012-01-01

    Deadenylation is the first and rate-limiting step during turnover of mRNAs in eukaryotes. In the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two distinct 3′–5′ exonucleases, Pop2p and Ccr4p, have been identified within the Ccr4-NOT deadenylase complex, belonging to the DEDD and Exonuclease–Endonuclease–Phosphatase (EEP) families, respectively. Ngl3p has been identified as a new member of the EEP family of exonucleases based on sequence homology, but its activity and biological roles are presently unknown. Here, we show using in vitro deadenylation assays on defined RNA species mimicking poly-A containing mRNAs that yeast Ngl3p is a functional 3′–5′ exonuclease most active at slightly acidic conditions. We further show that the enzyme depends on divalent metal ions for activity and possesses specificity towards poly-A RNA similar to what has been observed for cellular deadenylases. The results suggest that Ngl3p is naturally involved in processing of poly-adenylated RNA and provide insights into the mechanistic variations observed among the redundant set of EEP enzymes found in yeast and higher eukaryotes. PMID:21965533

  12. RecG protein and single-strand DNA exonucleases avoid cell lethality associated with PriA helicase activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Christian J; Mahdi, Akeel A; Upton, Amy L; Lloyd, Robert G

    2010-10-01

    Replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome usually initiates at a single origin (oriC) under control of DnaA. Two forks are established and move away in opposite directions. Replication is completed when these meet in a broadly defined terminus area half way around the circular chromosome. RecG appears to consolidate this arrangement by unwinding D-loops and R-loops that PriA might otherwise exploit to initiate replication at other sites. It has been suggested that without RecG such replication generates 3' flaps as the additional forks collide and displace nascent leading strands, providing yet more potential targets for PriA. Here we show that, to stay alive, cells must have either RecG or a 3' single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) exonuclease, which can be exonuclease I, exonuclease VII, or SbcCD. Cells lacking all three nucleases are inviable without RecG. They also need RecA recombinase and a Holliday junction resolvase to survive rapid growth, but SOS induction, although elevated, is not required. Additional requirements for Rep and UvrD are identified and linked with defects in DNA mismatch repair and with the ability to cope with conflicts between replication and transcription, respectively. Eliminating PriA helicase activity removes the requirement for RecG. The data are consistent with RecG and ssDNA exonucleases acting to limit PriA-mediated re-replication of the chromosome and the consequent generation of linear DNA branches that provoke recombination and delay chromosome segregation. PMID:20647503

  13. The retinitis pigmentosa-mutated RP2 protein exhibits exonuclease activity and translocates to the nucleus in response to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Qiu Junzhuan; Cai Sheng; Chen Yuan; Cheetham, Michael E.; Shen Binghui; Pfeifer, Gerd P. . E-mail: gpfeifer@coh.org

    2006-05-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by degeneration of the retina. Mutations in the RP2 gene are linked to the second most frequent form of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. RP2 is a plasma membrane-associated protein of unknown function. The N-terminal domain of RP2 shares amino acid sequence similarity to the tubulin-specific chaperone protein co-factor C. The C-terminus consists of a domain with similarity to nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs). Human NDK1, in addition to its role in providing nucleoside triphosphates, has recently been described as a 3' to 5' exonuclease. Here, we show that RP2 is a DNA-binding protein that exhibits exonuclease activity, with a preference for single-stranded or nicked DNA substrates that occur as intermediates of base excision repair pathways. Furthermore, we show that RP2 undergoes re-localization into the nucleus upon treatment of cells with DNA damaging agents inducing oxidative stress, most notably solar simulated light and UVA radiation. The data suggest that RP2 may have previously unrecognized roles as a DNA damage response factor and 3' to 5' exonuclease.

  14. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities.

    PubMed

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-09-16

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3'-5' exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5'-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities. PMID:25197083

  15. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities

    PubMed Central

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C.; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J.; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3′-5′ exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5′-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities. PMID:25197083

  16. Sensitive and rapid screening of T4 polynucleotide kinase activity and inhibition based on coupled exonuclease reaction and graphene oxide platform.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jinghong

    2011-11-15

    Phosphorylation of DNA with 5'-hydroxyl termini plays a critical role in a majority of normal cellular events, including DNA recombination, DNA replication, and repair of DNA during strand interruption. Determination of nucleotide kinase activity and inhibition is under intense development due to its importance in regulating nucleic acid metabolism. Here, by using T4 polynucleotide kinase (PNK) as a model, which plays an essential role in cellular nucleic acid metabolism, particularly in the cellular responses to DNA damage, we describe a strategy for simply and accurately determining nucleotide kinase activity and inhibition by means of a coupled λ exonuclease cleavage reaction and graphene oxide (GO) based platform. The dye attached dsDNA preserves most of the fluorescence when mixed with GO. While dsDNA is phosphorylated by PNK and then immediately cleaved by λ exonuclease, fluorescence is greatly quenched. Because of the super quenching ability and the high specific surface area of GO, the as-proposed platform presents an excellent performance with wide linear range and low detection limit in the cell extracts environment. Additionally, inhibition effects of adenosine diphosphate, ammonium sulfate, and sodium hydrogen phosphate have also been investigated. The method not only provides a universal platform for monitoring activity and inhibition of nucleotide kinase but also shows great potential in biological process researches, drug discovery, and clinic diagnostics. PMID:22026510

  17. The β2 clamp in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA polymerase III αβ2ε replicase promotes polymerization and reduces exonuclease activity

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shoujin; Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Hongtai; Fleming, Joy; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Shihua; Wei, Wenjing; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Guofeng; Deng, Jiaoyu; Hou, Jian; Zhou, Ying; Lin, Shiqiang; Zhang, Xian-En; Bi, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase III (DNA pol III) is a multi-subunit replication machine responsible for the accurate and rapid replication of bacterial genomes, however, how it functions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires further investigation. We have reconstituted the leading-strand replication process of the Mtb DNA pol III holoenzyme in vitro, and investigated the physical and functional relationships between its key components. We verify the presence of an αβ2ε polymerase-clamp-exonuclease replicase complex by biochemical methods and protein-protein interaction assays in vitro and in vivo and confirm that, in addition to the polymerase activity of its α subunit, Mtb DNA pol III has two potential proofreading subunits; the α and ε subunits. During DNA replication, the presence of the β2 clamp strongly promotes the polymerization of the αβ2ε replicase and reduces its exonuclease activity. Our work provides a foundation for further research on the mechanism by which the replication machinery switches between replication and proofreading and provides an experimental platform for the selection of antimicrobials targeting DNA replication in Mtb. PMID:26822057

  18. Magnetic nanoparticles-cooperated fluorescence sensor for sensitive and accurate detection of DNA methyltransferase activity coupled with exonuclease III-assisted target recycling.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qingwang; Zhang, Youna; Xu, Shuling; Li, Haibo; Wang, Lei; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yuanfu; Yue, Qiaoli; Gu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shuqiu; Liu, Jifeng; Wang, Huaisheng

    2015-11-21

    A fluorescence magnetic biosensor for the DNA methyltransferase activity was developed based on the cooperative amplification by combining the magnetic nanoparticles synergistic exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted circular exponential amplification and a supramolecular structure ZnPPIX/G-quadruplex. First, a duplex DNA probe, which was constructed by the hybridization of a quadruplex-forming oligomer with a molecular beacon, was assembled on the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a reporter. A hairpin probe (HP)-containing sequence of GATC was used as the methylation substrate of DNA adenine methyltransferase (DAM). Once HP was methylated by DAM, it could be recognized and cleaved by Dpn I, which allows the release of a single-stranded DNA. The DNA (tDNA1) then hybridizes to the MNP probe, which then triggers the exonuclease III-mediated target exponential recycling reaction. Simultaneously, numerous quadruplex forming oligomers are liberated and folded into the G-quadruplex-ZnPPIX complexes with the help of zinc(ii)-protoporphyrin IX(ZnPPIX) on the MNP surface to give a remarkable fluorescence response. In the developed sensor, a small amount of target DAM can be converted to a large number of stable DNA triggers, leading to remarkable amplification of the target. Moreover, using MNPs as a vector of the sensor may reduce the interference from the real samples, which increases the anti-interference of the sensing system. Based on this unique amplification strategy, a very low detection limit down to 2.0 × 10(-4) U mL(-1) was obtained. Furthermore, the sensor could be used to evaluate the DAM activity in different growth stages of E. coli cells and screen Dam MTase inhibitors. Therefore, the strategy proposed here provides a promising platform for monitoring the activity and inhibition of DNA MTases and has great potential to be applied further in early clinical diagnostics and medical research. PMID:26421322

  19. The Drosophila Werner exonuclease participates in an exonuclease-independent response to replication stress.

    PubMed

    Bolterstein, Elyse; Rivero, Rachel; Marquez, Melissa; McVey, Mitch

    2014-06-01

    Members of the RecQ family of helicases are known for their roles in DNA repair, replication, and recombination. Mutations in the human RecQ helicases, WRN and BLM, cause Werner and Bloom syndromes, which are diseases characterized by genome instability and an increased risk of cancer. While WRN contains both a helicase and an exonuclease domain, the Drosophila melanogaster homolog, WRNexo, contains only the exonuclease domain. Therefore the Drosophila model system provides a unique opportunity to study the exonuclease functions of WRN separate from the helicase. We created a null allele of WRNexo via imprecise P-element excision. The null WRNexo mutants are not sensitive to double-strand break-inducing reagents, suggesting that the exonuclease does not play a key role in homologous recombination-mediated repair of DSBs. However, WRNexo mutant embryos have a reduced hatching frequency and larvae are sensitive to the replication fork-stalling reagent, hydroxyurea (HU), suggesting that WRNexo is important in responding to replication stress. The role of WRNexo in the HU-induced stress response is independent of Rad51. Interestingly, the hatching defect and HU sensitivity of WRNexo mutants do not occur in flies containing an exonuclease-dead copy of WRNexo, suggesting that the role of WRNexo in replication is independent of exonuclease activity. Additionally, WRNexo and Blm mutants exhibit similar sensitivity to HU and synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in structure-selective endonucleases. We propose that WRNexo and BLM interact to promote fork reversal following replication fork stalling and in their absence regressed forks are restarted through a Rad51-mediated process. PMID:24709634

  20. Kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA polymerases with exonuclease proofreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspard, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Kinetic theory and thermodynamics are applied to DNA polymerases with exonuclease activity, taking into account the dependence of the rates on the previously incorporated nucleotide. The replication fidelity is shown to increase significantly thanks to this dependence at the basis of the mechanism of exonuclease proofreading. In particular, this dependence can provide up to a 100-fold lowering of the error probability under physiological conditions. Theory is compared with numerical simulations for the DNA polymerases of T7 viruses and human mitochondria.

  1. NurA Is Endowed with Endo- and Exonuclease Activities that Are Modulated by HerA: New Insight into Their Role in DNA-End Processing.

    PubMed

    De Falco, Mariarosaria; Catalano, Federico; Rossi, Mosè; Ciaramella, Maria; De Felice, Mariarita

    2015-01-01

    The nuclease NurA and the ATPase HerA are present in all known thermophilic archaea and cooperate with the highly conserved MRE11/RAD50 proteins to facilitate efficient DNA double-strand break end processing during homologous recombinational repair. However, contradictory results have been reported on the exact activities and mutual dependence of these two enzymes. To understand the functional relationship between these two enzymes we deeply characterized Sulfolobus solfataricus NurA and HerA proteins. We found that NurA is endowed with exo- and endonuclease activities on various DNA substrates, including linear (single-stranded and double stranded) as well as circular molecules (single stranded and supercoiled double-stranded). All these activities are not strictly dependent on the presence of HerA, require divalent ions (preferably Mn2+), and are inhibited by the presence of ATP. The endo- and exonculease activities have distinct requirements: whereas the exonuclease activity on linear DNA fragments is stimulated by HerA and depends on the catalytic D58 residue, the endonuclease activity on circular double-stranded DNA is HerA-independent and is not affected by the D58A mutation. On the basis of our results we propose a mechanism of action of NurA/HerA complex during DNA end processing. PMID:26560692

  2. NurA Is Endowed with Endo- and Exonuclease Activities that Are Modulated by HerA: New Insight into Their Role in DNA-End Processing

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Mariarosaria; Catalano, Federico; Rossi, Mosè; Ciaramella, Maria; De Felice, Mariarita

    2015-01-01

    The nuclease NurA and the ATPase HerA are present in all known thermophilic archaea and cooperate with the highly conserved MRE11/RAD50 proteins to facilitate efficient DNA double-strand break end processing during homologous recombinational repair. However, contradictory results have been reported on the exact activities and mutual dependence of these two enzymes. To understand the functional relationship between these two enzymes we deeply characterized Sulfolobus solfataricus NurA and HerA proteins. We found that NurA is endowed with exo- and endonuclease activities on various DNA substrates, including linear (single-stranded and double stranded) as well as circular molecules (single stranded and supercoiled double-stranded). All these activities are not strictly dependent on the presence of HerA, require divalent ions (preferably Mn2+), and are inhibited by the presence of ATP. The endo- and exonculease activities have distinct requirements: whereas the exonuclease activity on linear DNA fragments is stimulated by HerA and depends on the catalytic D58 residue, the endonuclease activity on circular double-stranded DNA is HerA-independent and is not affected by the D58A mutation. On the basis of our results we propose a mechanism of action of NurA/HerA complex during DNA end processing. PMID:26560692

  3. Escherichia coli mutants deficient in exonuclease VII.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, J W; Richardson, C C

    1977-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli having reduced levels of exonuclease VII activity have been isolated by a mass screening procedure. Nine mutants, five of which are known to be of independent origin, were obtained and designated xse. The defects in these strains lie at two or more loci. One of these loci, xseA, lies in the interval between purG and purC; it is 93 to 97% co-transducible with guaA. The order of the genes in this region is purG-xseA guaA,B-purC. The available data do not allow xseA to be ordered with respect to guaA,B. Exonuclease VII purified from E. coli KLC3 xseA3 is more heat labile than exonuclease VII purified from the parent, E. coli PA610 xse+. Therefore, xseA is the structural gene for exonuclease VII. Mutants with defects in the xseA gene show increased sensitivity to nalidixic acid and have an abnormally high frequency of recombination (hyper-Rec phenotype) as measured by the procedure of Konrad and Lehlman (1974). The hyper-Rec character of xseA strains is approximately one-half that of the polAex1 mutant defective in the 5' leads to 3' hydrolytic activity of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase I. The double mutant, polAex1 xseA7, is twice as hyper-Rec as the polAex1 mutant alone. The xseA- strains are slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation than the parent strain. Bacteriophages T7, fd, and lambdared grow normally in xseA- strains. Images PMID:320198

  4. Resident Research and Scholarly Activity in Internal Medicine Residency Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Rachel B; Hebert, Randy S; Wright, Scott M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES 1) To describe how internal medicine residency programs fulfill the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) scholarly activity training requirement including the current context of resident scholarly work, and 2) to compare findings between university and nonuniversity programs. DESIGN Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING ACGME-accredited internal medicine residency programs. PARTICIPANTS Internal medicine residency program directors. MEASUREMENTS Data were collected on 1) interpretation of the scholarly activity requirement, 2) support for resident scholarship, 3) scholarly activities of residents, 4) attitudes toward resident research, and 5) program characteristics. University and nonuniversity programs were compared. MAIN RESULTS The response rate was 78%. Most residents completed a topic review with presentation (median, 100%) to fulfill the requirement. Residents at nonuniversity programs were more likely to complete case reports (median, 40% vs 25%; P =.04) and present at local or regional meetings (median, 25% vs 20%; P =.01), and were just as likely to conduct hypothesis-driven research (median, 20% vs 20%; P =.75) and present nationally (median, 10% vs 5%; P =.10) as residents at university programs. Nonuniversity programs were more likely to report lack of faculty mentors (61% vs 31%; P <.001) and resident interest (55% vs 40%; P =.01) as major barriers to resident scholarship. Programs support resident scholarship through research curricula (47%), funding (46%), and protected time (32%). CONCLUSIONS Internal medicine residents complete a variety of projects to fulfill the scholarly activity requirement. Nonuniversity programs are doing as much as university programs in meeting the requirement and supporting resident scholarship despite reporting significant barriers. PMID:15836549

  5. MutS and UvrD proteins stimulate exonuclease action: insights into exonuclease-mediated strand repair.

    PubMed

    Noothi, Sunil K; Minda, Renu; Rao, Basuthkar J

    2009-08-25

    MutS and UvrD proteins individually stimulate Escherichia coli exonuclease VII activity on blunt-ended short duplex DNA substrates. Stimulation by both proteins is ATP-dependent but not mismatch-specific and is not accompanied by apparent strand separation. Under similar conditions, MutS and UvrD proteins in fact confer resistance to exonuclease VII action on ssDNA targets, thereby implying that a novel state of a double-stranded DNA intermediate, which we term a "destabilized duplex", is involved in exonuclease-mediated strand degradation. We find that DNA strands in such a destabilized duplex can be displaced by the challenge of a molar excess of homologous single- and double-stranded DNA targets, in trans. Such an action of the UvrD protein is ATP-dependent. We discuss these results in relation to the (i) directional excision repair of E. coli MMR, (ii) downregulation of repeat deletions by exonucleases during replication slippage, and (iii) the fork reversal function of UvrD at stalled replication forks. PMID:19618961

  6. A Fluorescence-based Exonuclease Assay to Characterize DmWRNexo, Orthologue of Human Progeroid WRN Exonuclease, and Its Application to Other Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Penelope A.; Boubriak, Ivan; Cox, Lynne S.

    2013-01-01

    WRN exonuclease is involved in resolving DNA damage that occurs either during DNA replication or following exposure to endogenous or exogenous genotoxins. It is likely to play a role in preventing accumulation of recombinogenic intermediates that would otherwise accumulate at transiently stalled replication forks, consistent with a hyper-recombinant phenotype of cells lacking WRN. In humans, the exonuclease domain comprises an N-terminal portion of a much larger protein that also possesses helicase activity, together with additional sites important for DNA and protein interaction. By contrast, in Drosophila, the exonuclease activity of WRN (DmWRNexo) is encoded by a distinct genetic locus from the presumptive helicase, allowing biochemical (and genetic) dissection of the role of the exonuclease activity in genome stability mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate a fluorescent method to determine WRN exonuclease activity using purified recombinant DmWRNexo and end-labeled fluorescent oligonucleotides. This system allows greater reproducibility than radioactive assays as the substrate oligonucleotides remain stable for months, and provides a safer and relatively rapid method for detailed analysis of nuclease activity, permitting determination of nuclease polarity, processivity, and substrate preferences. PMID:24378758

  7. Motivators for Physical Activity among Ambulatory Nursing Home Older Residents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuh-Min; Li, Yueh-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore self-identified motivators for regular physical activity among ambulatory nursing home older residents. A qualitative exploratory design was adopted. Purposive sampling was performed to recruit 18 older residents from two nursing homes in Taiwan. The interview transcripts were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Five motivators of physical activity emerged from the result of analysis: eagerness for returning home, fear of becoming totally dependent, improving mood state, filling empty time, and previously cultivated habit. Research on physical activity from the perspectives of nursing home older residents has been limited. An empirically grounded understanding from this study could provide clues for promoting and supporting lifelong engagement in physical activity among older residents. The motivators reported in this study should be considered when designing physical activity programs. These motivators can be used to encourage, guide, and provide feedback to support older residents in maintaining physical activity. PMID:25054175

  8. Activity Engagement: Perspectives from Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Sunghee H.; Kedia, Satish; Tongumpun, Tera Marie; Hong, Song Hee

    2014-01-01

    Engagement in social and leisure activities is an indicator of quality of life and well-being in nursing homes. There are few studies in which nursing home residents with dementia self-reported their experiences in activity engagement. This qualitative study describes types of current activity involvement and barriers to activities as perceived by nursing home residents with dementia. Thirty-one residents participated in short, open-ended interviews and six in in-depth interviews. Thematic content analysis showed that participants primarily depended on activities organized by their nursing homes. Few participants engaged in self-directed activities such as walking, visiting other residents and family members, and attending in church services. Many residents felt they had limited opportunities and motivation for activities. They missed past hobbies greatly but could not continue them due to lack of accommodation and limitation in physical function. Environmental factors, along with fixed activity schedule, further prevented them from engaging in activities. Residents with dementia should be invited to participate in activity planning and have necessary assistance and accommodation in order to engage in activities that matter to them. Based on the findings, a checklist for individualizing and evaluating activities for persons with dementia is detailed. PMID:25489122

  9. Burnout and Physical Activity in Minnesota Internal Medicine Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Shawn M.; Odo, Nnaemeka U.; Duran, Alisa M.; Pereira, Anne G.; Mandel, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity plays an important role in the amelioration of several mental health disorders; however, its relationship with burnout has not yet been clarified. Objective To determine the association between achievement of national physical activity guidelines and burnout in internal medicine resident physicians. Methods A Web-based survey of internal medicine resident physicians at the University of Minnesota and Hennepin County Medical Center was conducted from September to October 2012. Survey measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Of 149 eligible residents, 76 (51.0%) completed surveys, which were used in the analysis. Burnout prevalence, determined by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, was 53.9% (41 of 76). Prevalence of failure to achieve US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines was 40.8% (31 of 76), and 78.9% (60 of 76) of residents reported that their level of physical activity has decreased since they began medical training. Residents who were able to meet physical activity guidelines were less likely to be burned out than their fellow residents (OR, 0.38, 95% CI 0.147–0.99). Conclusions Among internal medicine resident physicians, achievement of national physical activity guidelines appears to be inversely associated with burnout. Given the high national prevalence of burnout and inactivity, additional investigation of this relationship appears warranted. PMID:26140116

  10. Lambda Exonuclease Digestion of CGG Trinucleotide Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, R.S.; Koretsky, A.P.; Moreland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome and other triplet repeat diseases are characterized by an elongation of a repeating DNA triplet. The ensemble-averaged lambda exonuclease digestion rate of different substrates, including one with an elongated FMR1 gene containing 120 CGG repeats, was measured using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using magnetic tweezers sequence-dependent digestion rates and pausing was measured for individual lambda exonucleases. Within the triplet repeats a lower average and narrower distribution of rates and a higher frequency of pausing was observed. PMID:19562332

  11. ExoMeg1: a new exonuclease from metagenomic library.

    PubMed

    Silva-Portela, Rita C B; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Pereira, Carolina P M; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Modesti, Mauro; Fuchs, Robert P; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms are responsible for maintaining the integrity of DNA and are essential to life. However, our knowledge of DNA repair mechanisms is based on model organisms such as Escherichia coli, and little is known about free living and uncultured microorganisms. In this study, a functional screening was applied in a metagenomic library with the goal of discovering new genes involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. One clone was identified and the sequence analysis showed an open reading frame homolog to a hypothetical protein annotated as a member of the Exo_Endo_Phos superfamily. This novel enzyme shows 3'-5' exonuclease activity on single and double strand DNA substrates and it is divalent metal-dependent, EDTA-sensitive and salt resistant. The clone carrying the hypothetical ORF was able to complement strains deficient in recombination or base excision repair, suggesting that the new enzyme may be acting on the repair of single strand breaks with 3' blockers, which are substrates for these repair pathways. Because this is the first report of an enzyme obtained from a metagenomic approach showing exonuclease activity, it was named ExoMeg1. The metagenomic approach has proved to be a useful tool for identifying new genes of uncultured microorganisms. PMID:26815639

  12. ExoMeg1: a new exonuclease from metagenomic library

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Portela, Rita C. B.; Carvalho, Fabíola M.; Pereira, Carolina P. M.; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C.; Modesti, Mauro; Fuchs, Robert P.; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F.

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms are responsible for maintaining the integrity of DNA and are essential to life. However, our knowledge of DNA repair mechanisms is based on model organisms such as Escherichia coli, and little is known about free living and uncultured microorganisms. In this study, a functional screening was applied in a metagenomic library with the goal of discovering new genes involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. One clone was identified and the sequence analysis showed an open reading frame homolog to a hypothetical protein annotated as a member of the Exo_Endo_Phos superfamily. This novel enzyme shows 3′-5′ exonuclease activity on single and double strand DNA substrates and it is divalent metal-dependent, EDTA-sensitive and salt resistant. The clone carrying the hypothetical ORF was able to complement strains deficient in recombination or base excision repair, suggesting that the new enzyme may be acting on the repair of single strand breaks with 3′ blockers, which are substrates for these repair pathways. Because this is the first report of an enzyme obtained from a metagenomic approach showing exonuclease activity, it was named ExoMeg1. The metagenomic approach has proved to be a useful tool for identifying new genes of uncultured microorganisms. PMID:26815639

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1 DNA polymerase is an A-family DNA polymerase demonstrating ssDNA and dsDNA 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Binyan; Gu, Shiling; Liang, Nengsong; Xiong, Mei; Xue, Qizhen; Lu, Shuguang; Hu, Fuquan; Zhang, Huidong

    2016-08-01

    Most phages contain DNA polymerases, which are essential for DNA replication and propagation in infected host bacteria. However, our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases remains limited. This study investigated the function of a novel DNA polymerase of PaP1, which is the lytic phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PaP1 encodes its sole DNA polymerase called Gp90 that was predicted as an A-family DNA polymerase with polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. The sequence of Gp90 is homologous but not identical to that of other A-family DNA polymerases, such as T7 DNA polymerases (Pol) and DNA Pol I. The purified Gp90 demonstrated a polymerase activity. The processivity of Gp90 in DNA replication and its efficiency in single-dNTP incorporation are similar to those of T7 Pol with processive thioredoxin (T7 Pol/trx). Gp90 can degrade ssDNA and dsDNA in 3'-5' direction at a similar rate, which is considerably lower than that of T7 Pol/trx. The optimized conditions for polymerization were a temperature of 37 °C and a buffer consisting of 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 30 mM MgCl2, and 200 mM NaCl. These studies on DNA polymerase encoded by PaP1 help advance our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases and elucidate PaP1 propagation in infected P. aeruginosa. PMID:27052734

  14. Accuracy of Deoxynucleotide Incorporation by Soybean Chloroplast DNA Polymerases Is Independent of the Presence of a 3[prime] to 5[prime] Exonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, J. C.; Heinhorst, S.; Cannon, G. C.

    1995-01-01

    DNA polymerase was purified from soybean (Glycine max) chloroplasts that were actively replicating DNA. The main form (form I) of the enzyme was associated with a low level of 3[prime] to 5[prime] exonuclease activity throughout purification, although the ratio of exonuclease to polymerase activity decreased with each successive purification step. A second form (form II) of DNA polymerase, which elutes from DEAE-cellulose at a higher salt concentration than form I, was devoid of any exonuclease activity. To assess the potential function of the 3[prime] to 5[prime] exonuclease in proofreading, the fidelity of deoxynucleotide incorporation was measured for form I DNA polymerase throughout purification. Despite the steadily decreasing ratio of 3[prime] to 5[prime] exonuclease to polymerase activity, the extent of misincorporation by form I enzyme remained unchanged during the final purification steps, suggesting that the exonuclease did not contribute to the accuracy of DNA synthesis by this polymerase. Fidelity of form I DNA polymerase, when compared with that of form II, revealed a higher level of misincorporation for form I enzyme, a finding that is consistent with the exonuclease playing little or no role in exonucleolytic proofreading. PMID:12228434

  15. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  16. DNA secondary structure of the released strand stimulates WRN helicase action on forked duplexes without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Byungchan; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} In this study, we investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities. {yields} We found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. {yields} These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently. -- Abstract: Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive premature aging disorder characterized by aging-related phenotypes and genomic instability. WS is caused by mutations in a gene encoding a nuclear protein, Werner syndrome protein (WRN), a member of the RecQ helicase family, that interestingly possesses both helicase and exonuclease activities. Previous studies have shown that the two activities act in concert on a single substrate. We investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities and found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently, and we propose that the uncoordinated action may be relevant to the in vivo activity of WRN.

  17. Structure-specific DNA binding by bacteriophage T5 5'-->3' exonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Garforth, S J; Sayers, J R

    1997-01-01

    Phage T5 exonuclease is a 5'-->3'exodeoxyribonuclease that also exhibits endonucleolytic activity on flap structures (branched duplex DNA containing a free single-stranded 5'-end). Oligonucleotides were used to construct duplexes with either blunt ends, 5'-overhangs, 3'-overhangs, a flap or a forked end (pseudo-Y). The binding of T5 exonuclease to various structures was investigated using native electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) in the absence of the essential divalent metal cofactor. Binding of T5 exonuclease to either blunt-ended duplexes or single-stranded oligonucleotides could not be detected by EMSA. However, duplexes with 5'-overhangs, flaps and pseudo-Y structures showed decreased mobility with added T5 exonuclease. On binding to DNA the wild-type enzyme was rendered partially resistant to proteolysis, yielding a biologically active 31.5 kDa fragment. However, the protein-DNA complex remained susceptible to inactivation by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (PHMB, a cysteine-specific modifying agent), suggesting that neither cysteine is intimately associated with substrate binding. Replacement of both cysteine residues of the molecule with serine did not greatly alter the catalytic or binding characteristics of the protein but did render it highly resistant to inhibition by PHMB. PMID:9380501

  18. The WRN exonuclease domain protects nascent strands from pathological MRE11/EXO1-dependent degradation.

    PubMed

    Iannascoli, Chiara; Palermo, Valentina; Murfuni, Ivana; Franchitto, Annapaola; Pichierri, Pietro

    2015-11-16

    The WRN helicase/exonuclease protein is required for proper replication fork recovery and maintenance of genome stability. However, whether the different catalytic activities of WRN cooperate to recover replication forks in vivo is unknown. Here, we show that, in response to replication perturbation induced by low doses of the TOP1 inhibitor camptothecin, loss of the WRN exonuclease resulted in enhanced degradation and ssDNA formation at nascent strands by the combined action of MRE11 and EXO1, as opposed to the limited processing of nascent strands performed by DNA2 in wild-type cells. Nascent strand degradation by MRE11/EXO1 took place downstream of RAD51 and affected the ability to resume replication, which correlated with slow replication rates in WRN exonuclease-deficient cells. In contrast, loss of the WRN helicase reduced exonucleolytic processing at nascent strands and led to severe genome instability. Our findings identify a novel role of the WRN exonuclease at perturbed forks, thus providing the first in vivo evidence for a distinct action of the two WRN enzymatic activities upon fork stalling and providing insights into the pathological mechanisms underlying the processing of perturbed forks. PMID:26275776

  19. Prescribing Activities that Engage Passive Residents. An Innovative Method

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, Ann; Buettner, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dementia are often passive, which places them at risk for further cognitive and functional decline. Recreational activities have been used in research to reduce passive behaviors, but systematic reviews of these studies have found modest effect sizes for many activities. In this article, we describe the further theoretical development of an innovative method for prescribing activities that have a high likelihood of engaging nursing home residents who are passive and present examples for research application and clinical practice. This method may increase the effect size of activity interventions and encourage more widespread adoption of nonpharmacological interventions in practice. PMID:18274300

  20. An essential yeast gene with homology to the exonuclease-encoding XRN1/KEM1 gene also encodes a protein with exoribonuclease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kenna, M.; Douglas, M.G. ); Stevens, A. ); McCammon, M. )

    1993-01-01

    This is a study of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant from Saccharomyces cerevisiae which was obtained in a screen for mutants reduced in the synthesis of binding of a hybrid protein which competes for the transport of protein precursors into mitochondria. Examination of this mutant lead to the characterization of a gene with significant primary sequence homology to a previously identified gene, XRN1 or KEM1. Often called XRN1/KEM1, it encodes a protein of 175kDa which appears to have a multitude of properties, including involvement in recombination, RNA processing and turnover, involvement in recombination, RNA processing and turnover, microtubule function, karyogamy and DNA replication. The related gene describes further characterization of the HKE1/RAT1 gene and an hkal mutant and shows that p116 is a protein having 5[prime]-->3[prime] exoribonuclease activity, a major activity of the product of the related XRN1/KEM1 gene.

  1. Dominant Mutations in S. cerevisiae PMS1 Identify the Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease Active Site and an Exonuclease 1-Independent Mismatch Repair Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine E.; Mendillo, Marc L.; Bowen, Nikki; Hombauer, Hans; Campbell, Christopher S.; Desai, Arshad; Putnam, Christopher D.; Kolodner, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer or HNPCC) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. Predisposition to cancer in this syndrome results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR) caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2/scPMS1. To better understand the function of Mlh1-Pms1 in MMR, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify six pms1 mutations (pms1-G683E, pms1-C817R, pms1-C848S, pms1-H850R, pms1-H703A and pms1-E707A) that were weakly dominant in wild-type cells, which surprisingly caused a strong MMR defect when present on low copy plasmids in an exo1Δ mutant. Molecular modeling showed these mutations caused amino acid substitutions in the metal coordination pocket of the Pms1 endonuclease active site and biochemical studies showed that they inactivated the endonuclease activity. This model of Mlh1-Pms1 suggested that the Mlh1-FERC motif contributes to the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this, the mlh1-E767stp mutation caused both MMR and endonuclease defects similar to those caused by the dominant pms1 mutations whereas mutations affecting the predicted metal coordinating residue Mlh1-C769 had no effect. These studies establish that the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease is required for MMR in a previously uncharacterized Exo1-independent MMR pathway. PMID:24204293

  2. Purification and characterization of DNase VII, a 3'. -->. 5'-directed exonuclease from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, G.F.; Grossman, L.

    1981-01-01

    An exonuclease, DNase VII, has been purified 6000-fold from human placenta. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000, requires Mg/sup 2 +/ for activity, and has a pH optimum of 7.8. The enzyme hydrolyzes single-stranded and nicked duplex DNA at the same rate proceeding in a 3' ..-->.. 5' direction liberating 5'-mononucleotides. It does not measurably hydrolyze polyribonucleotides.

  3. 75 FR 62186 - Proposed Information Collection (Residency Verification Report-Veterans and Survivors) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Residency Verification Report-- Veterans and Survivors) Activity... proper performance of VBA's functions, including whether the information will have practical utility; (2... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Residency Verification...

  4. Understanding the challenges to facilitating active learning in the resident conferences: a qualitative study of internal medicine faculty and resident perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sawatsky, Adam P.; Zickmund, Susan L.; Berlacher, Kathryn; Lesky, Dan; Granieri, Rosanne

    2015-01-01

    Background In the Next Accreditation System, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlines milestones for medical knowledge and requires regular didactic sessions in residency training. There are many challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, and we need to better understand resident learning preferences and faculty perspectives on facilitating active learning. The goal of this study was to identify challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, both through identifying specific implementation barriers and identifying differences in perspective between faculty and residents on effective teaching and learning strategies. Methods The investigators invited core residency faculty to participate in focus groups. The investigators used a semistructured guide to facilitate discussion about learning preferences and teaching perspectives in the conference setting and used an ‘editing approach’ within a grounded theory framework to qualitative analysis to code the transcripts and analyze the results. Data were compared to previously collected data from seven resident focus groups. Results Three focus groups with 20 core faculty were conducted. We identified three domains pertaining to facilitating active learning in resident conferences: barriers to facilitating active learning formats, similarities and differences in faculty and resident learning preferences, and divergence between faculty and resident opinions about effective teaching strategies. Faculty identified several setting, faculty, and resident barriers to facilitating active learning in resident conferences. When compared to residents, faculty expressed similar learning preferences; the main differences were in motivations for conference attendance and type of content. Resident preferences and faculty perspectives differed on the amount of information appropriate for lecture and the role of active participation in resident conferences

  5. DmGEN, a novel RAD2 family endo-exonuclease from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Gen; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Takata, Kei-ichi; Takeuchi, Ryo; Shimanouchi, Kaori; Ruike, Tatsushi; Furukawa, Tomoyuki; Kimura, Seisuke; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2004-01-01

    A novel endo-exonuclease, DmGEN (Drosophila Melanogaster XPG-like endonuclease), was identified in D.melanogaster. DmGEN is composed of five exons and four introns, and the open reading frame encodes a predicted product of 726 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 82.5 kDa and a pI of 5.36. The gene locus on Drosophila polytene chromosomes was detected at 64C9 on the left arm of chromosome 3 as a single site. The encoded protein showed a relatively high degree of sequence homology with the RAD2 nucleases, especially XPG. Although the XPG-N- and XPG-I-domains are highly conserved in sequence, locations of the domains are similar to those of FEN-1 and EXO-1, and the molecular weight of the protein is close to that of EXO-1. In vitro, DmGEN showed endonuclease and 3'-5' exonuclease activities with both single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), but the endonuclease action with dsDNA was quite specific: 5'-3' exonuclease activity was found to occur with nicked DNA, while dsDNA was endonucleolytically cut at 3-4 bp from the 5' end. Homologs are widely found in mammals and higher plants. The data suggest that DmGEN belongs to a new class of RAD2 nuclease. PMID:15576351

  6. The exonuclease Nibbler regulates age-associated traits and modulates piRNA length in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Feltzin, Virzhiniya L; Khaladkar, Mugdha; Abe, Masashi; Parisi, Michael; Hendriks, Gert-Jan; Kim, Junhyong; Bonini, Nancy M

    2015-01-01

    Nibbler (Nbr) is a 3′-to-5′ exonuclease that trims the 3′end of microRNAs (miRNAs) to generate different length patterns of miRNAs in Drosophila. Despite its effect on miRNAs, we lack knowledge of its biological significance and whether Nbr affects other classes of small RNAs such as piRNAs and endo-siRNAs. Here, we characterized the in vivo function of nbr by defining the Nbr protein expression pattern and loss-of-function effects. Nbr protein is enriched in the ovary and head. Analysis of nbr null animals reveals adult-stage defects that progress with age, including held-up wings, decreased locomotion, and brain vacuoles, indicative of accelerated age-associated processes upon nbr loss. Importantly, these effects depend on catalytic residues in the Nbr exonuclease domain, indicating that the catalytic activity is responsible for these effects. Given the impact of nbr on miRNAs, we also analyzed the effect of nbr on piRNA and endo-siRNA lengths by deep-sequence analysis of libraries from ovaries. As with miRNAs, nbr mutation led to longer length piRNAs – an effect that was dependent on the catalytic residues of the exonuclease domain. These analyses indicate a role of nbr on age-associated processes and to modulate length of multiple classes of small RNAs including miRNAs and piRNAs in Drosophila. PMID:25754031

  7. The exonuclease Nibbler regulates age-associated traits and modulates piRNA length in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Feltzin, Virzhiniya L; Khaladkar, Mugdha; Abe, Masashi; Parisi, Michael; Hendriks, Gert-Jan; Kim, Junhyong; Bonini, Nancy M

    2015-06-01

    Nibbler (Nbr) is a 3'-to-5' exonuclease that trims the 3'end of microRNAs (miRNAs) to generate different length patterns of miRNAs in Drosophila. Despite its effect on miRNAs, we lack knowledge of its biological significance and whether Nbr affects other classes of small RNAs such as piRNAs and endo-siRNAs. Here, we characterized the in vivo function of nbr by defining the Nbr protein expression pattern and loss-of-function effects. Nbr protein is enriched in the ovary and head. Analysis of nbr null animals reveals adult-stage defects that progress with age, including held-up wings, decreased locomotion, and brain vacuoles, indicative of accelerated age-associated processes upon nbr loss. Importantly, these effects depend on catalytic residues in the Nbr exonuclease domain, indicating that the catalytic activity is responsible for these effects. Given the impact of nbr on miRNAs, we also analyzed the effect of nbr on piRNA and endo-siRNA lengths by deep-sequence analysis of libraries from ovaries. As with miRNAs, nbr mutation led to longer length piRNAs - an effect that was dependent on the catalytic residues of the exonuclease domain. These analyses indicate a role of nbr on age-associated processes and to modulate length of multiple classes of small RNAs including miRNAs and piRNAs in Drosophila. PMID:25754031

  8. Biomarker monitoring of a population residing near uranium mining activities.

    PubMed Central

    Au, W W; Lane, R G; Legator, M S; Whorton, E B; Wilkinson, G S; Gabehart, G J

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether residents residing near uranium mining operations (target population), who are potentially exposed to toxicants from mining waste, have increased genotoxic effects compared with people residing elsewhere (reference population). Population surveys were conducted, and 24 target and 24 reference residents were selected. The selected subjects and controls were matched on age and gender and they were nonsmokers. Blood samples were collected for laboratory studies. The standard cytogenetic assay was used to determine chromosome aberration frequencies, and the challenge assay was used to investigate DNA repair responses. We found that individuals who resided near uranium mining operations had a higher mean frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and higher deletion frequency but lower dicentric frequency than the reference group, although the difference was not statistically significant. After cells were challenged by exposure to gamma-rays, the target population had a significantly higher frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and deletion frequency than the reference group. The latter observation is indicative of abnormal DNA repair response in the target population. PMID:7656876

  9. 5 CFR 733.103 - Permitted political activities-employees who reside in designated localities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permitted political activities-employees... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.103 Permitted political activities—employees who reside...

  10. 5 CFR 733.104 - Prohibited political activities-employees who reside in designated localities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibited political activities-employees... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.104 Prohibited political activities—employees who reside...

  11. 5 CFR 733.104 - Prohibited political activities-employees who reside in designated localities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited political activities-employees... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.104 Prohibited political activities—employees who reside...

  12. 5 CFR 733.104 - Prohibited political activities-employees who reside in designated localities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibited political activities-employees... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.104 Prohibited political activities—employees who reside...

  13. 5 CFR 733.103 - Permitted political activities-employees who reside in designated localities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permitted political activities-employees... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.103 Permitted political activities—employees who reside...

  14. 5 CFR 733.104 - Prohibited political activities-employees who reside in designated localities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibited political activities-employees... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.104 Prohibited political activities—employees who reside...

  15. 5 CFR 733.103 - Permitted political activities-employees who reside in designated localities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permitted political activities-employees... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.103 Permitted political activities—employees who reside...

  16. 5 CFR 733.103 - Permitted political activities-employees who reside in designated localities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permitted political activities-employees... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.103 Permitted political activities—employees who reside...

  17. 5 CFR 733.103 - Permitted political activities-employees who reside in designated localities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permitted political activities-employees... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.103 Permitted political activities—employees who reside...

  18. 5 CFR 733.104 - Prohibited political activities-employees who reside in designated localities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited political activities-employees... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.104 Prohibited political activities—employees who reside...

  19. The Impact of Library Resources and Services on the Scholarly Activity of Medical Faculty and Residents.

    PubMed

    Quesenberry, Alexandria C; Oelschlegel, Sandy; Earl, Martha; Leonard, Kelsey; Vaughn, Cynthia J

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at an academic medical center library gathered data to determine if library services and resources impacted scholarly activity. A survey was developed and sent out to faculty and residents asking how they used the library during scholarly activity. Sixty-five faculty members and residents responded to the survey. The majority of respondents involved with scholarly activity use the library's services and resources. PubMed is the most frequently used database. The positive results show the library impacts the scholarly activity of medical faculty and residents. PMID:27391176

  20. Competency-based medical education and scholarship: Creating an active academic culture during residency.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, James A; Hategan, Ana; Azzam, Amin

    2015-10-01

    The competency-based medical education movement has been adopted in several medical education systems across the world. This has the potential to result in a more active involvement of residents in the educational process, inasmuch as scholarship is regarded as a major area of competency. Substantial scholarly activities are well within the reach of motivated residents, especially when faculty members provide sufficient mentoring. These academically empowered residents have the advantage of early experience in the areas of scholarly discovery, integration, application, and teaching. Herein, the authors review the importance of instituting the germinal stages of scholarly productivity in the creation of an active scholarly culture during residency. Clear and consistent institutional and departmental strategies to promote scholarly development during residency are highly encouraged. PMID:26449362

  1. Effects of social activation and physical mobilization on sleep in nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Kuck, Joachim; Pantke, Michaela; Flick, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in sleep physiology, frequent occurrence of health impairments, and a sedentary lifestyle make nursing home residents particularly vulnerable to sleep disturbances. Despite the high prevalence of sleep disturbances in nursing homes, there is a lack of research concerning the use of non-pharmacological approaches for improving residents' sleep. This study aimed to promote residents' sleep by improving their social activation and physical mobilization. An experimental group of residents attending an activation program four times a week during an eight-week study course was compared to a non-treated control group in a cluster-randomized intervention trial among 85 residents of 20 nursing homes. Sleep was assessed by the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), nurses' ratings of residents' sleep disturbances and actigraphy-based sleep parameters. Although no changes in actigraphy-based sleep parameters were observed, the subjective sleep quality ratings of the intervention participants significantly improved compared to the control group members (p = 0.004). This study suggests that physical mobilization and social activation may improve residents' subjective sleep quality. Further efforts to improve residents' sleep by increasing their physical and social activity should consider existing obstacles to encourage participation and adherence to the program. PMID:25270432

  2. 78 FR 66825 - Political Activity-Federal Employees Residing in Designated Localities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... proposed rule at 78 FR 20497 to add the District of Columbia to the regulatory list of designated... RIN 3206-AM80 Political Activity--Federal Employees Residing in Designated Localities AGENCY: Office... Federal employees residing in the District of Columbia a partial exemption from the political...

  3. Evaluating the Workload of On-Call Psychiatry Residents: Which Activities Are Associated with Sleep Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…

  4. WRN Exonuclease Structure, Molecular Mechanism, and DNA EndProcessing Role

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Yannone, Steven M.; Holden, Lauren G.; Hitomi, Chiharu; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Han, Seungil; Cooper, PriscillaK.; Chen, David J.; Tainer, John A.

    2006-02-15

    WRN is unique among the five human RecQ DNA helicases by having a functional exonuclease domain (WRN-exo) and being defective in the premature aging and cancer-related disorder Werner syndrome. Here, we characterize WRN-exo crystal structures, biochemical activity and participation in DNA end-joining. Metal ion complex structures, active site mutations and activity assays reveal a two-metal-ion mediated nuclease mechanism. The DNA end-binding Ku70/80 complex specifically stimulates WRN-exo activity, and structure-based mutational inactivation of WRN-exo alters DNA end-joining in human cells. We furthermore establish structural and biochemical similarities of WRN-exo to DnaQ family replicative proofreading exonucleases, with WRN-specific adaptations consistent with dsDNA specificity and functionally important conformational changes. These results indicate WRN-exo is a human DnaQ family member and support analogous proof-reading activities that are stimulated by Ku70/80 with implications for WRN functions in age related pathologies and maintenance of genomic integrity.

  5. Mapping the Escherichia coli transcription elongation complex with exonuclease III

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaokun; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Summary RNA polymerase interactions with the nucleic acids control every step of the transcription cycle. These contacts mediate RNA polymerase recruitment to promoters; induce pausing during RNA chain synthesis, and control transcription termination. These interactions are dissected using footprinting assays, in which a bound protein protects nucleic acids from the digestion by nucleases or modification by chemical probes. Exonuclease III is frequently employed to study protein-DNA interactions owing to relatively simple procedures and low background. Exonuclease III has been used to determine RNA polymerase position in transcription initiation and elongation complexes and to infer the translocation register of the enzyme. In this chapter, we describe probing the location and the conformation of transcription elongation complexes formed by walking of the RNA polymerase along an immobilized template. PMID:25665555

  6. Yeast exonuclease 5 is essential for mitochondrial genome maintenance.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Peter M; Stith, Carrie M; Yoder, Bonita L; Sparks, Justin L

    2010-03-01

    Yeast exonuclease 5 is encoded by the YBR163w (DEM1) gene, and this gene has been renamed EXO5. It is distantly related to the Escherichia coli RecB exonuclease class. Exo5 is localized to the mitochondria, and EXO5 deletions or nuclease-defective EXO5 mutants invariably yield petites, amplifying either the ori3 or ori5 region of the mitochondrial genome. These petites remain unstable and undergo continuous rearrangement. The mitochondrial phenotype of exo5Delta strains suggests an essential role for the enzyme in DNA replication and recombination. No nuclear phenotype associated with EXO5 deletions has been detected. Exo5 is a monomeric 5' exonuclease that releases dinucleotides as products. It is specific for single-stranded DNA and does not hydrolyze RNA. However, Exo5 has the capacity to slide across 5' double-stranded DNA or 5' RNA sequences and resumes cutting two nucleotides downstream of the double-stranded-to-single-stranded junction or RNA-to-DNA junction, respectively. PMID:20086101

  7. Yeast Exonuclease 5 Is Essential for Mitochondrial Genome Maintenance▿

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Peter M.; Stith, Carrie M.; Yoder, Bonita L.; Sparks, Justin L.

