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Sample records for exophiala dermatitidis evidence

  1. New Biosynthetic Step in the Melanin Pathway of Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis: Evidence for 2-Acetyl-1,3,6,8-Tetrahydroxynaphthalene as a Novel Precursor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predominant cell wall melanin of Wangiella dermatitidis, a black fungal pathogen of humans, is synthesized from 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (D2HN). An early precursor, 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (T4HN), in the pathway leading to D2HN is reportedly produced as a pentaketide directly by an iter...

  2. Protein functional analysis data in support of comparative proteomics of the pathogenic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis under different temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Tesei, Donatella; Marzban, Gorji; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Tafer, Hakim; Arcalis, Elsa; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-12-01

    In the current study a comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the response of the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis toward temperature treatment. Protein functional analysis - based on cellular process GO terms - was performed on the 32 temperature-responsive identified proteins. The bioinformatics analyses and data presented here provided novel insights into the cellular pathways at the base of the fungus temperature tolerance. A detailed analysis and interpretation of the data can be found in "Proteome of tolerance fine-tuning in the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis" by Tesei et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26958594

  3. High Rate of Exophiala dermatitidis Recovery in the Airways of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Is Associated with Pancreatic Insufficiency▿

    PubMed Central

    Kondori, Nahid; Gilljam, Marita; Lindblad, Anders; Jönsson, Bodil; Moore, Edward R. B.; Wennerås, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The black-pigmented fungus Exophiala dermatitidis is considered to be a harmless colonizer of the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The aim of this study was to establish the recovery rate of E. dermatitidis in respiratory specimens from CF patients, transplant recipients, and subjects with other respiratory disorders in Sweden. Second, we wished to determine if particular clinical traits were associated with E. dermatitidis colonization of the airways and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Exophiala strains. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples (n = 492) derived from 275 patients were investigated. E. dermatitidis was isolated in respiratory specimens from 19% (18/97) of the CF patients but in none of the other patient categories. All isolates were recovered after 6 to 25 days of incubation on erythritol-chloramphenicol agar (ECA) medium. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed species identity. Pancreatic insufficiency was positively associated with the presence of E. dermatitidis in sputum samples (P = 0.0198). Antifungal susceptibility tests demonstrated that voriconazole and posaconazole had the lowest MICs against E. dermatitidis. In conclusion, E. dermatitidis is a frequent colonizer of the respiratory tract in CF patients in Sweden and appears to be associated with more advanced disease. Whether E. dermatitidis is pathogenic remains to be elucidated. PMID:21209163

  4. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Barbara; Tafer, Hakim; Tesei, Donatella; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis) belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs. PMID:26061625

  5. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response

    PubMed Central

    Tesei, Donatella; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis) belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs. PMID:26061625

  6. The Black Yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and Other Selected Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens Spread from Dishwashers to Kitchens

    PubMed Central

    Zupančič, Jerneja; Novak Babič, Monika; Zalar, Polona; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the diversity and distribution of fungi in nine different sites inside 30 residential dishwashers. In total, 503 fungal strains were isolated, which belong to 10 genera and 84 species. Irrespective of the sampled site, 83% of the dishwashers were positive for fungi. The most frequent opportunistic pathogenic species were Exophiala dermatitidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Exophiala phaeomuriformis, Fusarium dimerum, and the Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces clade. The black yeast E. dermatitidis was detected in 47% of the dishwashers, primarily at the dishwasher rubber seals, at up to 106 CFU/cm2; the other fungi detected were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/cm2. The other most heavily contaminated dishwasher sites were side nozzles, doors and drains. Only F. dimerum was isolated from washed dishes, while dishwasher waste water contained E. dermatitidis, Exophiala oligosperma and Sarocladium killiense. Plumbing systems supplying water to household appliances represent the most probable route for contamination of dishwashers, as the fungi that represented the core dishwasher mycobiota were also detected in the tap water. Hot aerosols from dishwashers contained the human opportunistic yeast C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and E. dermatitidis (as well as common air-borne genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium). Comparison of fungal contamination of kitchens without and with dishwashers revealed that virtually all were contaminated with fungi. In both cases, the most contaminated sites were the kitchen drain and the dish drying rack. The most important difference was higher prevalence of black yeasts (E. dermatitidis in particular) in kitchens with dishwashers. In kitchens without dishwashers, C. parapsilosis strongly prevailed with negligible occurrence of E. dermatitidis. F. dimerum was isolated only from kitchens with dishwashers, while Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces isolates were only found within dishwashers. We

  7. The Black Yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and Other Selected Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens Spread from Dishwashers to Kitchens.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Jerneja; Novak Babič, Monika; Zalar, Polona; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the diversity and distribution of fungi in nine different sites inside 30 residential dishwashers. In total, 503 fungal strains were isolated, which belong to 10 genera and 84 species. Irrespective of the sampled site, 83% of the dishwashers were positive for fungi. The most frequent opportunistic pathogenic species were Exophiala dermatitidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Exophiala phaeomuriformis, Fusarium dimerum, and the Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces clade. The black yeast E. dermatitidis was detected in 47% of the dishwashers, primarily at the dishwasher rubber seals, at up to 106 CFU/cm2; the other fungi detected were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/cm2. The other most heavily contaminated dishwasher sites were side nozzles, doors and drains. Only F. dimerum was isolated from washed dishes, while dishwasher waste water contained E. dermatitidis, Exophiala oligosperma and Sarocladium killiense. Plumbing systems supplying water to household appliances represent the most probable route for contamination of dishwashers, as the fungi that represented the core dishwasher mycobiota were also detected in the tap water. Hot aerosols from dishwashers contained the human opportunistic yeast C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and E. dermatitidis (as well as common air-borne genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium). Comparison of fungal contamination of kitchens without and with dishwashers revealed that virtually all were contaminated with fungi. In both cases, the most contaminated sites were the kitchen drain and the dish drying rack. The most important difference was higher prevalence of black yeasts (E. dermatitidis in particular) in kitchens with dishwashers. In kitchens without dishwashers, C. parapsilosis strongly prevailed with negligible occurrence of E. dermatitidis. F. dimerum was isolated only from kitchens with dishwashers, while Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces isolates were only found within dishwashers. We

  8. Protein functional analysis data in support of comparative proteomics of the pathogenic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis under different temperature conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tesei, Donatella; Marzban, Gorji; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Tafer, Hakim; Arcalis, Elsa; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In the current study a comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the response of the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis toward temperature treatment. Protein functional analysis – based on cellular process GO terms – was performed on the 32 temperature-responsive identified proteins. The bioinformatics analyses and data presented here provided novel insights into the cellular pathways at the base of the fungus temperature tolerance. A detailed analysis and interpretation of the data can be found in “Proteome of tolerance fine-tuning in the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis” by Tesei et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26958594

  9. The neurotropic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis has a possible origin in the tropical rain forest

    PubMed Central

    Sudhadham, M.; Prakitsin, S.; Sivichai, S.; Chaiyarat, R.; Dorrestein, G. M.; Menken, S.B.J.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    The black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis is known as a rare etiologic agent of neurotropic infections in humans, occurring particularly in East and Southeast Asia. In search of its natural habitat, a large sampling was undertaken in temperate as well as in tropical climates. Sampling sites were selected on the basis of the origins of previously isolated strains, and on the basis of physiological properties of the species, which also determined a selective isolation protocol. The species was absent from outdoor environments in the temperate climate, but present at low abundance in comparable habitats in the tropics. Positive outdoor sites particularly included faeces of frugivorous birds and bats, in urban as well as in natural areas. Tropical fruits were found E. dermatitidis positive at low incidence. Of the human-made environments sampled, railway ties contaminated by human faeces and oily debris in the tropics were massively positive, while the known abundance of the fungus in steam baths was confirmed. On the basis of the species' oligotrophy, thermotolerance, acidotolerance, moderate osmotolerance, melanization and capsular yeast cells a natural life cycle in association with frugivorous animals in foci in the tropical rain forest, involving passage of living cells through the intestinal tract was hypothesized. The human-dominated environment may have become contaminated by ingestion of wild berries carrying fungal propagules PMID:19287537

  10. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Highlights the Problem of Distinguishing Between Exophiala dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis Using MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Çağrı; Gök, Yaşar; Bayğu, Yasemin; Gümral, Ramazan; Özhak-Baysan, Betil; Döğen, Aylin; Öğünç, Dilara; Ilkit, Macit; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared two chemical-based methods, namely, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, to understand the misidentification of Exophiala dermatitidis and Exophiala phaeomuriformis. The study utilized 44 E. dermatitidis and 26 E. phaeomuriformis strains, which were partially treated with strong acids and bases for further evaluation. MALDI-TOF MS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data of the two Exophiala species were compared. Data groupings were observed for the chromic acid- and nitric acid-treated species when the black yeast sources were categorized as creosoted-oak sleepers, concrete sleepers, or dishwasher isolates. The MALDI-TOF MS data for the metalloenzyme-containing regions were consistent with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data. These results indicated that environmental isolates might contain metals not found in human isolates and might interfere with chemical-based identification methods. Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS reference libraries should be created for clinical strains and should exclude petroleum-associated environmental isolates. PMID:26373644

  11. Analyses of black fungi by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): species-level identification of clinical isolates of Exophiala dermatitidis.

    PubMed

    Kondori, Nahid; Erhard, Marcel; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Groenewald, Marizeth; Verkley, Gerard; Moore, Edward R B

    2015-01-01

    Conventional mycological identifications based on the recognition of morphological characteristics can be problematic. A relatively new methodology applicable for the identification of microorganisms is based on the exploitation of taxon- specific mass patterns recorded from abundant cell proteins directly from whole-cell preparations, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This study reports the application of MALDI-TOF MS for the differentiation and identifications of black yeasts, isolated from the respiratory tracts of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initial phenotypic and DNA sequence-based analyses identified these isolates to be Exophiala dermatitidis. The type strains of E. dermatitidis (CBS 207.35(T)) and other species of Exophiala were included in the MALDI-TOF MS analyses to establish the references for comparing the mass spectra of the clinical isolates of Exophiala. MALDI-TOF MS analyses exhibited extremely close relationships among the clinical isolates and with the spectra generated from the type strain of E. dermatitidis. The relationships observed between the E. dermatitidis strains from the MALDI-TOF MS profiling analyses were supported by DNA sequence-based analyses of the rRNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions. These data demonstrated the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS as a reliable, rapid and cost-effective method for the identification of isolates of E. dermatitidis and other clinically relevant fungi and yeasts that typically are difficult to identify by conventional methods. PMID:25790495

  12. Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis WdChs5p, a class V chitin synthase, is essential for sustained cell growth at temperature of infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Kauffman, Sarah; Becker, Jeffrey M; Szaniszlo, Paul J

    2004-02-01

    The chitin synthase structural gene WdCHS5 was isolated from the black fungal pathogen of humans Wangiella dermatitidis. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene has a myosin motor-like-encoding region at its 5' end and a chitin synthase (class V)-encoding region at its 3' end. Northern blotting showed that WdCHS5 is expressed at high levels under conditions of stress. Analysis of the 5' upstream region of WdCHS5 fused to a reporter gene indicated that one or more of the potential regulatory elements present may have contributed to the high expression levels. Disruption of WdCHS5 produced mutants that grow normally at 25 degrees C but have severe growth and cellular abnormalities at 37 degrees C. Osmotic stabilizers, such as sorbitol and sucrose, rescued the wild-type phenotype, which indicated that the loss of WdChs5p causes cell wall integrity defects. Animal survival tests with a mouse model of acute infection showed that all wdchs5Delta mutants are less virulent than the parental strain. Reintroduction of the WdCHS5 gene into the wdchs5Delta mutants abolished the temperature-sensitive phenotype and reestablished their virulence. We conclude that the product of WdCHS5 is required for the sustained growth of W. dermatitidis at 37 degrees C and is of critical importance to its virulence. PMID:14871935

  13. Inherited CARD9 Deficiency in 2 Unrelated Patients With Invasive Exophiala Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Barbati, Elisa; Meinzer, Ulrich; Liu, Luyan; Pedergnana, Vincent; Migaud, Mélanie; Héritier, Sébastien; Chomton, Maryline; Frémond, Marie-Louise; Gonzales, Emmanuel; Galeotti, Caroline; Romana, Serge; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Angoulvant, Adela; Bidault, Valeska; Canioni, Danielle; Lachenaud, Julie; Mansouri, Davood; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Adimi, Parvaneh; Mansouri, Nahal; Jamshidi, Mahin; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Abel, Laurent; Lortholary, Olivier; Blanche, Stéphane; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Picard, Capucine; Puel, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background. Exophiala species are mostly responsible for skin infections. Invasive Exophiala dermatitidis disease is a rare and frequently fatal infection, with 42 cases reported. About half of these cases had no known risk factors. Similarly, invasive Exophiala spinifera disease is extremely rare, with only 3 cases reported, all in patients with no known immunodeficiency. Autosomal recessive CARD9 deficiency has recently been reported in otherwise healthy patients with severe fungal diseases caused by Candida species, dermatophytes, or Phialophora verrucosa. Methods. We investigated an 8-year-old girl from a nonconsanguineous Angolan kindred, who was born in France and developed disseminated E. dermatitidis disease and a 26 year-old woman from an Iranian consaguineous kindred, who was living in Iran and developed disseminated E. spinifera disease. Both patients were otherwise healthy. Results. We sequenced CARD9 and found both patients to be homozygous for loss-of-function mutations (R18W and E323del). The first patient had segmental uniparental disomy of chromosome 9, carrying 2 copies of the maternal CARD9 mutated allele. Conclusions. These are the first 2 patients with inherited CARD9 deficiency and invasive Exophiala disease to be described. CARD9 deficiency should thus be considered in patients with unexplained invasive Exophiala species disease, even in the absence of other infections. PMID:25057046

  14. Classic pyomyositis of the extremities as an unusual manifestation of Blastomyces dermatitidis: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Michael Y; Chihara, Shingo; Smith, Kimberly Y; Kessler, Harold A; Sha, Beverly E; Proia, Laurie A

    2010-07-01

    Pyomyositis is an infection of skeletal muscle that, by definition, arises intramuscularly rather than secondarily from adjacent infection. It is usually associated with bacterial infection, particularly Staphylcococcus aureus. Fungi are rare causes, and Blastomyces dermatitidis has not been reported previously. In this case series, we report two cases of pyomyositis caused by B. dermatitidis. Cases were prospectively identified through routine clinical care at a single academic referral hospital. Two patients with complaints of muscle pain and subacute cough were treated at our hospital in 2007. Both patients were found to have pyomyositis caused by B. dermatitidis- in the quadriceps muscles in one patient, and in the calf muscle in another - by radiological imaging and fungal culture. Both were also diagnosed with pneumonia caused by B. dermatitidis (presumptive in one, confirmed in the other). There was no evidence of infection of adjacent structures, suggesting that the route of infection was likely direct haematogenous seeding of the muscle. A review of the literature confirmed that although B. dermatitidis has been described as causing axial muscle infection secondary to adjacent infection such as vertebral osteomyelitis, our description of isolated muscle involvement (classic pyomyositis) caused by B. dermatitidis, particularly of the extremity muscles, is unique. We conclude that B. dermatitidis is a potential cause of classic pyomyositis. PMID:19496934

  15. Cutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Exophiala attenuata in a Domestic Cat.

    PubMed

    Overy, David P; Martin, Chelsea; Muckle, Anne; Lund, Lorraine; Wood, Jill; Hanna, Paul

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old female-spayed, domestic short-haired cat was presented to her veterinarian with a mass on the hind paw. Histopathologic examination of a tissue biopsy revealed nodular pyogranulomatous panniculitis with intralesional pigmented fungal hyphae. A dematiaceous fungal isolate was isolated with a micromorphological phenotype consistent with the anamorphic genus Exophiala: budding cells, torulose mycelium and annellidic conidiogenesis from simple conidiophores consisting of terminal and lateral cells that tapered to a short beak at the apex. Sequence homology of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA gene confirmed the identification of the isolate as Exophiala attenuata. Reported here is the first confirmed case of feline phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. attenuata in North America. Similar to historical cases of feline phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spp., there was no history or postmortem evidence to suggest the patient was in an immunocompromised state (e.g., suffering from FeLV or FIV). Although aggressive surgical excision of local lesions is recommended prior to drug treatment when dealing with subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, surgery followed by itraconazole treatment did not resolve the E. attenuata infection in this cat. PMID:26088340

  16. Onychomycosis Associated with Exophiala oligosperma in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yu-Min; Rajendran, Ranjith Kumar; Lin, Ying-Fang; Kirschner, Roland; Hu, Sindy

    2016-02-01

    A fungus was isolated from a nail of a 54-year-old female patient with onychomycosis in Taiwan. Based on ITS rDNA as well as beta tubulin gene sequences and microscopic analyses, this fungus was identified as Exophiala oligosperma. This is the first record of E. oligosperma in Taiwan. Negative keratin azure test indicates that keratin degradation is not involved in cases of E. oligosperma associated with skin and nail diseases. PMID:26378025

  17. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Campbell, G Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-07-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox's widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus. PMID:27314650

  18. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, G. Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T.; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox’s widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus. PMID:27314650

  19. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chuan; Su, Yu-Chieh; Tsai, Chen-Chi; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Fan, Kou-Sheng; Liu, Keng-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Exophiala jeanselmei, a saprobe in the environment, is an opportunistic pathogen. We present a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by E jeanselmei in a man aged 66 years with a 3-month history of a tender swelling on the dorsal area of the left middle finger. Purulent fluid was aspirated from the area, and the culture yielded black colonies composed of conidiophores, phialides, and yeast cells. After sequencing of the rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 gene, the pathogen was confirmed as E jeanselmei. The patient was cured by surgical excision without any antifungal agents. PMID:22841620

  20. Effective method for the heat inactivation of Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elizabeth M; McTaggart, Lisa R; Low, Donald E; Richardson, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    Manipulation of Blastomyces dermatitidis requires the use of containment level 3 (CL3) practices. However, access to CL3 laboratories is limited and working conditions are restrictive. We describe the validation of a "heat-killing" method to inactivate B. dermatitidis, thus allowing cellular material to be removed from the CL3 laboratory for subsequent DNA isolation that is suitable for genetic applications. PMID:25049039

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Exophiala mesophila, a Black Yeast with High Bioremediation Potential.