    2010-01-01

    Yeast exonuclease 5 is encoded by the YBR163w (DEM1) gene, and this gene has been renamed EXO5. It is distantly related to the Escherichia coli RecB exonuclease class. Exo5 is localized to the mitochondria, and EXO5 deletions or nuclease-defective EXO5 mutants invariably yield petites, amplifying either the ori3 or ori5 region of the mitochondrial genome. These petites remain unstable and undergo continuous rearrangement. The mitochondrial phenotype of exo5Δ strains suggests an essential role for the enzyme in DNA replication and recombination. No nuclear phenotype associated with EXO5 deletions has been detected. Exo5 is a monomeric 5′ exonuclease that releases dinucleotides as products. It is specific for single-stranded DNA and does not hydrolyze RNA. However, Exo5 has the capacity to slide across 5′ double-stranded DNA or 5′ RNA sequences and resumes cutting two nucleotides downstream of the double-stranded-to-single-stranded junction or RNA-to-DNA junction, respectively. PMID:20086101

  8. Allosteric ring assembly and chemo-mechanical melting by the interaction between 5′-phosphate and λ exonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jungmin; Lee, Gwangrog

    2015-01-01

    Phosphates along the DNA function as chemical energy frequently used by nucleases to drive their enzymatic reactions. Exonuclease functions as a machine that converts chemical energy of the phosphodiester-chain into mechanical work. However, the roles of phosphates during exonuclease activities are unknown. We employed λ exonuclease as a model system and investigated the roles of phosphates during degradation via single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). We found that 5′ phosphates, generated at each cleavage step of the reaction, chemo-mechanically facilitate the subsequent post-cleavage melting of the terminal base pairs. Degradation of DNA with a nick requires backtracking and thermal fraying at the cleavage site for re-initiation via the formation of a catalytically active complex. Unexpectedly, we discovered that a phosphate of a 5′ recessed DNA acts as a hotspot for an allosteric trimeric-ring assembly without passing through the central channel. Our study provides new insight into the versatile roles of phosphates during the processive enzymatic reaction. PMID:26527731

  9. Allosteric ring assembly and chemo-mechanical melting by the interaction between 5'-phosphate and λ exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jungmin; Lee, Gwangrog

    2015-12-15

    Phosphates along the DNA function as chemical energy frequently used by nucleases to drive their enzymatic reactions. Exonuclease functions as a machine that converts chemical energy of the phosphodiester-chain into mechanical work. However, the roles of phosphates during exonuclease activities are unknown. We employed λ exonuclease as a model system and investigated the roles of phosphates during degradation via single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). We found that 5' phosphates, generated at each cleavage step of the reaction, chemo-mechanically facilitate the subsequent post-cleavage melting of the terminal base pairs. Degradation of DNA with a nick requires backtracking and thermal fraying at the cleavage site for re-initiation via the formation of a catalytically active complex. Unexpectedly, we discovered that a phosphate of a 5' recessed DNA acts as a hotspot for an allosteric trimeric-ring assembly without passing through the central channel. Our study provides new insight into the versatile roles of phosphates during the processive enzymatic reaction. PMID:26527731

  10. Residents' perceptions and experiences of social interaction and participation in leisure activities in residential aged care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jessica E; O'Connell, Beverly; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J

    2013-10-01

    Social interaction and participation in leisure activities are positively related to the health and well-being of elderly people. The main focus of this exploratory study was to investigate elderly peoples' perceptions and experiences of social interaction and leisure activities living in a residential aged care (RAC) facility. Six residents were interviewed. Themes emerging from discussions about their social interactions included: importance of family, fostering friendships with fellow residents, placement at dining room tables, multiple communication methods, and minimal social isolation and boredom. Excursions away from the RAC facility were favourite activities. Participants commonly were involved in leisure activities to be socially connected. Poor health, family, the RAC facility, staffing, transportation, and geography influenced their social interaction and participation in leisure activities. The use of new technologies and creative problem solving with staff are ways in which residents could enhance their social lives and remain engaged in leisure activities. PMID:24299253

  11. An exonuclease-assisted amplification electrochemical aptasensor for Hg(2+) detection based on hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ting; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Xia, Qinghua; Wang, Shengfu

    2015-08-15

    In this work, a novel electrochemical aptasensor was developed for Hg(2+) detection based on exonuclease-assisted target recycling and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) dual signal amplification strategy. The presence of Hg(2+) induced the T-rich DNA partly folded into duplex-like structure via the Hg(2+) mediated T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs, which triggered the activity of exonuclease III (Exo III). Exo III selectively digested the double-strand DNA containing multiple T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs from its 3'-end, the released Hg(2+) participated analyte recycle. With each digestion cycle, a digestion product named as help DNA was obtained, which acted as a linkage between the capture DNA and auxiliary DNA. The presence of help DNA and two auxiliary DNA collectively facilitated successful HCR process and formed long double-stranded DNA. [Ru(NH3)6](3+) was used as redox indicator, which electrostatically bound to the double strands and produced an electrochemical signal. Exo III-assisted target recycling and HCR dual amplification significantly improved the sensitivity for Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 0.12 pM (S/N=3). Furthermore, the proposed aptasensor had a promising potential for the application of Hg(2+) detection in real aquatic sample analysis. PMID:25840017

  12. 78 FR 20497 - Political Activity-Federal Employees Residing in Designated Localities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 733 RIN 3206-AM80 Political Activity--Federal Employees Residing in Designated... Columbia a partial exemption from the political activity restrictions and adding the District of Columbia....C. 7321-7326, governs the political activity of Federal employees, as well as individuals...

  13. DNA strand transfer catalyzed by the 5'-3' exonuclease domain of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, W; Evans, D H

    1995-01-01

    A protein which promotes DNA strand transfer between linear double-stranded M13mp19 DNA and single-stranded viral M13mp19 DNA has been isolated from recA- E.coli. The protein is DNA polymerase I. Strand transfer activity residues in the small fragment encoding the 5'-3' exonuclease and can be detected using a recombinant protein comprising the first 324 amino acids encoded by polA. Either the recombinant 5'-3' exonuclease or intact DNA polymerase I can catalyze joint molecule formation, in reactions requiring only Mg2+ and homologous DNA substrates. Both kinds of reactions are unaffected by added ATP. Electron microscopy shows that the joint molecules formed in these reactions bear displaced single strands and therefore this reaction is not simply promoted by annealing of exonuclease-gapped molecules. The pairing reaction is also polar and displaces the 5'-end of the non-complementary strand, extending the heteroduplex joint in a 5'-3' direction relative to the displaced strand. Thus strand transfer occurs with the same polarity as nick translation. These results show that E.coli, like many eukaryotes, possesses a protein which can promote ATP-independent strand-transfer reactions and raises questions concerning the possible biological role of this function. Images PMID:8524652

  14. Immobilization of lambda exonuclease onto polymer micropillar arrays for the solid-phase digestion of dsDNAs.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Calixte, Nyoté J; Uba, Franklin I; Battle, Katrina N; Weerakoon-Ratnayake, Kumuditha M; Soper, Steven A

    2014-05-01

    The process of immobilizing enzymes onto solid supports for bioreactions has some compelling advantages compared to their solution-based counterpart including the facile separation of enzyme from products, elimination of enzyme autodigestion, and increased enzyme stability and activity. We report the immobilization of λ-exonuclease onto poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) micropillars populated within a microfluidic device for the on-chip digestion of double-stranded DNA. Enzyme immobilization was successfully accomplished using 3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling to carboxylic acid functionalized PMMA micropillars. Our results suggest that the efficiency for the catalysis of dsDNA digestion using λ-exonuclease, including its processivity and reaction rate, were higher when the enzyme was attached to a solid support compared to the free solution digestion. We obtained a clipping rate of 1.0 × 10(3) nucleotides s(-1) for the digestion of λ-DNA (48.5 kbp) by λ-exonuclease. The kinetic behavior of the solid-phase reactor could be described by a fractal Michaelis-Menten model with a catalytic efficiency nearly 17% better than the homogeneous solution-phase reaction. The results from this work will have important ramifications in new single-molecule DNA sequencing strategies that employ free mononucleotide identification. PMID:24628008

  15. 29 CFR 1975.6 - Policy as to domestic household employment activities in private residences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy as to domestic household employment activities in... WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.6 Policy as to domestic household employment activities in private residences. As a matter of policy, individuals who, in their own...

  16. 29 CFR 1975.6 - Policy as to domestic household employment activities in private residences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy as to domestic household employment activities in... WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.6 Policy as to domestic household employment activities in private residences. As a matter of policy, individuals who, in their own...

  17. 29 CFR 1975.6 - Policy as to domestic household employment activities in private residences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy as to domestic household employment activities in... WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.6 Policy as to domestic household employment activities in private residences. As a matter of policy, individuals who, in their own...

  18. 29 CFR 1975.6 - Policy as to domestic household employment activities in private residences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy as to domestic household employment activities in... WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.6 Policy as to domestic household employment activities in private residences. As a matter of policy, individuals who, in their own...

  19. 29 CFR 1975.6 - Policy as to domestic household employment activities in private residences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy as to domestic household employment activities in... WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.6 Policy as to domestic household employment activities in private residences. As a matter of policy, individuals who, in their own...

  20. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (Ramp): Training Persons with Dementia to Serve as Group Activity Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Cameron J.; Skrajner, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an activity implemented by means of Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP). Design and Methods: Four persons with early-stage dementia were trained to serve as leaders for a small-group activity played by nine persons with more advanced dementia. Assessments of leaders'…

  1. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  2. Effects of Namaste Care on residents who do not benefit from usual activities.

    PubMed

    Simard, Joyce; Volicer, Ladislav

    2010-02-01

    Namaste Care is a program designed to offer meaningful activities to nursing home residents with advanced dementia or those who cannot be engaged in traditional activities. This 7-day-a-week program is staffed by specially trained nursing assistants who provide activities of daily living in an unhurried manner, with a ''loving touch'' approach to care. The program takes place in a room with lowered lighting, soft music playing, and the scent of lavender. Analyses of Minimum Data Set data before the program were implemented and after residents were involved in the program for at least 30 days showed a decrease in residents' withdrawal, social interaction, delirium indicators, and trend for decreased agitation. Namaste Care helps families feel that in spite of the many losses experienced because of the disease process, something special can still help their loved one to feel comforted, cared for, and cared about in a unique loving environment. PMID:19332652

  3. Kinetics and thermodynamics of exonuclease-deficient DNA polymerases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspard, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    A kinetic theory is developed for exonuclease-deficient DNA polymerases, based on the experimental observation that the rates depend not only on the newly incorporated nucleotide, but also on the previous one, leading to the growth of Markovian DNA sequences from a Bernoullian template. The dependencies on nucleotide concentrations and template sequence are explicitly taken into account. In this framework, the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of DNA replication, in particular, the mean growth velocity, the error probability, and the entropy production are calculated analytically in terms of the rate constants and the concentrations. Theory is compared with numerical simulations for the DNA polymerases of T7 viruses and human mitochondria.

  4. Stabilization of perfect and imperfect tandem repeats by single-strand DNA exonucleases.

    PubMed

    Feschenko, Vladimir V; Rajman, Luis A; Lovett, Susan T

    2003-02-01

    Rearrangements between tandemly repeated DNA sequences are a common source of genetic instability. Such rearrangements underlie several human genetic diseases. In many organisms, the mismatch-repair (MMR) system functions to stabilize repeats when the repeat unit is short or when sequence imperfections are present between the repeats. We show here that the action of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) exonucleases plays an additional, important role in stabilizing tandem repeats, independent of their role in MMR. For perfect repeats of approximately 100 bp in Escherichia coli that are not susceptible to MMR, exonuclease (Exo)-I, ExoX, and RecJ exonuclease redundantly inhibit deletion. Our data suggest that >90% of potential deletion events are avoided by the combined action of these three exonucleases. Imperfect tandem repeats, less prone to rearrangements, are stabilized by both the MMR-pathway and ssDNA-specific exonucleases. For 100-bp repeats containing four mispairs, ExoI alone aborts most deletion events, even in the presence of a functional MMR system. By genetic analysis, we show that the inhibitory effect of ssDNA exonucleases on deletion formation is independent of the MutS and UvrD proteins. Exonuclease degradation of DNA displaced during the deletion process may abort slipped misalignment. Exonuclease action is therefore a significant force in genetic stabilization of many forms of repetitive DNA. PMID:12538867

  5. Characteristics of Walking, Activity, Fear of Falling and Falls in Community Dwelling Older Adults by Residence

    PubMed Central

    Wert, David M.; Talkowski, Jaime B.; Brach, Jennifer; VanSwearingen, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research focusing on community dwelling older adults includes adults living in senior living residences (SLR) and independent community residences (ICR). Walking, physical activity, fear and falls may differ based on residence. Purpose We describe characteristics of walking, physical activity, fear of falling and fall history between community dwelling older adults by residence. Methods Participants of this secondary analysis included community dwelling older adults from independent living units within a senior life care community (SLR) and older adults recruited from the Pittsburgh community (ICR). Demographic information, physical (gait speed and physical activity), psychosocial (fear of falling and confidence in walking) and fall history measures were collected. Results Adults living in SLR compared to ICR were older, more likely to live alone and had greater disease burden. Compared to ICR, individuals in SLR reported less fear of falling (SAFFE fear .24 and .50 respectively). Fewer older adults in SLR compared to ICR reported falling in the past year. Discussion Older adults living in SLR compared to ICR had similar physical function but differed in report of fear of falling and fall history. Recognizing the possible differences in psychosocial function by place of residence is important for healthcare providers and researchers conducting interventions and studies for community-dwelling older adults. PMID:20503733

  6. Collaborative Control of Cell Cycle Progression by the RNA Exonuclease Dis3 and Ras Is Conserved Across Species.

    PubMed

    Snee, Mark J; Wilson, William C; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Shin-Yu; Wilson, Beth A; Kseib, Cedric; O'Neal, Julie; Mahajan, Nitin; Tomasson, Michael H; Arur, Swathi; Skeath, James B

    2016-06-01

    Dis3 encodes a conserved RNase that degrades or processes all RNA species via an N-terminal PilT N terminus (PIN) domain and C-terminal RNB domain that harbor, respectively, endonuclease activity and 3'-5' exonuclease activity. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, dis3 mutations cause chromosome missegregation and failure in mitosis, suggesting dis3 promotes cell division. In humans, apparently hypomorphic dis3 mutations are found recurrently in multiple myeloma, suggesting dis3 opposes cell division. Except for the observation that RNAi-mediated depletion of dis3 function drives larval arrest and reduces tissue growth in Drosophila, the role of dis3 has not been rigorously explored in higher eukaryotic systems. Using the Drosophila system and newly generated dis3 null alleles, we find that absence of dis3 activity inhibits cell division. We uncover a conserved CDK1 phosphorylation site that when phosphorylated inhibits Dis3's exonuclease, but not endonuclease, activity. Leveraging this information, we show that Dis3's exonuclease function is required for mitotic cell division: in its absence, cells are delayed in mitosis and exhibit aneuploidy and overcondensed chromosomes. In contrast, we find that modest reduction of dis3 function enhances cell proliferation in the presence of elevated Ras activity, apparently by accelerating cells through G2/M even though each insult by itself delays G2/M. Additionally, we find that dis3 and ras genetically interact in worms and that dis3 can enhance cell proliferation under growth stimulatory conditions in murine B cells. Thus, reduction, but not absence, of dis3 activity can enhance cell proliferation in higher organisms. PMID:27029730

  7. 77 FR 26659 - Political Activity-Federal Employees Residing in Designated Localities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ..., OPM issued a proposed rule at 72 FR 39582 to add King George County, Virginia, to this regulatory list... and proposed the addition of King George County to the regulatory list of designated localities. 76 FR... Part 733 Political Activity--Federal Employees Residing in Designated Localities AGENCY: Office...

  8. The Effects of Resident and Nursing Home Characteristics on Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jye; Kane, Robert L.; Eberly, Lynn E.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Existing studies on the relationships between impairments and activities of daily living (ADLs) in nursing home residents have serious limitations. This study examines the relationships among admission impairments, including pain, depression, incontinence, balance, and falls, and follow-up ADLs, as well as the effect of the nursing home on follow-up ADLs of extended-stay nursing home residents. Methods This longitudinal cohort study consisted of 4,942 extended-stay residents who were admitted into 377 Minnesota nursing homes during 2004. General linear mixed models were used for all analyses, with 14 resident-level and 8 facility-level control variables. Results Incontinence and balance function at admission were significantly associated with increases in ADL dependence at follow-up. Individual nursing homes had independent effects on all three ADL models. Similar findings were found after facility-level control variables were added. Conclusions Incontinence predicts subsequent ADL functional levels. The relationship between balance dysfunction and subsequent ADL dependence could be causal. Future studies of the causal relationships between impairments and ADL should examine the effectiveness of impairment interventions on ADL as well as these relationships in different subgroups of nursing home residents. PMID:19201787

  9. Effects of intergenerational Montessori-based activities programming on engagement of nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michelle M; Camp, Cameron J; Malone, Megan L

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen nursing home residents on a dementia special care unit at a skilled nursing facility took part in one-to-one intergenerational programming (IGP) with 15 preschool children from the facility's on-site child care center. Montessori-based activities served as the interface for interactions between dyads. The amount of time residents demonstrated positive and negative forms of engagement during IGP and standard activities programming was assessed through direct observation using a tool developed for this purpose--the Myers Research Institute Engagement Scale (MRI-ES). These residents with dementia displayed the ability to successfully take part in IGP. Most successfully presented "lessons" to the children in their dyads, similar to the way that Montessori teachers present lessons to children, while persons with more severe cognitive impairment took part in IGP through other methods such as parallel play. Taking part in IGP was consistently related with higher levels of positive engagement and lower levels of negative forms of engagement in these residents with dementia than levels seen in standard activities programming on the unit. Implications of using this form of IGP, and directions for future research, are discussed. PMID:18044197

  10. Effects of intergenerational Montessori-based activities programming on engagement of nursing home residents with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michelle M; Camp, Cameron J; Malone, Megan L

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen nursing home residents on a dementia special care unit at a skilled nursing facility took part in one-to-one intergenerational programming (IGP) with 15 preschool children from the facility’s on-site child care center. Montessori-based activities served as the interface for interactions between dyads. The amount of time residents demonstrated positive and negative forms of engagement during IGP and standard activities programming was assessed through direct observation using a tool developed for this purpose – the Myers Research Institute Engagement Scale (MRI-ES). These residents with dementia displayed the ability to successfully take part in IGP. Most successfully presented “lessons” to the children in their dyads, similar to the way that Montessori teachers present lessons to children, while persons with more severe cognitive impairment took part in IGP through other methods such as parallel play. Taking part in IGP was consistently related with higher levels of positive engagement and lower levels of negative forms of engagement in these residents with dementia than levels seen in standard activities programming on the unit. Implications of using this form of IGP, and directions for future research, are discussed. PMID:18044197

  11. 5 CFR 733.105 - Permitted political activities-employees who reside in designated localities and are employed in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permitted political activities-employees... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.105 Permitted political activities—employees who reside in designated localities and are employed in...

  12. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was analyzed for metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. To compare the urinary levels of exposure biomarkers, the urine of 39 inland residents who were not directly exposed to the oil spill were analyzed. Results Residents exposed to oil remnants through clean-up work showed associations between physical symptoms and the exposure levels defined in various ways, including days of work, degree of skin contamination, and levels of some urinary exposure biomarkers of VOCs, metabolites and metals, although no major abnormalities in urinary exposure biomarkers were observed. Conclusions This study provides evidence of a relationship between crude oil exposure and acute human health effects and suggests the need for follow-up to evaluate the exposure status and long-term health effects of clean-up participants. PMID:22125768

  13. Structural basis for substrate recognition and processive cleavage mechanisms of the trimeric exonuclease PhoExo I

    PubMed Central

    Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Ishino, Sonoko; Tsutsumi, Kanae; Ito, Tomoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Tanokura, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Nucleases play important roles in nucleic acid processes, such as replication, repair and recombination. Recently, we identified a novel single-strand specific 3′-5′ exonuclease, PfuExo I, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which may be involved in the Thermococcales-specific DNA repair system. PfuExo I forms a trimer and cleaves single-stranded DNA at every two nucleotides. Here, we report the structural basis for the cleavage mechanism of this novel exonuclease family. A structural analysis of PhoExo I, the homologous enzyme from P. horikoshii OT3, showed that PhoExo I utilizes an RNase H-like active site and possesses a 3′-OH recognition site ∼9 Å away from the active site, which enables cleavage at every two nucleotides. Analyses of the heterotrimeric and monomeric PhoExo I activities showed that trimerization is indispensable for its processive cleavage mechanism, but only one active site of the trimer is required. PMID:26138487

  14. Physical Activity Behavior, Barriers to Activity, and Opinions About a Smartphone-Based Physical Activity Intervention Among Rural Residents

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Henrietta; Manini, Todd; Dallery, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rural Americans engage in less physical activity (PA) and experience higher rates of consequent health problems (i.e., obesity, cardiovascular disease) than urban Americans. Although geographic barriers have historically made this population hard to reach, rural individuals are increasingly gaining access to smartphones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate PA behavior and barriers to PA among rural residents and to gauge their receptiveness to a smartphone-based PA intervention that is currently in the development stage. Materials and Methods: Rural Floridian adults (n=113), 18 years of age and older, completed surveys to assess PA behavior, PA barriers, and opinions about an intervention to increase PA. Specifically, they were asked to imagine a program that would require them to do PA with their mobile phones and whether they viewed intended aspects of the program as helpful. The present work is therefore formative research that sought to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a smartphone-based intervention among rural residents. Results of the survey will inform the development of a tailored, smartphone-based PA intervention. Results: The 37.2% of participants with low PA levels (<600 metabolic equivalent [MET]-min per week) were more likely to report personal and environmental barriers to PA than the 47.8% of participants with moderate PA levels (≥600 MET-min per week). More barriers were reported among participants who self-reported as white and among participants of older age, lower education level, and lower socioeconomic status. Additionally, 75.9% of participants reported features of the intervention as at least somewhat helpful. Conclusions: The growing ubiquity of smartphones among rural residents, combined with participants' positive response to the program description, supports the acceptability of a smartphone-based PA intervention for rural communities. Given the participants' receptiveness, future research

  15. ATM-dependent phosphorylation of MRE11 controls extent of resection during homology directed repair by signalling through Exonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Kijas, Amanda W.; Lim, Yi Chieh; Bolderson, Emma; Cerosaletti, Karen; Gatei, Magtouf; Jakob, Burkhard; Tobias, Frank; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Gueven, Nuri; Oakley, Greg; Concannon, Patrick; Wolvetang, Ernst; Khanna, Kum Kum; Wiesmüller, Lisa; Lavin, Martin F.

    2015-01-01

    The MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) complex plays a central role as a sensor of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and is responsible for the efficient activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. Once activated ATM in turn phosphorylates RAD50 and NBS1, important for cell cycle control, DNA repair and cell survival. We report here that MRE11 is also phosphorylated by ATM at S676 and S678 in response to agents that induce DNA DSB, is dependent on the presence of NBS1, and does not affect the association of members of the complex or ATM activation. A phosphosite mutant (MRE11S676AS678A) cell line showed decreased cell survival and increased chromosomal aberrations after radiation exposure indicating a defect in DNA repair. Use of GFP-based DNA repair reporter substrates in MRE11S676AS678A cells revealed a defect in homology directed repair (HDR) but single strand annealing was not affected. More detailed investigation revealed that MRE11S676AS678A cells resected DNA ends to a greater extent at sites undergoing HDR. Furthermore, while ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Kap1 and SMC1 was normal in MRE11S676AS678A cells, there was no phosphorylation of Exonuclease 1 consistent with the defect in HDR. These results describe a novel role for ATM-dependent phosphorylation of MRE11 in limiting the extent of resection mediated through Exonuclease 1. PMID:26240375

  16. Passive and active exercises are similarly effective in elderly nursing home residents

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Nicole L.; Rogers, Michael E.; Islam, Mohammod Monirul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive motion exercise and active motion exercise on functional fitness in elderly nursing home residents. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three (female 22 and male 1) nursing home residents (84.8±4.3 yr) volunteered for this study. They were divided into a passive motion exercise group (n=12) and an active motion exercise group (n=11) and performed 30-min sessions of training twice a week for 12 weeks. Functional fitness (Arm Curl, Chair Stand, Up & Go, Sit & Reach, Back Scratch, functional Reach, and 12-min Walk tests) was evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] No significant baseline difference was noted between the groups in measured variables. Following the 12 week intervention, no significant interaction (group × time) was noted in functional fitness variables between the groups, except for the functional reach scores (active motion exercise 40%, passive motion exercise 9%). Significant improvement over time was noted in passive motion exercise group in Arm Curl (19%), Chair Stand (15%), Up & Go (6%), and 12-min Walk (12%) scores; and in the active motion exercise group in Arm Curl (14%), Chair Stand (19%), Up & Go (11%), functional Reach (40%) and 12-min Walk (13%) scores. The adherence rates in the passive and active motion exercise groups were 95.8% and 93.1% respectively. [Conclusion] Passive motion exercise and active motion exercise were found to be similarly effective for improving the functional fitness of elderly nursing home residents. PMID:26504320

  17. The Actively Caring for People Movement at Virginia Tech and Beyond: Cultivating Compassion and Relationships in Residence Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Shane M.; Mullins, Taris G.; Geller, E. Scott; Shushok, Frank, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A professor and a group of student leaders initiated the Actively Caring for People (AC4P) Movement to establish a more civil, compassionate, and inclusive culture by inspiring intentional acts of kindness. This article explores the AC4P Movement in a first-year residence hall at Virginia Tech and a second-year residence hall at University of…

  18. Variability in Obtaining Institutional Review Board Approval for Quality Improvement Activities in Residency Programs

    PubMed Central

    Conforti, Lisa N.; Hess, Brian J.; Ross, Kathryn M.; Lynn, Lorna A.; Holmboe, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Quality improvement (QI) activities are an important part of residency training. National studies are needed to inform best practices in QI training and experience for residents. The impact of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) process on such studies is not well described. Methods This observational study looked at time, length, comfort level, and overall quality of experience for 42 residency training programs in obtaining approval or exemption for a nationally based educational QI study. Results For the 42 programs in the study, the time period to IRB approval/exemption was highly variable, ranging from less than 1 week to 56.5 weeks; mean and median time was approximately 18 weeks (SD, 10.8). Greater reported comfort with the IRB process was associated with less time to obtain approval (r  =  −.50; P < .01; 95% CI, −0.70 to −0.23). A more positive overall quality of experience with the IRB process was also associated with less time to obtain IRB approval (r  =  −.60; P < .01; 95% CI, −0.74 to −0.36). Discussion The IRB process for residency programs initiating QI studies shows considerable variance that is not explained by attributes of the projects. New strategies are needed to assist and expedite IRB processes for QI research in educational settings and reduce interinstitutional variability and increase comfort level among educators with the IRB process. PMID:23451318

  19. Purification and characterization of an endo-exonuclease from adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, K; Das Gupta, C K; Hawley, R S; Chase, J W; Stone, K L; Williams, K R

    1992-01-01

    An endo-exonuclease (designated nuclease III) has been purified to near homogeneity from adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster. The enzyme degrades single- and double-stranded DNA and RNA. It has a sedimentation co-efficient of 3.1S and a strokes radius of 27A The native form of the purified enzyme appears to be a monomer of 33,600 dalton. It has a pH optimum of 7-8.5 and requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ but not Ca2+ or Co2+ for its activity. The enzyme activity on double-stranded DNA was inhibited 50% by 30 mM NaCl, while its activity on single-stranded DNA required 100 mM NaCl for 50% inhibition. Under the latter conditions, its activity on double-stranded DNA was inhibited approximately 98%. The enzyme degrades DNA to complete acid soluble products which are a mixture of mono- and oligonucleotides with 5'-P and 3'-OH termini. Supercoiled DNA was converted by the enzyme to nicked and subsequently to linear forms in a stepwise fashion under the condition in which the enzyme works optimally on single-stranded DNA. The amino acid composition and amino acid sequencing of tryptic peptides from purified nuclease III is also reported. Images PMID:1313969

  20. Linear mtDNA fragments and unusual mtDNA rearrangements associated with pathological deficiency of MGME1 exonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Thomas J.; Zsurka, Gábor; Peeva, Viktoriya; Schöler, Susanne; Szczesny, Roman J.; Cysewski, Dominik; Reyes, Aurelio; Kornblum, Cornelia; Sciacco, Monica; Moggio, Maurizio; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Minczuk, Michal

    2014-01-01

    MGME1, also known as Ddk1 or C20orf72, is a mitochondrial exonuclease found to be involved in the processing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) during replication. Here, we present detailed insights on the role of MGME1 in mtDNA maintenance. Upon loss of MGME1, elongated 7S DNA species accumulate owing to incomplete processing of 5′ ends. Moreover, an 11-kb linear mtDNA fragment spanning the entire major arc of the mitochondrial genome is generated. In contrast to control cells, where linear mtDNA molecules are detectable only after nuclease S1 treatment, the 11-kb fragment persists in MGME1-deficient cells. In parallel, we observed characteristic mtDNA duplications in the absence of MGME1. The fact that the breakpoints of these mtDNA rearrangements do not correspond to either classical deletions or the ends of the linear 11-kb fragment points to a role of MGME1 in processing mtDNA ends, possibly enabling their repair by homologous recombination. In agreement with its functional involvement in mtDNA maintenance, we show that MGME1 interacts with the mitochondrial replicase PolgA, suggesting that it is a constituent of the mitochondrial replisome, to which it provides an additional exonuclease activity. Thus, our results support the viewpoint that MGME1-mediated mtDNA processing is essential for faithful mitochondrial genome replication and might be required for intramolecular recombination of mtDNA. PMID:24986917

  1. Structural Determinant for Switching between the Polymerase and Exonuclease Modes in the PCNA-Replicative DNA Polymerase Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Hirokazu; Mayanagi, Kouta; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is responsible for the processivity of DNA polymerase. We determined the crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus DNA polymerase (PfuPol) complexed with a cognate monomeric PCNA, which allowed us to construct a convincing model of the polymerase-PCNA ring interaction. Electron microscopy analyses confirmed that this complex structure exists among the multiple functional configurations in solution. Together with data from mutational analyses, this structural study indicated that the novel interaction between a stretched loop of PCNA and the PfuPol Thumb domain is quite important, in addition to the authentic PCNA-polymerase recognition site (PIP box). A comparison of the present structures with the previously reported structures of polymerases complexed with DNA suggested that the second interaction site plays a crucial role in switching between the polymerase and exonuclease modes, by stabilizing only the polymerase mode. This proposed mechanism of fidelity control of replicative DNA polymerases was supported by experiments, in which a mutation within the second interaction site caused an enhancement in the exonuclease activity in the presence of PCNA.

  2. A role for the Perlman syndrome exonuclease Dis3l2 in the Lin28-let-7 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao-Ming; Triboulet, Robinson; Thornton, James E.; Gregory, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    The pluripotency factor Lin28 blocks the expression of let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs) in undifferentiated cells during development and functions as an oncogene in a subset of cancers1. Lin28 binds to let-7 precursor RNAs and recruits 3′ terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases) to selectively inhibit let-7 biogenesis2–4. Uridylated pre-let-7 is refractory to processing by Dicer and is rapidly degraded by an unknown ribonuclease5. Here we identify Dis3l2 as the 3′-5′ exonuclease responsible for the decay of uridylated pre-let-7. Biochemical reconstitution assays reveal that 3′ oligouridylation stimulates Dis3l2 activity in vitro, and knockdown of Dis3l2 in mouse embryonic stem cells leads to the stabilization of pre-let-7. Our study establishes 3′ oligouridylation as an RNA decay signal for Dis3l2 and identifies the first physiological RNA substrate of this novel exonuclease that is mutated in the Perlman syndrome of fetal overgrowth and predisposition to Wilms’ tumor6. PMID:23594738

  3. The Drosophila prage Gene, Required for Maternal Transcript Destabilization in Embryos, Encodes a Predicted RNA Exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jun; Lai, Yun Wei; Sartain, Caroline V; Zuckerman, Rebecca M; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2016-01-01

    Egg activation, the transition of mature oocytes into developing embryos, is critical for the initiation of embryogenesis. This process is characterized by resumption of meiosis, changes in the egg's coverings and by alterations in the transcriptome and proteome of the egg; all of these occur in the absence of new transcription. Activation of the egg is prompted by ionic changes in the cytoplasm (usually a rise in cytosolic calcium levels) that are triggered by fertilization in some animals and by mechanosensitive cues in others. The egg's transcriptome is dramatically altered during the process, including by the removal of many maternal mRNAs that are not needed for embryogenesis. However, the mechanisms and regulators of this selective RNA degradation are not yet fully known. Forward genetic approaches in Drosophila have identified maternal-effect genes whose mutations prevent the transcriptome changes. One of these genes, prage (prg), was identified by Tadros et al. in a screen for mutants that fail to destabilize maternal transcripts. We identified the molecular nature of the prg gene through a combination of deficiency mapping, complementation analysis, and DNA sequencing of both extant prg mutant alleles. We find that prg encodes a ubiquitously expressed predicted exonuclease, consistent with its role in maternal mRNA destabilization during egg activation. PMID:27172196

  4. The Drosophila prage Gene, Required for Maternal Transcript Destabilization in Embryos, Encodes a Predicted RNA Exonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jun; Lai, Yun Wei; Sartain, Caroline V.; Zuckerman, Rebecca M.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2016-01-01

    Egg activation, the transition of mature oocytes into developing embryos, is critical for the initiation of embryogenesis. This process is characterized by resumption of meiosis, changes in the egg’s coverings and by alterations in the transcriptome and proteome of the egg; all of these occur in the absence of new transcription. Activation of the egg is prompted by ionic changes in the cytoplasm (usually a rise in cytosolic calcium levels) that are triggered by fertilization in some animals and by mechanosensitive cues in others. The egg’s transcriptome is dramatically altered during the process, including by the removal of many maternal mRNAs that are not needed for embryogenesis. However, the mechanisms and regulators of this selective RNA degradation are not yet fully known. Forward genetic approaches in Drosophila have identified maternal-effect genes whose mutations prevent the transcriptome changes. One of these genes, prage (prg), was identified by Tadros et al. in a screen for mutants that fail to destabilize maternal transcripts. We identified the molecular nature of the prg gene through a combination of deficiency mapping, complementation analysis, and DNA sequencing of both extant prg mutant alleles. We find that prg encodes a ubiquitously expressed predicted exonuclease, consistent with its role in maternal mRNA destabilization during egg activation. PMID:27172196

  5. The Telomere Binding Protein Cdc13 and the Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein RPA Protect Telomeric DNA from Resection by Exonucleases.

    PubMed

    Greetham, Matthew; Skordalakes, Emmanuel; Lydall, David; Connolly, Bernard A

    2015-09-25

    The telomere is present at the ends of all eukaryotic chromosomes and usually consists of repetitive TG-rich DNA that terminates in a single-stranded 3' TG extension and a 5' CA-rich recessed strand. A biochemical assay that allows the in vitro observation of exonuclease-catalyzed degradation (resection) of telomeres has been developed. The approach uses an oligodeoxynucleotide that folds to a stem-loop with a TG-rich double-stranded region and a 3' single-stranded extension, typical of telomeres. Cdc13, the major component of the telomere-specific CST complex, strongly protects the recessed strand from the 5'→3' exonuclease activity of the model exonuclease from bacteriophage λ. The isolated DNA binding domain of Cdc13 is less effective at shielding telomeres. Protection is specific, not being observed in control DNA lacking the specific TG-rich telomere sequence. RPA, the eukaryotic single-stranded DNA binding protein, also inhibits telomere resection. However, this protein is non-specific, equally hindering the degradation of non-telomere controls. PMID:26264873

  6. cryo-EM structures of the E. coli replicative DNA polymerase reveal its dynamic interactions with the DNA sliding clamp, exonuclease and τ

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Leiro, Rafael; Conrad, Julian; Scheres, Sjors HW; Lamers, Meindert H

    2015-01-01

    The replicative DNA polymerase PolIIIα from Escherichia coli is a uniquely fast and processive enzyme. For its activity it relies on the DNA sliding clamp β, the proofreading exonuclease ε and the C-terminal domain of the clamp loader subunit τ. Due to the dynamic nature of the four-protein complex it has long been refractory to structural characterization. Here we present the 8 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of DNA-bound and DNA-free states of the PolIII-clamp-exonuclease-τc complex. The structures show how the polymerase is tethered to the DNA through multiple contacts with the clamp and exonuclease. A novel contact between the polymerase and clamp is made in the DNA bound state, facilitated by a large movement of the polymerase tail domain and τc. These structures provide crucial insights into the organization of the catalytic core of the replisome and form an important step towards determining the structure of the complete holoenzyme. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11134.001 PMID:26499492

  7. The Exonuclease Domain of Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein Is Involved in Antigen-Presenting-Cell-Mediated NK Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Russier, Marion; Reynard, Stéphanie; Carnec, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lassa virus is an Old World Arenavirus which causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever in humans, mostly in West Africa. Lassa fever is an important public health problem, and a safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed. The infection causes immunosuppression, probably due to the absence of activation of antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and macrophages), low type I interferon (IFN) production, and deficient NK cell function. However, a recombinant Lassa virus carrying D389A and G392A substitutions in the nucleoprotein that abolish the exonuclease activity and IFN activation loses its inhibitory activity and induces strong type I IFN production by dendritic cells and macrophages. We show here that during infection by this mutant Lassa virus, antigen-presenting cells trigger efficient human NK cell responses in vitro, including production of IFN-γ and cytotoxicity. NK cell activation involves close contact with both antigen-presenting cells and soluble factors. We report that infected dendritic cells and macrophages express the NKG2D ligands major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related chains A and B and that they may produce interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18, all involved in NK cell functions. NK cell degranulation is significantly increased in cocultures, suggesting that NK cells seem to kill infected dendritic cells and macrophages. This work confirms the inhibitory function of Lassa virus nucleoprotein. Importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that Lassa virus nucleoprotein is involved in the inhibition of antigen-presenting cell-mediated NK cell responses. IMPORTANCE The pathogenesis and immune responses induced by Lassa virus are poorly known. Recently, an exonuclease domain contained in the viral nucleoprotein has been shown to be able to inhibit the type I IFN response by avoiding the recognition of viral RNA by cell sensors. Here, we studied the responses of NK cells to dendritic cells and macrophages infected with a

  8. The Application of Entrustable Professional Activities to Inform Competency Decisions in a Family Medicine Residency Program.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Karen; Griffiths, Jane; Lacasse, Miriam

    2015-07-01

    Assessing entrustable professional activities (EPAs), or carefully chosen units of work that define a profession and are entrusted to a resident to complete unsupervised once she or he has obtained adequate competence, is a novel and innovative approach to competency-based assessment (CBA). What is currently not well described in the literature is the application of EPAs within a CBA system. In this article, the authors describe the development of 35 EPAs for a Canadian family medicine residency program, including the work by an expert panel of family physician and medical education experts from four universities in three Canadian provinces to identify the relevant EPAs for family medicine in nine curriculum domains. The authors outline how they used these EPAs and the corresponding templates that describe competence at different levels of supervision to create electronic EPA field notes, which has allowed educators to use the EPAs as a formative tool to structure day-to-day assessment and feedback and a summative tool to ground competency declarations about residents. They then describe the system to compile, collate, and use the EPA field notes to make competency declarations and how this system aligns with van der Vleuten's utility index for assessment (valid, reliable, of educational value, acceptable, cost-effective). Early outcomes indicate that preceptors are using the EPA field notes more often than they used the generic field notes. EPAs enable educators to evaluate multiple objectives and important but unwieldy competencies by providing practical, manageable, measurable activities that can be used to assess competency development. PMID:25719674

  9. Activity size distribution and residence time of 7Be aerosols in the Arctic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Paatero, Jussi

    2014-05-01

    The activity size distributions of the natural radionuclide tracer 7Be in different size range fractions (<0.39 μm, 0.39-0.69 μm, 0.69-1.3 μm, 1.3-2.1 μm, 2.1-4.2 μm, 4.2-10.2 μm and >10.2 μm) were determined in the boreal atmosphere in the Arctic Research Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) at Sodankylä, Finland (67°22‧ N, 26°38‧ E, 180 m asl). The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) ranged from 0.54 μm to 1.05 μm (average 0.83 μm). A residence time of about 8 days applies to aerosols of 0.83 μm diameter, representing the residence of aerosol particles in arctic environment. The observed positive correlation between AMAD values and RH% can be explained by the fact that condensation during high relative humidity conditions becomes more intense, resulting in increased particle sizes of atmospheric aerosols. However, greater aerosol particle sizes means higher wet scavenging rate of aerosols and as a result lower activity concentration of 7Be in the atmosphere, explaining the anti-correlation between the AMAD values and activity concentrations of 7Be. But this associated with possibly higher scavenging rates of aerosols does not necessarily alone explain the anti-correlation between the AMAD and the 7Be activities. The air mass origin associated with synoptic scale weather phenomena may contribute to that too. The Flextra model was used to assess the transport pattern and to explain the deviation in radionuclide activity concentrations and AMAD values observed in the site of investigation.

  10. Delineation of structural domains and identification of functionally important residues in DNA repair enzyme exonuclease VII

    PubMed Central

    Poleszak, Katarzyna; Kaminska, Katarzyna H.; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Lupas, Andrei; Skowronek, Krzysztof J.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2012-01-01

    Exonuclease VII (ExoVII) is a bacterial nuclease involved in DNA repair and recombination that hydrolyses single-stranded DNA. ExoVII is composed of two subunits: large XseA and small XseB. Thus far, little was known about the molecular structure of ExoVII, the interactions between XseA and XseB, the architecture of the nuclease active site or its mechanism of action. We used bioinformatics methods to predict the structure of XseA, which revealed four domains: an N-terminal OB-fold domain, a middle putatively catalytic domain, a coiled-coil domain and a short C-terminal segment. By series of deletion and site-directed mutagenesis experiments on XseA from Escherichia coli, we determined that the OB-fold domain is responsible for DNA binding, the coiled-coil domain is involved in binding multiple copies of the XseB subunit and residues D155, R205, H238 and D241 of the middle domain are important for the catalytic activity but not for DNA binding. Altogether, we propose a model of sequence–structure–function relationships in ExoVII. PMID:22718974

  11. Arrhenius plot behavior of a. gamma. -radiation-releasable, membrane-bound exonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1981-11-01

    The activation energy of a membrane-bound exonuclease in Micrococcus radiodurans has been measured and the effect of ionizing radiation damage in this sytem explore. The Arrhenius plot for the native bound enzyme was found to be biphasic and the calculated activation energies and transition temperature for the enzymatic reaction were not changed when the enzyme was: (1) solubilized from the membrane with its covalently bound lipid anchor attached, (2) released from the membrane by ionizing radiation, which cleaves off the covalently attached lipid and converts the enzyme from a dimer to a monomer, (3) attached to the membrane after exposure to ionizing radiation under oxic or anoxic conditions, and (4) attached to the membrane in the presence of 10 mM CHCl/sub 3/. Since other membrane-bound enzymes have been shown to be sensitive to membrane perturbations while this one was not, the results suggest that various perturbants, including ionizing radiation, may have differential effects on such enzymes.

  12. The effect of space microgravity on the physiological activity of mammalian resident cardiac stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belostotskaya, Galina; Zakharov, Eugeny

    Prolonged exposure to weightlessness during space flights is known to cause depression of heart function in mammals. The decrease in heart weight and its remodeling under the influence of prolonged weightlessness (or space microgravity) is assumed to be due to both morphological changes of working cardiomyocytes and their progressive loss, as well as to possible depletion of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) population, or their inability to self-renewal and regeneration of muscle tissue under conditions of weightlessness. We have previously shown that the presence of different maturity clones formed by resident CSCs not only in culture but also in the mammalian myocardium can be used as an indicator of the regenerative activity of myocardial cells [Belostotskaya, et al., 2013: 2014]. In this study, we were interested to investigate whether the 30-day near-Earth space flight on the spacecraft BION-M1 affects the regenerative potential of resident CSCs. Immediately after landing of the spacecraft, we had examined the presence of resident c-kit+, Sca-1+ and Isl1+ CSCs and their development in suspension of freshly isolated myocardial cells of C57BL mice in comparison to controls. Cardiac cell suspension was obtained by enzymatic digestion of the heart [Belostotskaya and Golovanova, 2014]. Immunocytochemically stained preparations of fixed cells were analyzed with confocal microscope Leica TCS SP5 (Germany) in the Resource Center of St-Petersburg State University. CSCs were labeled with appropriate antibodies. CSCs differentiation into mature cardiomyocytes was verified using antibodies to Sarcomeric α-Actinin and Cardiac Troponin T. Antibodies to Connexin43 were used to detect cell-cell contacts. All antibodies were conjugated with Alexa fluorochromes (488, 532, 546, 568, 594 and/or 647 nm), according to Zenon-technology (Invitrogen). It has been shown that, under identical conditions of cell isolation, more complete digestion of heart muscle was observed in

  13. Stromal cells control the epithelial residence of DCs and memory T cells by regulated activation of TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Javed; Beura, Lalit K; Bobr, Aleh; Astry, Brian; Chicoine, Brian; Kashem, Sakeen W; Welty, Nathan E; Igyártó, Botond Z; Wijeyesinghe, Sathi; Thompson, Emily A; Matte, Catherine; Bartholin, Laurent; Kaplan, Alesia; Sheppard, Dean; Bridges, Alina G; Shlomchik, Warren D; Masopust, David; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-04-01

    Cells of the immune system that reside in barrier epithelia provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Langerhans cells (LCs) and CD8(+) tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) require active transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) for epidermal residence. Here we found that integrins αvβ6 and αvβ8 were expressed in non-overlapping patterns by keratinocytes (KCs) and maintained the epidermal residence of LCs and TRM cells by activating latent TGF-β. Similarly, the residence of dendritic cells and TRM cells in the small intestine epithelium also required αvβ6. Treatment of the skin with ultraviolet irradiation decreased integrin expression on KCs and reduced the availability of active TGF-β, which resulted in LC migration. Our data demonstrated that regulated activation of TGF-β by stromal cells was able to directly control epithelial residence of cells of the immune system through a novel mechanism of intercellular communication. PMID:26901152

  14. Effects of using nursing home residents to serve as group activity leaders: lessons learned from the RAP project.

    PubMed

    Skrajner, Michael J; Haberman, Jessica L; Camp, Cameron J; Tusick, Melanie; Frentiu, Cristina; Gorzelle, Gregg

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that persons with early to moderate stage dementia are capable of leading small group activities for persons with more advanced dementia. In this study, we built upon this previous work by training residents in long-term care facilities to fill the role of group activity leaders using a Resident-Assisted Programming (RAP) training regimen. There were two stages to the program. In the first stage, RAP training was provided by researchers. In the second stage, RAP training was provided to residents by activities staff members of long-term care facilities who had been trained by researchers. We examine the effects of RAP implemented by researchers and by activities staff member on long-term care resident with dementia who took part in these RAP activities. We also examined effects produced by two types of small group activities: two Montessori-based activities and an activity which focuses on persons with more advanced dementia, based on the work of Jitka Zgola. Results demonstrate that levels of positive engagement seen in players during RAP (resident-led activities) were typically higher than those observed during standard activities programming led by site staff. In general, Montessori-Based Dementia Programming® produced more constructive engagement than Zgola-based programming (ZBP), though ZBP did increase a positive form of engagement involving observing activities with interest. In addition, RAP implemented by activities staff members produced effects that were, on the whole, similar to those produced when RAP was implemented by researchers. Implications of these findings for providing meaningful social roles for persons with dementia residing in long-term care, and suggestions for further research in this area, are discussed. PMID:24339109

  15. Melanoma-derived factors alter the maturation and activation of differentiated tissue-resident dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Hargadon, Kristian M; Bishop, Johnathan D; Brandt, John P; Hand, Zachary C; Ararso, Yonathan T; Forrest, Osric A

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of host immunity that are capable of inducing either immune tolerance or activation. In addition to their well-characterized role in shaping immune responses to foreign pathogens, DCs are also known to be critical for the induction and maintenance of anti-tumor immune responses. Therefore, it is important to understand how tumors influence the function of DCs and the quality of immune responses they elicit. Although the majority of studies in this field to date have utilized either immortalized DC lines or DC populations that have been generated under artificial conditions from hematopoietic precursors in vitro, we wished to investigate how tumors impact the function of already differentiated, tissue-resident DCs. Therefore, we used both an ex vivo and in vivo model system to assess the influence of melanoma-derived factors on DC maturation and activation. In ex vivo studies with freshly isolated splenic DCs, we demonstrate that the extent to which DC maturation and activation are altered by these factors correlates with melanoma tumorigenicity, and we identify partial roles for tumor-derived transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in the altered functionality of DCs. In vivo studies using a lung metastasis model of melanoma also demonstrate tumorigenicity-dependent alterations to the function of lung-resident DCs, and skewed production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by these tumor-altered cells is associated with recruitment of an immune infiltrate that may ultimately favor tumor immune escape and outgrowth. PMID:26010746

  16. Effects of a Community-Based, Professionally Supervised Intervention on Physical Activity Levels Among Residents of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro; Pratt, Michael; Ramos, Luiz; Munk, Marcia; Damascena, Wilson; Parra Perez, Diana; Hoehner, Christine M.; Gilbertz, David; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Brownson, Ross C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of a community-based intervention, the Academia da Cidade program (ACP), on increasing leisure-time physical activity among residents of Recife, Brazil. Methods. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity (i.e., activities involved in traveling from place to place) levels in a random sample of 2047 Recife residents surveyed in 2007. We also examined factors related to exposure to ACP (participation in the intervention, residing near an intervention site, hearing about or seeing intervention activities). We estimated prevalence odds ratios (ORs) of moderate to high leisure-time and transport physical activity levels via intervention exposures adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and environmental variables. Results. Prevalence ORs for moderate to high levels of leisure-time physical activity were higher among former (prevalence OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 3.9) and current (prevalence OR = 11.3; 95% CI = 3.5, 35.9) intervention participants and those who had heard about or seen an intervention activity (prevalence OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.5). Transport physical activity levels were inversely associated with residing near an ACP site. Conclusions. The ACP program appears to be an effective public health strategy to increase population-level physical activity in urban developing settings. PMID:19008499

  17. Disparities in Adolescents' Residence in Neighborhoods Supportive of Physical Activity - United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Harris, Carmen D; Carlson, Susan A; Dorn, Joan M; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, only 27% of adolescents in grades 9-12 met the current federal guideline for aerobic physical activity (at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day*), and sex and racial/ethnic disparities in meeting the guideline exist (1). The Community Preventive Services Task Force has recommended a range of community-level evidence-based approaches(†) to increase physical activity by improving neighborhood supports for physical activity.(§) To assess the characteristics of adolescents who live in neighborhoods that are supportive of physical activity, CDC analyzed data on U.S. children and adolescents aged 10-17 years (defined as adolescents for this report) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). Overall, 65% of U.S. adolescents live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity, defined as neighborhoods that are perceived as safe and have sidewalks or walking paths and parks, playgrounds, or recreation centers. Adolescents who were Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity; who lived in lower-income households, households with less educated parents, and rural areas; or who were overweight or obese were less likely to live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity than were white adolescents and adolescents from higher income households, with a more highly educated parent, living in urban areas, and not overweight or obese. Within demographic groups, the largest disparity in the percentage of adolescents living in these neighborhoods was observed between adolescents living in households with a family income <100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) (51%) and adolescents living in households with a family income ≥400% of the FPL (76%). Efforts to improve neighborhood supports, particularly in areas with a substantial percentage of low-income and minority residents, might increase physical activity among adolescents and reduce health disparities. PMID:27309671

  18. Factors that Influence Physical Activity in Long-Term Care: Perspectives of Residents, Staff, and Significant Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Kathleen; Edwards, Nancy; Guitard, Paulette; Murray, Mary Ann; Caswell, Wenda; Perrier, Marie Josee

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity has been linked to positive health outcomes for frail seniors. However, our understanding of factors that influence the physical activity of residents in the long-term care (LTC) setting is limited. This article describes our work with focus groups, one component of a multi-component study that examined factors influencing the…

  19. Bifidobacterium strains from resident infant human gastrointestinal microflora exert antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Lievin, V; Peiffer, I; Hudault, S; Rochat, F; Brassart, D; Neeser, J; Servin, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—The gastrointestinal microflora exerts a barrier effect against enteropathogens. The aim of this study was to examine if bifidobacteria, a major species of the human colonic microflora, participates in the barrier effect by developing antimicrobial activity against enterovirulent bacteria.
METHODS—Antibacterial activity was examined in vitro against a wide range of Gram negative and Gram positive pathogens. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium SL1334 cell association and cell invasion was investigated in vitro using Caco-2 cells. Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract in vivo by bifidobacteria was examined in axenic C3/He/Oujco mice. Antimicrobial activity was examined in vivo in axenic C3/He/Oujco mice infected by the lethal S typhimurium C5 strain.
RESULTS—Fourteen human bifidobacterium strains isolated from infant stools were examined for antimicrobial activity. Two strains (CA1 and F9) expressed antagonistic activity against pathogens in vitro, inhibited cell entry, and killed intracellular S typhimurium SL1344 in Caco-2 cells. An antibacterial component(s) produced by CA1 and F9 was found to be a lipophilic molecule(s) with a molecular weight of less than 3500. In the axenic C3/He/Oujco mice, CA1 and F9 strains colonised the intestinal tract and protected mice against S typhimurium C5 lethal infection.
CONCLUSION—Several bifidobacterium strains from resident infant human gastrointestinal microflora exert antimicrobial activity, suggesting that they could participate in the "barrier effect" produced by the indigenous microflora.


Keywords: bifidobacteria; infant microflora; gastrointestinal infection; antimicrobial; microbial infection; intestinal cells PMID:11034580

  20. The development of the MIBBO: A measure of resident preferences for physical activity in long term care settings.

    PubMed

    Kleynen, Melanie; Braun, Susy M; van Vijven, Kim; van Rossum, Erik; Beurskens, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    Offering physical activities matching with the preferences of residents in long-term care facilities could increase compliance and contribute to client-centered care. A measure to investigate meaningful activities by using a photo-interview has been developed ("MIBBO"). In two pilot studies including 133 residents living on different wards in long-term care facilities, feasibility, most chosen activities, and consistency of preferences were investigated. It was possible to conduct the MIBBO on average in 30 min with the majority (86.4%) of residents. The most frequently chosen activities were: gymnastics and orchestra (each 28%), preparing a meal (31%), walking (outside, 33%), watering plants (38%), and feeding pets (40%). In a retest one week after the initial interview 69.4% agreement of chosen activities was seen. The MIBBO seems a promising measure to help health care professionals in identifying residents' preferred activities. Future research should focus on the implementation of the tailored activity plan, incorporating it into the daily routine. PMID:25784078

  1. Estimation of ground water residence times in the Critical zone: insight from U activity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaux, Francois; Ackerer, Julien; Lucas, Yann; viville, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The use of radioactive disequilibria as tracers and chronometers of weathering processes and related mass transfers has been recognized since the 60'. The development, over the last two decades, of analytical methods for measuring very precisely U-series nuclides (especially, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra) in environmental samples has opened up new scientific applications in Earth Surface Sciences. Here, we propose to present the potential of U activity ratios in surface waters as chronometer of water transfers at a watershed scale. This will be illustrated from studies performed at different scales, with the analysis of U activity ratios in surface waters from small watersheds (Strengbach and Ringelbach watersheds in the Vosges Mountain, France) but also from watersheds of much more regional extension (e.g., the Upper Rhine basin or the Ganges basin). These various studies show that variations of U activity ratios in surface waters are mainly associated with 234U-238U fractionations occurring during the water transfer within the bedrock, which intensity depends on two main parameters: the petro-physical characteristics of the aquifer, principally the geometry of water-rock interfaces and the duration of the water-rock interactions. This readily explains why different U activity ratios (UAR) can be observed in the different aquifers of a continental hydrosystem and hence why UAR can be used to trace the source of river waters. For a hydrological system developed on a substratum marked by fairly homogeneous petro-physical characteristics, the main parameter controlling the UAR in waters draining such a system would be the duration of the water-rock interactions. Variations of UAR in stream or spring waters of such a system can therefore be modeled using simple reactive transport model, which allows the estimation of both the dissolution rate of the bedrock and the residence time of the waters within the aquifer.

  2. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups in five provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-zhen; Li, Zhen-shan; Wang, Rong-hua

    2015-07-01

    The quantities and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important factors in the planning and management of MSW. Daily human activities were classified into three groups: maintenance activities (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care, MA); subsistence activities (providing the financial support requirements, SA); and leisure activities (social and recreational pursuits, LA). A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in five provinces (Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan and Sichuan) of China. These five provinces were chosen for this study and the distribution patterns of MSW generated by different activities and resident groups were revealed. The results show that waste generation in SA and LA fluctuated slightly from 2003 to 2008. For general waste generation in the five provinces, MA accounts for more than 70% of total MSW, SA approximately 10%, and LA between 10% and 16% by urban residents in 2008. Females produced more daily MSW than males in MA. Males produced more daily MSW than females in SA and LA. The wastes produced at weekends in MA and LA were far greater than on weekdays, but less than on weekdays for SA wastes. Furthermore, one of the model parameters (the waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure) is inversely proportional to per-capita disposable income of urban residents. A significant correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation by SA was observed with a high coefficient of determination. PMID:25861710

  3. Do Neighborhood Physical Activity Resources and Land Use Influence Physical Activity among African American Public Housing Residents?

    PubMed

    Parker, Nathan H; O'Connor, Daniel P; Kao, Dennis T; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined neighborhood influences on physical activity (PA) among low-income African Americans living in public housing. This study measured the associations of PA resources and land use with PA among 216 African Americans living in 12 low-income housing developments in Houston, Texas. Neighborhood measures included both detailed information from in-person audits and geographic information systems (GIS) data. Hierarchical linear regression models tested the associations of neighborhood PA resource availability and quality and land use density and diversity with individual-level, self-reported PA. Land use diversity was positively associated with walking among men after controlling for other neighborhood characteristics. Policies that promote land use diversity or improve the pedestrian environment in areas with diverse destinations may encourage PA among public housing residents. PMID:27524771

  4. Multiple Receptor-Ligand Interactions Direct Tissue-Resident γδ T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Witherden, Deborah. A.; Ramirez, Kevin; Havran, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    γδ T cells represent a major T cell population in epithelial tissues, such as skin, intestine, and lung, where they function in maintenance of the epithelium and provide a crucial first line defense against environmental and pathogenic insults. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms directing their activation and function have remained elusive. Epithelial-resident γδ T cells function through constant communication with neighboring cells, either via direct cell-to-cell contact or cell-to-matrix interactions. These intimate relationships allow γδ T cells to facilitate the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis, tissue repair following injury, inflammation, and protection from malignancy. Recent studies have identified a number of molecules involved in these complex interactions, under both homeostatic conditions, as well as following perturbation of these barrier tissues. These interactions are crucial to the timely production of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix proteins for restoration of homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the mechanisms directing epithelial-T cell crosstalk and the distinct roles played by individual receptor-ligand pairs of cell surface molecules in this process. PMID:25505467

  5. Healthy Active Living: A Residence Community-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Healthy Eating during the Transition to First-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Denver M. Y.; Bray, Steve R.; Beatty, Kevin R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Methods: Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the…

  6. Exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA silences genes linked to severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Siegel, T Nicolai; Martins, Rafael M; Wang, Fei; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi; Cheng, Xiu; Jiang, Lubin; Hon, Chung-Chau; Scheidig-Benatar, Christine; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Turner, Louise; Jensen, Anja T R; Claes, Aurelie; Guizetti, Julien; Malmquist, Nicholas A; Scherf, Artur

    2014-09-18

    Antigenic variation of the Plasmodium falciparum multicopy var gene family enables parasite evasion of immune destruction by host antibodies. Expression of a particular var subgroup, termed upsA, is linked to the obstruction of blood vessels in the brain and to the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria. The mechanism determining upsA activation remains unknown. Here we show that an entirely new type of gene silencing mechanism involving an exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA controls the silencing of genes linked to severe malaria. We identify a novel chromatin-associated exoribonuclease, termed PfRNase II, that controls the silencing of upsA var genes by marking their transcription start site and intron-promoter regions leading to short-lived cryptic RNA. Parasites carrying a deficient PfRNase II gene produce full-length upsA var transcripts and intron-derived antisense long non-coding RNA. The presence of stable upsA var transcripts overcomes monoallelic expression, resulting in the simultaneous expression of both upsA and upsC type PfEMP1 proteins on the surface of individual infected red blood cells. In addition, we observe an inverse relationship between transcript levels of PfRNase II and upsA-type var genes in parasites from severe malaria patients, implying a crucial role of PfRNase II in severe malaria. Our results uncover a previously unknown type of post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism in malaria parasites with repercussions for other organisms. Additionally, the identification of RNase II as a parasite protein controlling the expression of virulence genes involved in pathogenesis in patients with severe malaria may provide new strategies for reducing malaria mortality. PMID:25043062

  7. A Crystallographic Study of the Role of Sequence Context in Thymine Glycol Bypass by a Replicative DNA Polymerase Serendipitously Sheds Light on the Exonuclease Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Aller, Pierre; Duclos, Stéphanie; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2012-06-27

    Thymine glycol (Tg) is the most common oxidation product of thymine and is known to be a strong block to replicative DNA polymerases. A previously solved structure of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69 gp43) in complex with Tg in the sequence context 5'-G-Tg-G shed light on how Tg blocks primer elongation: The protruding methyl group of the oxidized thymine displaces the adjacent 5'-G, which can no longer serve as a template for primer elongation [Aller, P., Rould, M. A., Hogg, M, Wallace, S. S. and Doublie S. (2007). A structural rationale for stalling of a replicative DNA polymerase at the most common oxidative thymine lesion, thymine glycol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 814-818.]. Several studies showed that in the sequence context 5'-C-Tg-purine, Tg is more likely to be bypassed by Klenow fragment, an A-family DNA polymerase. We set out to investigate the role of sequence context in Tg bypass in a B-family polymerase and to solve the crystal structures of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase in complex with Tg-containing DNA in the three remaining sequence contexts: 5'-A-Tg-G, 5'-T-Tg-G, and 5'-C-Tg-G. A combination of several factors - including the associated exonuclease activity, the nature of the 3' and 5' bases surrounding Tg, and the cis-trans interconversion of Tg - influences Tg bypass. We also visualized for the first time the structure of a well-ordered exonuclease complex, allowing us to identify and confirm the role of key residues (Phe123, Met256, and Tyr257) in strand separation and in the stabilization of the primer strand in the exonuclease site.

  8. Structure of the dimeric exonuclease TREX1 in complex with DNA displays a proline-rich binding site for WW Domains.

    PubMed

    Brucet, Marina; Querol-Audí, Jordi; Serra, Maria; Ramirez-Espain, Ximena; Bertlik, Kamila; Ruiz, Lidia; Lloberas, Jorge; Macias, Maria J; Fita, Ignacio; Celada, Antonio

    2007-05-11

    TREX1 is the most abundant mammalian 3' --> 5' DNA exonuclease. It has been described to form part of the SET complex and is responsible for the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome in humans. Here we show that the exonuclease activity is correlated to the binding preferences toward certain DNA sequences. In particular, we have found three motifs that are selected, GAG, ACA, and CTGC. To elucidate how the discrimination occurs, we determined the crystal structures of two murine TREX1 complexes, with a nucleotide product of the exonuclease reaction, and with a single-stranded DNA substrate. Using confocal microscopy, we observed TREX1 both in nuclear and cytoplasmic subcellular compartments. Remarkably, the presence of TREX1 in the nucleus requires the loss of a C-terminal segment, which we named leucine-rich repeat 3. Furthermore, we detected the presence of a conserved proline-rich region on the surface of TREX1. This observation points to interactions with proline-binding domains. The potential interacting motif "PPPVPRPP" does not contain aromatic residues and thus resembles other sequences that select SH3 and/or Group 2 WW domains. By means of nuclear magnetic resonance titration experiments, we show that, indeed, a polyproline peptide derived from the murine TREX1 sequence interacted with the WW2 domain of the elongation transcription factor CA150. Co-immunoprecipitation studies confirmed this interaction with the full-length TREX1 protein, thereby suggesting that TREX1 participates in more functional complexes than previously thought. PMID:17355961

  9. Memory Performance, Health Literacy, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living of Community Residing Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Mackert, Michael; Becker, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy is associated with cognitive function across multiple domains in older adults, and these older adults may face special memory and cognitive challenges that can limit their health literacy and, in turn, their ability to live independently. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate if an association existed among health literacy, memory performance, and performance-based functional ability in community-residing older adults. Methods Forty-five adults participated in this study. Designed to reflect everyday memory, the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) bridges laboratory-based measures of memory and assessments obtained by self-report and observation. The RBMT classifies individuals into four categories of memory performance: normal, poor, mildly impaired, and severely impaired. The participants were recruited in the two categories of normal (≥22) or impaired (≤16) category on the RBMT. The sample consisted of 14 who were in the impaired category and 31 in the normal group. Their average age was 77.11 years, and their average number of years of education was 15.33 years. Health literacy scores measured with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Results Health literacy scores were high (M = 65.09, SD = 2.80). Thirty-four participants or 76% of the sample scored a 66 out of a possible score of 80. Pearson correlations were calculated for the study variables. Health literacy scores with education and cognition (.30), memory performance groups (normal vs. poor; .25), and performance-based instrumental activities (.50) were associated significantly. Discussion The development of a broader assortment of health literacy instruments would improve the ability of researchers to both compare studies and build on the knowledge and results of others. PMID:22166912

  10. Detecting Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Ah Receptor and Fluorescence Quantitative PCR with Exonuclease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhuang, Huisheng

    2010-11-01

    Tetrachlorobiphenyls as ligands were cultivated with goldfish, Ah receptors were extracted from the liver of goldfish and purified by hydroxyapatite. The complex of TCB ligands-receptors were analyzed by Surface Plasmon Resonance. DNA probes were amplified by PCR using Primers F1 and F2 with the DNA recognition site of responsive enhancer. DNA probes bound to the complex were not digested by exonuclease. The DNA that bound to the complex was quantified by real time PCR. A standard curve with TCB concentration to Ct values was obtained in the range of 10-12mol/L to 10-8 mol/L, according to TCB concentration in samples. The detection limit of the assay was below 10-12mol/L of TCB. Compared with HPLC, this assay is much more sensitive. These results suggest that fluorescence quantitative PCR with exonuclease by Ah receptors fits for detection of trace PCB.

  11. The effects of diffusion on an exonuclease/nanopore-based DNA sequencing engine.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Joseph E; Balijepalli, Arvind; Robertson, Joseph W F; Drown, Bryon S; Burden, Daniel L; Kasianowicz, John J

    2012-12-01

    Over 15 years ago, the ability to electrically detect and characterize individual polynucleotides as they are driven through a single protein ion channel was suggested as a potential method for rapidly sequencing DNA, base-by-base, in a ticker tape-like fashion. More recently, a variation of this method was proposed in which a nanopore would instead detect single nucleotides cleaved sequentially by an exonuclease enzyme in close proximity to one pore entrance. We analyze the exonuclease/nanopore-based DNA sequencing engine using analytical theory and computer simulations that describe nucleotide transport. The available data and analytical results suggest that the proposed method will be limited to reading <80 bases, imposed, in part, by the short lifetime each nucleotide spends in the vicinity of the detection element within the pore and the ability to accurately discriminate between the four mononucleotides. PMID:23231259

  12. Experiential Team Building for Student Leaders in Union Activities and Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Don; And Others

    This guide offers college or university student union and housing office personnel assistance in developing experiential team building workshops for student leaders. The rationale for providing such training is discussed in terms of the following: (1) resident assistants are usually vital compus leaders, with the potential to be vital student…

  13. Associate Residency Training Directors in Psychiatry: Demographics, Professional Activities, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; DeGolia, Sallie G.; Esposito, Karin; Miller, Deborah A.; Weinberg, Michael; Brenner, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize associate training director (ATD) positions in psychiatry. Method: An on-line survey was e-mailed in 2009 to all ATDs identified through the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT). Survey questions elicited information regarding demographics,…

  14. Distinct and redundant roles of exonucleases in Cryptococcus neoformans: Implications for virulence and mating

    PubMed Central

    Wollschlaeger, Carolin; Trevijano-Contador, Nuria; Wang, Xuying; Legrand, Mélanie; Zaragoza, Oscar; Heitman, Joseph; Janbon, Guilhem

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic pathogens like Cryptococcus neoformans are constantly exposed to changing environments, in their natural habitat as well as when encountering a human host. This requires a coordinated program to regulate gene expression that can act at the levels of mRNA synthesis and also mRNA degradation. Here, we find that deletion of the gene encoding the major cytoplasmic 5’→3’ exonuclease Xrn1p in C. neoformans has important consequences for virulence associated phenotypes such as growth at 37°C, capsule and melanin. In an invertebrate model of cryptococcosis the alteration of these virulence properties corresponds to avirulence of the xrn1Δ mutant strains. Additionally, deletion of XRN1 impairs uni- and bisexual mating. On a molecular level, the absence of XRN1 is associated with the upregulation of other major exonuclease encoding genes (i.e. XRN2 and RRP44). Using inducible alleles of RRP44 and XRN2, we show that artificial overexpression of these genes alters LAC1 gene expression and mating. Our data thus suggest the existence of a complex interdependent regulation of exonuclease encoding genes that impact upon virulence and mating in C. neoformans. PMID:25267175

  15. An exonuclease-assisted amplification electrochemical aptasensor of thrombin coupling "signal on/off" strategy.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ting; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2015-02-20

    In this work, a dual-signaling electrochemical aptasensor based on exonuclease-catalyzed target recycling was developed for thrombin detection. The proposed aptasensor coupled "signal-on" and "signal-off" strategies. As to the construction of the aptasensor, ferrocene (Fc) labeled thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) could perfectly hybridize with the methylene blue (MB) modified thiolated capture DNA to form double-stranded structure, hence emerged two different electrochemical signals. In the presence of thrombin, TBA could form a G-quadruplex structure with thrombin, leading to the dissociation of TBA from the duplex DNA and capture DNA formed hairpin structure. Exonuclease could selectively digest single-stranded TBA in G-quadruplex structure and released thrombin to realize target recycling. As a consequence, the electrochemical signal of MB enhanced significantly, which realized "signal on" strategy, meanwhile, the deoxidization peak current of Fc decreased distinctly, which realized "signal off" strategy. The employment of exonuclease and superposition of two signals significantly improved the sensitivity of the aptasensor. In this way, an aptasensor with high sensitivity, good stability and selectivity for quantitative detection of thrombin was constructed, which exhibited a good linear range from 5 pM to 50 nM with a detection limit of 0.9 pM (defined as S/N=3). In addition, this design strategy could be applied to the detection of other proteins and small molecules. PMID:25682249

  16. Atmospheric residence time of (210)Pb determined from the activity ratios with its daughter radionuclides (210)Bi and (210)Po.

    PubMed

    Semertzidou, P; Piliposian, G T; Appleby, P G

    2016-08-01

    The residence time of (210)Pb created in the atmosphere by the decay of gaseous (222)Rn is a key parameter controlling its distribution and fallout onto the landscape. These in turn are key parameters governing the use of this natural radionuclide for dating and interpreting environmental records stored in natural archives such as lake sediments. One of the principal methods for estimating the atmospheric residence time is through measurements of the activities of the daughter radionuclides (210)Bi and (210)Po, and in particular the (210)Bi/(210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios. Calculations used in early empirical studies assumed that these were governed by a simple series of equilibrium equations. This approach does however have two failings; it takes no account of the effect of global circulation on spatial variations in the activity ratios, and no allowance is made for the impact of transport processes across the tropopause. This paper presents a simple model for calculating the distributions of (210)Pb, (210)Bi and (210)Po at northern mid-latitudes (30°-65°N), a region containing almost all the available empirical data. By comparing modelled (210)Bi/(210)Pb activity ratios with empirical data a best estimate for the tropospheric residence time of around 10 days is obtained. This is significantly longer than earlier estimates of between 4 and 7 days. The process whereby (210)Pb is transported into the stratosphere when tropospheric concentrations are high and returned from it when they are low, significantly increases the effective residence time in the atmosphere as a whole. The effect of this is to significantly enhance the long range transport of (210)Pb from its source locations. The impact is illustrated by calculations showing the distribution of (210)Pb fallout versus longitude at northern mid-latitudes. PMID:27132252

  17. Montessori-based activities for long-term care residents with advanced dementia: effects on engagement and affect.

    PubMed

    Orsulic-Jeras, S; Judge, K S; Camp, C J

    2000-02-01

    Sixteen residents in long-term care with advanced dementia (14 women; average age = 88) showed significantly more constructive engagement (defined as motor or verbal behaviors in response to an activity), less passive engagement (defined as passively observing an activity), and more pleasure while participating in Montessori-based programming than in regularly scheduled activities programming. Principles of Montessori-based programming, along with examples of such programming, are presented. Implications of the study and methods for expanding the use of Montessori-based dementia programming are discussed. PMID:10750318

  18. Level of Physical Activity of Physicians Among Residency Training Program At Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, KSA 2014

    PubMed Central

    AL Reshidi, Fayez Saud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical exercise is a crucial component in maintaining a healthy life. Unfortunately, the prevalence of adequate physical activity among young physicians is low. Additionally, there was a few research estimating lifestyle habits and other preventive health measurements especially during their residency-training program despite the importance of this topic. Objectives The aim of this research is to determine the level of physical activity and the main barriers of being physically active among physicians at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC). Methods An analytical cross-sectional study was adopted targeting the physicians of residency training program in different specialties at PSMMC, Riyadh, KSA. Data was collected using of short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results The study showed that 68.4% of the participants had low level of physical activity (≤600-MET min/week). High physical activity level was more reported among male physicians compared to female physicians (4.3% versus 1.3%). The most frequent barriers of practicing physical activities among males were limited exercise facilities at home (71.7%), not suitable weather (69%) and the first priority is not for exercise (67.2%) whereas among females were no enough time to exercise (69.3%), lack of suitable places to exercise nearby (68%), the first priority is not for exercise (66.7%) Conclusion Most of the physicians especially female residents reported low level of physical exercise due to many barriers. Overcoming these barriers may contribute to a further increase in the level of physical activity among them. PMID:27004056

  19. Restorative Care’s Effect on Activities of Daily Living Dependency in Long-stay Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Kristine M. C.; Wyman, Jean F.; Savik, Kay; Kane, Robert L.; Mueller, Christine; Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: (a) Identify the prevalence of nursing homes providing Medicare supported restorative care programs and of long stay participants, (b) compare characteristics between restorative care participants and nonparticipants, and (c) assess restorative care’s effect on change in activities of daily living (ADL) dependency. Design and Methods: Longitudinal analysis of Minimum Data Set assessments linked to the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey using a sample of 7,735 residents, age ≥ 65 years living in 1,097 nursing homes for at least 6 months. Receipt of any restorative care was used as a time varying predictor to estimate change in ADL dependency over 18 months using linear mixed models. Results: The sample was 75% female, 89% non-Hispanic White, with a mean age of 85±8, and average length of stay of 3.2±3.4 years. Most nursing homes had restorative care programs (67%), but less than one-third of long-stay residents participated. After controlling for resident and nursing home characteristics, the predicted mean ADL dependency score (range 0–28) at baseline was 18 for restorative care participants and 14 for nonparticipants. Over 18 months, ADL dependency increased 1 point for both participants and nonparticipants (p = .12). Implications: A minority of long-stay residents participated in Medicare supported restorative care programs despite their availability and potential benefits. Even though participants had greater vulnerability for deterioration in physical, mental, and functional health than nonparticipants, both groups had similar rates of ADL decline. Future research is needed to determine if providing restorative care to less dependent long-stay residents is effective. PMID:26055785

  20. Resident recruitment.

    PubMed

    Longmaid, H Esterbrook

    2003-02-01

    This article has introduced the reader to the critical components of successful recruitment of radiology residents. With particular attention to the ACGME institutional and program requirements regarding resident recruitment, and an explanation of the support systems (ERAS and NRMP) currently available to those involved in applicant review and selection, the article has sought to delineate a sensible approach to recruitment. Successful recruiters have mastered the essentials of these programs and have learned to adapt the programs to their needs. As new program directors work with their departments' resident selection committees, they will identify the factors that faculty and current residents cite as most important in the successful selection of new residents. By structuring the application review process, exploiting the power of the ERAS, and crafting a purposeful and friendly interview process, radiology residency directors can find and recruit the residents who best match their programs. PMID:12585436

  1. A rapid method for preparation of calf spleen exonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, S; Söll, D

    1977-01-01

    Chromatography on Concanavalin A sepharose is a simple procedure for partial purification of spleen phosphodiesterase. This procedure removes much, but not all, of the ribonuclease activity found as contaminant in most spleen phosphdisterase preparations. Images PMID:200894

  2. A medical crisis management simulation activity for pediatric dental residents and assistants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gee Mei

    2011-06-01

    Dentists are expected to deliver safe and pain-free dental procedures after they graduate from dental school. This includes using local anesthetics and sedative drugs that may be associated with side effects and complications that can lead to crisis situations. This study postulated that teaching medical crisis management to dental residents and assistants using human patient simulation (HPS) would improve their confidence in managing crisis situations in the real world. Four medical crisis scenarios were designed and programmed into a pediatric simulator. The scenarios included anaphylaxis, laryngospasm during procedural sedation, sedative medication overdose, and multiple drug interaction with cardiac arrhythmia. The simulation room was outfitted with an authentic dental operatory and emergency equipment to enhance the realism. One first-or second-year pediatric dentistry resident and a staff dental assistant were assigned as a team to participate in each ten-minute scenario followed by a debriefing session. At the end of the sessions, the participants completed an anonymous survey regarding the simulation experience. There were a total of twenty-four participants, 91.7 percent of whom felt that HPS was a good tool for learning medical crisis and that they will be more confident in managing a similar situation in the dental office after this experience. A majority of the participants felt that using HPS as a tool to teach crisis management is an acceptable and valuable technique to help improve their confidence in managing crisis situations that may occur in dental offices. PMID:21642524

  3. Tritium activity concentrations and residence times of groundwater collected in Rokkasho, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Tritium ((3)H) concentrations were measured in groundwater samples from four surface wells (4-10 m deep), four shallow wells (24-26.5 m deep) and a 150-m-deep well in the Futamata River catchment area, which is adjacent to the large-scale commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan. The (3)H concentrations in most of the surface- and shallow-well samples (<0.03-0.57 Bq l(-1)) were similar to those in precipitation (annual mean: 0.31-0.79 Bq l(-1)), suggesting that the residence time of the water in those wells was 0-15 y. The (3)H concentrations in the samples from a 26-m-deep well and the 150-m-deep well were lower than those in the other wells, indicating that groundwater with a long residence time exists in deep aquifers and the estuary area of the catchment. It is not clear whether (3)H released during test operation of the plant with actual spent nuclear fuel affected the (3)H concentrations observed in this study. PMID:25944959

  4. Effects of oyster harvest activities on Louisiana reef habitat and resident nekton communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, Steve; LaPeyre, Megan K.

    2015-01-01

    Oysters are often cited as “ecosystem engineers” because they modify their environment. Coastal Louisiana contains extensive oyster reef areas that have been harvested for decades, and whether differences in habitat functions exist between those areas and nonharvested reefs is unclear. We compared reef physical structure and resident community metrics between these 2 subtidal reef types. Harvested reefs were more fragmented and had lower densities of live eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and hooked mussels (Ischadium recurvum) than the nonharvested reefs. Stable isotope values (13C and 15N) of dominant nekton species and basal food sources were used to compare food web characteristics. Nonpelagic source contributions and trophic positions of dominant species were slightly elevated at harvested sites. Oyster harvesting appeared to have decreased the number of large oysters and to have increased the percentage of reefs that were nonliving by decreasing water column filtration and benthopelagic coupling. The differences in reef matrix composition, however, had little effect on resident nekton communities. Understanding the thresholds of reef habitat areas, the oyster density or oyster size distribution below which ecosystem services may be compromised, remains key to sustainable management.

  5. Critical determinants for substrate recognition and catalysis in the M. tuberculosis class II AP-endonuclease/3'-5' exonuclease III.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Taran; Shukla, Ankita; Rai, Niyati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2015-05-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis AP-endonuclease/3'-5' exodeoxyribonuclease (MtbXthA) is an important player in DNA base excision repair (BER). We demonstrate that the enzyme has robust apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease activity, 3'-5' exonuclease, phosphatase, and phosphodiesterase activities. The enzyme functions as an AP-endonuclease at high ionic environments, while the 3'-5'-exonuclease activity is predominant at low ionic environments. Our molecular modelling and mutational experiments show that E57 and D251 are critical for catalysis. Although nicked DNA and gapped DNA are fair substrates of MtbXthA, the gap-size did not affect the excision activity and furthermore, a substrate with a recessed 3'-end is preferred. To understand the determinants of abasic-site recognition, we examined the possible roles of (i) the base opposite the abasic site, (ii) the abasic ribose ring itself, (iii) local distortions in the AP-site, and (iv) conserved residues located near the active site. Our experiments demonstrate that the first three determinants do not play a role in MtbXthA, and in fact the enzyme exhibits robust endonucleolytic activity against single-stranded AP DNA also. Regarding the fourth determinant, it is known that the catalytic-site of AP endonucleases is surrounded by conserved aromatic residues and intriguingly, the exact residues that are directly involved in abasic site recognition vary with the individual proteins. We therefore, used a combination of mutational analysis, kinetic assays, and structure-based modelling, to identify that Y237, supported by Y137, mediates the formation of the MtbXthA-AP-DNA complex and AP-site incision. PMID:25748880

  6. Rewarding the Resident Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Drake, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Residents routinely make significant contributions to the education of medical students. However, little attention has been paid to rewarding these individuals for their involvement in these academic activities. This report describes a program that rewards resident teachers with an academic appointment as a Clinical Instructor. The residents…

  7. Coordinated Destruction of Cellular Messages in Translation Complexes by the Gammaherpesvirus Host Shutoff Factor and the Mammalian Exonuclease Xrn1

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G. Renuka; Wong, Wesley; Jackson, Andrew O.; Glaunsinger, Britt A.

    2011-01-01

    Several viruses encode factors that promote host mRNA degradation to silence gene expression. It is unclear, however, whether cellular mRNA turnover pathways are engaged to assist in this process. In Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus this phenotype is enacted by the host shutoff factor SOX. Here we show that SOX-induced mRNA turnover is a two-step process, in which mRNAs are first cleaved internally by SOX itself then degraded by the cellular exonuclease Xrn1. SOX therefore bypasses the regulatory steps of deadenylation and decapping normally required for Xrn1 activation. SOX is likely recruited to translating mRNAs, as it cosediments with translation initiation complexes and depletes polysomes. Cleaved mRNA intermediates accumulate in the 40S fraction, indicating that recognition occurs at an early stage of translation. This is the first example of a viral protein commandeering cellular mRNA turnover pathways to destroy host mRNAs, and suggests that Xrn1 is poised to deplete messages undergoing translation in mammalian cells. PMID:22046136

  8. The relationship between apathy and participation in therapeutic activities in nursing home residents with dementia: Evidence for an association and directions for further research.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Julie M; Doyle, Colleen J; Selvarajah, Suganya

    2016-07-01

    Apathy is one of the most frequent and early symptoms of dementia. Because apathy is characterised by lack of initiative and motivation, it leads to considerable burden being placed on carers to ensure that the person living with dementia has a reasonable quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between apathy and participation in therapeutic activities for older people with dementia living in nursing homes. Ninety residents were recruited into the study, and apathy was measured by nursing home staff using the Apathy Evaluation Scale Clinician version. Staff also compiled data on each resident's involvement in therapeutic activities. Among this sample, the mean age was 84.8 years, and mean length of stay in the nursing home was 1.8 years. The mean apathy score was 50.4, indicating that on average the residents had a moderate level of apathy. Overall, residents participated in six activities per week and those residents who were involved in the most activities had the lowest levels of apathy. This paper provides evidence that residents involved in therapeutic activities have lower levels of apathy. Further research should be conducted on the direction of causality, whether apathy levels can be changed through participation in therapeutic activities, the relationship between dementia severity and modifiability of apathy, and the intensity of therapeutic activities required to maintain functioning. PMID:24670286

  9. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Folta, Sara C.; Nelson, Miriam E.; Heidkamp-Young, Eleanor; Fenton, Mark; Junot, Bridgid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs) were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators) in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no) experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change. PMID:25525441

  10. Factorial Invariance of the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Survey Among Single vs. Multi-family Housing Residents

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Daniel P.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Individual perceptions of one’s neighborhood environment influence decisions about physical activity (PA) participation. Differences between single-family housing neighborhoods vs. multi-family housing neighborhoods may affect perceptions and lead to varying responses on surveys designed to assess perceptions of the neighborhood environment for PA. This study tested the factorial invariance for the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Survey (PANES) between residents of single-family vs. multi-family housing neighborhoods. Method This study was a secondary data analysis of PANES ratings from African American and Hispanic or Latina women (n=324) who participated in the Health is Power study (NCI R01CA109403), a multi-site, community based trial to investigate the relationship between neighborhood factors and physical activity adoption and maintenance. Factorial invariance was tested using a series of nested confirmatory factor analysis models. Results The final model was a second-order factor structure with partial invariance of item intercepts. The second-order factor structure and the relationships of the PANES items to the first-order factors (Amenable, Unsafe, and Walkable) and of the first-order factors to the second-order factor (Environment) were invariant between the single-family and multi-family housing neighborhoods groups. Conclusion These findings support the construct validity of PANES, which can be considered valid for measuring neighborhood perceptions among residents of neighborhoods with different housing types. PMID:25751025

  11. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Theory-Based Activities for the Behavioral Symptoms of Dementia in Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, Ann; Litaker, Mark; Buettner, Lin; Moeller, Joyel; Costa, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To test the main and interactive effects of activities derived from the Need-driven Dementia-compromised Behavior model for responding to behavioral symptoms in nursing home residents. Activities tailored to functional level and personality style of interest were hypothesized to improve behavioral outcomes to a greater extent than partially- tailored or non-tailored activities. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial, double-blind. SETTING Nine community-based nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS One hundred and twenty eight cognitively impaired residents randomly assigned to activities tailored to: functional level (FL) (n= 32); personality style of interest (PSI) (n= 33); functional level and personality style of interest (FL+PSI) (n= 31); or active control (AC) (n= 32). INTERVENTION Three weeks of activities provided twice daily. MEASUREMENTS Agitation, passivity, engagement, affect, and mood assessed from video-recordings and real time observations during baseline, intervention, random times outside of intervention, and one week post-intervention. RESULTS Compared to baseline all treatments improved outcomes during intervention except mood which worsened under AC. During intervention the PSI group demonstrated greater engagement, alertness, and attention than the other groups; the FL+PSI group demonstrated greater pleasure. During random times, engagement returned to baseline levels except in the FL group where it decreased. There was also less agitation and passivity in groups with a tailored to personality style of interest component. One week post intervention mood, anxiety and passivity improved over baseline; there was significantly less pleasure displayed following withdrawal of treatment. CONCLUSION The hypothesis was partially supported. Personality style of interest is a critical component of individualized activity prescription. PMID:21649633

  12. Generic assay format for endo- and exonucleases based on fluorogenic substrates labeled with single fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, Theo T

    2014-09-15

    We previously described the development of fluorogenic assays for nucleic acid-modifying enzymes based on synthetic oligonucleotides labeled with a single fluorophore. In the current work, we studied the performance of such singly labeled substrates as a function of the nucleotide sequence in the vicinity of the fluorophore and the nature of the fluorophore itself. In agreement with published studies, we found that a 3' end of the primer terminating in a dC residue opposite a 5' dG provides the greatest degree of fluorophore quenching. Adding a second dC residue at the 3' penultimate position opposite another dG increased the quenching further. Among the various dyes tested, the difluoro substituted fluorescein derivative Oregon Green emerged as a superior fluorophore for this assay format. We have now combined these findings into a new generic format for endonuclease assays. This format allows a substrate for any endonuclease to be obtained rapidly by simply replacing the enzyme's recognition sequence within the generic labeled molecule. Compared with our previous format, the new assays show greatly expanded signal dynamic ranges. The format is applicable to other nucleic acid-modifying enzymes such as exonucleases (e.g., T7 gene 6 exonuclease) and DNA repair enzymes (e.g., uracil-DNA glycosylase). PMID:24907506

  13. Technology in Residence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jordan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the necessity for incorporating current technology in today's college residence halls to meet the more diverse and continued activities of its students. Technology addressed covers data networking and telecommunications, heating and cooling systems, and fire-safety systems. (GR)

  14. Physical activity among working age residents of Wroclaw in the light of their educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Puciato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This article attempts to define the relationship between physical activity and educational attainment of working-age adults from Wroclaw. [Subjects and Methods] The study surveyed 2,174 participants aged 18–64 years, 984 men and 1,190 women. To evaluate their physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. [Results] Most of the participants performed low-intensity levels of physical activity. Men were characterized by generally higher physical activity than women, but the difference was not significant. The level of educational attainment differentiated physical activity only in women with secondary or higher education, who performed significantly more physical activities than those with primary and vocational education. [Conclusion] Further research in this subject area should be performed. It should be continuous and consider other methods and techniques. PMID:27065518

  15. Risk of carotid atherosclerosis is associated with low serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity among arsenic exposed residents in Southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.-F.; Sun, C.-W.; Cheng, T.-J.; Chang, K.-H.; Chen, C.-J.; Wang, S.-L.

    2009-04-15

    To understand whether human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) would modulate the risk for arsenic-related atherosclerosis, we studied 196 residents from an arseniasis-endemic area in Southwestern Taiwan and 291 age- and sex-matched residents from a nearby control area where arsenic exposure was found low. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined by a carotid artery intima-media wall thickness (IMT) of > 1.0 mm. Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was increased in the arseniasis-endemic area as compared to the control area after adjustment for conventional risk factors (OR = 2.20, p < 0.01). The prevalence was positively associated with cumulative arsenic exposure (mg/L-year) in a dose-dependent manner. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that in the endemic group, low serum PON1 activity was an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (OR = 4.18 low vs. high, p < 0.05). For those of low PON1 activity and high cumulative arsenic exposure, the odds ratio for the prevalence of atherosclerosis was further increased up to 5.68 (p < 0.05). No significant association was found between atherosclerosis and four polymorphisms of the PON gene cluster (PON1 - 108C/T, PON1 Q192R, PON2 A148G, PON2 C311S). However, genetic frequencies of certain alleles including PON1 Q192, PON2 G148 and PON2 C311 were found increased in the endemic group as compared to the controls and a general Chinese population, indicating a possible survival selection in the endemic group after a long arsenic exposure history. Our results showed a significant joint effect between arsenic exposure and serum PON1 activity on carotid atherosclerosis, suggesting that subjects of low PON1 activity may be more susceptible to arsenic-related cardiovascular disease.

  16. 76 FR 52287 - Political Activity-Federal Employees Residing In Designated Localities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains notices to the public of #0;the...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR PART 733 RIN 3206-AM44 Political Activity--Federal Employees... George County, Virginia, a partial exemption from the political activity restrictions specified in 5...

  17. Importance of Quality Recreation Activities for Older Adults Residing in Nursing Homes: Considerations for Gerontologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberkost, Michael; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Based on a needs assessment survey (66 responses from 101 nursing home activity coordinators), a recreation manual and training program was developed and tested with 25 coordinators/recreation staff. The 14 who completed evaluations increased their understanding of such topics as depression; goals of nursing home recreation programs; motivation of…

  18. Factors Influencing Expectations of Physical Activity for Adolescents Residing in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Rebecca L.; Nabors, Laura; King, Keith; Vidourek, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Appalachian adolescents are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior; little research has addressed this concern. Purpose: This study examined adolescents' expectations for engaging in physical activity (PA), chiefly expectations for relaxation and fitness. Independent variables were self-efficacy expectations (SEEs) to…

  19. Permanent resident

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff. PMID:27193992

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicated Soaps Commonly Used By Dar es Salaam Residents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwambete, K. D.; Lyombe, F.

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps’ concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps’ ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps’ concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts® soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency® and Dalan® exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex®, Roberts®, Family® and Protector® were equally effective (P<0.01) against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda® liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps’ antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora. PMID:22131630

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicated Soaps Commonly Used By Dar es Salaam Residents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwambete, K D; Lyombe, F

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps' concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps' ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps' concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts(®) soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency(®) and Dalan(®) exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex(®), Roberts(®), Family(®) and Protector(®) were equally effective (P<0.01) against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda(®) liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps' antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora. PMID:22131630

  2. The biological activities of protein/oleic acid complexes reside in the fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Angelo; Spolaore, Barbara; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia

    2013-06-01

    A complex formed by human α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and oleic acid (OA), named HAMLET, has been shown to have an apoptotic activity leading to the selective death of tumor cells. In numerous publications it has been reported that in the complex α-LA is monomeric and adopts a partly folded or "molten globule" state, leading to the idea that partly folded proteins can have "beneficial effects". The protein/OA molar ratio initially has been reported to be 1:1, while recent data have indicated that the OA-complex is given by an oligomeric protein capable of binding numerous OA molecules per protein monomer. Proteolytic fragments of α-LA, as well as other proteins unrelated to α-LA, can form OA-complexes with biological activities similar to those of HAMLET, thus indicating that a generic protein can form a cytotoxic complex under suitable experimental conditions. Moreover, even the selective tumoricidal activity of HAMLET-like complexes has been questioned. There is recent evidence that the biological activity of long chain unsaturated fatty acids, including OA, can be ascribed to their effect of perturbing the structure of biological membranes and consequently the function of membrane-bound proteins. In general, it has been observed that the cytotoxic effects exerted by HAMLET-like complexes are similar to those reported for OA alone. Overall, these findings can be interpreted by considering that the protein moiety does not have a toxic effect on its own, but merely acts as a solubilising agent for the inherently toxic fatty acid. PMID:23499846

  3. Activated macrophages as a feeder layer for growth of resident cardiac progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Diana E; Cabeza Meckert, Patricia; Locatelli, Paola; Olea, Fernanda D; Pérez, Néstor G; Pinilla, Oscar A; Díaz, Romina G; Crottogini, Alberto; Laguens, Rubén P

    2016-08-01

    The adult heart contains a population of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Growing and collecting an adequate number of CPCs demands complex culture media containing growth factors. Since activated macrophages secrete many growth factors, we investigated if activated isolated heart cells seeded on a feeder layer of activated peritoneal macrophages (PM) could result in CPCs and if these, in turn, could exert cardioprotection in rats with myocardial infarction (MI). Heart cells of inbred Wistar rats were isolated by collagenase digestion and cultured on PM obtained 72 h after intraperitoneal injection of 12 ml thioglycollate. Cells (1 × 10(6)) exhibiting CPC phenotype (immunohistochemistry) were injected in the periphery of rat MI 10 min after coronary artery occlusion. Control rats received vehicle. Three weeks later, left ventricular (LV) function (echocardiogram) was assessed, animals were euthanized and the hearts removed for histological studies. Five to six days after seeding heart cells on PM, spherical clusters composed of small bright and spherical cells expressing mostly c-Kit and Sca-1 antigens were apparent. After explant, those clusters developed cobblestone-like monolayers that expressed smooth muscle actin and sarcomeric actin and were successfully transferred for more than ten passages. When injected in the MI periphery, many of them survived at 21 days after coronary ligature, improved LV ejection fraction and decreased scar size as compared with control rats. CPC-derived cells with cardiocyte and smooth muscle phenotypes can be successfully grown on a feeder layer of activated syngeneic PM. These cells decreased scar size and improved heart function in rats with MI. PMID:25432330

  4. The Costs and Benefits of Active Coping for Adolescents Residing in Urban Poverty.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence. PMID:27138173

  5. Academic careers: choice and activity of graduates of a pediatric residency program 1974-1986.

    PubMed Central

    Lovejoy, F. H.; Ledley, F. D.; Nathan, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    In summary, our data suggest that the playing field for academic medicine is changing. It is more patient care oriented, more multifaceted and supported more by clinical dollars than in the past. Greater flexibility in what constitutes "academic success" is necessary to assure a supportive environment in which tomorrow's academic faculty can develop and flourish. To accomplish these goals promotion systems that reward not only research but also teaching and clinical care accomplishments will be necessary. Clinicians will need to be compared with clinicians, teachers with teachers, clinical investigators with clinical investigators and basic investigators with basic investigators. Sources of support will need to be more clearly targeted along activity lines with clinical dollars supporting the clinician, medical education dollars supporting the teacher-educators and federal and foundation dollars supporting research. In our department, time and effort for research (45%) approximates dollar support for this activity (44%), while clinical dollars (43%) fund to a greater degree time and effort committed to clinical care (34%), and administration and teaching dollars (13%) under fund time and effort committed to these activities (21%). This suggests the need to identify increased funding to support teaching and education. Promotion expectations for women will need to be more flexible and adjusted to family responsibilities and demands. Most of all, however, we academic faculty must support enthusiastically the importance and joy of our work. We must be encouraging to our colleagues and our students and continue to recognize that for all of the difficulties and challenges, academic life is a rewarding and fulfilling enterprise. PMID:1343441

  6. Slow-Onset Inhibition of the FabI Enoyl Reductase from Francisella tularensis: Residence Time and in Vivo Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.; England, K; Ende, C; Truglio, J; Luckner, S; Reddy, B; Marlenee, N; Knudson, S; Knudson, D; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent and contagious Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes the disease tularemia in mammals. The high infectivity and the ability of the bacterium to survive for weeks in a cool, moist environment have raised the possibility that this organism could be exploited deliberately as a potential biological weapon. Fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) is essential for bacterial viability and has been validated as a target for the discovery of novel antibacterials. The FAS-II enoyl reductase ftuFabI has been cloned and expressed, and a series of diphenyl ethers have been identified that are subnanomolar inhibitors of the enzyme with MIC90 values as low as 0.00018 ?g mL-1. The existence of a linear correlation between the Ki and MIC values strongly suggests that the antibacterial activity of the diphenyl ethers results from direct inhibition of ftuFabI within the cell. The compounds are slow-onset inhibitors of ftuFabI, and the residence time of the inhibitors on the enzyme correlates with their in vivo activity in a mouse model of tularemia infection. Significantly, the rate of breakdown of the enzyme-inhibitor complex is a better predictor of in vivo activity than the overall thermodynamic stability of the complex, a concept that has important implications for the discovery of novel chemotherapeutics that normally rely on equilibrium measurements of potency.

  7. Design and operation specifications of an active monitoring system for detecting southern resident killer whales

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xu, Jinshan; Martinez, Jayson J.; Weiland, Mark A.; Mueller, Robert P.; Myers, Joshua R.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Before final approval is given to the Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 for deploying the first tidal power devices in the United States in an open water environment, a system to manage the potential risk of injury to killer whales due to collision with moving turbine blades must be demonstrated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is tasked with establishing the performance requirements for, constructing, and testing a prototype marine animal alert system for triggering temporary turbine shutdown when there is risk of collision with a killer whale. To develop a system that relies on active sonar two critical areas must be investigated - the target strength of killer whales and the frequency content of commercially available active sonar units. PNNL studied three target strength models: a simple model, the Fourier matching model, and the Kirchoff-ray mode model. Using target strength measurements of bottlenose dolphins obtained by previous researchers and assuming killer whales share similar morphology and structure, PNNL extrapolated the target strength of an adult killer whale 7.5 m in length at a frequency of 67 kHz. To study the frequency content of a commercially available sonar unit, direct measurements of the signal transmitted by the sonar were obtained by using a hydrophone connected to a data acquisition system in both laboratory and field conditions. The measurements revealed that in addition to the primary frequency of 200 kHz, there is a secondary frequency component at 90 kHz, which is within the hearing range of killer whales. The amplitude of the 90-kHz frequency component is above the hearing threshold of killer whales but below the threshold for potential injuries.