    PubMed

    Tafer, Hakim; Lopandic, Ksenija; Blasi, Barbara; Poyntner, Caroline; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The fungal genus Exophiala comprises both pathogen species, which cause severe infections in humans, and environmental species, which are able to degrade alkylbenzene compounds. The draft genome sequence of Exophiala mesophila presented here is the first genome assembly of an alkylbenzene-degrading organism belonging to the genus Exophiala. PMID:25858835

  2. Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Exophiala salmonis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young Ahn; Park, Kyung Sun; Lee, Jang Ho; Sung, Ki-Sun; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of subcutaneous infection in a 55-yr-old Korean diabetic patient who presented with a cystic mass of the ankle. Black fungal colonies were observed after culturing on blood and Sabouraud dextrose agar. On microscopic observation, septated ellipsoidal or cylindrical conidia accumulating on an annellide were visualized after staining with lactophenol cotton blue. The organism was identified as Exophiala salmonis by sequencing of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region. Phaeohyphomycosis is a heterogeneous group of mycotic infections caused by dematiaceous fungi and is commonly associated with immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical manifestations of subcutaneous lesions are abscesses or cystic masses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in Korea of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. salmonis that was confirmed by molecular analysis and identification of morphological characteristics. This case suggests that E. salmonis infections are no longer restricted to fish. PMID:23130345

  3. Severe Oculofacial Sequelae of Cutaneous Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Joseph S; Ramey, Nicholas A; Gauthier, Gregory M; Lucarelli, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    This study reports a case of Blastomyces dermatitidis soft tissue infection resulting in a disfiguring lower eyelid ectropion from cicatricial and postinflammatory cutaneous changes. Primary treatment included intravenous amphotericin B followed by long-term oral itraconazole, which resulted in complete remission of the disease without debridement, after which cicatricial ectropion was repaired surgically with scar release, full-thickness skin graft, and temporary Frost tarsorraphy. Cutaneous blastomycosis may cause severe oculofacial sequelae, ranging from eyelid ectropion to widespread facial cicatrix, and may mimic other more common infectious processes, in addition to malignancy. Recommended antifungal therapy includes induction with intravenous amphotericin B and a long course of oral antifungals, preferably coordinated in conjunction with an infectious disease specialist. Ectropion repair should be delayed until the inflammatory response has completely healed. If the ocular surface is compromised or nearby ocular structures are threatened, primary debridement and repair may be indicated. PMID:25098446

  4. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  9. Virulence markers of opportunistic black yeast in Exophiala.

    PubMed

    Sav, Hafize; Ozakkas, Fatma; Altınbas, Rabiye; Kiraz, Nuri; Tümgör, Ayşegül; Gümral, Ramazan; Döğen, Aylin; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-06-01

    The black yeast genus Exophiala is known to cause a wide variety of diseases in severely ill individuals but can also affect immunocompetent individuals. Virulence markers and other physiological parameters were tested in eight clinical and 218 environmental strains, with a specific focus on human-dominated habitats for the latter. Urease and catalase were consistently present in all samples; four strains expressed proteinase and three strains expressed DNase, whereas none of the strains showed phospholipase, haemolysis, or co-haemolysis activities. Biofilm formation was identified in 30 (13.8%) of the environmental isolates, particularly in strains from dishwashers, and was noted in only two (25%) of the clinical strains. These results indicate that virulence factors are inconsistently present in the investigated Exophiala species, suggesting opportunism rather than pathogenicity. PMID:26857806

  10. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, G S; Vicente, V A; Najafzadeh, M J; Harrak, M J; Badali, H; Seyedmousavi, S

    2011-12-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. Hosts are mainly fish, frogs, toads, turtles or crabs, all sharing smooth, moist or mucous skins and waterborne or amphibian lifestyles; occasionally superficial infections in humans are noted. Cold-blooded animals with strictly terrestrial life styles, such as reptiles and birds are missing. It is concluded that animals with moist skins, i.e. those being waterborne and those possessing sweat glands, are more susceptible to black yeast infection. Melanin and the ability to assimilate alkylbenzenes are purported general virulence factors. Thermotolerance influences the choice of host. Exophiala species in ocean water mostly have maximum growth temperatures below 30 °C, whereas those able to grow until 33(-36) °C are found in shallow waters and occasionally on humans. Tissue responses vary with the phylogenetic position of the host, the lower animals showing poor granulome formation. Species circumscriptions have been determined by multilocus analyses involving partial ITS, TEF1, BT2 and ACT1. PMID:22403476

  11. Exophiala angulospora causes systemic inflammation in atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Gjessing, Mona Cecilie; Davey, Marie; Kvellestad, Agnar; Vrålstad, Trude

    2011-10-01

    Species of Exophiala are opportunistic fungal pathogens that may infect a broad range of warm- and cold-blooded animals, including salmonids and Atlantic cod. In the present study, we observed abnormal swimming behaviour and skin pigmentation and increased mortality in cod kept in an indoor tank. Necropsy revealed foci of different sizes with a greyish to brownish colour in internal organs of diseased fish. The foci consisted of ramifying darkly pigmented fungal hyphae surrounded by distinct layers of inflammatory cells, including macrophage-like cells. In the inner layer with many hyphae, the macrophage-like cells were dead. We observed no apparent restriction of fungal growth by the inflammatory response. A darkly pigmented fungus was repeatedly isolated in pure culture from foci of diseased fish and identified as Exophiala angulospora using morphological and molecular characters. This species has not been previously reported to cause disease in cod, but has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen of both marine and freshwater fish. Based on the morphology and sequence analysis presented here, we conclude that E. angulospora caused the observed chronic multifocal inflammation in internal organs of cod, leading to severe disease and mortality. PMID:22132499

  12. Multifocal phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala xenobiotica in a kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, A; Morio, F; Le Pape, P; Degli Antoni, A M; Ricci, R; Zucchi, A; Vaglio, A; Piotti, G; Antoniotti, R; Cremaschi, E; Buzio, C; Maggiore, U

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, black fungi have been increasingly reported as causing opportunistic infections after solid organ transplantation. Here, we report a case of insidious, relentless, and multifocal Exophiala xenobiotica infection in a kidney transplant recipient that eventually required multiple surgical excisions along with oral and intravenous antifungal combination therapy using liposomal amphotericin B and posaconazole. We compare the present case with all previously reported cases of Exophiala infection after kidney transplantation. PMID:25651934

  13. The in vitro isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis from a woodpile in north central Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, D J; Paretsky, D P

    1999-06-01

    Environmental isolations of the dimorphic fungus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, the aetiologic agent of blastomycosis are rare, and have usually involved animal inoculation techniques. We report the in vitro isolation of B. dermatitidis from a woodpile in November 1997, from a private property in a highly endemic area of north central Wisconsin, USA. The woodpile was 73 m from the Wisconsin River and 5 m from a kennel which had housed nine dogs over the past 14 years, four of which had been diagnosed with blastomycosis. One of 19 samples from the property yielded B. dermatitidis after 37 degrees C incubation in a neutral aqueous solution of allantoin, Tween-80, potassium phosphate, magnesium sulphate, penicillin and streptomycin followed by plating on yeast-extract phosphate agar at 20 degrees C. Refinements of this technique may help further elucidate the ecological niche of B. dermatitidis. PMID:10421847

  14. Identification of the Mating-Type (MAT) Locus That Controls Sexual Reproduction of Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Walton, Eric; Averette, Anna Floyd; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Cuomo, Christina A.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungal pathogen that primarily causes blastomycosis in the midwestern and northern United States and Canada. While the genes controlling sexual development have been known for a long time, the genes controlling sexual reproduction of B. dermatitidis (teleomorph, Ajellomyces dermatitidis) are unknown. We identified the mating-type (MAT) locus in the B. dermatitidis genome by comparative genomic approaches. The B. dermatitidis MAT locus resembles those of other dimorphic fungi, containing either an alpha-box (MAT1-1) or an HMG domain (MAT1-2) gene linked to the APN2, SLA2, and COX13 genes. However, in some strains of B. dermatitidis, the MAT locus harbors transposable elements (TEs) that make it unusually large compared to the MAT locus of other dimorphic fungi. Based on the MAT locus sequences of B. dermatitidis, we designed specific primers for PCR determination of the mating type. Two B. dermatitidis isolates of opposite mating types were cocultured on mating medium. Immature sexual structures were observed starting at 3 weeks of coculture, with coiled-hyphae-containing cleistothecia developing over the next 3 to 6 weeks. Genetic recombination was detected in potential progeny by mating-type determination, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses, suggesting that a meiotic sexual cycle might have been completed. The F1 progeny were sexually fertile when tested with strains of the opposite mating type. Our studies provide a model for the evolution of the MAT locus in the dimorphic and closely related fungi and open the door to classic genetic analysis and studies on the possible roles of mating and mating type in infection and virulence. PMID:23143684

  15. Exophiala pisciphila: a novel cause of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis.

    PubMed

    Kebbe, Jad; Mador, M Jeffery

    2016-07-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens, which may particularly plague uncontrolled asthmatics. Non-aspergillus fungal organisms may be implicated and may elicit a more severe immunologic response. Exophiala pisciphila, a marine organism, has not been reported as a culprit yet. However, this report indicates it may be implicated in unrelenting symptoms in a severe asthmatic patient who had become dependent on corticosteroids. Proper identification and adequate therapy of this organism led to complete resolution of respiratory symptoms, with adequate subsequent control of the asthma. ABPM may complicate asthma and lead to a lack of its control. Proper awareness, testing and treatment of non-aspergillus pulmonary mycosis is essential to proper asthma care and beneficial for its control. PMID:27499992

  16. Exophiala pisciphila: a novel cause of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis

    PubMed Central

    Mador, M. Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens, which may particularly plague uncontrolled asthmatics. Non-aspergillus fungal organisms may be implicated and may elicit a more severe immunologic response. Exophiala pisciphila, a marine organism, has not been reported as a culprit yet. However, this report indicates it may be implicated in unrelenting symptoms in a severe asthmatic patient who had become dependent on corticosteroids. Proper identification and adequate therapy of this organism led to complete resolution of respiratory symptoms, with adequate subsequent control of the asthma. ABPM may complicate asthma and lead to a lack of its control. Proper awareness, testing and treatment of non-aspergillus pulmonary mycosis is essential to proper asthma care and beneficial for its control. PMID:27499992

  17. Exophiala sp. LHL08 reprograms Cucumis sativus to higher growth under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul L; Hamayun, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nadeem; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Lee, In-Jung

    2011-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are potential sources of secondary metabolites; however, they are little known for phytohormones secretion and amelioration of plant growth under abiotic stresses. We isolated a novel endophyte from the roots of Cucumis sativus and identified it as a strain of Exophiala sp. by sequencing internal transcribed spacer/large subunit rDNA and phylogenetic analysis. Prior to identification, culture filtrate (CF) of Exophiala sp. has shown significant growth promotion of Waito-C [a gibberellins (GAs)-deficient mutant cultivar] and Dongjin-byeo (normal GAs biosynthesis cultivar) rice seedlings. CF analysis of Exophiala sp. showed the presence of physiologically active GAs (GA₁, GA₃, GA₄ and GA₇) and inactive GAs (GA₅, GA₈, GA₉, GA₁₂ and GA₂₀). Exophiala sp. had higher GAs in its CF than wild-type strain of Gibberella fujikuroi except GA₃. Influence of Exophiala sp. was assessed on cucumber plant's growth and endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and bioactive GAs under salinity and drought stresses. Exophiala sp.-treated plants have shown significantly higher growth and rescued the host plants from stress promulgated water deficit, osmotic and cellular damage. The altered levels of stress-responsive ABA showed low level of stress confined to endophyte-applied plants than control. Elevated levels of SA and bioactive GAs (GA₃ and GA₄) in endophyte-associated plants suggest stress-modulating response toward salinity and drought. In conclusion, symbiotic relations between Exophiala and cucumber have reprogrammed the host plant growth under abiotic stresses, thus indicating a possible threshold role of endophytic fungi in stress alleviation. This study could be extended for improving agricultural productivity under extreme environmental conditions. PMID:21883250

  18. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. Isolated from Sporotrichoid Lymphocutaneous Lesions in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis.

    PubMed

    Yong, Lee K; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Sutton, Deanna A; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Lindner, Jonathan R; Fan, Hongxin; Sanders, Carmita; Guarro, Josep

    2015-09-01

    Exophiala species are capable of causing cutaneous and subcutaneous infections in immunocompromised patients. An Exophiala isolate was cultured from a biopsy specimen of a lesion on the forearm of a patient with myasthenia gravis. The patient also had lesions on the palm and distal aspects of the hand, which were successfully treated with a long-term course of itraconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the isolate was undertaken. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and portions of the β-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes indicated that the isolate was a novel species closely related to but genetically distinct from species within the Exophiala spinifera clade; the name Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, E. polymorpha most closely resembles E. xenobiotica but it differs in possessing phialides bearing prominent, wide collarettes, and it does not produce chlamydospores. PMID:26085612

  19. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. Isolated from Sporotrichoid Lymphocutaneous Lesions in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Lee K.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Lindner, Jonathan R.; Fan, Hongxin; Sanders, Carmita; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala species are capable of causing cutaneous and subcutaneous infections in immunocompromised patients. An Exophiala isolate was cultured from a biopsy specimen of a lesion on the forearm of a patient with myasthenia gravis. The patient also had lesions on the palm and distal aspects of the hand, which were successfully treated with a long-term course of itraconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the isolate was undertaken. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and portions of the β-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes indicated that the isolate was a novel species closely related to but genetically distinct from species within the Exophiala spinifera clade; the name Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, E. polymorpha most closely resembles E. xenobiotica but it differs in possessing phialides bearing prominent, wide collarettes, and it does not produce chlamydospores. PMID:26085612

  20. Exophiala angulospora Causes Systemic Mycosis in Atlantic Halibut: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Overy, David P; Groman, David; Giles, Jan; Duffy, Stephanie; Rommens, Mellisa; Johnson, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous black yeasts from the genus Exophiala are ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogens causing both superficial and systemic mycoses in warm- and cold-blooded animals. Infections by black yeasts have been reported relatively frequently in a variety of captive and farmed freshwater and marine fishes. In November 2012, moribund and recently dead, farm-raised Atlantic Halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus were necropsied to determine the cause of death. Histopathology revealed that three of seven fish were affected by a combination of an ascending trans-ductual granulomatous mycotic nephritis, necrotizing histiocytic encephalitis, and in one fish the addition of a fibrogranulomatous submucosal branchitis. Microbial cultures of kidney using selective mycotic media revealed pure growth of a black-pigmenting septated agent. Application of molecular and phenotypic taxonomy methodologies determined that all three isolates were genetically consistent with Exophiala angulospora. This is the first report of E. angulospora as the causal agent of systemic mycosis in Atlantic Halibut. PMID:25496596

  1. Dual infection with Pythium insidiosum and Blastomyces dermatitidis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Sara L; Frank, Chad; Thompson, Craig A; Van Alstine, William G; Gelb, Hylton; Heng, Hock Gan; Klosterman, Emily; Kiupel, Matti; Grooters, Amy M

    2012-09-01

    A 4-year-old male neutered Labrador Retriever with severe gastrointestinal signs, but no respiratory signs, was diagnosed with multifocal pyogranulomatous gastritis, enteritis, and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae and multifocal pyogranulomatous pneumonia with intralesional yeast. Based on cytologic evaluation, histologic examination with special stains, and immunohistochemical analysis of tissues collected antemortem or at necropsy, dual infections with Pythium insidiosum and Blastomyces dermatitidis were detected and are reported for the first time. PMID:22747656

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a Cryptic Species Blastomyces gilchristii, sp. nov. within the Human Pathogenic Fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elizabeth M.; McTaggart, Lisa R.; Zhang, Sean X.; Low, Donald E.; Stevens, David A.; Richardson, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Analysis of the population genetic structure of microbial species is of fundamental importance to many scientific disciplines because it can identify cryptic species, reveal reproductive mode, and elucidate processes that contribute to pathogen evolution. Here, we examined the population genetic structure and geographic differentiation of the sexual, dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent of blastomycosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Criteria for Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) applied to seven nuclear loci (arf6, chs2, drk1, fads, pyrF, tub1, and its-2) from 78 clinical and environmental isolates identified two previously unrecognized phylogenetic species. Four of seven single gene phylogenies examined (chs2, drk1, pyrF, and its-2) supported the separation of Phylogenetic Species 1 (PS1) and Phylogenetic Species 2 (PS2) which were also well differentiated in the concatenated chs2-drk1-fads-pyrF-tub1-arf6-its2 genealogy with all isolates falling into one of two evolutionarily independent lineages. Phylogenetic species were genetically distinct with interspecific divergence 4-fold greater than intraspecific divergence and a high Fst value (0.772, P<0.001) indicative of restricted gene flow between PS1 and PS2. Whereas panmixia expected of a single freely recombining population was not observed, recombination was detected when PS1 and PS2 were assessed separately, suggesting reproductive isolation. Random mating among PS1 isolates, which were distributed across North America, was only detected after partitioning isolates into six geographic regions. The PS2 population, found predominantly in the hyper-endemic regions of northwestern Ontario, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, contained a substantial clonal component with random mating detected only among unique genotypes in the population. Conclusions/Significance These analyses provide evidence for a genetically divergent clade within Blastomyces