  8. Teaching, leadership, scholarly productivity, and level of activity in the chiropractic profession: a study of graduates of the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic radiology residency program

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kenneth J.; Siordia, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to track the graduates of the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic (LACC) radiology residency program, review their scholarly productivity, and report those involved in teaching and leadership positions. Methods Former LACC residents’ career information was identified through publicly available electronic documents including Web sites and social media. PubMed and the Index to Chiropractic Literature databases were searched for chiropractic graduate job surveys, and proportional comparisons were made between the career paths of LACC radiology residency graduates and those of non–residency-trained chiropractors. Results Of 47 former LACC residents, 28 (60%) have or previously had careers in tertiary (chiropractic) education; and 12 (26%) have attained a department chair position or higher at tertiary teaching institutions. Twenty-two (47%) have or previously had private radiology practices, whereas 11 (23%) have or previously had clinical chiropractic practices. Often, residency graduates hold or have held 2 of these positions at once; and one, all 3. Chapters or books were authored by 13 (28%). Conclusion Radiology residency LACC graduates are professionally active, particularly in education, and demonstrate scholarly productivity. PMID:23966885

  9. What Medical Oncologist Residents Think about the Italian Speciality Schools: A Survey of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) on Educational, Clinical and Research Activities

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Anna; De Angelis, Carmine; Lambertini, Matteo; Cremolini, Chiara; Imbimbo, Martina; Berardi, Rossana; Di Maio, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; La Verde, Nicla

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Relevant heterogeneity exists among Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, also within the same country. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) undertook an online survey, inviting all the residents to describe their daily activities and to express their overall satisfaction about their programs. Methods A team composed of five residents and three consultants in medical oncology prepared a 38 items questionnaire that was published online in a reserved section, accessible through a link sent by e-mail. Residents were invited to anonymously fill in the questionnaire that included the following sub-sections: quality of teaching, clinical and research activity, overall satisfaction. Results Three-hundred and eleven (57%) out of 547 invited residents filled in the questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-three (72%) participants declared that attending lessons was frequently difficult and 153 (49%) declared they did not gain substantial improvement in their knowledge from them. Fifty-five percent stated that they did not receive lessons on palliative care. Their overall judgment about didactic activity was low in 63% of the interviewed. The satisfaction for clinical activity was in 86% of cases good: 84% recognized that, during the training period, they acquired a progressive independence on patients' management. About research activity, the majority (79%) of participants in the survey was actively engaged in managing patients included in clinical trials but the satisfaction level for the involvement in research activities was quite low (54%). Overall, 246 residents (79%) gave a positive global judgment of their Medical Oncology Schools. Conclusions The landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology is quite heterogeneous across the country. Some improvements in the organization of teaching and in the

  10. Activation of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α in Resident Peritoneal Macrophages by Listeria monocytogenes Involves Listeriolysin O and TLR2*

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Shahid; Goldfine, Howard; Tucker, Dawn E.; Suram, Saritha; Lenz, Laurel L.; Akira, Shizuo; Uematsu, Satoshi; Girotti, Milena; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Breuel, Kevin; Williams, David L.; Leslie, Christina C.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoid production by macrophages is an early response to microbial infection that promotes acute inflammation. The intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes stimulates arachidonic acid release and eicosanoid production from resident mouse peritoneal macrophages through activation of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). The ability of wild type L. monocytogenes (WTLM) to stimulate arachidonic acid release is partially dependent on the virulence factor listeriolysin O; however, WTLM and L. monocytogenes lacking listeriolysin O (ΔhlyLM) induce similar levels of cyclooxygenase 2. Arachidonic acid release requires activation of MAPKs by WTLM and ΔhlyLM. The attenuated release of arachidonic acid that is observed in TLR2−/− and MyD88−/− macrophages infected with WTLM and ΔhlyLM correlates with diminished MAPK activation. WTLM but not ΔhlyLM increases intracellular calcium, which is implicated in regulation of cPLA2α. Prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin I2, and leukotriene C4 are produced by cPLA2α+/+ but not cPLA2α−/− macrophages in response to WTLM and ΔhlyLM. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production is significantly lower in cPLA2α+/+ than in cPLA2α−/− macrophages infected with WTLM and ΔhlyLM. Treatment of infected cPLA2α+/+ macrophages with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin increases TNFα production to the level produced by cPLA2α−/− macrophages implicating prostaglandins in TNFα down-regulation. Therefore activation of cPLA2α in macrophages may impact immune responses to L. monocytogenes. PMID:18083708

  11. The Determinants of Staff and Resident Activity in Residential Services for People with Severe Intellectual Disability: Moving beyond Size, Building Design, Location and Number of Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, David

    1998-01-01

    Draws together the results of seven studies that investigated factors influencing the effects of service quality in community-based residential services for people with severe mental retardation. Results found that quality of staff and resident activity is dependent on an interaction between the structure, orientation, and procedures followed…

  12. Does Concern Motivate Behavior Change?: Exploring the Relationship between Physical Activity and Body Mass Index among Low-Income Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamers, Sara L.; Allen, Jennifer; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne; Harley, Amy; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore relationships between concerns and physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among a racially/ethnically diverse low-income population. Method: A cross-sectional survey documented behavioral risks among racially/ethnically diverse low-income residents in the Boston area (2005-2009). Multivariable logistic regressions were…

  13. The decision, implementation and assessment of a credit-bearing activity class by faculty in residence: A case study.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Janet; Harrison, Geoff; Humphrey, Michael; Sielaff, Cala; Wintrow, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This case study reports on a programmatic decision to require a credit-bearing course that was made by Faculty in Residence (FIR), including its implementation and results over a two-year period from 2010-2012. The focus is on FIR and on the impact of their decision upon the students enrolled in their Living Learning Communities (LLCs). The credit-bearing course was a Kinesiology Activities class taken by all seven LLCs at Boise State University. Anonymous feedback from students was obtained via end of semester surveys; results were used to improve the course. Survey feedback was analyzed to assess the value students perceived to have gained from the course. The majority of students reported gaining value from the class. Students noted that it positively affected their time management/personal accountability, that it decreased their stress level and that it increased their awareness of the Recreational Center offerings. Some students were critical of the course, reporting little to no value or even resentment about the course requirement. The decision, implementation and improvements of the course required faculty leadership and full participation of all LLCs; perceptions of the FIR in terms of the effects of adding the required course on their LLC are reported. PMID:26519021

  14. Transcriptional activator elements for curtovirus C1 expression reside in the 3' coding region of ORF C1.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jingyung; Buckley, Kenneth; Lee, Sukchan; Davis, Keith

    2007-02-28

    Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV), members of curtoviruses, encode seven open reading frames (ORFs) within a approximately 3 kb genome. One of these viral ORFs, C1, is known to play an important role in the early stage of viral infection in plants during initiation of viral DNA replication. We used promoter:: reporter (beta-glucuronidase) gene fusions in transgenic Ara-bidopsis to identify the putative promoter region of BCTV ORF C1. Unlike other geminiviruses, the intergenic region of BCTV was not sufficient to promote C1 expression in transgenic plants. When sequences extending into the coding region of C1 were tested, strong expression of the reporter protein was observed in vascular tissues of transgenic plants. This expression was not dependent on the presence of the intergenic regions or proximal 5' portions of the C1 coding region. Transgenic plants expressing a reporter gene under control of the putative complete C1 promoter were inoculated with virus to determine if any viral transcript affected C1 expression. Virus inoculated plants did not show any altered pattern or change in of reporter gene expression level. These results suggest that (1) important transcriptional activator elements for C1 expression reside in the 3' portion of C1 coding area itself, (2) C1 protein does not auto-regulate its own expression and (3) C1 expression of two curtoviruses is controlled differently compared to other geminiviruses. PMID:17464215

  15. Sequencing RNA by a combination of exonuclease digestion and uridine specific chemical cleavage using MALDI-TOF.

    PubMed Central

    Tolson, D A; Nicholson, N H

    1998-01-01

    The determination of DNA sequences by partial exonuclease digestion followed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) is a well established method. When the same procedure is applied to RNA, difficulties arise due to the small (1 Da) mass difference between the nucleotides U and C, which makes unambiguous assignment difficult using a MALDI-TOF instrument. Here we report our experiences with sequence specific endonucleases and chemical methods followed by MALDI-TOF to resolve these sequence ambiguities. We have found chemical methods superior to endonucleases both in terms of correct specificity and extent of sequence coverage. This methodology can be used in combination with exonuclease digestion to rapidly assign RNA sequences. PMID:9421498

  16. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Charice S.; Slaughter, Susan E.; Jones, C. Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S.

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life—Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL.

  17. The Rtr1p CTD phosphatase autoregulates its mRNA through a degradation pathway involving the REX exonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Hodko, Domagoj; Ward, Taylor; Chanfreau, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Rtr1p is a phosphatase that impacts gene expression by modulating the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Here, we show that Rtr1p is a component of a novel mRNA degradation pathway that promotes its autoregulation through turnover of its own mRNA. We show that the 3′UTR of the RTR1 mRNA contains a cis element that destabilizes this mRNA. RTR1 mRNA turnover is achieved through binding of Rtr1p to the RTR1 mRNP in a manner that is dependent on this cis element. Genetic evidence shows that Rtr1p-mediated decay of the RTR1 mRNA involves the 5′-3′ DExD/H-box RNA helicase Dhh1p and the 3′-5′ exonucleases Rex2p and Rex3p. Rtr1p and Rex3p are found associated with Dhh1p, suggesting a model for recruiting the REX exonucleases to the RTR1 mRNA for degradation. Rtr1p-mediated decay potentially impacts additional transcripts, including the unspliced BMH2 pre-mRNA. We propose that Rtr1p may imprint its RNA targets cotranscriptionally and determine their downstream degradation mechanism by directing these transcripts to a novel turnover pathway that involves Rtr1p, Dhh1p, and the REX family of exonucleases. PMID:26843527

  18. An exonuclease I-sensitive DNA repair pathway in Deinococcus radiodurans: a major determinant of radiation resistance.

    PubMed

    Misra, Hari S; Khairnar, Nivedita P; Kota, Swathi; Shrivastava, Smriti; Joshi, Vasudha P; Apte, Shree K

    2006-02-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans R1 recovering from acute dose of gamma radiation shows a biphasic mechanism of DNA double-strand break repair. The possible involvement of microsequence homology-dependent, or non-homologous end joining type mechanisms during initial period followed by RecA-dependent homologous recombination pathways has been suggested for the reconstruction of complete genomes in this microbe. We have exploited the known roles of exonuclease I in DNA recombination to elucidate the nature of recombination involved in DNA double-strand break repair during post-irradiation recovery of D. radiodurans. Transgenic Deinococcus cells expressing exonuclease I functions of Escherichia coli showed significant reduction in gamma radiation radioresistance, while the resistance to far-UV and hydrogen peroxide remained unaffected. The overexpression of E. coli exonuclease I in Deinococcus inhibited DNA double-strand break repair. Such cells exhibited normal post-irradiation expression kinetics of RecA, PprA and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins but lacked the divalent cation manganese [(Mn(II)]-dependent protection from gamma radiation. The results strongly suggest that 3' (rho) 5' single-stranded DNA ends constitute an important component in recombination pathway involved in DNA double-strand break repair and that absence of sbcB from deinococcal genome may significantly aid its extreme radioresistance phenotype. PMID:16430702

  19. Transient activation of mucosal effector immune responses by resident intestinal bacteria in normal hosts is regulated by interleukin-10 signalling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cong; Sartor, R Balfour; Huang, Kehe; Tonkonogy, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a key regulator of mucosal homeostasis. In the current study we investigated the early events after monoassociating germ-free (GF) wild-type (WT) mice with an Escherichia coli strain that we isolated previously from the caecal contents of a normal mouse housed under specific pathogen-free conditions. Our results show that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreted by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from both IL-10 deficient mice and WT mice, stimulated ex vivo with E. coli lysate, was dramatically higher at day 4 after monoassociation compared with IFN-γ secreted by cells from GF mice without E. coli colonization. Production of IFN-γ rapidly and progressively declined after colonization of WT but not IL-10-deficient mice. The E. coli lysate-stimulated WT MLN cells also produced IL-10 that peaked at day 4 and subsequently declined, but not as precipitously as IFN-γ. WT cells that express CD4, CD8 and NKp46 produced IFN-γ; WT CD4-positive cells and B cells produced IL-10. Recombinant IL-10 added to E. coli-stimulated MLN cell cultures inhibited IFN-γ secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. MLN cells from WT mice treated in vivo with neutralizing anti-IL-10 receptor antibody produced more IFN-γ compared with MLN cells from isotype control antibody-treated mice. These findings show that a resident E. coli that induces chronic colitis in monoassociated IL-10-deficient mice rapidly but transiently activates the effector immune system in normal hosts, in parallel with induction of protective IL-10 produced by B cells and CD4(+) cells that subsequently suppresses this response to mediate mucosal homeostasis. PMID:27147411

  20. The importance of activities of daily living and social contact for loneliness: a survey among residents in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Drageset, Jorunn

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between functional ability to perform basic activities of daily living (ADL) functions (feeding, continence, going to the toilet, transferring from bed to chair, dressing and bathing), social contacts with family and friends/neighbours and emotional and social loneliness. A quantitative research approach, using a survey design, was performed. The sample comprised 113 subjects aged 65-101 years, living in nursing homes. Data were gathered through structured interviews by using the following measures: the modified Katz Index of ADL, the Revised Social Provisions Scale (SPS), and Family and Friendship Contacts Scale. Descriptive statistics, factor analyses, multiple correlation analyses and multiple regression analyses were used. Data showed a statistically significant relationship between dependence on the environment in carrying out ADL and low level of social loneliness. Likewise, high frequencies of social contact with sons, daughters and grandchildren had a statistically significant effect on low level of social loneliness. A confirmatory factor analysis (varimax rotation, eigenvalue 1.0) was employed to explore the two predefined dimensions (attachment and social integration) of the SPS. The results confirmed, to a very high degree, the two dimensions of the Weiss Model. Reliability (internal consistency), measured by Cronbach alpha, was 0.85 and 0.92, for attachment and social integration respectively. Based on this analysis, dependence in ADL function is important for a low level of social loneliness. From the present study it is concluded that ADL (feeding, continence, going to the toilet, transferring from bed to chair, dressing and bathing) and contact with a social network have a statistical effect on a low level of social loneliness. Hence, such associations may be of significance in nursing intervention and may influence the well-being of residents in nursing homes in different stages of life. PMID

  1. Residents' diverse perspectives of the impact of neighbourhood renewal on quality of life and physical activity engagement: Improvements but unresolved issues

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, J.C.; Fox, K.R.; Lawlor, D.A.; Trayers, T.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the reactions of residents to modifications of their residential landscape. We explored residents' experiences of home zone remodelling and construction of a new cycle-walkway in a deprived neighbourhood with a particular focus on aspects of quality of life and physical activity participation. Focus groups (n=5 groups, 21 individuals) were used to investigate residents' perceptions of the effects of neighbourhood change on their lives. Consultation by planners was received positively. Several aspects of the neighbourhood were perceived to have improved, including spatial aesthetics, lighting and streetscape planting. However, influence on physical activity was minimal. Car-focused behaviour and ownership remained dominant, and safety related concerns limited behavioural choices. Residents highlighted many socio-environmental challenges that remained such as sense of neighbourhood safety, poor public transport provision, people's parking behaviour locally, and problem neighbours, and these tended to dominate conversations. Infrastructural intervention may be one important part of multi-layered solutions to improved neighbourhood life. PMID:21145277

  2. Exonuclease III-assisted graphene oxide amplified fluorescence anisotropy strategy for ricin detection.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Tao, Jing; Zhang, Hong Zhi; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Zhen, Shu Jun

    2016-11-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an excellent fluorescence anisotropy (FA) amplifier. However, in the conventional GO amplified FA strategy, one target can only induce the FA change of one fluorophore on probe, which limits the detection sensitivity. Herein, we developed an exonuclease III (Exo III) aided GO amplified FA strategy by using aptamer as an recognition element and ricin B-chain as a proof-of-concept target. The aptamer was hybridized with a blocker sequence and linked onto the surface of magnetic beads (MBs). Upon the addition of ricin B-chain, blocker was released from the surface of MBs and hybridized with the dye-modified probe DNA on the surface of GO through the toehold-mediated strand exchange reaction. The formed blocker-probe DNA duplex triggered the Exo III-assisted cyclic signal amplification by repeating the hybridization and digestion of probe DNA, liberating the fluorophore with several nucleotides (low FA value). Thus, ricin B-chain could be sensitively detected by the significantly decreased FA. The linear range was from 1.0μg/mL to 13.3μg/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 400ng/mL. This method improved the sensitivity of FA assay and it could be generalized to any kind of target detection based on the use of an appropriate aptamer. PMID:27295569

  3. Target-protecting dumbbell molecular probe against exonucleases digestion for sensitive detection of ATP and streptavidin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyang; Liu, Yucheng; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2016-09-15

    In this work, a versatile dumbbell molecular (DM) probe was designed and employed in the sensitively homogeneous bioassay. In the presence of target molecule, the DM probe was protected from the digestion of exonucleases. Subsequently, the protected DM probe specifically bound to the intercalation dye and resulted in obvious fluorescence signal which was used to determine the target molecule in return. This design allows specific and versatile detection of diverse targets with easy operation and no sophisticated fluorescence labeling. Integrating the idea of target-protecting DM probe with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) involved ligation reaction, the DM probe with 5'-end phosphorylation was successfully constructed for ATP detection, and the limitation of detection was found to be 4.8 pM. Thanks to its excellent selectivity and sensitivity, this sensing strategy was used to detect ATP spiked in human serum as well as cellular ATP. Moreover, the proposed strategy was also applied in the visual detection of ATP in droplet-based microfluidic platform with satisfactory results. Similarly, combining the principle of target-protecting DM probe with streptavidin (SA)-biotin interaction, the DM probe with 3'-end biotinylation was developed for selective and sensitive SA determination, which demonstrated the robustness and versatility of this design. PMID:27131994

  4. A DNA machine for sensitive and homogeneous DNA detection via lambda exonuclease assisted amplification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Lei, Jianping; Gao, Fenglei; Ju, Huangxian

    2013-10-15

    This work designs a DNA machine with three assistant DNAs and lambda exonuclease (Exo-λ) for sensitive and homogeneous fluorescent detection of DNA. The selective digestion of Exo-λ to blunt or recessed 5'-phosphorylated strand of probe 1-probe 2 duplex results in the release of target DNA and probe 2 to produce the fluorescence restoring of fluorophore labeled to probe 1. The released target DNA could hybridize with another probe 1-probe 2 duplex to trigger the target recycling for signal amplification, while the released probe 2 hybridized with molecular beacon to restore its fluorescence for signal enhancement. This DNA machine showed a fast response to target DNA with a linear concentration range from 0.4 pM to 4 nM. The limit of detection was 68 fM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The high selectivity of the method may result from the Exo-λ's specific recognition-site of double-stranded DNA and the specific hybridization of target DNA with probe 1-probe 2 duplex. This DNA machine with the homogenous detection, rapid response as well as simplicity provides a new approach for sensitive detection of DNA. PMID:24054668

  5. Complementation between polymerase- and exonuclease-deficient mitochondrial DNA polymerase mutants in genomically engineered flies

    PubMed Central

    Macao, Bertil; Grönke, Sebastian; Siibak, Triinu; Stewart, James B; Baggio, Francesca; Dols, Jacqueline; Partridge, Linda; Falkenberg, Maria; Wredenberg, Anna; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2016-01-01

    Replication errors are the main cause of mtDNA mutations and a compelling approach to decrease mutation levels would therefore be to increase the fidelity of the catalytic subunit (POLγA) of the mtDNA polymerase. Here we genomically engineered the tamas locus, encoding fly POLγA, and introduced alleles expressing exonuclease- (exo-) and polymerase-deficient (pol-) POLγA versions. The exo- mutant leads to accumulation of point mutations and linear deletions of mtDNA, whereas pol- mutants cause mtDNA depletion. The mutant tamas alleles are developmentally lethal but can complement each other in trans resulting in viable flies with clonally expanded mtDNA mutations. Reconstitution of human mtDNA replication in vitro confirms that replication is a highly dynamic process where POLγA goes on and off the template to allow complementation during proofreading and elongation. The created fly models are valuable tools to study germ line transmission of mtDNA and the pathophysiology of POLγA mutation disease. PMID:26554610

  6. Coagulation effect on the activity size distributions of long lived radon progeny aerosols and its application to atmospheric residence time estimation techniques.

    PubMed

    Anand, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-03-01

    The long lived naturally occurring radon progeny species in the atmosphere, namely (210)Pb, (210)Bi and (210)Po, have been used as important tracers for understanding the atmospheric mixing processes and estimating aerosol residence times. Several observations in the past have shown that the activity size distribution of these species peaks at larger particle sizes as compared to the short lived radon progeny species - an effect that has been attributed to the process of coagulation of the background aerosols to which they are attached. To address this issue, a mathematical equation is derived for the activity-size distribution of tracer species by formulating a generalized distribution function for the number of tracer atoms present in coagulating background particles in the presence of radioactive decay and removal. A set of these equations is numerically solved for the progeny chain using Fuchs coagulation kernel combined with a realistic steady-state aerosol size spectrum that includes nucleation, accumulation and coarse mode components. The important findings are: (i) larger shifts in the modal sizes of (210)Pb and (210)Po at higher aerosol concentrations such as that found in certain Asian urban regions (ii) enrichment of tracer specific activity on particles as compared to that predicted by pure attachment laws (iii) sharp decline of daughter-to-parent activity ratios for decreasing particle sizes. The implication of the results to size-fractionated residence time estimation techniques is highlighted. A coagulation corrected graphical approach is presented for estimating the residence times from the size-segregated activity ratios of (210)Bi and (210)Po with respect to (210)Pb. The discrepancy between the residence times predicted by conventional formula and the coagulation corrected approach for specified activity ratios increases at higher atmospheric aerosol number concentrations (>10(10) #/m(3)) for smaller sizes (<1 μm). The results are further

  7. Engaging nursing home residents with dementia in activities: The effects of modeling, presentation order, time of day, and setting characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Thein, Khin; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Marx, Marcia S.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the impact of setting characteristics and presentation effects on engagement with stimuli in a group of 193 nursing home residents with dementia (recruited from a total of seven nursing homes). Engagement was assessed through systematic observations using the Observational Measurement of Engagement (OME), and data pertaining to setting characteristics (background noise, light, and number of persons in proximity) were recorded via the environmental portion of the Agitation Behavior Mapping Inventory (ABMI; Cohen-Mansfield, Werner, & Marx, (1989). An observational study of agitation in agitated nursing home residents. International Psychogeriatrics, 1, 153–165). Results revealed that study participants were engaged more often with moderate levels of sound and in the presence of a small group of people (from four to nine people). As to the presentation effects, multiple presentations of the same stimulus were found to be appropriate for the severely impaired as well as the moderately cognitively impaired. Moreover, modeling of the appropriate behavior significantly increased engagement, with the severely cognitively impaired residents receiving the greatest benefit from modeling. These findings have direct implications for the way in which caregivers could structure the environment in the nursing home and how they could present stimuli to residents in order to optimize engagement in persons with dementia. PMID:20455123

  8. Something Larger than Ourselves: Redefining the Young Artists at Work Program as an Art-as-Activism Residency for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    The Young Artists at Work Program at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts (YBCA) recently shifted its model from an afterschool arts program to a young artists' residency. This decision arose from a desire to reposition the youth program as a priority within the larger organization, coupled with a commitment to deepening the pedagogical values of…

  9. Can Speaking Activities of Residents in a Virtual World Make Difference toTheir Self-Expression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soojeong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to search for any difference in self-expression of Second Life residents with different levels of shyness. For this purpose, we used sixty students from two fifth-grade elementary school classes. Thirty students were assigned to the high shyness group and the rest to the low shyness group. Each group completed pre- and…

  10. Association between three exonuclease 1 polymorphisms and cancer risks: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Zheng, Si-Rong; Zhong, Jie-Hui; Zhuang, Xiao-Duan; Zhou, Jue-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the results of studies exploring the relation between exonuclease 1 (Exo1) polymorphisms and cancer risks have differed. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of the three most extensively studied Exo1 polymorphisms (Pro757Leu, Glu589Lys, and Glu670Gly) on cancer susceptibility. The related studies published before August 5, 2015, were collected by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases. We found 16 publications containing studies that were eligible for our study, including 10 studies for Pro757Leu polymorphism (4,093 cases and 3,834 controls), 12 studies for Glu589Lys polymorphism (6,479 cases and 6,550 controls), and 7 studies for Glu670Gly polymorphism (3,700 cases and 3,496 controls). Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the associations, and all the statistical analyses were calculated using the software program STATA version 12.0. Our results revealed that the Pro757Leu polymorphism was significantly associated with a reduced cancer risk, whereas an inverse association was found for the Glu589Lys polymorphism. Furthermore, subgroup analysis of smoking status indicated that the Glu589Lys polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased cancer risk in smokers, but not in nonsmokers. However, no evidence was found for an association between the Glu670Gly polymorphism and cancer risk. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the Pro757Leu polymorphism may provide protective effects against cancer, while the Glu589Lys polymorphism may be a risk factor for cancer. Moreover, the Glu670Gly polymorphism may have no influence on cancer susceptibility. In the future, large-scaled and well-designed studies are needed to achieve a more precise and comprehensive result. PMID:26966378

  11. The proofreading domain of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and other DNA and/or RNA exonuclease domains.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, M J; Holley, W R; Chatterjee, A; Mian, I S

    1997-01-01

    Prior sequence analysis studies have suggested that bacterial ribonuclease (RNase) Ds comprise a complete domain that is found also in Homo sapiens polymyositis-scleroderma overlap syndrome 100 kDa autoantigen and Werner syndrome protein. This RNase D 3'-->5' exoribonuclease domain was predicted to have a structure and mechanism of action similar to the 3'-->5' exodeoxyibonuclease (proofreading) domain of DNA polymerases. Here, hidden Markov model (HMM) and phylogenetic studies have been used to identify and characterise other sequences that may possess this exonuclease domain. Results indicate that it is also present in the RNase T family; Borrelia burgdorferi P93 protein, an immunodominant antigen in Lyme disease; bacteriophage T4 dexA and Escherichia coli exonuclease I, processive 3'-->5' exodeoxyribonucleases that degrade single-stranded DNA; Bacillus subtilis dinG, a probable helicase involved in DNA repair and possibly replication, and peptide synthase 1; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pab1p-dependent poly(A) nuclease PAN2 subunit, required for shortening mRNA poly(A) tails; Caenorhabditis elegans and Mus musculus CAF1, transcription factor CCR4-associated factor 1; Xenopus laevis XPMC2, prevention of mitotic catastrophe in fission yeast; Drosophila melanogaster egalitarian, oocyte specification and axis determination, and exuperantia, establishment of oocyte polarity; H.sapiens HEM45, expressed in tumour cell lines and uterus and regulated by oestrogen; and 31 open reading frames including one in Methanococcus jannaschii . Examination of a multiple sequence alignment and two three-dimensional structures of proofreading domains has allowed definition of the core sequence, structural and functional elements of this exonuclease domain. PMID:9396823

  12. Loss of covalently linked lipid as the mechanism for radiation-induced release of membrane-bound polysaccharide and exonuclease from Micrococcus radiodurans. [/sup 60/CO

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1981-08-01

    The mechanism of ..gamma..-radiation-induced release of polysaccharide and exonuclease from the midwall membrane of Micrococcus radiodurans has been examined. These two components appear to be released independently, but by very similar processes. Direct analysis of radiation-released polysaccharide indicated the absence of an alkali-labile neutral lipid normally present in the native material. Radiation-induced release therefore probably results from the radiolytic cleavage of a covalently linked lipid which normally serves to anchor these substances to the membrane. The absence of a natural membrane-bound carotenoid had no effect on the rate of release of these components. Likewise, the absence of exonuclease in an exonuclease minus mutant did not influence the release of polysaccharide. It is suggested that the major pathway of radical transfer from the initiating .OH and culminating in the cleavage of the neutral lipid anchor may not be via the membrane.

  13. Amplified multiplexed analysis of DNA by the exonuclease III-catalyzed regeneration of the target DNA in the presence of functionalized semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ronit; Liu, Xiaoqing; Willner, Itamar

    2011-10-12

    Quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with a black-hole quencher are used as optical tracer for the detection of DNA using exonuclease as a biocatalyst. The binding of the target DNA or of a target/open hairpin complex to the functionalized QDs leads to the exonuclease-stimulated recycling of the target DNA or the target/hairpin complex. This results in the triggering of the luminescence of the QDs that provides a readout signal for the amplified sensing process. By using different-sized QDs, the multiplexed detection of DNAs is demonstrated. PMID:21905746

  14. Resident T Cells Are Unable To Control Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Activity in the Brain Ependymal Region during Latency.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Chandra M; Jinkins, Jeremy K; Carr, Daniel J J

    2016-08-15

    HSV type 1 (HSV-1) is one of the leading etiologies of sporadic viral encephalitis. Early antiviral intervention is crucial to the survival of herpes simplex encephalitis patients; however, many survivors suffer from long-term neurologic deficits. It is currently understood that HSV-1 establishes a latent infection within sensory peripheral neurons throughout the life of the host. However, the tissue residence of latent virus, other than in sensory neurons, and the potential pathogenic consequences of latency remain enigmatic. In the current study, we characterized the lytic and latent infection of HSV-1 in the CNS in comparison with the peripheral nervous system following ocular infection in mice. We used RT-PCR to detect latency-associated transcripts and HSV-1 lytic cycle genes within the brain stem, the ependyma (EP), containing the limbic and cortical areas, which also harbor neural progenitor cells, in comparison with the trigeminal ganglia. Unexpectedly, HSV-1 lytic genes, usually identified during acute infection, are uniquely expressed in the EP 60 d postinfection when animals are no longer suffering from encephalitis. An inflammatory response was also mounted in the EP by the maintenance of resident memory T cells. However, EP T cells were incapable of controlling HSV-1 infection ex vivo and secreted less IFN-γ, which correlated with expression of a variety of exhaustion-related inhibitory markers. Collectively, our data suggest that the persistent viral lytic gene expression during latency is the cause of the chronic inflammatory response leading to the exhaustion of the resident T cells in the EP. PMID:27357149

  15. Electrochemical DNA sensor for specific detection of picomolar Hg(II) based on exonuclease III-assisted recycling signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiaorong; Zhao, Huimin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie

    2015-03-21

    An ultrasensitive methodology was successfully developed for the quantitative detection of picomolar Hg(2+) based on the combination of thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) coordination chemistry and exonuclease III-aided recycling signal amplification. Single-strand probe DNA was immobilized on an Au electrode via an Au-S bond. In the presence of Hg(2+), the probe DNA hybridized with the target DNA containing four thymine-thymine (T-T) mismatches via the Hg(2+)-mediated coordination of T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs. Then the probe DNA in the DNA duplex was specifically recognized and selectively digested by exonuclease III; in contrast the target DNA was safely dissociated from the DNA duplexes to subsequently hybridize with a new signal probe, leading to target recycling and signal amplification. As a result, the peak current caused by the electrostatic interactions of [Ru(NH3)6](3+) cations with the backbone of the probe DNA decreased by different degrees, corresponding to the Hg(2+) concentrations. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed electrochemical DNA biosensor showed a robust detection limit as low as 1 pM (S/N = 3), with a wide linear range from 0.01 to 500 nM and good selectivity. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to assay Hg(2+) in real environmental samples. PMID:25676090

  16. Aerosol residence times and changes in radioiodine-131I and radiocaesium-137 Cs activity over Central Poland after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Bem, Henryk

    2012-05-01

    The first detectable activities of radioiodine (131)I, and radiocaesium (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the air over Central Poland were measured in dust samples collected by the ASS-500 station in the period of 21(st) to 24(th) of March, 2011. However, the highest activity of both fission products, (131)I and (137)Cs: 8.3 mBq m(-3) and 0.75 mBq m(-3), respectively, were obtained in the samples collected on 30(th) March, i.e.∼18 days after the beginning of the fission products' discharge from the damaged units of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The simultaneously determined corrected aerosol residence time for the same samples by (210)Pb/(210)Bi and (210)Pb/(210)Po methods was equal to 10 days. Additionally, on the basis of the activity ratio of two other natural cosmogenic radionuclides, (7)Be and (22)Na in these aerosol samples, it was possible to estimate the aerosol residence time at ∼150 days for the solid particles coming from the stratospheric fallout. These data, as well as the differences in the activity size distribution of (7)Be and (131)I in the air particulate matter, show, in contrast to the Chernobyl discharge, a negligible input of stratospheric transport of Fukushima-released fission products. PMID:22481111

  17. Creating new library services through collaboration with resident groups : Aimimg at human resource development and information literacy education in ways only libraries can do : Study on activities of an NPO called Ueda Library Club

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Utako

    Creating new library services through collaboration with resident groups : Aimimg at human resource development and information literacy education in ways only libraries can do : Study on activities of an NPO called Ueda Library Club

  18. Human lung-resident macrophages express CB1 and CB2 receptors whose activation inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Rosaria I; Loffredo, Stefania; Borriello, Francesco; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Orlando, Pierangelo; Secondo, Agnese; Granata, Francescopaolo; Lepore, Maria Teresa; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Varricchi, Gilda; Santini, Mario; Triggiani, Massimo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Marone, Gianni

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are pivotal effector cells in immune responses and tissue remodeling by producing a wide spectrum of mediators, including angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. Activation of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 has been suggested as a new strategy to modulate angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We investigated whether human lung-resident macrophages express a complete endocannabinoid system by assessing their production of endocannabinoids and expression of cannabinoid receptors. Unstimulated human lung macrophage produce 2-arachidonoylglycerol,N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine,N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine, andN-oleoyl-ethanolamine. On LPS stimulation, human lung macrophages selectively synthesize 2-arachidonoylglycerol in a calcium-dependent manner. Human lung macrophages express cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2, and their activation induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species generation. Cannabinoid receptor activation by the specific synthetic agonists ACEA and JWH-133 (but not the endogenous agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol) markedly inhibits LPS-induced production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, and angiopoietins and modestly affects IL-6 secretion. No significant modulation of TNF-α or IL-8/CXCL8 release was observed. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A by human monocyte-derived macrophages is not modulated by activation of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2. Given the prominent role of macrophage-assisted vascular remodeling in many tumors, we identified the expression of cannabinoid receptors in lung cancer-associated macrophages. Our results demonstrate that cannabinoid receptor activation selectively inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors from human lung macrophage but not from monocyte-derived macrophages. Activation of cannabinoid receptors on tissue-resident macrophages might be a novel strategy to modulate macrophage-assisted vascular remodeling

  19. Ultrasensitive sensing platform for platelet-derived growth factor BB detection based on layered molybdenum selenide-graphene composites and Exonuclease III assisted signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Shuai, Hong-Lei; Zhang, Ji-Zong

    2016-03-15

    A highly sensitive and ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) detection is fabricated based on layered molybdenum selenide-graphene (MoSe2-Gr) composites and Exonuclease III (Exo III)-aided signal amplification. MoSe2-Gr is prepared by a simple hydrothermal method and used as a promising sensing platform. Exo III has a specifical exo-deoxyribonuclease activity for duplex DNAs in the direction from 3' to 5' terminus, however its activity is limited on the duplex DNAs with more than 4 mismatched terminal bases at 3' ends. Herein, aptamer and complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences are designed with four thymine bases on 3' ends. In the presence of target protein, the aptamer associates with it and facilitates the formation of duplex DNA between cDNA and signal DNA. The duplex DNA then is digested by Exo III and releases cDNA, which hybridizes with signal DNA to perform a new cleavage process. Nevertheless, in the absence of target protein, the aptamer hybridizes with cDNA will inhibit the Exo III-assisted nucleotides cleavage. The signal DNA then hybridizes with capture DNA on the electrode. Subsequently, horse radish peroxidase is fixed on electrode by avidin-biotin reaction and then catalyzes hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinone to produce electrochemical response. Therefore, a bridge can be established between the concentration of target protein and the degree of the attenuation of the obtained signal, providing a quantitative measure of target protein with a broad detection range of 0.0001-1 nM and a detection limit of 20 fM. PMID:26386905

  20. Health Risks to Children and Adults Residing in Riverine Environments where Surficial Sediments Contain Metals Generated by Active Gold Mining in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Frederick Ato; Gyeabour, Elvis Kyere

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of metal pollution in the sediment from rivers, lakes, and streams in active gold mining districts in Ghana. Two hundred and fifty surface sediment samples from 99 locations were collected and analyzed for concentrations of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Mn using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations were then used to assess the human health risks to resident children and adults in central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) scenarios. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As were almost twice the threshold values established by the Hong Kong Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG). Hg, Cu, and Cr concentrations in sediment were 14, 20, and 26 times higher than the Canadian Freshwater Sediment Guidelines for these elements. Also, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, and Hg were 3, 11, 12, and 16 times more than the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) sediment guideline values. The results of the human health risk assessment indicate that for ingestion of sediment under the central tendency exposure (CTE) scenario, the cancer risks for child and adult residents from exposure to As were 4.18 × 10−6 and 1.84 × 10−7, respectively. This suggests that up to 4 children out of one million equally exposed children would contract cancer if exposed continuously to As over 70 years (the assumed lifetime). The hazard index for child residents following exposure to Cr(VI) in the RME scenario was 4.2. This is greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold of 1, indicating that adverse health effects to children from exposure to Cr(VI) are possible. This study demonstrates the urgent need to control industrial emissions and the severe heavy metal pollution in gold mining environments. PMID:24278631

  1. Health Risks to Children and Adults Residing in Riverine Environments where Surficial Sediments Contain Metals Generated by Active Gold Mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Armah, Frederick Ato; Gyeabour, Elvis Kyere

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of metal pollution in the sediment from rivers, lakes, and streams in active gold mining districts in Ghana. Two hundred and fifty surface sediment samples from 99 locations were collected and analyzed for concentrations of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Mn using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations were then used to assess the human health risks to resident children and adults in central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) scenarios. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As were almost twice the threshold values established by the Hong Kong Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG). Hg, Cu, and Cr concentrations in sediment were 14, 20, and 26 times higher than the Canadian Freshwater Sediment Guidelines for these elements. Also, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, and Hg were 3, 11, 12, and 16 times more than the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) sediment guideline values. The results of the human health risk assessment indicate that for ingestion of sediment under the central tendency exposure (CTE) scenario, the cancer risks for child and adult residents from exposure to As were 4.18 × 10(-6) and 1.84 × 10(-7), respectively. This suggests that up to 4 children out of one million equally exposed children would contract cancer if exposed continuously to As over 70 years (the assumed lifetime). The hazard index for child residents following exposure to Cr(VI) in the RME scenario was 4.2. This is greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold of 1, indicating that adverse health effects to children from exposure to Cr(VI) are possible. This study demonstrates the urgent need to control industrial emissions and the severe heavy metal pollution in gold mining environments. PMID:24278631

  2. Evaluation of quantitative imaging methods for organ activity and residence time estimation using a population of phantoms having realistic variations in anatomy and uptake

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Du, Yong; Segars, W. Paul; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George; Jacene, Heather; Frey, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating organ residence times is an essential part of patient-specific dosimetry for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Quantitative imaging methods for RIT are often evaluated using a single physical or simulated phantom but are intended to be applied clinically where there is variability in patient anatomy, biodistribution, and biokinetics. To provide a more relevant evaluation, the authors have thus developed a population of phantoms with realistic variations in these factors and applied it to the evaluation of quantitative imaging methods both to find the best method and to demonstrate the effects of these variations. Using whole body scans and SPECT∕CT images, organ shapes and time-activity curves of 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan were measured in dosimetrically important organs in seven patients undergoing a high dose therapy regimen. Based on these measurements, we created a 3D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT)-based phantom population. SPECT and planar data at realistic count levels were then simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The projections from the population were used to evaluate the accuracy and variation in accuracy of residence time estimation methods that used a time series of SPECT and planar scans. Quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) reconstruction methods were used that compensated for attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. Planar images were processed with a conventional (CPlanar) method that used geometric mean attenuation and triple-energy window scatter compensation and a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method that used model-based compensation for image degrading effects. Residence times were estimated from activity estimates made at each of five time points. The authors also evaluated hybrid methods that used CPlanar or QPlanar time-activity curves rescaled to the activity estimated from a single QSPECT image. The methods were evaluated in terms of mean relative error and standard deviation of

  3. Evaluation of quantitative imaging methods for organ activity and residence time estimation using a population of phantoms having realistic variations in anatomy and uptake

    SciTech Connect

    He Bin; Du Yong; Segars, W. Paul; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George; Jacene, Heather; Frey, Eric C.

    2009-02-15

    Estimating organ residence times is an essential part of patient-specific dosimetry for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Quantitative imaging methods for RIT are often evaluated using a single physical or simulated phantom but are intended to be applied clinically where there is variability in patient anatomy, biodistribution, and biokinetics. To provide a more relevant evaluation, the authors have thus developed a population of phantoms with realistic variations in these factors and applied it to the evaluation of quantitative imaging methods both to find the best method and to demonstrate the effects of these variations. Using whole body scans and SPECT/CT images, organ shapes and time-activity curves of 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan were measured in dosimetrically important organs in seven patients undergoing a high dose therapy regimen. Based on these measurements, we created a 3D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT)-based phantom population. SPECT and planar data at realistic count levels were then simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The projections from the population were used to evaluate the accuracy and variation in accuracy of residence time estimation methods that used a time series of SPECT and planar scans. Quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) reconstruction methods were used that compensated for attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. Planar images were processed with a conventional (CPlanar) method that used geometric mean attenuation and triple-energy window scatter compensation and a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method that used model-based compensation for image degrading effects. Residence times were estimated from activity estimates made at each of five time points. The authors also evaluated hybrid methods that used CPlanar or QPlanar time-activity curves rescaled to the activity estimated from a single QSPECT image. The methods were evaluated in terms of mean relative error and standard deviation of the

  4. Evaluation of quantitative imaging methods for organ activity and residence time estimation using a population of phantoms having realistic variations in anatomy and uptake.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Du, Yong; Segars, W Paul; Wahl, Richard L; Sgouros, George; Jacene, Heather; Frey, Eric C

    2009-02-01

    Estimating organ residence times is an essential part of patient-specific dosimetry for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Quantitative imaging methods for RIT are often evaluated using a single physical or simulated phantom but are intended to be applied clinically where there is variability in patient anatomy, biodistribution, and biokinetics. To provide a more relevant evaluation, the authors have thus developed a population of phantoms with realistic variations in these factors and applied it to the evaluation of quantitative imaging methods both to find the best method and to demonstrate the effects of these variations. Using whole body scans and SPECT/CT images, organ shapes and time-activity curves of 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan were measured in dosimetrically important organs in seven patients undergoing a high dose therapy regimen. Based on these measurements, we created a 3D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT)-based phantom population. SPECT and planar data at realistic count levels were then simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The projections from the population were used to evaluate the accuracy and variation in accuracy of residence time estimation methods that used a time series of SPECT and planar scans, Quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) reconstruction methods were used that compensated for attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. Planar images were processed with a conventional (CPlanar) method that used geometric mean attenuation and triple-energy window scatter compensation and a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method that used model-based compensation for image degrading effects. Residence times were estimated from activity estimates made at each of five time points. The authors also evaluated hybrid methods that used CPlanar or QPlanar time-activity curves rescaled to the activity estimated from a single QSPECT image. The methods were evaluated in terms of mean relative error and standard deviation of the

  5. Estimation of Citation-Based Scholarly Activity Among Radiation Oncology Faculty at Domestic Residency-Training Institutions: 1996-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Mehee; Fuller, Clifton D.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: Advancement in academic radiation oncology is largely contingent on research productivity and the perceived external influence of an individual's scholarly work. The purpose of this study was to use the Hirsch index (h-index) to estimate the research productivity of current radiation oncology faculty at U.S. academic institutions between 1996 and 2007. Methods and Materials: We performed bibliometric citation database searches for available radiation oncology faculty at domestic residency-training institutions (n = 826). The outcomes analyzed included the total number of manuscripts, total number of citations, and the h-index between 1996 and 2007. Analysis of overall h-index rankings with stratification by academic ranking, junior vs. senior faculty status, and gender was performed. Results: Of the 826 radiation oncologists, the mean h-index was 8.5. Of the individuals in the top 10% by the h-index, 34% were chairpersons, 88% were senior faculty, and 13% were women. A greater h-index was associated with a higher academic ranking and senior faculty status. Recursive partitioning analysis revealed an h-index threshold of 15 (p <0.0001) as an identified breakpoint between the senior and junior faculty. Overall, women had lower h-indexes compared with men (mean, 6.4 vs. 9.4); however, when stratified by academic ranking, the gender differential all but disappeared. Conclusion: Using the h-index as a partial surrogate for research productivity, it appears that radiation oncologists in academia today comprise a prolific group, however, with a highly skewed distribution. According to the present analysis, the h-index correlated with academic ranking. Thus, it potentially has utility in the process of promotion decisions. Overall, women in radiation oncology were less academically productive than men; the possible reasons for the gender differential are discussed.

  6. Relationship of DNA degradation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Exonuclease 1 and its stimulation by RPA and Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 to DNA end resection

    PubMed Central

    Cannavo, Elda; Cejka, Petr; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a major pathway for repair of DNA double-strand breaks. This repair process is initiated by resection of the 5′-terminated strand at the break site. In yeast, resection is carried out by three nucleolytic complexes: Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2, which functions at the initial step and also stimulates the two processive pathways, Sgs1-Dna2 and Exonuclease 1 (Exo1). Here we investigated the relationship between the three resection pathways with a focus on Exo1. Exo1 preferentially degrades the 5′-terminal stand of duplex DNA that is single stranded at the 3′ end, in agreement with its role downstream of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex. Replication protein A (RPA) stimulates DNA end resection by Exo1 by both preventing nonspecific binding of Exo1 to and preventing degradation of single-stranded DNA. Nucleolytic degradation of DNA by Exo1 is inhibited by the helicase-deficient Sgs1 K706A mutant protein and, reciprocally, the nuclease-deficient Exo1 D173A mutant protein inhibits DNA unwinding by Sgs1. Thus, the activities of Sgs1 and Exo1 at DNA ends are mutually exclusive, establishing biochemically that both machineries function independently in DNA end processing. We also reconstituted Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1-RPA-Dna2 and Exo1 resection reactions both individually and combined, either with or without the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex. We show that the yeast Sgs1-Dna2 and Exo1 pathways do not stimulate one another and function as independent and separate DNA end-processing machineries, even in the presence of the stimulatory Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex. PMID:23589858

  7. Recombination-dependent growth in exonuclease-depleted recBC sbcBC strains of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Ryder, L; Sharples, G J; Lloyd, R G

    1996-07-01

    Analysis of the aroLM-sbcCD interval of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome revealed a new gene (rdgC) encoding a function required for growth in recombination-deficient recBC sbcBC strains. Deletion of rdgC does not reduce viability, conjugational recombination, or DNA repair in rec+, recA, recB, recF, or recJ mutants. However, it makes the growth of recBC sbcBC strains reliant on the RecA, RecF, and RuvC proteins and, to a large extent, on RuvAB. The recBC sbcBC delta rdgC ruvAB construct forms colonies, but cell viability is reduced to < 5%. A recBC sbcBC delta rdgC derivative carrying the temperature-sensitive recA200 allele grows at 32 degrees but not 42 degrees. Multicopy rdgC+ plasmids reduce the growth rate of recBC sbcBC strains, while multicopy sbcC+ plasmids that reactivate SbcCD nuclease cannot be maintained without RdgC protein. The data presented are interpreted to suggest that exonuclease-depleted recBC sbcBC strains have difficulty removing the displaced arm of a collapsed replication fork and that this problem is compounded in the absence of RdgC. Recombination then becomes necessary to repair the fork and allow chromosome duplication to be completed. The possibility that RdgC is an exonuclease is discussed. PMID:8807285

  8. [Pregnancy during residency].

    PubMed

    Maas, S M; van 't Hoff, B W; Rings, E H; van der Waals, F W; Büller, H A

    1992-12-19

    The number of female residents in the Netherlands has steadily increased in recent years. Due to the increased time on waiting lists to enter residency programmes and to the increased duration of training, female residents will be older during their residencies. This will probably result in an increased number of pregnancies during residencies. A questionnaire regarding pregnancy during residency was sent to 191 residents in two university hospitals in the Netherlands. The response rate was 74.3%. Fifty percent of the male and only 19% of the female residents had children. No negative effects of a pregnancy on their training were experienced or anticipated by the residents. However, a negative effect on the functioning of the department was expected. No formal provisions, like replacements were available and many solutions to replace pregnant colleagues depended on the flexibility of the colleagues. The wish to have children was high and equally distributed among male and female residents, 92% and 96%, resp. Given the difficulty to seek a permanent position and to have children after residency, the choice of many female residents will be to have their children during residency. This increase in number of pregnancies requires anticipation of the residency programme directors. They should take the lead in proposing adequate regulations. PMID:1470257

  9. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by chemical vapor condensation method with different precursor concentration and residence time.

    PubMed

    Chin, Sungmin; Park, Eunseuk; Kim, Minsu; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jurng, Jongsoo

    2011-10-15

    Nanosized TiO(2) photocatalysts were synthesized using a chemical vapor condensation method under a range of synthesis conditions (precursor vapor concentration and residence time in a tubular electric furnace). X-ray diffraction showed that the prepared TiO(2) powders consisted mainly of anatase (>94%) with a small amount of rutile. The mean particle diameter from the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and transmission electron microscopy measurements ranged from 9.4 to 16.6 nm. The specific surface area (92.5-163.5 m(2) g(-1)) of the prepared TiO(2) powders was found to be dependent on the synthesis conditions. The content of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the prepared TiO(2) sample was higher than those on commercial TiO(2), resulting in increased photocatalytic oxidation. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO(2) samples prepared in a methylene blue solution was strongly dependent on the crystallinity and specific surface area, which were affected by the TTIP vapor concentration and residence time. PMID:21802692

  10. Snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy and 10-minutes activation in long term care residents with dementia (WISDE): study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background People with dementia are often inapproachable due to symptoms of their illness. Therefore nurses should establish relationships with dementia patients via their remaining resources and facilitate communication. In order to achieve this, different targeted non-pharmacological interventions are recommended and practiced. However there is no sufficient evidence about the efficacy of most of these interventions. A number of publications highlight the urgent need for methodological sound studies so that more robust conclusions may be drawn. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial with 20 nursing homes in Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) as the units of randomization. Nursing homes will be randomly allocated into 4 study groups consisting of 5 clusters and 90 residents: snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy, 10-minutes activation or unstructured verbal communication (control group). The purpose is to determine whether the interventions are effective to reduce apathy in long-term care residents with dementia (N = 360) as the main outcome measure. Assessments will be done at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after beginning of the interventions. Discussion This trial will particularly contribute to the evidence on efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in dementia care. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00653731 PMID:20113526

  11. 78 FR 44467 - Political Activity-State or Local Officers or Employees; Federal Employees Residing in Designated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains notices to the public of #0;the...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Parts 151, 733, and 734 RIN 3206-AM87 Political Activity--State or...: The Hatch Act, codified at 5 U.S.C. 1501- 1508, concerns the political activities of State and...