  3. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Brown, Elizabeth M; Richardson, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s). Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1) the Nelson River drainage basin, (2) the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3) the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4) the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have provided the

  4. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins

    PubMed Central

    McTaggart, Lisa R.; Brown, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s). Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1) the Nelson River drainage basin, (2) the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3) the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4) the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have provided the

  5. [Phaeomycotic cyst caused by Exophiala xenobiotica in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Urano, Shoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Kuroishi, Shigeki; Itoh, Naomi; Okada, Takathika; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In black fungal infections, Exophiala species are frequently encountered as causative agents of human mycosis, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Among them, Exophiala jenselmei was previously reported as the most common etiological agent. Advances in molecular taxonomy proved this taxon to be heterogeneous, and led to newly introduced or redefined species. Exophiala xenobiotica is one of the novel species differentiated from E. jenselmei on the basis of molecular phylogeny.Here, we report a case of pheomycotic cyst caused by E. xenobiotica, which was well controlled via drainage and local thermotherapy. A 70-year-old man developed a cystic nodular lesion on the dorsum of his right thumb over the previous 3 months. He had been treated with prednisolone and methotrexate for 4 years for rheumatoid arthritis. The patient also had lung cancer with vertebral bone metastasis. Direct microscopic examination of the greenish pus aspirated from the cyst revealed mycelial elements. Culture of the pus on blood and Sabouraud dextrose agar yielded numerous black colonies multiple times. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen showed subcutaneous abscess formation surrounded by granulomatous tissues. Faintly pigmented pseudohyphae were seen within the abscess. The presence of melanin in the fungal cells was determined by Fontana-Masson staining. Initial microscopic examination of the isolate revealed annellidic conidiogenous cells, suggestive of E. jenselmei. This strain was further identified as E. xenobiotica by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal RNA, showing a 100% sequence homology with the strain type.Pheomycotic cysts should be considered on identifying a slowly developing chronic subcutaneous abscess in immunocompromised patients. Sequencing is recommended for accurate species identification of causative pathogens. PMID:25742995

  6. In Vitro Activities of Eight Antifungal Drugs against 106 Waterborne and Cutaneous Exophiala Species

    PubMed Central

    Najafzadeh, M. J.; Saradeghi Keisari, M.; Vicente, V. A.; Feng, P.; Shamsian, S. A. A.; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A.; de Hoog, G. S.; Curfs-Breuker, I.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro activities of eight antifungal drugs against 106 clinical and environmental isolates of waterborne and cutaneous Exophiala species were tested. The MICs and minimum effective concentrations for 90% of the strains tested (n = 106) were, in increasing order, as follows: posaconazole, 0.063 μg/ml; itraconazole, 0.25 μg/ml; micafungin, 1 μg/ml; voriconazole, 2 μg/ml; isavuconazole, 4 μg/ml; caspofungin, 8 μg/ml; amphotericin B, 16 μg/ml; fluconazole, 64 μg/ml. PMID:24100491

  7. Cell wall studies of Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis using autologous and heterologous enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, T E; Domer, J E; Li, Y T

    1977-01-01

    Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing cell walls of Blastomyces dermatitidis and chemotypes I and II of Histoplasma capsulatum were prepared in the laboratory or obtained from commercial sources. They included chitinases, beta-1,3-glucanases, beta-1,6-glucanase, and Pronase. Monosaccharides and disaccharides of glucose released from the cell walls by the enzymes were determined qualitatively by paper and gas-liquid chromatography, and monosaccharides were quantitated by the latter technique as well. An enzyme system isolated from Streptomyces sp. containing both chitinase and glucanase released maximum amounts of glucose and N-acetylglucosamine from the cell walls of H. capsulatum chemotype I. A chitinase preparation, free of glucanase, from Serratia marcescens released only chitobiose and N-acetylglucosamine from chemotype I cell walls, but the total quantity of N-acetylglucosamine released was about 60% less than that released by the Streptomyces system. A beta-1,3-glucanase from Bacillus circulans hydrolyzed the cell walls of H. capsulatum chemotype I, but a beta-1,6-glucanase failed to release glucose from the same walls. Autolytic enzymes, viz., beta-1,3-glucanases and several glycosidases were detected as constitutive enzymes in both yeast and mycelial phases of B. dermatitidis and H. capsulatum chemotypes I and II. No difference in the amount of activity was found between cell sap and culture filtrate preparations. The beta-glucanases prepared from the Histoplasma and Blastomyces strains were active on the cell walls of the yeast phases of H. capsulatum chemotypes I and II, releasing laminaribiose and glucose, but were essentially inactive on the cell walls of B. dermatitidis. Chitinase, beta-1,6-glucanase, alpha-glucanase, and alpha-glucosidase activities were absent from these fungal enzyme preparations. Images PMID:870437

  8. Isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis from Iraqi Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Manahil M.; Abdulla, Zainalabideen A.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and fifty immunocompetent and 150 presumably immunocompromised patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled in this study. The clinical specimens were collected from April 2007 to June 2008 and included sputum (247), bronchial wash (80), and blood (300) samples. The identification process employed direct examination, culture, conversion test, and serological study. Among 218 fungal isolates only six were categorized as true pathogenic fungi; two Histoplasma capsulatum, and four Blastomyces dermatitidis. The former isolates were detected in two immunocompromised patients, while the latter isolates were detected in two immunocompetent and two immunocompromised patients. PMID:23610487

  9. Shared Physiological Traits of Exophiala Species in Cold-Blooded Vertebrates, as Opportunistic Black Yeasts.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; de Hoog, G Sybren; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Furuie, Jason Lee; Gelinski, Jane Mary Lafayette; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Boeger, Walter Antonio Pereira; Vicente, Vania Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    Several species of the genus Exophiala are found as opportunistic pathogens on humans, while others cause infections in cold-blooded waterborne vertebrates. Opportunism of these fungi thus is likely to be multifactorial. Ecological traits [thermotolerance and pH tolerance, laccase activity, assimilation of mineral oil, and decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR)] were studied in a set of 40 strains of mesophilic Exophiala species focused on the salmonis-clade mainly containing waterborne species. Thermophilic species and waterborne species outside the salmonis-clade were included for comparison. Strains were able to tolerate a wide range of pHs, although optimal growth was observed between pH 4.0 and 5.5. All strains tested were laccase positive. Strains were able to grow in the presence of the compounds (mineral oil and RBBR) with some differences in assimilation patterns between strains tested and also were capable of degrading the main chromophore of RBBR. The study revealed that distantly related mesophilic species behave similarly, and no particular trend in evolutionary adaptation was observed. PMID:27028446

  10. Targeted Gene Disruption Reveals an Adhesin Indispensable for Pathogenicity of Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Tristan Brandhorst, T.; Wüthrich, Marcel; Warner, Thomas; Klein, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Systemic fungal infections are becoming more common and difficult to treat, yet the pathogenesis of these infectious diseases remains poorly understood. In many cases, pathogenicity can be attributed to the ability of the fungi to adhere to target tissues, but the lack of tractable genetic systems has limited progress in understanding and interfering with the offending fungal products. In Blastomyces dermatitidis, the agent of blastomycosis, a respiratory and disseminated mycosis of people and animals worldwide, expression of the putative adhesin encoded by the WI-1 gene was investigated as a possible virulence factor. DNA-mediated gene transfer was used to disrupt the WI-1 locus by allelic replacement, resulting in impaired binding and entry of yeasts into macrophages, loss of adherence to lung tissue, and abolishment of virulence in mice; each of these properties was fully restored after reconstitution of WI-1 by means of gene transfer. These findings establish the pivotal role of WI-1 in adherence and virulence of B. dermatitidis yeasts. To our knowledge, they offer the first example of a genetically proven virulence determinant among systemic dimorphic fungi, and underscore the value of reverse genetics for studies of pathogenesis in these organisms. PMID:10209038

  11. Attempted isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis from native shrews in northern Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, Dennis J; Summerbell, Richard; Krajden, Sigmund; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Agrawal, Bobby; Bergeson, Mitch; Fuksa, Milan; Bemis, Christina; Baumgardner, Mark A

    2005-08-01

    The precise ecological niche of Blastomyces dermatitidis is unknown. The related dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, has been isolated from South American ground-dwelling insectivorous armadillos. We attempted to isolate Blastomyces from shrews, North American ground-dwelling insectivores that have been shown to harbor Histoplasma capsulatum in endemic areas. Forty-seven masked shrews (Sorex cinereus) and 13 northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were collected in endemic areas of northern Wisconsin and Michigan using pitfall traps. Specimens were collected between 1998 and summer 2002, stored frozen, then necropsied. Cultures of nasopharynx, lungs, liver, spleen and large and small bowel were placed on yeast extract phosphate agar with one or two drops of ammonium hydroxide. Cultures for Blastomyces were negative from all 60 shrews and two deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and three southern red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi), which were trapped inadvertently. Histological examination of 36 of these specimens revealed no Blastomyces yeast forms. Northern Wisconsin shrews do not appear to be carriers of B. dermatitidis. PMID:16178369

  12. Population genetic structure of clinical and environmental isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Based on 27 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meece, J.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Fisher, M.C.; Henk, D.A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Reed, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the etiologic agent of North American blastomycosis. Clinical presentation is varied, ranging from silent infections to fulminant respiratory disease and dissemination to skin and other sites. Exploration of the population genetic structure of B. dermatitidis would improve our knowledge regarding variation in virulence phenotypes, geographic distribution, and difference in host specificity. The objective of this study was to develop and test a panel of microsatellite markers to delineate the population genetic structure within a group of clinical and environmental isolates of B. dermatitidis. We developed 27 microsatellite markers and genotyped B. dermatitidis isolates from various hosts and environmental sources (n = 112). Assembly of a neighbor-joining tree of allele-sharing distance revealed two genetically distinct groups, separated by a deep node. Bayesian admixture analysis showed that two populations were statistically supported. Principal coordinate analysis also reinforced support for two genetic groups, with the primary axis explaining 61.41% of the genetic variability. Group 1 isolates average 1.8 alleles/locus, whereas group 2 isolates are highly polymorphic, averaging 8.2 alleles/locus. In this data set, alleles at three loci are unshared between the two groups and appear diagnostic. The mating type of individual isolates was determined by PCR. Both mating type-specific genes, the HMG and ??-box domains, were represented in each of the genetic groups, with slightly more isolates having the HMG allele. One interpretation of this study is that the species currently designated B. dermatitidis includes a cryptic subspecies or perhaps a separate species. ?? 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Fungal Morphology, Iron Homeostasis, and Lipid Metabolism Regulated by a GATA Transcription Factor in Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Amber J.; Broman, Aimee T.; Zarnowski, Robert; Dwyer, Teigan G.; Bond, Laura M.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Fontaine, Joël; Ntambi, James M.; Keleş, Sündüz; Kendziorski, Christina; Gauthier, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    In response to temperature, Blastomyces dermatitidis converts between yeast and mold forms. Knowledge of the mechanism(s) underlying this response to temperature remains limited. In B. dermatitidis, we identified a GATA transcription factor, SREB, important for the transition to mold. Null mutants (SREBΔ) fail to fully complete the conversion to mold and cannot properly regulate siderophore biosynthesis. To capture the transcriptional response regulated by SREB early in the phase transition (0–48 hours), gene expression microarrays were used to compare SREB∆ to an isogenic wild type isolate. Analysis of the time course microarray data demonstrated SREB functioned as a transcriptional regulator at 37°C and 22°C. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicated SREB was involved in diverse biological processes including iron homeostasis, biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and ergosterol, and lipid droplet formation. Integration of microarray data, bioinformatics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of genes directly bound and regulated by SREB in vivo in yeast (37°C) and during the phase transition to mold (22°C). This included genes involved with siderophore biosynthesis and uptake, iron homeostasis, and genes unrelated to iron assimilation. Functional analysis suggested that lipid droplets were actively metabolized during the phase transition and lipid metabolism may contribute to filamentous growth at 22°C. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and overexpression analyses suggested that SREB was in a negative regulatory circuit with the bZIP transcription factor encoded by HAPX. Both SREB and HAPX affected morphogenesis at 22°C; however, large changes in transcript abundance by gene deletion for SREB or strong overexpression for HAPX were required to alter the phase transition. PMID:26114571

  14. The C-Type Lectin Receptor MCL Mediates Vaccine-Induced Immunity against Infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Klein, Bruce; Wüthrich, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are essential in shaping the immune response to fungal pathogens. Vaccine-induced resistance requires Dectin-2 to promote differentiation of antifungal Th1 and Th17 cells. Since Dectin-2 and MCL heterodimerize and both CLRs use FcRγ as the signaling adaptor, we investigated the role of MCL in vaccine immunity to the fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis. MCL(-/-) mice showed impaired vaccine resistance against B. dermatitidis infection compared to that of wild-type animals. The lack of resistance correlated with the reduced recruitment of Th17 cells to the lung upon recall following experimental challenge and impaired interleukin-17 (IL-17) production by vaccine antigen-stimulated splenocytes in vitro. Soluble MCL fusion protein recognized and bound a water-soluble ligand from the cell wall of vaccine yeast, but the addition of soluble Dectin-2 fusion protein did not augment ligand recognition by MCL. Taken together, our data indicate that MCL regulates the development of vaccine-induced Th17 cells and protective immunity against lethal experimental infection with B. dermatitidis. PMID:26667836

  15. Development of a Highly Sensitive and Specific Blastomycosis Antibody Enzyme Immunoassay Using Blastomyces dermatitidis Surface Protein BAD-1

    PubMed Central

    Smedema, Melinda L.; Durkin, Michelle M.; Brandhorst, T. Tristan; Hage, Chadi A.; Connolly, Patricia A.; Leland, Diane S.; Davis, Thomas E.; Klein, Bruce S.; Wheat, L. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Serologic tests for antibodies to Blastomyces dermatitidis are not thought to be useful for the diagnosis of blastomycosis, in part due to the low sensitivity of immunodiffusion and complement fixation. Earlier studies have shown that the enzyme immunoassay improves the sensitivity of antibody detection for the diagnosis of blastomycosis. Microplates coated with the B. dermatitidis surface protein BAD-1 were used for testing sera from patients with proven blastomycosis or histoplasmosis and controls. Semiquantification was accomplished by using standards containing human anti-B. dermatitidis antibodies. The antibodies were detected in 87.8% of the patients with blastomycosis by the enzyme immunoassay compared to 15.0% by immunodiffusion. The specificities were 99.2% for patients with nonfungal infections and healthy subjects and 94.0% for patients with histoplasmosis. The results were highly reproducible on repeat testing. When combined with antigen testing, antibody testing improved the sensitivity from 87.8% to 97.6%. Enzyme immunoassay detection of antibodies against BAD-1 is highly specific, has greatly improved sensitivity over immunodiffusion, and may identify cases with negative results by antigen testing. This assay has the potential to aid in the diagnosis of blastomycosis. PMID:24285817

  16. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in immunocompetent patients: two new cases caused by Exophiala jeanselmei and Cladophialophora carrionii.

    PubMed

    Parente, José Napoleão Tavares; Talhari, Carolina; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Schettini, Antônio Pedro Mendes; Eiras, Josie da Costa; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Tavares, Ronald; Buzina, Walter; Brunasso, Alexandra Maria Giovanna; Massone, Cesare

    2011-05-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is a distinct mycotic infection of the skin or internal organs caused by darkly pigmented (dematiaceous) fungi, which are widely distributed in the environment. Phaeohyphomycosis is most frequently an opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed patients (HIV, corticotherapy, transplant patients) or is frequently associated with chronic diseases and diabetes. The spectrum of the disease is broad and includes superficial infections, onychomycosis, subcutaneous infections, keratitis, allergic disease, pneumonia, brain abscesses and disseminated disease. Rarely, immunocompetent patients may be affected. We describe two new cases of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in immunocompetent patients: in the first patient, the causative agent was Exophiala jeanselmei, a common cause of phaeohyphomycosis; and in the second, Cladophialophora carrionii, which could be identified by culture. Cladophialophora carrionii is mainly the aetiological agent of chromoblastomycosis and only rarely the cause of phaeohyphomycosis. The first patient was treated with surgical excision and oral itraconazole, and the second patient responded to oral itraconazole only. Lesions improved in both patients and no recurrence was observed at follow-up visits. PMID:19811614

  17. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in a dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Fangdong; He, Yongmei; Li, Yuan; Li, Tao; Yang, Yun-Ya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-11-01

    Our objective was to understand the cadmium (Cd) tolerance mechanisms by investigating the subcellular distribution, chemical forms of Cd and adsorptive groups in the mycelia of Exophiala pisciphila. We grew E. pisciphila in the liquid media with increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg L(-1)). Increased Cd in the media caused a proportional increase in the Cd uptake by E. pisciphila. Subcellular distribution indicated that 81 to 97% of Cd was associated with the cell walls. The largest amount and proportion (45-86%) of Cd was extracted with 2% acetic acid, and a concentration-dependent extraction was observed, both of which suggest that Cd-phosphate complexes were the major chemical form in E. pisciphila. A large distribution of phosphate and Cd on the mycelia surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The precipitates associated with the mycelia were observed to contain Cd by transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) identified that hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, and phosphate groups were responsible for binding Cd. We conclude that Cd associated with cell walls and integrated with phosphate might be responsible for the tolerance of E. pisciphila to Cd. PMID:26165995

  18. Chromoblastomycosis Associated with Bone and Central Nervous Involvement System in an Immunocompetent Child Caused by Exophiala Spinifera.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Mahantesh, S; Mannapur, Rajeshwari; Shivappa, Sanjay K

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis on the lower leg, who in a span of few months developed osteomyelitis and left hemiparesis. Fungal culture showed growth of Exophiala spinifera. Child showed good improvement with voriconazole and itraconazole after 1 year of treatment. Skin lesions healed with minimal scarring and his power improved. PMID:27293256

  19. Chromoblastomycosis Associated with Bone and Central Nervous Involvement System in an Immunocompetent Child Caused by Exophiala Spinifera

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Mahantesh, S; Mannapur, Rajeshwari; Shivappa, Sanjay K

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis on the lower leg, who in a span of few months developed osteomyelitis and left hemiparesis. Fungal culture showed growth of Exophiala spinifera. Child showed good improvement with voriconazole and itraconazole after 1 year of treatment. Skin lesions healed with minimal scarring and his power improved. PMID:27293256

  20. SREB, a GATA Transcription Factor That Directs Disparate Fates in Blastomyces dermatitidis Including Morphogenesis and Siderophore Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Gregory M.; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Gallardo, Sergio S.; Brandhorst, T. Tristan; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber J.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Suen, Garret; Currie, Cameron R.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis belongs to a group of human pathogenic fungi that exhibit thermal dimorphism. At 22°C, these fungi grow as mold that produce conidia or infectious particles, whereas at 37°C they convert to budding yeast. The ability to switch between these forms is essential for virulence in mammals and may enable these organisms to survive in the soil. To identify genes that regulate this phase transition, we used Agrobacterium tumefaciens to mutagenize B. dermatitidis conidia and screened transformants for defects in morphogenesis. We found that the GATA transcription factor SREB governs multiple fates in B. dermatitidis: phase transition from yeast to mold, cell growth at 22°C, and biosynthesis of siderophores under iron-replete conditions. Insertional and null mutants fail to convert to mold, do not accumulate significant biomass at 22°C, and are unable to suppress siderophore biosynthesis under iron-replete conditions. The defect in morphogenesis in the SREB mutant was independent of exogenous iron concentration, suggesting that SREB promotes the phase transition by altering the expression of genes that are unrelated to siderophore biosynthesis. Using bioinformatic and gene expression analyses, we identified candidate genes with upstream GATA sites whose expression is altered in the null mutant that may be direct or indirect targets of SREB and promote the phase transition. We conclude that SREB functions as a transcription factor that promotes morphogenesis and regulates siderophore biosynthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first gene identified that promotes the conversion from yeast to mold in the dimorphic fungi, and may shed light on environmental persistence of these pathogens. PMID:20368971

  1. Adaptation of the black yeast Wangiella dermatitidis to ionizing radiation: molecular and cellular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kelly L; Mostaghim, Anahita; Cuomo, Christina A; Soto, Carissa M; Lebedev, Nikolai; Bailey, Robert F; Wang, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Observations of enhanced growth of melanized fungi under low-dose ionizing radiation in the laboratory and in the damaged Chernobyl nuclear reactor suggest they have adapted the ability to survive or even benefit from exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism of fungal responses to such radiation remains poorly understood. Using the black yeast Wangiella dermatitidis as a model, we confirmed that ionizing radiation enhanced cell growth by increasing cell division and cell size. Using RNA-seq technology, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of the wild type and the melanin-deficient wdpks1 mutant under irradiation and non-irradiation conditions. It was found that more than 3000 genes were differentially expressed when these two strains were constantly exposed to a low dose of ionizing radiation and that half were regulated at least two fold in either direction. Functional analysis indicated that many genes for amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism and cell cycle progression were down-regulated and that a number of antioxidant genes and genes affecting membrane fluidity were up-regulated in both irradiated strains. However, the expression of ribosomal biogenesis genes was significantly up-regulated in the irradiated wild-type strain but not in the irradiated wdpks1 mutant, implying that melanin might help to contribute radiation energy for protein translation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that long-term exposure to low doses of radiation significantly increased survivability of both the wild-type and the wdpks1 mutant, which was correlated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased production of carotenoid and induced expression of genes encoding translesion DNA synthesis. Our results represent the first functional genomic study of how melanized fungal cells respond to low dose ionizing radiation and provide clues for the identification of biological processes, molecular pathways and individual genes

  2. Adaptation of the Black Yeast Wangiella dermatitidis to Ionizing Radiation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kelly L.; Mostaghim, Anahita; Cuomo, Christina A.; Soto, Carissa M.; Lebedev, Nikolai; Bailey, Robert F.; Wang, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Observations of enhanced growth of melanized fungi under low-dose ionizing radiation in the laboratory and in the damaged Chernobyl nuclear reactor suggest they have adapted the ability to survive or even benefit from exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism of fungal responses to such radiation remains poorly understood. Using the black yeast Wangiella dermatitidis as a model, we confirmed that ionizing radiation enhanced cell growth by increasing cell division and cell size. Using RNA-seq technology, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of the wild type and the melanin-deficient wdpks1 mutant under irradiation and non-irradiation conditions. It was found that more than 3000 genes were differentially expressed when these two strains were constantly exposed to a low dose of ionizing radiation and that half were regulated at least two fold in either direction. Functional analysis indicated that many genes for amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism and cell cycle progression were down-regulated and that a number of antioxidant genes and genes affecting membrane fluidity were up-regulated in both irradiated strains. However, the expression of ribosomal biogenesis genes was significantly up-regulated in the irradiated wild-type strain but not in the irradiated wdpks1 mutant, implying that melanin might help to contribute radiation energy for protein translation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that long-term exposure to low doses of radiation significantly increased survivability of both the wild-type and the wdpks1 mutant, which was correlated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased production of carotenoid and induced expression of genes encoding translesion DNA synthesis. Our results represent the first functional genomic study of how melanized fungal cells respond to low dose ionizing radiation and provide clues for the identification of biological processes, molecular pathways and individual genes

  3. Evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo dimorphism of Sporothrix schenckii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates after preservation in mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Renata Ferretti de; Santos Brito, Marcelly Maria dos; Schäffer, Guido Manoel Vidal; Lima, Osana Cunha de; Borba, Cintia De Moraes

    2004-06-01

    Morphological differentiation has commanded attention for its putative impact on the pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo the dimorphism from mycelial to yeast-phase of Sporothrix schenckii, Blastomyces dermatitidis and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates, two strains for each species, preserved in mineral oil. S. schenckii strains showed typical micromorphology at 25 degrees C but one strain was unable to complete the dimorphic process in vitro. After in vivo passage through mice the strains had the ability to turn into yeast-like cells and to form colonies on brain-heart infusion medium at 36 degrees C. B. dermatitidis strains grew as dirty white to brownish membranous colonies at 25 degrees C and their micromorphology showed thin filaments with single hyaline conidia. At 36 degrees C the colonies did not differ from those grown at 25 degrees C, but produced a transitional micromorphology. P. brasiliensis strains grew as cream-colored cerebriform colonies at 25 degrees C showing a transitional morphology. B. dermatitidis and P. brasiliensis strains did not turn into yeast-like cells in vivo. The present results demonstrate that B. dermatitidis and P. brasiliensis strains were unable to complete the dimorphic process even after in vivo passage, in contrast to the S. schenckii strain. PMID:15284890

  4. The clinical spectrum of Exophiala jeanselmei, with a case report and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of the species.

    PubMed

    Badali, H; Najafzadeh, M J; van Esbroeck, M; van den Enden, E; Tarazooie, B; Meis, J F G M; de Hoog, G S

    2010-03-01

    Exophiala jeanselmei is clinically redefined as a rare agent of subcutaneous lesions of traumatic origin, eventually causing eumycetoma. Mycetoma is a localized, chronic, suppurative subcutaneous infection of tissue and contiguous bone after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. In advanced stages of the infection, one finds tumefaction, abscess formation and draining sinuses. The species has been described as being common in the environment, but molecular methods have only confirmed its occurrence in clinical samples. Current diagnostics of E. jeanselmei is based on sequence data of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which sufficiently reflects the taxonomy of this group. The first purpose of this study was the re-identification of all clinical (n=11) and environmental strains (n=6) maintained under the name E. jeanselmei, and to establish clinical preference of the species in its restricted sense. Given the high incidence of eumycetoma in endemic areas, the second goal of this investigation was the evaluation of in vitro susceptibility of E.jeanselmei to eight conventional and new generations of antifungal drugs to improve antifungal therapy in patients. As an example, we describe a case of black grain mycetoma in a 43-year-old Thai male with several draining sinuses involving the left foot. The disease required extensive surgical excision coupled with intense antifungal chemotherapy to achieve cure. In vitro studies demonstrated that posaconazole and itraconazole had the highest antifungal activity against E. jeanselmei and E. oligosperma for which high MICs were found for caspofungin. However, their clinical effectiveness in the treatment of Exophiala infections remains to be determined. PMID:19642051

  5. Invasive hyphal growth in Wangiella dermatitidis is induced by stab inoculation and shows dependence upon melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Brush, L; Money, N P

    1999-12-01

    Stab inoculation of agar medium with yeasts of the human pathogen Wangiella dermatitidis resulted in induction of invasive hyphae. Mechanical penetration of agar was indicated by the observation that an increase in medium gel strength slowed the rate of substrate invasion. A melanized wild-type strain (8656) exhibited much faster invasive growth through 2-8% agar than three melanin-deficient mutants. Inhibition of melanin synthesis in strain 8656 using tricyclazole resulted in a decrease in its rate of invasive growth, while scytalone restored melanin synthesis in the albino mel3 strain and boosted its rate of invasive growth. Earlier research established that cellular melanization is also associated with invasive hyphal growth in the mouse brain, and infections with strain 8656 are invariably lethal. Together, these in vitro and in vivo data indicate that biomechanical characteristics of fungi may be important determinants of virulence and disease progression in human and animal mycoses. PMID:10669584

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Photodynamic Therapy Alone and Combined with Standard Antifungal Therapy on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lujuan; Jiang, Shaojie; Sun, Yi; Deng, Meiqi; Wu, Qingzhi; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp. are often chronic, recalcitrant, resulting in significant morbidity, causing discomfort, disfigurement, social isolation. Systemic disseminations happen in compromised patients, which are often refractory to available antifungal therapies and thereby lead to death. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate multiple pathogenic fungi and is considered as a promising alternative treatment for mycoses. In the present study, we applied methylene blue (8, 16, and 32 μg/ml) as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (635 ± 10 nm, 12 and 24 J/cm2), and evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation on five strains of Fusarium spp. and five strains of Exophiala spp., as well as photodynamic effects on in vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, both planktonic and biofilm forms. Photodynamic therapy was efficient in reducing the growth of all strains tested, exhibiting colony forming unit-reductions of up to 6.4 log10 and 5.6 log10 against planktonic cultures and biofilms, respectively. However, biofilms were less sensitive since the irradiation time was twice longer than that of planktonic cultures. Notably, the photodynamic effects against Fusarium strains with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≥16, 4-8, 4-8, and 2-4 μg/ml for itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, respectively, were comparable or even superior to Exophiala spp., despite Exophiala spp. showed relatively better antifungal susceptibility profile. MIC ranges against planktonic cells of both species were up to 64 times lower after aPDT treatment. Biofilms of both species showed high sessile MIC50 (SMIC50) and SMIC80 of ≥16 μg/ml for all azoles tested and variable susceptibilities to amphotericin B, with SMIC ranging between 1 and 16 μg/ml. Biofilms subjected to aPDT exhibited a distinct reduction in SMIC

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Photodynamic Therapy Alone and Combined with Standard Antifungal Therapy on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lujuan; Jiang, Shaojie; Sun, Yi; Deng, Meiqi; Wu, Qingzhi; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp. are often chronic, recalcitrant, resulting in significant morbidity, causing discomfort, disfigurement, social isolation. Systemic disseminations happen in compromised patients, which are often refractory to available antifungal therapies and thereby lead to death. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate multiple pathogenic fungi and is considered as a promising alternative treatment for mycoses. In the present study, we applied methylene blue (8, 16, and 32 μg/ml) as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (635 ± 10 nm, 12 and 24 J/cm(2)), and evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation on five strains of Fusarium spp. and five strains of Exophiala spp., as well as photodynamic effects on in vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, both planktonic and biofilm forms. Photodynamic therapy was efficient in reducing the growth of all strains tested, exhibiting colony forming unit-reductions of up to 6.4 log10 and 5.6 log10 against planktonic cultures and biofilms, respectively. However, biofilms were less sensitive since the irradiation time was twice longer than that of planktonic cultures. Notably, the photodynamic effects against Fusarium strains with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≥16, 4-8, 4-8, and 2-4 μg/ml for itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, respectively, were comparable or even superior to Exophiala spp., despite Exophiala spp. showed relatively better antifungal susceptibility profile. MIC ranges against planktonic cells of both species were up to 64 times lower after aPDT treatment. Biofilms of both species showed high sessile MIC50 (SMIC50) and SMIC80 of ≥16 μg/ml for all azoles tested and variable susceptibilities to amphotericin B, with SMIC ranging between 1 and 16 μg/ml. Biofilms subjected to aPDT exhibited a distinct reduction in

  8. Functional and transcript analysis of a novel metal transporter gene EpNramp from a dark septate endophyte (Exophiala pisciphila).

    PubMed

    Wei, Yun-Fang; Li, Tao; Li, Ling-Fei; Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Guan-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2016-02-01

    Various metal transporters mediate sub-cellular sequestration of diverse metal ions, contribute to cellular metal tolerance, and control metal partitioning, particularly under conditions of high rates of metal influx into organisms. In the current study, a ubiquitous and evolutionary conserved metal transporter gene, homology to natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp), was cloned from a metal-tolerant isolate of dark septate endophyte (DSE, Exophiala pisciphila), and its functional and transcript characterization were analyzed. The full-length Nramp gene from E. pisciphila (named EpNramp) was 1716 bp and expected to encode a polypeptide of 571 amino acid residues. EpNramp fused to green fluorescent protein suggested that EpNramp was a plasma membrane metal transporter, which was consistent with the results of bioinformatics analysis with 11 transmembrane domains. Yeast functional complementation revealed that EpNramp could complement the growth defect of Fe-uptake yeast mutant (fet3fet4 double mutant) by mediating the transport of Fe(2+). Expression of EpNramp increased Cd(2+) sensitivity and Cd(2+) accumulation in yeast. In addition, qPCR data revealed that E. pisciphila significantly down-regulated EpNramp expression with elevated Cd(2+) exposure. Altogether, EpNramp is a bivalent cation transporter localized in cell membrane, which is necessary for efficient translocation of both Fe and Cd, and its activities partly attributed to the tolerance of DSE to toxic and excessive Cd(2+) supplements. PMID:26595509

  9. Effects of Tricyclazole on Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation Characteristics of a Dark Septate Endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Fangdong; He, Yongmei; Yang, Yiyan; Li, Yuan; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2016-02-01

    Exophiala pisciphila is a cadmium-tolerant fungus, and produces 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin which can be inhibited by tricyclazole. Tricyclazole at higher levels (20 and 40 µg mL−1) reduced the growth and sporulation of E. pisciphila, but toxicity was not observed at a low concentration (2.5 µg mL−1). Under cadmium (Cd) stress (50, 100 and 200 mg L−1), 2.5 µg mL−1 of tricyclazole reduced fungal growth and sporulation. These reduces indicated a decrease on Cd tolerance of E. pisciphila. For both the 0 and 2.5 µg mL−1 tricyclazole treatments, Cd was associated mostly with cell walls and was extracted by 2 % acetic acid and 1 M NaCl. The FTIR spectra of the E. pisciphila mycelia were similar for both 0 and 2.5 µg mL−1 tricyclazole treatments, which showed hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl and phosphate groups. Thus inhibition of melanin synthesis by tricyclazole did not change Cd accumulation characteristics in E. pisciphila. Results suggested that melanin played a protective role for E. pisciphila against Cd stress, but inhibition of melanin synthesis did not have a remarkable impact on Cd accumulation in E. pisciphila. PMID:26467568

  10. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Liu, M J; Zhang, X T; Zhang, H B; Sha, T; Zhao, Z W

    2011-02-15

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments. PMID:21195456

  11. Isolation, purification, and radiolabeling of a novel 120-kD surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts to detect antibody in infected patients

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, B.S.; Jones, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    No well-defined Blastomyces-specific antigens are currently available. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify immunologically active molecules in the cell wall of B. dermatitidis. A major immunoreactive 120-kD protein (WI-1) was present in all five strains studied and comprised 5% of the protein in the cell wall extract obtained after freezing and thawing yeast cells. WI-1 was recognized by serum from all 10 patients with blastomycosis but by none of those from 5 patients with histoplasmosis. It was purified by electroelution, radiolabeled with 125I, and incorporated into a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serodiagnosis of blastomycosis. Antibody to WI-1 was detected in 58 (85%) of 68 patients with blastomycosis (geometric mean titer, 1:2,981), in two (3%) of 73 patients with histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, or candidiasis (titers, 1:86 and 1:91) and in none of 44 healthy persons. WI-1 was shown to be a surface molecule abundant on B. dermatitidis yeasts that were indirectly stained with serum from a rabbit immunized with WI-1. Approximately 0.93 pg of WI-1 or 4.7 x 10(6) WI-1 molecules were found on the surface of an individual yeast using an antigen-inhibition RIA; none was found on Histoplasma capsulatum or Candida albicans yeasts. We conclude that WI-1 is a novel, immunologically active surface molecule on the invasive form of B. dermatitidis and that WI-1 can be used to reliably detect antibody and study the immunopathogenesis of blastomycosis.