  12. Tregs Modulate Lymphocyte Proliferation, Activation, and Resident-Memory T-Cell Accumulation within the Brain during MCMV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sujata; Hu, Shuxian; Sheng, Wen S.; Singh, Amar; Lokensgard, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation and retention of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) has been reported within post viral-encephalitic brains, however, the full extent to which these cells modulate neuroinflammation is yet to be elucidated. Here, we used Foxp3-DTR (diphtheria toxin receptor) knock-in transgenic mice, which upon administration of low dose diphtheria toxin (DTx) results in specific deletion of Tregs. We investigated the proliferation status of various immune cell subtypes within inflamed central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Depletion of Tregs resulted in increased proliferation of both CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell subsets within the brain at 14 d post infection (dpi) when compared to Treg-sufficient animals. At 30 dpi, while proliferation of CD8+ T-cells was controlled within brains of both Treg-depleted and undepleted mice, proliferation of CD4+ T-cells remained significantly enhanced with DTx-treatment. Previous studies have demonstrated that Treg numbers within the brain rebound following DTx treatment to even higher numbers than in untreated animals. Despite this rebound, CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells proliferated at a higher rate when compared to that of Treg-sufficient mice, thus maintaining sustained neuroinflammation. Furthermore, at 30 dpi we found the majority of CD8+ T-cells were CD127hi KLRG1- indicating that the cells were long lived memory precursor cells. These cells showed marked elevation of CD103 expression, a marker of tissue resident-memory T-cells (TRM) in the CNS, in untreated animals when compared to DTx-treated animals suggesting that generation of TRM is impaired upon Treg depletion. Moreover, the effector function of TRM as indicated by granzyme B production in response to peptide re-stimulation was found to be more potent in Treg-sufficient animals. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Tregs limit neuroinflammatory responses to viral infection by controlling cell proliferation and may direct a larger proportion of lymphocytes within the brain to be maintained

  13. Microwave-assisted preparation and adsorption performance of activated carbon from biodiesel industry solid reside: influence of operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon has been attempted using KOH as activating agent by microwave heating from biodiesel industry solid residue, oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFBAC). The significance of chemical impregnation ratio (IR), microwave power and activation time on the properties of activated carbon were investigated. The optimum condition has been identified at the IR of 1.0, microwave power of 600 W and activation time of 7 min. EFBAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement, determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene blue as dye model compound. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 395.30 mg/g and carbon yield of 73.78%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume were corresponding to 1372 m2/g and 0.76 cm3/g, respectively. PMID:22050840

  14. The Enzyme-mimic Activity of Ferric Nano-Core Residing in Ferritin and Its Biosensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong J.; Zhang, Youyu; Li, Zhaohui; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-11-15

    Ferritins are nano-scale globular protein cages encapsulating a ferric core. They widely exist in animals, plants, and microbes, playing indispensable roles in iron homeostasis. Interestingly, our study clearly demonstrates that ferritin has an enzyme-mimic activity derived from its ferric nano-core, but not the protein cage. Further study revealed that the mimic-enzyme activity of ferritin is more thermally stable and pH-tolerant compared with horseradish peroxidase. Considering the abundance of ferritin in numerous organisms, this finding may indicate a new role of ferritin in antioxidant and detoxification metabolisms. In addition, as a natural protein-caged nanoparticle with an enzyme-mimic activity, ferritin is readily conjugated with biomolecules to construct nano-biosensors, thus holds promising potential for facile and biocompatible labeling for sensitive and robust bioassays in biomedical applications.

  15. Public Health Education for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Marian E.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Gutman, Deborah; Tibbles, Carrie D.; Joyce, Nina; Lipton, Robert; Schweigler, Lisa; Fisher, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national regional public health–medicine education centers-graduate medical education (RPHMEC-GM) initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health–oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  16. Public health education for emergency medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Betz, Marian E; Bernstein, Steven L; Gutman, Deborah C; Tibbles, Carrie D; Joyce, Nina R; Lipton, Robert I; Schweigler, Lisa M; Fisher, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national Regional Public Health-Medicine Education Centers-Graduate Medical Education initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health-oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  17. Antagonistic activities of some Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from resident infant gastrointestinal microbiota on Gram-negative enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Delcaru, Cristina; Alexandru, Ionela; Podgoreanu, Paulina; Cristea, Violeta Corina; Bleotu, Coralia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Lazar, Veronica

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota contributes to the consolidation of the anti-infectious barrier against enteric pathogens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Bifidobacterium sp. strains, recently isolated from infant gastrointestinal microbiota on the in vitro growth and virulence features expression of enteropathogenic bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity of twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from human feces was examined in vitro against a wide range of Gram negative pathogenic strains isolated from 30 infant patients (3 days to 5 years old) with diarrhea. Both potential probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium ruminantium) and enteropathogenic strains (EPEC, EIEC, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were identified by MALDI-TOF and confirmed serologically when needed. The bactericidal activity, growth curve, adherence to the cellular HEp-2 substratum and production of soluble virulence factors have been assessed in the presence of different Bifidobacterium sp. cultures and fractions (whole culture and free-cell supernatants). Among the twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains, the largest spectrum of antimicrobial activity against 9 of the 18 enteropathogenic strains was revealed for a B. breve strain recently isolated from infant intestinal feces. The whole culture and free-cell supernatant of B. breve culture decreased the multiplication rate, shortened the log phase and the total duration of the growth curve, with an earlier entrance in the decline phase and inhibited the adherence capacity to a cellular substratum and the swimming/swarming motility too. These results indicate the significant probiotic potential of the B. breve strain. PMID:26921694

  18. Geophysical exploration of an active pockmark field in the Bay of Concarneau, southern Brittany, and implications for resident suspension feeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, Agnès; Ehrhold, Axel; Rigolet, Carinne; Souron, Aurélie; Cordier, Céline; Clouet, Hélène; Dubois, Stanislas F.

    2014-06-01

    About a decade ago, a large field of pockmarks (individual features up to 30 m in diameter and <2 m deep) was discovered in water depths of 15-40 m in the Bay of Concarneau in southern Brittany along the French Atlantic coast, covering an overall area of 36 km2 and characterised by unusually high pockmark densities in places reaching 2,500 per square kilometre. As revealed by geophysical swath and subbottom profile data ground-truthed by sediment cores collected during two campaigns in 2005 and 2009, the confines of the pockmark field show a spectacular spatial association with those of a vast expanse of tube mats formed by a benthic community of the suspension-feeding amphipod Haploops nirae. The present study complements those findings with subbottom chirp profiles, seabed sonar imagery and ultrasonic backscatter data from the water column acquired in April 2011. Results show that pockmark distribution is influenced by the thickness of Holocene deposits covering an Oligocene palaeo-valley system. Two groups of pockmarks were identified: (1) a group of large (>10 m diameter), more widely scattered pockmarks deeply rooted (up to 8 ms two-way travel time, TWTT) in the Holocene palaeo-valley infills, and (2) a group of smaller, more densely spaced pockmarks shallowly rooted (up to 2 ms TWTT) in interfluve deposits. Pockmark pore water analyses revealed high methane concentrations peaking at ca. 400 μl/l at 22 and 30 cm core depth in silty sediments immediately above Haploops-bearing layers. Water column data indicate acoustic plumes above pockmarks, implying ongoing pockmark activity. Pockmark gas and/or fluid expulsion resulting in increased turbidity (resuspension of, amongst others, freshly settled phytoplankton) could at least partly account for the strong spatial association with the phytoplankton-feeding H. nirae in the Bay of Concarneau, exacerbating impacts of anthropogenically induced eutrophication and growing offshore trawling activities. Tidally driven

  19. "Womanhood does not reside in documentation": Queer and feminist student activism for transgender women's inclusion at women's colleges.

    PubMed

    Weber, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    This article considers queer-driven student activism at Smith College, as well as admissions policy shifts at a number of prominent U.S. women's colleges for transgender women's inclusion. The author illustrates how student attempts to dismantle the transmisogyny at Smith as a purportedly feminist "women's" space, as well as some women's colleges' shifts in admissions policy, challenge divisions between transgender and cisgender women. This paradigmatic shift reflects the campuses as comparative havens for gender and sexual exploration, the influence of postmodern gender theory in understanding identity, and the growth of "queer" as an all-encompassing signifier for sexual and gender transgression. PMID:26701768

  20. Annual Report on Resident Fish Activities, 1986 Fiscal Year, Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, Action Item 41.8.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-05-01

    This report addresses the status of resident fish projects currently funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) established pursuant to the Northwest Power Act (P.L. 96-501). The report provides a brief synopsis, review and discussion of 13 resident fish projects funded during September 1985 to May 1986. The resident fish section of the Program addresses measures which are intended to protect resident fish, mitigate fishery losses caused by hydroelectric projects, and compensate for past losses through enhancement measures. These measures include, but are not limited to: flow requirements, drawdown requirements, temperature control, and streambed protection.

  1. Difference in constitutive heterochromatin behaviour between human amniocytes and lymphocytes detected by a sequential in situ exonuclease III digestion-random primer extension procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, J L; Campos, A; López-Fernández, C; Gosálvez, J; Goyanes, V

    1995-01-01

    Fixed chromosomes from human amniotic fluid cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes were digested in situ with exonuclease III and the single stranded DNA obtained was used as template for an in situ random primer extension. Under these conditions an R banding pattern, more evident in lymphocytes than in amniocytes, was obtained. Nevertheless, constitutive heterochromatin of chromosomes 1, 16, Yq, and mainly the pericentromeric region of chromosome 9 was far more intensely labelled in amniocytes than in lymphocytes. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation with a specific classical satellite DNA probe, showed that this differential labelling was dependent on a greater sensitivity of chromosome 9 constitutive heterochromatin to exonuclease III digestion in amniocytes than in lymphocytes, thus indicating qualitative differences in this region between both human cellular materials. Images PMID:7897623

  2. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. PMID:20795597

  3. Antimicrobial activity of a novel adhesive containing chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) against the resident microflora in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Neal; Wibaux, Anne; Ward, Colleen; Paulson, Daryl S.; Johnson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a new, transparent composite film dressing, whose adhesive contains chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), against the native microflora present on human skin. Methods CHG-containing adhesive film dressings and non-antimicrobial control film dressings were applied to the skin on the backs of healthy human volunteers without antiseptic preparation. Dressings were removed 1, 4 or 7 days after application. The bacterial populations underneath were measured by quantitative cultures (cylinder-scrub technique) and compared with one another as a function of time. Results The mean baseline microflora recovery was 3.24 log10 cfu/cm2. The mean log reductions from baseline measured from underneath the CHG-containing dressings were 0.87, 0.78 and 1.30 log10 cfu/cm2 on days 1, 4 and 7, respectively, compared with log reductions of 0.67, −0.87 and −1.29 log10 cfu/cm2 from underneath the control film dressings. There was no significant difference between the log reductions of the two treatments on day 1, but on days 4 and 7 the log reduction associated with the CHG adhesive was significantly higher than that associated with the control adhesive. Conclusions The adhesive containing CHG was associated with a sustained antimicrobial effect that was not present in the control. Incorporating the antimicrobial into the adhesive layer confers upon it bactericidal properties in marked contrast to the non-antimicrobial adhesive, which contributed to bacterial proliferation when the wear time was ≥4 days. PMID:24722839

  4. Survey of Residence Hall Life at NCSU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolin, Nancy C.

    A 1977 North Carolina State University survey of a sample of on-campus students determined their attitudes toward residence hall activities, facilities, and staff. Information is shown by sex, class, and residence hall, and totals are weighted to reflect actual proportions in each dorm. Among the findings are the following: cookouts, movies, beer…

  5. Exosome Cofactors Connect Transcription Termination to RNA Processing by Guiding Terminated Transcripts to the Appropriate Exonuclease within the Nuclear Exosome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyumin; Heo, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Iktae; Suh, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Minkyu

    2016-06-17

    The yeast Nrd1 interacts with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNApII) through its CTD-interacting domain (CID) and also associates with the nuclear exosome, thereby acting as both a transcription termination and RNA processing factor. Previously, we found that the Nrd1 CID is required to recruit the nuclear exosome to the Nrd1 complex, but it was not clear which exosome subunits were contacted. Here, we show that two nuclear exosome cofactors, Mpp6 and Trf4, directly and competitively interact with the Nrd1 CID and differentially regulate the association of Nrd1 with two catalytic subunits of the exosome. Importantly, Mpp6 promotes the processing of Nrd1-terminated transcripts preferentially by Dis3, whereas Trf4 leads to Rrp6-dependent processing. This suggests that Mpp6 and Trf4 may play a role in choosing a particular RNA processing route for Nrd1-terminated transcripts within the exosome by guiding the transcripts to the appropriate exonuclease. PMID:27076633

  6. The study protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of family-mediated personalised activities for nursing home residents with dementia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Following admission to a nursing home, the feelings of depression and burden that family carers may experience do not necessarily diminish. Additionally, they may experience feelings of guilt and grief for the loss of a previously close relationship. At the same time, individuals with dementia may develop symptoms of depression and agitation (BPSD) that may be related to changes in family relationships, social interaction and stimulation. Until now, interventions to alleviate carer stress and BPSD have treated carers and relatives separately rather than focusing on maintaining or enhancing their relationships. One-to-one structured activities have been shown to reduce BPSD and also improve the caring experience, but barriers such as a lack of resources impede the implementation of activities in aged care facilities. The current study will investigate the effect of individualised activities based on the Montessori methodology administered by family carers in residential care. Methods/Design We will conduct a cluster-randomised trial to train family carers in conducting personalised one-to-one activities based on the Montessori methodology with their relatives. Montessori activities derive from the principles espoused by Maria Montessori and subsequent educational theorists to promote engagement in learning, namely task breakdown, guided repetition, progression in difficulty from simple to complex, and the careful matching of demands to levels of competence. Persons with dementia living in aged care facilities and frequently visiting family carers will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be randomly assigned by facility to a treatment condition using the Montessori approach or a control waiting list condition. We hypothesise that family carers conducting Montessori-based activities will experience improvements in quality of visits and overall relationship with the resident as well as higher self-rated mastery, fewer depressive

  7. [REAL AND UNREAL BACKLASHES OF AEROSPACE ACTIVITY FOR THE HEALTH OF POPULATION RESIDING NEAR AREAS OF FALL OF BEING SEPARATED PARTS OF CARRIER ROCKETS].

    PubMed

    Meshkov, N A; Valtseva, E A; Kharlamova, E N; Kulikova, A Z

    2015-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, the ongoing debate about the consequences of the rocket-space activities for the health of people residing near areas offall ofseparatingfrom parts of rockets. Some scientists (Kolyado IB et al., 2001, 2013; Shoikhet YN et al., 2005, 2008; Skrebtsova NV 2005, 2006, Sidorov PI et al., 2007) argue that the main cause of morbidity is the effect of unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). However, environmentalists find it only in areas offalling fragments of separated parts of carrier rockets. Presented in the article data were obtained as a result of perennial epidemiological and hygienic research. There was performed a hygienic assessment of the content of chemical substances in water soil andfood, nutritional status and health risk near areas of the district of falling 310 and 326. There were studied conditions of work and the health of military personnel at the sites of storage of propellant components. The relationship between revealed diseases and UDMH was not established, but there was their causality due to the influence of environmental factors characteristic of territories and living conditions. In the settlements near the area of falling district 310 the share of extremely anxious persons was shown to be 1.8 times higher than in controls, which is caused by cases of falling fragments stages of carrier rockets in the territory of settlements. PMID:26856158

  8. An ultraconserved Hox–Pbx responsive element resides in the coding sequence of Hoxa2 and is active in rhombomere 4

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Xavier; Samad, Omar Abdel; Guiguen, Allan; Matis, Christelle; Remacle, Sophie; Picard, Jacques J.; Rezsohazy, René

    2008-01-01

    The Hoxa2 gene has a fundamental role in vertebrate craniofacial and hindbrain patterning. Segmental control of Hoxa2 expression is crucial to its function and several studies have highlighted transcriptional regulatory elements governing its activity in distinct rhombomeres. Here, we identify a putative Hox–Pbx responsive cis-regulatory sequence, which resides in the coding sequence of Hoxa2 and is an important component of Hoxa2 regulation in rhombomere (r) 4. By using cell transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we show that this regulatory sequence is responsive to paralogue group 1 and 2 Hox proteins and to their Pbx co-factors. Importantly, we also show that the Hox–Pbx element cooperates with a previously reported Hoxa2 r4 intronic enhancer and that its integrity is required to drive specific reporter gene expression in r4 upon electroporation in the chick embryo hindbrain. Thus, both intronic as well as exonic regulatory sequences are involved in Hoxa2 segmental regulation in the developing r4. Finally, we found that the Hox–Pbx exonic element is embedded in a larger 205-bp long ultraconserved genomic element (UCE) shared by all vertebrate genomes. In this respect, our data further support the idea that extreme conservation of UCE sequences may be the result of multiple superposed functional and evolutionary constraints. PMID:18417536

  9. The impact of greenery on physical activity and mental health of adolescent and adult residents of deprived neighborhoods: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; Droomers, Mariël; Hoefnagels, Cees; Stronks, Karien; Hosman, Clemens; de Vries, Sjerp

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the impact of perceived and objective changes in greenery on physical activity and mental health of adolescents and adults living in severely deprived neighborhoods in the Netherlands. Longitudinal data regarding changes in greenery, walking, cycling, and depressive symptoms (CES-D), were gathered for 401 adolescents and 454 adults, using questionnaires and interviews with local district managers. Multivariate linear regression models examined the association between greenery and outcome variables, correcting for demographic and socioeconomic covariates and season. Overall, the results showed small and non-significant associations, with two exceptions. Objective improvements in greenery were associated with smaller decline in adolescents' leisure time cycling, and improvements in perceived greenery were related to a decrease in adults' depressive symptoms. In addition, there were several subgroup effects. In conclusion, changes in greenery did not yield consistent positive results among residents of severely deprived neighborhoods. However, there are some indications regarding positive effects of greenery in certain subgroups. PMID:27322564

  10. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle Ann; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hertel, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    K, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. 2015. A study of the combined effects of physical activity and air pollution on mortality in elderly urban residents: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:557–563; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408698 PMID:25625237

  11. Domain Structure of the Redβ Single-Strand Annealing Protein: the C-terminal Domain is Required for Fine-Tuning DNA-binding Properties, Interaction with the Exonuclease Partner, and Recombination in vivo.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher E; Bell, Charles E

    2016-02-13

    Redβ is a component of the Red recombination system of bacteriophage λ that promotes a single strand annealing (SSA) reaction to generate end-to-end concatemers of the phage genome for packaging. Redβ interacts with λ exonuclease (λexo), the other component of the Red system, to form a "synaptosome" complex that somehow integrates the end resection and annealing steps of the reaction. Previous work using limited proteolysis and chemical modification revealed that Redβ consists of an N-terminal DNA binding domain, residues 1-177, and a flexible C-terminal "tail", residues 178-261. Here, we quantitatively compare the binding of the full-length protein (Redβ(FL)) and the N-terminal domain (Redβ(177)) to different lengths of ssDNA substrate and annealed duplex product. We find that in general, Redβ(FL) binds more tightly to annealed duplex product than to ssDNA substrate, while Redβ(177) binds more tightly to ssDNA. In addition, the C-terminal region of Redβ corresponding to residues 182-261 was purified and found to fold into an α-helical domain that is required for the interaction with λexo to form the synaptosome complex. Deletion analysis of Redβ revealed that removal of just eleven residues from the C-terminus disrupts the interaction with λexo as well as ssDNA and dsDNA recombination in vivo. By contrast, the determinants for self-oligomerization of Redβ appear to reside solely within the N-terminal domain. The subtle but significant differences in the relative binding of Redβ(FL) and Redβ(177) to ssDNA substrate and annealed duplex product may be important for Redβ to function as a SSA protein in vivo. PMID:26780547

  12. 24 CFR 964.100 - Role of resident council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... satisfaction and participate in self-help initiatives to enable residents to create a positive living environment for families living in public housing. Resident councils may actively participate through...

  13. Residency Decisions: Another Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Barry S.

    The process of determining student's residency status for fee payment at the University of Nevada-Reno is described and supplemental information forms that are used at the university are included. At the University of Nevada-Reno, residency decisions are the responsibility of admissions office professional staff. The university has a formal…

  14. Life After Residency.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2016-04-01

    Many residents don't receive any formal business training. The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School created a crash course to teach residents some of the business and job-hunting basics they'll need. PMID:27049910

  15. Selecting Residents in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shofler, David

    2015-01-01

    Limited information exists to guide students of podiatric medicine and residency directors through the resident selection process. The present study aimed to evaluate the podiatric medicine and surgery resident selection process using an online survey. Residency directors of podiatric medicine and surgery programs across the United States and fourth-year students across all 9 colleges of podiatric medicine were contacted for participation. Two separate surveys were created, one for the directors and one for the students. The directors and students were asked the relative importance of 21 items considered in resident selection on a 7-point importance scale. Subsequent questions covered an array of related topics. The directors, compared with the students, identified the following items as more important (p < .05): previous disciplinary actions against the student, number of classes failed during school, undergraduate experiences and activities, number of Part I board attempts, class rank, involvement in research, and grade point average during podiatric medical school. The manual dexterity portion of the residency interview was considered significantly more important by the students than the directors. The directors more satisfied with their residents placed greater importance on the following items (p < .05): opinions of current residents, opinions of other attending physicians, and letters of recommendation. Additional trends and differences were also discovered. The results of the present study provide baseline data on the selection of podiatric medicine and surgery residents. PMID:25459090

  16. Impact of pharmaceutical company representatives on internal medicine residency programs. A survey of residency program directors.

    PubMed

    Lichstein, P R; Turner, R C; O'Brien, K

    1992-05-01

    To survey internal medicine residency program directors regarding interactions between their residents and pharmaceutical company (PC) representatives (PCRs) a questionnaire was sent to the directors of all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved internal medicine residency programs. The survey included 444 program directors, of whom 272 (61.16%) responded. The majority of program directors, 228 (83.8%), allowed PCRs to meet with residents during working hours and 241 (88.6%) permitted PC sponsorship of conferences. About half of the program directors were "moderately" or "very" concerned about the potential adverse effects of PC marketing on resident attitudes and prescribing practices. Seventy percent "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that the benefits of PC sponsorship outweigh the adverse effects and 41.5% believed that refusal to allow PCRs to meet with residents would jeopardize PC funding of other departmental activities. Most program directors reported that alternate funds for conferences were available if PC support was withdrawn. "Unethical" marketing activities were observed by 14.3% of program directors and 37.5% reported that residents had participated in PC-sponsored trips during the 3 years prior to the survey. At the time of this survey, only 35.3% of programs had developed formal policies regulating PCR activities and 25.7% provided residents with formal instruction on marketing issues. Knowledge of the current extent of PCR interactions with residents may be helpful to program directors in developing policies regulating PC-marketing activities. PMID:1580704

  17. Residency Exposures and Anticipated Future Involvement in Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Goldshore, Matthew A.; Solomon, Barry S.; Downs, Stephen M.; Pan, Richard; Minkovitz, Cynthia S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess how exposures to community activities in residency impact anticipated future involvement in community child health settings. Methods Prospective cohort study of pediatric residents from 10 programs (12 sites) who completed training between 2003 and 2009. Residents reported annual participation for ≥8 days in each of 7 community activities (eg, community settings, child health advocacy) in the prior year. At the start and end of residency, residents reported anticipated involvement in 10 years in 8 community settings (eg, school, shelter). Anticipated involvement was dichotomized: moderate/substantial (“high”) versus none/limited (“low”). Logistic regression modeled whether residency exposures independently influenced anticipated future involvement at the end of residency. Results A total of 683 residents completed surveys at the start and end of residency (66.8% participation). More than half of trainees reported ≥8 days’ of involvement in community settings (65.6%) or child health advocacy (53.6%) in residency. Fewer anticipated high involvement in at least 1 community setting at the end of residency than at the start (65.5% vs 85.6%, P < .001). Participation in each community activity mediated but did not moderate relations between anticipated involvement at the start and end of residency. In multivariate models, exposure to community settings in residency was associated with anticipated involvement at end of residency (adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.2, 2.0). No other residency exposures were associated. Conclusions Residents who anticipate high involvement in community pediatrics at the start of residency participate in related opportunities in training. Exposure to community settings during residency may encourage community involvement after training. PMID:24906986

  18. A conserved apomixis-specific polymorphism is correlated with exclusive exonuclease expression in premeiotic ovules of apomictic boechera species.

    PubMed

    Corral, José M; Vogel, Heiko; Aliyu, Olawale M; Hensel, Götz; Thiel, Thomas; Kumlehn, Jochen; Sharbel, Timothy F

    2013-12-01

    Apomixis (asexual seed production) is characterized by meiotically unreduced egg cell production (apomeiosis) followed by its parthenogenetic development into offspring that are genetic clones of the mother plant. Fertilization (i.e. pseudogamy) of the central cell is important for the production of a functional endosperm with a balanced 2:1 maternal:paternal genome ratio. Here, we present the APOLLO (for apomixis-linked locus) gene, an Aspartate Glutamate Aspartate Aspartate histidine exonuclease whose transcripts are down-regulated in sexual ovules entering meiosis while being up-regulated in apomeiotic ovules at the same stage of development in plants of the genus Boechera. APOLLO has both "apoalleles," which are characterized by a set of linked apomixis-specific polymorphisms, and "sexalleles." All apomictic Boechera spp. accessions proved to be heterozygous for the APOLLO gene (having at least one apoallele and one sexallele), while all sexual genotypes were homozygous for sexalleles. Apoalleles contained a 20-nucleotide polymorphism present in the 5' untranslated region that contains specific transcription factor-binding sites for ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX PROTEIN5, LIM1 (for LINEAGE ABNORMAL11, INSULIN1, MECHANOSENSORY PROTEIN3), SORLIP1AT (for SEQUENCES OVERREPRESENTED IN LIGHT-INDUCED PROMOTERS IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA1), SORLIP2AT, and POLYA SIGNAL1. In the same region, sexalleles contain transcription factor-binding sites for DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER2, DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER3, and PROLAMIN BOX-BINDING FACTOR. Our results suggest that the expression of a single deregulated allele could induce the cascade of events leading to asexual female gamete formation in an apomictic plant. PMID:24163323

  19. A fluorescent biosensing platform based on the polydopamine nanospheres intergrating with Exonuclease III-assisted target recycling amplification.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Weibing; Wang, Xi; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiang; Li, Hui; Xu, Danke

    2015-09-15

    Rapid, cost-effective, sensitive and specific analysis of biomolecules is important in the modern healthcare system. Here, a fluorescent biosensing platform based on the polydopamine nanospheres (PDANS) intergrating with Exonuclease III (Exo III) was developed. Due to the interaction between the ssDNA and the PDANS, the fluorescence of 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labelled in the probe would been quenched by PDANS through FRET. While, in the present of the target DNA, the probe DNA would hybridize with the target DNA to form the double-strand DNA complex. Thus, Exo III could catalyze the stepwise removal of mononucleotides from 3'-terminus in the probe DNA, releasing the target DNA. As the FAM was released from the probe DNA, the fluorescence would no longer been quenched, led to the signal on. As one target DNA molecule could undergo a number of cycles to trigger the degradation of abundant probe DNA, Exo III-assisted target recycling would led to the amplification of the signal. The detection limit for DNA was 5 pM, which was 20 times lower than that without Exo III. And the assay time was largely shortened due to the faster signal recovery kinetics. What is more, this target recycling strategy was also applied to conduct an aptamer-based biosensing platform. The fluorescence intensity was also enhanced for the assay of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For the Exo III-assisted target recycling amplification, DNA and ATP were fast detected with high sensitivity and selectivity. This work provides opportunities to develop simple, rapid, economical, and sensitive biosensing platforms for biomedical diagnostics. PMID:25897884

  20. A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for multiplex antibiotics detection based on high-capacity magnetic hollow porous nanotracers coupling exonuclease-assisted cascade target recycling.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhongdan; Gan, Ning; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Chen, Yinji

    2016-04-15

    A multiplex electrochemical aptasensor was developed for simultaneous detection of two antibiotics such as chloramphenicol (CAP) and oxytetracycline (OTC), and high-capacity magnetic hollow porous nanotracers coupling exonuclease-assisted target recycling was used to improve sensitivity. The cascade amplification process consists of the exonuclease-assisted target recycling amplification and metal ions encoded magnetic hollow porous nanoparticles (MHPs) to produce voltammetry signals. Upon the specific recognition of aptamers to targets (CAP and OTC), exonuclease I (Exo I) selectively digested the aptamers which were bound with CAP and OTC, then the released CAP and OTC participated new cycling to produce more single DNA, which can act as trigger strands to hybrid with nanotracers to generate further signal amplification. MHPs were used as carriers to load more amounts of metal ions and coupling with Exo I assisted cascade target recycling can amplify the signal for about 12 folds compared with silica based nanotracers. Owing to the dual signal amplification, the linear range between signals and the concentrations of CAP and OTC were obtained in the range of 0.0005-50 ng mL(-1). The detection limits of CAP and OTC were 0.15 and 0.10 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3) which is more than 2 orders lower than commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay (ELISA) method, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to simultaneously detection of CAP and OTC in milk samples. Besides, this aptasensor can be applied to other antibiotics detection by changing the corresponding aptamer. The whole scheme is facile, selective and sensitive enough for antibiotics screening in food safety. PMID:26594886

  1. Facilty Focus: Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnewell, James F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Western Ridge Residence at Colorado College and Beard Hall at Wheaton College. The buildings feature multiple levels that take advantage of views and also help create a "homey" feeling. (EV)

  2. 24 CFR 598.610 - Resident benefit standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Resident benefit standards. 598.610... Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.610 Resident benefit standards. The project or activity described in an... meet one of the following three standards of resident benefit for determining the amount of HUD...

  3. Does Psychiatry Residency Training Reflect the "Real World" of Psychiatry Practice? A Survey of Residency Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Timothy; Fava, Maurizio; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Vorono, Sienna; Sanders, Kathy M.; Mischoulon, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine whether Massachusetts General Hospital's residency graduates believed their training reflected their current practice activities. Method: The authors surveyed 134 graduates from MGH and MGH-McLean residency classes from 1983 to 2003. Subjects ranked their satisfaction with different components of training on a…

  4. The N-terminal PIN domain of the exosome subunit Rrp44 harbors endonuclease activity and tethers Rrp44 to the yeast core exosome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Claudia; Leung, Eileen; Brown, Jeremy; Tollervey, David

    2009-03-01

    Nuclear and cytoplasmic forms of the yeast exosome share 10 components, of which only Rrp44/Dis3 is believed to possess 3' exonuclease activity. We report that expression only of Rrp44 lacking 3'-exonuclease activity (Rrp44-exo) supports growth in S288c-related strains (BY4741). In BY4741, rrp44-exo was synthetic-lethal with loss of the cytoplasmic 5'-exonuclease Xrn1, indicating block of mRNA turnover, but not with loss of the nuclear 3'-exonuclease Rrp6. The RNA processing phenotype of rrp44-exo was milder than that seen on Rrp44 depletion, indicating that Rrp44-exo retains important functions. Recombinant Rrp44 was shown to possess manganese-dependent endonuclease activity in vitro that was abolished by four point mutations in the putative metal binding residues of its N-terminal PIN domain. Rrp44 lacking both exonuclease and endonuclease activity failed to support growth in strains depleted of endogenous Rrp44. Strains expressing Rrp44-exo and Rrp44-endo-exo exhibited different RNA processing patterns in vivo suggesting Rrp44-dependent endonucleolytic cleavages in the 5'-ETS and ITS2 regions of the pre-rRNA. Finally, the N-terminal PIN domain was shown to be necessary and sufficient for association with the core exosome, indicating its dual function as a nuclease and structural element. PMID:19129231

  5. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) Reside in Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Aquilano, Katia; Vigilanza, Paola; Baldelli, Sara; Pagliei, Beatrice; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α and the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 are considered important inducers of mitochondrial biogenesis because in the nucleus they regulate transcription of nucleus-encoded mitochondrial genes. We demonstrate that PGC-1α and SIRT1 are also present inside mitochondria and are in close proximity to mtDNA. They interact with mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) as assessed by confocal microscopy analysis and by blue native-PAGE. Nucleoid purification allowed us to identify SIRT1 and PGC-1α as proteins associated with native and cross-linked nucleoids, respectively. After mtDNA immunoprecipitation analysis, carried out on mitochondrial extracts, we found that PGC-1α is present on the same D-loop region recognized by TFAM. Finally, by oligonucleotide pulldown assay, we found PGC-1α and SIRT1 associated with the TFAM consensus sequence (human mitochondrial transcription factor-binding site H). The results obtained suggest that in mitochondria PGC-1α and SIRT1 may function as their nuclear counterparts and represent the genuine factors mediating the cross-talk between nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Finally, this work adds new knowledge on the function of SIRT1 and PGC-1α and highlights the direct involvement of such proteins in regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:20448046

  6. Towards a paperless medical physics residency management system.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Leah K; Miften, Moyed

    2014-01-01

    Documentation is a required component of a residency program, but can be difficult to collect and disseminate, resulting in minimal utilization by residents and faculty. The purpose of this work is to adapt a commercially-available Web-based medical residency management system to improve the learning experience by efficiently distributing program information, documenting resident activities, and providing frequent monitoring and timely feedback of resident progress. To distribute pro- gram information, program requirements and rotation readings were uploaded. An educational conference calendar was created with associated files and attendance records added. To document resident progress, requirements for over 37 different clinical procedures were added, for which the resident logged the total number of procedures performed. Progress reports were created and automatically distributed. To provide feedback to the resident, an extensive electronic evaluation system was created. Results are shown for the initial 21 months of program existence, consisting of a single resident for the first 12 months and two residents for the subsequent 9 months. The system recorded that 130 documents were uploaded and 100% of required documents were downloaded by the resident. In total, 385 educational conferences and meetings were offered, of which the residents attended 95%. The second-year and first-year residents logged 1030 and 522 clinical proce- dures, respectively. The residents submitted a total of 116 status reports detailing weekly activities, 100% of which were reviewed by faculty within an average of 11.3 days. A total of 65 evaluations of the residents were submitted. The residents reviewed 100% of respective evaluations within an average of 1.5 days. We have successfully incorporated a paperless, Web-based management system in a medical physics residency program. A robust electronic documentation system has been implemented, which has played a central role in enhancing the

  7. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Kousuke; Emoto, Noriko; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Kawakami, Masanori; Kage, Hidenori; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. {yields} Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. {yields} Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. {yields} The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 {sup o}C or 65 {sup o}C, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  8. Label-free hairpin DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters for fluorescent detection of Hg²⁺ using exonuclease III-assisted target recycling amplification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingdi; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Wei, Qiaohua; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2016-05-15

    A new label-free DNA sensing protocol was designed for fluorescent detection of mercury(II) (Hg(2+)), coupling hairpin DNA-scaffolded silver nanocluster (DNA-AgNC) with exonuclease III-assisted target recycling amplification. The assay was carried out through target-induced conformational change of hairpin DNA, while the signal derived from the formed silver nanoclusters on hairpin DNA probes. Initially, target Hg(2+) was specifically coordinated with thymine-thymine (T-T) mismatches to form an intact hairpin DNA. Then, the newly formed hairpin DNA was digested through exonuclease III from blunt 3' termini and restrained at 3' protruding terminus, thus resulting in the release of target Hg(2+) from hairpin DNA. The liberated target Hg(2+) initiated the next cycling, thereby causing the conformational change of numerous hairpin probes from the stem-loop DNA structure to single-stranded DNA. Under the optimal conditions, the fluorescent intensity of the as-produced DNA-AgNCs decreased with the increasing Hg(2+) concentration within a dynamic range from 0.1 nM to 10nM with a detection limit (LOD) of 24 pM. Moreover, the low-cost fluorescent sensing system exhibited high reproducibility and good specificity, thus representing an optional sensing platform for rapid screening of Hg(2+) in environmental water samples. PMID:26741529

  9. Teaching professionalism to residents.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eileen J; Jackson, J Craig; Kratz, Lyn; Marcuse, Edgar K; McPhillips, Heather A; Shugerman, Richard P; Watkins, Sandra; Stapleton, F Bruder

    2003-01-01

    The need to teach professionalism during residency has been affirmed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, which will require documentation of education and evaluation of professionalism by 2007. Recently the American Academy of Pediatrics has proposed the following components of professionalism be taught and measured: honesty/integrity, reliability/responsibility, respect for others, compassion/empathy, self-improvement, self-awareness/knowledge of limits, communication/collaboration, and altruism/advocacy. The authors describe a curriculum for introducing the above principles of professionalism into a pediatrics residency that could serve as a model for other programs. The curriculum is taught at an annual five-day retreat for interns, with 11 mandatory sessions devoted to addressing key professionalism issues. The authors also explain how the retreat is evaluated and how the retreat's topics are revisited during the residency, and discuss general issues of teaching and evaluating professionalism. PMID:12525406

  10. Financing Residency Training Redesign

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia A.; Waller, Elaine; Green, Larry A.; Crane, Steven; Garvin, Roger D.; Pugno, Perry A.; Kozakowski, Stanley M.; Douglass, Alan B.; Jones, Samuel; Eiff, M. Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background Redesign in the health care delivery system creates a need to reorganize resident education. How residency programs fund these redesign efforts is not known. Methods Family medicine residency program directors participating in the Preparing Personal Physicians for Practice (P4) project were surveyed between 2006 and 2011 on revenues and expenses associated with training redesign. Results A total of 6 university-based programs in the study collectively received $5,240,516 over the entire study period, compared with $4,718,943 received by 8 community-based programs. Most of the funding for both settings came from grants, which accounted for 57.8% and 86.9% of funding for each setting, respectively. Department revenue represented 3.4% of university-based support and 13.1% of community-based support. The total average revenue (all years combined) per program for university-based programs was just under $875,000, and the average was nearly $590,000 for community programs. The vast majority of funds were dedicated to salary support (64.8% in university settings versus 79.3% in community-based settings). Based on the estimated ratio of new funding relative to the annual costs of training using national data for a 3-year program with 7 residents per year, training redesign added 3% to budgets for university-based programs and about 2% to budgets for community-based programs. Conclusions Residencies undergoing training redesign used a variety of approaches to fund these changes. The costs of innovations marginally increased the estimated costs of training. Federal and local funding sources were most common, and costs were primarily salary related. More research is needed on the costs of transforming residency training. PMID:26140119

  11. An Assigned Teaching Resident Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels-Brady, Catherine; Rieder, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors' adult psychiatry residency training program identified several educational needs for residents at their institution. Junior residents needed enhanced learning of clinical interviewing skills and learning connected to the inpatient psychiatry ward rotations, and senior residents needed opportunities to prepare for the…

  12. Scholar Quest: A Residency Research Program Aligned with Faculty Goals

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Ashish R.; Stolz, Uwe; Denninghoff, Kurt R.; Munger, Benson

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The ACGME requires that residents perform scholarly activities prior to graduation, but this is difficult to complete and challenging to support. We describe a residency research program, taking advantage of environmental change aligning resident and faculty goals, to become a contributor to departmental cultural change and research development. Methods: A research program, Scholar Quest (SQ), was developed as a part of an Information Mastery program. The goal of SQ is for residents to gain understanding of scholarly activity through a mentor-directed experience in original research. This curriculum is facilitated by providing residents protected time for didactics, seed grants and statistical/staff support. We evaluated total scholarly activity and resident/faculty involvement before and after implementation (PRE-SQ; 2003–2005 and POST-SQ; 2007–2009). Results: Scholarly activity was greater POST-SQ versus PRE-SQ (123 versus 27) (p<0.05) with an incidence rate ratio (IRR)=2.35. Resident and faculty involvement in scholarly activity also increased PRE-SQ to POST-SQ (22 to 98 residents; 10 to 39 faculty, p<0.05) with an IRR=2.87 and 2.69, respectively. Conclusion: Implementation of a program using department environmental change promoting a resident longitudinal research curriculum yielded increased resident and faculty scholarly involvement, as well as an increase in total scholarly activity. PMID:24868308

  13. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): use of a small group reading activity run by persons with dementia in adult day health care and long-term care settings.

    PubMed

    Skrajner, Michael J; Camp, Cameron J

    2007-01-01

    Six persons in the early to middle stages of dementia ("leaders") were trained in Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP) to lead a reading activity for 22 persons with more advanced dementia ("participants") in an adult day health center (ADHC) and a special care unit (SCU) in a skilled nursing facility. Researchers assessed the leaders' abilities to learn and follow the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with their roles. In addition, participants' engagement and affect were measured, both during standard activities programming and during client-led activities. Results of this study suggest that persons with dementia can indeed successfully lead small group activities, if several important prerequisites are met. Furthermore, the engagement and affect of participants was more positive in client-led activities than in standard activities programming. PMID:17533999

  14. The Residence Life Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dungan, Jane Fidler; Elion, Audrey; Gusmano, Phil

    1997-01-01

    Explores the implementation, results, and the limitations of the Residence Life Cinema program at the University of Memphis. Claims that such programs offer an innovative method for fostering student development by utilizing movies to stimulate affective and cognitive processes in students--processes that may not occur without a catalyst. (RJM)

  15. Selection of Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. David, III; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Selection data for all Medical University of South Carolina anesthesiology residency applicants (about 200 per year) and the 8 selected per year were compared for 4 years. Results showed standardized test scores, grades, and class ranks of those selected were not higher than of others, but interview and recommendation scores were higher.…

  16. Violence against surgical residents.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, C B; Rizzo, A G

    1997-01-01

    Violence against hospital personnel is underreported (less than one in five assaults), and accurate statistics as to the rate of violence against hospital personnel are thus difficult to establish. In the psychiatric discipline, an abundance of information has been published regarding violence in the health care setting, but few studies have examined violence outside psychiatric hospitals or by patients not diagnosed with psychiatric ailments. Using a survey that elicits information about workplace violence, we sought to gauge the prevalence of violent acts affecting general hospital workers who treat victims of violence on a daily basis. The survey was completed by a cohort of surgical staff nationwide (475 responses from 57 residency programs). Two hundred and eighty residents reported having witnessed one or more physical attacks, and 179 reported having been attacked. Violent acts were more likely to be committed in a public hospital than a private institution (P = 0.05). As shown in previous research, most attacks occurred in the emergency room (P = 0.01); the wards and parking lot were next in frequency. Women residents were more likely than men to call hospital security to intervene in a potentially violent situation (P = 0.04), and junior residents (postgraduate years 1-4) were more likely to be attacked than senior residents (> or = 5 years) (P = 0.04). The attacker was most likely to be a young black male between ages 19 and 30 (P = 0.01). We found no statistical relationship between the attacker and the victim regarding sex or race. Of the 475 respondents, 470 reported that they carry a gun themselves or know someone in the hospital environment who carries a gun. Images Figure 1. PMID:9291743

  17. Global Health Simulation During Residency.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Jane R; Fischer, Philip R; Arteaga, Grace M; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Butteris, Sabrina M; Pitt, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Resident participation in international health electives (IHEs) has been shown to be beneficial, yet not all residents have the opportunity to participate. We sought to determine whether participating in simulated global health cases, via the standardized Simulation Use for Global Away Rotations (SUGAR) curriculum, was useful for all pediatric residents, not merely those planning to go on an IHE. Pediatric residents in our program took part in 2 SUGAR cases and provided feedback via an online survey. Thirty-six of 40 residents participated (90%); 72% responded to the survey. Three of 10 residents not previously planning to work in resource-limited settings indicated participation in SUGAR made them more likely to do so. Nearly all residents (88%) felt SUGAR should be part of the residency curriculum. All felt better prepared for working cross-culturally. While designed to prepare trainees for work in resource-limited settings, SUGAR may be beneficial for all residents. PMID:27583300

  18. Global Health Simulation During Residency

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Jane R.; Fischer, Philip R.; Arteaga, Grace M.; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Butteris, Sabrina M.; Pitt, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Resident participation in international health electives (IHEs) has been shown to be beneficial, yet not all residents have the opportunity to participate. We sought to determine whether participating in simulated global health cases, via the standardized Simulation Use for Global Away Rotations (SUGAR) curriculum, was useful for all pediatric residents, not merely those planning to go on an IHE. Pediatric residents in our program took part in 2 SUGAR cases and provided feedback via an online survey. Thirty-six of 40 residents participated (90%); 72% responded to the survey. Three of 10 residents not previously planning to work in resource-limited settings indicated participation in SUGAR made them more likely to do so. Nearly all residents (88%) felt SUGAR should be part of the residency curriculum. All felt better prepared for working cross-culturally. While designed to prepare trainees for work in resource-limited settings, SUGAR may be beneficial for all residents. PMID:27583300

  19. The Effect of Beaver Activity on the Ammonium Uptake and Water Residence Time Characteristics of a Third-Order Stream Reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M.; Gooseff, M. N.; Wollheim, W. M.; Peterson, B. J.; Morkeski, K.

    2009-12-01

    Increasing beaver populations within low gradient basins in the northeastern United States are fundamentally changing the way water and dissolved nutrients are exported through these stream networks to the coast. Beaver dams can increase water residence time and contact with organic material, promote anoxic conditions and enhance both surface and hyporheic transient storage; all of these may have an impact on biogeochemical reactivity and nutrient retention. To quantitatively assess some of these effects we co-injected NaCl and NH4+ into the same 3rd-order stream reach in Massachusetts, USA under pre- and post-dam conditions. These experiments were done at similar discharge rates to isolate the impacts of a large natural beaver dam (7 m X 1.3 m) on the low-gradient (0.002) system where variable discharge also imparts a strong control on residence time. During the post-dam experiment there was an estimated 2300 m3 of water impounded behind the structure, which influenced more than 300 m of the 650 m stream reach. Our results showed that median transport time through the reach increased by 160% after dam construction. Additionally the tracer tailing time normalized to the corresponding median transport time increased from 1.08 to 1.51, indicating a pronounced tailing of the tracer signal in the post-dam condition. Data collected within the beaver pond just upstream of the dam indicated poor mixing and the presence of preferential flow paths through the generally stagnant zone. The uptake length (Sw) for NH4+ was 1250 m under the pre-dam condition, and may have changed for the post-dam reach in part because of the observed changes in residence time. As beaver population growth continues within these basins the consequences may be a smoothing of the outlet hydrograph and increased nutrient and organic matter removal and storage along the stream network.

  20. Real-time PCR Detection of Brucella Abortus: A Comparative Study of SYBR Green I, 5'-exonuclease, and Hybridization Probe Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, Deborah Trishelle; Hadfield, Ted; Roberto, Francisco Figueroa

    2003-08-01

    Real-time PCR provides a means of detecting and quantifying DNA targets by monitoring PCR product accumulation during cycling as indicated by increased fluorescence. A number of different approaches can be used to generate the fluorescence signal. Three approaches—SYBR Green I (a double-stranded DNA intercalating dye), 5'-exonuclease (enzymatically released fluors), and hybridization probes (fluorescence resonance energy transfer)—were evaluated for use in a real-time PCR assay to detect Brucella abortus. The three assays utilized the same amplification primers to produce an identical amplicon. This amplicon spans a region of the B. abortus genome that includes portions of the alkB gene and the IS711 insertion element. All three assays were of comparable sensitivity, providing a linear assay over 7 orders of magnitude (from 7.5 ng down to 7.5 fg). However, the greatest specificity was achieved with the hybridization probe assay.

  1. The efficiency of human cytomegalovirus pp65(495-503) CD8+ T cell epitope generation is determined by the balanced activities of cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum-resident peptidases.