  12. Mannose Receptor Is Required for Optimal Induction of Vaccine-Induced T-Helper Type 17 Cells and Resistance to Blastomyces dermatitidis Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huafeng; LeBert, Vanessa; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Galles, Kevin; Klein, Bruce; Wüthrich, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    We investigated how innate sensing by the mannose receptor (MR) influences the development of antifungal immunity. We demonstrate that MR senses mannan on the surface of attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis vaccine yeast and that MR(-/-) mice demonstrate impaired vaccine immunity against lethal experimental blastomycosis, compared with wild-type control mice. Using naive Blastomyces-specific transgenic CD4(+) T cells, we found that MR regulates differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper type 17 (Th17) effector cells, which are essential in vaccine immunity against systemic dimorphic fungi. Thus, MR regulates differentiation of Th17 cells and is required to induce vaccine immunity against lethal pulmonary blastomycosis. PMID:26931447

  13. A novel metabolite (1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl) production by Exophiala spinifera strain FM through dibenzothiophene desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti

    2015-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide which is released from petroleum oil combustion causes pollution over the atmosphere and the soil. Biodesulfurization can be used as a complementary method of hydrodesulfurization, the common method of petroleum desulfurization in refineries. Many studies have been carried out to develop biological desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with bacterial biocatalysts. However, fungi are capable to metabolize a wide range of aromatic hydrocarbons through cytochrome P450 and their extracellular enzymes. The aim of the present work was isolation and identification of fungi biocatalysts capable for DBT utilization as sulfur source and production of novel metabolites. DBT consumption and the related produced metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS respectively. One of the isolated fungi that could utilize DBT as sole sulfur source was identified by both traditional and molecular experiments and registered in NCBI as Exophiala spinifera FM strain (accession no. KC952672). This strain could desulfurize 99 % of DBT (0.3 mM) as sulfur source by co-metabolism reaction with other carbon sources through the same pathway as 4S and produced 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HBP) during 7 days of incubation at 30 °C and 180 rpm shaking. However, the isolate was able to transform 2-HBP to 1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl. While biphenyl compounds are toxic to leaving cells, biotransformation of them can reduce their toxicity and the fungi will be more tolerant to the final product. These data are the first report about the desulfurization of DBT comparable to 4S-pathway and production of innovative metabolite by E. spinifera FM strain. PMID:25752234

  14. Evaluation of the API 20C yeast identification system for the differentiation of some dematiaceous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; McGinnis, M R; Pincus, D H; Goldson, P R; Kerkering, T M

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-seven isolates of Cladosporium spp., Exophiala spp., Fonsecaea spp., Lecythophora hoffmannii, Phaeoannellomyces werneckii, Phialophora spp., Wangiella dermatitidis, and Xylohypha bantiana were used to evaluate the API 20C Yeast Identification System for the differentiation of dematiaceous fungi. Using the API 20C system, we were able to distinguish most species of Phialophora and Cladosporium and to separate L. hoffmannii from the species of Phialophora tested; X. bantiana from C. carrionii, C. resinae, and C. sphaerospermum; and W. dermatitidis from Exophiala jeanselmei and Exophiala spinifera. Ninety-two (60.1%) of 153 possible species-pair combinations were separated. PMID:2808678

  15. “A fine needle aspiration cytology in time saves nine” — cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a renal transplant patient: Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Prashant; Agarwal, Shipra; Singh, Geetika; Xess, Immaculata; Bhowmik, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Infections by dematiaceous fungi are an emerging group of infectious diseases worldwide with a variety of clinical presentations. Though generally localized, they can disseminate in immunocompromised settings, therefore, early diagnosis and prompt therapy can prevent significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. Fungi of genus Exophiala are common causative organisms; however, Exophiala jeanselmei (E. jeanselmei) has not yet been reported from environmental sources in India. We present here the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with an innocuous lesion on the foot, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as phaeohyphomycosis, and promptly treated with excision and antifungal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report from India of E. jeanselmei causing phaeohyphomycosis in a transplant recipient and highlights the role a cytopathologist can play in the timely management of such cases. PMID:27011447

  16. Heterotrophic Bioleaching of Sulfur, Iron, and Silicon Impurities from Coal by Fusarium oxysporum FE and Exophiala spinifera FM with Growing and Resting Cells.

    PubMed

    Etemadzadeh, Shekoofeh Sadat; Emtiazi, Giti; Etemadifar, Zahra

    2016-06-01

    Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel containing sulfur and other elements which promote environmental pollution after burning. Also the silicon impurities make the transportation of coal expensive. In this research, two isolated fungi from oil contaminated soil with accessory number KF554100 (Fusarium oxysporum FE) and KC925672 (Exophiala spinifera FM) were used for heterotrophic biological leaching of coal. The leaching were detected by FTIR, CHNS, XRF analyzer and compared with iron and sulfate released in the supernatant. The results showed that E. spinifera FM produced more acidic metabolites in growing cells, promoting the iron and sulfate ions removal while resting cells of F. oxysporum FE enhanced the removal of aromatic sulfur. XRF analysis showed that the resting cells of E. spinifera FM proceeded maximum leaching for iron and silicon (48.8, 43.2 %, respectively). CHNS analysis demonstrated that 34.21 % of sulfur leaching was due to the activities of resting cells of F. oxysporum FE. Also F. oxysporum FE removed organic sulfur more than E. spinifera FM in both growing and resting cells. FTIR data showed that both fungi had the ability to remove pyrite and quartz from coal. These data indicated that inoculations of these fungi to the coal are cheap and impurity removals were faster than autotrophic bacteria. Also due to the removal of dibenzothiophene, pyrite, and quartz, we speculated that they are excellent candidates for bioleaching of coal, oil, and gas. PMID:26883128

  17. A molecular approach for the rapid, selective and sensitive detection of Exophiala jeanselmei in environmental samples: development and performance assessment of a real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Libert, X; Chasseur, C; Packeu, A; Bureau, F; Roosens, N H; De Keersmaecker, S J C

    2016-02-01

    Exophiala jeanselmei is an opportunistic pathogenic black yeast growing in humid environments such as water reservoirs of air-conditioning systems. Because this fungal contaminant could be vaporized into the air and subsequently cause health problems, its monitoring is recommended. Currently, this monitoring is based on culture and microscopic identification which are complex, sometimes ambiguous and time-demanding, i.e., up to 21 days. Therefore, molecular, culture-independent methods could be more advantageous for the monitoring of E. jeanselmei. In this study, we developed a SYBR®green real-time PCR assay based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 from the 18S ribosomal DNA complex for the specific detection of E. jeanselmei. The selectivity (100 %), PCR efficiency (95.5 %), dynamic range and repeatability of this qPCR assay were subsequently evaluated. The limit of detection for this qPCR assay was determined to be 1 copy of genomic DNA of E. jeanselmei. Finally, water samples collected from cooling reservoirs were analyzed using this qPCR assay to deliver a proof of concept for the molecular detection of E. jeanselmei in environmental samples. The results obtained by molecular analysis were compared with those of classical methods (i.e., culture and microscopic identification) used in routine analysis and were 100 % matching. This comparison demonstrated that this SYBR®green qPCR assay can be used as a molecular alternative for monitoring and routine investigation of samples contaminated by E. jeanselmei, while eliminating the need for culturing and thereby considerably decreasing the required analysis time to 2 days. PMID:26615400

  18. Evaluation of proteolytic activity to differentiate some dematiaceous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Goldson, P R; McGinnis, M R; Kerkering, T M

    1988-01-01

    A total of 123 isolates of Cladosporium spp., Exophiala spp., Fonsecaea spp., Lecythophora hoffmannii, Phaeoannellomyces werneckii, Phialophora spp., Wangiella dermatitidis, and Xylohypha bantiana were tested for proteolytic activity by using 26 different formulations of gelatin, milk, casein, and Loeffler media. Other physiological properties examined included hydrolysis of tyrosine and xanthine, sodium nitrate utilization in Czapek Dox agar, and thermotolerance. Isolates of Exophiala jeanselmei, Fonsecaea compacta, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, W. dermatitidis, and X. bantiana lacked proteolytic activity. Proteolytic activity was variable among the remaining species, depending on the type of medium used. Thermotolerance had value in distinguishing some taxa. PMID:3343325

  19. Ecology Drives the Distribution of Specialized Tyrosine Metabolism Modules in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Greene, George H.; McGary, Kriston L.; Rokas, Antonis; Slot, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Gene clusters encoding accessory or environmentally specialized metabolic pathways likely play a significant role in the evolution of fungal genomes. Two such gene clusters encoding enzymes associated with the tyrosine metabolism pathway (KEGG #00350) have been identified in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The l-tyrosine degradation (TD) gene cluster encodes a functional module that facilitates breakdown of the phenolic amino acid, l-tyrosine through a homogentisate intermediate, but is also involved in the production of pyomelanin, a fungal pathogenicity factor. The gentisate catabolism (GC) gene cluster encodes a functional module likely involved in phenolic compound degradation, which may enable metabolism of biphenolic stilbenes in multiple lineages. Our investigation of the evolution of the TD and GC gene clusters in 214 fungal genomes revealed spotty distributions partially shaped by gene cluster loss and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Specifically, a TD gene cluster shows evidence of HGT between the extremophilic, melanized fungi Exophiala dermatitidis and Baudoinia compniacensis, and a GC gene cluster shows evidence of HGT between Sordariomycete and Dothideomycete grass pathogens. These results suggest that the distribution of specialized tyrosine metabolism modules is influenced by both the ecology and phylogeny of fungal species. PMID:24391152

  20. Specific Oligonucleotide Primers for Identification of Cladophialophora carrionii, a Causative Agent of Chromoblastomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Abliz, Paride; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Takizawa, Kayoko; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2004-01-01

    Cladophialophora carrionii is one of the relatively common causative agents of chromoblastomycosis. We have developed the specific oligonucleotide primer set based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA for the rapid identification of this pathogen. PCR with this primer set amplified a 362-bp amplicon from C. carrionii strains. From other relevant dematiaceous species, including medically important dematiaceous fungi, such as Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Phialophora verrucosa, and Exophiala dermatitidis, and eight species of medically important yeasts, such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, the primer set did not produce any amplicon. PCR with this primer set may be a useful tool for the identification of C. carrionii. PMID:14715791

  1. Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps. I: compositional analysis using Tag-Encoded FLX Amplicon Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Guido; Hübner, Iris; Schmidt, Carsten K; de Hoog, G Sybren; Haase, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    Mass growth of dark fungal biofilms on water taps and associated habitats was observed in various German drinking water distribution systems recently. Customers of affected drinking water systems are anxious about potential and unknown health risks. These environments are known to harbour a fungal flora also comprising a variety of fungal opportunists that are well known to cause superficial mycoses in humans (Exophiala equina, Exophiala lecanii-corni) but are not known to establish dark biofilms so far. To gain profound insight on composition of respective biofilms, a metagenomic approach using Tag-Encoded FLX Amplicon Pyrosequencing (TEFAP) of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 region in comparison with a classical cultivation approach using Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and erythritol-chloramphenicol-agar was performed. E. lecanii-corni was found to be the major component in 10 of 13 biofilms analysed independently of the method used. Alternaria sp., E. equina, Fusarium spp. and Ochroconis spp. were also relatively abundant. As expected, TEFAP usually revealed a higher diversity than the cultivation approaches. For example, opportunistic species like Candida albicans or Exophiala dermatitidis were detected in very low amounts. In conclusion, TEFAP turned out to be a promising and powerful tool for the semi-quantitative analysis of fungal biofilms. Referring to relevant literature, potential biological hazards caused by fungi of the dark biofilms can be regarded as low. PMID:23385952

  2. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  3. Elemental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    He set out to prove that ocean sediments contain elevated levels of the rare element iridium because of the natural weathering of the continents. Instead, what Ariel Anbar found was new evidence that a meteorite may have had a role in the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous era.By studying the geochemical properties of iridium, Anbar, a professor of earth and environmental sciences and chemistry at the University of Rochester, found that the residence time—a measure of the rate at which an element settles out of water into sediments—of iridium in ocean water is 2000 to 20,000 years. That finding suggests that a large deposit of iridium could have lingered in the world's oceans long enough to explain the thickness of the iridium-rich sediment layers at the K-T boundary.

  4. Fishy evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adding to the ongoing debate over the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous period, a paleontologist from Purdue University recently uncovered a bed of 65-million-year old fish bones that bears the fingerprints of a meteorite impact. Gathering the fossils from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, William Zinsmeister discovered what he has termed a "horizon of death," a 12-square-kilometer bone bed resting just above a layer of iridium. The element is rare on Earth but common to most meteorites.The Purdue professor of geosciences believes the site provides strong evidence that the impact of an extraterrestrial object played at least some part in the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous.

  5. Assertions and Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Michael; Medsker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need to provide evidence when making claims, particularly when reporting research results. Suggests evidence should be precise; be wary of generalizations; question authority; and link the manuscript together in a coherent manner. (LRW)

  6. Inherited CARD9 deficiency in otherwise healthy children and adults with meningo-encephalitis and/or colitis caused by Candida

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Barbati, Elisa; Chaussade, Hélène; Koumar, Yatrika; Levy, Romain; Denis, Blandine; Brunel, Anne-Sophie; Martin, Sophie; Loop, Michèle; Peeters, Julie; de Selys, Ariel; Vanclaire, Jean; Vermylen, Christiane; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Chatzis, Olga; Liu, Luyan; Migaud, Mélanie; Pedergnana, Vincent; Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Jouvion, Gregory; Chretien, Fabrice; Darazam, Ilad Alavi; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Netea, Mihai G.; De Bruycker, Jean-Jacques; Bernard, Louis; Reynes, Jacques; Amazrine, Noureddine; Abel, Laurent; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Harrison, Tom; Picard, Capucine; Lortholary, Olivier; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Invasive infections of the central nervous system or digestive tract caused by commensal fungi of the genus Candida are rare and life-threatening. The known risk factors include acquired and inherited immunodeficiencies, with patients often displaying a history of multiple infections. Cases of meningo-encephalitis and/or colitis caused by Candida remain unexplained. We studied five previously healthy children and adults with unexplained invasive disease of the central nervous system, or the digestive tract, or both, caused by Candida spp. The patients were aged 39, 7, 17 37, and 26 years at the time of infection and were unrelated but each born to consanguineous parents of Turkish (two patients), Iranian, Moroccan or Pakistani origin. Meningo-encephalitis was isolated in three patients, associated with colitis in a fourth patient, and the fifth patient suffered from isolated colitis. Inherited CARD9 deficiency was recently reported in otherwise healthy patients with other forms of severe disease caused by Candida, Trichophyton, Phialophora, and Exophiala, including meningo-encephalitis, but not colitis, caused by Candida and Exophiala. We therefore sequenced CARD9 in the five patients. All were found to be homozygous for rare and deleterious mutant CARD9 alleles: R70W and Q289* for the three patients with isolated C. albicans meningo-encephalitis, R35Q for the patient with meningo-encephalitis and colitis caused by C. glabrata, and Q295* for the patient with C. albicans colitis. Regardless of their levels of mutant CARD9 protein, the patients’ monocyte-derived dendritic cells responded poorly to CARD9-dependent fungal agonists (curdlan, heat-killed C. albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Exophiala dermatitidis). Invasive infections of the CNS or digestive tract caused by Candida in previously healthy children and even adults may be caused by inherited CARD9 deficiency. PMID:25702837

  7. A Question of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2008-01-01

    Broadly defined, evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamentally about professional practice being informed and guided by best available evidence of what works. The EBP movement had its origins in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom in medicine and health care services. Sackett et al. defined evidence-based medicine as the "conscientious,…

  8. Some Thoughts on Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Michael; Medsker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Evidence seems to be a particularly newsworthy topic these days, prominent in stories about weapons of mass destruction, the President's record in the National Guard, Martha Stewart's stock sales, global warming and the EPA, and so forth. "Evidence," not surprisingly, derives from "evident," which the American Heritage Dictionary defines as…

  9. Synthesizing Evidence: Synthesis Methods for Evidence Clearinghouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jeff; Lau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Following the theme of the first two presentations, this presentation will focus on the choices available for research synthesis when summarizing research evidence. The presenters will describe the current research synthesis practice of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) as well as several alternative models, including inverse-variance weighted…

  10. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education. PMID:25790361

  11. Observational Evidence for Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  12. Evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Sackett, D L

    1997-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine, whose philosophical origins extend back to mid-19th century Paris and earlier, is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research. By individual clinical expertise we mean the proficiency and judgment that we individual clinicians acquire through clinical experience and clinical practice. Increased expertise is reflected in many ways, but especially in more effective and efficient diagnosis and in the more thoughtful identification and compassionate use of individual patients' predicaments, rights, and preferences in making clinical decisions about their care. By best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research, often from the basic sciences of medicine, but especially from patient centered clinical research into the accuracy and precision of diagnostic tests (including the clinical examination), the power of prognostic markers, and the efficacy and safety of therapeutic, rehabilitative, and preventive regimens. External clinical evidence both invalidates previously accepted diagnostic tests and treatment and replaces them with new ones that are more powerful, more accurate, more efficacious, and safer. Good doctors use both individual clinical expertise and the best available external evidence, and neither alone is enough. Without clinical expertise, practice risks becoming tyrannized by external evidence, for even excellent external evidence may be inapplicable to or inappropriate for an individual patient. Without current best external evidence, practice risks becoming rapidly out of date, to the detriment of patients. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of life-long, self-directed learning in which caring for our own patients creates the need for

  13. Rivers of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Clive E

    2013-01-01

    There has been too much of a one-way flow drift down a river of evidence. Researchers from rich countries have produced the primary evidence which they proceed to summarise within reviews. These summaries have directed care worldwide. However, things are changing and the river of evidence can flow in the other direction. The care of women with eclampsia has been changed or refined throughout the world because of a large low and middle income country trial. The global care of people with heart disease has been greatly modified by studies originating in China. The care of people who are acutely aggressive because of psychosis has to be reconsidered in the light of the evidence coming from Brazil and India. Healthcare is an issue everywhere and evaluation of care is not the premise of any one culture—the evidence—river must run both ways. PMID:24596880

  14. Evidence-based dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  15. Where's the evidence?

    PubMed

    Vieland, Veronica J

    2011-01-01

    Science is in large part the art of careful measurement, and a fixed measurement scale is the sine qua non of this art. It is obvious to us that measurement devices lacking fixed units and constancy of scale across applications are problematic, yet we seem oddly laissez faire in our approach to measurement of one critically important quantity: statistical evidence. Here I reconsider problems with reliance on p values or maximum LOD scores as measures of evidence, from a measure-theoretic perspective. I argue that the lack of an absolute scale for evidence measurement is every bit as problematic for modern biological research as was lack of an absolute thermal scale in pre-thermodynamic physics. Indeed, the difficulty of establishing properly calibrated evidence measures is strikingly similar to the problem 19th century physicists faced in deriving an absolute scale for the measurement of temperature. I propose that the formal relationship between the two problems might enable us to apply the mathematical foundations of thermodynamics to establish an absolute scale for the measurement of evidence, in statistical applications and possibly other areas of mathematical modeling as well. Here I begin to sketch out what such an endeavor might look like. PMID:21422761

  16. Where's the Evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Vieland, Veronica J.

    2011-01-01

    Science is in large part the art of careful measurement, and a fixed measurement scale is the sine qua non of this art. It is obvious to us that measurement devices lacking fixed units and constancy of scale across applications are problematic, yet we seem oddly laissez faire in our approach to measurement of one critically important quantity: statistical evidence. Here I reconsider problems with reliance on p values or maximum LOD scores as measures of evidence, from a measure-theoretic perspective. I argue that the lack of an absolute scale for evidence measurement is every bit as problematic for modern biological research as was lack of an absolute thermal scale in pre-thermodynamic physics. Indeed, the difficulty of establishing properly calibrated evidence measures is strikingly similar to the problem 19th century physicists faced in deriving an absolute scale for the measurement of temperature. I propose that the formal relationship between the two problems might enable us to apply the mathematical foundations of thermodynamics to establish an absolute scale for the measurement of evidence, in statistical applications and possibly other areas of mathematical modeling as well. Here I begin to sketch out what such an endeavor might look like. PMID:21422761

  17. USE OF THE FUNGUS EXOPHIALA LECANII-CORNI TO DEGRADE A MIXTURE OF VOCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stricter regulations on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) have increased the demand for more efficient abatement technologies. One promising technology for removing VOCs from polluted gas streams is biofiltration, a process in which contaminate...

  18. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  19. Homeopathy: promotion versus evidence.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2006-01-01

    Homeopathy is a biologically implausible form of treatment. The best clinical evidence available to date fails to support its effectiveness. Nevertheless, it is gaining in popularity. One reason for this is that, at least in the UK, it is being promoted by influential people. PMID:19442345

  20. Evidence of Absence software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  1. Evidence of Sway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chryst, Carolyn; McKay, Zanna; Lassonde, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the metaphor of trees and their tendency to sway with the wind and grow new leaves and branches to represent teacher candidates as diverse learners who come to our classes with their own experiences and understandings. This collaborative research study analyzed a particular cohort of candidates' evidence of sway and how the sway…

  2. The Appraising Evidence Game.

    PubMed

    Mick, JoAnn

    2016-04-01

    This column shares the best evidence-based strategies and innovative ideas on how to facilitate the learning of EBP principles and processes by clinicians as well as nursing and interprofessional students. Guidelines for submission are available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1741-6787. PMID:26766171

  3. Substantial evidence of effect.

    PubMed

    Gould, A Lawrence

    2002-02-01

    Pressures for rapid drug development, especially for treatments that may affect public health significantly, drive a need to reconsider what is necessary to establish the "substantial evidence" of efficacy and safety required for regulatory approval. The concept of substantial evidence of effect can be stated fairly simply in principle, but its application to the evaluation of findings from real clinical drug development programs can be quite complicated and depend on circumstances relating to the population studied and the condition being treated. This paper discusses a number of considerations that arise in attempting to address this issue. These include confirmation of efficacy/safety as opposed to replication of results, the use of surrogates for the clinical outcome, ethical considerations, the use of trials aimed at demonstrating equivalence or noninferiority instead of superiority of a new drug, and the balance between benefits and risks. Recent developments such as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines dealing with statistical principles and choice of control group, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidances interpreting the 1998 Modernization Act identify useful alternative definitions of substantial evidence and also identify when a single study can be enough to demonstrate a clinically important effect. The primary difficulty with the use of noninferiority trials is the need to demonstrate assay sensitivity or validity, i.e., that the trial would have demonstrated the superiority of the active control treatment to placebo had the trial included a placebo group. Failure to demonstrate a significant difference between the presumed active treatments and an inactive control precludes a definitive conclusion of assay validity, but external evidence, e.g., from trials demonstrating the activity of the active control, may yet justify concluding that the trial was assay valid. Issues of interpretation of important unexpected

  4. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27226499

  5. Evidence and Clinical Trials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Steven N.

    1989-11-01

    This dissertation explores the use of a mathematical measure of statistical evidence, the log likelihood ratio, in clinical trials. The methods and thinking behind the use of an evidential measure are contrasted with traditional methods of analyzing data, which depend primarily on a p-value as an estimate of the statistical strength of an observed data pattern. It is contended that neither the behavioral dictates of Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing methods, nor the coherency dictates of Bayesian methods are realistic models on which to base inference. The use of the likelihood alone is applied to four aspects of trial design or conduct: the calculation of sample size, the monitoring of data, testing for the equivalence of two treatments, and meta-analysis--the combining of results from different trials. Finally, a more general model of statistical inference, using belief functions, is used to see if it is possible to separate the assessment of evidence from our background knowledge. It is shown that traditional and Bayesian methods can be modeled as two ends of a continuum of structured background knowledge, methods which summarize evidence at the point of maximum likelihood assuming no structure, and Bayesian methods assuming complete knowledge. Both schools are seen to be missing a concept of ignorance- -uncommitted belief. This concept provides the key to understanding the problem of sampling to a foregone conclusion and the role of frequency properties in statistical inference. The conclusion is that statistical evidence cannot be defined independently of background knowledge, and that frequency properties of an estimator are an indirect measure of uncommitted belief. Several likelihood summaries need to be used in clinical trials, with the quantitative disparity between summaries being an indirect measure of our ignorance. This conclusion is linked with parallel ideas in the philosophy of science and cognitive psychology.

  6. Evidence Basis for Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jenifer N; Trabuco, Emanuel C

    2016-09-01

    Although vaginal hysterectomy has long been championed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as the preferred mode of uterine removal, nationwide vaginal hysterectomy utilization has steadily declined. This article reviews the evidence comparing vaginal with other modes of hysterectomy and highlights areas of ongoing controversy regarding contraindications to vaginal surgery, risk of subsequent prolapse development, and impacts of changing hysterectomy trends on resident education. PMID:27521881

  7. Evidence based vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Nalin, David R

    2002-02-22

    Evidence based vaccinology (EBV) is the identification and use of the best evidence in making and implementing decisions during all of the stages of the life of a vaccine, including pre-licensure vaccine development and post-licensure manufacture and research, and utilization of the vaccine for disease control. Vaccines, unlike most pharmaceuticals, are in a continuous process of development both before and after licensure. Changes in biologics manufacturing technology and changes that vaccines induce in population and disease biology lead to periodic review of regimens (and sometimes dosage) based on changing immunologic data or public perceptions relevant to vaccine safety and effectiveness. EBV includes the use of evidence based medicine (EBM) both in clinical trials and in national disease containment programs. The rationale for EBV is that the highest evidentiary standards are required to maintain a rigorous scientific basis of vaccine quality control in manufacture and to ensure valid determination of vaccine efficacy, field effectiveness and safety profiles (including post-licensure safety monitoring), cost-benefit analyses, and risk:benefit ratios. EBV is increasingly based on statistically validated, clearly defined laboratory, manufacturing, clinical and epidemiological research methods and procedures, codified as good laboratory practices (GLP), good manufacturing practices (GMP), good clinical research practices (GCRP) and in clinical and public health practice (good vaccination practices, GVP). Implementation demands many data-driven decisions made by a spectrum of specialists pre- and post-licensure, and is essential to maintaining public confidence in vaccines. PMID:11858871

  8. Insufficient Evidence: The Problems of Evidence-Based Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Challenges the wisdom of basing nursing practice on the findings of statistical research and offers objections to the philosophy of evidence-based nursing. Proposes rethinking what counts as evidence, suggesting a model based on reflection after the event. (SK)

  9. Evidence for mantle plumes?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Don L; Natland, James H

    2007-11-22

    Geophysical hotspots have been attributed to partially molten asthenosphere, fertile blobs, small-scale convection and upwellings driven by core heat. Most are short-lived or too close together to be deeply seated, and do not have anomalous heat flow or temperature; many are related to tectonic features. Bourdon et al. investigate the dynamics of mantle plumes from uranium-series geochemistry and interpret their results as evidence for thermal plumes. Here we show why alternative mechanisms of upwelling and melting should be considered. PMID:18033248

  10. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  11. Evidence-based management.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    It's OK to be lucky when you're lucky, but it's not OK when the issues are critical. Too often, we manage by anecdote, which is OK when you can afford to be wrong, but when finances are tight, or the market is overregulated, or a lot is at stake, making mistakes is not an option. Evidence-based management depends on attention to three components: analytics, decision making, and problem solving. These are skills that should be required of everyone who assumes a management position, no matter how high or low one is on the totem pole. Understanding basic analytical techniques, knowing how to apply these techniques to making good decisions, and learning how to become a skilled problem solver ensure that, when we manage our businesses, we minimize the risk of mistakes and maximize the potential for positive outcomes. PMID:22594062

  12. Weighing evidence: quantitative measures of the importance of bitemark evidence.

    PubMed

    Kittelson, J M; Kieser, J A; Buckingham, D M; Herbison, G P

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative measures of the importance of evidence such as the "likelihood ratio" have become increasingly popular in the courtroom. These measures have been used by expert witnesses formally to describe their certainty about a piece of evidence. These measures are commonly interpreted as the amount by which the evidence should revise the opinion of guilt, and thereby summarize the importance of a particular piece of evidence. Unlike DNA evidence, quantitative measures have not been widely used by forensic dentists to describe their certainty when testifying about bitemark evidence. There is, however, no inherent reason why they should not be used to evaluate bitemarks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the likelihood ratio as it might be applied to bitemark evidence. We use a simple bitemark example to define the likelihood ratio, its application, and interpretation. In particular we describe how the jury interprets the likelihood ratio from a Bayesian perspective when evaluating the impact of the evidence on the odds that the accused is guilty. We describe how the dentist would calculate the likelihood ratio based on frequentist interpretations. We also illustrate some of the limitations of the likelihood ratio, and show how those limitations apply to bitemark evidence. We conclude that the quality of bitemark evidence cannot be adequately summarized by the likelihood ratio, and argue that its application in this setting may be more misleading than helpful. PMID:12585671

  13. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eui Geum

    2016-06-01

    As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR), a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings. PMID:27349664

  14. Quadratic negative evidence discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.N.; Redgate, T.; Anderson, K.K.; Rohay, A.C.; Ryan, F.M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper develops regional discrimination methods which use information inherent in phase magnitudes that are unmeasurable due to small amplitudes and/or high noise levels. The methods are enhancements to teleseismic techniques proposed by, and are extended to regional discrimination. Events observed at teleseismic distances are effectively identified with the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant because relative to the pressure wave energy (m{sub b}) of an event, an earthquake generates more shear wave energy (M{sub s}) than does an explosion. For some teleseismic events, the M{sub s} magnitude is difficult to measure and is known only to be below a threshold . With M{sub s} unmeasurable, the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant cannot be formed. However, if the M{sub s} is sufficiently small relative to a measured m{sub b}, then the event is still likely to be an explosion. The methods presented in this report are developed for a single seismic station, and make use of empirical evidence in the regional L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant. The L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant is analogous to the teleseismic M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant.

  15. When Lack of Evidence Is Evidence of Lack.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In their recent article "A Gentle Ethical Defence of Homeopathy," Levy, Gadd, Kerridge, and Komesaroff use the claim that "lack of evidence is not equivalent to evidence of lack" as a component of their ethical defence of homeopathy. In response, this article argues that they cannot use this claim to shore up their ethical arguments. This is because it is false. PMID:26631232

  16. [Evidence and Lack of Evidence in the Treatment of Tinnitus].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-04-01

    A broad variety of therapeutic regimen is proposed, introduced and sold against tinnitus, but most of these approaches lack scientific validation and evidence. Up to date a causal, tinnitus eliminating therapy is not available. Most probably this will not be possible at all, as the mechanism of tinnitus generation are multiple and include peripheral as well as central or cortical reactions. Like in fashion and design however, therapeutic medical interventions against tinnitus come in waves again and again over the last decades, without being able to prove lasting and scientifically evident effects.This review presents, discusses and assesses almost all available therapies regarding their evidence. Evidence should include besides external evidence through publications and available data also internal evidence, e.g. including experience of the therapist and needs of the patients.Almost all interventions that try to influence the inner ear or the auditory cortex either pharmaceutically or by direct stimulation or modulation do not reach evidence. However, there are procedures that have proven to be effective and show at least certain degrees of evidence with proven strength of effect. These are habituation therapies and psychotherapeutic interventions like cognitive behavioural therapy, especially when they are combined with concrete measures to improve auditory perception like hearing-aids, cochlear implants or hearing-therapy. PMID:27128400

  17. Evidence-Based Language Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Eric J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine evidence-based procedures in medicine and to demonstrate that the same protocols can be used in English language instruction. In the evidence-based methodology, studies are divided into those that address specific language problems. Integrated studies are presented as a systematic overview, meta-analysis,…

  18. Warrantable evidence in nursing science.

    PubMed

    Forbes, D A; King, K M; Kushner, K E; Letourneau, N L; Myrick, A F; Profetto-McGrath, J

    1999-02-01

    Consensus among nurse scholars has not been reached regarding suitable qualities for accepting or rejecting the evidence arising from various world views. The authors' purpose in writing the paper is to describe the qualities or warrants for evaluating scientific findings (the 'evidence') of different research perspectives. The warrantable evidence pertinent to post-positivist, interpretivist, critical social theorist, and feminist perspectives are described and common warrants are suggested. Three warrants common to these scientific perspectives are proposed: (a) scrutiny and critique of methodological rigor and findings by the scientific community; (b) corroboration and intersubjectivity; and (c) scope of the evidence. The identification of common warrantable evidence will assist nurses in developing some core values regarding the constituents of good science or good scholarship even in the face of pluralism in nursing science approaches. PMID:10197937

  19. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  20. Schematic Patterns of Causal Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rholes, William S.; Walters, Jackie

    1982-01-01

    The study was to determine when the patterns of causal evidence proposed by Orvis, Cunningham and Kelly (1975) begin to function as schemata in the attributional process. One hundred forty-four subjects took part in the study. (RH)

  1. "New" Persuasive Evidence for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Edward E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses some new evidence for evolution that might be useful in persuading students who question the scientific basis for evolution. Draws on findings from the fields of molecular biology and genetics. (DDR)

  2. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  3. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  4. Evidence for glaciation in Elysium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Duwayne M.; Brandstrom, Gary W.

    1987-01-01

    It is suggested that certain landforms in the Elysium region of Mars provide strong evidence for glaciation. Landscapes related to subglacial volcanism suggest that ice was a primary agent in the development of Elysium.

  5. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  6. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence. PMID:26242238

  7. Evidence-based medicine and levels of evidence.

    PubMed

    Wallace, David K

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the practice of making medical decisions based on evidence gained from applying the scientific method. Published studies are evaluated using three key questions: "Are the results valid?"; "What are the results?"; and "Can the results be applied to my patients?" The hierarchy of study methods for obtaining evidence is, in order from least to most useful: laboratory research, editorials, case reports and series, case-control studies, cohort studies, and randomized clinical trials. Retrospective case series can suffer from problems such as selection of a biased sample, mixing of treatment effects, and lack of control group. Randomized clinical trials (and meta-analyses of multiple trials) provide the highest level of evidence because randomization limits confounding and prevents bias of treatment assignment. In addition, randomized trials have standardization of interventions, prospective data collection, and masked outcome measures. Although every question cannot be addressed by a randomized clinical trial, the best available evidence should be sought and used to guide treatments. PMID:21061876

  8. 33 CFR 20.803 - Hearsay evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearsay evidence. 20.803 Section 20.803 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND EVIDENCE FOR FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS OF THE COAST GUARD Evidence § 20.803 Hearsay evidence. Hearsay evidence...

  9. 42 CFR 423.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 423.1048 Section 423.1048 Public Health....1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  10. 42 CFR 498.61 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 498.61 Section 498.61 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.61 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  11. 31 CFR 8.64 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 8.64 Section 8.64 Money and... AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.64 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence... shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b)...

  12. 27 CFR 71.83 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 71.83 Section 71... General § 71.83 Evidence. Any evidence which would be admissible under the rules of evidence governing... his case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, depositions, duly authenticated copies of...