    PubMed

    Urban, Sabrina; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Reimann, Barbara; Janek, Katharina; Dannenberg, Tanja; Ebstein, Frédéric; Seifert, Christin; Zhao, Fang; Kessler, Jan H; Halenius, Anne; Henklein, Petra; Paschke, Julia; Cadel, Sandrine; Bernhard, Helga; Ossendorp, Ferry; Foulon, Thierry; Schadendorf, Dirk; Paschen, Annette; Seifert, Ulrike

    2012-07-15

    Control of human CMV (HCMV) infection depends on the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) CTLs. The HCMV phosphoprotein (pp)65 is a major CTL target Ag and pp65(495-503) is an immunodominant CTL epitope in infected HLA-A*0201 individuals. As immunodominance is strongly determined by the surface abundance of the specific epitope, we asked for the components of the cellular Ag processing machinery determining the efficacy of pp65(495-503) generation, in particular, for the proteasome, cytosolic peptidases, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident peptidases. In vitro Ag processing experiments revealed that standard proteasomes and immunoproteasomes generate the minimal 9-mer peptide epitope as well as N-terminal elongated epitope precursors of different lengths. These peptides are largely degraded by the cytosolic peptidases leucine aminopeptidase and tripeptidyl peptidase II, as evidenced by increased pp65(495-503) epitope presentation after leucine aminopeptidase and tripeptidyl peptidase II knockdown. Additionally, with prolyl oligopeptidase and aminopeptidase B we identified two new Ag processing machinery components, which by destroying the pp65(495-503) epitope limit the availability of the specific peptide pool. In contrast to cytosolic peptidases, silencing of ER aminopeptidases 1 and 2 strongly impaired pp65(495-503)-specific T cell activation, indicating the importance of ER aminopeptidases in pp65(495-503) generation. Thus, cytosolic peptidases primarily interfere with the generation of the pp65(495-503) epitope, whereas ER-resident aminopeptidases enhance such generation. As a consequence, our experiments reveal that the combination of cytosolic and ER-resident peptidase activities strongly shape the pool of specific antigenic peptides and thus modulate MHC class I epitope presentation efficiency. PMID:22706083

  2. Anti-Ephrin Type-B Receptor 2 (EphB2) and Anti-Three Prime Histone mRNA EXonuclease 1 (THEX1) Autoantibodies in Scleroderma and Lupus.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Doua F; Martin, Gabriel V; Arnoux, Fanny; Balandraud, Nathalie; Martin, Thierry; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Hachulla, Eric; Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Tiev, Kiet; Cabane, Jean; Bardin, Nathalie; Chiche, Laurent; Martin, Marielle; Caillet, Eléonore C; Kanaan, Sami B; Harlé, Jean Robert; Granel, Brigitte; Diot, Elisabeth; Roudier, Jean; Auger, Isabelle; Lambert, Nathalie C

    2016-01-01

    In a pilot ProtoArray analysis, we identified 6 proteins out of 9483 recognized by autoantibodies (AAb) from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We further investigated the 6 candidates by ELISA on hundreds of controls and patients, including patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), known for high sera reactivity and overlapping AAb with SSc. Only 2 of the 6 candidates, Ephrin type-B receptor 2 (EphB2) and Three prime Histone mRNA EXonuclease 1 (THEX1), remained significantly recognized by sera samples from SSc compared to controls (healthy or with rheumatic diseases) with, respectively, 34% versus 14% (P = 2.10-4) and 60% versus 28% (P = 3.10-8). Above all, EphB2 and THEX1 revealed to be mainly recognized by SLE sera samples with respectively 56%, (P = 2.10-10) and 82% (P = 5.10-13). As anti-EphB2 and anti-THEX1 AAb were found in both diseases, an epitope mapping was realized on each protein to refine SSc and SLE diagnosis. A 15-mer peptide from EphB2 allowed to identify 35% of SLE sera samples (N = 48) versus only 5% of any other sera samples (N = 157), including SSc sera samples. AAb titers were significantly higher in SLE sera (P<0.0001) and correlated with disease activity (p<0.02). We could not find an epitope on EphB2 protein for SSc neither on THEX1 for SSc or SLE. We showed that patients with SSc or SLE have AAb against EphB2, a protein involved in angiogenesis, and THEX1, a 3'-5' exoribonuclease involved in histone mRNA degradation. We have further identified a peptide from EphB2 as a specific and sensitive tool for SLE diagnosis. PMID:27617966

  3. A triple-amplification colorimetric assay for antibiotics based on magnetic aptamer-enzyme co-immobilized platinum nanoprobes and exonuclease-assisted target recycling.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yangbao; Gan, Ning; Ren, Hong-Xia; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Yan, Zhongdan; Chen, Yinji

    2015-11-21

    Herein, an ultrasensitive and selective colorimetric assay for antibiotics, using chloramphenicol (CAP) as the model analyte, was developed based on magnetic aptamer-HRP-platinum composite probes and exonuclease-assisted target recycling. The composite probes were prepared through immunoreactions between the double stranded DNA antibody (anti-DNA) labeled on core-shell Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles (AuMNP-anti-DNA) as the capture probe, and the double stranded aptamer (aptamer hybrid with its complementary oligonucleotides) labeled on Pt@HRP nanoparticles as the nanotracer (ds-Apt-HRP-PtNPs). When the CAP samples were incubated with the probes for 30 min at room temperature, they could be captured by the aptamer to form a nanotracer-CAP complex, which was then released into the supernatant after magnetic separation. This is because the anti-DNA on the capture probes cannot recognize the single strand aptamer-CAP complex. The exonuclease I (Exo I) added into the supernatant can further digest the aptamer-CAP from the 3'-end of the aptamer and the CAP in the aptamer-CAP complex can be released again, which can further participate in a new cycling process to react with the probes. Pt and HRP in the nanotracer could both catalyze and dual amplify the absorbance at 650 nm ascribed to the 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-H2O2 system. Moreover, Exo I can assist the target recycling, which can further amplify the signal. Thus, the triple amplified signal can be quantified by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the CAP detection possessed a linear range of 0.001-10 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.0003 ng mL(-1) (S/N = 3). The assay was successfully employed to detect CAP in milk, which is much more facile, time saving, and sensitive than the commercial ELISA kits. PMID:26442572

  4. Evaluation of a Core Curriculum for Optometric Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Michael H.; Suchoff, Irvin B.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of residents and residency supervisors at three Veterans' Administration hospitals affiliated with one school of optometry investigated attitudes toward core optometry curriculum activities. Activities were generally rated well for content and effectiveness of presentation, and the study also provided information for program improvement.…

  5. Residents first. A long-term care facility introduces a social model that puts residents in control.

    PubMed

    Boyd, C

    1994-09-01

    Four years ago the leaders at Providence/Mount St. Vincent, Seattle, decided to scrap the traditional medical model of long-term care and create an environment directed by the residents. The traditional system in nursing homes is designed to foster dependence. Our new social model, in contrast, is almost entirely directed by resident preference and need, and it places a high value on human interaction. So far we are having the most success with our assisted living program, which is built into apartment living as part of the rent. All services are available to all residents when they need them. The residents are forming warm relationships with resident assistants, and the flexible, nonmedical help they receive allows them to age in place. The nursing center has been divided into "neighborhoods" of about 20 residents, each with its own staff. A cross-trained, highly capable staff is essential to support resident independence and choice. In one experimental neighborhood, nonmedical tasks that nurses have traditionally done are now being reallocated to resident assistants, who are paid half as much as nurses. The physical heart of every remodeled neighborhood will be a kitchen, as we strive to create a homelike environment. Purposeful activity is replacing therapy in a void. And residents with cognitive impairments are gradually being integrated with more cognitively aware residents. We believe that in the long run, resident-directed care will be less expensive than the medical model. PMID:10136077

  6. OUTLINE OF THE PROGRAM FOR TRAINABLE RESIDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunland Training Center, Gainesville, FL.

    PHILOSOPHY, GOALS, AND DESCRIPTION OF RESIDENTS PARTICIPATING IN THIS PROGRAM ARE PRESENTED. ACTIVITIES ARE OUTLINED FOR BEGINNERS, INTERMEDIATES, ADULT MEN, AND ADULT WOMEN IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS--(1) PERCEPTION DEVELOPMENT, (2) COMMUNICATION AND EXPRESSION SKILLS, (3) MOTOR SKILLS, (4) NUMBER CONCEPTS, (5) PERSONAL HEALTH AND GROOMING SKILLS,…

  7. Dying in hospital: the residents' viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Ahmedzai, S

    1982-01-01

    A survey of residents' (junior house officers') experiences and attitudes to the terminal care part of their work in four Glasgow teaching hospitals showed that even a month after starting work one-fifth of the respondents had not actively managed a dying patient. Sixty-four per cent thought that they had received inadequate teaching in terminal care. Depression and anxiety had been the most difficult symptoms encountered. The residents thought that the ward nursing staff contributed much more than their senior medical colleagues to both the medical and psychological aspects of terminal care. The results indicate a need for more undergraduate education in the most relevant areas, such as coping with the psychological problems of dying patients and their relatives. Newly qualified residents require more support from senior medical staff in looking after the terminally ill. PMID:6809204

  8. Stress in Family Practice Residents

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, Howard L.

    1986-01-01

    Sources and levels of stress, as well as coping mechanisms, perceived by residents in both years of a two-year family practice residency program in Toronto are described. In addition, differences between first- and second-year residents, and between women and men residents, regardless of year, are examined. Results of the survey indicate that the levels of stress are relatively high throughout the two years of residency training. The three most stressful aspects of being a resident are time pressures, fatigue, and lack of self-confidence. Female residents appear to report a higher level of stress than males, especially in trying to combine a personal and a professional life. Specific coping mechanisms include talking to others, adjusting attitudes and feelings, or strategic use of time. Recommendations aimed at helping family medicine residency programs deal with the problem of stress in residents are suggested. A current major province-wide research study including all interns and residents in Ontario is described. PMID:21267263

  9. Solid organ transplant training objectives for residents.

    PubMed

    Masclans, J R; Vicente, R; Ballesteros, M A; Sabater, J; Roca, O; Rello, J

    2012-11-01

    With the aim of analyzing the current state of the educational objectives in the training of medical residents in solid organ transplantation (SOT), we conducted a review of the status of the official programs of the specialities involved in SOT, focusing particularly on lung transplantation. A survey of medical residents was also conducted to allow reflexion about the topic. We obtained 44 surveys from 4 University Hospitals with active programs in SOT, mainly from intensive care medicine and anesthesiology residents. We detected an important number of courses oriented to organ donation but very limited in terms of basic training in the management of the immediate postoperative period, principles of immunosuppression and updates on immunosuppressive therapy and complications (particularly rejection and infection). We also identified that these educational aspects should be directed not only to medical residents from specialities with a close retation to SOT, but also to all who may at some time have a relation to such patients. The use of information and communication techniques (ICTs), on-line courses and also simulations should be instruments to take into account in the biomedical training of medical residents. We conclude that we need a specific training program in complications of SOT, as well as fundamental principles in immunology and immunosuppressor pharmacology. PMID:22980670

  10. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap. PMID:26667256

  11. Resident selection: a key to the future of orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Evarts, C McCollister

    2006-08-01

    Recognizing the challenges presented in the process of resident selection, in 1981 the American Orthopaedic Association formed a Steering Committee on Resident Selection. This Committee was charged with studying the processes involved in the selection of orthopaedic residents and developing guidelines and making suggestions to program directors. The activities of the Committee focused on five areas: (1) the mechanics of resident selection; (2) the assessment of cognitive skills; (3) the assessment of motor ability; (4) the assessment of noncognitive factors (the affective domain); (5) the assessment of "dropouts." The Committee made the following recommendations to help program directors in the selection of residents: (1) use of a standardized application form; (2) full disclosure to applicants; (3) careful selection of candidates to be interviewed; (4) careful planning and implementation of the interview and visit; (5) broad faculty representation and discussion at time of selection; (6) due diligence when necessary. We still believe these criteria important in resident selection. PMID:16788399

  12. Colorectal Surgeons Teaching General Surgery Residents: Current Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Connie C.; Chow, Christopher J.; Rothenberger, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Effective teaching for general surgery residents requires that faculty members with colorectal expertise actively engage in the education process and fully understand the current context for residency training. In this article, we review important national developments with respect to graduate medical education that impact resident supervision, curriculum implementation, resident assessment, and program evaluation. We argue that establishing a culture of respect and professionalism in today's teaching environment is one of the most important legacies that surgical educators can leave for the coming generation. Faculty role modeling and the process of socializing residents is highlighted. We review the American College of Surgeons' Code of Professional Conduct, summarize some of the current strategies for teaching and assessing professionalism, and reflect on principles of motivation that apply to resident training both for the trainee and the trainer. PMID:23997668

  13. Colorectal surgeons teaching general surgery residents: current challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Connie C; Chow, Christopher J; Rothenberger, David A

    2012-09-01

    Effective teaching for general surgery residents requires that faculty members with colorectal expertise actively engage in the education process and fully understand the current context for residency training. In this article, we review important national developments with respect to graduate medical education that impact resident supervision, curriculum implementation, resident assessment, and program evaluation. We argue that establishing a culture of respect and professionalism in today's teaching environment is one of the most important legacies that surgical educators can leave for the coming generation. Faculty role modeling and the process of socializing residents is highlighted. We review the American College of Surgeons' Code of Professional Conduct, summarize some of the current strategies for teaching and assessing professionalism, and reflect on principles of motivation that apply to resident training both for the trainee and the trainer. PMID:23997668

  14. Resident Exposure to Peripheral Nerve Surgical Procedures During Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Gil, Joseph A; Daniels, Alan H; Akelman, Edward

    2016-05-01

    Background Variability in case exposures has been identified for orthopaedic surgery residents. It is not known if this variability exists for peripheral nerve procedures. Objective The objective of this study was to assess ACGME case log data for graduating orthopaedic surgery, plastic surgery, general surgery, and neurological surgery residents for peripheral nerve surgical procedures and to evaluate intraspecialty and interspecialty variability in case volume. Methods Surgical case logs from 2009 to 2014 for the 4 specialties were compared for peripheral nerve surgery experience. Peripheral nerve case volume between specialties was performed utilizing a paired t test, 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and linear regression was calculated to assess the trends. Results The average number of peripheral nerve procedures performed per graduating resident was 54.2 for orthopaedic surgery residents, 62.8 for independent plastic surgery residents, 84.6 for integrated plastic surgery residents, 22.4 for neurological surgery residents, and 0.4 for surgery residents. Intraspecialty comparison of the 10th and 90th percentile peripheral nerve case volume in 2012 revealed remarkable variability in training. There was a 3.9-fold difference within orthopaedic surgery, a 5.0-fold difference within independent plastic surgery residents, an 8.8-fold difference for residents from integrated plastic surgery programs, and a 7.0-fold difference within the neurological surgery group. Conclusions There is interspecialty and intraspecialty variability in peripheral nerve surgery volume for orthopaedic, plastic, neurological, and general surgery residents. Caseload is not the sole determinant of training quality as mentorship, didactics, case breadth, and complexity play an important role in training. PMID:27168883

  15. The Resident Conference: A Method to Enhance Academic Intensity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loschen, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    To encourage more active resident participation in the academic aspects of graduate medical education, psychiatric residents associated with the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine are assigned to present conferences utilizing library research, patient case presentation, and review of patient care problems. (JMD)

  16. Interpersonal Networks and Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBerardinis, James; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Measured residents' perceptions of quality care and satisfaction with how well their needs are being met. Found that residents' perceptions of quality care (attitude of staff, food, and social activities) and satisfaction with roommates are significant predictors of perceived needs being met. Stressed that self-selected roommates are more…

  17. Building a resident research program in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Romy; Ramoska, Edward Anthony; Hamilton, Richard Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Residency training programs requirements state, "Residents should participate in scholarly activity." However, there is little consensus regarding how best to achieve these requirements. The objective of this study is to implement a resident research program that emphasizes resident participation in quantitative or qualitative empirical work. A three-step program "Think, Do, Write" roughly follows the 3 years of the residency. During the first phase, the resident chooses a topic, formulates a hypothesis, and completes standard research certifications. Phase 2 involves obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, and conducting the study. The final phase entails analyzing and interpreting the data, and writing an abstract to present during an annual research day. Residents are encouraged to submit their projects for presentation at scientific conferences and for publication. Multiple departmental resources are available, including a Resident Research Fund, and full support of the faculty. Prior to the new program, most scholarly activity consisted of case reports, book chapters, review articles, or other miscellaneous projects; only 27 % represented empirical studies. Starting in 2012, the new program was fully implemented, resulting in notable growth in original empirical works among residents. Currently there is almost 100 % participation in studies, and numerous residents have presented at national conferences, and have peer-reviewed publications. With a comprehensive and supported program in place, emergency medicine residents proved capable of conducting high-quality empirical research within their relatively limited time. Overall, residents developed valuable skills in research design and statistical analysis, and greatly increased their productivity as academic and clinical researchers. PMID:26597875

  18. Burnout During Residency Training: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    IsHak, Waguih William; Lederer, Sara; Mandili, Carla; Nikravesh, Rose; Seligman, Laurie; Vasa, Monisha; Ogunyemi, Dotun; Bernstein, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Burnout is a state of mental and physical exhaustion related to work or care giving activities. Burnout during residency training has gained significant attention secondary to concerns regarding job performance and patient care. This article reviews the relevant literature on burnout in order to provide information to educators about its prevalence, features, impact, and potential interventions. Methods Studies were identified through a Medline and PsychInfo search from 1974 to 2009. Fifty-one studies were identified. Definition and description of burnout and measurement methods are presented followed by a thorough review of the studies. Results An examination of the burnout literature reveals that it is prevalent in medical students (28%–45%), residents (27%–75%, depending on specialty), as well as practicing physicians. Psychological distress and physical symptoms can impact work performance and patient safety. Distress during medical school can lead to burnout, which in turn can result in negative consequences as a working physician. Burnout also poses significant challenges during early training years in residency. Time demands, lack of control, work planning, work organization, inherently difficult job situations, and interpersonal relationships, are considered factors contributing to residents' burnout. Potential interventions include workplace-driven and individual-driven measures. Workplace interventions include education about burnout, workload modifications, increasing the diversity of work duties, stress management training, mentoring, emotional intelligence training, and wellness workshops. Individual-driven behavioral, social, and physical activities include promoting interpersonal professional relations, meditation, counseling, and exercise. Conclusions Educators need to develop an active awareness of burnout and ought to consider incorporating relevant instruction and interventions during the process of training resident physicians

  19. Physical activity among Norwegian adolescents- a multilevel analysis of how place of residence is associated with health behaviour: the Young-HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this article is to investigate whether and to what degree participation in physical activity among adolescents is associated with area economic deprivation in the municipality where they live. In the study we took account of aggregated informal social capital at the municipality level and compositional effects due to spatial concentration of individual variables known to be associated with physical activity. These include informal social participation, participation in other cultural activities, and family affluence. Methods The study was based on a secondary analysis of data from the Norwegian HUNT study and municipality characteristics from the Norwegian Social Science Data Service ‘Commune Database’ from 2006. The sample consisted of 8114 adolescents whose ages ranged from 13 to 19. The explanatory power of the independent variables on the dependent variable was assessed using a multilevel analysis in which individuals comprised the first level and were nested within the municipality level. Results The average level of physical activity was not negatively associated with the level of area economic deprivation when we adjusted for informal social participation at the community level. Adjusting for area economic deprivation, we found that informal social participation at the community level was associated with a higher level of participation in physical activity at p< .01. Conclusion For adolescents in a given municipality, informal social participation is more strongly associated with a higher level of physical activity than the degree of area economic deprivation. This finding supports our social capital hypothesis, which states that the amount of social capital is strengthening the individual’s ability to take part in physical activity. PMID:23883144

  20. Sexual Education for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Stephen B.; Scott, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors seek to promote sexuality curriculum development in departments of psychiatry. Methods: The authors first focus on educational philosophy about what residents can be taught about sexual topics and then provide numerical and narrative resident evaluation data following a 6-month, half day per week rotation in a sexuality…

  1. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  2. Medical Residency Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, Beth; Gallucci, Chrysan; Swanson, Judy; Van Lare, Michelle; Yoon, Irene

    2009-01-01

    The Highline School District, located roughly 10 miles south of Seattle, Washington, has begun to implement a residency model for professional learning. Like the medical model, current teachers often traveled from other schools to be "in residency" at a previously selected classroom for six half-day sessions during the 2005-06 school year. Some…

  3. Resident Care Guide. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbridge State School, NJ.

    The third edition of the Woodbridge State School Cottage Life Department Resident Care Guide is explained to be a developmental status scale devised in 1969 as part of a 5-year study for the purposes of measuring the entire population's self-help training abilities. The department is said to serve 954 residents; 424 are non-ambulatory and 530 are…

  4. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  5. Commentary: experience with resident unions at one institution and implications for the future of practicing physicians.

    PubMed

    Sklar, David; Chang, Betty; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2011-05-01

    This commentary discusses the forces behind the formation of a resident union at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine and the union's evolution over its first three years. Because unions exist primarily to provide an avenue for advocacy to their members, they could have a negative impact on resident professionalism and on the faculty-resident mentor relationship. Resident unionization could also adversely impact the perceived balance between education and clinical service, to the detriment of the professional identity development of resident physicians. Despite this concern, the authors express their initial, cautious optimism that the union is instead currently promoting resident professionalism. The resident union has provided a forum for a unified resident voice, the engagement of the residents in safety and quality improvement activities, and advocacy for, and direction of, additional patient care funds, all of which has encouraged resident professionalism. Residents who have been active in the union also seem to have maintained altruistic professional attitudes as well as engagement in their educational activities. However, as the environment changes from one of increasing resources to one of stagnant or decreasing institutional resources, inevitable conflicts will arise between advocacy for resident salaries and benefits and patient care needs, and the manner in which the resident union will balance these conflicting needs and what impact it will have on the residents' professional identity development is unclear. PMID:21646972

  6. A theory-informed, process-oriented Resident Scholarship Program

    PubMed Central

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Darby, John B.; Hair, Amy B.; Rose, Karen M.; Ward, Mark A.; Turner, Teri L.; Balmer, Dorene F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to provide curricula for residents to engage in scholarly activities but does not specify particular guidelines for instruction. We propose a Resident Scholarship Program that is framed by the self-determination theory (SDT) and emphasize the process of scholarly activity versus a scholarly product. Methods The authors report on their longitudinal Resident Scholarship Program, which aimed to support psychological needs central to SDT: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. By addressing those needs in program aims and program components, the program may foster residents’ intrinsic motivation to learn and to engage in scholarly activity. To this end, residents’ engagement in scholarly processes, and changes in perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness were assessed. Results Residents engaged in a range of scholarly projects and expressed positive regard for the program. Compared to before residency, residents felt more confident in the process of scholarly activity, as determined by changes in increased perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Scholarly products were accomplished in return for a focus on scholarly process. Conclusions Based on our experience, and in line with the SDT, supporting residents’ autonomy, competence, and relatedness through a process-oriented scholarship program may foster the curiosity, inquisitiveness, and internal motivation to learn that drives scholarly activity and ultimately the production of scholarly products. PMID:27306995

  7. Community psychiatry tracks for residents: a review of four programs.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Claudia L; Factor, Robert M; Brenner, Carolyn J; Singh, Prameet; Spurgeon, Joyce A

    2014-01-01

    Many psychiatry residency graduates end up practicing at least in part in community settings. However, declining funding and other issues prevent many residency programs from offering robust community psychiatry training to all of their residents. Accordingly, some residency programs have developed Community Psychiatry Tracks, with the goal of developing future leaders in public sector psychiatry. We cataloged US psychiatry residency programs offering Community Psychiatry Tracks by reviewing the literature and surveying training directors and members of the American Association of Community Psychiatrists. Authors from each of the four programs found to be actively offering such tracks describe their track curricula, from which we elucidated common and variable elements as well as strengths and weaknesses and then make recommendations for other programs wishing to start a track. A Community Psychiatry Track preliminarily appears to be a well-received way to offer enhanced Community Psychiatry training to interested residents, to recruit medical students to residency programs, to offer opportunities for collaboration between residents and faculty members, and to expand opportunities for scholarly work by residents. PMID:24292436

  8. Graphene oxide and metal-mediated base pairs based "molecular beacon" integrating with exonuclease I for fluorescence turn-on detection of biothiols.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaojing; Zhou, Ying; Liu, Xueguo; Pang, Daiwen; Tang, Hongwu

    2014-08-27

    A novel fluorescence turn-on strategy, based on the resistance of metal-mediated molecular-beacons (MBs) toward nuclease digestion and the remarkable difference in the affinity of graphene oxide (GO) with MBs and the mononucleotides, is designed for the biothiols assay. Specifically, the metal-mediated base pairs facilitate the dye labeled MBs to fold into a hairpin structure preventing the digestion by exonuclease I, and thus allow the fluorescence quenching. The competition binding by biothiols removes metal ions from the base pairs, causing the nuclease reaction, and less decrease in the fluorescence is obtained after incubating with GO due to the weak affinity of the product-mononucleotides to GO. Hg(2+)-mediated MBs were firstly designed for the biothiols detection, and glutathione (GSH) was applied as the model target. Under the optimal conditions, the approach exhibits high sensitivity to GSH with a detection limit of 1.53 nM. Ag(+)-mediated MBs based sensor was also constructed to demonstrate its versatility, and cysteine was studied as the model target. The satisfactory results in the determination of biothiols in serum demonstrate that the method possesses great potential for detecting thiols in biological fluids. This new approach is expected to promote the exploitation of metal-mediated base pairs-based biosensors in biochemical and biomedical studies. PMID:24788855

  9. Fluorometric detection of mutant DNA oligonucleotide based on toehold strand displacement-driving target recycling strategy and exonuclease III-assisted suppression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong Guo; Ren, Wang; Jia, Jing; Feng, Ji; Gao, Zhong Feng; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-03-15

    We describe here a fluorometric assay for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides, based on a target recycling amplification strategy driven by toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction and on exonuclease III (Exo Ш)-assisted fluorescence background suppression strategy. The network consists of a pair of partially complementary DNA hairpins (HP1 and HP2) with 3' overhang ends, between which the spontaneous hybridization is kinetically hindered by the stems. The target DNA is repeatedly used to trigger a recycling progress between the hairpins, generating numerous HP1-HP2 duplex complexes. Exo III was then employed to digest the double strand parts of the residual hairpins and the intermediate products. The fluorescent dye, SYBR Green I, binds to the double-strand DNA products and emits strong fluorescence to achieve sensitive detection of the target DNA with the detection limit of 5.34 pM. Moreover, this proposed strategy showed high discrimination efficiency towards target DNA against mismatched DNA and was successfully applied in the analysis of human serum sample. PMID:26386329

  10. A new label-free fluorescent sensor for human immunodeficiency virus detection based on exonuclease III-assisted quadratic recycling amplification and DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Tian, Jianniao; Wang, Lijun; Fu, Shui; Huang, Hongyun; Zhao, Yanchun; Zhao, Shulin

    2016-05-10

    A label-free and sensitive fluorescence biosensing platform for human immunodeficiency virus gene (HIV-DNA) detection has been fabricated based on luminescent DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) and autonomous exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted recycling signal amplification. One long-chain DNA (X-DNA) molecule can hybridize with two assistant DNA (F-DNA) molecules and one HIV-DNA molecule; after Exo III digests X-DNA to liberate F-DNA and HIV-DNA. F-DNA combines with P-DNA (template of DNA/AgNCs), accordingly, P-DNA is cut and the fluorescence of the system is quenched. This assay can finish in one-step without any labelling of the DNA chain or complex construction, and the strategy is sensitive with the detection limit as low as 35 pM. At the same time, the approach exhibits good selectivity even against a single base mismatch. What's more, the method is able to monitor HIV-DNA in real human serum samples; it holds great potential for early diagnosis in gene-related diseases. PMID:27053438

  11. A label-free fluorescent probe based on DNA-templated silver nanoclusters and exonuclease III-assisted recycling amplification detection of nucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Tian, Jianniao; Ma, Yefei; Wang, Lijun; Zhao, Yanchun; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    A number of specific nucleic acids are closely related with many serious diseases, in the current research, a platform taking advantage of exonuclease III (Exo III) to realize double recycling amplification and label-free fluorescent DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) for detecting of nucleic acid had been developed. In this method, a molecular beacon (MB) with 3'-protruding termini and a single-stranded cytosine-rich (C-rich) probe were designed that coexist stably with Exo III. Once the target DNA appeared, portion of the MB could hybridize with target DNA and was digested by Exo III, which allowed the release of target DNA and a residual sequence. Subsequently, the residual sequence could trigger the Exo III to digest C-rich probe, and the DNA-AgNCs was not able to be synthesized because of the C-rich probe was destroyed; finally the fluorescent of solution was quenched. This assay enables to monitor human hemochromatosis gene (as a model) with high sensitivity, the detection limit is as low as 120 pM compared with other fluorescence DNA-AgNCs methods, this assay also exhibits superior specificity even against single base mismatch. The strategy is applied to detect human hemochromatosis gene in real human serum samples successfully. PMID:26572843

  12. G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based electrochemiluminescence biosensing strategy for VEGF165 detection: Combination of aptamer-target recognition and T7 exonuclease-assisted cycling signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Meixing; Li, Caihong; Guo, Zhihui; Dong, Huilei; Wu, Ping; Cai, Chenxin

    2015-12-15

    The expression profile of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly correlated with the occurrence and development of cancer. This work reports an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) approach for highly sensitive detection of VEGF165. This approach comprises aptamer-target recognition, T7 exonuclease (T7 Exo)-assisted cycling signal amplification and efficient quenching of ECL of CdS:Eu nanocrystals (NCs) by using DNAzyme. In this assay, CdS:Eu NCs were used as the ECL substrate, A guanine (G)-rich single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) sequence and VEGF165 aptamer were co-immobilized on the surface of the CdS:Eu NCs modified glassy carbon electrode. After recognition and binding to VEGF165, the aptamer moved away from the electrode surface and induced the proposed cyclic cleavage of the target DNA with T7 Exo. A large amount of G-rich ssDNA was released on the CdS:Eu film and folded into G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme in the presence of hemin and K(+), consequently decreasing the ECL intensity of CdS:Eu. A good linearity was obtained for VEGF165 detection within the range of 1 pM to 20 nM with a detection limit of 0.2 pM. This assay could be a universal and promising protocol for detection of various biomarkers for early clinical diagnosis. PMID:26120816

  13. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    PubMed

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. PMID:25995656

  14. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    PubMed Central

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people’s choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. PMID:25995656

  15. Learning styles of orthodontic residents.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Janeen M; Fallis, Drew W; Peel, Jennifer L; Murchison, David F

    2009-03-01

    Significant challenges face many orthodontic residency programs, particularly a shortage of full-time experienced faculty members. Due to this shortage, it is critical that program directors design comprehensive curricula that incorporate the most effective and efficient teaching methods. It is theorized that teaching effectiveness and efficiency are optimized when the course design and content closely match students' learning preferences. This survey study was designed to distinguish the learning preferences of orthodontic residents utilizing Felder and Soloman's Index of Learning Styles, which assesses student learning preferences in four dimensions using dichotomous scales, thereby providing insight into how teaching strategies can best be structured. As a secondary focus, additional questions on the survey were asked to gain information about residents' access to the Internet and comfort level with online learning so as to address acceptance of web-based courses in response to the shortage of full-time faculty members. Orthodontic residents, contacted via email, were requested to complete an online survey; 261 responses were collected. The results indicate that orthodontic residents are highly visual learners and show a preference for sensing and sequential learning strategies. In terms of information technology, the residents are comfortable with and have adequate access to current technological assets; therefore, they may be well suited for inclusion of computer-based teaching modules and other multimedia devices in their residency curriculum. PMID:19289721

  16. A murine platelet-activating factor receptor gene: cloning, chromosomal localization and up-regulation of expression by lipopolysaccharide in peritoneal resident macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, S; Matsuda, Y; Nakamura, M; Waga, I; Kume, K; Izumi, T; Shimizu, T

    1996-01-01

    A murine gene encoding a platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) was cloned. The gene was mapped to a region of the D2.2 band of chromosome 4 both by fluorescence in situ hybridization and by molecular linkage analysis. Northern blot analysis showed a high expression of the PAFR message in peritoneal macrophages. When C3H/HeN macrophages were treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or synthetic lipid A, the PAFR gene expression was induced. Bacterial LPS, but not lipid A, induced the level of PAFR mRNA in LPS unresponsive C3H/HeJ macrophages. These induction patterns were parallel to those of tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA. Thus the PAFR in macrophages is important in LPS-induced pathologies. PMID:8670084

  17. Resident mesenchymal cells and fibrosis✩

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Nicol; Fligny, Cécile; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is a major clinical problem associated with as many as 45% of all natural deaths in developed nations. It can affect all organs and accumulating evidence indicates that fibrogenesis is not merely a bystander product of injury, but is a central pathological problem directly contributing to loss of organ function. In the majority of clinical cases, fibrogenesis is strongly associated with the recruitment of leukocytes, even in the absence of infection. Although chronic infections are a significant cause of fibrogenesis, in most cases fibrotic disease occurs in the context of sterile injury, such as microvascular disease, toxic epithelial injury or diabetes mellitus. Fibrogenesis is a direct consequence of the activation of extensive, and previously poorly appreciated, populations of mesenchymal cells in our organs which are either wrapped around capillaries and known as ‘pericytes’, or embedded in interstitial spaces between cell structures and known as resident ‘fibroblasts’. Recent fate-mapping and complementary studies in several organs indicate that these cells are the precursors of the scar-forming myofibroblasts that appear in our organs in response to injury. Here we will review the literature supporting a central role for these cells in fibrogenesis, and highlight some of the critical cell to cell interactions that are necessary for the initiation and continuation of the fibrogenic process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fibrosis: Translation of basic research to human disease. PMID:23220259

  18. Transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized bFGF-incorporating stent activates resident cardiac stem cells via SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guang-Wei; Wen, Ti; Gu, Tian-Xiang; Li-Ling, Jesse; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Ye; Liu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Liu, Tian-Jun; Lue, Feng

    2012-02-15

    Objective: To investigate whether transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-incorporating degradable stent implantation (TMDRSI) can promote myocardial regeneration after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: A model of AMI was generated by ligating the mid-third of left anterior descending artery (LAD) of miniswine. After 6 h, the animals were divided into none-treatment (control) group (n = 6) and TMDRSI group (n = 6). For TMDRSI group, two channels with 3.5 mm in diameter were established by a self-made drill in the AMI region, into which a stent was implanted. Expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1{sub {alpha}} (SDF-1{sub {alpha}}) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), cardiac stem cell (CSC)-mediated myocardial regeneration, myocardial apoptosis, myocardial viability, and cardiac function were assessed at various time-points. Results: Six weeks after the operation, CSCs were found to have differentiated into cardiomyocytes to repair the infarcted myocardium, and all above indices showed much improvement in the TMDRSI group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The new method has shown to be capable of promoting CSCs proliferation and differentiation into cardiomyocytes through activating the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, while inhibiting myocardial apoptosis, thereby enhancing myocardial regeneration following AMI and improving cardiac function. This may provide a new strategy for myocardial regeneration following AMI. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of TMDR and bFGF-stent on myocardial regeneration were studied in a pig model of AMI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TMDR and bFGF-stent implantation activated CSCs via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CSC-mediated myocardial regeneration improved cardiac function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It may be a new therapeutic strategy for AMI.

  19. Resident memory T cells in human health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    Resident memory T cells are non-recirculating memory T cells that persist long term in epithelial barrier tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, lung, skin and reproductive tract. Resident memory T cells persist in the absence of antigens, have impressive effector functions and provide rapid on-site immune protection against known pathogens in peripheral tissues. A fundamentally distinct gene expression program differentiates resident memory T cells from circulating T cells. Although these cells likely evolved to provide rapid immune protection against pathogens, autoreactive, aberrantly activated and malignant resident memory cells contribute to numerous human inflammatory diseases including mycosis fungoides and psoriasis. This review will discuss both the science and medicine of resident memory T cells, exploring how these cells contribute to healthy immune function and discussing what is known about how these cells contribute to human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:25568072

  20. International Child Health Elective for Pediatric Residents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are increasing evidence highlighting the importance of incorporating issues of global health into pre- and post-graduate medical curricula. Medical international cooperation is a fundamental component of strategies to include global health issues in post-graduate medical curricula. Methods Here we describe a seven-year cooperation between the Non Governmental Organization (NGO) “Doctors for Africa CUAMM” and the Pediatric Residency Program (PRP) of the University of Padua (Italy) that offers residents a well-articulated personalized international child’s health (ICH) elective in Africa, called “Junior Project Officer”. The elective includes: a careful candidate selection process; pre-departure educational course; preceptorship in Padua and Africa, personalized learning objectives, a personalized job description, a six-month hands-on learning experience in Africa, evaluation of the experience, and formal private and open feed-backs/reports. Results Between 2006 and 2012, 14 residents aged from 27 to 31 years, six attending the III, nine the IV and two the V year of residency completed the six-month stage in Africa. All worked in pediatric in-patient units; seven also worked in out-patient clinics, six in emergency rooms and seven in community health centers. Eleven were involved in teaching activities and four in clinical research projects. All residents claimed to have achieved their learning objectives. Conclusions A strong partnership between the NGO and the PRP, and well-articulated personalized learning objectives and job description contributed to a successful ICH elective. PMID:24499625

  1. Measuring "humanism" in medical residents.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Boisaubin, E V; Laux, L; Lynch, E C; Roessler, R; Thornby, J I

    1986-02-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) has charged directors of residency programs with evaluating "humanistic attributes" in residents seeking certification. To investigate whether traditional measures of residents' performance assess humanistic attributes, 38 second- and third-year medical residents completed the Totalitarian-Authoritarian-Dogmatism (TAD) and Rokeach tests for attitudinal assessment. Five primary sources were used to measure performance. When the measures of performance and attitude were correlated, two negative correlations with "antipathy toward patients" were found: professional maturity (r = -.43, P less than .01) and compassion and concern for patients (r = -.35, P less than .04). The TAD Opinionnaire and the special performance evaluation detect "nonhumanistic dimensions" that routine faculty assessments do not. Since the new Likert scale distributed by ABIM does not differ materially from the rating form used at Baylor for 2 1/2 years, it is unlikely that "humanistic attributes" will be measured by the ABIM's new scale. PMID:3945843

  2. The Optometric Residency: Its Bloom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleything, Willard B.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines for proposed residencies in optometry are presented for pediatric, rehabilitative, and hospital optometry. Their significance in terms of costs, patient population, faculty expertise, and critical mass are discussed. (JMF)

  3. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  4. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  5. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  6. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  7. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  8. A Conserved Apomixis-Specific Polymorphism Is Correlated with Exclusive Exonuclease Expression in Premeiotic Ovules of Apomictic Boechera Species1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Corral, José M.; Vogel, Heiko; Aliyu, Olawale M.; Hensel, Götz; Thiel, Thomas; Kumlehn, Jochen; Sharbel, Timothy F.

    2013-01-01

    Apomixis (asexual seed production) is characterized by meiotically unreduced egg cell production (apomeiosis) followed by its parthenogenetic development into offspring that are genetic clones of the mother plant. Fertilization (i.e. pseudogamy) of the central cell is important for the production of a functional endosperm with a balanced 2:1 maternal:paternal genome ratio. Here, we present the APOLLO (for apomixis-linked locus) gene, an Aspartate Glutamate Aspartate Aspartate histidine exonuclease whose transcripts are down-regulated in sexual ovules entering meiosis while being up-regulated in apomeiotic ovules at the same stage of development in plants of the genus Boechera. APOLLO has both “apoalleles,” which are characterized by a set of linked apomixis-specific polymorphisms, and “sexalleles.” All apomictic Boechera spp. accessions proved to be heterozygous for the APOLLO gene (having at least one apoallele and one sexallele), while all sexual genotypes were homozygous for sexalleles. Apoalleles contained a 20-nucleotide polymorphism present in the 5′ untranslated region that contains specific transcription factor-binding sites for ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX PROTEIN5, LIM1 (for LINEAGE ABNORMAL11, INSULIN1, MECHANOSENSORY PROTEIN3), SORLIP1AT (for SEQUENCES OVERREPRESENTED IN LIGHT-INDUCED PROMOTERS IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA1), SORLIP2AT, and POLYA SIGNAL1. In the same region, sexalleles contain transcription factor-binding sites for DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER2, DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER3, and PROLAMIN BOX-BINDING FACTOR. Our results suggest that the expression of a single deregulated allele could induce the cascade of events leading to asexual female gamete formation in an apomictic plant. PMID:24163323

  9. Exonuclease I-aided homogeneous electrochemical strategy for organophosphorus pesticide detection based on enzyme inhibition integrated with a DNA conformational switch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Dong, Shanshan; Hou, Ting; Liu, Lei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Feng

    2016-02-15

    A novel enzyme inhibition-based homogeneous electrochemical biosensing strategy was designed for an organophosphorus pesticide assay based on exploiting the resistance of a mercury ion-mediated helper probe (HP) toward nuclease-catalyzed digestion and the remarkable diffusivity difference between HPs and the mononucleotides toward a negatively charged indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. In particular, the mercury ion-mediated T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs facilitate the HP labeled with methylene blue (MB) to fold into a hairpin structure, preventing its digestion by exonuclease I, and thus resulting in a low electrochemical response because of the large electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged ITO electrode and the HPs. The competitive binding by a thiol group (-SH), produced in the hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiocholine (ACh) chloride with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), removes mercury ions from the base pairs, causing a nuclease-catalyzed digestion, and the subsequent electrochemical response increase due to the weak electrostatic repulsion between the product-mononucleotides and the ITO electrode. Mercury ion-mediated HPs were first designed for pesticide detection and diazinon was chosen as the model target. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the approach exhibited high sensitivity for diazinon detection with a detection limit of 0.25 μg L(-1). The satisfactory results in the determination of diazinon in real samples demonstrate that the method possesses great potential for detecting organophosphorus pesticides. This new approach is expected to promote the exploitation of mercury-mediated base pair-based homogenous electrochemical biosensors in biochemical studies and in the food safety field. PMID:26839920

  10. Characterizing and controlling intrinsic biases of lambda exonuclease in nascent strand sequencing reveals phasing between nucleosomes and G-quadruplex motifs around a subset of human replication origins

    PubMed Central

    Foulk, Michael S.; Urban, John M.; Casella, Cinzia; Gerbi, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Nascent strand sequencing (NS-seq) is used to discover DNA replication origins genome-wide, allowing identification of features for their specification. NS-seq depends on the ability of lambda exonuclease (λ-exo) to efficiently digest parental DNA while leaving RNA-primer protected nascent strands intact. We used genomics and biochemical approaches to determine if λ-exo digests all parental DNA sequences equally. We report that λ-exo does not efficiently digest G-quadruplex (G4) structures in a plasmid. Moreover, λ-exo digestion of nonreplicating genomic DNA (LexoG0) enriches GC-rich DNA and G4 motifs genome-wide. We used LexoG0 data to control for nascent strand–independent λ-exo biases in NS-seq and validated this approach at the rDNA locus. The λ-exo–controlled NS-seq peaks are not GC-rich, and only 35.5% overlap with 6.8% of all G4s, suggesting that G4s are not general determinants for origin specification but may play a role for a subset. Interestingly, we observed a periodic spacing of G4 motifs and nucleosomes around the peak summits, suggesting that G4s may position nucleosomes at this subset of origins. Finally, we demonstrate that use of Na+ instead of K+ in the λ-exo digestion buffer reduced the effect of G4s on λ-exo digestion and discuss ways to increase both the sensitivity and specificity of NS-seq. PMID:25695952

  11. Linear light-scattering of gold nanostars for versatile biosensing of nucleic acids and proteins using exonuclease III as biocatalyst to signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Ye, Jiayan; Dong, Ying

    2015-09-15

    Gold nanomaterials promise a wide range of potential applications in chemical and biological sensing, imaging, and catalysis. In this paper, we demonstrate a facile method for room-temperature synthesis of gold nanostars (AuNSs) with a size of ~50 nm via seeded growth. Significantly, the AuNSs are found to have high light-scattering properties, which are successfully used as labels for sensitive and selective detection of nucleic acids and proteins by using exonuclease III (Exo III) as a biocatalyst. For DNA detection, the binding of targets to the functionalized AuNS probes leads to the Exo III-stimulated cascade recycling amplification. As a result, a large amount of AuNSs are released from magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into solution, providing a greatly enhanced light-scattering signal for amplified sensing process. Moreover, a binding-induced DNA three-way junction (DNA TWJ) is introduced to thrombin detection, in which the binding of two aptamers to thrombin triggers assembly of the DNA motifs and initiates the subsequent DNA strand displacement reaction (SDR) and Exo III-assisted cascade recycling amplification. The detection limits of 89 fM and 5.6 pM are achieved for DNA and thrombin, respectively, which are comparable to or even exceed that of the reported isothermal amplification methods. It is noteworthy that based on the DNA TWJ strategy the sequences are independent on target proteins. Additionally, the employment of MNPs in the assays can not only simplify the operations but also improve the detection sensitivity. Therefore, the proposed amplified light-scattering assay with high sensitivity and selectivity, acceptable accuracy, and satisfactory versatility of analytes provides various applications in bioanalysis. PMID:25950939

  12. Exonuclease III-aided autocatalytic DNA biosensing platform for immobilization-free and ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of nucleic acid and protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shufeng; Lin, Ying; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Cheng, Chuanbin; Wei, Wenji; Tang, Bo

    2014-04-15

    Homogenous electrochemical biosensor has attracted substantial attention owing to its simplicity, rapid response, and improved recognition efficiency compared with heterogeneous biosensor, but the relatively low detection sensitivity and the limited detection analytes prohibit its potential applications. To address these issues, herein, a simple, rapid, isothermal, and ultrasensitive homogeneous electrochemical DNA biosensing platform for target DNA and protein detection has been developed on the basis of an exonuclease III (Exo III)-aided autocatalytic target recycling strategy. A ferrocene-labeled hairpin probe (HP1) is ingeniously designed, which contains a protruding DNA fragment at 3'-termini as the recognition unit for target DNA. Also, the DNA fragment that could be used as secondary target analogue was introduced, but it was caged in the stem region of HP1. In the presence of target DNA, its recognition with the protruding fragment of HP1 triggered the Exo III cleavage process, accompanied with the target recycling and autonomous generation of secondary target analogues. This accordingly resulted into the autonomous accumulation of ferrocene-labeled mononucleotide, inducing a distinct increase in the electrochemical signal owing to its elevated diffusivity toward indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface. The autocatalytic biosensing system was further extended for protein detection by advising an aptamer hairpin switch with the use of thrombin as a model analyte. The current developed autocatalytic and homogeneous strategy provided an ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of DNA and thrombin down to the 0.1 and 5 pM level, respectively, with a high selectivity. It should be further used as a general autocatalytic and homogeneous strategy toward the detection of a wide spectrum of analytes and may be associated with more analytical techniques. Thus, it holds great potential for the development of ultrasensitive biosensing platform for the applications in

  13. 24 CFR 964.140 - Resident training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: (1) Community organization and leadership training; (2) Organizational development training for Resident Management Corporations and duly elected Resident Councils; (3) Public housing policies,...

  14. 24 CFR 964.140 - Resident training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: (1) Community organization and leadership training; (2) Organizational development training for Resident Management Corporations and duly elected Resident Councils; (3) Public housing policies,...

  15. Overwork Among Residents in India: A Medical Resident's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Gulrez S.; Azhar, Abdullah Z.; Azhar, Ahmad S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that medical residents who do most of the hard work in big hospitals and medical colleges are overworked. A hierarchical organizational structure, staffing patterns, and fear of failure in examinations leads to overwork among residents going unreported. This can lead to poor academic performance and research work. Gaps in communication have serious implications on patient health. Undesirable practices like LAMA (leave against medical advice) also result from overwork. Issues of pay and contracts including mandatory service need to be looked into carefully. National and international recommendations on work hours have consistently been ignored. The solutions suggested are simple and easy to implement. PMID:24479024

  16. Resident commensals shaping immunity

    PubMed Central

    Erturk-Hasdemir, Deniz; Kasper, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    All animals coexist with myriad commensal microorganisms in a symbiotic relationship that plays a key role in health and disease. Continuous commensal–host interactions profoundly affect the development and regulation of the host’s immune system. The complex interaction of the commensal microbiota with the immune system is a topic of substantial interest. An understanding of these interactions and the mechanisms through which commensal microbes actively shape host immunity may yield new insights into the pathogenesis of many immune-mediated diseases and lead to new prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. This review examines recent advances in this field and their potential implications not just for the colonized tissues but also for the entire immune system. PMID:23830047

  17. Ethics education for dermatology residents.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Lionel; Long, Thomas P

    2009-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada both require the teaching and demonstration of general competencies, which include professionalism and ethics as a condition of training program accreditation and specialty certification, respectively. Residents in dermatology and other specialties perceive their training in ethics is inadequate in numerous areas. Residents and specialists in dermatology encounter numerous ethical and professional issues throughout their workday. A dermatoethics curriculum was developed at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University in 2001 to address the need for training in bioethics and professionalism. The subject matter of the curriculum and didactic methods are reviewed. Guidelines for effective teaching of ethics and professionalism to dermatology residents are presented. It is important to make the teaching sessions relevant to the residents' day-to-day work experiences and personal needs. Honesty and openness on the part of faculty and trainees is important. Although informality fosters such exchanges, the sessions should be a learning experience. Resources outside the residency program should be used as necessary. Evaluation of ethics and professionalism in trainees is addressed. PMID:19539170

  18. 28 CFR 115.233 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident education. 115.233 Section 115... STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Training and Education § 115.233 Resident education... resident is transferred to a different facility. (c) The agency shall provide resident education in...

  19. 28 CFR 115.233 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident education. 115.233 Section 115... STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Training and Education § 115.233 Resident education... resident is transferred to a different facility. (c) The agency shall provide resident education in...

  20. 28 CFR 115.233 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident education. 115.233 Section 115... STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Training and Education § 115.233 Resident education... resident is transferred to a different facility. (c) The agency shall provide resident education in...

  1. Predictors of Success in an Anesthesiology Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, Shirley S.; Crumrine, Robert S.

    1986-01-01

    Factors that contributed to successful residency performance by anesthesiology residents were examined in order to assist the program's selection committee in developing selection criteria. The best predictor of a resident's academic average in the anethesiology program was the number of years the resident had spent in other specialities.…

  2. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Care Facilities § 483.10 Resident rights. The resident has a right to a dignified existence, self...) Exercise of rights. (1) The resident has the right to exercise his or her rights as a resident of...

  3. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Care Facilities § 483.10 Resident rights. The resident has a right to a dignified existence, self...) Exercise of rights. (1) The resident has the right to exercise his or her rights as a resident of...

  4. Human placental DNA polymerase delta: identification of a 170-kilodalton polypeptide by activity staining and immunoblotting

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.Y.W.T.; Toomey, N.L.

    1987-02-24

    DNA polymerase delta was isolated from human placenta and identified as such on the basis of its association with a 3'- to 5'-exonuclease activity. The association of the polymerase and exonuclease activities was maintained throughout purification and attempted separations by physical or electrophoretic methods. Moreover, ratios of the two activities remained constant during the purification steps, and both activities were inhibited by aphidicolin, oxidized glutathione, and n-ethylmaleimide. The purified enzyme had an estimated molecular weight of 172,000, on the basis of a Stokes radius of 53.6 A and a sedimentation coefficient of 7.8 S. On sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis, polymerase delta preparations contained a band of ca. 170 kilodaltons (kDa) as well as several smaller polypeptides. The 170-kDa polypeptide was identified as the largest polypeptides component in the preparation possessing DNA polymerase activity by an activity staining procedure following gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. Western blotting of DNA polymerase delta with polyclonal antisera also revealed a single 170-kDa immunoreactive polypeptide. Monoclonal antibodies to KB cell polymerase ..cap alpha.. inhibited placental polymerase ..cap alpha.. but did not inhibit DNA polymerase delta, while the murine polyclonal antisera to polymerase delta inhibited delta but not ..cap alpha... These findings establish the existence of DNA polymerase delta in a human tissue and support the view that both its polymerase and its exonuclease activities may be associated with a single protein.

  5. Five Key Leadership Actions Needed to Redesign Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Kozakowski, Stanley M.; Eiff, M. Patrice; Green, Larry A.; Pugno, Perry A.; Waller, Elaine; Jones, Samuel M.; Fetter, Gerald; Carney, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background New skills are needed to properly prepare the next generation of physicians and health professionals to practice in medical homes. Transforming residency training to address these new skills requires strong leadership. Objective We sought to increase the understanding of leadership skills useful in residency programs that plan to undertake meaningful change. Methods The Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) project (2007–2014) was a comparative case study of 14 family medicine residencies that engaged in innovative training redesign, including altering the scope, content, sequence, length, and location of training to align resident education with requirements of the patient-centered medical home. In 2012, each P4 residency team submitted a final summary report of innovations implemented, overall insights, and dissemination activities during the study. Six investigators conducted independent narrative analyses of these reports. A consensus meeting held in September 2012 was used to identify key leadership actions associated with successful educational redesign. Results Five leadership actions were associated with successful implementation of innovations and residency transformation: (1) manage change; (2) develop financial acumen; (3) adapt best evidence educational strategies to the local environment; (4) create and sustain a vision that engages stakeholders; and (5) demonstrate courage and resilience. Conclusions Residency programs are expected to change to better prepare their graduates for a changing delivery system. Insights about effective leadership skills can provide guidance for faculty to develop the skills needed to face practical realities while guiding transformation. PMID:26221432

  6. The DNA-binding domain of the transcriptional activator protein NifA resides in its carboxy terminus, recognises the upstream activator sequences of nif promoters and can be separated from the positive control function of NifA.

    PubMed Central

    Morett, E; Cannon, W; Buck, M

    1988-01-01

    The positive control protein NifA activates transcription of nitrogen fixation promoters in Klebsiella pneumoniae. NifA is believed to bind to specific sites, the upstream activator sequences (UAS's), of the nif promoters which it activates. We have now shown by mutation of the carboxy terminus of NifA that this is the DNA-binding domain and that the DNA-binding and positive activator functions of NifA can be separated. Mutational analysis of the nifH UAS and in vivo methylation protection analysis of the interaction of NifA with the nifH promoter demonstrates that the UAS is recognised by the carboxy terminus of NifA. The UAS's of K. pneumoniae nif promoters are also required for activation by the Rhizobium meliloti NifA indicating that this activator also possesses DNA-binding activity. Images PMID:3062575

  7. Predictors of Residence Hall Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arboleda, Ana; Wang, Yongyi; Shelley, Mack C., II; Whalen, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    Residence hall students' (N = 1,186, 52% male, 90% White, 66% freshmen) involvement in their living community is influenced significantly by precollege student characteristics (gender, ethnicity), classification, attitudes (toward hall director, house cabinet, academic comfort, social environment, group study), and environmental variables (noise,…

  8. Cleaner in Hall of Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This syllabus is intended for the use of training personnel in drawing up training programs for cleaners in halls of residence. Its main objective is to produce fully trained cleaners, thereby maintaining and raising standards. The syllabus is divided into three sections: Introduction to Housekeeping Employees, and Tasks Performed by the Majority…

  9. Aspiring Teachers Take up Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishall

    2008-01-01

    The Boston Teacher Residency program is a yearlong, selective preparation route that trains aspiring teachers, many of them career-changers, to take on jobs in some of the city's highest-needs schools. The program, which fits neither of the two most common types of teacher preparation--alternative routes and traditional teacher education…

  10. [Training of residents in abdominal wall surgery in Spain].

    PubMed

    Miguelena Bobadilla, J M; Morales García, D; Serra Aracil, X; Sanz Sánchez, M; Iturburu, I; Docobo Durántez, F; Jover Navalón, J M; López De Cenarruzabeitia, I; Lobo Martínez, E

    2013-02-01

    The training of residents in abdominal wall surgery is a fundamental aspect of surgical training, representing globally 20% of its activity. In this paper, we analyze the current state of resident training in this kind of surgery in Spain, taking into account the broad spectrum it covers: general services, specific functional units, ambulatory surgery programs. To do this, based on the specifications of the specialty program, specific data were used from several different sources of direct information and a review of the results obtained by residents in hernia surgery. In general, our residents agree with their training and the recorded results are in line with objectives outlined in the program. However, it would be important to structure their teaching schedules, a rotation period in any specific unit and their involvement in outpatient surgery programs. PMID:22074730

  11. Residence Hall Proximity to Foreign Students as an Influence on Selected Attitudes and Behaviors of American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Paul B., Jr.; Stafford, Thomas H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    These studies conducted before and after implementation of an international residence program indicate the proximity of American students to foreign students in conventional residence halls. International halls encourage cross-cultural interaction and interest in international activities. (NRB)

  12. Determinants of resident autonomy in assisted living facilities: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta; Wright, James D

    2007-01-01

    Assisted living (AL) stresses the importance of resident autonomy in the provision of good quality care. Resident autonomy has been linked to better resident well-being, less reliance on supportive services, and greater participation in social activities. Little is known, however, about factors that foster resident autonomy in AL. This article reviews what is currently known about organizational determinants of resident autonomy in AL. The open-natural systems approach to organizational effectiveness, which views organizations in relation to their environment, provides a broad conceptual framework for this analysis. Factors that influence resident autonomy in AL are classified into two categories: (a) external environmental conditions (e.g., ownership status, chain membership, regulatory environment) and (b) internal organizational structures and processes (e.g., facility size, residents' functional ability, resident social resources, and staff work environment). Environmental conditions represent the most antecedent set of factors that influence resident autonomy, indirectly through their effects on internal organizational structures and processes. Internal organizational factors influence resident autonomy through their impact on policies that enable resident choice and control in the facility. More research is needed to better understand the complex mechanism(s) through which organizational factors influence resident autonomy. PMID:18236958

  13. THE ETHICAL EDUCATION OF OPHTHALMOLOGY RESIDENTS: AN EXPERIMENT

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the effect of ethics education on a resident’s ability to answer questions that relate to moral dilemmas and on the clinical evaluations of residents by faculty. Methods The curriculum for the ethics education that was used for this study was designed by the author and consisted of 10 lectures of 1.5 hours each. Five residencies were included in the project. One residency received one lecture, two residencies received three lectures, and two residencies received 10 lectures. To evaluate the moral skills of the residents at the beginning of the course and at the end, the residents were given the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) developed by James Rest, which involves answering standardized questions about four moral dilemmas. Faculty evaluations were completed before and after the ethics lectures were given. At the beginning of the ethics course, each resident was given a social survey that was designed to assess participation in community, religious, political, and societal activities as well as attitudes about these activities. All residents were also asked demographic information, including their age, gender, and year of residency. Results The results of the DIT-2 taken before and after the ethics lectures were compared. No correlations were found in faculty evaluations of clinical performance of the residents before and after the course (P = .052). Associations between DIT-2 scores and questions on community and religion in the social survey were noted. Conclusion The finding that the effect of an ethics course on residents’ ability to answer moral dilemmas did not achieve statistical significance should be accepted with the understanding that this was a first attempt at standardization of many variables, especially the format of the curriculum and materials used. The use of faculty evaluations to assess clinical performance needs to be standardized, and the faculty members need additional training to ensure validity of the results. The

  14. Redesigning journal club in residency.

    PubMed

    Al Achkar, Morhaf

    2016-01-01

    The gap between production and implementation of knowledge is the main reason for the suboptimal quality of health care. To eliminate this gap and improve the quality of patient care, journal club (JC) in graduate medical education provides an opportunity for learning the skills of evidence-based medicine. JC, however, continues to face many challenges mainly due to poorly defined goals, inadequate preparation, and lack of interest. This article presents an innovative model to prepare and present JC based on three pillars: dialogical learning through group discussion, mentored residents as peer teachers, and including JC as part of a structured curriculum to learn evidence-based medicine. This engaging model has the potential to transform JC from a moribund session that is daunting for residents into a lively discussion to redefine clinical practice using the most current evidence. PMID:27313486

  15. Redesigning journal club in residency

    PubMed Central

    Al Achkar, Morhaf

    2016-01-01

    The gap between production and implementation of knowledge is the main reason for the suboptimal quality of health care. To eliminate this gap and improve the quality of patient care, journal club (JC) in graduate medical education provides an opportunity for learning the skills of evidence-based medicine. JC, however, continues to face many challenges mainly due to poorly defined goals, inadequate preparation, and lack of interest. This article presents an innovative model to prepare and present JC based on three pillars: dialogical learning through group discussion, mentored residents as peer teachers, and including JC as part of a structured curriculum to learn evidence-based medicine. This engaging model has the potential to transform JC from a moribund session that is daunting for residents into a lively discussion to redefine clinical practice using the most current evidence. PMID:27313486

  16. The research rotation: competency-based structured and novel approach to research training of internal medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Deng, Changchun; Erickson, Savil N; Valerio, Jose A; Dimitrov, Vihren; Soni, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Background In the United States, the Accreditation Council of graduate medical education (ACGME) requires all accredited Internal medicine residency training programs to facilitate resident scholarly activities. However, clinical experience and medical education still remain the main focus of graduate medical education in many Internal Medicine (IM) residency-training programs. Left to design the structure, process and outcome evaluation of the ACGME research requirement, residency-training programs are faced with numerous barriers. Many residency programs report having been cited by the ACGME residency review committee in IM for lack of scholarly activity by residents. Methods We would like to share our experience at Lincoln Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College Cornell University New York, in designing and implementing a successful structured research curriculum based on ACGME competencies taught during a dedicated "research rotation". Results Since the inception of the research rotation in 2004, participation of our residents among scholarly activities has substantially increased. Our residents increasingly believe and appreciate that research is an integral component of residency training and essential for practice of medicine. Conclusion Internal medicine residents' outlook in research can be significantly improved using a research curriculum offered through a structured and dedicated research rotation. This is exemplified by the improvement noted in resident satisfaction, their participation in scholarly activities and resident research outcomes since the inception of the research rotation in our internal medicine training program. PMID:17044924

  17. [Medical ethics in residency training].

    PubMed

    Civaner, Murat; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Balcioğlu, Harun

    2009-04-01

    Medical ethics education in residency training is one of the hot topics of continuous medical education debates. Its importance and necessity is constantly stressed in declarations and statements on national and international level. Parallel to the major structural changes in the organization and the finance model of health care system, patient-physician relationship, identity of physicianship, social perception and status of profession are changing. Besides, scientific developments and technological advancements create possibilities that never exists before, and bring new ethical dilemmas along with. To be able to transplant human organs has created two major problems for instance; procurement of organs in sufficient numbers, and allocating them to the patients in need by using some prioritizing criteria. All those new and challenging questions force the health care workers to find authentic and justifiable solutions while keeping the basic professional values. In that sense, proper medical ethics education in undergraduate and postgraduate term that would make physician-to-be's and student-physicians acquire the core professional values and skill to notice, analyze and develop justifiable solutions to ethical problems is paramount. This article aims to express the importance of medical ethics education in residency training, and to propose major topics and educational methods to be implemented into. To this aim, first, undergraduate medical education, physician's working conditions, the exam of selection for residency training, and educational environment were revised, and then, some topics and educational methods, which are oriented to educate physicians regarding the professional values that they should have, were proposed. PMID:19357056

  18. Resident and Faculty Perceptions of Program Strengths and Opportunities for Improvement: Comparison of Site Visit Reports and ACGME Resident Survey Data in 5 Surgical Specialties.

    PubMed

    Caniano, Donna A; Yamazaki, Kenji; Yaghmour, Nicholas; Philibert, Ingrid; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2016-05-01

    Background Resident and faculty views of program strengths and opportunities for improvement (OFIs) offer insight into how stakeholders assess key elements of the learning environment. Objective This study sought (1) to assess the degree to which residents and faculty in 359 programs in 5 surgical specialties (obstetrics and gynecology, orthopaedic surgery, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, and surgery) were aligned or divergent in their respective views of program strengths and OFIs; and (2) to evaluate whether responses to selected questions on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Resident Survey correlated with strengths or OFIs identified by the residents during the site visit. Methods Faculty and resident lists of program strengths and OFIs in site visit reports for 2012 and 2013 were aggregated, analyzed, and compared to responses on the Resident Survey. Results While there was considerable alignment in resident and faculty perceptions of program strengths and OFIs, some attributes were more important to one or the other group. Collegiality was valued highly by both stakeholder groups. Responses to 2 questions on the ACGME Resident Survey were associated with resident-identified OFIs in site visit reports pertaining to aspects of the didactic program and responsiveness to resident suggestions for improvement. Conclusions The findings offer program leadership additional insight into how 2 key stakeholder groups view elements of the learning environment as program strengths or OFIs and may serve as useful focal areas for ongoing improvement activities. PMID:27168915

  19. Applicants' Self-Reported Priorities in Selecting a Residency Program

    PubMed Central

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Macklin, E. A.; Goldsmith, J.; Weinstein, Debra F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Residency recruitment is a high-stakes activity for all participants, yet there is limited information about how applicants choose among programs. Objective This study evaluated the importance applicants place on various residency program attributes; whether applicant priorities vary by sex, race/ethnicity, or specialty choice; and whether the importance of these factors changes over time. Methods Highly ranked applicants to residency programs at 2 academic medical centers were surveyed annually from 2004 to 2012 regarding the importance of 26 characteristics in selecting a program. Mean ratings of importance for each factor were analyzed to assess priority for the overall applicant group, and whether priorities differed for subgroups (by sex, race/ethnicity, and specialty). Results Of 9669 applicants surveyed, 6285 (65%) responded. The 5 factors with highest rating of importance (overall and across all subgroups) were the program's ability to prepare residents for future training or position, resident esprit de corps, faculty availability and involvement in teaching, depth and breadth of faculty, and variety of patients and clinical resources. Small but significant differences in the ratings of some factors by sex and/or specialty group were identified. Institution-level characteristics, such as call rooms, salary, and benefits, were relatively unimportant. Applicant priorities were stable over the 9-year study period. Conclusions Highly ranked applicants to competitive residency programs value educational aspects of the program most highly, along with resident morale. Top factors were consistent across subgroups and over the 9 years of the study. These findings have implications for resident recruitment strategies. PMID:26217417

  20. Pediatric residency training on tobacco: review and critique of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Hymowitz, Norman

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and critique the research literature on training pediatric residents to address tobacco. METHODS: A Medline search was conducted to identify studies that specifically addressed pediatric residency training on tobacco, and Google Scholar was used to identify articles in which the referenced study was cited. RESULTS: Eight studies that specifically addressed training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco were identified. Most used active as well as passive approaches to training. Baseline data underscored the importance of training future pediatricians to address tobacco. Although the studies differed in size, scope and rigor, they showed that training pediatric residents to address tobacco enhanced residents' ability and likelihood to address tobacco. CONCLUSION: The review documents the importance and value of training pediatric residents to address tobacco, provides suggestions for future research and underscores the need to incorporate training on tobacco into pediatric residency training curriculum. PMID:17019917

  1. Clinical Evaluation in a Family Medicine Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, James M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study assessed (1) the validity of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine evaluation instrument regarding the occurrence of halo effects and (2) possible relationships between the faculty's evaluations of the residents and the residents' cognitive knowledge and productivity. (MLW)

  2. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  3. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  4. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  5. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  6. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  7. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) and structure-kinetic relationships (SKR) of bicyclic heteroaromatic acetic acids as potent CRTh2 antagonists III: the role of a hydrogen-bond acceptor in long receptor residence times.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Juan Antonio; Andrés, Miriam; Bravo, Mónica; Buil, Maria Antonia; Calbet, Marta; Castro, Jordi; Eastwood, Paul R; Esteve, Cristina; Ferrer, Manel; Forns, Pilar; Gómez, Elena; González, Jacob; Lozoya, Estrella; Mir, Marta; Moreno, Imma; Petit, Silvia; Roberts, Richard S; Sevilla, Sara; Vidal, Bernat; Vidal, Laura; Vilaseca, Pere

    2014-11-01

    The correct positioning and orientation of an hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) in the tail portion of the biaryl series of CRTh2 antagonists is a requirement for long receptor residence time. The HBA in combination with a small steric substituent in the core section (R(core) ≠ H) gives access to compounds with dissociation half-lives of ⩾ 24h. PMID:25437506

  8. Site-directed mutagenesis of the human DNA repair enzyme HAP1: identification of residues important for AP endonuclease and RNase H activity.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, G; Walker, L J; Robson, C N; Hickson, I D

    1995-05-11

    HAP1 protein, the major apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease in human cells, is a member of a homologous family of multifunctional DNA repair enzymes including the Escherichia coli exonuclease III and Drosophila Rrp1 proteins. The most extensively characterised member of this family, exonuclease III, exhibits both DNA- and RNA-specific nuclease activities. Here, we show that the RNase H activity characteristic of exonuclease III has been conserved in the human homologue, although the products resulting from RNA cleavage are dissimilar. To identify residues important for enzymatic activity, five mutant HAP1 proteins containing single amino acid substitutions were purified and analysed in vitro. The substitutions were made at sites of conserved amino acids and targeted either acidic or histidine residues because of their known participation in the active sites of hydrolytic nucleases. One of the mutant proteins (replacement of Asp-219 by alanine) showed a markedly reduced enzymatic activity, consistent with a greatly diminished capacity to bind DNA and RNA. In contrast, replacement of Asp-90, Asp-308 or Glu-96 by alanine led to a reduction in enzymatic activity without significantly compromising nucleic acid binding. Replacement of His-255 by alanine led to only a very small reduction in enzymatic activity. Our data are consistent with the presence of a single catalytic active site for the DNA- and RNA-specific nuclease activities of the HAP1 protein. PMID:7784208

  9. 42 CFR 483.20 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.20 Resident assessment. The facility must conduct initially and periodically a... resident's immediate care. (b) Comprehensive assessments—(1) Resident assessment instrument. A...

  10. 8 CFR 325.3 - Residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Residence. 325.3 Section 325.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATIONALS BUT NOT CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; RESIDENCE WITHIN OUTLYING POSSESSIONS § 325.3 Residence. (a) For purposes of applying...

  11. 8 CFR 325.3 - Residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residence. 325.3 Section 325.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATIONALS BUT NOT CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; RESIDENCE WITHIN OUTLYING POSSESSIONS § 325.3 Residence. (a) For purposes of applying...

  12. Residency and In-State Tuition. Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Persons classified as residents for higher education purposes under Texas law may pay in-state tuition. Although Texas does not have any programs specifically for undocumented students, some undocumented persons are among those who are eligible for in-state tuition under current residency statutes. The residency statutes for higher education…

  13. Recommendations for nurse practitioner residency programs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kameka; Poppe, Anne; Kaminetzky, Catherine; Wipf, Joyce; Woods, Nancy Fugate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and prioritize critical aspects needed in the design and execution of new nurse practitioner (NP) residency programs. Subjects answered a series of questions on formulating residency programs and on key outcomes and cost measures related to their sustainability. These results serve as potential guideposts for future work in NP residency standardization and sustainability development. PMID:25501654

  14. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  15. Toolbox for Evaluating Residents as Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, John H.; Ismail, Nadia; Mian, Ayesha; Dewey, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors review existing assessment tools related to evaluating residents' teaching skills and teaching effectiveness. Methods: PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched using combinations of keywords including "residents," "residents as teachers," "teaching skills," and "assessments" or "rating scales." Results: Eleven evaluation…

  16. Otolaryngology residency and fellowship training. The resident's perspective.

    PubMed

    Miller, R H

    1994-10-01

    Based on the success rate of US otolaryngology graduates on the American Board of Otolaryngology Certification Examination, it would appear that otolaryngology training is quite good. However, it is not clear that all aspects of training are equal in quality, not only between programs but also within a single program. One indication that there may be areas of weakness is the fact that despite the perceived national shortages of primary care physicians in the United States and the overabundance of specialists, 25% of the approximately 260 graduating otolaryngology residents extend their training beyond specialty training to subspecialty levels (Manpower Committee of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, unpublished data obtained from chief resident questionnaires, 1990-1992). The most popular area of fellowship training is facial plastic surgery, followed by neurotology and head and neck oncology. Pediatric otolaryngology fellowships make up most of the balance. Most of the fellowships are well structured and are 1 year in duration. Others are more like apprenticeships and may be of shorter duration. A few are 2 years long and include a significant research commitment reserved for individuals entering academic practice. PMID:7917188

  17. Resident- and Facility-Level Predictors of Quality of Life in Long-Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Shippee, Tetyana P.; Henning-Smith, Carrie; Kane, Robert L.; Lewis, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although there is substantial research on quality of care in nursing homes (NH), less is known about what contributes to quality of life (QOL) for NH residents. This study assesses multiple domains of QOL and examines facility- and resident-level correlates for different domains. Design and Methods: Data come from (a) self-reported resident interviews using a multidimensional measure of QOL; (b) resident clinical data from the Minimum Data Set; and (c) facility-level characteristics from Minnesota Department of Human Services. We used factor analysis to confirm domains of QOL, and then employed cross-sectional hierarchical linear modeling to identify significant resident- and facility-level predictors of each domain. Results: We examined six unique domains of QOL: environment, personal attention, food, engagement, negative mood, and positive mood. In multilevel models, resident-level characteristics were more reliable correlates of QOL than facility characteristics. Among resident characteristics, gender, age, marital status, activities of daily living, mood disorders, cognitive limitations, and length of stay consistently predicted QOL domains. Among facility characteristics, size, staff hours, quality of care, and percent of residents on Medicaid predicted multiple QOL domains. Implications: Examining separate domains rather than a single summary score makes associations with predictors more accurate. Resident characteristics account for the majority of variability in resident QOL. Helping residents maintain functional abilities, and providing an engaging social environment may be particularly important in improving QOL. PMID:24352532

  18. Factors associated with daytime sleep in nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Li, Junxin; Chang, Yu-Ping; Porock, Davina

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the occurrence of daytime sleep (DS) and to examine factors associated with DS in nursing home residents. We used the Minimum Data Set 2.0 records of 300 residents in a nursing home from January 2005 to March 2010. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test, chi-square, Pearson correlations, and logistic regression were utilized in analysis. About 71.3% of the residents slept more than 2 hours during the day, and this was significantly associated with residents' comorbidity (t = 2.0, p = .04), cognitive performance (t = 7.3, p = .01), activities of daily living (t = 3.7, p = .01), and social involvement (t = -7.6, p = .01). Cognitive performance and social involvement significantly predicted the occurrence of DS with social involvement being the strongest predictor (odds ratio: .58; 95% confidence interval: [.45, .75]). The findings suggest that interventions to engage nursing home residents in more social activities during the day may be beneficial to minimize their DS, especially for those who have difficulties with engaging socially on their own. PMID:25651553

  19. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Don . E-mail: donyee@cancerboard.ab.ca; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada.

  20. Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior window detail, looking north. Adam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior window detail, looking north. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

  1. Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior door detail, looking north. Adam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior door detail, looking north. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

  2. Stress and burnout in residents: impact of mindfulness-based resilience training

    PubMed Central

    Goldhagen, Brian E; Kingsolver, Karen; Stinnett, Sandra S; Rosdahl, Jullia A

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Stress and burnout impact resident physicians. This prospective study tests the hypothesis that a mindfulness-based resilience intervention would decrease stress and burnout in residents. Methods Resident physicians from the Departments of Family Medicine, Psychiatry, and Anesthesia at Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, participated in two or three 1-hour sessions of mindfulness-based resilience activities, which introduced mindful-awareness and included practical exercises for nurturing resilience. Anonymous surveys were distributed before (completed by 47 residents) and after the intervention (both completed by 30 residents); a follow-up survey was distributed 1 month later (seven residents completed all three surveys). The survey included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, 21-question version (DASS-21), the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and ten questions from the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results At baseline, most residents’ scores were in the normal range with respect to stress; however, female residents had higher DASS-21 scores than male residents (31.7, females vs 18.4, males; P=0.002). Most residents’ burnout scores were in the abnormal range, both with respect to exhaustion (38/47 residents, subscore ≥2.25) and disengagement (37/47 residents, subscore ≥2.1). Higher perceived levels of stress correlated with the instruments. Analysis of the surveys before and after the intervention showed no significant short-term change in stress, burnout, mindful-awareness, or cognitive failure. There was a trend for females and post-medical school graduate year 1 and 2 (PGY1 and PGY2) residents to have a reduction in DASS-21 scores after intervention. There was also a trend of reduced stress and burnout in residents who perceived higher stress. Conclusion Residents who are female, PGY1 and PGY2, and who perceive residency to be stressful may benefit most from a mindfulness-based resilience

  3. Role of surgical residents in undergraduate surgical education

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Marc; Belliveau, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To identify the role and impact of surgical residents on the various activities of a senior (4th year) surgical clerkship, and to explore students’ perceptions of differences between the teaching behaviours of attending physicians and residents. Design A survey by questionnaire. Setting McGill University, Montreal. Method A 67-item questionnaire was administered to fourth-year medical students at the end of their 8-week surgical clerkship. Analysis of the data was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Dunn’s multiple comparison test and mean average. Main outcome measures Overall satisfaction with the clerkship, teaching behaviours and teaching of clinical skills and basic principles. Results Overall satisfaction with the clerkship was 6.31 out of 10. Surgical residents were perceived as being significantly more active than the attending staff in 14 out of 15 teaching behaviours. They were also seen as important in teaching certain clinical skills such as suturing, assisting in the operating room and managing emergency situations. They also contributed significantly to teaching the basic principles of surgery such as infections, surgical bleeding and fluid and electrolytes. On a 10-point scale, students felt that more learning was achieved by independent reading, tutorials and residents’ teaching than by other teaching modalities, including attending physicians’ and nurses’ teaching. Conclusions Medical students perceive surgical residents as being significantly more active in their education process than the attending staff. Residents appear to be responsible for teaching various technical and patient management skills necessary for patient care. Along with independent reading and tutorials, resident teaching contributes a significant portion of the medical student’s acquisition of knowledge and appears to contribute to the students’ choice of surgery as a career. PMID:10593247

  4. The Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Residence Hall Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Danny Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between students' residence hall preference and ethnic identity. The study explored differences in ethnic identity development among first-year Chicano/Latino college students who actively requested to live on a culturally themed living learning community and were placed there; Chicano/Latino students who…

  5. Microparticles from apoptotic platelets promote resident macrophage differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Vasina, E M; Cauwenberghs, S; Feijge, M A H; Heemskerk, J W M; Weber, C; Koenen, R R

    2011-01-01

    Platelets shed microparticles not only upon activation, but also upon ageing by an apoptosis-like process (apoptosis-induced platelet microparticles, PMap). While the activation-induced microparticles have widely been studied, not much is known about the (patho)physiological consequences of PMap formation. Flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that PMap display activated integrins and interact to form microparticle aggregates. PMap were chemotactic for monocytic cells, bound to these cells, an furthermore stimulated cell adhesion and spreading on a fibronectin surface. After prolonged incubation, PMap promoted cell differentiation, but inhibited proliferation. Monocyte membrane receptor analysis revealed increased expression levels of CD11b (integrin αMβ2), CD14 and CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1), and the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, but not of CCR2. This indicated that PMap polarized the cells into resident M2 monocytes. Cells treated with PMap actively consumed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and released matrix metalloproteinases and hydrogen peroxide. Further confirmation for the differentiation towards resident professional phagocytes came from the finding that PMap stimulated the expression of the (ox)LDL receptors, CD36 and CD68, and the production of proinflammatory and immunomodulating cytokines by monocytes. In conclusion, interaction of PMap with monocytic cells has an immunomodulating potential. The apoptotic microparticles polarize the cells into a resident M2 subset, and induce differentiation to resident professional phagocytes. PMID:21956548

  6. Human capabilities: Long residence - An uncharted field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A.

    1983-01-01

    In the context of the planned NASA space station, it is anticipated that a number of problems will be posed by permanent residence in space. Not only will the intensive training which has characterized earlier manned programs diminish under the pressure of increased launch rates, but the new and larger crews will socially, educationally, psychologically and physiologically constitute a far more heterogeneous group than those of the past. In addition, advanced computer technology will result in a degree of reliance on onboard data processing which will alter the relations of ground and space operators, requiring careful integration of people and technologies. Attention is given to questions of food, robotics, extravehicular activity, hygiene and environmental noise.

  7. [Knowledge of breastfeeding management among residents in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Temboury Molina, M C

    2003-03-01

    The staff of maternity wards and clinics for maternal and child health should receive appropriate basic and in-service training on the health benefits of breastfeeding and on lactation management. Pediatricians should not only be knowledgeable about the health, nutritional and physiological aspects of appropriate feeding, they should also be familiar with the mechanics of breastfeeding, its various psychosocial influences, possible difficulties and how to overcome them. To evaluate knowledge of breastfeeding among pediatrics residents throughout Spain, a survey was conducted. A total of 250 questionnaires were collected. Significant differences were observed among provinces. In most areas, residents' training was insufficient. To achieve an appropriate level of knowledge among pediatrics residents in a subject as important to mother and child health as breastfeeding, courses should be given and repeated at regular intervals. Professional associations should be actively involved in promoting appropriate training for health professionals. PMID:12628099

  8. Effect of residence time on the efficacy of antidandruff shampoos.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Uhoda, E; Loussouarn, G; Saint-Léger, D; Piérard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Dandruff is known to be controlled by fungistatic shampoos active against Malassezia spp. These products also remove the loosely attached scales. This study was performed to assess the effect of a 5-min residence time on the efficacy of antidandruff shampoos. Two commercially available shampoos were used in two groups of 21 panelists with severe dandruff. They contained either 1% ketoconazole or 1% piroctone olamine. In each group, intraindividual comparisons were made by a split-scalp design between the effect of a 5-min residence time versus no residence time. Both shampoos induced significant reductions in scaliness and yeast colonization. The beneficial effects were obvious immediately after one single shampooing and 3 days later as well. The improvement was greater with a 5-min residence time. The piroctone olamine treatment benefited more than the ketoconazole treatment from the extension of shampoo-exposure time. In conclusion, the benefit of a residence time in treating dandruff is documented. The level of improvement in efficacy may vary according to the nature of the shampoo. PMID:18494909

  9. Determining radiation dose to residents of radiation-contaminated buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.J.S.; Wu, T.H.; Chong, N.S.; Dong, S.L.

    1999-08-01

    There are more than one thousand residents who lived in about 140 radiation-contaminated buildings and received the assessed radiation dose equivalent over 5 mSv/year. In this paper, a systematic approach to dose reconstruction is proposed for evaluating radiation dose equivalent to the residents. The approach includes area survey and exposure measurement, source identification and energy spectrum analysis, special designed TLD-embedded badges for residents to wear and organ dose estimation with Rando phantom simulation. From the study, it is concluded that the ionization chamber should still be considered as the primary modality for external dose measurement. However, lacking of accurate daily activity patterns of the residents, the dose equivalent estimation with the chamber measurements would be somehow overestimated. The encountered limitation could be compensated with the use of the TLD badges and Rando phantom simulation that could also provide more information for internal organ dose equivalent estimations. As the radiation patterns in the buildings are highly anisotropic, which strongly depends on the differences of structural and indoor layouts, it demands a mathematical model dealing with the above concerns. Also, further collaborations with studies on biological markers of the residents would make the entire dose equivalent estimation more helpful and reliable.

  10. Variable residence time vortex combustor

    DOEpatents

    Melconian, Jerry O.

    1987-01-01

    A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.

  11. Costs Associated With Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Bready, Lois L; Luber, M Philip

    2016-02-01

    Texas needs more physicians to care for a rapidly growing population, and new physicians who complete medical training in Texas are likely to remain in the state to practice. The expansion of existing Texas medical schools, along with the development of new schools, has created a need for a corresponding increase in residency and fellowship (graduate medical education, or GME) positions in Texas, and the 2013 and 2015 legislative sessions have funded expanded GME support. While the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services pays for the majority of GME positions nationally, those numbers were capped in 1997. Growing populations, particularly in the southern states, have led many institutions--when funds are available--to increase GME positions "over the cap." Texas physicians need to be aware of costs associated with development of accredited GME positions, as well as other measures being taken to support the growth of the physician workforce in the state. PMID:26859373

  12. Residency Work-Hours Reform

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Escarce, José J

    2005-01-01

    Background In response to proposed federal legislation, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education limited resident work-hours in July 2003. The cost may be substantial but, if successful, the reform might lower preventable adverse event costs in hospital and after discharge. Objectives This study sought to estimate the reform's net cost in 2001 dollars, and to determine the reduction in preventable adverse events needed to make reform cost neutral from teaching hospital and societal perspectives. Design Cost analysis using published literature and data. Net costs were determined for 4 reform strategies and over a range of potential effects on preventable adverse events. Results Nationwide, transferring excess work to task-tailored substitutes (the lowest-level providers appropriate for noneducational tasks) would cost $673 million; mid-level providers would cost $1.1 billion. Reform strategies promoting adverse events would increase net teaching hospital and societal costs as well as mortality. If task-tailored substitutes decrease events by 5.1% or mid-level providers decrease them by 8.5%, reform would be cost neutral for society. Events must fall by 18.5% and 30.9%, respectively, to be cost neutral for teaching hospitals. Conclusions Because most preventable adverse event costs occur after discharge, a modest decline (5.1% to 8.5%) in them might make residency work-hours reform cost neutral for society but only a much larger drop (18.5% to 30.9%) would make it cost neutral for teaching hospitals, unless additional funds are allocated. Future research should evaluate which reform approaches prevent adverse events and at what cost. PMID:16191130

  13. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Performed by Residents: A Retrospective Study on 569 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Stefano; Zetti, Giorgio; Cortese, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed by residents. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 569 elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Results. Duration of surgery was 84 ± 39 min for residents versus  66 ± 47 min for staff surgeons, P < 0.001. Rate of conversion was 3.2% for residents versus 2.7% for staff surgeons, P = 0.7. There was no difference in the rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications for residents (1.2% and 3.2%) versus staff surgeons (1.5% and 3.1%), P = 0.7 and P = 0.9. Postoperative hospital stay was 3.3 ± 1.8 days for residents versus  3.4 ± 3.2 days for staff surgeons, P = 0.6. One death in patients operated by residents (1/246) and one in patients operated by staff surgeons (1/323) were found, P = 0.8. No difference in the time to return to normal daily activities between residents (11.3 ± 4.2 days) and staff surgeons (10.8 ± 5.6 days) was found, P = 0.2. Shorter duration of surgery when operating the senior residents (75 ± 31 minutes) than the junior residents (87 ± 27 minutes), P = 0.003. Conclusion. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed by residents is a safe procedure with results comparable to those of staff surgeons. PMID:25379566

  14. The service/education conflict in residency programs: a model for resolution.

    PubMed

    Wartman, S A; O'Sullivan, P S; Cyr, M G

    1990-01-01

    Residency programs consist of a range of activities involving service to patients and education of residents. The observation that a conflict exists between the service and education components of residency is widespread and has been used to explain many of the problems afflicting such programs today. The authors believe that the service/education conflict is a significant barrier to change in residency programs. A model is presented for residency education that reorganizes the service and education components. First, they present a broad overview of the conflict. Then they provide a brief historical perspective and comment on some of the current recommendations for residency programs. Next, they discuss how principles of adult learning relate to residency and propose a new model of residency that adheres more closely to these principles. Finally, the proposed model is presented in some detail and its implications are discussed. Only if the service and education components of residency are carefully delineated can residency programs adapt to the changing and growing needs of postgraduate medical education. PMID:2303933

  15. The American College of Physicians' Resident Abstract Competition: success of U.S. military trainees.

    PubMed

    Shorr, A F; Niven, A S; Howard, R S; Phillips, Y Y

    1999-03-01

    Research is a central aspect of internal medicine (IM) training, and accreditation organizations require that residency programs show that their residents participate in scholarly activity. To better understand the research productivity and the quality of research conducted by military IM trainees, we reviewed the records of the American College of Physicians' Resident Abstract Competition from 1995 to 1997. This national competition is prestigious, blindly judged, and highly selective. We found that although military residents account for less than 2% of all U.S. and Canadian IM trainees, they author more than 11% of the abstracts selected for presentation (p < 0.001). We conclude that military IM residents are disproportionately represented compared with their civilian peers in an objective, national competitive forum. This is consistent with the higher scores on in-service examinations and higher board-certification pass rates for military IM residents. PMID:10091497

  16. Effects of Green House® Nursing Homes on Residents' Families

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Terry Y.; Kane, Rosalie A.; Cutler, Lois J.; Yu, Tzy-Chyi

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal quasi-experimental study with two comparison groups was conducted to test the effects of a Green House (GH®) nursing home program on residents' family members. The GH®s are individual residences, each serving 10 elders, where certified nursing assistant (CNA)-level resident assistants form primary relationships with residents and family, family is encouraged to visits, and professionals adapted their roles to support the model. GH® family were somewhat less involved in providing assistance to their residents although family contact did not differ among the settings at any time period. GH® family were more satisfied with their resident's care and with their own experience as family members, and had no greater family burden. Issues in studying family outcomes are discussed as well as implications for roles of various personnel, including social service and activities staff in a GH® model. PMID:19361115

  17. The obstetrics and gynaecology resident as teacher.

    PubMed

    Cullimore, Amie J; Dalrymple, John L; Dugoff, Lorraine; Hueppchen, Nancy A; Casey, Petra M; Chuang, Alice W; Espey, Eve L; Hammoud, Maya M; Kaczmarczyk, Joseph M; Katz, Nadine T; Nuthalapaty, Francis S; Peskin, Edward G

    2010-12-01

    In this article we discuss the role residents play in the clinical training and evaluation of medical students. A literature search was performed to identify articles dealing with research, curriculum, and the evaluation of residents as teachers. We summarize the importance of resident educators and the need to provide appropriate resources for house staff in this role, and we review evidence-based literature in the area of residents as teachers. Specific attention is given to the unique circumstances of the obstetrics and gynaecology resident, who is often faced with teaching in an emotionally charged and stress-filled environment. We present examples of curricula for residents as teachers and describe barriers to their implementation and evaluation. PMID:21176331

  18. A case-based approach for teaching professionalism to residents with online discussions

    PubMed Central

    NADEAU, MARK T.; TYSINGER, JAMES; WIEMERS, MARCY

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Programs must demonstrate that their residents are taught and assessed in professionalism. Most programs struggle with finding viable ways to teach and assess this critical competency. UTHSCSA Family and Community Medicine Residency developed an innovative option for interactive learning and assessment of residents in this competency which would be transferrable to other programs and specialties. Methods The innovative approach uses an asynchronous online format on Blackboard. Threaded discussions on Blackboard require thoughtful reflective writing after case assessment and critical evaluation of other resident posts. Participation, content and progress of all resident postings are monitored by administrative staff and faculty. Faculty can further engage the residents at any point to deepen the discussion and learning. Results 100% of all senior residents attained the required learning objectives. All were actively engaged in the assignments. Six cases have been developed using a Learning Matrix to demonstrate evaluation areas from the specialty specific competencies. Written feedback from residents verified the validity of case content in context of their current clinical practice. Postings by residents have provided value and insight for the faculty to access the professional development of our Family Medicine residents.  The Clinical Competency Committee evaluates all third year residents using this information specific to the professionalism milestones. By using an asynchronous online approach to case discussion, all residents are involved with all aspects of this curriculum. Conclusions More specific measurable learning outcomes are possible using this approach. Resident participation and engagement is easier to track and monitor than a lecture-based format and easier to capture valuable data than relying on evaluation feedback. Our Annual Review process will identify areas for improvement in the existing cases and help create supplemental cases

  19. Who's in Our Neighborhood? Healthcare Disparities Experiential Education for Residents

    PubMed Central

    Patow, Carl; Bryan, Debra; Johnson, Gail; Canaan, Eugenia; Oyewo, Adetolu; Panda, Mukta; Walsh, Eric; Zaidan, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Residents and fellows frequently care for patients from diverse populations but often have limited familiarity with the cultural preferences and social determinants that contribute to the health of their patients and communities. Faculty physicians at academic health centers are increasingly interested in incorporating the topics of cultural diversity and healthcare disparities into experiential education activities; however, examples have not been readily available. In this report, we describe a variety of experiential education models that were developed to improve resident and fellow physician understanding of cultural diversity and healthcare disparities. Methods: Experiential education, an educational philosophy that infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content, is an effective adult learning method. This report summarizes the experiences of multiple sponsors of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education–accredited residency and fellowship programs that used experiential education to inform residents about cultural diversity and healthcare disparities. The 9 innovative experiential education activities described were selected to demonstrate a wide range of complexity, resource requirements, and community engagement and to stimulate further creativity and innovation in educational design. Results: Each of the 9 models is characterized by residents' active participation and varies in length from minutes to months. In general, the communities in which these models were deployed were urban centers with diverse populations. Various formats were used to introduce targeted learners to the populations and communities they serve. Measures of educational and clinical outcomes for these early innovations and pilot programs are not available. Conclusion: The breadth of the types of activities described suggests that a wide latitude is available to organizations in creating experiential education programs that reflect their

  20. Effectiveness of Advanced Illness Care Teams for Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Dennis G.; Toseland, Ronald W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of advanced illness care teams (AICTs) for nursing home residents with advanced dementia. The AICTs used a holistic approach that focused on four domains: (1) medical, (2) meaningful activities, (3) psychological, and (4) behavioral. The authors recruited 118 residents in two nursing homes for this study and…

  1. 26 CFR 1.884-5 - Qualified resident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of which the foreign corporation is a resident or a citizen or resident of the United States; (B) The... an individual who is not a U.S. citizen or resident, also obtains a certificate of residency... foreign country of which the foreign corporation is a resident and who are not citizens or residents...

  2. Reducing dehydration in residents of care homes.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Whitelock, Suzan; Bunn, Diane

    Dehydration can have serious consequences for older people and is a particular problem for residents of nursing and care homes. This article, the second in a two-part series, describes how a specialist care home for people with dementia in Great Yarmouth introduced high-quality hydration care to frail residents. By involving all staff and ensuring residents take a litre of fluid by the end of a relaxed and extended breakfast, staff have reduced anxiety and aggression and created a calmer and more sociable atmosphere. This has benefitted residents, visitors and staff, and is reflected in low levels of unplanned hospital admissions and paramedic call-outs. PMID:26492664

  3. Putting Residents First: Strategies Developed by CNAs to Prevent and Manage Resident-to-Resident Violence in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Snellgrove, Susan; Beck, Cornelia; Green, Angela; McSweeney, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Resident-to-resident violence (RRV) in nursing homes (NHs) is common and threatens the safety and quality of life of both residents and caregivers. The purpose of this portion of a larger qualitative study was to explore strategies developed by certified nurses’ assistants (CNAs) to prevent and manage RRV in NHs. Design and Methods: Semistructured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed utilizing content analysis and constant comparison. Results: Analysis revealed one overriding theme, “Putting Residents First” which the CNAs described as a conscious effort to put themselves or a beloved family member in the place of the resident while administering care. Within this theme, there were three related subthemes: (a) Knowing the Residents, (b) Keeping Residents Safe, and (c) Spending Quality Time. Implications: Together, these themes suggest that the formulation of strategies for decreasing and managing RRV was influenced significantly by the ability of the CNAs to empathize with the residents for whom they were caring. The results indicate that in the absence of evidence-based interventions, CNAs have developed their own strategies for the management and prevention of RRV. These strategies may provide a foundation for the development and testing of interventions aimed at preventing and managing RRV in NHs. PMID:26055786

  4. 20th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Even in difficult economic times, colleges and universities continue to invest in residence hall construction projects as a way to attract new students and keep existing ones on campus. According to data from "American School & University"'s 20th annual Residence Hall Construction Report, the median new project completed in 2008 was less expensive…

  5. Current Practices in Resident Assistant Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Virginia Albaneso

    2016-01-01

    Developing resident assistant (RA) training is a challenge for most housing and residence life staff. Grounded in the author's doctoral research on the curricular design of RA training programs, this study summarizes current practices in three types of RA training programs--preservice training, in-service training, and academic courses--and…

  6. Suicide Intervention Skills among Japanese Medical Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuriko; Kato, Takahiro A.; Hashimoto, Naoki; Sato, Ryoko; Aoyama-Uehara, Kumi; Fukasawa, Maiko; Tomita, Masayuki; Watanabe, Koichiro; Kashima, Haruo; Otsuka, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Patient suicide is a tragic occurrence, and it can be a demoralizing experience for medical residents. Few studies, however, have assessed suicide management skills among these front-line healthcare professionals. This study evaluated the self-assessed competence and confidence of medical residents with regard to the management of…

  7. Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

  8. Assessment of Residents' Attitudes toward Patient Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvo, Donna; Wright, W. Russel

    1981-01-01

    A questionnaire was developed at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine to elicit information from residents regarding their perceptions of and expectations of patient education. Responding residents generally felt patient education was an asset to total medical care, and that the physician should determine what information should be…

  9. 19th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The construction of residence hall facilities at colleges and universities continues to be strong, as institutions scramble to meet the housing needs and varied demands of a growing student population. This article presents data collected from 39 new residence hall projects completed in 2007. According to American School & University's 19th annual…

  10. Teaching Psychiatry to Family Practice Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huzij, Teodor J.; Warner, Christopher H.; Lacy, Timothy; Rachal, James

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article outlines a psychiatry curriculum developed for family practice residents by family practice-psychiatry residents. Methods: A literature review, needs assessment, planning, implementation, and initial assessment were conducted. Conclusion: Early results demonstrated improved general psychiatric knowledge and a high level of…

  11. Delinking resident duty hours from patient safety.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Roisin; Parshuram, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a powerful motivating force for change in modern medicine, and is often cited as a rationale for reducing resident duty hours. However, current data suggest that resident duty hours are not significantly linked to important patient outcomes. We performed a narrative review and identified four potential explanations for these findings. First, we question the relevance of resident fatigue in the creation of harmful errors. Second, we discuss factors, including workload, experience, and individual characteristics, that may be more important determinants of resident fatigue than are duty hours. Third, we describe potential adverse effects that may arise from--and, therefore, counterbalance any potential benefits of--duty hour reductions. Fourth, we explore factors that may mitigate any risks to patient safety associated with using the services of resident trainees. In summary, it may be inappropriate to justify a reduction in working hours on the grounds of a presumed linkage between patient safety and resident duty hours. Better understanding of resident-related factors associated with patient safety will be essential if improvements in important patient safety outcomes are to be realized through resident-focused strategies. PMID:25561349

  12. Residents as Educators: A Modern Model.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Clark D; McMaster, William G; Vella, Michael A; Sexton, Kevin W; Snyder, Rebecca A; Terhune, Kyla P

    2015-01-01

    Education during surgical residency has changed significantly. As part of the shifting landscape, the importance of an organized and structured curriculum has increased. However, establishing this is often difficult secondary to clinical demands and pressure both on faculty and residents. We present a peer-assisted learning model for academic institutions without professional non-clinical educations. The "resident as educator" (RAE) model empowers residents to be the organizers of the education curriculum. RAE is built on a culture of commitment to education, skill development and team building, allowing the upper level residents to develop and execute the curriculum. Several modules designed to address junior level residents and medical students' educational needs have been implemented, including (1) intern boot camp, (2) summer school, (3) technical skill sessions, (4) trauma orientation, (5) weekly teaching conferences, and (4) a fourth year medical student surgical preparation course. Promoting residents as educators leads to an overall benefit for the program by being cost-effective and time-efficient, while simultaneously promoting professional development of residents and a culture of education. PMID:26143515

  13. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  14. A Clinical Evaluation System for Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viets, J. L.; Foster, Scot D.

    1988-01-01

    Baylor College of Medicine's system for evaluating the clinical progress of anesthesiology residents, developed in response to problems of standards, staff cooperation, and student dissatisfaction with evaluation, assesses resident progress in terms of performance levels based on case complexity and degree of staff intervention. (Author/MSE)

  15. Teaching Psychiatric Administration to Senior Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, John A.; Sacks, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Describes a course in psychiatric administration which is part of a "standard" psychiatric residency training program. The course combined both didactic and experiential learning for senior residents performing administrative duties for the first time. Includes details of each week's seminar. Discusses course evaluation by both teachers and…

  16. Delinking resident duty hours from patient safety

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a powerful motivating force for change in modern medicine, and is often cited as a rationale for reducing resident duty hours. However, current data suggest that resident duty hours are not significantly linked to important patient outcomes. We performed a narrative review and identified four potential explanations for these findings. First, we question the relevance of resident fatigue in the creation of harmful errors. Second, we discuss factors, including workload, experience, and individual characteristics, that may be more important determinants of resident fatigue than are duty hours. Third, we describe potential adverse effects that may arise from – and, therefore, counterbalance any potential benefits of – duty hour reductions. Fourth, we explore factors that may mitigate any risks to patient safety associated with using the services of resident trainees. In summary, it may be inappropriate to justify a reduction in working hours on the grounds of a presumed linkage between patient safety and resident duty hours. Better understanding of resident-related factors associated with patient safety will be essential if improvements in important patient safety outcomes are to be realized through resident-focused strategies. PMID:25561349

  17. Current Perspectives on Chief Residents in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Christopher H.; Rachal, James; Breitbach, Jill; Higgins, Michael; Warner, Carolynn; Bobo, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine qualitative data from outgoing chief residents in psychiatry from the 2004-2005 academic year to 1) determine common characteristics between programs, 2) examine the residents' perspectives on their experiences, and 3) determine their common leadership qualities. Method: The authors sent out self-report surveys via…

  18. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES § 59.4 Residency requirements....

  19. [MENTORING PROGRAM - ANOTHER FACET OF RESIDENT EDUCATION].

    PubMed

    Fishman, Ami; Kenet, Ron; Biron-Shental, Tal

    2015-08-01

    Medical residents are exposed to physical and emotional pressure and are required to cope with numerous demands during long working hours. Often, the intense workload leads to neglect of possible difficulties and professional and personal growth and empowerment. The Mentoring Program provides each resident with an attending physician mentor to help him or her adjust to the residency and to cope with its demands. The mentor guides the resident in career development and provides support in the event of difficulties. Attending physicians received professional guidance in the objectives and meaning of mentorship and were teamed with residents. The residents completed questionnaires regarding satisfaction and self-confidence before and a year after the mentoring program was established. The program significantly increased their feelings of support, confidence and satisfaction. As the program continued, the mentors' role in guiding the residents was expanded. The Mentoring Program has become an integral part of departmental teaching and team communication. It seems that the mentors, the residents and the department, all benefit from the program. PMID:26480614

  20. Residence Hall Furnishings Top 20 List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampke, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Provides advice on how to best meet the furniture needs of student residents now and in the future to ensure their privacy and value from the residence hall experience. Twenty tips are highlighted that include considering fire safety, upholstering, lifecycle costs, input from stakeholders, the Americans with Disabilities Act, comfort, lighting,…

  1. Selected Health Practices Among Ohio's Rural Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, G. Howard; Pugh, Albert

    Using a stratified random sample of 12 of Ohio's 88 counties, this 1967 study had as its objectives (1) to measure the level of participation in selected health practices by Ohio's rural residents, (2) to compare the level of participation in selected health practices of farm and rural nonfarm residents, and (3) to examine levels of participation…

  2. A Sexuality Curriculum for Gynecology Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Stephen B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The summary report of an educational research program conducted with the obstetrics and gynecology residents at University Hospitals of Cleveland in 1976 is presented. The goals were to provide residents with basic knowledge about female sexual problems, assess skill and comfort in interviewing patients with sexual problems, document the effects…

  3. Accommodating to Restrictions on Residents' Working Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Henry W., Jr.; Seltzer, Vicki L.

    1991-01-01

    In response to New York State legislation limiting house staff working hours, a survey of obstetrics and gynecology resident programs (n=26) was conducted. Results were used to construct a prototype call schedule and a hypothetical monthly schedule indicating how a single resident would function without violating any state regulations. (MSE)

  4. Study of Teaching Residents How to Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a teaching skills program for residents at Louisiana State University Medical Center was evaluated among 22 residents in obstetrics and gynecology, medicine, and family medicine who were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. There was greater increase in the scores of the experimental than the control groups.…

  5. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resident rights. 483.10 Section 483.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.10 Resident rights....

  6. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Resident rights. 483.10 Section 483.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.10 Resident rights....

  7. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Resident rights. 483.10 Section 483.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.10 Resident rights....

  8. 42 CFR 436.403 - State residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... State of residence is the State in which the individual is living. (3) For any other non... “foster care homes”, licensed as set forth in 45 CFR 1355.20, and providing food, shelter and supportive... of indicating intent, the State of residence is the State where the individual is living with...

  9. Resident Performance and Sleep Deprivation: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asken, Michael J.; Raham, David C.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the literature on resident performance and sleep deprivation suggests that current research is sparse and inconclusive, and existing research suggests potentially severe negative effects. It is proposed that justifications for sleep-depriving night call schedules remain untested, and their use as part of residency training should be…

  10. 28 CFR 115.333 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident education. 115.333 Section 115.333 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL... provide comprehensive age-appropriate education to residents either in person or through video...

  11. 28 CFR 115.333 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident education. 115.333 Section 115.333 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL... provide comprehensive age-appropriate education to residents either in person or through video...

  12. 28 CFR 115.333 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident education. 115.333 Section 115.333 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL... provide comprehensive age-appropriate education to residents either in person or through video...

  13. A Rural Primary Care Pediatric Residency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kairys, Steven; Newell, Priscilla

    1985-01-01

    The primary care pediatric residency program at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center has developed a training program in rural primary care. Residents experience the many facets of rural practice and are introduced to community-oriented approaches to child health care. (Author/MLW)

  14. 42 CFR 435.403 - State residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... State placement, the term also includes foster care homes, licensed as set forth in 45 CFR 1355.20, and... accordance with 45 CFR 233.40, the rules governing residence under the AFDC program. (4) For any..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA General Eligibility Requirements § 435.403 State residence. (a) Requirement....

  15. The Social Ecology of University Student Residences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerst, Marvin S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    The development, initial standardization and substantive data of the University Residence Environment Scale (URES) is presented. The URES is a true-false perceived environment scale composed of 10 subscales (e.g., affiliation, innovation) which discriminates among the 74 student residences in the current norm group. The URES has high internal…

  16. 19 CFR 141.38 - Resident corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident corporations. 141.38 Section 141.38 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Powers of Attorney § 141.38 Resident corporations. A power...

  17. 19 CFR 141.38 - Resident corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resident corporations. 141.38 Section 141.38 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Powers of Attorney § 141.38 Resident corporations. A power...

  18. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a project sponsor, are covered in 43 CFR part 17 which implements the provisions of Title VI of the... discrimination on the basis of residence, including preferential reservation or membership systems, except to the... assisted programs and services on the basis of residence, except in reasonable fee differentials....

  19. Psychiatry Residency Training around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Balon, Richard; Bjorksten, Karin S.; Everall, Ian; Dunn, Laura; Ganadjian, Krauz; Jin, Hua; Parikh, Sagar; Sciolla, Andres; Sidhartha, Tanuj; Yoo, Tai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors compare and contrast psychiatry residency training in the United States to that in Canada and selected countries in South America, Europe, and Asia. Method: Nine individuals who are intimately familiar with psychiatry residency training in the United States (primarily chairs, training directors, associate training directors,…

  20. 28 CFR 115.351 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.351 Section 115.351 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.351 Resident reporting. (a) The agency...

  1. 28 CFR 115.251 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.251 Section 115.251 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.251 Resident reporting. (a)...

  2. 28 CFR 115.351 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.351 Section 115.351 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.351 Resident reporting. (a) The agency...

  3. 28 CFR 115.251 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.251 Section 115.251 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.251 Resident reporting. (a)...

  4. 28 CFR 115.251 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.251 Section 115.251 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.251 Resident reporting. (a)...

  5. 28 CFR 115.351 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.351 Section 115.351 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.351 Resident reporting. (a) The agency...

  6. Community Residences for Mentally Retarded People: A Study of Seven Community Residences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehbring, Kurt; Ogren, Ciele

    The report describes the distinctive characteristics and styles of seven community residences for retarded children or adults and provides a comparative analysis with emphasis on common themes of successful group homes. The homes are compared in terms of original initiation of the residence; the development of the residence; operations (such as…

  7. Feedback from Chief Residents about Proposed Revisions of the Special Requirements for Internal Medicine Residencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, P. Preston; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 272 medical school chief residents concerning proposed revisions of internal medicine residency requirements found the most strongly supported changes were: enhanced training in interviewing, interpersonal, and physical examination skills; increased emphasis on residency as an educational experience and on general internal medicine in…

  8. Resident Assistants and Students on Leadership, Residence Hall Climate and Student Brinkmanship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn Hagan; Licata, Joseph W.

    Student brinkmanship in residence halls, resident assistant (RA) leadership, and residence social climate are discussed. In "brinking" the system, students challenge authority in ways that provide scant grounds for the institution to apply punishment. The study looks at relationships between: the RA's leadership behavior and student perceptions of…

  9. Simulation and resident education in spinal neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Bohm, Parker E.; Arnold, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A host of factors have contributed to the increasing use of simulation in neurosurgical resident education. Although the number of simulation-related publications has increased exponentially over the past two decades, no studies have specifically examined the role of simulation in resident education in spinal neurosurgery. Methods: We performed a structured search of several databases to identify articles detailing the use of simulation in spinal neurosurgery education in an attempt to catalogue potential applications for its use. Results: A brief history of simulation in medicine is given, followed by current trends of spinal simulation utilization in residency programs. General themes from the literature are identified that are integral for implementing simulation into neurosurgical residency curriculum. Finally, various applications are reported. Conclusion: The use of simulation in spinal neurosurgery education is not as ubiquitous in comparison to other neurosurgical subspecialties, but many promising methods of simulation are available for augmenting resident education. PMID:25745588

  10. New oil era prompts unique resid refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.E.; Sliger, A.G.; Kain, G.E.

    1982-03-22

    Flowsheets and a process description are given for a refinery that will employ resid desulfurization and the Heavy Oil Cracking (HOC) process to upgrade the bottom of the crude barrel. The key processing concept in the new Saber facility is the combination of HOC, a proven process, that has been employed since the early 1960's, with resid hydrodesulfurization (HDS) a newer process but one that is well proven and that has found widespread application. Design feedstock for the complex is heavy Arabian 650+/degree/ F. atmospheric resid, but flexibility to run light Arabian atmospheric resid or any intermediate resid also has been incorporated into the design. Rated Capacity is 46,100 b/sd. 9 refs.

  11. The Effect of State Policies on Nursing Home Resident Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Vincent; Gruneir, Andrea; Feng, Zhanlian; Grabowski, David C.; Intrator, Orna; Zinn, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To test the effect of changes in Medicaid reimbursement on clinical outcomes of long-stay nursing home (NH) residents. DESIGN Longitudinal, retrospective study of NHs, merging aggregated resident-level quality measures with facility characteristics and state policy survey data. SETTING All free-standing NHs in urban counties with at least 20 long-stay residents per quarter (length of stay >90 days) in the continental United States between 1999 and 2005. PARTICIPANTS Long-stay NH residents INTERVENTIONS Annual state Medicaid average per diem reimbursement and the presence of case-mix reimbursement in each year. MEASUREMENTS Quarterly facility-aggregated, risk-adjusted quality-of-care measures surpassing a threshold for functional (activity of daily living) decline, physical restraint use, pressure ulcer incidence or worsening, and persistent pain. RESULTS All outcomes showed an improvement trend over the study period, particularly physical restraint use. Facility fixed-effect regressions revealed that a $10 increase in Medicaid payment increased the likelihood of a NH meeting quality thresholds by 9% for functional decline, 5% for pain control, and 2% for pressure ulcers but not reduced use of physical restraints. Facilities in states that increased Medicaid payment most showed the greatest improvement in outcomes. The introduction of case-mix reimbursement was unrelated to quality improvement. CONCLUSION Improvements in the clinical quality of NH care have been achieved, particularly where Medicaid payment has increased, generally from a lower baseline. Although this is a positive finding, challenges to implementing efficient reimbursement policies remain. PMID:21198463

  12. West Nile Virus in Resident Birds from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Andrea; Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesus; Monge, Otto; Ramírez, Abigaíl; Galindo, Francisco; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas is thought to be transported at large spatial scales by migratory birds and locally spread and amplified by resident birds. Local processes, including interspecific interactions and dominance of passerine species recognized as competent reservoirs, may boost infection and maintain endemic cycles. Change in species composition has been recognized as an important driver for infection dynamics. Due to migration and changes in species diversity and composition in wintering grounds, changes in infection prevalence are expected. To these changes, we used PCR to estimate the prevalence of WNV in wild resident birds during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 in Yucatan, Mexico. Serum samples were obtained from 104 wild birds, belonging to six orders and 35 species. We detected WNV in 14 resident birds, representing 11 species and three orders. Prevalences by order was Passeriformes (27%), Columbiformes (6%), and Piciformes (33%). Resident birds positive to WNV from Yucatan may be indicative of local virus circulation and evidence of past virus transmission activity. PMID:26540336

  13. Educational outcomes necessary to enter pharmacy residency training.

    PubMed

    Hester, Elizabeth Kelly; McBane, Sarah E; Bottorff, Michael B; Carnes, Tristan A; Dell, Kamila; Gonyeau, Michael J; Greco, Angelo J; McConnell, Karen J; Skaar, Debra J; Splinter, Michele Y; Trujillo, Toby C

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) that formal postgraduate residency training, or equivalent experience, is required to enter direct patient care practice. Therefore, it is important to align professional degree educational outcomes with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to enter residency training. This position statement addresses the outcomes necessary in the professional degree program curriculum to ensure the ability of pharmacy graduates to transition effectively into postgraduate year one residency training. Five key outcome areas are identified: communication, direct patient care, professionalism, research, and practice management. The position statement examines how performance in each of the five outcome areas should be addressed by professional degree programs. The ACCP believes that for the student to achieve the clinical proficiency necessary to enter residency training, the professional degree program should emphasize, assess, and provide adequate opportunities for students to practice: communication with patients, caregivers, and members of the health care team in direct patient care environments; provision of direct patient care in a wide variety of practice settings, especially those involving patient-centered, team-based care; professionalism under the supervision and guidance of faculty and preceptors who model and teach the traits of a health care professional; application of principles of research that engender an appreciation for the role of research and scholarship in one's professional development; and application of practice management, including documentation of direct patient care activities that affect drug-related outcomes. PMID:24753155

  14. Resident physician interactions with surrogate decision-makers: the resident experience.

    PubMed

    Reckrey, Jennifer M; McKee, M Diane; Sanders, Justin J; Lipman, Hannah I

    2011-12-01

    This study explored interactions between medical residents and patient surrogates in order to clarify resident understanding of roles and relationships, resident emotional experience, and resident learning processes. Qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews were used involving three family medicine residency programs serving culturally diverse, urban, underserved patient populations. Eighteen second- and third-year trainees described a memorable interaction with a surrogate and then were prompted to discuss their learning experience and their role in the interaction. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed through an iterative process. Residents experienced significant emotional burden during interactions yet continued to value their relationships with surrogates. Despite their reservations about giving recommendations, residents adopted a variety of roles with surrogates as they gave support, information, and advice. Although residents reported little formal education about surrogate decision-making, they relied on passive role modeling and their own previous experiences to help surrogates make decisions. Residents have complex and emotionally significant interactions with surrogates despite minimal formal education about surrogate decision-making. Educational efforts should seek to help residents understand their own emotions and the ethical beliefs that underlie the roles they adopt with surrogates. This will help residents to facilitate value-based conversations with surrogates and better support surrogates in the decision-making process. PMID:22092192

  15. The ethics of conducting graduate medical education research on residents.

    PubMed

    Keune, Jason D; Brunsvold, Melissa E; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Korndorffer, James R; Weinstein, Debra F; Smink, Douglas S

    2013-04-01

    The field of graduate medical education (GME) research is attracting increased attention and broader participation. The authors review the special ethical and methodological considerations pertaining to medical education research. Because residents are at once a convenient and captive study population, a risk of coercion exists, making the provision of consent important. The role of the institutional review board (IRB) is often difficult to discern because GME activities can have multiple simultaneous purposes, educational activities may go forward with or without a research component, and the subjects of educational research studies are not patients. The authors provide a road map for researchers with regard to research oversight by the IRB and also address issues related to research quality. The matters of whether educational research studies should have educational value for the study subject and whether to use individual information obtained when residents participate as research subjects are explored. PMID:23425981

  16. Effective Research Strategies for Trainees in Internal Medicine Residency Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wiederman, Michael W.; Sawyer, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    For most training programs, the development of research endeavors among trainees is an ongoing challenge. In this article, we review various considerations when attempting to undertake research activities within an internal medicine residency training program, including availability of institutional resources (eg, dedicated research time for trainees and faculty, available faculty mentors, accessible adjunctive personnel), engagement of residents into research, classic project quagmires in training programs, the institutional review board, publication options (eg, letters to the editor, case reports, literature reviews, original research reports), and journal submission strategies. Given that research entails multiple components and distinct skills, the overall program goal should be to make research an educationally understandable process for trainees. Research can be a rewarding activity when nurtured in a facilitating educational environment. PMID:26137359

  17. Neurosurgery resident leadership development: an innovative approach.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Jeffrey E; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Albert, Gregory W; Greenlee, Jeremy D

    2011-02-01

    A great deal of time and resources go into the development and training of neurosurgeons. One area that has minimal literature and assessment is leadership development. Under the core competency of interpersonal and communication skills, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has indicated that residents are expected to work effectively as a member or leader of a healthcare team. This article reveals how a structured leadership program was developed so that residents are better prepared for the role of chief resident and future leadership roles. Beginning in October 2006, residents attended a series of 1-hour workshops conducted monthly. Topics included leadership style, conflict management, effective feedback, team building, team leadership, motivation, and moving from peer to leader. A retrospective pretest was conducted at the end of the program. Residents reported a significant knowledge gain for the majority of topics. Resident comments indicated a greater awareness of the impact of leading and ways to improve their personal leadership. Quantitatively and qualitatively, residents and faculty reported that the leadership program made a significant impact on the development of future neurosurgical leaders. PMID:21135732

  18. Out of the wilderness: flipping the classroom to advance scholarship in an internal medicine residency program.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Dale S

    2014-11-01

    Residents in an internal medicine residency program "flipped the classroom" in a series of learner-centered activities which included the creation of a medical student interest group, a continuing medical education symposium, and a journal supplement focused on wilderness medicine topics in Hawai'i and Asia Pacific. The project encompassed both scholarly activities (discovery, integration, application, and teaching) as well as scholarship (writing for publication). The project advanced the professional formation of residents by developing competencies and producing outcomes that are key features of the ACGME Next Accreditation System. PMID:25478292

  19. Teaching pediatric residents about child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, H; Black, M

    1991-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a growing problem faced by pediatricians; however, there are many deficiencies in pediatricians' relevant knowledge and skills. Residency programs typically have included limited teaching in the area of child maltreatment. Fifty pediatric residents participated in an evaluation of a model educational course in child maltreatment developed by an interdisciplinary faculty. The course resulted in significant short-term improvements in knowledge and skills as well as a greater sense of competence in managing cases of child maltreatment. The importance of teaching pediatric residents about the "new morbidity" is discussed. PMID:1939686

  20. Tuition fees for residents: one physician's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, B

    1999-01-01

    Although the education, expertise and guidance of Canada's academic physicians cannot be overlooked, individual universities appear to see tuition fees for residents as an easy source of much needed revenue. If tuition should "rise to market levels," perhaps residents' wages should similarly rise to reflect the amount of training received, skills required, responsibilities discharged and time expended. Unfortunately, tuition fees will be an area of contention for some time. Support of provincial resident associations and medical societies may lend both moral and, possibly, financial support to future members of the profession. PMID:10530300

  1. Teaching practice management skills to pediatric residents.

    PubMed

    Babitch, Leland A

    2006-11-01

    To satisfy the core competencies required by the Pediatric Residency Review Committee, the author describes an educational program for the residents in a large pediatric training program. The course provides a year-long overview of multiple medical management topics. The sessions cover nonclinical subjects usually missed in other educational settings, with particular focus on areas of finance, compliance, personnel management, career advancement, and leadership. The series is currently in its third year, with a positive response from the participants, and demonstrated improvement in resident knowledge of the covered areas. PMID:17041173

  2. 26 CFR 1.884-5 - Qualified resident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... an individual who is not a U.S. citizen or resident, also obtains a certificate of residency... a certificate of residency shall not be required in the case of an individual who is a shareholder...) Certificate of residency. A certificate of residency must be signed by the relevant authorities (as...

  3. 26 CFR 1.884-5 - Qualified resident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an individual who is not a U.S. citizen or resident, also obtains a certificate of residency... a certificate of residency shall not be required in the case of an individual who is a shareholder...) Certificate of residency. A certificate of residency must be signed by the relevant authorities (as...

  4. 26 CFR 1.884-5 - Qualified resident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... an individual who is not a U.S. citizen or resident, also obtains a certificate of residency... a certificate of residency shall not be required in the case of an individual who is a shareholder...) Certificate of residency. A certificate of residency must be signed by the relevant authorities (as...

  5. The Chief Resident in Psychiatry: Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Russell F.; Schwartz, Eric; Servis, Mark; Cox, Paul D.; Lai, Alan; Hales, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric residency programs have had chief residents for many years, and several articles previously published describe the chief residents' unique role as both faculty and resident. This article describes chief resident roles and responsibilities and explores trends in academic psychiatry departments from 1995 to 2006. Methods: The…

  6. Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid, D.; Restrepo, A.

    1993-01-01

    The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection. PMID:8348926

  7. Expression, high-pressure refolding, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a novel single-strand-specific 3′–5′ exonuclease PhoExo I from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tsutsumi, Kanae; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Tanokura, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    PhoExo I is a single-strand-specific 3′–5′ exonuclease from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 and is thought to be involved in a Thermococcales-specific DNA-repair pathway. The recombinant PhoExo I protein was produced as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli cells. Solubilization of the inclusion bodies was performed by the high-pressure refolding method and highly purified protein was subjected to crystallization by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 20°C. A crystal of PhoExo I was obtained in a reservoir solution consisting of 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.9, 27% PEG 6000 and diffracted X-rays to 1.52 Å resolution. The crystal of PhoExo I belonged to space group H32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 112.07, c = 202.28 Å. The crystal contained two PhoExo I molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:25084386

  8. Expression, high-pressure refolding, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a novel single-strand-specific 3'-5' exonuclease PhoExo I from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tsutsumi, Kanae; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Tanokura, Masaru

    2014-08-01

    PhoExo I is a single-strand-specific 3'-5' exonuclease from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 and is thought to be involved in a Thermococcales-specific DNA-repair pathway. The recombinant PhoExo I protein was produced as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli cells. Solubilization of the inclusion bodies was performed by the high-pressure refolding method and highly purified protein was subjected to crystallization by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 20°C. A crystal of PhoExo I was obtained in a reservoir solution consisting of 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.9, 27% PEG 6000 and diffracted X-rays to 1.52 Å resolution. The crystal of PhoExo I belonged to space group H32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 112.07, c = 202.28 Å. The crystal contained two PhoExo I molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:25084386

  9. Resident and attending physician perception of maladaptive response to stress in residents

    PubMed Central

    Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Berg, Katherine; Berg, Dale; Morgan, Charity J.; Davis, Joshua; Davis, Robyn; Schaeffer, Arielle; Hargraves, Robert; Little, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Residency stress has been shown to interfere with resident well-being and patient safety. We developed a survey research study designed to explore factors that may affect perception of a maladaptive response to stress. Methods A 16-item survey with 12 Likert-type perception items was designed to determine how often respondents agreed or disagreed with statements regarding the resident on the trigger tape. A total of 438 respondents from multiple institutions completed surveys. Results Attending physicians were more likely than residents to agree that the resident on the trigger tape was impaired, p<0.0001; needed to seek professional counseling, p=0.0003; should be removed from the service, p=0.002; was not receiving adequate support from the attending physician, p=0.007; and was a risk to patient safety, p=0.02. Attending physicians were also less likely to agree that the resident was a good role model, p=0.001, and that the resident should be able to resolve these issues herself/himself, p<0.0001. Conclusion Our data suggest that resident physicians may not be able to adequately detect maladaptive responses to stress and that attending physicians may be more adept at recognizing this problem. More innovative faculty and resident development workshops should be created to teach and encourage physicians to better observe and detect residents who are displaying maladaptive responses to stress. PMID:25407054

  10. Residency and Beyond: Subspecialization Trends Among Graduating Physiatry Residents and the Musculoskeletal Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aaron Jay; Brakke, Rachel A; Boimbo, Sandra; Sauerwein, Kelly; Coronado, Rogelio A; Schumacher, Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies and informal surveys have demonstrated a trend among graduating physiatry residents who desired to practice in an outpatient musculoskeletal (MSK)- or spine-type setting. However, there has been no updated information on the current trend among graduating residents as well as sparse information on gauging if current trainees feel prepared on graduation to treat patients with such disorders. This article describes a prospective survey of graduating chief residents during the 2013-2014 academic year in which 72% of chief residents planned to pursue a fellowship. A total of 54% of those chief residents planned to pursue a pain, sports, or spine fellowship. Seventy-five percent of the responding chief residents reported that most of the residents in their program felt that the current amount of required rotations in MSK, sports, spine, or pain medicine was adequate and 85% felt comfortable practicing in a noninterventional spine or MSK position after graduation without a fellowship. The results of this survey provide an updated perspective on the current trends among graduating residents as well as how residents perceive their MSK curriculum. These results may prove useful when evaluating MSK curriculums and shaping resident education to maximize career goals. PMID:26259054

  11. Surgical residency training and international volunteerism: a national survey of residents from 2 surgical specialties

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Wadih Y.; Trottier, Daniel C.; Balaa, Fady; Fairful-Smith, Robin; Moroz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) lack basic surgical resources, resulting in avoidable disability and mortality. Recently, residents in surgical training programs have shown increasing interest in overseas elective experiences to assist surgical programs in LMICs. The purpose of this study was to survey Canadian surgical residents about their interest in international volunteerism. Methods We sent a web-based survey to all general and orthopedic surgery residents enrolled in surgical training programs in Canada. The survey assessed residents’ interests, attitudes and motivations, and perceived barriers and aids with respect to international volunteerism. Results In all, 361 residents completed the survey for a response rate of 38.0%. Half of the respondents indicated that the availability of an international surgery elective would have positively influenced their selection of a residency program. Excluding the 18 residents who had volunteered during residency, 63.8% of the remaining residents confirmed an interest in international volunteering with “contributing to an important cause,” “teaching” and “tourism/cultural enhancement” as the leading reasons for their interest. Perceived barriers included “lack of financial support” and “lack of available organized opportunities.” All (100%) respondents who had done an international elective during residency confirmed that they would pursue such work in the future. Conclusion Administrators of Canadian surgical programs should be aware of strong resident interest in global health care and accordingly develop opportunities by encouraging faculty mentorships and resources for global health teaching. PMID:22854155

  12. The Radiology Resident iPad Toolbox: an educational and clinical tool for radiology residents.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Emerson E; Kendrick, Michael; Strickland, Colin; Dodd, Gerald D

    2013-07-01

    Tablet computing and mobile resources are the hot topics in technology today, with that interest spilling into the medical field. To improve resident education, a fully configured iPad, referred to as the "Radiology Resident iPad Toolbox," was created and implemented at the University of Colorado. The goal was to create a portable device with comprehensive educational, clinical, and communication tools that would contain all necessary resources for an entire 4-year radiology residency. The device was distributed to a total of 34 radiology residents (8 first-year residents, 8 second-year residents, 9 third-year residents, and 9 fourth-year residents). This article describes the process used to develop and deploy the device, provides a distillation of useful applications and resources decided upon after extensive evaluation, and assesses the impact this device had on resident education. The Radiology Resident iPad Toolbox is a cost-effective, portable, educational instrument that has increased studying efficiency; improved access to study materials such as books, radiology cases, lectures, and web-based resources; and increased interactivity in educational conferences and lectures through the use of audience-response software, with questions geared toward the new ABR board format. This preconfigured tablet fully embraces the technology shift into mobile computing and represents a paradigm shift in educational strategy. PMID:23647869

  13. The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

  14. Personal health care of internal medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Palabindala, Venkataraman; Foster, Paul; Kanduri, Swetha; Doppalapudi, Avanthi; Pamarthy, Amaleswari; Kovvuru, Karthik

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Medical residents, as part of their job to balance the demands of their work with caring for themselves so as to be mentally, emotionally, and physically sound to stay clinically competent. While regulatory and legislative attempts at limiting medical resident work hours have materialized but have yet to attain passage, there are fairly little data looking into how residents cope up with their demands and yet attend to their own personal health. Design Anonymous mailed survey. Subjects Three hundred and thirty-seven residents from all internal medicine residency programs within United States. Methods We conducted a survey in the form of a questionnaire that was sent by e-mail to the program directors of various internal medicine residency programs within the United States, and responses were collected between May 19 and June 21, 2009. Response was well appreciated with total number of participants of 337 with even demographical distribution in gender, residency year, AMG/IMG, age group. Seventy-one percent of the residents felt that they would prefer getting admitted to their own hospital for any acute medical or surgical condition. Of the 216 residents who have had received health care in the past, almost half of them chose their own hospital because of the proximity, while 45% did not choose their own hospital despite proximity. Two out of three residents missed their doctors appointments or cancelled them due to demands of medical training. Only half of the residents have a primary care physician and almost 80% of them did not have their yearly health checkup. Close to 30% held back information regarding their social and sexual history from their provider because of privacy and confidentiality concerns. Eighty percent of residents never received information about barriers that physicians may face in obtaining care for their socially embarrassing conditions. Seventy percent felt that their performance then was suboptimal because of that health

  15. Residence Hall Furniture: What's on the Horizon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Describes what leading manufacturers are saying about the future of residence hall furniture design, explaining that fabrics, frames, colors, materials, and other factors are combining to give college officials numerous choices. (EV)

  16. 42 CFR 483.20 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... condition as described in 42 CFR 435.1010 of this chapter. ... comprehensive, accurate, standardized, reproducible assessment of each resident's functional capacity. (a... Medicaid in part 483, subpart C to the maximum extent practicable to avoid duplicative testing and...

  17. Independence Training in Nursing-Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltes, Margret M.; Zerbe, Melissa B.

    1976-01-01

    Single-subject reversal designs were used in teaching elderly nursing-home residents to change dependency behavior and to reacquire and maintain self-feeding skills. Fast control of self-feeding was obtained. Results are discussed. (Author)

  18. A rural primary care pediatric residency program.

    PubMed

    Kairys, S; Newell, P

    1985-10-01

    Rural primary care is often reported in the medical literature as frustrating, lonely, and nonrewarding. Many graduating residents who choose small town practice become quickly disenchanted with the life-style and leave for a more populous territory or subspecialty training. Opportunities to learn how to take advantage of rural settings and establish rewarding community practices are few. The Primary Care Pediatric Residency Program at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center has developed a training program in rural primary care. Residents experience over a three-year period the many facets of rural practice and are introduced to community-oriented approaches to child health care. Selected rural pediatric practices within a 45-mile radius of the medical center serve as teaching laboratories in which residents develop the skills necessary to manage children's problems related to school, behavioral disorders, and chronic diseases. PMID:4045973

  19. The Residency Application Abyss: Insights and Advice

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Douglas P.; Oatts, Julius T.; Fields, Barry G.; Huot, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Most medical students apply for residency training upon completion of medical school. The choice of specialty is one of a student’s first major career decisions, and the application process often results in considerable anxiety, as it is competitive, unpredictable, and requires a significant investment of time and money. This article, which addresses several important facets of the residency application using both experiential and evidence-based data, is organized chronologically into sections that describe a logical approach to applying for residency: choice of a specialty, the personal statement, the interview day, and developing a rank list. A list of relevant websites is also included. This paper is a resource that provides timely and tangible guidance to medical students applying for residency training. PMID:21966036

  20. 24 CFR 582.310 - Resident rent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Calculating income. (1) Income of participants must be calculated in accordance with 24 CFR 5.609 and 24 CFR 5... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Program Requirements § 582.310 Resident rent. (a) Amount...

  1. 24 CFR 582.310 - Resident rent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Calculating income. (1) Income of participants must be calculated in accordance with 24 CFR 5.609 and 24 CFR 5... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Program Requirements § 582.310 Resident rent. (a) Amount...

  2. 24 CFR 582.310 - Resident rent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Calculating income. (1) Income of participants must be calculated in accordance with 24 CFR 5.609 and 24 CFR 5... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Program Requirements § 582.310 Resident rent. (a) Amount...

  3. 24 CFR 582.310 - Resident rent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Calculating income. (1) Income of participants must be calculated in accordance with 24 CFR 5.609 and 24 CFR 5... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Program Requirements § 582.310 Resident rent. (a) Amount...

  4. 24 CFR 582.310 - Resident rent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Calculating income. (1) Income of participants must be calculated in accordance with 24 CFR 5.609 and 24 CFR 5... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Program Requirements § 582.310 Resident rent. (a) Amount...

  5. Residents' experiences of abuse, discrimination and sexual harassment during residency training. McMaster University Residency Training Programs.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, D J; Liutkus, J F; Risdon, C L; Griffith, L E; Guyatt, G H; Walter, S D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault, and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation, and to examine the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in residency training programs. DESIGN: Self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Residents in seven residency training programs during the academic year from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents 186 (82.7%) returned a completed questionnaire, and 50% of the respondents were women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation experienced by residents during medical training, prevalence and residents' perceived frequency of sexual harassment. RESULTS: Psychological abuse was reported by 50% of the residents. Some of the respondents reported physical assault, mostly by patients and their family members (14.7% reported assaults by male patients and family members, 9.8% reported assaults by female patients and family members), 5.4% of the female respondents reported assault by male supervising physicians. Discrimination on the basis of gender was reported to be common and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (p < 0.01). Ten respondents, all female, reported having experienced discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation. Most of the respondents experienced sexual harassment, especially in the form of sexist jokes, flirtation and unwanted compliments on their dress or figure. On average, 40% of the respondents, especially women (p < 0.01), reported experiencing offensive body language and receiving sexist teaching material and unwanted compliments on their dress. Significantly more female respondents than male respondents stated that they had reported events of sexual harassment to someone (p < 0.001). The most frequent emotional reactions to sexual harassment were

  6. Induction process of trainees in pathology residency

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ali, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the induction process of pathology residency at The Aga Khan University hospital. The Department of Postgraduate Medical Education was established in 1985. The induction process is an exhaustive exercise that includes an admission test held simultaneously in Karachi, Hyderabad, Lahore, and Rawalpindi, followed by an interview of the shortlisted candidates. The pathology residency program was started 25 years ago and since then the induction process has undergone major changes with the course of time. PMID:27313487

  7. Breast education in general surgery residency.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jason P; Miller, Austin; Edge, Stephen B

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer treatment has changed substantially with increased specialization. Overall, the number of cases performed by residents upon completion of residency has decreased and the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy has reduced the number of axillary lymph node dissections being performed. Our objective was to evaluate the breast surgery education being provided by general surgery residency programs. A survey was administered to applicants to the Roswell Park Cancer Institute surgical oncology fellowship program in the fall of 2009. This survey examined the type of training program, the breast surgery exposure, and applicant comfort with the medical and surgical aspects of breast cancer. The survey was completed by 29 of 35 applicants. Of the respondents, 83 per cent were chief residents. Overall, participants had comfort levels above 8 (of 10) with breast related cases. For modified radical mastectomies and axillary lymph node dissections the comfort level dropped below 8. Participants were least comfortable discussing the medical management of breast cancer. General surgery residents completing training were less comfortable operating in the axilla compared with the breast. The study suggests careful attention should be paid to assuring adequate breast education in surgical residency. PMID:22273306

  8. Marguerite Arnet Residence, interior walls and front door, and door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marguerite Arnet Residence, interior walls and front door, and door leading to next room - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

  9. Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior roof structure detail, looking northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior roof structure detail, looking northwest. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

  10. [Medical residency program: perceptions of medical residents in hospitals of Lima and Callao].

    PubMed

    Miní, Elsy; Medina, Julio; Peralta, Verónica; Rojas, Luis; Butron, Joece; Gutiérrez, Ericson L

    2015-01-01

    In order to rate the medical residency training program from the perceptions of residents, a structured survey, based on international literature, was applied to 228 participants. 48.2% of residents rated their training as “good,” 36.4% as “fair” and 15.4% as “poor”. Most of the residents had low supervision while on call, were overworked and did not have rest after being on call. Having a good annual curriculum (OR: 8.5; 95% CI: 4.1 to 7.4) and university promotion of research (OR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.2) were independent factors associated with higher ratings of training. In conclusion, the rating of residents about their training is mostly good, but this percentage does not exceed 50%. Training authorities could use these results to propose improvements in training programs for medical residents in Peru. PMID:26338392

  11. Person-Environment Interactions Contributing to Nursing Home Resident Falls

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Elizabeth E.; Nguyen, Tam H.; Shaha, Maya; Wenzel, Jennifer A.; DeForge, Bruce R.; Spellbring, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Although approximately 50% of nursing home residents fall annually, the surrounding circumstances remain inadequately understood. This study explored nursing staff perspectives of person, environment, and interactive circumstances surrounding nursing home falls. Focus groups were conducted at two nursing homes in the mid-Atlantic region with the highest and lowest fall rates among corporate facilities. Two focus groups were conducted per facility: one with licensed nurses and one with geriatric nursing assistants. Thematic and content analysis revealed three themes and 11 categories. Three categories under the Person theme were Change in Residents’ Health Status, Decline in Residents’ Abilities, and Residents’ Behaviors and Personality Characteristics. There were five Nursing Home Environment categories: Design Safety, Limited Space, Obstacles, Equipment Misuse and Malfunction, and Staff and Organization of Care. Three Interactions Leading to Falls categories were identified: Reasons for Falls, Time of Falls, and High-Risk Activities. Findings highlight interactions between person and environment factors as significant contributors to resident falls. PMID:20077985

  12. 1. July 1988 EAST (MAIN) ELEVATION, PROTECTION ASSISTANT'S RESIDENCE (BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. July 1988 EAST (MAIN) ELEVATION, PROTECTION ASSISTANT'S RESIDENCE (BUILDING 1092) - Glacier Ranger Station, Protection Assistant's Residence, Washington State Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA

  13. 42 CFR 413.343 - Resident assessment data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.343 Resident assessment data. (a) Submission of resident assessment...

  14. 28 CFR 115.341 - Obtaining information from residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... developmental disabilities; (9) Physical disabilities; (10) The resident's own perception of vulnerability; and... shall be ascertained through conversations with the resident during the intake process and medical...

  15. 28 CFR 115.341 - Obtaining information from residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... developmental disabilities; (9) Physical disabilities; (10) The resident's own perception of vulnerability; and... shall be ascertained through conversations with the resident during the intake process and medical...

  16. 28 CFR 115.341 - Obtaining information from residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... developmental disabilities; (9) Physical disabilities; (10) The resident's own perception of vulnerability; and... shall be ascertained through conversations with the resident during the intake process and medical...

  17. Psychosexual needs and sexual behaviors of nursing care home residents.

    PubMed

    Mroczek, Bożena; Kurpas, Donata; Gronowska, Małgorzata; Kotwas, Artur; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze psychosexual needs of nursing care home residents in Poland. The authors attempted to answer the question 'how do residents satisfy their psychosexual needs?' This survey-based study was performed with respect to the residents' right to privacy and intimacy. The residents were also informed that they could withdraw from the study at any stage. The history was taken from 85 subjects (60% women, 40% men). The mean age was 74.2±11.2. The most important psychosexual needs included: conversation, tenderness, emotional closeness (empathy, understanding), sexual contacts and physical closeness. As the most important elements of the relationship, respondents mentioned mutual respect and conviction that they can rely on their partners. Most respondents felt sexual tension occasionally, others once a week or less frequently. They relieved sexual tension through intimate contacts with their long-term partners, watching erotic films, masturbation, walking and diverting attention to other activities. Every fourth respondent was satisfied with his/her sexual life. The majority of seniors repeated stereotypes about sexuality of the elderly. Almost 71% claimed that sex in elderly people was taboo, 64% said that sex was for young people only, and 51% thought that sex was not important in life. Old age makes little difference to psychosexual needs. Most seniors need closeness manifesting as tenderness and conversations. Many old people are sexually active. Thus, it is worth considering whether people living in cohabitation should not have the possibility of staying together in nursing care home. PMID:23478162

  18. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings. PMID:18316882

  19. Varicella-Zoster Virus Open Reading Frame 48 Encodes an Active Nuclease

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Niklaus H.; Gilden, Don

    2013-01-01

    Based on a DNA sequence and relative genomic position similar to those other herpesviruses, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 48 (ORF48) is predicted to encode an alkaline nuclease. Here we report the cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant VZV ORF48 protein and a VZV ORF48 point mutation (T172P). Protein encoded by wild-type ORF48, but not mutant protein, displayed both endo- and exonuclease activity, identifying ORF48 as a potential therapeutic target in VZV disease since efficient viral replication requires viral nuclease activity. PMID:23966396

  20. Using Simulation Technology to Teach Diabetes Care Management Skills to Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Sperl-Hillen, John; O’Connor, Patrick; Ekstrom, Heidi; Rush, William; Asche, Stephen; Fernandes, Omar; Appana, Deepika; Amundson, Gerald; Johnson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Simulation is widely used to teach medical procedures. Our goal was to develop and implement an innovative virtual model to teach resident physicians the cognitive skills of type 1 and type 2 diabetes management. Methods A diabetes educational activity was developed consisting of (a) a curriculum using 18 explicit virtual cases, (b) a web-based interactive interface, (c) a simulation model to calculate physiologic outcomes of resident actions, and (d) a library of programmed feedback to critique and guide resident actions between virtual encounters. Primary care residents in 10 U.S. residency programs received the educational activity. Satisfaction and changes in knowledge and confidence in managing diabetes were analyzed with mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Results Pre- and post-education surveys were completed by 92/142 (65%) of residents. Likert scale (five-point) responses were favorably higher than neutral for general satisfaction (94%), recommending to colleagues (91%), training adequacy (91%), and navigation ease (92%). Finding time to complete cases was difficult for 50% of residents. Mean ratings of knowledge (on a five-point scale) posteducational activity improved by +0.5 (p < .01) for use of all available drug classes, +0.9 (p < .01) for how to start and adjust insulin, +0.8 (p < .01) for interpreting blood glucose values, +0.8 (p < .01) for individualizing treatment goals, and +0.7 (p < .01) for confidence in managing diabetes patients. Conclusions A virtual diabetes educational activity to teach cognitive skills to manage diabetes to primary care residents was successfully developed, implemented, and well liked. It significantly improved self-assessed knowledge and confidence in diabetes management. PMID:24124951

  1. Four Residents' Narratives on Abortion Training: A Residency Climate of Reflection, Support, and Mutual Respect.

    PubMed

    Singer, Janet; Fiascone, Stephen; Huber, Warren J; Hunter, Tiffany C; Sperling, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    The decision on the part of obstetrics and gynecology residents to opt in or out of abortion training is, for many, a complex one. Although the public debate surrounding abortion can be filled with polarizing rhetoric, residents often discover that the boundaries between pro-choice and pro-life beliefs are not so neatly divided. We present narratives from four residents, training at a 32-resident program in the Northeast, who have a range of views surrounding abortion. Their stories reveal how some struggle with the real-life experience of providing abortions, while others feel angst over lacking the skills to terminate a life-threatening pregnancy. These residents have found that close relationships with coworkers from all sides of this issue, along with a residency program that encourages open conversation, have fostered understanding. Their narratives demonstrate that reasonable providers can disagree fundamentally and still work effectively with one another and that the close relationships formed in residency can allow both sides to see beyond the black and white of the public abortion debate. Our objectives in this commentary are to encourage a more nuanced discussion of abortion among obstetrician-gynecologists, to describe the aspects of our residency program that facilitate open dialogue and respect across diverse viewpoints, and to demonstrate that the clear distinction between being pro-life and pro-choice often breaks down when one is immediately responsible for the care of pregnant women. PMID:26241256

  2. 28 CFR 115.216 - Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are used in regulations promulgated under title II of the Americans With Disabilities Act, 28 CFR 35... who are limited English proficient. 115.216 Section 115.216 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... Facilities Prevention Planning § 115.216 Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited...

  3. 28 CFR 115.216 - Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are used in regulations promulgated under title II of the Americans With Disabilities Act, 28 CFR 35... who are limited English proficient. 115.216 Section 115.216 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... Facilities Prevention Planning § 115.216 Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited...

  4. What Do We Teach Psychiatric Residents about Suicide? A National Survey of Chief Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bengi B.; Coverdale, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Because of the clinical significance of patient suicide for trainees and current limited information on this essential educational subject, the authors sought to determine what topics involving the care of suicidal patients were taught to residents in psychiatry training programs. Methods: Chief residents of psychiatry training programs…

  5. Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within…

  6. Teaching "Global Mental Health:" Psychiatry Residency Directors' Attitudes and Practices regarding International Opportunities for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, Gary S.; Yusim, Anna; Anbarasan, Deepti; Bernstein, Carol Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors surveyed Psychiatry Residency Training Directors' (RTDs') attitudes about the role and feasibility of international rotations during residency training. Method: A 21-question survey was electronically distributed that explored RTDs' beliefs about the value, use, and availability of international clinical and research…

  7. The RRC Mandate for Residency Programs to Demonstrate Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Competency among Residents: A Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Joel; Mellman, Lisa; Rubin, Eugene; Tasman, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Residency Review Committee (RRC) requirement that residents must achieve competency in psychodynamic psychotherapy has generated considerable deliberation. Methods: The authors debated this subject at the 2004 American Psychiatric Association (APA) meetings. Results: Arguments favoring current requirements emphasize the importance…

  8. Conditions for exercising residents' voting rights in long-term care residences: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Antoine; El Massioui, Farid; Mahé, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    To assess voting conditions in long-term care settings, we conducted a multicenter survey after the 2009 European elections in France. A questionnaire about voting procedures and European elections was proposed in 146 out of 884 randomized facilities. Sixty-four percent of facilities answered the questionnaire. Four percent of residents voted (national turnout: 40%), by proxy (58%) or at polling places (42%). Abstention related to procedural issues was reported in 32% of facilities. Sixty-seven percent of establishments had voting procedures, and 53% declared that they assessed residents' capacity to vote. Assistance was proposed to residents for voter registration, for proxy voting, and for voting at polling places, respectively, in 33%, 87%, and 80% of facilities. This survey suggests that residents may be disenfranchised and that more progress should be made to protect the voting rights of residents in long-term care facilities. PMID:25492566

  9. Residence time statistics for N renewal processes.

    PubMed

    Burov, S; Barkai, E

    2011-10-21

    We present a study of residence time statistics for N renewal processes with a long tailed distribution of the waiting time. Such processes describe many nonequilibrium systems ranging from the intensity of N blinking quantum dots to the residence time of N Brownian particles. With numerical simulations and exact calculations, we show sharp transitions for a critical number of degrees of freedom N. In contrast to the expectation, the fluctuations in the limit of N→∞ are nontrivial. We briefly discuss how our approach can be used to detect nonergodic kinetics from the measurements of many blinking chromophores, without the need to reach the single molecule limit. PMID:22107497

  10. Emergency Medicine Resident Perceptions of Medical Professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Joshua; Gatewood, Medley O.; Ilgen, Jonathan S.; Schaninger, Caitlin; Strote, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Medical professionalism is a core competency for emergency medicine (EM) trainees; but defining professionalism remains challenging, leading to difficulties creating objectives and performing assessment. Because professionalism is dynamic, culture-specific, and often taught by modeling, an exploration of trainees’ perceptions can highlight their educational baseline and elucidate the importance they place on general conventional professionalism domains. To this end, our objective was to assess the relative value EM residents place on traditional components of professionalism. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, multi-institutional survey of incoming and graduating EM residents at four programs. The survey was developed using the American Board of Internal Medicine’s “Project Professionalism” and the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education definition of professionalism competency. We identified 27 attributes within seven domains: clinical excellence, humanism, accountability, altruism, duty and service, honor and integrity, and respect for others. Residents were asked to rate each attribute on a 10-point scale. We analyzed data to assess variance across attributes as well as differences between residents at different training levels or different institutions. Results Of the 114 residents eligible, 100 (88%) completed the survey. The relative value assigned to different professional attributes varied considerably, with those in the altruism domain valued significantly lower and those in the “respect for others” and “honor and integrity” valued significantly higher (p<0.001). Significant differences were found between interns and seniors for five attributes primarily in the “duty and service” domain (p<0.05). Among different residencies, significant differences were found with attributes within the “altruism” and “duty and service” domains (p<0.05). Conclusion Residents perceive differences in the relative

  11. Opinion & Special Articles: The lost resident

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mentoring is deeply rooted in medical practice. More than just a role model, a mentor is invested in the development of the mentee, providing personal and professional support, guidance, and the means for advancement. Mentoring is vital at all levels of medical training and plays an important role in the development of academicians. Increasing clinical demands, the competitive research environment, numerous administrative pressures, and the relative undervaluing of mentoring for faculty promotion have created challenges to resident mentoring. A greater emphasis on promoting mentoring opportunities for residents is needed at many levels. PMID:23733556

  12. A new type of rural nurse residency.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Deana L; Monserud, Maria; Hudzinski, Dionetta

    2008-01-01

    The Rural Nurse Internship program is a distance education-based nurse residency designed to meet the needs of rural hospitals across the country. Nurses learn to perform the generalist role by practicing crisis assessment and management in six subnursing specialties. The collaborative yearlong residency provides preceptors, mentors, monthly seminars, and just-in-time information to novice nurses in their own hospitals using instructional technologies. Expert rural nurses teach novice employees using a standardized curriculum. Hospitals individualize the program to meet employee and hospital needs. PMID:18286930

  13. Ontario Radiation Oncology Residents' Needs in the First Postgraduate Year-Residents' Perspective Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Szumacher, Ewa Warner, Eiran; Zhang Liying; Kane, Gabrielle; Ackerman, Ida; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Agboola, Olusegun; Metz, Catherine de; Rodrigues, George; Rappolt, Susan

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To assess radiation oncology residents' needs and satisfaction in their first postgraduate year (PGY-1) in the province of Ontario. Methods and Materials: Of 62 radiation oncology residents, 58 who had completed their PGY-1 and were either enrolled or had graduated in 2006 were invited to participate in a 31-item survey. The questionnaire explored PGY-1 residents' needs and satisfaction in four domains: clinical workload, faculty/learning environment, stress level, and discrimination/harassment. The Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to determine relationships between covariate items and summary scores. Results: Of 58 eligible residents, 44 (75%) responded. Eighty-four percent of residents felt that their ward and call duties were appropriate. More than 50% of respondents indicated that they often felt isolated from their radiation oncology program. Only 77% agreed that they received adequate feedback, and 40% received sufficient counseling regarding career planning. More than 93% of respondents thought that faculty members had contributed significantly to their learning experience. Approximately 50% of residents experienced excessive stress and inadequate time for leisure or for reading the medical literature. Less than 10% of residents indicated that they had been harassed or experienced discrimination. Eighty-three percent agreed or strongly agreed that their PGY-1 experience had been outstanding. Conclusions: Most Ontario residents were satisfied with their PGY-1 training program. More counseling by radiation oncology faculty members should be offered to help residents with career planning. The residents might also benefit from more exposure to 'radiation oncology' and an introduction to stress management strategies.

  14. Student Residence Classification: Revision and Review of Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, Tom; Close, Catherine

    This report proposes regulations for the implementation of California's Uniform Student Residency Act by the state's community colleges. First, background information is provided on three laws: (1) the Uniform Student Residency Act, which establishes rules for use in classifying college students as residents or non-residents; (2) legislation…

  15. Financial Implications of Residency Programs for Sponsoring Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    Explores cost implications of residency programs within the Veterans Administration health care system, particularly the costs and benefits of residencies in family medicine, osteopathic medicine, and general dentistry, because they resemble optometric residencies most closely. Costs of an existing vision therapy residency are examined, and…

  16. Characteristics of Optometric Residencies in the Veterans Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Daniel J.; Newcomb, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a study of the characteristics of 10 Veterans Administration optometric residency programs are presented and compared with results of an earlier survey. Factors analyzed include resident characteristics, specializations, program design, residents' salaries and health insurance, and post-residency employment options. (MSE)

  17. 42 CFR 483.114 - Annual review of NF residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... residents. (a) Individuals with mental illness. For each resident of a NF who has mental illness, the State mental health authority must determine in accordance with § 483.130 whether, because of the resident's physical and mental condition, the resident requires— (1) The level of services provided by— (i) A NF;...

  18. 26 CFR 25.2702-5 - Personal residence trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provision of lodging (e.g. a hotel or a bed and breakfast). A residence is not a personal residence if... provision of lodging (e.g., a hotel or a bed and breakfast). A residence is not a personal residence...

  19. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  20. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....