  13. Indigenous communities and evidence building.

    PubMed

    Echo-Hawk, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous populations in the U.S. and Pacific Islands are underrepresented in mental health and substance abuse research, are underserved, and have limited access to mainstream providers. Often, they receive care that is low quality and culturally inappropriate, resulting in compromised service outcomes. The First Nations Behavioral Health Association (U.S.) and the Pacific Substance Abuse and Mental Health Collaborating Council (Pacific Jurisdictions), have developed a Compendium of Best Practices for American Indian/Alaska Native and Pacific Island Populations. The private and public sector's increasing reliance on evidence-based practices (EBP) leaves many Indigenous communities at a disadvantage. For example, funding sources may require the use of EBP without awareness of its cultural usefulness to the local Indigenous population. Indigenous communities are then faced with having to select an EBP that is rooted in non-native social and cultural contexts with no known effectiveness in an Indigenous community. The field of cultural competence has tried to influence mainstream research, and the escalating requirement of EBP use. These efforts have given rise to the practice-based evidence (PBE) and the community-defined evidence (CDE) fields. All of these efforts, ranging from evidence-based practice to community-defined evidence, have a shared goal: practice improvement. PMID:22400456

  14. Coarticulatory evidence in stuttered disfluencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbisi-Kelm, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    While the disfluencies produced in stuttered speech surface at a significantly higher rate than those found in normal speech, it is less clear from the previous stuttering literature how exactly these disfluency patterns might differ in kind [Wingate (1988)]. One tendency found in normal speech is for disfluencies to remove acoustic evidence of coarticulation patterns [Shriberg (1999)]. This appears attributable to lexical search errors which prevent a speaker from accessing a word's phonological form; that is, coarticulation between words will fail to occur when segmental material from the following word is not retrieved. Since stuttering is a disorder which displays evidence of phonological but not lexical impairment, it was predicted that stuttered disfluencies would differ from normal errors in that the former would reveal acoustic evidence of word transitions. Eight speakers four stutterers and four control subjects participated in a narrative-production task, spontaneously describing a picture book. Preliminary results suggest that while both stutterers and controls did produce similar rates of disfluencies occurring without coarticulatory evidence, only the stutterers regularly produced disfluencies reflecting this transitional evidence. These results support the argument that disfluencies proper to stuttering result from a phonological deficit, while normal disfluencies are generally lexically based.

  15. LC-MS method for screening unknown microbial carotenoids and isoprenoid quinones.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Philipp; Geyer, Roland; Surmann, Peter; Fuhrmann, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    The structure of secondary metabolites from microorganisms provides a useful tool for microbial characterization and chemotaxonomic classification. Microbial isoprenoid quinones, for example, are well described and used to distinguish among photosynthetic microorganism groups. In addition, isoprenoid quinones can also be found, together with carotenoids, in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to develop a LC-MS/MS method which can analyze and identify these microbial isoprenoids. Positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) together with collisionally induced dissociation was applied for generation of informative fragment spectra by mass spectrometry. Enhanced product ion (EPI) scan in a linear ion trap with information dependent data acquisition (IDA) enabled generation of MS fragment data even from minor isoprenoids. The developed liquid chromatography method enabled separation of isoprenoid patterns from their ester derivatives. Discovery and structural characterization of isoprenoid quinones and carotenoids were carried out by comparing characteristics of fragment spectra from unknown compounds with fragment spectra of a range of isoprenoid standard compounds and using published data. Throughout the study 17 microorganisms (e.g., Acremonium butyri, Arthrobacter spp., Brevibacterium linens, Bullera variabilis, Exophiala dermatitidis, Lecythophora hoffmannii, Panthoea agglomerans, Rhodotorula spp., Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) were screened and probable structures of isoprenoid quinones and carotenoids were suggested. The method lays some foundations on the analysis of yet unknown isoprenoids in microorganisms by using LCMS/MS techniques. PMID:22036764

  16. Modified culture method detects a high diversity of fungal species in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Masoud-Landgraf, Lilian; Badura, Alexandra; Eber, Ernst; Feierl, Gebhard; Marth, Egon; Buzina, Walter

    2014-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetic lung diseases worldwide. The production of sticky viscous mucus leads to enhanced bacterial colonization and infection, but yeasts and filamentous fungi are also found abundantly in the mucus of patients suffering from CF. The role of fungi in the airways of CF patients is still not understood completely. Furthermore, recent investigations have shown that the spectrum of fungi isolated from the airways of CF patients depends strongly on the methods used. In this study, different mycological culture methods were compared: culture with a native inoculum, culture with homogenization of CF sputum, and culture after homogenization and serial dilutions of CF sputum. Altogether, 934 sputum samples from 113 patients were examined from July 2009 through December 2011. A total of 1,744 fungal isolates was recovered; 20 different yeasts and 14 filamentous fungal species were identified. Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. parapsilosis were the most common species of yeast. For the filamentous fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common, followed by Scedosporium apiospermum/Pseudallescheria boydii group and A. terreus. Many fungal, species such as Exophiala dermatitidis, Rasamsonia (Geosmithia) argillacea, and others, were isolated only from homogenized sputum samples. The longitudinal data also show that fungal colonization of CF patients is quite stable, even when treated with itraconazole. In conclusion, we recommend homogenizing CF sputa with a mucolyticum, to prepare serial dilutions, and to use appropriate fungal culture media with added antibiotics. PMID:23651180

  17. Production of bioactive protein hydrolysate using the yeasts isolated from soft chhurpi.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit Kumar; Kumari, Reena; Sanjukta, Samurailatpam; Sahoo, Dinabandhu

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the production of bioactive protein hydrolysates using yeasts isolated from chhurpi. For this, a total of 125 proteolytic yeasts were isolated and molecular identification was carried out by analysis of the restriction digestion pattern generated by digesting the PCR amplified internal transcribed spacer region and 5.8S rRNA gene (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) using three endonucleases (HaeIII, CfoI and HinfI). The results obtained showed that different proteolytic yeasts were dominant in marketed products (Kluyveromyces marxianus and Issatchenkia orientalis) and samples from production centers (Trichosporon asahii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Exophiala dermatitidis). Proteolytic strains in individual groups showed their ability to hydrolyze milk protein and enhance antioxidant property. Among the isolates, fermentation using K. marxianus YMP45 and S. cerevisiae YAM14 resulted in higher antioxidant activity. This is the first report on application of yeast isolated from fermented food of North-East India for the production of bioactive protein hydrolysate. PMID:27494105

  18. Combination of Amphotericin B and Flucytosine against Neurotropic Species of Melanized Fungi Causing Primary Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, S; Pan, W; Liao, W; de Hoog, G S; Gerrits van den Ende, A H G; Vitale, R G; Rafati, H; Ilkit, M; Van der Lee, A H; Rijs, A J M M; Verweij, P E; Seyedmousavi, S

    2016-04-01

    Primary central nervous system phaeohyphomycosis is a fatal fungal infection due mainly to the neurotropic melanized fungiCladophialophora bantiana,Rhinocladiella mackenziei, andExophiala dermatitidis.Despite the combination of surgery with antifungal treatment, the prognosis continues to be poor, with mortality rates ranging from 50 to 70%. Therefore, a search for a more-appropriate therapeutic approach is urgently needed. Ourin vitrostudies showed that with the combination of amphotericin B and flucytosine against these species, the median fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices for strains ranged from 0.25 to 0.38, indicating synergy. By use of Bliss independence analysis, a significant degree of synergy was confirmed for all strains, with the sum ΔE ranging from 90.2 to 698.61%. No antagonism was observed. These results indicate that amphotericin B, in combination with flucytosine, may have a role in the treatment of primary cerebral infections caused by melanized fungi belonging to the orderChaetothyriales Furtherin vivostudies and clinical investigations to elucidate and confirm these observations are warranted. PMID:26833164

  19. Identification of Aspergillus fumigatus and Related Species by Nested PCR Targeting Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Kong, Fanrong; Li, Ruoyu; Wang, Xiaohong; Wan, Zhe; Wang, Duanli

    2001-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common species that causes invasive aspergillosis. In order to identify A. fumigatus, partial ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from two to six strains of five different Aspergillus species was sequenced. By comparing sequence data from GenBank, we designed specific primer pairs targeting rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of A. fumigatus. A nested PCR method for identification of other A. fumigatus-related species was established by using the primers. To evaluate the specificities and sensitivities of those primers, 24 isolates of A. fumigatus and variants, 8 isolates of Aspergillus nidulans, 7 isolates of Aspergillus flavus and variants, 8 isolates of Aspergillus terreus, 9 isolates of Aspergillus niger, 1 isolate each of Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus wangduanlii, Aspergillus qizutongii, Aspergillus beijingensis, and Exophiala dermatitidis, 4 isolates of Candida, 4 isolates of bacteria, and human DNA were used. The nested PCR method specifically identified the A. fumigatus isolates and closely related species and showed a high degree of sensitivity. Additionally, four A. fumigatus strains that were recently isolated from our clinic were correctly identified by this method. Our results demonstrate that these primers are useful for the identification of A. fumigatus and closely related species in culture and suggest further studies for the identification of Aspergillus fumigatus species in clinical specimens. PMID:11376067

  20. Evidence in the learning organization

    PubMed Central

    Crites, Gerald E; McNamara, Megan C; Akl, Elie A; Richardson, W Scott; Umscheid, Craig A; Nishikawa, James

    2009-01-01

    Background Organizational leaders in business and medicine have been experiencing a similar dilemma: how to ensure that their organizational members are adopting work innovations in a timely fashion. Organizational leaders in healthcare have attempted to resolve this dilemma by offering specific solutions, such as evidence-based medicine (EBM), but organizations are still not systematically adopting evidence-based practice innovations as rapidly as expected by policy-makers (the knowing-doing gap problem). Some business leaders have adopted a systems-based perspective, called the learning organization (LO), to address a similar dilemma. Three years ago, the Society of General Internal Medicine's Evidence-based Medicine Task Force began an inquiry to integrate the EBM and LO concepts into one model to address the knowing-doing gap problem. Methods During the model development process, the authors searched several databases for relevant LO frameworks and their related concepts by using a broad search strategy. To identify the key LO frameworks and consolidate them into one model, the authors used consensus-based decision-making and a narrative thematic synthesis guided by several qualitative criteria. The authors subjected the model to external, independent review and improved upon its design with this feedback. Results The authors found seven LO frameworks particularly relevant to evidence-based practice innovations in organizations. The authors describe their interpretations of these frameworks for healthcare organizations, the process they used to integrate the LO frameworks with EBM principles, and the resulting Evidence in the Learning Organization (ELO) model. They also provide a health organization scenario to illustrate ELO concepts in application. Conclusion The authors intend, by sharing the LO frameworks and the ELO model, to help organizations identify their capacities to learn and share knowledge about evidence-based practice innovations. The ELO model

  1. The Notion of Evidence in Evidence-Based Practice by the Nursing Philosophy Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romyn, Donna M.; Allen, Marion N.; Boschma, Geertje; Duncan, Susan M.; Edgecombe, Nancy; Jensen, Louise A.; Ross-Kerr, Janet C.; Marck, Patricia; Salsali, Mahvash; Tourangeau, Ann E.; Warnock, Fay

    2003-01-01

    Addresses these questions: To what end is evidence sought? What is the nature of evidence? What kinds of evidence are valued by the nursing profession? and What kinds of evidence should underlie clinical decision making? (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

  2. Electrophysiological evidence for phenomenal consciousness.

    PubMed

    Revonsuo, Antti; Koivisto, Mika

    2010-09-01

    Abstract Recent evidence from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) lends support to two central theses in Lamme's theory. The earliest ERP correlate of visual consciousness appears over posterior visual cortex around 100-200 ms after stimulus onset. Its scalp topography and time window are consistent with recurrent processing in the visual cortex. This electrophysiological correlate of visual consciousness is mostly independent of later ERPs reflecting selective attention and working memory functions. Overall, the ERP evidence supports the view that phenomenal consciousness of a visual stimulus emerges earlier than access consciousness, and that attention and awareness are served by distinct neural processes. PMID:24168341

  3. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  4. Current Evidence for Osteoarthritis Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; March, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of chronic disability among older people. The burden of the disease is expected to rise with an aging population and the increasing prevalence of obesity. Despite this, there is as yet no cure for OA. However, in recent years, a number of potential therapeutic advances have been made, in part due to improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. This review provides the current evidence for symptomatic management of OA including nonpharmacological, pharmacological and surgical approaches. The current state of evidence for disease-modifying therapy in OA is also reviewed. PMID:22870434

  5. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  6. Water on Mars: Petrographic Evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    FE-SEM and TEM studies of martian meteorites are focused on identifying and characterizing possible martian weathering products using SEM petrography. New data include unambiguous evidence that Ca-sulfate in the Nakhla meteorite is of martian origin. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. What Good Is Soft Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdach, Allison D.

    2010-01-01

    Along with other helping professions, social work is today struggling to become a more "evidence-based" activity. This article explores some of the issues raised by this reevaluation of social work, especially as it relates to the issue of direct social work practice. Despite the current push to base social work helping methods on scientific…

  8. Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Steven F.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    1976-01-01

    Authors believes that three phenomena are all instances of "learned helplessness," instances in which an organism has learned that outcomes are uncontrollable by his responses and is seriously debilitated by this knowledge. This article explores the evidence for the phenomena of learned helplessness, and discussed a variety of theoretical…

  9. Learning Styles: Where's the Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug; Pashler, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Whereas modern medicine owes much of its success to its reliance upon evidence-based treatments, most popular techniques of instruction have not been subjected to thorough empirical scrutiny. A particularly glaring and costly result of this, we argue, is the wide acceptance of the idea that instruction should be tailored to a student's so-called…

  10. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Achievement scores drive much of the effort in today's accountability system, however, there is much more that occurs in every school, every day. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability can be used from micro to macro giving School Boards and Administration a process for monitoring the results of the entire school operation effectively and…

  11. New evidence of animal consciousness.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Donald R; Speck, Gayle B

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence that increases the probability that many animals experience at least simple levels of consciousness. First, the search for neural correlates of consciousness has not found any consciousness-producing structure or process that is limited to human brains. Second, appropriate responses to novel challenges for which the animal has not been prepared by genetic programming or previous experience provide suggestive evidence of animal consciousness because such versatility is most effectively organized by conscious thinking. For example, certain types of classical conditioning require awareness of the learned contingency in human subjects, suggesting comparable awareness in similarly conditioned animals. Other significant examples of versatile behavior suggestive of conscious thinking are scrub jays that exhibit all the objective attributes of episodic memory, evidence that monkeys sometimes know what they know, creative tool-making by crows, and recent interpretation of goal-directed behavior of rats as requiring simple nonreflexive consciousness. Third, animal communication often reports subjective experiences. Apes have demonstrated increased ability to use gestures or keyboard symbols to make requests and answer questions; and parrots have refined their ability to use the imitation of human words to ask for things they want and answer moderately complex questions. New data have demonstrated increased flexibility in the gestural communication of swarming honey bees that leads to vitally important group decisions as to which cavity a swarm should select as its new home. Although no single piece of evidence provides absolute proof of consciousness, this accumulation of strongly suggestive evidence increases significantly the likelihood that some animals experience at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings. The next challenge for cognitive ethologists is to investigate for particular animals the content of their awareness and what life is

  12. Evidence-Based Practice and School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2005-01-01

    School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…

  13. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence... of Evidence where appropriate, e.g., to exclude unreliable evidence. (c) The ALJ shall...

  14. 31 CFR 15.737-21 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 15.737-21 Section 15.737-21... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-21 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in... exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b) Depositions. The...

  15. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  16. 31 CFR 360.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 360.23 Section 360.23 Money... BONDS, SERIES I Judicial Proceedings § 360.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of... must be supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must...

  17. 20 CFR 901.45 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 901.45 Section 901.45 Employees... § 901.45 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not... actuaries. However, the Administrative Law Judge shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial,...

  18. 21 CFR 17.39 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 17.39 Section 17.39 Food and Drugs FOOD... HEARINGS § 17.39 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b... Evidence.” However, the presiding officer may apply the “Federal Rules of Evidence” when appropriate,...

  19. 42 CFR 426.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 426.540 Section 426.540 Public Health... § 426.540 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the Board is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the Board may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate, for example,...

  20. 42 CFR 422.678 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 422.678 Section 422.678 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Contract Determinations and Appeals § 422.678 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that would be...

  1. 37 CFR 11.50 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 11.50 Section 11.50... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.50 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings...

  2. 29 CFR 511.13 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 511.13 Section 511.13 Labor Regulations Relating... AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.13 Evidence. In accordance with the notice of hearing, the committee and any... they are not refuted by evidence received at the hearing. Other pertinent evidence available to...

  3. 49 CFR 511.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 511.43 Section 511.43 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. The Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to proceedings held under this part only...

  4. 49 CFR 821.38 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 821.38 Section 821.38 Transportation... PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS Hearing § 821.38 Evidence. Each party shall have the right to present a case-in-chief, or defense, by oral and documentary evidence, to submit evidence in rebuttal, and...

  5. 42 CFR 423.659 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 423.659 Section 423.659 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE....659 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence...

  6. 14 CFR 406.149 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 406.149 Section 406.149... Transportation Adjudications § 406.149 Evidence. (a) General. A party is entitled to present the party's case or defense by oral, documentary, or demonstrative evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct...

  7. 16 CFR 3.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 3.43 Section 3.43 Commercial... ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 3.43 Evidence. (a) Burden of proof. Counsel representing the Commission, or... reliable evidence shall be admitted. Irrelevant, immaterial, and unreliable evidence shall be...

  8. 7 CFR 1.332 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1.332 Section 1.332 Agriculture Office of... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.332 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the Federal Rules of Evidence are not applicable...

  9. 16 CFR 1025.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1025.43 Section 1025.43 Commercial... § 1025.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. Unless otherwise provided by statute or these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to all proceedings held pursuant to...

  10. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  11. 42 CFR 422.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 422.1048 Section 422.1048 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Appeal procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 422.1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable...

  12. 42 CFR 426.440 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 426.440 Section 426.440 Public Health... § 426.440 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate, for example,...

  13. 40 CFR 164.81 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 164.81 Section 164.81... (Other Than Expedited Hearings) The Hearings § 164.81 Evidence. (a) General. The Administrative Law Judge shall admit all relevant, competent and material evidence, except evidence that is unduly...

  14. 31 CFR 315.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 315.23 Section 315.23 Money... Caveats Permitted § 315.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of judicial proceedings... supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must be certified by...

  15. 22 CFR 224.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 224.34 Section 224.34 Foreign....34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply...

  16. 22 CFR 18.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 18.16 Section 18.16 Foreign Relations... Enforcement Proceedings § 18.16 Evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings under this part. However, the hearing examiner shall exclude evidence which...

  17. 34 CFR 81.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 81.15 Section 81.15 Education Office of the... Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence do not apply to proceedings under this part. However, the ALJ accepts only evidence that is— (1) Relevant; (2) Material; (3) Not unduly repetitious; and (4)...

  18. Best Available Evidence: Three Complementary Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Timothy A.; Spencer, Trina D.; Detrich, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    The best available evidence is one of the three critical features of evidence-based practice. Best available evidence is often considered to be synonymous with extremely high standards for research methodology. However, this notion may limit the scope and impact of evidence based practice to those educational decisions on which high quality…

  19. 39 CFR 959.17 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 959.17 Section 959.17 Postal Service... STATUTES § 959.17 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the rules of evidence... repetitious evidence. (b) Testimony shall be under oath or affirmation and witnesses shall be subject to...

  20. 14 CFR 13.222 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.222 Section 13.222 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.222 Evidence. (a... evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct any cross-examination that may be required for a...

  1. 10 CFR 2.711 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 2.711 Section 2.711 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Adjudications § 2.711 Evidence. (a) General. Every party to a proceeding has the right to present oral or documentary evidence and rebuttal evidence and to conduct, in accordance with an approved...

  2. 45 CFR 672.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 672.15 Section 672.15 Public Welfare... PROCEDURES § 672.15 Evidence. (a) General. The Presiding Officer shall admit all evidence which is not.... Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, evidence relating to settlement which would be excluded in the...

  3. 45 CFR 501.6 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentary evidence. 501.6 Section 501.6 Public... Documentary evidence. Documentary evidence may consist of books, records, correspondence or other documents..., correspondence or other documents sought. The production of documentary evidence will not be required at...

  4. 45 CFR 501.6 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Documentary evidence. 501.6 Section 501.6 Public... Documentary evidence. Documentary evidence may consist of books, records, correspondence or other documents..., correspondence or other documents sought. The production of documentary evidence will not be required at...

  5. 22 CFR 51.41 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Documentary evidence. 51.41 Section 51.41 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.41 Documentary evidence. The applicant must provide documentary evidence that he or she is...

  6. 22 CFR 51.41 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentary evidence. 51.41 Section 51.41 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.41 Documentary evidence. The applicant must provide documentary evidence that he or she is...

  7. 45 CFR 501.6 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Documentary evidence. 501.6 Section 501.6 Public... Documentary evidence. Documentary evidence may consist of books, records, correspondence or other documents..., correspondence or other documents sought. The production of documentary evidence will not be required at...

  8. 22 CFR 51.41 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Documentary evidence. 51.41 Section 51.41 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.41 Documentary evidence. The applicant must provide documentary evidence that he or she is...

  9. 22 CFR 51.41 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Documentary evidence. 51.41 Section 51.41 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.41 Documentary evidence. The applicant must provide documentary evidence that he or she is...

  10. 45 CFR 501.6 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentary evidence. 501.6 Section 501.6 Public... Documentary evidence. Documentary evidence may consist of books, records, correspondence or other documents..., correspondence or other documents sought. The production of documentary evidence will not be required at...

  11. 45 CFR 501.6 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentary evidence. 501.6 Section 501.6 Public... Documentary evidence. Documentary evidence may consist of books, records, correspondence or other documents..., correspondence or other documents sought. The production of documentary evidence will not be required at...

  12. 22 CFR 51.41 - Documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Documentary evidence. 51.41 Section 51.41 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.41 Documentary evidence. The applicant must provide documentary evidence that he or she is...

  13. Evidence for Ancient Martian Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Three SNC meteorites ranging in age from 4.5 Ga. to 1.3 Ga. to 165 m.y. contain features suggestive, of past biogenic activity on Mars. Because we do not know what past martian life looks like or its physical or chemical properties, the only tools or criteria which the scientific community have to evaluate evidence of past life is to use evidence for early life on earth. There are features within ALH8400 I's carbonate globules and the pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration phases of Nakhla and Shergotty which have been interpreted as possible evidence for past life on early Mars. Eight criteria have been established for the recognition of past life within terrestrial geologic samples. They are: (a) geologic context; (b) sample's age and stratigraphic location (c) cellular morphology; (d) colonies; (e) biominerals; (f) stable isotope patterns unique to biology; (g) organic biomarkers; (h) indigenous features to the sample. For general acceptance of past life, essentially most or all of these criteria must be met. Studies have shown conclusively that the reduced carbon components in ALH84001 and Nakhla are indigenous to the meteorites and are not terrestrial contaminants Based on carbon isotopic compositions and mineralogical morphologies, there is no question or disagreement that the carbonate globules or embedded magnetites in ALH84001 and the pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration products in Nakhla and Shergotty were formed on Mars. Possible microfossil structures and some reduced carbon components in the carbonates and pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration products are, therefore, almost certainly indigenous, but other possible evidence for life (e.g. amino acids) may be a result of terrestrial contamination Our hypothesis of possible early life on Mars was presented in August 1996. Today, we believe it stands stronger than when originally presented. To date, no fatal strikes have been made to any of our original four lines of evidence. While details of the hypothesis are

  14. Healthy Places: Exploring the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, Howard

    2003-01-01

    “Sense of place” is a widely discussed concept in fields as diverse as geography, environmental psychology, and art, but it has little traction in the field of public health. The health impact of place includes physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and aesthetic outcomes. In this article, the author introduces sense of place as a public health construct. While many recommendations for “good places” are available, few are based on empirical evidence, and thus they are incompatible with current public health practice. Evidence-based recommendations for healthy place making could have important public health implications. Four aspects of the built environment, at different spatial scales—nature contact, buildings, public spaces, and urban form—are identified as offering promising opportunities for public health research, and potential research agendas for each are discussed. PMID:12948962

  15. Physical evidence for dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Scranton, Ryan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Stebbins, Albert; Szapudi, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Afshordi, Niayesh; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Lupton, Robert H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Sheth, Ravi K.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tegmark, Max; Xu, Yongzhong; Anderson, Scott F.; /Pittsburgh U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Fermilab /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Princeton U. Observ. /Johns Hopkins U. /Eotvos U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /KICP, Chicago /Pennsylvania U. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Apache Point Observ. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept. /Tokyo U., ICRR /LLNL, Livermore /Sussex U., Astron. Ctr. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Michigan U. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.

    2003-07-01

    The authors present measurements of the angular cross-correlation between luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the cosmic microwave background temperature maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. They find a statistically significant achromatic positive correlation between these two data sets, which is consistent with the expected signal from the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. they do not detect any anti-correlation on small angular scales as would be produced from a large Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, although they do see evidence for some SZ effect for their highest redshift samples. Assuming a flat universe, their preliminary detection of the ISW effect provides independent physical evidence for the existence of dark energy.

  16. Evidence for a nonplanar amplituhedron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, Zvi; Herrmann, Enrico; Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The scattering amplitudes of planar mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills exhibit a number of remarkable analytic structures, including dual conformal symmetry and logarithmic singularities of integrands. The amplituhedron is a geometric construction of the integrand that incorporates these structures. This geometric construction further implies the amplitude is fully specified by constraining it to vanish on spurious residues. By writing the amplitude in a dlog basis, we provide nontrivial evidence that these analytic properties and "zero conditions" carry over into the nonplanar sector. This suggests that the concept of the amplituhedron can be extended to the nonplanar sector of mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  17. Digital evidence obfuscation: recovery techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craiger, J. Philip; Swauger, Jeff; Marberry, Chris

    2005-05-01

    Criminals who use computers to commit crimes often hide the fruits of the commission of those crimes. Hiding files on a computer can take on many forms, from file names and extensions to more technical methods such as encryption and steganography. Encryption and steganography have the potential to severely impede the recovery of digital evidence. We discuss encryption and steganography below and describe potential methods of coping with each. The techniques we discuss require no special knowledge or advanced hardware or software; however, the use of these techniques does not guarantee the recovery of obfuscated information.

  18. Fossil evidence of Archaean life

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, J. William

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500 Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500 Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500 Myr ago. PMID:16754604

  19. Authentication of digital video evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beser, Nicholas D.; Duerr, Thomas E.; Staisiunas, Gregory P.

    2003-11-01

    In response to a requirement from the United States Postal Inspection Service, the Technical Support Working Group tasked The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to develop a technique tha will ensure the authenticity, or integrity, of digital video (DV). Verifiable integrity is needed if DV evidence is to withstand a challenge to its admissibility in court on the grounds that it can be easily edited. Specifically, the verification technique must detect additions, deletions, or modifications to DV and satisfy the two-part criteria pertaining to scientific evidence as articulated in Daubert et al. v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 43 F3d (9th Circuit, 1995). JHU/APL has developed a prototype digital video authenticator (DVA) that generates digital signatures based on public key cryptography at the frame level of the DV. Signature generation and recording is accomplished at the same time as DV is recorded by the camcorder. Throughput supports the consumer-grade camcorder data rate of 25 Mbps. The DVA software is implemented on a commercial laptop computer, which is connected to a commercial digital camcorder via the IEEE-1394 serial interface. A security token provides agent identification and the interface to the public key infrastructure (PKI) that is needed for management of the public keys central to DV integrity verification.

  20. Reconstructing Nursing: Evidence, Artistry and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Maran, Di

    1999-01-01

    The prevailing world view is shifting from positivism to postmodernism. A postmodern perspective on evidence-based nursing suggests that evidence for nursing decisions should be derived from research, patient and nurse values, reflection, intuition, and tacit knowledge. (SK)

  1. 7 CFR 1421.12 - Production evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... collateral such as: (i) Evidence of sales, (ii) Delivery evidence, (iii) Load summaries from warehouse, processor, or buyer, (iv) Warehouse receipts (v) Paid measurement service (vi) Spot check measurements...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.12 - Production evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... collateral such as: (i) Evidence of sales, (ii) Delivery evidence, (iii) Load summaries from warehouse, processor, or buyer, (iv) Warehouse receipts (v) Paid measurement service (vi) Spot check measurements...

  3. 12 CFR 509.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not... such evidence is relevant, material, reliable and not unduly repetitive. (b) Official notice....

  4. 31 CFR 306.101 - Evidence required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., decree, or order of court and of any necessary supplementary proceedings must be submitted. Assignments... judgment, decree, or order, or evidence of qualification, is in full force. Any such evidence must...

  5. Evidence-based periodontal therapy: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, R.; Anitha, V.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Sudhakar, Uma

    2008-01-01

    Dentists need to make clinical decisions based on limited scientific evidence. In clinical practice, a clinician must weigh a myriad of evidences every day. The goal of evidence-based dentistry is to help practitioners provide their patients with optimal care. This is achieved by integrating sound research evidence with personal clinical expertise and patient values to determine the best course of treatment. Periodontology has a rich background of research and scholarship. Therefore, efficient use of this wealth of research data needs to be a part of periodontal practice. Evidence-based periodontology aims to facilitate such an approach and it offers a bridge from science to clinical practice. The clinician must integrate the evidence with patient preference, scientific knowledge, and personal experience. Most important, it allows us to care for our patients. Therefore, evidence-based periodontology is a tool to support decision-making and integrating the best evidence available with clinical practice. PMID:20142947

  6. 37 CFR 351.10 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 351.10 Section 351.10 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.10 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. All evidence that is relevant and not unduly repetitious or...

  7. 45 CFR 150.445 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 150.445 Section 150.445 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.445 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence....

  8. 45 CFR 160.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 160.540 Section 160.540 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except...

  9. 45 CFR 160.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 160.540 Section 160.540 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except...

  10. 45 CFR 160.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 160.540 Section 160.540 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except...

  11. 10 CFR 10.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false New evidence. 10.30 Section 10.30 Energy NUCLEAR... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.30 New evidence. After the close of the hearing, in the event the individual discovers new evidence not previously available or...

  12. 10 CFR 10.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New evidence. 10.30 Section 10.30 Energy NUCLEAR... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.30 New evidence. After the close of the hearing, in the event the individual discovers new evidence not previously available or...

  13. 10 CFR 10.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false New evidence. 10.30 Section 10.30 Energy NUCLEAR... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.30 New evidence. After the close of the hearing, in the event the individual discovers new evidence not previously available or...

  14. 10 CFR 10.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false New evidence. 10.30 Section 10.30 Energy NUCLEAR... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.30 New evidence. After the close of the hearing, in the event the individual discovers new evidence not previously available or...

  15. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Kenneth, Ed.; Schwandt, Thomas A., Ed.; Straf, Miron L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy" encourages scientists to think differently about the use of scientific evidence in policy making. This report investigates why scientific evidence is important to policy making and argues that an extensive body of research on knowledge utilization has not led to any widely accepted explanation…

  16. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  17. 19 CFR 171.43 - Evidence required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence required. 171.43 Section 171.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Restoration of Proceeds of Sale § 171.43 Evidence required. In addition to such other evidence as...

  18. 22 CFR 35.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 35.34 Section 35.34 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be...

  19. 29 CFR 22.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Evidence. 22.34 Section 22.34 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal...

  20. 12 CFR 263.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 263.36 Section 263.36 Banks and... PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 263.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is...

  1. 15 CFR 904.251 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 904.251 Section 904.251... and Appeal Procedures Hearings § 904.251 Evidence. (a) In general. (1) At the hearing, every party has the right to present oral or documentary evidence in support of its case or defense, to...

  2. 5 CFR 831.103 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 831.103 Section 831.103...) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.103 Evidence. (a) Standard Form 2806 (Individual..., the department, agency, or OPM should request inferior or secondary evidence which is then admissible....

  3. 28 CFR 71.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 71.34 Section 71.34 Judicial... REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 Implementation for Actions Initiated by the Department of Justice § 71.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the...

  4. 41 CFR 105-70.034 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 105-70.034...-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 105-70.034 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by...

  5. 8 CFR 315.3 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 315.3 Section 315.3 Aliens and...: EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY SERVICE § 315.3 Evidence. (a) The records of the Selective Service System and the military department under which the alien served shall be conclusive evidence of whether the alien...

  6. 39 CFR 952.18 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 952.18 Section 952.18 Postal Service... AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.18 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall govern. However, such rules may be relaxed to the extent that the...

  7. 49 CFR 31.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 31.34 Section 31.34 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not...

  8. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  9. 38 CFR 18b.57 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 18b.57 Section 18b.57 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PRACTICE AND... § 18b.57 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  10. 49 CFR 1503.635 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 1503.635 Section 1503.635 Transportation... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.635 Evidence. (a) General. A party is entitled to present the party's case or defense by oral, documentary, or demonstrative evidence, to submit...

  11. 13 CFR 134.312 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 134.312 Section 134.312 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES BEFORE THE... Designations § 134.312 Evidence. To the extent the rules in this subpart permit the submission of evidence,...

  12. 10 CFR 13.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.34 Section 13.34 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of...

  13. 12 CFR 747.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 747.36 Section 747.36 Banks and... Procedure § 747.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive is admissible to the fullest...

  14. 31 CFR 16.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 16.34 Section 16.34 Money... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of...

  15. 7 CFR 15.117 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 15.117 Section 15.117 Agriculture Office of... and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.117 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded, and technical rules...

  16. 12 CFR 308.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 308.36 Section 308.36 Banks and... PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly...

  17. 40 CFR 209.26 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 209.26 Section 209.26... Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.26 Evidence. (a) The official... record. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of...

  18. 49 CFR 211.75 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 211.75 Section 211.75 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Interim Procedures for the Review of Emergency Orders § 211.75 Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence for United States Courts and Magistrates shall be employed as general...

  19. 42 CFR 93.208 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 93.208 Section 93.208 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.208 Evidence. Evidence means any document, tangible item, or testimony offered...

  20. 42 CFR 430.88 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 430.88 Section 430.88 Public Health... Plans and Practice to Federal Requirements § 430.88 Evidence. (a) Evidentiary purpose. The hearing is directed to receiving factual evidence and expert opinion testimony related to the issues involved in...

  1. 5 CFR 831.905 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 831.905 Section 831.905...) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.905 Evidence. (a) An agency head's determination... determination under § 831.904 must be based on the official position description and any other evidence...

  2. 12 CFR 308.533 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 308.533 Section 308.533 Banks and... PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.533 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ will not be bound by the...

  3. 8 CFR 1240.46 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1240.46 Section 1240.46 Aliens....46 Evidence. (a) Sufficiency. A determination of deportability shall not be valid unless it is found by clear, unequivocal, and convincing evidence that the facts alleged as grounds for deportation...

  4. 19 CFR 210.37 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 210.37 Section 210.37 Customs Duties... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Prehearing Conferences and Hearings § 210.37 Evidence. (a) Burden of proof. The.... (b) Admissibility. Relevant, material, and reliable evidence shall be admitted....

  5. 31 CFR 353.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 353.23 Section 353.23 Money... BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Judicial Proceedings § 353.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity... insolvent's estate must be supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The...

  6. 49 CFR 845.26 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 845.26 Section 845.26 Transportation... PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Conduct of Hearing § 845.26 Evidence. The chairman of the board of inquiry shall receive all testimony and evidence which may be of aid...

  7. 39 CFR 964.10 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 964.10 Section 964.10 Postal Service... DELIVERY PURSUANT TO 39 U.S.C. 3003, 3004 § 964.10 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  8. Is Probabilistic Evidence a Source of Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments examining whether people ascribe knowledge for true beliefs based on probabilistic evidence. Participants were less likely to ascribe knowledge for beliefs based on probabilistic evidence than for beliefs based on perceptual evidence (Experiments 1 and 2A) or testimony providing causal information (Experiment 2B).…

  9. 31 CFR 10.73 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 10.73 Section 10.73 Money... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.73 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings or proceedings...

  10. 42 CFR 3.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 3.540 Section 3.540 Public Health PUBLIC... AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules...