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Sample records for exotic chinook salmon

  1. Dam breaching and Chinook salmon recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Rossignol, Philippe A.; Li, Hiram W.; Emlen, John M.; Kareiva, Peter; Marvier, Michelle; Michelle M. McClure

    2001-01-01

    The Report by Kareiva et al. on recovery and management options for spring/summer chinook salmon (1) has the potential to have a major impact in deciding whether to breach dams on the Snake River. Based on interpretation of their model results, they argue that dam breaching would be insufficient to reverse the decline of salmon. An examination of the specifics of their model, however, suggests that, despire their argument, dam breaching remains a viable recovery option for chinook salmon.

  2. A "virus" disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Epizootics among chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman National Fish Hatchery have occurred periodically since 1941. A virus or virus-like filterable agent has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of this disease.

  3. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  4. Evaluation of a chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in both the laboratory and the field. Chinook salmon in laboratory tanks were fed alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), the predominant food of chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. Food consumption and growth by chinook salmon during the experiment were measured. To estimate the efficiency with which chinook salmon retain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from their food in the laboratory, PCB concentrations of the alewife and of the chinook salmon at both the beginning and end of the experiment were determined. Based on our laboratory evaluation, the bioenergetics model was furnishing unbiased estimates of food consumption by chinook salmon. Additionally, from the laboratory experiment, we calculated that chinook salmon retained 75% of the PCBs contained within their food. In an earlier study, assimilation rate of PCBs to chinook salmon from their food in Lake Michigan was estimated at 53%, thereby suggesting that the model was substantially overestimating food consumption by chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. However, we concluded that field performance of the model could not be accurately assessed because PCB assimilation efficiency is dependent on feeding rate, and feeding rate of chinook salmon was likely much lower in our laboratory tanks than in Lake Michigan.

  5. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  6. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  7. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  8. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  9. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  10. Chinook salmon foraging patterns in a changing Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Since Pacific salmon stocking began in Lake Michigan, managers have attempted to maintain salmon abundance at high levels within what can be sustained by available prey fishes, primarily Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are the primary apex predators in pelagic Lake Michigan and patterns in their prey selection (by species and size) may strongly influence pelagic prey fish communities in any given year. In 1994–1996, there were larger Alewives, relatively more abundant alternative prey species, fewer Chinook Salmon, and fewer invasive species in Lake Michigan than in 2009–2010. The years 2009–2010 were instead characterized by smaller, leaner Alewives, fewer alternative prey species, higher abundance of Chinook Salmon, a firmly established nonnative benthic community, and reduced abundance of Diporeia, an important food of Lake Michigan prey fish. We characterized Chinook Salmon diets, prey species selectivity, and prey size selectivity between 1994–1996 and 2009–2010 time periods. In 1994–1996, Alewife as prey represented a smaller percentage of Chinook Salmon diets than in 2009–2010, when alewife comprised over 90% of Chinook Salmon diets, possibly due to declines in alternative prey fish populations. The size of Alewives eaten by Chinook Salmon also decreased between these two time periods. For the largest Chinook Salmon in 2009–2010, the average size of Alewife prey was nearly 50 mm total length shorter than in 1994–1996. We suggest that changes in the Lake Michigan food web, such as the decline in Diporeia, may have contributed to the relatively low abundance of large Alewives during the late 2000s by heightening the effect of predation from top predators like Chinook Salmon, which have retained a preference for Alewife and now forage with greater frequency on smaller Alewives.

  11. Kidney disease postorbital lesions in spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendricks, Jerry D.; Leek, Steve L.

    1975-01-01

    Gross exophthalmos in one or both eyes of yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was caused by postorbital, granulomatous inflammatory tissue that developed in response to invasion of the site by Corynebacterium sp., the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease.

  12. Chronic oral DDT toxicity in juvenile coho and chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhler, Donald R.; Rasmusson, Mary E.; Shanks, W.E.

    1969-01-01

    Technical and p,p′-DDT was incorporated into test diets and fed to juvenile chinook and coho salmon for periods as long as 95 days. Pure p,p′-DDT was slightly more toxic to young salmon than was the technical DDT mixture. Chinook salmon appeared to be 2–3 times more sensitive to a given concentration of DDT in the diet than were coho salmon. The size of the fish greatly influenced toxicity, smaller younger fish being more susceptible to a given diet than larger older fish. The dose of DDT accumulated within the median survival time ranged from 27–73 mg/kg for chinook salmon and from 56–72 mg/kg for coho salmon. The extrapolated 90-dose LD50 (Hayes, 1967) for young chinook and coho salmon were 0.0275 and 0.064 mg/kg/day, respectively. Liver size decreased on prolonged feeding with DDT, and carcass lipid content was increased. A severe surface ulceration of the nose region appeared in coho salmon fed DDT over long periods. In addition, an interesting localized degeneration of the distal convoluted tubule was observed in the kidney of coho salmon receiving DDT.

  13. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  14. 75 FR 32378 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection; Workshop for Industry Review of Data Forms AGENCY... Bering Sea pollock trawl industry on data forms for evaluating the Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch... knowledgeable about industry plans and operations for avoiding Chinook salmon bycatch. DATES: The...

  15. Partial migration in introduced wild chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Miguel; Niklitschek, Edwin J.; Secor, Dave H.; Piccoli, Philip M.

    2014-08-01

    Partial migration, the incidence of opposing migration behaviors within the same population, has been a key factor in the invasive ecology of Pacific salmon within South America. Here, we examined such life-cycle variation in of an introduced chinook salmon population in the Aysén watershed, one of the largest fjord systems in NW Patagonia. The chinook salmon is the most successful invasive salmonid species in Patagonia and has recently colonized numerous Patagonian watersheds of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Using analyses of fish scales and otolith strontium:calcium ratios, our results suggest the presence of two distinct ecotypes in the chinook population, an ocean type and a stream type, in a 3:2 ratio. The distribution of back-calculated length at the time of emigration from river to marine habitats showed a mode of 14 cm for the ocean ecotype and 30 cm for the stream ecotype. River residence time for the ocean ecotype ranged from 1 to 10 months, while that of the stream ecotype varied between 14 and 20 months. Returning adults reproduced in riverine habitats between August and March, but reproduction by the stream ecotype was limited to the period between October and February. Our results show that exotic chinook salmon populations established in NW Patagonia present a diversity of life-history strategies, which seems to be as large as the ones exhibited by the species in its native distribution range and in other invaded ecosystems. Chinook salmon have successfully invaded most major rivers in Patagonia, placing priority on science and conservation related to their ecological impact.

  16. Major histocompatibility complex differentiation in Sacramento River chinook salmon.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, T J; Parker, K M; Hedrick, P W

    1999-01-01

    The chinook salmon of the Sacramento River, California, have been reduced to a fraction of their former abundance because of human impact and use of the river system. Here we examine the genetic variation at a major histocompatibility complex class II exon in the four Sacramento chinook salmon runs. Examination of the alleles found in these and other chinook salmon revealed nucleotide patterns consistent with selection for amino acid replacement at the putative antigen-binding sites. We found a significant amount of variation in each of the runs, including the federally endangered winter run. All of the samples were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. A significant amount of genetic differentiation between runs was revealed by several measures of differentiation. Winter run was the most genetically divergent, while the spring, late-fall, and fall runs were less differentiated. PMID:10049927

  17. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  18. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A.

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  19. Basis for managing the harvest of Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of estimated spawner-recruit relations for populations of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from British Columbia to California, harvest fractions of 60-70% may be reasonable for stocks for which the productivities are not known. Care should be taken to detect and to avoid excessive harvest from stocks with low productivity.

  20. Diet composition and feeding periodicity of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Diel feeding periodicity, daily ration, and diet composition of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were examined in Lake Ontario and the Salmon River, New York. The diet of wild riverine salmon was composed mainly of aquatic invertebrates (63.4%), mostly ephemeropterans (25.8%), chiromomids (15.8%), and trichopterans (8.3%). The diet of riverine Chinook was more closely associated with the composition of drift samples rather than bottom samples, suggesting mid-water feeding. In Lake Ontario terrestrial invertebrates were more important in the diet of hatchery Chinook (49.0%) than wild salmon (30.5%) and diet overlap between hatchery and wild salmon was low (0.46%). The diet of both hatchery and wild Chinook salmon was more closely associated with the composition of mid-water invertebrate samples rather than benthic core samples, indicating mid-water and surface feeding. Hatchery Chinook salmon consumed significantly less food (P < 0.05) than wild Chinook salmon in the lake and in the river, and wild salmon from Lake Ontario consumed more food than wild salmon in the Salmon River. Peak feeding of wild Chinook salmon occurred between 1200-1600 hours in Lake Ontario and between 1600-2000 hours in the Salmon River; there was no discernable feeding peak for the hatchery Chinook in Lake Ontario. Hatchery Chinook salmon also had the least diverse diet over the 24-hour sample period. These results suggest that at 7 days post-stocking hatchery Chinook salmon had not yet fully adapted to their new environment.

  1. Behavioral thermoregulation by juvenile spring and fall chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, during smoltification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, S.T.; Crawshaw, L.I.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Fall chinook salmon evolved to emigrate during the summer months. The shift in the temperature preference we observed in smolting fall chinook but not spring chinook salmon may reflect a phylogenetic adaptation to summer emigration by (1) providing directional orientation as fall chinook salmon move into the marine environment, (2) maintaining optimal gill function during emigration and seawater entry, and/or (3) resetting thermoregulatory set-points to support physiological homeostasis once smolted fish enter the marine environment. Phylogenetically determined temperature adaptations and responses to thermal stress may not protect fall chinook salmon from the recent higher summer water temperatures, altered annual thermal regimes, and degraded cold water refugia that result from hydropower regulation of the Columbia and Snake rivers. The long-term survival of fall chinook salmon will likely require restoration of normal annual thermographs and rigorous changes in land use practices to protect critical thermal refugia and control maximum summer water temperatures in reservoirs.

  2. Basis of acoustic discrimination of Chinook salmon from other salmons by echolocating Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Horne, John K; Jones, Christopher

    2010-10-01

    The "resident" ecotype of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the waters of British Columbia and Washington State have a strong preference for Chinook salmon even in months when Chinook comprise less than about 10% of the salmon population. The foraging behavior of killer whales suggests that they depend on echolocation to detect and recognize their prey. In order to determine possible cues in echoes from salmon species, a series of backscatter measurements were made at the Applied Physics Laboratory (Univ. of Wash.) Facility on Lake Union, on three different salmon species using simulated killer whale echolocation signals. The fish were attached to a monofilament net panel and rotated while echoes were collected, digitized and stored on a laptop computer. Three transducer depths were used; same depth, 22° and 45° above the horizontal plane of the fish. Echoes were collected from five Chinook, three coho and one sockeye salmon. Radiograph images of all specimens were obtained to examine the swimbladder shape and orientation. The results show that echo structure from similar length but different species of salmon were different and probably recognizable by foraging killer whales. PMID:20968392

  3. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  8. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2000-04-01

    This report is separated into 2 chapters. The chapters are (1) Progress toward determining the spawning distribution of supplemented fall chinook salmon in the Snake River in 1999; and (2) Fall chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in the Snake River, 1999.

  9. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  10. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  11. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  12. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  13. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  14. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  15. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  16. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  17. Evidence for a carrier state of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    St Hilaire, S; Ribble, C; Traxler, G; Davies, T; Kent, M L

    2001-10-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is prevalent in wild sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and has caused disease in seawater net-pen reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. In this study, chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha experimentally exposed to an isolate of IHNV found in British Columbia became carriers of the virus. When Atlantic salmon were cohabited with these virus-exposed chinook salmon, IHNV was isolated from the Atlantic salmon. Identification of chinook salmon populations that have been exposed to IHNV may be difficult, as virus isolation was successful only in fish that were concurrently infected with either Renibacterium salmoninarum or Piscirickettisia salmonis. Also, IHNV-specific antibodies were detected in only 2 of the 70 fish experimentally exposed to the virus. Two samples collected from chinook salmon exposed to IHNV while at a salt water net-pen site had a seroprevalence of 19 and 22%; however, the inconsistencies between our laboratory and field data suggest that further research is required before we can rely on serological analysis for identifying potential carrier populations. Because of the difficulty in determining the exposure status of populations of chinook salmon, especially if there is no concurrent disease, it may be prudent not to cohabit Atlantic salmon with chinook salmon on a farm if there is any possibility that the latter have been exposed to the virus. PMID:11710551

  18. Transmission and persistence of Ceratonova shasta genotypes in Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Charlene N; Wong, Peter; Hallett, Sascha L; Ray, R Adam; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2014-12-01

    Ceratonova shasta is a myxozoan parasite of salmon and trout transmitted by waterborne actinospores. Based on DNA sequence data and host specificity, 4 distinct parasite genotypes are recognized. Genotypes I and II are common in the lower reaches of the Klamath River, Oregon-California, but only infection by genotype I causes mortality in Chinook salmon. We conducted sentinel fish exposures and determined genotype composition in river water during exposure, and in fish gills, intestine, and tank water post-exposure to determine whether: (1) transmission of parasites having different genotypes is host-specific and (2) all transmitted genotypes persist in the host through to release as waterborne stages. Initial parasite transmission to the fish host appears indiscriminant, since we detected both genotypes I and II in 83.6% of the fish gills sampled. However, only genotype I was detected in fish that succumbed to infection, while both genotypes persisted in fish that survived. Persistence was likely dependent on exposure dose, initial infection type (mixed or single) and infection outcome (mortality or survival). The transmission of both genotypes to a majority of Chinook salmon and the persistence of multiple genotypes raises questions about how infection with mixed genotypes could result in within-host interactions that affect disease severity. PMID:24945751

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Ovarian Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Villarroel, Marsha; Rosengrave, Patrice; Carne, Alan; Kleffmann, Torsten; Lokman, P. Mark; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species. PMID:25089903

  20. Proteomic analysis of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Villarroel, Marsha; Rosengrave, Patrice; Carne, Alan; Kleffmann, Torsten; Lokman, P Mark; Gemmell, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species. PMID:25089903

  1. Red and white Chinook salmon: genetic divergence and mate choice.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Sarah J; Pitcher, Trevor E; Devlin, Robert H; Heath, Daniel D

    2016-03-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exhibit extreme differences in coloration of skin, eggs and flesh due to genetic polymorphisms affecting carotenoid deposition, where colour can range from white to bright red. A sympatric population of red and white Chinook salmon occurs in the Quesnel River, British Columbia, where frequencies of each phenotype are relatively equal. In our study, we examined evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the morphs, where we first tested whether morphs were reproductively isolated using microsatellite genotyping, and second, using breeding trials in seminatural spawning channels, we tested whether colour assortative mate choice could be operating to maintain the polymorphism in nature. Next, given extreme difference in carotenoid assimilation and the importance of carotenoids to immune function, we examined mate choice and selection between colour morphs at immune genes (major histocompatibility complex genes: MHC I-A1 and MHC II-B1). In our study, red and white individuals were found to interbreed, and under seminatural conditions, some degree of colour assortative mate choice (71% of matings) was observed. We found significant genetic differences at both MHC genes between morphs, but no evidence of MHC II-B1-based mate choice. White individuals were more heterozygous at MHC II-B1 compared with red individuals, and morphs showed significant allele frequency differences at MHC I-A1. Although colour assortative mate choice is likely not a primary mechanism maintaining the polymorphisms in the population, our results suggest that selection is operating differentially at immune genes in red and white Chinook salmon, possibly due to differences in carotenoid utilization. PMID:26836978

  2. A Virus-like disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Pelnar, J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Consideration is given to a recurring disease of early feeding chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman, California, Federal Fish Cultural Station. The infection becomes manifest in the early spring months at low water temperatures and abates as the water temperature rises. Bacteriological studies have failed to yield the presence of a disease agent, either by cultural or staining procedures. The disease has been successfully transmitted from infected fish to healthy fish by the injection of bacteria-free filtrates prepared from diseased fish tissue. The causative agent is therefore believed to be a virus-like entity.

  3. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  4. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  5. Comparative diets of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) have established naturalized populations throughout the Great Lakes. Young-of-year of these species occur sympatrically for about one month in Lake Ontario tributaries. This study examined the diets of subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead relative to available food in the Salmon River, New York. Terrestrial invertebrates and trichopterans were the major prey of Chinook salmon, whereas steelhead fed primarily on baetid nymphs and chironomid larvae. Diet overlap was low (0.45) between the species. The diet of Chinook was closely associated to the composition of the drift (0.88). Steelhead diet drew equally from the drift and benthos during the first year of the study, but more closely matched the benthos during the second year. Differences in prey selection, perhaps associated with differences in fish size, in addition to apparent differences in feeding mode (drift versus benthic), likely reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  6. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon during Barge Transport

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Skalski, J. R.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-12-01

    To mitigate for fish losses related to passage through the Federal Columbia River Power System, an extensive fish transportation program using barges and trucks to move fish around and downstream of dams and reservoirs was implemented in 1981. Population modeling and other analyses to support Pacific salmon recovery efforts have assumed that the survival of juvenile salmonids during the transportation experience was 98%. To estimate survival during barge transport from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to a release area downstream of Bonneville Dam, a distance of 470 km, we used a novel adaptation of a release-recapture model with acoustic-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts. A total of 1,494 yearling Chinook salmon were surgically implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponders (PIT) and divided into three groups. The three tagged groups consisted of; (1) a group which was released into the raceway with the population of fish which were later loaded into transportation barges (R{sub B}), (2) a group which was held in a net-pen suspended within the general barge population until 5-6 h prior to barge evacuation, at which time they were confirmed to be alive and then released into the general barge population (R{sub A}), and (3) to validate a model assumption, a group which was euthanized and released into the barge population 2-8 h prior to barge evacuation (R{sub D}). Six replicates of these groups were loaded onto fish transport barges that departed Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River between 29 April and 13 May, 2010. Acoustic receiver arrays between 70 and 220 km downstream of the barge evacuation site were used to detect tagged fish and served as the basis for estimation of survival within the barge. Tag-life-corrected estimates of reach survival were calculated for barged and control fish in each of the six replicate trials. The ratio of survival from

  7. Oxidative stress in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welker, T.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), were held in 8-11??C freshwater, starved for 3 days and subjected to a low-water stressor to determine the relationship between the general stress response and oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels (lipid hydroperoxides) were measured in kidney, liver and brain samples taken at the beginning of the experiment (0-h unstressed controls) and at 6, 24 and 48 h after application of a continuous low-water stressor. Tissue samples were also taken at 48 h from fish that had not been exposed to the stressor (48-h unstressed controls). Exposure to the low-water stressor affected LPO in kidney and brain tissues. In kidney, LPO decreased 6 h after imposition of the stressor; similar but less pronounced decreases also occurred in the liver and brain. At 48 h, LPO increased (in comparison with 6-h stressed tissues) in the kidney and brain. In comparison with 48-h unstressed controls, LPO levels were higher in the kidney and brain of stressed fish. Although preliminary, results suggest that stress can cause oxidative tissue damage in juvenile chinook salmon. Measures of oxidative stress have shown similar responses to stress in mammals; however, further research is needed to determine the extent of the stress-oxidative stress relationship and the underlying physiological mechanisms in fish.

  8. Smolt Quality Assessment of Spring Chinook Salmon : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1991-04-01

    The physiological development and physiological condition of spring chinook salmon are being studied at several hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of the study is to determine whether any or several smolt indices can be related to adult recovery and be used to improve hatchery effectiveness. The tests conducted in 1989 on juvenile chinook salmon at Dworshak, Leavenworth, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries, and the Oregon State Willamette Hatchery assessed saltwater tolerance, gill ATPase, cortisol, insulin, thyroid hormones, secondary stress, fish morphology, metabolic energy stores, immune response, blood cell numbers, and plasma ion concentrations. The study showed that smolt development may have occurred before the fish were released from the Willamette Hatchery, but not from the Dworshak, Leavenworth, or Warm Springs Hatcheries. These results will be compared to adult recovery data when they become available, to determine which smolt quality indices may be used to predict adult recovery. The relative rankings of smolt quality at the different hatcheries do not necessarily reflect the competency of the hatchery managers and staff, who have shown a high degree of professionalism and expertise in fish rearing. We believe that the differences in smolt quality are due to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. One aim of this research is to identify factors that influence smolt development and that may be controlled through fish husbandry to regulate smolt development. 35 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Ontogeny of the stress response in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feist, G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Whole body concentrations of cortisol were determined via radioimmunoassay in chinook salmon, Onchorynchus tshawytscha, during early development in both stressed and non-stressed fish to determine when the corticosteroidogenic stress response first appeared. Progeny from both pooled and individual females were examined to determine if differences existed in offspring from different females. Levels of cortisol were low in eyed eggs, increased at hatch, decreased 2 weeks later and then remained constant thereafter. Differences in cortisol between stressed and control fish were found 1 week after hatch and persisted for the remainder of the study. The magnitude of the stress response, or relative amount of cortisol produced, generally increased from the time when it was first detected, but a decrease in the ability to elicit cortisol was seen 4 weeks after hatching. Cortisol content of separate progeny from two individual females showed a similar pattern to that seen in pooled eggs. Our results indicate that chinook salmon are capable of producing cortisol following a stressful event approximately 1 week after the time of hatching. The decrease in endogenous cortisol content seen 2 weeks after hatching, and the decrease in the magnitude of the stress response seen 4 weeks after hatching may be comparable to developmental events documented in mammals where corticosteroid synthesis is inhibited to neutralize possible detrimental effects of these hormones during critical periods of development.

  10. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2016-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48 h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  11. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 43 appendices for the Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries'' report. This study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall Chinook Salmon from the Columbia River.

  12. NEW EYE DISEASE IN PEN-REARED CHINOOK SALMON CAUSED BY METACESTODES OF GILQUINIA SQUALI (TRYPANORHYNCHA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eye infections by metacestodes of Gilcruinia squali (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) caused mortality in seawater netpen reared chinook salmon, ncorhynchus tshawytscha, at two locations in British Columbia, Canada. ortality associated with the disease was approximately 105 at one site a...

  13. SYSTEMIC HEXAMITID (PROTOZOA: DIPLOMONADIDA) INFECTION IN SEAWATER PEN-REARED CHINOOK SALMON ONCORHYNCHUS TSSHAWYTSCHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systemic infection with a diplomonad flagellate resembling Hexamita salmonis caused high mortality in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, reared at a seawater netpen farm in British Columbia, Canada. ffected fish were anemic and had swollen abdomens containing serosanguin...

  14. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  15. Color Photographic Index of Fall Chinook Salmon Embryonic Development and Accumulated Thermal Units

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, James W.; Oldenburg, Eric W.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the relationship between accumulated thermal units and developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos can be used to determine the approximate date of egg fertilization in natural redds, thus providing insight into oviposition timing of wild salmonids. However, few studies have documented time to different developmental stages of embryonic Chinook salmon and no reference color photographs are available. The objectives of this study were to construct an index relating developmental stages of hatchery-reared fall Chinook salmon embryos to time and temperature (e.g., degree days) and provide high-quality color photographs of each identified developmental stage. Methodology/Principal Findings Fall Chinook salmon eggs were fertilized in a hatchery environment and sampled approximately every 72 h post-fertilization until 50% hatch. Known embryonic developmental features described for sockeye salmon were used to describe development of Chinook salmon embryos. A thermal sums model was used to describe the relationship between embryonic development rate and water temperature. Mean water temperature was 8.0°C (range; 3.9–11.7°C) during the study period. Nineteen stages of embryonic development were identified for fall Chinook salmon; two stages in the cleavage phase, one stage in the gastrulation phase, and sixteen stages in the organogenesis phase. The thermal sums model used in this study provided similar estimates of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development rate in water temperatures varying from 3.9–11.7°C (mean = 8°C) to those from several other studies rearing embryos in constant 8°C water temperature. Conclusions/Significance The developmental index provides a reasonable description of timing to known developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos and was useful in determining developmental stages of wild fall Chinook salmon embryos excavated from redds in the Columbia River. This index should prove useful to other researchers who

  16. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the

  17. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  18. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.P.

    2009-01-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Escapement

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon and chum salmon detected by restriction enzyme analysis of polymerase chain reaction products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.; Spearman, R.; Wilmot, R.; Patton, J.; Bickman, J.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon from drainages in the Yukon River, the Kenai River, and Oregon and California rivers; and chum salmon from the Yukon River and vancouver Island, and Washington rivers. For each species, three different portions of the mtDNA molecule were amplified seperately using the polymerase chain reaction and then digested with at least 19 restrictions enzymes. Intraspecific sequence divergences between haplotypes were less than 0.01 base subsitution per nucleotide. Nine chum salmon haplotypes were identified. Yukon River chum salmon stocks displayed more haplotypes (8) occurred in all areas. Seven chinook salmon haplotypes were identified. Four haplotypes occurred in the Yukon and Kenai rviers and four occured in the Oregon/California, with only one haplotype shared between the regions. Sample sizes were too small to quantify the degree of stock seperation among drainages, but the patterns of variation that we observed suggest utility of the technique in genetic stock identification.

  20. Identification of Saprolegnia Spp. Pathogenic in Chinook Salmon : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Whisler, Howard C.

    1997-06-01

    This project has developed procedures to assess the role of the fungal parasite, Saprolegnia in the biology of salmon, particularly adult Chinook, in the Columbia River Basin. Both morphological and DNA ``fingerprinting`` surveys reveal that Saprolegnia parasitica (=S. diclina, Type I) is the most common pathogen of these fish. In the first phase of this study 92% of 620 isolates, from salmon lesions, conformed to this taxa of Saprolegnia. In the current phase, the authors have developed variants of DNA fingerprinting (RAPD and SWAPP analysis) that permit examination of the sub-structure of the parasite population. These results confirm the predominance of S. parasitica, and suggest that at least three different sub-groups of this fungus occur in the Pacific N.W., USA. The use of single and paired primers with PCR amplification permits identification of pathogenic types, and distinction from other species of the genus considered to be more saprophytic in character. A year`s survey of saprolegniaceous fungi from Lake Washington indicated that the fish-pathogen was not common in the water column. Where and how fish encounter this parasite can be approached with the molecular tags identified in this project.

  1. Genetic variation in chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho, O. Kisutchsalmon from the north coast of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    We used starch-gel electrophoresis to genetically characterize the populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho salmon, O. kisutch, in the major drainages of the north coast of Washington (the Quillayute, Uoh, Queets, and Quinault Rivers). Of 55 loci examined for electrophoretically detectable variation. 6 were polymorphic (frequency of the common allele was less than 0.95) in chinook salmon and 3 in coho salmon. Statistical tests of interdrainage and intradrainage variation for coho salmon were tenuous because most of the fish examined were from a single year class so that we could not account for variation among year classes. Nevertheless, these tests suggested that distinct stocks ofcoho salmon exist within drainages. and that variation was not significantly greater among drainages than within drainages. Interdrainage variation for wild chinook salmon was not significant. The data suggested that summer chinook salmon were electrophoretically different from fall chinook salmon, and the hatchery populations of chinook salmon were distinct from wild fish. A hatchery population developed primarily from north coast fish was electrophoretically more similar to wild chinook salmon than were the others.

  2. Synchronous cycling of Ichthyophoniasis with Chinook salmon density revealed during the annual Yukon River spawning migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuray, Stanley; Kocan, Richard; Hershberger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Yukon River declined by more than 57% between 2003 and 2010, probably the result of a combination of anthropogenic and environmental factors. One possible contributor to this decline is Ichthyophonus, a mesomycetozoan parasite that has previously been implicated in significant losses of fish, including Chinook salmon. A multiyear epidemiological study of ichthyophoniasis in the Yukon River revealed that disease prevalence and Chinook salmon population abundance increased and decreased simultaneously (i.e., were concordant) from 1999 to 2010. The two values rose and fell synchronously 91% of the time for female Chinook salmon and 82% of the time for males; however, there was no significant correlation between Ichthyophonus prevalence and population abundance. This synchronicity might be explained by a single factor, such as a prey item that is critical to Chinook salmon survival as well as a source of Ichthyophonus infection. The host–parasite relationship between Ichthyophonus and migrating Chinook salmon from 2004 to 2010 was similar to that reported for the previous 5 years. During 2004–2010, overall disease prevalence was significantly higher among females (21%) than among males (8%), increased linearly with fish length for both males and females, and increased in both sexes as the fish progressed upriver. These regularly occurring features of host–parasite dynamics confirm a stable base of transmission for Ichthyophonus. However, from 2003 to 2010, disease prevalence decreased from 30% to just 8% in males and from 45% to 9% in females, paralleling a similar decline in Chinook salmon abundance during the same period. These findings may help clarify questions regarding the complex host–parasite dynamics that occur in marine species such as herrings Clupea spp., which have less well-defined population structures.

  3. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out Allocation and... Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out... pollock Column E Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (8,093) Column F Number of...

  4. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  5. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  6. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out Allocation and... Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out... pollock Column E Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (8,093) Column F Number of...

  7. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out Allocation and... Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out... pollock Column E Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (8,093) Column F Number of...

  8. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  9. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  10. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  11. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out Allocation and... Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out... pollock Column E Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (8,093) Column F Number of...

  12. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out Allocation and... Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out... pollock Column E Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (8,093) Column F Number of...

  13. Migration of precocious male hatchery chinook salmon in the Umatilla River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.; Stonecypher, R.W., Jr.; Hayes, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1993 and 2000, precocious yearling males of hatchery-produced fall and spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha composed 3.6-82.1% of chinook salmon runs to the Umatilla River, Oregon. These yearling males are smaller than typical jack salmon, which spend a full winter in the ocean, and are commonly referred to as "mini jacks." Minijack fall chinook salmon are characterized by enlarged testes and an increased gonadosomatic index. Our goal was to determine if minijacks migrated to saltwater between the time they are released from the hatchery and the time they return to the Umatilla River, a period of 4-6 months. During 1999-2000, we collected otoliths from an adult male fall chinook salmon, 12 spring chinook salmon minijacks, and 10 fall chinook salmon minijacks. We measured strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios from the age-1 annulus to the edge of the otolith to determine whether these fish had migrated to the ocean. The Sr:Ca ratios increased from low values near the age-1 annulus, similar to ratios expected from freshwaters, to higher values near the edge of the otolith. The Sr:Ca ratios increased to levels similar to ratios expected in saltwater, indicating that these fish had migrated to saltwater before returning to the Umatilla River. Analysis of published water chemistry data from the Columbia and Snake rivers and rearing experiments in the main-stem Columbia River confirmed that high Sr:Ca ratios measured in otoliths were not the result of high strontium levels encountered in the freshwater environment. Previously assumed to remain within freshwater and near the point of release, our results suggest these minijack salmon migrated at least 800 km and past three hydroelectric dams to reach saltwater and return to the Umatilla River.

  14. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D.

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  15. 76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...NMFS proposes to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for the Bering Sea pollock fishery that were implemented under Amendment 91 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). The data collected for this program would be submitted by......

  16. Early life history and survival of natural subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Bjornn, Theodore C.; Burge, Howard L.; Garcia, Aaron P.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this segment of our study were to (1) describe the early life history characteristics of naturally produced subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and (2) estimate survival for juvenile fall chinook salmon emigrating from the Snake and Clearwater rivers to the tail race of Lower Granite Dam.

  17. Identification of juvenile fall versus spring chinook salmon migrating through the lower Snake River based on body morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Garland, R.D.; Verhey, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the use of body morphology to distinguish among subyearling fall-run, subyearling spring-run, and yearling spring-run smolts of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at two lower Snake River dams during the summer emigration. Based on principal-components analysis, subyearling fall-run chinook salmon had smaller heads and eyes, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling spring-run chinook salmon had characteristics of both subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon were classified with more than 80% accuracy by means of discriminant analysis. Classification accuracy for subyearling spring-run chinook salmon was only 26%. We conclude that body morphology can be used to accurately identify the age of chinook salmon smolts but not the run. Therefore, genetic analyses are the only means of reliably determining the run composition of summer migrants in the lower Snake River.

  18. Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study: Spring Chinook Salmon, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric

    1994-09-01

    As part of the presupplementation planning, baseline data on the productivity of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River have been collected. However, for adult salmonids, data on habitat use, delays in passage at irrigation diversions, migration rates, and substock separation had not been previously collected. In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service began a 2-year radio-telemetry study of adult spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River Basin. Specific objectives addressed in this study were: to determine spawning populations` run timing, passage patterns at irrigation diversion dams, and morphometric characteristics to determine where and when substocks become separated; to evaluate fish passage at Yakima River Basin diversion dams including Prosser, Sunnyside, Wapato, Roza, Town Diversion, Easton, Cowiche, and Wapatox Dams; to determine spring chinook salmon migration rates between Yakima River Basin dams, prespawning behavior, temporal distribution, and habitat utilization; to identify spawning distribution and timing of spring chinook salmon; to determine the amount and cause of prespawning mortality of spring chinook salmon; and to evaluate adult fish-handling procedures for the right-bank, adult-trapping facility at Prosser Dam.

  19. Shedding of Renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKibben, C.L.; Pascho, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of Renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne R. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. To quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13??C in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with R. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 106 colony forming units (CFU) fish-1 (high-dose injection group) or 1.5 x 103 CFU fish-1 (low-dose injection group). R. salmoninarum infection levels were measured in the exposed fish by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BKD-ELISA). At regular intervals for 30 d, the numbers of R. salmoninarum shed by the injected fish were calculated on the basis of testing water samples by the membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT) and bacteriological culture. Mean BKD-ELISA optical densities (ODs) for fish in the low-dose injection group were not different from those of control fish [p > 0.05), and no R. salmoninarum were detected in water samples taken up to 30 d after injection of fish in the low-dose group. By 12 d after injection a proportion of the fish from the high-dose infection group had high (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 1.000) to severe (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 2.000) R. salmoninarum infection levels, and bacteria were detected in the water by both tests. However, measurable levels of R. salmoninarum were not consistently detected in the water until a proportion of the fish maintained high to severe infection levels for an additional 8 d. The concentrations of R salmoninarum in the water samples ranged from undetectable up to 994 cells ml-1 on the basis of the MF-FAT, and up to 1850 CFU ml-1 on the basis of bacteriological culture. The results suggest that chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum by injection of approximately 1 x 106 CFU fish-1 can be used as the source of infection in cohabitation challenges beginning 20 darter injection.

  20. Shedding of Renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha.

    PubMed

    McKibben, C L; Pascho, R J

    1999-10-11

    Laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of Renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne R. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. To quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13 degrees C in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with R. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) fish (-1) (high-dose injection group) or 1.5 x 10(3) CFU fish (-1) (low-dose injection group). R. salmoninarum infection levels were measured in the exposed fish by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BKD-ELISA). At regular intervals for 30 d, the numbers of R. salmoninarum shed by the injected fish were calculated on the basis of testing water samples by the membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT) and bacteriological culture. Mean BKD-ELISA optical densities (ODs) for fish in the low-dose injection group were not different from those control fish (p > 0.05), and no R. salmoninarum were detected in water samples taken up to 30 d after injection of fish in the low-dose group. By 12 d after injection a proportion of the fish from the high-dose infection group had high (BKD-ELISA OD > or = 1.000) to severe (BKD-ELISA OD > or = 2.000) R. salmoninarum infection levels, and bacteria were detected in the water by both tests. However, measurable levels of R. salmoninarum were not consistently detected in the water until a proportion of the fish maintained high to severe infection levels for an additional 8 d. The concentrations of R. salmoninarum in the water samples ranged from undetectable up to 994 cells ml(-1) on the basis of the MF-FAT, and up to 1850 CFU ml(-1) on the basis of bacteriological culture. The results suggest that chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum by injection of approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU fish (-1) can be used as the source of infection in cohabitation challenges

  1. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Miller, Alan C.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began a smolt monitoring study on the Imnaha River in cooperation with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from March 1 to June 15, 1994. We PIT tagged and released 956 wild chinook salmon, 661 hatchery chinook salmon, 1,432 wild steelhead trout and 2,029 hatchery steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 62.2% for wild chinook salmon, 45.2% for hatchery chinook salmon, 51.3% for wild steelhead trout, and 34.3% for hatchery steelhead trout.

  2. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Li, Hiran W.; Hjort, Randy C.

    1986-08-01

    For the first time genetic similarities among chinook salmon and among steelhead trout stocks of the Columbia River were determined using a holistic approach including analysis of life history, biochemical, body shape and meristic characters. We examined between year differences for each of the stock characteristics and we also correlated the habitat characteristics with the wild stock characteristics. The most important principle for managing stocks of Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead trout is that geographically proximal stocks tend to be like each other. Run timing and similarity of the stream systems should be taken into account when managing stocks. There are similarities in the classifications derived for chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Steelhead trout or chinook salmon tend to be genetically similar to other steelhead or chinook stocks, respectively, that originate from natal streams that are geographically close, regardless of time of freshwater entry. The primary exception Lo this trend is between stocks of spring and fall chinook in the upper Columbia River where fish with the different run timings are dissimilar, though geographically proximate stocks within a run form are generally very similar. Spring chinook stocks have stronger affinities to other spring chinook stocks that originate in the same side of the Cascade Range than to these Spring chinook stock: spawned on the other side of the Cascade Range. Spring chinook from west of the Cascades are more closely related to fall chinook than they are to spring chinook from east of the Cascades. Summer chinook can be divided into two main groups: (1) populations in the upper Columbia River that smolt as subyearlings and fall chinook stocks; and (2) summer chinook stocks from the Salmon River, Idaho, which smolt as yearlings and are similar to spring chinook stocks from Idaho. Fall chinook appear to comprise one large diverse group that is not easily subdivided into smaller subgroups. In

  3. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, John G.; Bjornn , Theodore C.

    1998-05-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed the second year of cooperative research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. In spring and early summer, we captured natural subyearling fall chinook salmon by beach seine, PIT tagged them, and released them in two reaches of the Snake River. Also, subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at Lyons Ferry Hatchery were PIT tagged at the hatchery, transported, and released weekly at Pittsburg Landing on the Snake River and Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River to collect data on survival detection probabilities, and travel time.

  4. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms, and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Brown, Richard S. ); Cullinan, Valerie I. ); Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A. )

    2003-10-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rates of adult spring Chinook salmon and compared these values to other species of Pacific salmon. Our results indicated that adult salmon achieve their maximum level of oxygen consumption at about their upper critical swim speed. It is also at this speed that the majority of the energy supplied to the swimming fish switches from red muscle (powered by aerobic metabolism) to white muscle (powered by anaerobic metabolism). Determining the swimming performance of adult salmon will assist managers in developing fishways and other means to safely pass fish over hydroelectric dams and other man-made structures.

  5. Climate variability and the collapse of a Chinook salmon stock (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindley, S.; Mohr, M.; Peterson, W. T.; Grimes, C.; Stein, J.; Anderson, J.; Botsford, L. W.; Bottom, D.; Busack, C.; Collier, T.; Ferguson, J.; Garza, C.; Grover, A.; Hankin, D.; Kope, R.; Lawson, P.; Low, A.; Macfarlane, B.; Moore, K.; Palmer-Zwahlen, M.; Schwing, F. B.; Smith, J.; Tracy, C.; Webb, R. S.; Wells, B.; Williams, T.

    2009-12-01

    As recently as 2002, nearly 1.5 million Sacrament River fall Chinook (SRFC) were caught in fisheries or returned to the Sacramento River basin to spawn. Only 66,000 spawners returned to natural areas and hatcheries in 2008. As a result of this dramatic decline, fisheries for Chinook salmon off California and Oregon were closed to protect SRFC in 2008 and 2009. In this paper, we show that the proximate cause of this unprecedented collapse was unusual but perhaps not unprecedented oceanographic conditions in the coastal ocean that created poor feeding conditions for juvenile salmon. The ultimate cause of the collapse may be the declining resilience of the Central Valley chinook complex that has been driven by a century and a half of land and water development. A simple conceptual model illustrates how the dynamics of a salmon population supplemented by hatchery production are influenced by trends in freshwater environmental quality, hatchery production, fitness, and climate. The model predicts that SRFC will recover to higher levels of abundance when ocean conditions improve (which may already be happening), only to decline sharply when ocean conditions again turn poor. Improving the sustainability of the Chinook salmon fishery depends on reversing trends in freshwater and estuarine habitat quality and quantity, which should also benefit runs of Chinook protected by the Endangered Species Act. Ecosystem-based management and ecological risk assessment will be required to make progress on these challenging problems, which are being exacerbated by climate change and human development.

  6. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-09-15

    This study was initiated to provide empirical data and analyses on the dam passage timing, travel rate, survival, and life history variation of fall Chinook salmon that are produced in the Clearwater River. The area of interest for this study focuses on the lower four miles of the Clearwater River and its confluence with the Snake River because this is an area where many fish delay their seaward migration. The goal of the project is to increase our understanding of the environmental and biological factors that affect juvenile life history of fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. The following summaries are provided for each of the individual chapters in this report.

  7. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  8. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  9. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Matthews, Gene M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing. The authors PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1993, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary Dams during spring, summer, and fall 1994. This report details their findings.

  10. Analysis of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River from an Ecosystem Perspective. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lichatowich, James A.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1995-01-01

    Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology was applied to the analysis of chinook salmon in the mid-Columbia subbasins which flow through the steppe and steppe-shrub vegetation zones. The EDT examines historical changes in life history diversity related to changes in habitat. The emphasis on life history, habitat and historical context is consistent with and ecosystem perspective. This study is based on the working hypothesis that the decline in chinook salmon was at least in part due to a loss of biodiversity defined as the intrapopulation life history diversity. The mid Columbia subbasins included in the study are the Deschutes, John Day, Umatilla, Tucannon and Yakima.

  11. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  12. Assessment of Barotrauma from Rapid Decompression of Depth-Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radiotelemetry Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Feil, Daniel H.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the mortality of and injury to juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to simulated pressure changes associated with passage through a large Kaplan hydropower turbine. Mortality and injury varied depending on whether a fish was carrying a transmitter, the method of transmitter implantation, the depth of acclimation, and the size of the fish. Juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters were more likely than those without to die or sustain injuries during simulated turbine passage. Gastric transmitter implantation resulted in higher rates of injury and mortality than surgical implantation. Mortality and injury increased with increasing pressure of acclimation. Injuries were more common in subyearling fish than in yearling fish. Gas emboli in the gills and internal hemorrhaging were the major causes of mortality. Rupture of the swim bladder and emphysema in the fins were also common. This research makes clear that the exposure of juvenile Chinook salmon bearing radiotelemetry transmitters to simulated turbine pressures with a nadir of 8-19 kPa can result in barotrauma, leading to immediate or delayed mortality. The study also identified sublethal barotrauma injuries that may increase susceptibility to predation. These findings have significant implications for many studies that use telemetry devices to estimate the survival and behavior of juvenile salmon as they pass through large Kaplan turbines typical of those within the Columbia River hydropower system. Our results indicate that estimates of turbine passage survival for juvenile Chinook salmon obtained with radiotelemetry devices may be negatively biased.

  13. Early life history attributes and run composition of PIT-tagged wild subyearling Chinook salmon recaptured after migrating downstream past Lower Granite Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Bjornn, T.C.; Burge, H.L.; Marshall, A.R.; Blankenship, H.L.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Tiffan, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    Seaward migration timing of Snake River fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts is indexed using subyearling chinook salmon passage data collected at Lower Granite Dam. However, not all of the subyearlings are fall chinook salmon. For six years, we recaptured wild subyearling chinook salmon smolts, which had been previously PIT tagged in the Snake River, to genetically determine if the fish were offspring of spring and summer (hereafter, spring/summer), or fall chinook salmon. Springfall chinook salmon comprised over 10% of the samples of recaptured smolts in five of six years. For these five years, we used discriminant analysis to determine run membership of PIT-tagged smolts that were not recaptured (i.e., not sampled for genetic identification). Accuracy of the discriminant analysis models, based on genetically identified smolts, varied between 75 and 85%. After using discriminant analysis to classify run membership for each PIT-tagged smolt that was not genetically identified, we compared early life history attributes between fall and spring/summer chinook salmon and calculated annual run composition. The life history attributes we studied overlapped, but spring/summer chinook salmon reared along the shoreline of the free-flowing Snake River earlier, were larger, and began seaward migration earlier than fall chinook salmon. Spring/summer chinook salmon made up from 15.1 to 44.4% of the tagged subyearling smolts that were detected passing Lower Granite Dam. As a result, the presence of spring/summer chinook salmon makes migration timing for the fall chinook salmon seem earlier and more protracted than is the case. If wild subyearling spring/summer chinook salmon smolts are not considered, fall chinook salmon abundance at Lower Granite Dam will be overestimated.

  14. Field estimate of net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan chinook salmon from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Stewart, Donald J.; Miller, Michael A.; Masnado, Robert G.

    2002-01-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) has been the predominant piscivore in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario since the 1970s, and therefore accurate quantification of its energy budget is needed for effective management of Great Lakes fisheries. A new approach of evaluating a fish bioenergetics model in the field involves field estimation of the efficiency with which the fish retains PCBs from its food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both chinook salmon and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to generate a field estimate of the efficiency with which Lake Michigan chinook salmon retain PCBs from their food. Our field estimate is the most reliable field estimate to date because (a) the estimate was based on a relatively high number (N = 142) of PCB determinations for chinook salmon from Wisconsin waters of Lake Michigan in 1985, (b) a relatively long time series (1978−1988) of detailed observations on chinook salmon diet in Lake Michigan was available, and (c) the estimate incorporated new information from analyses of chinook salmon age and growth during the 1980s and 1990s in Lake Michigan. We estimated that chinook salmon from Lake Michigan retain 53% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  15. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999 and years previous. In an effort to provide this information to a wider audience, the individual chapters in this report have been submitted as manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals. These chapters communicate significant findings that will aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Abundance and timing of seaward migration of Snake River fall chinook salmon was indexed using passage data collected at Lower Granite Dam for five years. We used genetic analyses to determine the lineage of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam that had been previously PIT tagged. We then used discriminant analysis to determine run membership of PIT-tagged smolts that were not recaptured to enable us to calculate annual run composition and to compared early life history attributes of wild subyearling fall and spring chinook salmon. Because spring chinook salmon made up from 15.1 to 44.4% of the tagged subyearling smolts that were detected passing Lower Granite Dam, subyearling passage data at Lower Granite Dam can only be used to index fall chinook salmon smolt abundance and passage timing if genetic samples are taken to identify run membership of smolts. Otherwise, fall chinook salmon smolt abundance would be overestimated and timing of fall chinook salmon smolt passage would appear to be earlier and more protracted than is the case.

  16. Patterns of co-variability among California Current chinook salmon, coho salmon, Dungeness crab, and physical oceanographic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botsford, L. W.; Lawrence, C. A.

    One of the primary motivations for the GLOBEC NEP program was the apparent inverse relationship between the increase in salmon populations in the Gulf of Alaska since the mid-1970s and concurrent declines in salmon populations in the California Current. The increase in abundance of some salmon species in the Gulf of Alaska can be plausibly explained based on mechanisms involving changes in physical structure, biological productivity, and salmon survival. To assess concurrent changes in salmon populations in the California Current and their possible physical and biological bases we examined temporal and spatial patterns of co-variability between biological variables and physical descriptors along the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, from 1950 to 1990. The biological variables were catch records of coho salmon, chinook salmon and an ecologically related species, Dungeness crab. The physical variables were sea surface temperature, sea surface height (SSH) and the upwelling index (UWI). We found that while California Current coho salmon declined uniformly in the mid-1970s, consistent with the proposed inverse relationship, chinook salmon did not. All three species appear to be driven by the dominant mode of co-variability in the three physical variables, an indicator of warm/cool water conditions, but in different ways. In general, warm conditions have a negative effect on salmon at the age of ocean entry and spawning return, and Dungeness crab during the larval stage, while cool conditions have a positive effect. Differences in spatio-temporal variability between the two salmon species suggest they may respond to ocean conditions differently: coho salmon vary synchronously along the coast on annual time scales, while chinook salmon vary on slightly longer time scales in a specific spatial pattern. Dungeness crab vary on 10-year time scales, synchronously along the coast, except for the most southern areas (central California) where populations collapsed in

  17. Migratory Characteristics of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River : Annual Report 1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Snelling, John C.

    1993-05-01

    This report documents our research to examine in detail the migration of juvenile and adult spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River. We seek to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to oxygen supplementation practices at Willamette Hatchery, and to identify potential sources of adult spring chinook mortality in the Willamette River above Willamette Falls and use this information towards analysis of the study on efficiency of oxygen supplementation. The majority of juvenile spring chinook salmon released from Willamette hatchery in 1991 begin downstream movement immediately upon liberation. They travel at a rate of 1.25 to 3.5 miles per hour during the first 48 hours post-release. Considerably slower than the water velocities available to them. Juveniles feed actively during migration, primarily on aquatic insects. Na{sup +}/K{sup +} gill ATPase and cortisol are significantly reduced in juveniles reared in the third pass of the Michigan series with triple density and oxygen supplementation, suggesting that these fish were not as well developed as those reared under other treatments. Returning adult spring chinook salmon migrate upstream at an average rate of about 10 to 20 miles per day, but there is considerable between fish variation. Returning adults exhibit a high incidence of wandering in and out of the Willamette River system above and below Willamette Falls.

  18. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W; Dauble, Dennis D; Chamness, Mickie A; Abernethy, Cary S; McKinstry, Craig A

    2001-07-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs.

  19. Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd site selection of chum salmon and fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Hanrahan, Timothy P. ); Arntzen, Evan V. ); McMichael, Geoffrey A. ); Murray, Christopher J. ); Chien, Yi-Ju )

    2002-11-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha spawned at different locations in the vicinity of Ives Island, Washington, a side channel to the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. We hypothesized that measurements of water depth, substrate size, and water velocity alone would not explain the separation in spawning areas and began a 2-year investigation of physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone. We found that chum salmon spawned in upwelling water that was significantly warmer than the surrounding river water. In contrast, fall chinook salmon constructed redds at downwelling sites where there was no difference in temperature between the river and its bed. Understanding the specific features that are important for chum salmon and fall chinook salmon redd site selection at Ives Island will be useful to resource managers attempting to maximize available spawning habitat for these species within the constraints imposed by other water resource needs.

  20. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    2001-08-01

    This report details the 2000 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

  1. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    2001-06-01

    This report details the 1999 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

  2. Migratory Characteristics of Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River : Completion Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Snelling, J.C.; Ewing, R.E.; Bradford, C.S.; Davis, L.E.; Slater, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine in detail the migration of juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. The authors wanted to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to the oxygen supplementation practices at the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Willamette Hatchery and use this information to strengthen the design of the oxygen supplementation project. There is little information available on the effects of oxygen supplementation at hatcheries on the migratory characteristics of juvenile salmon. Such information is required to assess the use of oxygen supplementation as a means of improving hatchery production, its effect on imprinting of juveniles, and finally the return of adults. In the event that oxygen supplementation provides for improved production and survival of juvenile chinook salmon at Willamette Hatchery, background information on the migration characteristics of these fish will be required to effectively utilize the increased production within the goals of the Willamette Fish Management Plan. Furthermore this technology may be instrumental in the goal of doubling the runs of spring Chinook salmon in the Columbia River. While evaluation of success is dependent on evaluation of the return of adults with coded wire tags, examination of the migratory characteristics of hatchery smolts may prove to be equally informative. Through this research it is possible to determine the rate at which individuals from various oxygenation treatment groups leave the Willamette River system, a factor which may be strongly related to adult return rate.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of a New Zealand Rickettsia-Like Organism Isolated from Farmed Chinook Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Jenny; Brosnahan, Cara L.; Orr, Della; McFadden, Andrew; Jones, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a rickettsia-like organism, isolated from a New Zealand Chinook salmon farm experiencing high mortality. The genome is approximately 3 Mb in size, has a G+C content of approximately 39.2%, and is predicted to contain 2,870 coding sequences. PMID:27365345

  4. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Kamikawa, Daniel J.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    1995-01-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of a New Zealand Rickettsia-Like Organism Isolated from Farmed Chinook Salmon.

    PubMed

    Gias, Edna; Draper, Jenny; Brosnahan, Cara L; Orr, Della; McFadden, Andrew; Jones, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a rickettsia-like organism, isolated from a New Zealand Chinook salmon farm experiencing high mortality. The genome is approximately 3 Mb in size, has a G+C content of approximately 39.2%, and is predicted to contain 2,870 coding sequences. PMID:27365345

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next years work.

  7. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next year's work.

  8. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following waterways, bottom...

  9. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following waterways, bottom...

  10. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Marsh, Douglas M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1994-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring and summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1991, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary Dams during spring and summer 1992. This report details our findings.

  11. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1997-07-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1995 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams during spring and summer 1996.

  12. Quantifying mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to simulated hydro-turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Stephenson, John R.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Welch, Abigail E.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Skalski, John R.; Seaburg, Adam; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-02-01

    A proportion of juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids travel through one or more turbines during seaward migration in the Columbia and Snake River every year. Despite this understanding, limited information exists on how these fish respond to hydraulic pressures found during turbine passage events. In this study we exposed juvenile Chinook salmon to varied acclimation pressures and subsequent exposure pressures (nadir) to mimic the hydraulic pressures of large Kaplan turbines (ratio of pressure change). Additionally, we varied abiotic (total dissolved gas, rate of pressure change) and biotic (condition factor, fish length, fish weight) factors that may contribute to the incidence of mortal injury associated with fish passing through hydro-turbines. We determined that the main factor associated with mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon during simulated turbine passage was the ratio between acclimation and nadir pressures. Condition factor, total dissolved gas, and the rate of pressure change were found to only slightly increase the predictive power of equations relating probability of mortal injury to conditions of exposure or characteristics of test fish during simulated turbine passage. This research will assist engineers and fisheries managers in operating and improving hydroelectric facility efficiency while minimizing mortality and injury of turbine-passed juvenile Chinook salmon. The results are discussed in the context of turbine development and the necessity of understanding how different species of fish will respond to the hydraulic pressures of turbine passage.

  13. MATERNAL TRANSFER OF BIOACTIVE POLYCHLORINATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SPAWNING CHINOOK SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS TSCHAWYTSCHA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological potency (relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD) of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCHs) in extracts of eggs and flesh from spawning female chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) from Lake Michigan was determined by measuring the i...

  14. Water Temperature, Invertebrate Drift, and the Scope for Growth for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovtang, J. C.; Li, H. W.

    2005-05-01

    We present a bioenergetic assessment of habitat quality based on the concept of the scope for growth for juvenile Chinook salmon. Growth of juvenile salmonids during the freshwater phase of their life history depends on a balance between two main factors: energy intake and metabolic costs. The metabolic demands of temperature and the availability of food play integral roles in determining the scope for growth of juvenile salmonids in stream systems. We investigated differences in size of juvenile spring Chinook salmon in relation to water temperature and invertebrate drift density in six unique study reaches in the Metolius River Basin, a tributary of the Deschutes River in Central Oregon. This project was initiated to determine the relative quality and potential productivity of habitat in the Metolius Basin prior to the reintroduction of spring Chinook salmon, which were extirpated from the middle Deschutes basin in the early 1970's due to the construction of a hydroelectric dam. Variations in the growth of juvenile Chinook salmon can be described using a multiple regression model of water temperature and invertebrate drift density. We also discuss the relationships between our bioenergetic model, variations of the ideal free distribution model, and physiological growth models.

  15. An immune-complex glomerulonephritis of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Lumsden, J S; Russell, S; Huber, P; Wybourne, B A; Ostland, V E; Minamikawa, M; Ferguson, H W

    2008-12-01

    Chinook salmon from New Zealand were shown to have a generalized membranous glomerulonephritis that was most severe in large fish. Marked thickening of the glomerular basement membrane was the most consistent lesion, with the presence of an electron-dense deposit beneath the capillary endothelium.Severely affected glomeruli also had expansion of the mesangium and loss of capillaries,synechiae of the visceral and parietal epithelium and mild fibrosis of Bowmans capsule. Chinook salmon from British Columbia, Canada with bacterial kidney disease caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum had similar histological lesions. They also had thickened glomerular basement membranes that were recognized by rabbit antiserum to rainbow trout immunoglobulin. This was true only when frozen sections of kidney were used and not formalin-fixed tissue. An attempt to experimentally produce a glomerulopathy in rainbow trout by repeated immunization with killed R. salmoninarum was not successful. Case records from the Fish Pathology Laboratory at the University of Guelph over a 10-year period revealed that a range of species were diagnosed with glomerulopathies similar to those seen in Chinook salmon. The majority of these cases were determined to have chronic inflammatory disease. This report has identified the presence of immunoglobulin within thickened basement membranes of Chinook salmon with glomerulonephritis and supports the existence of type III hypersensitivity in fish. PMID:18752546

  16. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, James R.; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to <10% of their historical abundance, with subsequent declines of marine derived nutrients once provided by large salmon runs. We explored whether low densities (<0.001 spawners/m2) of naturally spawning Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) can affect ecosystem metabolism. We measured gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) continuously before, during, and after salmon spawning. We compared downstream reaches with low densities of spawning salmon to upstream reaches with fewer or no spawners in 3 mid-sized (4th-order) rivers in northern Washington. In addition, we measured chemical, physical, and biological factors that may be important in controlling rates of GPP and ER. We observed that low densities of spawning salmon can increase GPP by 46% during spawning, but values quickly return to those observed before spawning. No difference in ER was observed between up- and downstream reaches. Based on our results, salmon density, temperature, and the proximity to salmon redds were the most important factors controlling rates of GPP, whereas temperature was most important for ER. These results suggest that even at low spawning densities, salmon can stimulate basal resources that may propagate up the food web. Understanding how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  17. Modeling population responses of Chinook and coho salmon to suspended sediment using a life history approach.

    PubMed

    Araujo, H Andres; Cooper, Andrew B; MacIsaac, Erland A; Knowler, Duncan; Velez-Espino, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    This study develops a quantitative framework for estimating the effects of extreme suspended-sediment events (SSC>25 mg L(-1)) on virtual populations of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon in a coastal watershed of British Columbia, Canada. We used a life history model coupled with a dose-response model to evaluate the populations' responses to a set of simulated suspended sediments scenarios. Our results indicate that a linear increase in SSC produces non-linear declining trajectories in both Chinook and coho populations, but this decline was more evident for Chinook salmon despite their shorter fresh-water residence. The model presented here can provide insights into SSC impacts on population responses of salmonids and potentially assist resource managers when planning conservation or remediation strategies. PMID:25963631

  18. Recovery and management options for spring/summer chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, P; Marvier, M; McClure, M

    2000-11-01

    Construction of four dams on the lower Snake River (in northwestern United States) between 1961 and 1975 altered salmon spawning habitat, elevated smolt and adult migration mortality, and contributed to severe declines of Snake River salmon populations. By applying a matrix model to long-term population data, we found that (i) dam passage improvements have dramatically mitigated direct mortality associated with dams; (ii) even if main stem survival were elevated to 100%, Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) would probably continue to decline toward extinction; and (iii) modest reductions in first-year mortality or estuarine mortality would reverse current population declines. PMID:11062128

  19. Study of Wild Spring Chinook Salmon in the John Day River System, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, Robert B.

    1986-02-01

    A study of wild spring chinook salmon was conducted in the John Day River, Oregon: (1) recommend harvest regulations to achieve escapement goals in the John Day River; (2) recommend adtustments in timing of fish passage operations at Columbia River dams that will increase survival of John Day migrants; (3) recommend habitat or environmental improvements that will increase production of spring chinook salmon; (4) determine escapement goals for wild spring chinook salmon in the John Day River; and (5) recommend procedures for hatchery supplementation in the John Day River in the event it becomes necessary to artificially maintain the run of spring chinook salmon. Juveniles were captured as smolts during migration and as fingerlings during summer rearing. Juveniles were coded-wire tagged, and recoveries of tagged adults were used to assess contribution to ocean and Columbia River fisheries, timing of adult migrations through the Columbia River in relation to fishing seasons, and age and size of fish in fisheries. Scoop traps and seines were used to determine timing of smolt migrations through the John Day River. In addition, recoveries of tagged smolts at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Jones Beach were used to determine migration timing through the Columbia River. We examined freshwater life history of spring chinook salmon in the John Day River and related it to environmental factors. We looked at adult holding areas, spawning, incubation and emergence, fingerling rearing distribution, size and growth of juveniles and scales. Escapement goals fo the John Day River as well as reasons for declines in John Day stocks were determiend by using stock-recruitment analyses. Recommendations for hatchery supplementation in the John Day were based on results from other study objectives.

  20. Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

  1. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, Brian P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Colvin, Michael E.; Benda, Susan E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  2. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Brian P; Fisher, Kathleen M; Colvin, Michael E; Benda, Susan E; Peterson, James T; Kent, Michael L; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning. PMID:26581919

  3. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303,769 hatchery

  4. Use of a portable electric barrier to estimate Chinook salmon escapement in a turbid Alaskan river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmisano, A.; Burger, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    We developed a portable electric barrier to aid in the capture of adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha undergoing spawning migrations up a turbid stream in south-central Alaska. In 1981, we tagged and released 157 chinook salmon after diverting them from the main-stem Killey River into a conventional trap with the aid of the electric barrier. On the basis of returns of tagged salmon to Benjamin Creek, a clear-water tributary of the upper Killey River, we estimated spawners in the drainage to number 8,000 fish. Two different statistical approaches to the mark–recapture data yielded similar estimates. Through several modifications of the electric barrier, we were able to reduce mortality associated with the barrier's use.

  5. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts.

  6. Early life history study of Grande Ronde River Basin chinook salmon. Annual progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, M.; Anderson, D.J.; Carmichasel, R.W.; Jonasson, B.C.

    1996-06-01

    The Grande Ronde River originates in the Blue Mountains in northeast Oregon and flows 334 kilometers to its confluence with the Snake River near Rogersburg, Washington. Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. It is estimated that prior to the construction of the Columbia and Snake River dams, more than 20,000 adult spring chinook salmon returned to spawn in the Grande Ronde River basin. A spawning escapement of 12,200 adults was estimated for the Grande Ronde River basin in 1957. Recent population estimates have been variable year to year, yet remain a degree of magnitude lower than historic estimates. In 1992, the escapement estimate for the basin was 1,022 adults (2.4 {times} number of redds observed). In addition to a decline in population abundance, a constriction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde basin. Historically, 21 streams supported spawning chinook salmon, yet today the majority of production is limited to eight tributary streams and the mainstem upper Grande Ronde River. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. More than 80% of anadromous fish habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River is considered to be degraded.

  7. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  8. Relationships Between Landscape Habitat Variables and Chinook Salmon Production in the Columbia River Basin, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    1999-09-01

    This publication concerns the investigation of potential relationships between various landscape habitat variables and estimates of fish production from 25 index stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon with the Columbia River Basin.

  9. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Connor, William P.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Nez Perce Tribe completed the third year of research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin.

  10. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River, Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Connor, William P.; Burge, Howard L.

    1999-12-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted primarily in 1997 and 1998. This report communicates significant findings that will aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

  11. Glochidiosis of salmonid fishes. IV. Humoral and tissue responses of coho and chinook salmon to experimental infection with Margaritefera Margaritifera (L. ) (Pelecypoda: Margaritanidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, T.R.; Millemann, R.E.; Fustish, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are more resistant than chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) to experimental infection with the glochidia of the freshwater mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. Histological sections of gills from coho salmon 16 hr postinfection (p.i.) showed that parasite encystment either did not occur or had progressed incompletely, which accounted for the loss of many glochidia from the gills. The remaining encysted glochidia were sloughed within 2 days (p.i.) by a well-developed hyperplasia. On chinook salmon, the parasites developed normally with no sloughing or hyperplasia. Analysis of blood samples taken from coho salmon at intervals during the infection showed significant increases in hematocrit, hemoglobin, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and leukocyte numbers when compared with control fish. In infected chinook salmon only the hematocrit, erythrocyte numbers, and MCV increased while the MCHC decreased. Total plasma protein increased in coho salmon but decreased in chinook salmon during infection. Glochidial antibodies were demonstrated in the blood plasma of coho and chinook salmon 8 to 12 wk p.i. Fewer glochidia attached to the excised gills of coho salmon than to the gills of chinook salmon. Also, the in vitro survival time of parasites in mucus and plasma from coho salmon was less than in the same chinook salmon fluids.

  12. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999

  13. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  14. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W.

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  15. Relationships Between Metabolic Rate, Muscle Electromyograms and Swim Performance of Adult Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a two-year study to investigate the metabolic rate and swimming performance and to estimate the total energy used (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic) by adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study, reported here, were to (1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; (2) estimate the Ucrit of adult spring chinook salmon; and (3) monitor EMGs of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Future papers will report on the results of the field study. Our results indicated that the rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. Active oxygen consumption increased linearly with swim speed before leveling off at speeds at or above Ucrit. This pattern was similar at each water temperature and indicated that fish were approaching their maximal aerobic oxygen consumption at higher swim speeds. Modeling showed that temperature, but not size or sex, influenced the relation between V02 and swim speed, thus a V02-swim speed model based on temperature (but independent of sex and size) should be a biologically relevant way of estimating the energy use of fish in the wild.

  16. Spatial consistency of Chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, Katherine J.; Torgersen, Christian; Henning, Julie; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-04-28

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington (USA) using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale 35 temporal and spatial data collected during bi-weekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991-2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008-2009 (100-500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held global positioning system (GPS) synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, five years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years resulting in a minimum correlation coefficient of 0.90 (adjusted P = 0.002). Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations (P < 0.001). On a finer temporal scale, we observed that salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week (2008: P < 0.02; and 2009: P < 0.001). Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009 (P < 0.001). Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook salmon spawning surveys.

  17. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  18. Pre-Restoration Habitat Use by Chinook Salmon in the Nisqually Estuary Using Otolith Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angela; Larsen, Kimberly; Reisenbichler, Reginald

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. The preservation of the Nisqually delta ecosystem coupled with extensive restoration of approximately 1,000 acres of diked estuarine habitat is identified as the highest priority action for the recovery of naturally spawning Nisqually River Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Nisqually Chinook Recovery Plan. In order to evaluate the response of Chinook salmon to restoration, a pre-restoration baseline of life history diversity and estuary utilization must be established. Otolith analysis has been proposed as a means to measure Chinook salmon life history diversity, growth, and residence in the Nisqually estuary. Over time, the information from the otolith analyses will be used to: (1) determine if estuary restoration actions cause changes to the population structure (i.e. frequency of the different life history trajectories) for Nisqually River Chinook, (2) compare pre and post restoration residence times and growth rates, and (3) suggest whether estuary restoration yields substantial benefits for Chinook salmon. Otoliths are calcium carbonate structures in the inner ear that grow in proportion to the overall growth of the fish. Daily growth increments can be measured so date and fish size at various habitat transitions can be back-calculated. Careful analysis of otolith microstructure can be used to determine the number of days that a fish resided in the estuary as a juvenile (increment counts), size at entrance to the estuary, size at egress, and the amount that the fish grew while in the estuary. Juvenile Chinook salmon can exhibit a variety of life history trajectories ? some enter the sea (or Puget Sound) as fry, some rear in the estuary before entering the sea, and some rear in the river and then move rapidly through the estuary into the sea as smolts. The

  19. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  20. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1984-1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpe, Cameron; Li, Hiram W.

    1985-09-21

    Fish were collected from 60 stocks of chinook salmon and 62 stocks of steelhead trout. Electrophoretic analyses were completed on 43 stocks of chinook salmon and 41 stocks of steelhead trout and meristic counts were completed on 43 stocks of chinook and 41 stocks of steelhead. Statistical comparisons between year classes of our electrophoretic data indicate that most enzyme systems are stable over time but some may be dynamic and should be used with caution in our analyses. We also compared neighboring stocks of both spring chinook and steelhead trout. These comparisons were between stocks of the same race from adjacent stream systems and/or hatcheries. Differences in isozyme gene frequencies can be used to estimate genetic segregation between pairs of stocks. Analysis of the chinook data suggests that, as expected, the number of statistically significant differences in isozyme gene frequencies increases as the geographic distance between stocks increases. The results from comparisons between adjacent steelhead stocks were inconclusive and must await final analysis with more data. Cluster analyses using either isozyme gene frequencies or meristic characters both tended to group the chinook and steelhead stocks by geographic areas and by race and both methods resulted in generally similar grouping patterns. However, cluster analyses using isozyme gene frequencies produced more clusters than the analyses using meristic characters probably because of the greater number of electrophoretic characters compared to the number of meristic characters. Heterozygosity values for each stock were computed using the isozyme gene frequencies. The highest heterozygosity values for chinook were observed in summer chinook and the hatchery stocks while the lowest values were observed in the spring chinook and wild stocks. The results of comparisons of heterozygosity values among areas were inconclusive. The steelhead heterozygosity values were higher in the winter stocks than in the

  1. Environmental conditions impacting juvenile Chinook salmon growth off central California: An ecosystem model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, J.; Huff, D. D.; Martin, B. T.; Jackson, D. W.; Edwards, C. A.; Rose, K. A.; Curchitser, E. N.; Hedstrom, K. S.; Lindley, S. T.; Wells, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    A fully coupled ecosystem model is used to identify the effects of environmental conditions and upwelling variability on growth of juvenile Chinook salmon in central California coastal waters. The ecosystem model framework consists of an ocean circulation submodel, a biogeochemical submodel, and an individual-based submodel for salmon. Simulation results indicate that years favorable for juvenile salmon growth off central California are characterized by particularly intense early season upwelling (i.e., March through May), leading to enhanced krill concentrations during summer near the location of ocean entry (i.e., Gulf of the Farallones). Seasonally averaged growth rates in the model are generally consistent with observed values and suggest that juvenile salmon emigrating later in the season (i.e., late May and June) achieve higher weight gains during their first 90 days of ocean residency.

  2. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Brenda B.; Pearsons, Todd N.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    1999-12-01

    Select ecological interactions and spring chinook salmon residual/precocial abundance were monitored in 1998 as part of the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project's supplementation monitoring program. Monitoring these variables is part of an effort to help evaluate the factors that contribute to, or limit supplementation success. The ecological interactions that were monitored were prey consumption, competition for food, and competition for space. The abundance of spring chinook salmon life-history forms that have the potential to be influenced by supplementation and that have important ecological and genetic roles were monitored (residuals and precocials). Residual spring chinook salmon do not migrate to the ocean during the normal emigration period and continue to rear in freshwater. Precocials are those salmon that precocially mature in freshwater. The purpose of sampling during 1998 was to collect baseline data one year prior to the release of hatchery spring chinook salmon which occurred during the spring of 1999. All sampling that the authors report on here was conducted in upper Yakima River during summer and fall 1998. The stomach fullness of juvenile spring chinook salmon during the summer and fall averaged 12%. The food competition index suggested that mountain whitefish (0.59), rainbow trout (0.55), and redside shiner (0.55) were competing for food with spring chinook salmon. The space competition index suggested that rainbow trout (0.31) and redside shiner (0.39) were competing for space with spring chinook salmon but mountain whitefish (0.05) were not. Age-0 spring chinook salmon selected a fairly narrow range of microhabitat parameters in the summer and fall relative to what was available. Mean focal depths and velocities for age 0 spring chinook salmon during the summer were 0.5 m {+-} 0.2 m and 0.26 m/s {+-} 0.19 m/s, and during the fall 0.5 m {+-} 0.2 m and 0.24 m/s {+-} 0.18 m/s. Among potential competitors, age 1+ rainbow trout exhibited the greatest

  3. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Lofy, Peter T.

    2003-03-01

    This is the third annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2000: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan for recovery of endemic summer steelhead populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2000. (4) Collect summer steelhead. (5) Collect adult endemic spring chinook salmon broodstock. (6) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (7) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agency. (8) Communicate project results to the scientific community. (9) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (10) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations and incidentally-caught summer steelhead and bull trout. (11) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program.

  4. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Ogburn, Parker N.

    2003-03-01

    This is the second annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2001: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (4) Plan for data collection needs for bull trout. (5) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (6) Collect summer steelhead. (7) Monitor adult endemic spring chinook salmon populations and collect broodstock. (8) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (9) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations. (10) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (11) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agencies. (14) Communicate Project results to the scientific community.

  5. 77 FR 19597 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Chinook Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... of Chinook salmon, we use the description of that ESU (Myers et al., 1998 and 63 FR 11482; March 9... substantial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted (76 FR 20302; April 12, 2011... of Species Under the Endangered Species Act to Pacific Salmon (ESU Policy; 56 FR 68612; November...

  6. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage. PMID:23576733

  7. Transcriptional Response to Acute Thermal Exposure in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Determined by RNAseq

    PubMed Central

    Tomalty, Katharine M. H.; Meek, Mariah H.; Stephens, Molly R.; Rincón, Gonzalo; Fangue, Nann A.; May, Bernie P.; Baerwald, Melinda R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal exposure is a serious and growing challenge facing fish species worldwide. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) living in the southern portion of their native range are particularly likely to encounter warmer water due to a confluence of factors. River alterations have increased the likelihood that juveniles will be exposed to warm water temperatures during their freshwater life stage, which can negatively impact survival, growth, and development and pose a threat to dwindling salmon populations. To better understand how acute thermal exposure affects the biology of salmon, we performed a transcriptional analysis of gill tissue from Chinook salmon juveniles reared at 12° and exposed acutely to water temperatures ranging from ideal to potentially lethal (12° to 25°). Reverse-transcribed RNA libraries were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform and a de novo reference transcriptome was created. Differentially expressed transcripts were annotated using Blast2GO and relevant gene clusters were identified. In addition to a high degree of downregulation of a wide range of genes, we found upregulation of genes involved in protein folding/rescue, protein degradation, cell death, oxidative stress, metabolism, inflammation/immunity, transcription/translation, ion transport, cell cycle/growth, cell signaling, cellular trafficking, and structure/cytoskeleton. These results demonstrate the complex multi-modal cellular response to thermal stress in juvenile salmon. PMID:25911227

  8. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  9. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John R.

    2010-12-21

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon smolts at The Dalles Dam during summer 2010. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal 0.015. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 2 km below the dam The forebay-to-tailrace survival estimate satisfies the “BRZ-to-BRZ” survival estimate called for in the Fish Accords. , as well as the forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The estimate of dam survival for subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles in 2010 was 0.9404 with an associated standard error of 0.0091.

  10. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L; Soderlund, K; Thomann, Estela; Schreck, C B; Sharpton, T J

    2014-10-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected

  11. Studies of certain sulfonamide drugs for use in juvenile chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.; Pilcher, K.S.

    1969-01-01

    In the work described in this paper, the efficacies of sulfisoxazole and sulfadimethoxine were compared to the efficacy of sulfamethazine. Experiments were designed to determine the rate of intestinal absorption, the rate of elimination from the blood, the effect on growth, and the toxicity of each drug in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The comparative bacteriostatic activity against two common fish pathogens was also determined for each drug. 

  12. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    1999-03-01

    In 1998 data was collected on the spawning distribution of the first adult fall chinook salmon to return from releases of yearling hatchery fish upriver of Lower Granite Dam. Yearling fish were released at three locations with the intent of distributing spawning throughout the existing habitat. The project was designed to use radio-telemetry to determine if the use of multiple release sites resulted in widespread spawning.

  13. Physiological development and migratory behavior of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Wagner, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the migratory behavior and physiological development of subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating through John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon. Fish were freeze-branded and coded-wire-tagged at McNary Dam, Oregon, from 1991 to 1994, to determine travel time to John Day Dam and subsequent adult contribution. Stepwise multiple regression showed that 47% of the variation in subyearling fall chinook salmon travel time was explained by the reciprocal of minimum flow and fish size. Smoltification, as measured by gill Na+-K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, was not important in explaining variability in travel time of subyearling chinook salmon. Fish marked early in the out-migration generally traveled faster than middle and late migrants. Seawater challenges were used to describe physiological development and showed that osmoregulatory competence of premigrants in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River increased with fish size and gill ATPase activity. Once active migrants began passing McNary Dam, fish generally had survival exceeding 90% and were able to regulate their blood plasma Na+ in seawater. Gill ATPase activity increased as premigrants, reared in nearshore areas of the Hanford Reach, reached a peak among active migrants in late June and early July then decreased through the remainder of the out-migration. Salinity preference also peaked in subyearling fall chinook salmon during late June to mid July in 1995. Return of adults from marked groups showed no consistent patterns that would suggest a survival advantage for any portion of the juvenile out-migration. Presumed wild migrants from the middle and late portions of the out-migration were primary contributors to all fisheries, except the Priest Rapids Hatchery. As such, fishery managers should take action to ensure the survival of these fish, especially because they migrate under more unfavorable environmental conditions than early

  14. Impacts of the Columbia River Hydroelectric System on Mainstem Habitats of Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    Salmonid habitats in mainstem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13 and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the mainstem Columbia River and 163 km of the mainstem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment, more bars and islands, and had lower water surface slopes than areas not extensively used. Because flows in the mainstem are now highly regulated, the pre-development alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes, specifically sustained peak flows for scouring, is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries and tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  15. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  16. Effect of survey design and catch rate estimation on total catch estimates in Chinook salmon fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Roving–roving and roving–access creel surveys are the primary techniques used to obtain information on harvest of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho sport fisheries. Once interviews are conducted using roving–roving or roving–access survey designs, mean catch rate can be estimated with the ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator, the mean-of-ratios (MOR) estimator, or the MOR estimator with exclusion of short-duration (≤0.5 h) trips. Our objective was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates obtained from use of the two survey designs and three catch rate estimators for Idaho Chinook salmon fisheries. Information on angling populations was obtained by direct visual observation of portions of Chinook salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over an 18-d period. Based on data from the angling populations, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the properties of the catch rate estimators and survey designs. Among the three estimators, the ROM estimator provided the most accurate and precise estimates of mean catch rate and total catch for both roving–roving and roving–access surveys. On average, the root mean square error of simulated total catch estimates was 1.42 times greater and relative bias was 160.13 times greater for roving–roving surveys than for roving–access surveys. Length-of-stay bias and nonstationary catch rates in roving–roving surveys both appeared to affect catch rate and total catch estimates. Our results suggest that use of the ROM estimator in combination with an estimate of angler effort provided the least biased and most precise estimates of total catch for both survey designs. However, roving–access surveys were more accurate than roving–roving surveys for Chinook salmon fisheries in Idaho.

  17. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, Robert F.; Miller, William J.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. Defenses of Susceptible and Resistant Chinook Salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) Against the Myxozoan Parasite Ceratomyxa shasta

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, Sarah J.; Zhang, Yong-An; Hurst, Charlene N.; Alonso-Naveiro, Maria E.; Alexander, Julie D.; Sunyer, J. Oriol; Bartholomew, Jerri L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated intra-specific variation in the response of salmon to infection with the myxozoan Ceratomyxa shasta by comparing the progress of parasite infection and measures of host immune response in susceptible and resistant Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at days 12, 25 and 90 post exposure. There were no differences in invasion of the gills indicating that resistance does not occur at the site of entry. In the intestine on day 12, infection intensity and Ig+ cell numbers were higher in susceptible than resistant fish, but histological examination that timepoint showed more severe inflammation in resistant fish This suggests a role for the immune response in resistant fish that eliminates some parasites prior to or soon after reaching the intestine. Susceptible fish had a higher IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-10 response at day 12, but all died fatal enteronecrosis by day 25. The greatest fold change in IFNγ expression was detected at day 25 in resistant Chinook. In addition, the number of Ig+ cells in resistant Chinook also increased by day 25. By day 90, resistant Chinook had resolved the inflammation, cytokine expression had decreased and Ig+ cell numbers were similar to uninfected controls. Thus, it appears that the susceptible strain was incapable of containing or eliminating C. shasta but resistant fish: 1) reduced infection intensity during early intestinal infection 2) elicited an effective inflammatory response in the intestine that eliminated C. shasta 3) resolved the inflammation and recovered from infection. PMID:24412163

  20. Effects of pyrethroid insecticides in urban runoff on Chinook salmon, steelhead trout, and their invertebrate prey.

    PubMed

    Weston, Donald P; Schlenk, Daniel; Riar, Navneet; Lydy, Michael J; Brooks, Marjorie L

    2015-03-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides can affect salmonids either indirectly through toxicity to their prey or directly by toxicity to the fish themselves. In support of a study on pyrethroid impacts to Chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the American River (Sacramento, California, USA), 96-h median effective concentration (EC50) and median lethal concentration (LC50) values for the pyrethroid bifenthrin were determined for taxa not traditionally used for toxicity testing but of interest as salmonid prey, including a chironomid, caddisflies, mayflies, and stoneflies. A laboratory was constructed on the banks of the American River to expose macroinvertebrates, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout to flow-through river water containing urban runoff during storm events. Bifenthrin from urban runoff was found in river water following 5 rain events, reaching 14.6 ng/L. Mortality to the exposed salmonids was not observed, and sublethal effects were not seen in vitellogenin or sex steroid levels. Indirect effects via toxicity to salmonid prey are possible. Mortality to Hyalella azteca, a potential prey, was observed in every event tested, and peak bifenthrin concentrations were comparable to the 96-h EC50 of the caddisfly, Hydropsyche sp., the most important prey species on a biomass basis for American River Chinook salmon. The other invertebrates tested had EC50s exceeding bifenthrin concentrations seen in the American River, though could potentially be at risk at concentrations previously reported in smaller urban tributaries. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:649-657. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25545717

  1. Imaging fall Chinook salmon redds in the Columbia River with a dual-frequency identification sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Skalicky, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) for imaging and enumeration of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds in a spawning area below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. The DIDSON uses sound to form near-video-quality images and has the advantages of imaging in zero-visibility water and possessing a greater detection range and field of view than underwater video cameras. We suspected that the large size and distinct morphology of a fall Chinook salmon redd would facilitate acoustic imaging if the DIDSON was towed near the river bottom so as to cast an acoustic shadow from the tailspill over the redd pocket. We tested this idea by observing 22 different redds with an underwater video camera, spatially referencing their locations, and then navigating to them while imaging them with the DIDSON. All 22 redds were successfully imaged with the DIDSON. We subsequently conducted redd searches along transects to compare the number of redds imaged by the DIDSON with the number observed using an underwater video camera. We counted 117 redds with the DIDSON and 81 redds with the underwater video camera. Only one of the redds observed with the underwater video camera was not also documented by the DIDSON. In spite of the DIDSON's high cost, it may serve as a useful tool for enumerating fall Chinook salmon redds in conditions that are not conducive to underwater videography.

  2. Genetic differentiation of Alaska Chinook salmon: the missing link for migratory studies.

    PubMed

    Templin, William D; Seeb, James E; Jasper, James R; Barclay, Andrew W; Seeb, Lisa W

    2011-03-01

    Most information about Chinook salmon genetic diversity and life history originates from studies from the West Coast USA, western Canada and southeast Alaska; less is known about Chinook salmon from western and southcentral Alaska drainages. Populations in this large area are genetically distinct from populations to the south and represent an evolutionary legacy of unique genetic, phenotypic and life history diversity. More genetic information is necessary to advance mixed stock analysis applications for studies involving these populations. We assembled a comprehensive, open-access baseline of 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 172 populations ranging from Russia to California. We compare SNP data from representative populations throughout the range with particular emphasis on western and southcentral Alaska. We grouped populations into major lineages based upon genetic and geographic characteristics, evaluated the resolution for identifying the composition of admixtures and performed mixed stock analysis on Chinook salmon caught incidentally in the walleye pollock fishery in the Bering Sea. SNP data reveal complex genetic structure within Alaska and can be used in applications to address not only regional issues, but also migration pathways, bycatch studies on the high seas, and potential changes in the range of the species in response to climate change. PMID:21429177

  3. Re-estimating temperature-dependent consumption parameters in bioenergetics models for juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, John M.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have cautioned against the borrowing of consumption and growth parameters from other species and life stages in bioenergetics growth models. In particular, the function that dictates temperature dependence in maximum consumption (Cmax) within the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha produces estimates that are lower than those measured in published laboratory feeding trials. We used published and unpublished data from laboratory feeding trials with subyearling Chinook Salmon from three stocks (Snake, Nechako, and Big Qualicum rivers) to estimate and adjust the model parameters for temperature dependence in Cmax. The data included growth measures in fish ranging from 1.5 to 7.2 g that were held at temperatures from 14°C to 26°C. Parameters for temperature dependence in Cmax were estimated based on relative differences in food consumption, and bootstrapping techniques were then used to estimate the error about the parameters. We found that at temperatures between 17°C and 25°C, the current parameter values did not match the observed data, indicating that Cmax should be shifted by about 4°C relative to the current implementation under the bioenergetics model. We conclude that the adjusted parameters for Cmax should produce more accurate predictions from the bioenergetics model for subyearling Chinook Salmon.

  4. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1984 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, Lee W.

    1985-02-01

    The objective is the enhancement of upriver stocks through research and development of an eggbank source. Viable gametes, produced from fish held to maturity in sea pens, will be made available for restoration purposes on the Snake River. Seawater entry trials with 0+-age and 1+-age fish have shown that 0+-age Snake River fall chinook salmon are not amenable to seawater entry and will either die or require up to 6 months to fully adapt to seawater. However, 1+-age smolts experience little problem at seawater entry; it is therefore suggested that Snake River fall chinook salmon be released as 1+ smolting fish in hatchery situations. Important marine mortalities occurring from osmoregulatory dysfunction, Bacterial Kidney Disease, and precocity at various life stages have been documented. Also, a previously unreported marine fungal pathogen has been identified. Mortality from this pathogen occurs from 3-years of age to maturity and can exceed 0.5% per day (resulting in losses to 90+%). At the end of December 1984, Snake River fall chinook salmon from 1980 (n = 67), 1981 (n = 876), 1982 (n = 4809), and 1983 (n = 7100) broods were under production. Because of the extensive mortality due to the marine fungal pathogen, only seven spawners were obtained from the 1980 stock in fall 1984. The 1980-brood spawners produced only minimal eggs and these will be used to investigate possible vertical transmission of the fungal pathogen. 4 figs.

  5. Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

  6. Self-reporting bias in Chinook salmon sport fisheries in Idaho: implications for roving creel surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-reporting bias in sport fisheries of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho was quantified by comparing observed and angler-reported data. A total of 164 observed anglers fished for 541 h and caught 74 Chinook Salmon. Fifty-eight fish were harvested and 16 were released. Anglers reported fishing for 604 h, an overestimate of 63 h. Anglers reported catching 66 fish; four less harvested and four less released fish were reported than observed. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that when angler-reported data were used, total catch was underestimated by 14–15 fish (19–20%) using the ratio-of-means estimator to calculate mean catch rate. Negative bias was reduced to six fish (8%) when the means-of-ratio estimator was used. Multiple linear regression models to predict reporting bias in time fished had poor predictive value. However, actual time fished and a categorical covariate indicating whether the angler fished continuously during their fishing trip were two variables that were present in all of the top a priori models evaluated. Underreporting of catch and overreporting of time fished by anglers present challenges when managing Chinook Salmon sport fisheries. However, confidence intervals were near target levels and using more liberal definitions of angling when estimating effort in creel surveys may decrease sensitivity to bias in angler-reported data.

  7. Pathological and immunological responses associated with differential survival of Chinook salmon following Renibacterium salmoninarum challenge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Elliott, Diane G.; Metzger, C. David; Wargo, Andrew; Park, K. Linda

    2010-01-01

    Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are highly susceptible to Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously we demonstrated that introduced Chinook salmon from Lake Michigan, Wisconsin (WI), USA, have higher survival following R. salmoninarum challenge relative to the progenitor stock from Green River, Washington, USA. In the present study, we investigated the pathological and immunological responses that are associated with differential survival in the 2 Chinook salmon stocks following intra-peritoneal R. salmoninarum challenge of 2 different cohort years (2003 and 2005). Histological evaluation revealed delayed appearance of severe granulomatous lesions in the kidney and lower overall prevalence of membranous glomerulopathy in the higher surviving WI stock. The higher survival WI stock had a lower bacterial load at 28 d post-infection, as measured by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, at all other time points, bacterial load levels were similar despite higher mortality in the more susceptible Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that the stocks may differ in their tolerance to infection by the bacterium. Interferon-y, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Mx-1, and transferrin gene expression were up-regulated in both stocks following challenge. A trend of higher iNOS gene expression at later time points (≥28 d post-infection) was observed in the lower surviving Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that higher iNOS expression may contribute to greater pathology in that stock.

  8. Bacterial infections of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), returning to gamete collecting weirs in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Loch, T P; Scribner, K; Tempelman, R; Whelan, G; Faisal, M

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we describe the prevalence of bacterial infections in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), returning to spawn in two tributaries within the Lake Michigan watershed. Ten bacterial genera, including Renibacterium, Aeromonas, Carnobacterium, Serratia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Hafnia, Salmonella, Shewanella and Morganella, were detected in the kidneys of Chinook salmon (n = 480) using culture, serological and molecular analyses. Among these, Aeromonas salmonicida was detected at a prevalence of ∼15%. Analyses revealed significant interactions between location/time of collection and gender for these infections, whereby overall infection prevalence increased greatly later in the spawning run and was significantly higher in females. Renibacterium salmoninarum was detected in fish kidneys at an overall prevalence of >25%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that R. salmoninarum prevalence differed significantly by location/time of collection and gender, with a higher likelihood of infection later in the spawning season and in females vs. males. Chi-square analyses quantifying non-independence of infection by multiple pathogens revealed a significant association between R. salmoninarum and motile aeromonad infections. Additionally, greater numbers of fish were found to be co-infected by multiple bacterial species than would be expected by chance alone. The findings of this study suggest a potential synergism between bacteria infecting spawning Chinook salmon. PMID:22168454

  9. Pathological and immunological responses associated with differential survival of Chinook salmon following Renibacterium salmoninarum challenge.

    PubMed

    Metzger, David C; Elliott, Diane G; Wargo, Andrew; Park, Linda K; Purcell, Maureen K

    2010-05-18

    Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are highly susceptible to Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously we demonstrated that introduced Chinook salmon from Lake Michigan, Wisconsin (WI), USA, have higher survival following R. salmoninarum challenge relative to the progenitor stock from Green River, Washington, USA. In the present study, we investigated the pathological and immunological responses that are associated with differential survival in the 2 Chinook salmon stocks following intra-peritoneal R. salmoninarum challenge of 2 different cohort years (2003 and 2005). Histological evaluation revealed delayed appearance of severe granulomatous lesions in the kidney and lower overall prevalence of membranous glomerulopathy in the higher surviving WI stock. The higher survival WI stock had a lower bacterial load at 28 d post-infection, as measured by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, at all other time points, bacterial load levels were similar despite higher mortality in the more susceptible Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that the stocks may differ in their tolerance to infection by the bacterium. Interferon-gamma, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Mx-1, and transferrin gene expression were up-regulated in both stocks following challenge. A trend of higher iNOS gene expression at later time points (> or = 28 d post-infection) was observed in the lower surviving Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that higher iNOS expression may contribute to greater pathology in that stock. PMID:20597428

  10. Biotic and abiotic influences on abundance and distribution of nonnative Chinook salmon and native ESA-listed steelhead in the Wind River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence fish populations and distributions. Concerns have been raised about the influence of hatchery fish on wild populations. Carson National Fish Hatchery produces spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wind River, Washington, and some spawn in the river. Managers were concerned that Chinook salmon could negatively affect wild steelhead O. mykiss and that a self-sustaining population of Chinook salmon may develop. Our objectives were to assess: 1) the distribution and populations of juvenile spring Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead in the upper Wind River; 2) the influence of stream flow and of each population on the other; and 3) if Chinook salmon populations were self-sustaining. We snorkeled to determine distribution and abundance. Flow in the fall influenced upstream distribution and abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon. Juvenile Chinook salmon densities were consistently low (range 0.0 to 5.7 fish 100 m-2) and not influenced by number of spawners, winter flow magnitude, or steelhead abundance. Juvenile steelhead were distributed through the study section each year. Age-0 and age-1 steelhead densities (age-0 range: 0.04 to 37.0 fish 100 m-2; age-1 range: 0.02 to 6.21 fish 100 m-2) were consistently higher than for juvenile Chinook salmon. Steelhead spawner abundance positively influenced juvenile steelhead abundance. During this study, Chinook salmon in the Wind River appear to have had little effect on steelhead. Low juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and a lack of a spawner-to-juvenile relationship suggest Chinook salmon are not self-sustaining and potential for such a population is low under current conditions.

  11. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done

  12. 2003 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2004-09-01

    From January to July of 2003, 42 entrapments and 25 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 6,122 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (69%), chum salmon (7%), and coho salmon (24%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  13. 2004 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2005-08-01

    From January to July of 2004, 33 entrapments and 56 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 7,834 salmonids, made up of three species, were collected (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (85%), chum salmon (8%), and coho salmon (7%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three species of salmon.

  14. 2002 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2003-10-01

    From January to July of 2002, 79 entrapments and 22 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 2,272 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (49%), chum salmon (29%), and coho salmon (22%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  15. Effects of dam removal on Tule Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Engle, Rod; Barton, Gary J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Warren, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric dams ever removed in the USA. Breached in a single explosive event in October 2011, hundreds-of-thousands of cubic metres of sediment washed down the White Salmon River onto spawning grounds of a threatened species, Columbia River tule fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We investigated over a 3-year period (2010–2012) how dam breaching affected channel morphology, river hydraulics, sediment composition and tule fall Chinook salmon (hereafter ‘tule salmon’) spawning habitat in the lower 1.7 km of the White Salmon River (project area). As expected, dam breaching dramatically affected channel morphology and spawning habitat due to a large load of sediment released from Northwestern Lake. Forty-two per cent of the project area that was previously covered in water was converted into islands or new shoreline, while a large pool near the mouth filled with sediments and a delta formed at the mouth. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model revealed that pool area decreased 68.7% in the project area, while glides and riffles increased 659% and 530%, respectively. A spatially explicit habitat model found the mean probability of spawning habitat increased 46.2% after dam breaching due to an increase in glides and riffles. Shifting channels and bank instability continue to negatively affect some spawning habitat as sediments continue to wash downstream from former Northwestern Lake, but 300 m of new spawning habitat (river kilometre 0.6 to 0.9) that formed immediately post-breach has persisted into 2015. Less than 10% of tule salmon have spawned upstream of the former dam site to date, but the run sizes appear healthy and stable. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Redd site selection and spawning habitat use by fall chinook salmon: The importance of geomorphic features in large rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R. |; Dauble, D.D.

    1998-09-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional connectivity between rivers and groundwater within the hyporheic zone can be used to improve the definition of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat. Information exists on the microhabitat characteristics that define suitable salmon spawning habitat. However, traditional spawning habitat models that use these characteristics to predict available spawning habitat are restricted because they can not account for the heterogeneous nature of rivers. The authors present a conceptual spawning habitat model for fall chinook salmon that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Two case studies based on empirical data from fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are presented to illustrate important aspects of the conceptual model. The authors suggest that traditional habitat models and the conceptual model be combined to predict the limits of suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. This approach can incorporate quantitative measures of river channel morphology, including general descriptors of geomorphic features at different spatial scales, in order to understand the processes influencing redd site selection and spawning habitat use. This information is needed in order to protect existing salmon spawning habitat in large rivers, as well as to recover habitat already lost.

  17. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Underwater time- lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002. The adult salmon spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 2002 was 410 fish. Jack salmon comprised 7.1 percent of the run. Estimated hatchery composition was 6.1 percent of the spawning run. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 26, 15 days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream movement of 41 adults occurred on July 8. Peak of total movement activity was August 18. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 2. Snow pack in the drainage was 91% of the average during the winter of 2001/2002. Video determined salmon spawner abundance was compared to redd count expansion method point estimates in Lake Creek in 2002. Expanded index area redd count and extensive area redd count point estimates in 2002, estimated from one percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion methods varied from two percent fewer to 55 percent greater in 2001, 11 to 46 percent fewer in 1999 and 104 to 214 percent greater in 1998. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers determined by video abundance and multiple pass redd counts of the larger extensive survey

  18. p,p'-DDE depresses the immune competence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) leukocytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misumi, Ichiro; Vella, Anthony T.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Schreck, Carl B.

    2005-01-01

    p,p′-DDE, the main metabolite of DDT, is still detected in aquatic environments throughout the world. Here, the effects and mechanisms by which p,p′-DDE exposure might affect the immune system of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was studied. Isolated salmon splenic and pronephric leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of p,p′-DDE, and cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and mitogenic responses were measured by flow cytometry and Alamar Blue assay. p,p′-DDE significantly reduced cell viability and proliferation and increased apoptosis. The effect of p,p′-DDE on pronephric leukocytes was more severe than on splenic leukocytes, likely because pronephric leukocytes had a higher proportion of granulocytes, cells that appear more sensitive to p,p′-DDE. The effect of p,p′-DDE on leukocytes appeared to vary between developmental stages or seasonal differences. The mitogenic response of leukocytes of chinook salmon exposed to p,p′-DDE in vivo exhibited a biphasic dose–response relationship. Only leukocytes isolated from salmon treated with 59 ppm p,p′-DDE had a significantly lower percentage of Ig+ blasting cells than controls, although the response was biphasic. These results support the theory that exposure to chemical contaminants could lead to an increase in disease susceptibility and mortality of fish due to immune suppression.

  19. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout

  20. Susceptibility of ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon to isolates of the L, U, and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Daniel G; Purcell, Maureen K; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kurath, Gael

    2016-08-31

    This study examined the susceptibility of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to viral strains from the L, U, and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) present in western North America. The goal of this investigation was to establish a baseline understanding of the susceptibility of ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon to infection and mortality caused by exposure to commonly detected strains of L, U, and M IHNV. The L IHNV strain tested here was highly infectious and virulent in both Chinook salmon populations, following patterns previously reported for Chinook salmon. Furthermore, ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon fry at 1 g can also become subclinically infected with U and M strains of IHNV without experiencing significant mortality. The stream-type life history phenotype was generally more susceptible to infection and suffered greater mortality than the ocean-type phenotype. Between the U and M genogroup strains tested, the U group strains were generally more infectious than the M group strains in both Chinook salmon types. Substantial viral clearance occurred by 30 d post exposure, but persistent viral infection was observed with L, U, and M strains in both host populations. While mortality decreased with increased host size in stream-type Chinook salmon, infection prevalence was not lower for all strains at a greater size. These results suggest that Chinook salmon may serve as reservoirs and/or vectors of U and M genogroup IHNV. PMID:27596856

  1. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Idaho Department of Fish and Game Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-10-12

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to fund the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon Program (IDFG Program). The IDFG Program is a small-scale research and production initiative designed to increase numbers of three weak but recoverable populations of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Salmon River drainage. This would increase numbers of spring/summer chinook salmon within the Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU), and reduce population fragmentation within the ESU. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1301) evaluating the proposed IDFG Program. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined within the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  2. Evaluation for Early Life Stage Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium from a Contaminated Groundwater Source

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2007-09-01

    We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted with Columbia River water. Specific endpoints included survival, development rate, and growth. Tissue burdens of fish were also measured to estimate uptake and elimination rates of chromium. Survival, development, and growth of early life stage fall Chinook salmon were not adversely affected by extended exposures (i.e., 98 day) to hexavalent chromium ranging from 0.79 to 260 μg/L. Survival for all treatment levels and controls exceeded 98% at termination of the test. In addition, there were no differences among the mean lengths and weights of fish among all treatment groups. Whole-body concentrations of chromium in early life stage fall Chinook salmon had a typical dose-response pattern; i.e., those subjected to highest exposure concentrations and longest exposure intervals had higher tissue concentrations. Given the spatial extent of chromium concentrations at the Hanford Site, and the dynamics of the groundwater - river water interface, the current cleanup criterion of 10 µg/L chromium appear adequate to protect fall Chinook salmon populations.

  3. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T. P.; Geist, D. R.; Arntzen, E. V.; Abernethy, C. S.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  4. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to copper: Neurophysiological and histological effects on the olfactory system

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.A.; Rose, J.D.; Jenkins, R.A.; Gerow, K.G.; Bergman, H.L.

    1999-09-01

    Olfactory epithelial structure and olfactory bulb neurophysiological responses were measured in chinook salmon and rainbow trout in response to 25 to 300 {micro}g copper (Cu)/L. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, the number of olfactory receptors was significantly reduced in chinook salmon exposed to {ge}50 {micro}g Cu/L and in rainbow trout exposed to {ge}200 {micro}g cu/L for 1 h. The number of receptors was significantly reduced in both species following exposure to 25 {micro}g Cu/L for 4 h. Transmission electron microscopy of olfactory epithelial tissue indicated that the loss of receptors was from cellular necrosis. Olfactory bulk electroencephalogram (EEG) responses to 10{sup {minus}3} M L-serine were initially reduced by all Cu concentrations but were virtually eliminated in chinook salmon exposed to {ge}50 {micro}g Cu/L and in rainbow trout exposed to {ge}200 {micro}g Cu/L within 1 h of exposure. Following Cu exposure, EEG response recovery rates were slower in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The higher sensitivity of the chinook salmon olfactory system to Cu-induced histological damage and neurophysiological impairment parallels the relative species sensitivity observed in behavioral avoidance experiments. This difference in species sensitivity may reduce the survival and reproductive potential of chinook salmon compared with that of rainbow trout in Cu-contaminated waters.

  5. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  6. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  7. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  8. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  9. Evaluation of Head-of-Reservoir Conditions for Downstream Migration of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at Shasta Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancey, K. M.; Saito, L.; Svoboda, C.; Bender, M. D.; Hannon, J.; Hellmann, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since completion of Shasta Dam, migration of Chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Sacramento River has been blocked, causing loss of spawning and rearing habitat. This has been a factor leading to population declines of these fish species over several decades. Winter-run Chinook salmon, spring-run Chinook salmon and steelhead trout are now listed under the Endangered Species Act. A habitat assessment of the tributaries upstream of Shasta Dam showed that the Sacramento and McCloud tributaries have suitable habitat for reintroduction of adult salmon and steelhead for spawning. Such reintroduction would require downstream passage of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead past Shasta Dam. To evaluate the possibility of collecting and transporting juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead past Shasta Dam, a CE-QUAL-W2 model of Shasta Lake and the Sacramento River, McCloud River, Pit River and Squaw Creek tributaries was used to assess where and when conditions were favorable at head-of-reservoir locations upstream of proposed temperature curtains to collect juvenile fish. Head-of-reservoir is the zone of transition between the river and the upstream end of the reservoir. Criteria for evaluating locations suitable to collect these fish included water temperature and velocities in the Sacramento and McCloud tributaries. Model output was analyzed during months of downstream migration under dry, median and wet year conditions. Potential for proposed temperature curtains, anchored and floating, to improve conditions for fish migration was also evaluated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Use of temperature curtains to assist fish migration is a novel approach that to our knowledge has not previously been assessed for recovery of Chinook salmon and steelhead populations. Providing safe passage conditions is challenging, however the study findings may assist in formulation of a juvenile fish passage alternative that is suitable for Shasta Lake.

  10. Competing Conservation Objectives for Predators and Prey: Estimating Killer Whale Prey Requirements for Chinook Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A.; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S.; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P.; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada–US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict

  11. Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict

  12. Spring Chinook Salmon Production for Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Annual Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Doulas, Speros

    2007-01-01

    This annual report covers the period from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2006. Work completed supports the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) effort to restore a locally-adapted stock of spring Chinook to the Umatilla River Basin. During the year, staff at the Little White Salmon/Willard National Fish Hatchery Complex have completed the rearing of 218,764 Brood Year 2004 spring Chinook salmon for release into the Umatilla River during spring 2006 and initiated production of approximately 220,000 Brood Year 2005 spring Chinook for transfer and release into the Umatilla River during spring 2007. All work under this contract is performed at the Little White Salmon and Willard National Fish Hatcheries (NFH), Cook, WA.

  13. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook salmon and steelhead trout adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and develop habitat enhancement mitigation accounting based on increases in wild/natural smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. The project to date has developed good information on the relationship between chinook salmon adult escapement and smolt production at low to medium seeding levels. Adult chinook salmon escapements have been too low for us to test carrying capacity. For steelhead trout, they have developed a relationship between parr populations and smolt production at low to high seeding levels, with limited information on carrying capacity.

  14. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  15. Survey of pathogens in hatchery Chinook salmon with different out-migration histories through the Snake and Columbia rivers.

    PubMed

    Van Gaest, A L; Dietrich, J P; Thompson, D E; Boylen, D A; Strickland, S A; Collier, T K; Loge, F J; Arkoosh, M R

    2011-06-01

    The operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) has negatively affected threatened and endangered salmonid populations in the Pacific Northwest. Barging Snake River spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha through the FCRPS is one effort to mitigate the effect of the hydrosystem on juvenile salmon out-migration. However, little is known about the occurrence and transmission of infectious agents in barged juvenile salmon relative to juvenile salmon that remain in-river to navigate to the ocean. We conducted a survey of hatchery-reared spring Chinook salmon at various points along their out-migration path as they left their natal hatcheries and either migrated in-river or were barged through the FCRPS. Salmon kidneys were screened by polymerase chain reaction for nine pathogens and one family of water molds. Eight pathogens were detected; the most prevalent were Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Species in the family Saprolegniaceae were also commonly detected. Pathogen prevalence was significantly greater in fish that were barged through the FCRPS than in fish left to out-migrate in-river. These results suggest that the transmission of infectious agents to susceptible juvenile salmon occurs during the barging process. Therefore, management activities that reduce pathogen exposure during barging may increase the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon after they are released. PMID:21834329

  16. Environmental adaptation in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) throughout their North American range.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Benjamin C; Matala, Andrew P; Hess, Jon E; Narum, Shawn R

    2015-11-01

    Landscape genomics is a rapidly growing field with recent advances in both genotyping efficiency and statistical analyses that provide insight towards local adaptation of populations under varying environmental and selective pressure. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are a broadly distributed Pacific salmon species, occupying a diversity of habitats throughout the northeastern Pacific with pronounced variation in environmental and climate features but little is understood regarding local adaptation in this species. We used a multivariate method, redundancy analysis (RDA), to identify polygenic correlations between 19,703 SNP loci and a suite of environmental variables in 46 collections of Chinook salmon (1956 total individuals) distributed throughout much of its North American range. Models in RDA were conducted on both rangewide and regional scales by hierarchical partitioning of the populations into three distinct genetic lineages. Our results indicate that between 5.8 and 21.8% of genomic variation can be accounted for by environmental features, and 566 putatively adaptive loci were identified as targets of environmental adaptation. The most influential drivers of adaptive divergence included precipitation in the driest quarter of the year (Rangewide and North Coastal Lineage, anova P = 0.002 and 0.01, respectively), precipitation in the wettest quarter of the year (Interior Columbia River Stream-Type Lineage, anova P = 0.03), variation in mean diurnal range in temperature (South Coastal Lineage, ANOVA P = 0.005), and migration distance (Rangewide, anova P = 0.001). Our results indicate that environmental features are strong drivers of adaptive genomic divergence in this species, and provide a foundation to investigate how Chinook salmon might respond to global environmental change. PMID:26465117

  17. Modeling Shasta Dam operations to regulate temperatures for Chinook salmon under extreme climate and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, A.; Saito, L.; Sapin, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hanna, R. B.; Kauneckis, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chinook salmon populations have declined significantly after the construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River in 1945 prevented them from spawning in the cold waters upstream. In 1994, the winter-run Chinook were listed under the Endangered Species Act and 3 years later the US Bureau of Reclamation began operating a temperature control device (TCD) on the dam that allows for selective withdrawal for downstream temperature control to promote salmon spawning while also maximizing power generation. However, dam operators are responsible to other interests that depend on the reservoir for water such as agriculture, municipalities, industry, and recreation. An increase in temperatures due to climate change may place additional strain on the ability of dam operations to maintain spawning habitat for salmon downstream of the dam. We examined the capability of Shasta Dam to regulate downstream temperatures under extreme climates and climate change by using stochastically generated streamflow, stream temperature, and weather inputs with a two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 model under several operational options. Operation performance was evaluated using degree days and cold pool volume (volume of water below a temperature threshold). Model results indicated that a generalized operations release schedule, in which release elevations varied over the year to match downstream temperature targets, performed best overall in meeting temperature targets while preserving cold pool volume. Releasing all water out the bottom throughout the year tended to meet temperature targets at the expense of depleting the cold pool, and releasing all water out uppermost gates preserved the cold pool, but released water that was too warm during the critical spawning period. With higher air temperatures due to climate change, both degree day and cold pool volume metrics were worse than baseline conditions, which suggests that Chinook salmon may be more negatively affected under climate change.

  18. Quantitative threat analysis for management of an imperiled species: Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Jonathan M; Bartz, Krista K; Ruckelshaus, Mary H; Moslemi, Jennifer M; Harms, Tamara K

    2007-10-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have declined dramatically across the Pacific Northwest because of multiple human impacts colloquially characterized as the four "H's": habitat degradation, harvest, hydroelectric and other dams, and hatchery production. We use this conceptual framework to quantify the relative importance of major threats to the current status of 201 Chinook populations. Current status is characterized by two demographic indices: population density and trend. We employ path analytic models and information theoretic methods for multi-model inference. Our results indicate that dams most strongly affect variation in population density, while harvest and hatchery production most strongly affect variation in population trend. Comparable results arise when the sample size of the analysis is reduced to 22 Chinook populations within a smaller region typical of the scale at which salmon recovery planning is conducted. Results from these threat analyses suggest that recovery strategies targeting specific demographic indices, and those considering natural and human-mediated interdependencies of major threats, are most likely to succeed. PMID:17974341

  19. Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

    1995-08-01

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  20. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1998-05-01

    In August 1996, we PIT tagged and released 1,360 wild chinook salmon parr in the South Fork of the Salmon River and two of its tributaries in Idaho. During spring and summer 1997, the overall adjusted percentage of PIT-tagged fish from Idaho detected at six downstream dams averaged 18.3% (range 16.0 to 27.3% depending on stream of origin). Peak detections of all wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts (from Idaho and Oregon) at Lower Granite Dam occurred during variable but increasing river flows in April. High river flows from mid-April to mid-May moved most of these fish through Lower Granite Dam, with 50 and 90% passage occurring on 24 April and 21 May, respectively. From 1989 to 1996, peak detections of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts were highly variable and generally independent of river flows before about 9 May at this dam; however, during these years (including 1997), peak detections of wild fish coincided with periods of peak flow at the dam from 9 May to the end of May. In both 1995 and 1996, in excess of 90% of the wild fish had migrated past Lower Granite Dam by the time peak flows occurred in June. In 1989, we observed a period of peak detections of wild fish that coincided with peak flows at the dam in June. After examining chinook salmon smolt passage timing at the dams over the last 9 years, it has become clear that flow is only one of several factors that influence passage timing. Other factors, such as annual climatic conditions, water temperature, turbidity, physiological development, variability in stock behavior, fish size, and other yet unknown conditions may equally affect wild smolt passage timing at dams. As additional environmental monitors and traps are installed in study streams, we will be able to more accurately monitor parr and smolt movements out of rearing areas and examine the relationships of these movements to environmental parameters within the streams. Mapped over time, this information will provide the basis for

  1. Linkages between life history type and migration pathways in freshwater and marine environments for Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rishi; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2012-05-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, are commonly categorized as ocean-type (migrating to the ocean in their first year of life) or stream-type (migrating after a full year in freshwater). These two forms have been hypothesized to display different ocean migration pathways; the former are hypothesized to migrate primarily on the continental shelf whereas the latter are hypothesized to migrate off the shelf to the open ocean. These differences in migration patterns have important implications for management, as fishing mortality rates are strongly influenced by ocean migration. Ocean-type Chinook salmon predominate in coastal rivers in the southern part of the species' range, whereas stream-type predominate in the interior and northerly rivers. This latitudinal gradient has confounded previous efforts to test the hypothesis regarding ocean migration pathways. To address this problem, we used a pair-wise design based on coded wire tagging data to compare the marine distributions of stream- and ocean-type Chinook salmon from a suite of rivers producing both forms. Both forms of Chinook salmon from the lower Columbia River, Oregon coast, lower Fraser River, and northern British Columbia rivers followed similar migration paths, contradicting the hypothesis. In contrast, recoveries of tagged Chinook salmon from the upper Columbia River, Snake River, and the upper Fraser River revealed migration patterns consistent with the hypothesis. These findings have important implications for our understanding of these life history types, and also for the conservation and management of declining, threatened, or endangered stream-type Chinook salmon populations in the US and Canada.

  2. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American

  3. Indirect genetic effects underlie oxygen-limited thermal tolerance within a coastal population of chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Nicolas J; Anttila, Katja; Chen, Zhongqi; Heath, John W; Farrell, Anthony P; Neff, Bryan D

    2014-08-22

    With global temperatures projected to surpass the limits of thermal tolerance for many species, evaluating the heritable variation underlying thermal tolerance is critical for understanding the potential for adaptation to climate change. We examined the evolutionary potential of thermal tolerance within a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by conducting a full-factorial breeding design and measuring the thermal performance of cardiac function and the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of offspring from each family. Additive genetic variation in offspring phenotype was mostly negligible, although these direct genetic effects explained 53% of the variation in resting heart rate (fH). Conversely, maternal effects had a significant influence on resting fH, scope for fH, cardiac arrhythmia temperature and CTmax. These maternal effects were associated with egg size, as indicated by strong relationships between the mean egg diameter of mothers and offspring thermal tolerance. Because egg size can be highly heritable in chinook salmon, our finding indicates that the maternal effects of egg size constitute an indirect genetic effect contributing to thermal tolerance. Such indirect genetic effects could accelerate evolutionary responses to the selection imposed by rising temperatures and could contribute to the population-specific thermal tolerance that has recently been uncovered among Pacific salmon populations. PMID:25009055

  4. Maximum Neutral Buoyancy Depth of Juvenile Chinook Salmon: Implications for Survival during Hydroturbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Pflugrath, Brett D.; Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the maximum depth at which juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha can acclimate by attaining neutral buoyancy. Depth of neutral buoyancy is dependent upon the volume of gas within the swim bladder, which greatly influences the occurrence of injuries to fish passing through hydroturbines. We used two methods to obtain maximum swim bladder volumes that were transformed into depth estimations - the increased excess mass test (IEMT) and the swim bladder rupture test (SBRT). In the IEMT, weights were surgically added to the fishes exterior, requiring the fish to increase swim bladder volume in order to remain neutrally buoyant. SBRT entailed removing and artificially increasing swim bladder volume through decompression. From these tests, we estimate the maximum acclimation depth for juvenile Chinook salmon is a median of 6.7m (range = 4.6-11.6 m). These findings have important implications to survival estimates, studies using tags, hydropower operations, and survival of juvenile salmon that pass through large Kaplan turbines typical of those found within the Columbia and Snake River hydropower system.

  5. Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts during spring 2010 in a portion of the Columbia River that includes Bonneville Dam. The study estimated smolt survival from a virtual release at Bonneville Dam to a survival array 81 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. We also estimated median forebay residence time, median tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A single release design was used to estimate survival from Bonneville Dam to a primary array located 81 km downstream of Bonneville. The approach did not include a reference tailrace release. Releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam to Hood River contributed to the formation of virtual releases at a Bonneville Dam forebay entrance array and at the face of the dam. A total of 3,880 yearling Chinook salmon and 3,885 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation.

  6. Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts during spring 2010 in a portion of the Columbia River that includes Bonneville Dam. The study estimated smolt survival from a virtual release at Bonneville Dam to a survival array 81 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. We also estimated median forebay residence time, median tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A single release design was used to estimate survival from Bonneville Dam to a primary array located 81 km downstream of Bonneville. The approach did not include a reference tailrace release. Releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam to Hood River contributed to the formation of virtual releases at a Bonneville Dam forebay entrance array and at the face of the dam. A total of 3,880 yearling Chinook salmon and 3,885 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation.

  7. Characterization and application of a quantitative DNA marker that discriminates sex in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, D.R.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A qualitative male-specific DNA marker (OT-24) was amplified by spPCR (single-primer polymerase chain reaction) from chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) DNA along with several non-sex-linked products. The termini of the male-specific product were sequenced, and a pair of PeR primers were constructed for marker-specific PCR amplification. Dual primer PCR (dpPCR), with the marker-specific primers, amplified a product from both nudes and females. The amount of dpPCR product amplified from males was at least 100-fold greater than that from females. The quantitative difference between males and females was consistent among geographically distinct populations from western U.S. rivers. In addition, DNA sequence analysis indicated that OT-24 was highly conserved among geographically distinct salmon populations. The qualitative spPCR product segregated through several genetic crosses indicating equal sex ratios among progeny. Identification of the male and female juveniles by dpPCR was consistent with the spPCR analysis. There was no tissue specificity observed by spPCR or dpPCR analysis of this marker. A rapid DNA extraction method and dpPCR analysis were used to nonlethally determine sex ratios in wild spring chinook salmon adults, withheld for genetic and behavioral studies, prior to their development of gross sexual differences in their external morphology.

  8. Characterization and application of a quantitative DNA marker that discriminates sex in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, D.R.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A qualitative male-specific DNA marker (OT-24) was amplified by spPCR (single-primer polymerase chain reaction) from chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) DNA along with several non-sex-linked products. The termini of the male-specific product were sequenced, and a pair of PeR primers were constructed for marker-specific PCR amplification. Dual primer PCR (dpPCR), with the marker-specific primers, amplified a product from both nudes and females. The amount of dpPCR product amplified from males was at least 100-fold greater than that from females. The quantitative difference between males and females was consistent among geographically distinct populations from western U.S. rivers. In addition, DNA sequence analysis indicated that OT-24 was highly conserved among geographically distinct salmon populations. The qualitative spPCR product segregated through several genetic crosses indicating equal sex ratios among progeny. Identification of the male and female juveniles by dpPCR was consistent with the spPCR analysis. There was no tissue specificity observed by spPCR or dpPCR analysis of this marker. A rapid DNA extraction method and dpPCR analysis were used to nonlethally determine sex ratios in wild spring chinook salmon adults, withheld for genetic and behavioral studies, prior to their development of gross sexual differences in their external morphology.

  9. Stress of formalin treatment in juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary; Yasutake, W.T.

    1973-01-01

    The physiological stress of 200 ppm formalin treatments at 10 C is more severe in the juvenile steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) than in the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). In the steelhead, a marked hypochloremia follows a 1-hr treatment and recovery requires about 24 hr. During longer treatments, hypercholesterolemia together with reduced regulatory precision, hypercortisolemia, alkaline reserve depletion, and hypocapnia unaccompanied by a fall in blood pH occur — suggestive of compensated respiratory alkalosis. In the spring chinook, hypochloremia and reduced plasma cholesterol regulatory precision are the significant treatment side effects but recovery requires only a few hours.Formalin treatments also cause epithelial separation, hypertrophy, and necrosis in the gills of both fishes but again, consistent with the physiological dysfunctions, these are more severe in the steelhead.

  10. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach in the Columbia River, 1998 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John; Newsome, Todd; Nugent, Michael

    2001-07-27

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the second year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fish species, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1998 field season.

  11. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John

    2002-01-24

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the third year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1999 field season.

  12. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.; Claire, Glenda M.; Seals, Jason

    2002-01-01

    The four objectives of this report are: (1) Estimate annual spawner escapement and number of spring chinook salmon redds in the John Day River basin; (2) Determine sex ratio, age composition, length-at-age of spawners, and proportion of natural spawners that are hatchery origin strays; (3) Determine adequacy of historic index surveys for indexing spawner abundance and for detecting changes in spawner distribution through time; and (4) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival for spring chinook salmon emigrating from the John Day River basin.

  13. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994-1995 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    1996-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing.

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the fourth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2000 field season.

  15. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The evaluation, in the fifth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2001 field season.

  16. Different prevalences of Renibacterium salmoninarum detected by ELISA in Alaskan chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha spawned from freshwater and seawater.

    PubMed

    Meyers, T R; Thrower, F; Short, S; Lipson, K; Joyce, J; Farrington, C; Doherty, S

    1999-01-29

    Soluble antigen of Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs) was detected by a polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at significantly higher prevalences in adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that matured in freshwater than in the same cohort of fish spawned after maturation in seawater. The cumulative results were consistent during 4 yr of comparison at the Little Port Walter Hatchery on Baranof Island, Alaska, USA. Possible causes for this difference are discussed. Maturation of chinook salmon broodstock in seawater has become a practical strategy at this hatchery to reduce the prevalence of Rs-positive parent fish and the numbers of culled eggs. PMID:10092972

  17. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  18. An evaluation of the maximum tag burden for implantation of acoustic transmitters in juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Deters, Katherine A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2010-04-01

    Abstract.—The influence of a surgically implanted acoustic micro-transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag on the growth and survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Chinook salmon was examined. Growth and survival were compared between treatment (implanted) and control fish within three fork length (FL) size groups (80-89, 90-99, and 100-109 mm). The acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag implanted in our study had a combined weight of 0.74 g. Weights of study fish ranged from 4.7 to 16.3 g for treatment fish and from 5.1 to 16.8 g for control fish. The burden for the combined acoustic and PIT tag experienced by implanted fish ranged from 8.8% to 15.7% for the 80-89 mm FL group, 6.0-10.9% for the 90-99 mm FL group, and 4.5-8.6% for the 100-109 mm FL group. Results indicated that growth and survival were size-dependent among implanted juvenile Chinook salmon. Significant differences in growth rate and survival were observed between treatment and control fish in the 80-89 mm FL group. Within this group, growth of fish smaller than 88.5 mm FL (tag burden > 10.0%) was negatively affected by the implantation or presence of an acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag. Survival of fish in the 90-99 mm FL group did not differ between treatment and control fish. However, survival of implanted fish within this size group that were smaller than 97.2 mm FL (tag burden > 7.4%) was negatively influenced. These results indicate that the burden of an acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag should be maintained at or below about 7.0% for studies that use hatchery-reared juvenile Chinook salmon.

  19. Habitat quality of historic Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning locations and implications for incubation survival: part 1, substrate quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated substrate quality at two historic fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning sites in the Snake River, Idaho, USA. The primary objective of this evaluation was to measure sediment permeability within these areas to determine the potential quality of the habitat in the event that anadromous salmonids are reintroduced to the upper Snake River. Riverbed sediments within the two sites in the upper Snake River were sampled using freeze cores and hydraulic slug tests. Sediment grain size distributions at both sites were typical of gravel-bed rivers with the surface layer coarser than the underlying substrate, suggesting the riverbed surface was armored. Despite the armored nature of the bed, the size of the largest material present on the riverbed surface was well within the size limit of material capable of being excavated by spawning fall Chinook salmon. The percentage of fines was low, suggesting good quality substrate for incubating salmon embryos. Geometric mean particle sizes found in this study compared to a 55% to 80% survival to emergence based on literature values. Hydraulic slug tests showed moderate to high hydraulic conductivity and were comparable to values from current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River and the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Predicted estimates of mean egg survival at both sites (48% and 74%) equaled or exceeded estimates from fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach and the Hanford Reach.

  20. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon.

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection of Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon, Columbia River.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.

    2001-10-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat.

  2. Open-jaw syndrome in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a hatchery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crouch, Dennis E.; Yasutake, William T.; Rucker, Robert R.

    1973-01-01

    Nearly 0.5% of the yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a national fish hatchery were observed with mouth agape, the condition occurring in two of 16 ponds. X-radiographs and histological preparations indicated that the articular bone of the lower jaw was malformed and dislocated dorsal and posterior to its normal point of attachment. The bone appeared to be embedded in the mandibular muscle and surrounded by an extensive fibrous tissue network. Genetic aberration, environmental interaction, and teratogenic substances are discussed as possible causes of the anomaly.

  3. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Passing the Bonneville Dam Spillway in 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP) funds numerous evaluations of fish passage and survival on the Columbia River. In 2007, the CENWP asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct an acoustic telemetry study to estimate the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon passing the spillway at Bonneville Dam. This report documents the study results which are intended to be used to improve the conditions juvenile anadromous fish experience when passing through the dams that the Corps operates on the river.

  4. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles Dam during summer 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion, dam passage survival is required to be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam and through the tailrace to 2 km downstream of the dam, forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required by the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  5. Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

  6. Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

  7. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at The Dalles Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fischer, Eric S.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jin A.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-12-01

    The acoustic telemetry study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The purpose of the study was to estimate dam passage survival and other performance measures for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  8. Studies of transmission of mycobacterial infections in Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Johnson, H.E.

    1962-01-01

    THE INCLUSION OF VISCERA AND CARCASSES OF TUBERCULOUS ADULT SALMON IN THE DIET OF JUVENILE SALMONIDS is considered to be the major source of mycobacterial infections in hatchery-reared fish (Wood and Ordal, 1958; Ross, Earp, and Wood, 1959). In considering additional modes of infection, we speculated about transovarian transmission or a mechanical process arising from contamination of the ova at the egg-taking stage with subsequent entry of the bacteria into the egg at the time of fertilization. This paper is a report on observations made during an experiment designed to test the latter theories.

  9. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake river chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsing, D.L.; Moore, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  10. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake River Chinook salmon: a biological-economic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Halsing, David L; Moore, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  11. Thermal exposure of adult Chinook salmon in the Willamette River basin.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Jepson, Michael A; Naughton, George P; Blubaugh, Timothy J; Joosten, Daniel C; Caudill, Christopher C

    2015-02-01

    Radiotelemetry and archival temperature loggers were used to reconstruct the thermal experience of adult spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the highly regulated Willamette River system in Oregon. The study population is threatened and recovery efforts have been hampered by episodically high prespawn mortality that is likely temperature mediated. Over three years, 310 salmon were released with thermal loggers and 68 were recovered in spawning tributaries, primarily at hatchery trapping facilities downstream from high-head dams. More than 190,000 internal body temperature records were collected (mean ~2800 per fish) and associated with 14 main stem and tributary reaches. Most salmon experienced a wide temperature range (minima ~8-10 °C; maxima ~13-22 °C) and 65% encountered potentially stressful conditions (≥18 °C). The warmest salmon temperatures were in lower Willamette River reaches, where some fish exhibited short-duration behavioral thermoregulation. Cumulative temperature exposure, measured by degree days (DD) above 0 °C, varied more than seven-fold among individuals (range=208-1498 DDs) and more than two-fold among sub-basin populations, on average. Overall, ~72% of DDs accrued in tributaries and ~28% were in the Willamette River main stem. DD differences among individuals and populations were related to migration distance, migration duration, and salmon trapping protocols (i.e., extended pre-collection holding in tributaries versus hatchery collection shortly after tributary entry). The combined data provide spatially- and temporally-referenced information on both short-duration stressful temperature exposure and the biologically important total exposure. Thermal exposure in this population complex proximately influences adult salmon physiology, maturation, and disease processes and ultimately affects prespawn mortality and fitness. The results should help managers develop more effective salmon recovery plans in basins with marginal

  12. Performance Assessment of Suture Type in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.

    2009-02-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the best overall suture material to close incisions from the surgical implantation of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The effects of seven suture materials, four surgeons, and two water temperatures on suture retention, incision openness, tag retention, tissue inflammation, and tissue ulceration were quantified. The laboratory study, conducted by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, supports a larger effort under way for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, aimed at determining the suitability of acoustic telemetry for estimating short- and longer-term (30-60 days) juvenile-salmonid survival at Columbia and Snake River dams and through the lower Columbia River.

  13. Modeling Investigation of Spring Chinook Salmon Habitat in San Joaquin River Restoration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Ramires, J.

    2013-12-01

    As the second longest river in California, the San Joaquin River (SJR) is a vital natural resource to numerous residents and industries and provides an array of activities within Central Valley, home to some of California's most productive agricultural areas. Originating in the high Sierra Nevada, mainly from snowmelt and runoff, and passing through the middle sections including Fresno and Madera counties, eventually the SJR conjoins with the Sacramento River, constructing the largest river delta on the west coast of North America. Along with human necessities, the river used to be crucial for the propagation and survivability of Chinook salmon and other aquatic and wildlife. However, the SJR has experienced hydraulic disconnection throughout certain reaches due to extensive water diversion. Indigenous salmon populations have been degraded over the years due to insufficient flows and anthropogenic activities. In 2006, to maintain salmon and other fish populations to a point of self-sustainment, the San Joaquin River Restoration Project (SJRRP) was established to restore flows along the SJR from Friant Dam to the confluence of the Merced River by routing the original SJR in different pathways. One of the major tasks of the SJRRP, so called 'Reach 4B Project', was to modify and improve channel capacity of reach 4B, east side bypass and Mariposa bypass of the SJR. Multiple scenarios for the alteration and modification of the SJR water pathway were designed to ensure fish passage by retrofitting existing channels and to provide adequate flow throughout the study area. The goal of the SJRRP project 4B was to provide an efficient passage for adult Chinook salmon to spawning beds further upstream and a safe route for yearling to the delta. The objective of this research project is to characterize the stream properties (current velocities, depth, etc.) of each proposed alternative in Project 4B2 under the same upstream conditions using a modeling method. A depth

  14. Persistent infections of fish cell lines by paramyxovirus isolates from Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lannan, C.N.

    1989-01-01

    We have reported the isolation of a paramyxovirus from stocks of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to coastal rivers of Oregon, USA (Winton et al 1985). The isolates were obtained from kidney and spleen tissues using the chinook salmon embryo cell line, CHSE-214. Initial cytopathic effect (CPE) was slow to develop, requiring 28 days incubation at 18°C. The virus replicated in CHSE-214, chum heart (CHH-1), kokanee ovary (K0-6), coho salmon embryo (CSE-119), and fathead minnow (FHM) cell lines where it produced a lytic type of CPE.The virus was stable at pH 3-11 and iodo-deoxyuridine did not inhibit wiral replication. Infectivity was lost after treatment with chloroform indicating the presence of essential lipids. The density of virions in CsCl was 1.2 g/ml. The virus hemagglutinated cells of 11 of 14 species of birds, mammals, and fish tested. Electron microscopy of infected cells revealed enveloped particles 125-250 nm in dia. containing coiled nucleocapsids and examination of freon-treated virions showed the nucleocapsid was a helix approximately 18 nm in dia. and > 1000 nm in length (Winton et al 1985).In addition to causing hemagglutination, members of the Paramyxoviridae are known for the ability to establish persistent infections of cell lines (Choppin and Compans 1975). The purpose of this study was to determine if the paramyxovirus isolates from salmon were able to establish persistent infections in fish cell lines and to study the nature of the infection.

  15. Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon, Hanford Reach, Columbia River : Final Report 1995 - 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1995 through 1998 on identifying the spawning habitat requirements of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The project investigated whether traditional spawning habitat models could be improved in order to make better predictions of available habitat for fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. Results suggest models could be improved if they used spawning area-specific, rather than river-specific, spawning characteristics; incorporated hyporheic discharge measurements; and gave further consideration to the geomorphic features that are present in the unconstrained segments of large alluvial rivers. Ultimately the recovery of endangered fall chinook salmon will depend on how well we are able to recreate the characteristics once common in alluvial floodplains of large rivers. The results from this research can be used to better define the relationship between these physical habitat characteristics and fall chinook salmon spawning site selection, and provide more efficient use of limited recovery resources. This report is divided into four chapters which were presented in the author's doctoral dissertation which he completed through the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University. Each of the chapters has been published in peer reviewed journals or is currently under review. Chapter one is a conceptual spawning habitat model that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Chapter two describes the comparison of the physical factors associated with fall chinook salmon redd clusters located at two sites within the Reach. Spatial point pattern analysis of redds showed that redd clusters averaged approximately 10 hectares in area and their locations were consistent from year to

  16. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  17. Infections by Renibacterium salmoninarum and Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin are associated with reduced growth of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sandell, T A; Teel, D J; Fisher, J; Beckman, B; Jacobson, K C

    2015-04-01

    We examined 1454 juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), captured in nearshore waters off the coasts of Washington and Oregon (USA) from 1999 to 2004 for infection by Renibacterium salmoninarum, Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin and skin metacercariae. The prevalence and intensities for each of these infections were established for both yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. Two metrics of salmon growth, weight residuals and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, were determined for salmon infected with these pathogens/parasites, both individually and in combination, with uninfected fish used for comparison. Yearling Chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum had significantly reduced weight residuals. Chinook salmon infected with skin metacercariae alone did not have significantly reduced growth metrics. Dual infections were not associated with significantly more severe effects on the growth metrics than single infections; the number of triple infections was very low and precluded statistical comparison. Overall, these data suggest that infections by these organisms can be associated with reduced juvenile Chinook salmon growth. Because growth in the first year at sea has been linked to survival for some stocks of Chinook salmon, the infections may therefore play a role in regulating these populations in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. PMID:24720546

  18. Genetic characterization of naturally spawned Snake River fall-run Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, A.R.; Blankenship, H.L.; Connor, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    We sampled juvenile Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to genetically characterize the endangered Snake River fall-run population. Juveniles from fall and spring–summer lineages coexisted in our sampling areas but were differentiated by large allozyme allele frequency differences. We sorted juveniles by multilocus genotypes into putative fall and spring lineage subsamples and determined lineage composition using maximum likelihood estimation methods. Paired sMEP-1* and PGK-2* genotypes—encoding malic enzyme (NADP+) and phosphoglycerate kinase, respectively—were very effective for sorting juveniles by lineage, and subsamples estimated to be 100% fall lineage were obtained in four annual samples. We examined genetic relationships of these fall lineage juveniles with adjacent populations from the Columbia River and from Lyons Ferry Hatchery, which was established to perpetuate the Snake River fall-run population. Our samples of naturally produced Snake River fall lineage juveniles were most closely aligned with Lyons Ferry Hatchery samples. Although fall-run strays of Columbia River hatchery origin found on spawning grounds threaten the genetic integrity of the Snake River population, juvenile samples (a) showed distinctive patterns of allelic diversity, (b) were differentiated from Columbia River populations, and (c) substantiate earlier conclusions that this population is an important genetic resource. This first characterization of naturally produced Snake River fall chinook salmon provides a baseline for monitoring and recovery planning.

  19. Effects of temperature on Renibacterium salmoninarum infection and transmission potential in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Purcell, M K; McKibben, C L; Pearman-Gillman, S; Elliott, D G; Winton, J R

    2016-07-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a significant pathogen of salmonids and the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Water temperature affects the replication rate of pathogens and the function of the fish immune system to influence the progression of disease. In addition, rapid shifts in temperature may serve as stressors that reduce host resistance. This study evaluated the effect of shifts in water temperature on established R. salmoninarum infections. We challenged Chinook salmon with R. salmoninarum at 12 °C for 2 weeks and then divided the fish into three temperature groups (8, 12 and 15 °C). Fish in the 8 °C group had significantly higher R. salmoninarum-specific mortality, kidney R. salmoninarum loads and bacterial shedding rates relative to the fish held at 12 or 15 °C. There was a trend towards suppressed bacterial load and shedding in the 15 °C group, but the results were not significant. Bacterial load was a significant predictor of shedding for the 8 and 12 °C groups but not for the 15 °C group. Overall, our results showed little effect of temperature stress on the progress of infection, but do support the conclusion that cooler water temperatures contribute to infection progression and increased transmission potential in Chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum. PMID:26449619

  20. Adaptive genetic markers discriminate migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid continued gene flow.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Jacobson, Dave P; Kurth, Ryon; Dill, Allen J; Banks, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Neutral genetic markers are routinely used to define distinct units within species that warrant discrete management. Human-induced changes to gene flow however may reduce the power of such an approach. We tested the efficiency of adaptive versus neutral genetic markers in differentiating temporally divergent migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid high gene flow owing to artificial propagation and habitat alteration. We compared seven putative migration timing genes to ten microsatellite loci in delineating three migratory groups of Chinook in the Feather River, CA: offspring of fall-run hatchery broodstock that returned as adults to freshwater in fall (fall run), spring-run offspring that returned in spring (spring run), and fall-run offspring that returned in spring (FRS). We found evidence for significant differentiation between the fall and federally listed threatened spring groups based on divergence at three circadian clock genes (OtsClock1b, OmyFbxw11, and Omy1009UW), but not neutral markers. We thus demonstrate the importance of genetic marker choice in resolving complex life history types. These findings directly impact conservation management strategies and add to previous evidence from Pacific and Atlantic salmon indicating that circadian clock genes influence migration timing. PMID:24478800

  1. Effects of temperature on Renibacterium salmoninarum infection and transmission potential in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; McKibben, Constance L.; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Elliott, Diane G.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a significant pathogen of salmonids and the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Water temperature affects the replication rate of pathogens and the function of the fish immune system to influence the progression of disease. In addition, rapid shifts in temperature may serve as stressors that reduce host resistance. This study evaluated the effect of shifts in water temperature on established R. salmoninarum infections. We challenged Chinook salmon with R. salmoninarum at 12°C for 2 weeks and then divided the fish into three temperature groups (8, 12 and 15°C). Fish in the 8°C group had significantly higher R. salmoninarum-specific mortality, kidney R. salmoninarum loads and bacterial shedding rates relative to the fish held at 12 or 15°C. There was a trend towards suppressed bacterial load and shedding in the 15°C group, but the results were not significant. Bacterial load was a significant predictor of shedding for the 8 and 12°C groups but not for the 15°C group. Overall, our results showed little effect of temperature stress on the progress of infection, but do support the conclusion that cooler water temperatures contribute to infection progression and increased transmission potential in Chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum.

  2. Nonlethal gill biopsy does not affect juvenile chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinelli-Liedtke, T. L.; Shively, R.S.; Holmberg, G.S.; Sheer, M.B.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Using gastric and surgical transmitter implantation, we compared radio-tagged juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (T(O)) with tagged fish also having a gill biopsy (T(B)) to determine biopsy effects on fish implanted with radio transmitters. We found no evidence during the 21-d period to suggest that a gill biopsy reduced survival, growth, or gross condition of the tagged-biopsy group, regardless of transmitter implantation technique. We recorded 100% survival of all treatment groups. Relative growth rates of T(O) and T(B) fish did not differ significantly. Leukocrit and lysozyme levels were not significantly different among groups, suggesting that no signs of infection were present. Our findings suggest that small chinook salmon can tolerate the combination of transmitter implantation and gill biopsy without compromising condition relative to fish receiving only the transmitter. We believe a gill biopsy can be used in field telemetry studies, especially when physiological data are needed in addition to behavioral data.

  3. Decreased mortality of lake michigan chinook salmon after bacterial kidney disease challenge: Evidence for pathogen-driven selection?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, M.K.; Murray, A.L.; Elz, A.; Park, L.K.; Marcquenski, S.V.; Winton, J.R.; Alcorn, S.W.; Pascho, R.J.; Elliott, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1960s, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Green River, Washington, were successfully introduced into Lake Michigan. During spring from1988 to 1992, large fish die-offs affecting Chinook salmon occurred in the lake. Multiple ecological factors probably contributed to the severity of the fish kills, but the only disease agent found regularly was Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease. in this study, survival after challenge by R. salmoninarum was compared between two Chinook salmon stocks: a Lake Michigan stock from Wisconsin (WI) and the progenitor stock from the Green River. We found that the WI stock had significantly greater survival than the Green River stock. Next, the WI and Green River stocks were exposed to the marine pathogen Listonella anguillarum (formerly Vibrio anguillarum), one of the causative agents of vibriosis; survival after this challenge was significantly poorer for the WI stock than for the Green River stock. A close genetic relationship between the Green River and WI stocks was confirmed by analyzing 13 microsatellite loci. These results collectively suggest that disease susceptibility of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon has diverged from that of the source population, possibly in response to pathogen-driven selection. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  4. Physiological status of naturally reared juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River: Seasonal dynamics and changes associated with smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Larsen, D.A.; Sharpe, C.; Lee-Pawlak, B.; Schreck, C.B.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    Two year-classes of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Yakima River, Washington, were sampled from July (3-4 months postemergence) through May (yearling smolt out-migration). Physiological characters measured included liver glycogen, body lipid, gill Na+-K+ ATPase, plasma thyroxine (T4), and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Distinct physiological changes were found that corresponded to season. Summer and fall were characterized by relatively high body lipid and condition factor. Winter was characterized by decreases in body lipid, condition factor, and plasma hormones. An increase in condition factor and body lipid was found in February and March. Finally, April and May were characterized by dramatic changes characteristic of smolting, including increased gill Na+-K+ ATPase activity, plasma T4, and IGF-I and decreased condition factor, body lipid, and liver glycogen. These results create a physiological template for juvenile spring chinook salmon in the drainage that provides a baseline for comparison with other years, populations, and life history types. In addition, this baseline provides a standard for controlled laboratory experiments and a target for fish culturists who rear juvenile spring chinook salmon for release from conservation hatcheries. The implications of these results for juvenile chinook salmon ecology and life history are discussed.

  5. A comparison of Oregon pellet and fish-meat diets for administration of sulfamethazine to Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.; Pilcher, K.S.

    1967-01-01

    The absorption of sulfamethazine by yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was compared when administered in the Oregon Pellet and a fish-meat diet. The pelleted diet delivered the drug to the fish approximately twice as efficiently as the fish-meat diet. Dosage levels are recommended for both diets, and the efficacy of administering drugs in fish feed is discussed.

  6. 75 FR 53025 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... of Availability of this amendment in the Federal Register on February 18, 2010 (75 FR 7228) with comments invited through April 19, 2010. NMFS published the proposed rule on March 23, 2010 (75 FR 14016... (60 FR 31215; November 29, 1995). In 2000, NMFS reduced the Chinook Salmon Savings Area closure...

  7. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, John G.; Bjomn , Theodore C.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2).

  8. 76 FR 72384 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska Pollock Fishery..., then enter in the keyword search. Locate the document you wish to comment on from the resulting list.... The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the GOA are managed under the FMP. The...

  9. Evaluation of Fishway Designs for Downstream Passage of Spring Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Congleton, J.L.; Wagner, E.J.; Ringe, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    The stress response of chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts to passage through three different flumes was tested by assaying plasma cortisol concentrations before and after flume passage. In addition, descaling of fish was recorded before and after flume passage, and the ability of the flumes to pass adult chinook salmon and debris was determined. The three flumes were a corrugated metal flume (CMF), a 4- foot wide baffled flume (BF4), and a 2-foot wide baffled flume (BF2). Each flume was tested under conditions: 1) at night, 2) during the day with a perforated metal cover, which reduced the amount of light entering the flume by about half (partially darkened), and 3) during the day with the perforated cover and additional double layer of black plastic (completely darkened). Plasma cortisol concentrations were not significantly elevated in chinook salmon smolts after passage through any of the flumes (P>0.2, ANOVA). In daytime tests of partially and completely darkened flumes cortisol concentrations were consistently decreased following flume passage. We attribute this to pre-test stress (holding of fish in small tanks) and to the absence of a strong stress response to flume passage. Flume design did not have a significant effect on cortisol concentrations (P=0.9).Total darkening of the flumes during daytime was beneficial: cortisol concentrations were lower (P=0.03) in chinook salmon smolts passing through completely darkened flumes than in smolts passing through partially darkened flumes. 16 refs., 15 figs.

  10. Preliminary examination of oxidative stress in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of wild origin sampled from transport barges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Migrating juvenile wild Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), collected and loaded onto transport barges at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, were sampled from barges at John Day Dam, 348 km downstream, at five-day intervals beginning late April and ending late May. An increase in lipid per...

  11. 78 FR 5162 - Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Central Valley Spring-Run Chinook Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ...On January 16, 2013, we, NMFS, published a proposed rule to designate a nonessential experimental population of Central Valley spring-run Chinook salmon under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act in portions of the San Joaquin River and a notice of availability for the draft environmental assessment associated with this action. The proposed rule contained incorrect dates for two of our......

  12. Decreased mortality of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon after bacterial kidney disease challenge: evidence for pathogen-driven selection?

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maureen K; Murray, Anthony L; Elz, Anna; Park, Linda K; Marcquenski, Susan V; Winton, James R; Alcorn, Stewart W; Pascho, Ronald J; Elliott, Diane G

    2008-12-01

    In the late 1960s, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Green River, Washington, were successfully introduced into Lake Michigan. During spring from 1988 to 1992, large fish die-offs affecting Chinook salmon occurred in the lake. Multiple ecological factors probably contributed to the severity of the fish kills, but the only disease agent found regularly was Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease. In this study, survival after challenge by R. salmoninarum was compared between two Chinook salmon stocks: a Lake Michigan stock from Wisconsin (WI) and the progenitor stock from the Green River. We found that the WI stock had significantly greater survival than the Green River stock. Next, the WI and Green River stocks were exposed to the marine pathogen Listonella anguillarum (formerly Vibrio anguillarum), one of the causative agents of vibriosis; survival after this challenge was significantly poorer for the WI stock than for the Green River stock. A close genetic relationship between the Green River and WI stocks was confirmed by analyzing 13 microsatellite loci. These results collectively suggest that disease susceptibility of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon has diverged from that of the source population, possibly in response to pathogen-driven selection. PMID:19306612

  13. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-12

    The study estimated dam passage survival at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and provided additional performance measures as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. This summary report focuses on spring run stocks, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead.

  14. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at The Dales Dam, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-02-01

    The study estimated dam passage survival at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and provided additional performance measures as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. This summary report focuses on spring run stocks, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead.

  15. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 1995-2002 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffnagle, Timothy; Carmichael, Richard; Noll, William

    2003-12-01

    The Grande Ronde Basin once supported large runs of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and estimated peak escapements in excess of 10,000 occurred as recently as the late 1950's (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1975). Natural escapement declines in the Grande Ronde Basin have been severe and parallel those of other Snake River populations. Reduced productivity has primarily been attributed to increased mortality associated with downstream and upstream migration past eight dams and reservoirs in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Reduced spawner numbers, combined with human manipulation of previously important spawning and rearing habitat in the Grande Ronde Basin, have resulted in decreased spawning distribution and population fragmentation of chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde Basin (Figure 1; Table 1). Escapement of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin included 1,799 adults in 1995, less than half of the previous record low of 3,913 adults in 1994. Catherine Creek, Grande Ronde River and Lostine River were historically three of the most productive populations in the Grande Ronde Basin (Carmichael and Boyce 1986). However, productivity of these populations has been poor for recent brood years. Escapement (based on total redd counts) in Catherine Creek and Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers dropped to alarmingly low levels in 1994 and 1995. A total of 11, 3 and 16 redds were observed in 1994 in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River, respectively, and 14, 6 and 11 redds were observed in those same streams in 1995. In contrast, the maximum number of redds observed in the past was 505 in Catherine Creek (1971), 304 in the Grande Ronde River (1968) and 261 in 1956 in the Lostine River (Tranquilli et al 2003). Redd counts for index count areas (a standardized portion of the total stream) have also decreased dramatically for most Grande Ronde Basin streams from 1964-2002, dropping to as low as 37 redds in the 119.5 km in the index survey

  16. The effect of chronic chromium exposure on the health of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, A.M.; May, T.; Marty, G.D.; Easton, M.; Harper, D.D.; Little, E.E.; Cleveland, L.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine fish health impairment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to chromium. Juvenile Chinook salmon were exposed to aqueous chromium concentrations (0-266 ??g l-1) that have been documented in porewater from bottom sediments and in well waters near salmon spawning areas in the Columbia River in the northwestern United States. After Chinook salmon parr were exposed to 24 and 54 ??g Cr l -1 for 105 days, neither growth nor survival of parr was affected. On day 105, concentrations were increased from 24 to 120 ??g Cr l-1 and from 54 to 266 ??g Cr l-1 until the end of the experiment on day 134. Weight of parr was decreased in the 24/120 ??g Cr l-1 treatment, and survival was decreased in the 54/266 ??g Cr l-1 treatment. Fish health was significantly impaired in both the 24/120 and 54/266 ??g Cr l-1 treatments. The kidney is the target organ during chromium exposures through the water column. The kidneys of fish exposed to the greatest concentrations of chromium had gross and microscopic lesions (e.g. necrosis of cells lining kidney tububules) and products of lipid peroxidation were elevated. These changes were associated with elevated concentrations of chromium in the kidney, and reduced growth and survival. Also, variations in DNA in the blood were associated with pathological changes in the kidney and spleen. These changes suggest that chromium accumulates and enters the lipid peroxidation pathway where fatty acid damage and DNA damage (expressed as chromosome changes) occur to cause cell death and tissue damage. While most of the physiological malfunctions occurred following parr exposures to concentrations ???120 ??g Cr l-1, nuclear DNA damage followed exposures to 24 ??g Cr l-1, which was the smallest concentration tested. The abnormalities measured during this study are particularly important because they are associated with impaired growth and reduced survival at concentrations ???120 ??g Cr l-1. Therefore, these

  17. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program : Facility Operation and Maintenance Facilities, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous salmonid stocks have declined in both the Grande Ronde River Basin (Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Status Review Symposium 1998) and in the entire Snake River Basin (Nehlsen et al. 1991), many to the point of extinction. The Grande Ronde River Basin historically supported large populations of fall and spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye (O. nerka), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) (Nehlsen et al. 1991). The decline of chinook salmon and steelhead populations and extirpation of coho and sockeye salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin was, in part, a result of construction and operation of hydroelectric facilities, over fishing, and loss and degradation of critical spawning and rearing habitat in the Columbia and Snake River basins (Nehlsen et al. 1991). Hatcheries were built in Oregon, Washington and Idaho under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to compensate for losses of anadromous salmonids due to the construction and operation of the lower four Snake River dams. Lookingglass Hatchery (LGH) on Lookingglass Creek, a tributary of the Grande Ronde River, was completed under LSRCP in 1982 and has served as the main incubation and rearing site for chinook salmon programs for Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers in Oregon. Despite these hatchery programs, natural spring chinook populations continued to decline resulting in the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listing Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon as ''threatened'' under the federal Endangered Species Act (1973) on 22 April 1992. Continuing poor escapement levels and declining population trends indicated that Grande Ronde River basin spring chinook salmon were in imminent danger of extinction. These continuing trends led fisheries co-managers in the basin to initiate the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program (GRESCSSP) in order to prevent extinction and preserve options for use of endemic fish stocks

  18. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Activity Versus Daylight and Flow in the Tailrace of a Large Hydroelectric Dam

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vucelick, Jessica A.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-05-01

    We deployed an acoustic system during the fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning season in 2001 to determine whether fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in a hydroelectric dam tailrace area was affected by daylight or river flow dynamics. The system was deployed following a randomized study design to record fall Chinook salmon spawning activity during day and night periods in two index areas downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, USA. One index area was a deepwater spawning area located (river kilometer (rkm) 663) in 9 to 11 m of water. The other index site was a moderate depth mid-channel bar, where water depths ranged from 2.5 to 6 m. The acoustic system was used to collect spawning activity data during free-drifts in a boat through the index areas. Spawning activity was defined as digs per minute from underwater sound recordings. Fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in the Wanapum Dam tailrace was influenced by daylight and river discharge. Results showed there was a substantial amount of spawning activity occurring during both daylight and darkness. However, there was significantly more spawning activity during daylight than at night in both index areas. Spawning activity was also affected by flow. Project discharge had a pronounced non-linear effect on spawning activity. Spawning activity was generally highest at project discharges between 1,700 and 2266 m3 sec-1 in both spawning areas, with reduced activity as discharge increased to between 3,400 and 4,250 m3 sec-1. We concluded that fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in highly variable environments was affected more by flow (and velocity) than by daylight.

  19. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations: Annual report 2011 (April 2011 - March 2012)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Kock, Tobias J.; Mullins, Frank; Steinhorst, R. Kirk; Christiansen, Helena E.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Ortega, Lori A.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Klett, Katherine J.C.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Abel, Tylor K.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; St John, Scott J.; Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Schmidt, Amanda; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2013-01-01

    Chapter Four – We conducted monthly beam trawling in Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs to describe the seasonal abundance of benthic epifauna that are potentially important as prey to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. The predominant taxa collected were Siberian prawns, the opossum shrimp Neomysis mercedis, and the amphipod Corophium sp. Prawns were relatively abundant at shallow sites in both reservoirs in June, but were more abundant at deep sites in lower and middle reservoir reaches in autumn. Prawn densities were commonly <0.2/m2. Prawn length-frequency data indicated that there were at least two size classes. Juvenile prawns present in shallow water more often than adult prawns, which were generally only found in deep water by autumn. Ovigerous prawns had an average of 171 eggs, which represented about 11.5% of their body weight. Limited diet analyses suggested that prawns consumed Corophium, Neomysis, and aquatic insects. Neomysis dominated all catches both in terms of abundance and biomass, and they were more abundant in Lower Granite compared to Little Goose reservoir. Neomysis were more abundant at shallow sites than at deep sites. Corophium were present in our collections but were never abundant, probably because our trawl was not effective at capturing them. The caloric content of prawns (4,782 Kcal), Neomysis (4,962 Kcal), and Corophium (4,926 Kcal) indicates that these prey would be energetically profitable for juvenile salmon. Subyearling fall Chinook salmon prey heavily on Neomysis and Corophium at times, but the importance of prawns as prey is uncertain.

  20. Spawning and abundance of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1948--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1990-03-01

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River provides the only major spawning habitat for the upriver bright (URB) race of fall chinook salmon in the mainstem Columbia River. Hanford Site biologists have conducted aerial surveys of spawning salmon in the Hanford Reach since 1948. This report summarizes data on fall chinook salmon spawning in the Hanford Reach and presents a discussion of factors that may affect population trends. Most data are limited to fisheries agency reports and other working documents. Fisheries management practices in the Columbia River system have changed rapidly over the last decade, particularly under requirements of the Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980. New information has been generated and included in this report. 75 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. John Day Fall Chinook/Salmon Mitigation Plan Acclimation and Imprinting Site Feasibility Study: Summary Report : Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Sverdrup Corporation; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to replace upriver bright fall chinook salmon which were lost by construction of the John Day Dam. This will be accomplished by releasing salmon fry and smolts, incubated in the Spring Creek and Bonneville Hatcheries, at several upriver locations. Prior to release it is desired to feed and acclimate the juvenile fish to relieve the stress of truck transport, and to imprint them to the release site. This will ultimately produce adult chinook salmon that return to their historic spawning areas through traditional common property fisheries. It will also provide sexually mature broodstock fish that can be captured and spawned to supplement continued hatchery operation. This report summarizes results of an engineering feasibility study done for 10 potential acclimation sites on the Columbia, Yakima and Walla Walla Rivers. A detailed report has been prepared for each site and each is bound separately.

  2. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D.

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there

  3. Predation Susceptibility of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Sudden Temperature Changes and Slightly Supersaturated Dissolved Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abel, Tylor K.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2014-08-01

    High mortality of hatchery-reared juvenile fall Chinook salmon emigrating from the Clearwater River was previously measured at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers; however, the causative mechanism of mortality is unknown. To elucidate potential mechanisms, the predation susceptibility of juvenile fall Chinook salmon was assessed during simulated passage from the Clearwater River and through the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, with and without cool water flow augmentation. Emigrant-sized juvenile salmon were acclimated to temperatures typical of the Clearwater River when cool water augmentation is discharged from Dworshak Dam (10°C to 17°C) and during temperatures that would be present without augmentation (17°C to 24°C), and were then exposed to smallmouth bass within temperatures typical of the Snake River in summer (17°C to 24°C). Slightly supersaturated total dissolved gas concentrations of 105% were also simulated to more closely approximate gas conditions of both rivers in summer. Predation susceptibility of juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C or 17°C and exposed to predators at 17°C did not differ. However, for salmon exposed to predators at 24°C, predation susceptibility was arguably higher for juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C (a 14°C increase) than for salmon acclimated at 17°C or 24°C (7°C and 0°C increases, respectively). These results indicate that predation susceptibility may be higher when a relatively large temperature difference exists between the Clearwater and Snake rivers; that is, when cool water flow augmentation is occurs in summer. However, further research is needed to determine if high confluence mortality measured in previous studies is related to cool water augmentation and, ultimately, whether or not this mortality has a population-level effect on the dynamics of wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon.

  4. Two-Dimensional Modeling of Time-Varying Hydrodynamics and Juvenile Chinook Salmon Habitat in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2007-10-10

    The Hanford Reach is the only remaining unimpounded reach of the Columbia River in the United States above Bonneville Dam. Discharge in the Hanford Reach is regulated by several dams and is often subject to rapid changes. Sharp flow reductions have led to the stranding or entrapment, and subsequent mortality, of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorynchus tshawytscha) and other important fish species within the Hanford Reach. A multi-block two-dimensional depth-averaged hydrodynamic model was used to simulate time-varying river velocity and stage in a 37~km portion of the Hanford Reach. Simulation results were used to estimate time-varying juvenile chinook salmon habitat area, and the part of that habitat affected by discharge fluctuations. Affected habitat area estimates were made for the chinook salmon rearing period of four years. These estimates were used, along with other important factors, to establish a statistical relationship between discharge fluctuation and juvenile chinook salmon mortality.

  5. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  6. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Bert; Grant, W Stewart; Brenner, Richard E; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations), because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05) in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks) and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks) have declined significantly (P < 0.05). Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline. PMID:26090990

  7. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Bert; Grant, W. Stewart; Brenner, Richard E.; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations), because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05) in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks) and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks) have declined significantly (P < 0.05). Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline. PMID:26090990

  8. Testing advances in molecular discrimination among Chinook salmon life histories: evidence from a blind test.

    PubMed

    Banks, Michael A; Jacobson, David P; Meusnier, Isabelle; Greig, Carolyn A; Rashbrook, Vanessa K; Ardren, William R; Smith, Christian T; Bernier-Latmani, Jeremiah; Van Sickle, John; O'Malley, Kathleen G

    2014-06-01

    The application of DNA-based markers toward the task of discriminating among alternate salmon runs has evolved in accordance with ongoing genomic developments and increasingly has enabled resolution of which genetic markers associate with important life-history differences. Accurate and efficient identification of the most likely origin for salmon encountered during ocean fisheries, or at salvage from fresh water diversion and monitoring facilities, has far-reaching consequences for improving measures for management, restoration and conservation. Near-real-time provision of high-resolution identity information enables prompt response to changes in encounter rates. We thus continue to develop new tools to provide the greatest statistical power for run identification. As a proof of concept for genetic identification improvements, we conducted simulation and blind tests for 623 known-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to compare and contrast the accuracy of different population sampling baselines and microsatellite loci panels. This test included 35 microsatellite loci (1266 alleles), some known to be associated with specific coding regions of functional significance, such as the circadian rhythm cryptochrome genes, and others not known to be associated with any functional importance. The identification of fall run with unprecedented accuracy was demonstrated. Overall, the top performing panel and baseline (HMSC21) were predicted to have a success rate of 98%, but the blind-test success rate was 84%. Findings for bias or non-bias are discussed to target primary areas for further research and resolution. PMID:24628286

  9. Costs of living for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an increasingly warming and invaded world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehne, Lauren M.; Olden, Julian D.; Duda, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid environmental change in freshwater ecosystems has created a need to understand the interactive effects of multiple stressors, with temperature and invasive predators identified as key threats to imperiled fish species. We tested the separate and interactive effects of water temperature and predation by non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) on the lethal (mortality) and sublethal (behavior, physiology, and growth) effects for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in seminatural stream channel experiments. Over 48 h trials, there was no difference in direct predation with warmer temperatures, but significant interactive effects on sublethal responses of juvenile salmon. Warmer temperatures resulted in significantly stronger and more variable antipredator responses (surface shoaling and swimming activity), while physiological indicators (plasma glucose, plasma cortisol) suggested suppression of physiological mechanisms in response to the combined stressors. These patterns corresponded with additive negative growth in predation, temperature, and combined treatments. Our results suggest that chronic increases in temperature may not increase direct predation over short periods, but can result in significant sublethal costs with negative implications for long-term development, disease resistance, and subsequent size-selective mortality of Pacific salmon.

  10. Tradeoffs between homing and habitat quality for spawning site selection by hatchery-origin Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Spawning site selection by female salmon is based on complex and poorly understood tradeoffs between the homing instinct and the availability of appropriate habitat for successful reproduction. Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from different acclimation sites return with varying degrees of fidelity to these areas. To investigate the possibility that homing fidelity is associated with aquatic habitat conditions, we quantified physical habitat throughout 165 km in the upper Yakima River basin (Washington, USA) and mapped redd and carcass locations from 2004 to 2008. Principal components analysis identified differences in substrate, cover, stream width, and gradient among reaches surrounding acclimation sites, and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that these differences in habitat characteristics were associated with spatial patterns of spawning (p < 0.01). These analyses indicated that female salmon may forego spawning near their acclimation area if the surrounding habitat is unsuitable. Evaluating the spatial context of acclimation areas in relation to surrounding habitat may provide essential information for effectively managing supplementation programs and prioritizing restoration actions.

  11. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at John Day Dam during the spring and summer outmigrations in 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 for spring migrants and greater than or equal to 0.93 for summer migrants, estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 3 km downstream of the dam, as well as the forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords (Fish Accords). A virtual/paired-release design was used to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam. The approach included releases of smolts, tagged with acoustic micro-transmitters, above John Day Dam that contributed to the formation of a virtual release at the face of John Day Dam. A survival estimate from this release was adjusted by a paired release below John Day Dam. A total of 3376 yearling Chinook salmon, 5726 subyearling Chinook salmon, and 3239 steelhead smolts were used in the virtual releases. Sample sizes for the below-dam paired releases (R2 and R3, respectively) were 997 and 995 for yearling Chinook salmon smolts, 986 and 983 for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts, and 1000 and 1000 for steelhead smolts. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tags were manufactured by Advanced Telemetry Systems. Model SS300 tags, weighing 0.304 g in air, were surgically implanted in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon, and Model SS130 tag, weighing 0.438 g in air, were surgically implanted in juvenile steelhead for this investigation. The intent of the spring study was to estimate dam passage survival during both 30% and 40% spill conditions. The two

  12. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  13. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  14. Combined effects of climate change and bank stabilization on shallow water habitats of chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; McClure, Michelle M; Sheer, Mindi B; Munn, Nancy L

    2013-12-01

    Significant challenges remain in the ability to estimate habitat change under the combined effects of natural variability, climate change, and human activity. We examined anticipated effects on shallow water over low-sloped beaches to these combined effects in the lower Willamette River, Oregon, an area highly altered by development. A proposal to stabilize some shoreline with large rocks (riprap) would alter shallow water areas, an important habitat for threatened Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and would be subject to U.S. Endangered Species Act-mandated oversight. In the mainstem, subyearling Chinook salmon appear to preferentially occupy these areas, which fluctuate with river stages. We estimated effects with a geospatial model and projections of future river flows. Recent (1999-2009) median river stages during peak subyearling occupancy (April-June) maximized beach shallow water area in the lower mainstem. Upstream shallow water area was maximized at lower river stages than have occurred recently. Higher river stages in April-June, resulting from increased flows predicted for the 2080s, decreased beach shallow water area 17-32%. On the basis of projected 2080s flows, more than 15% of beach shallow water area was displaced by the riprap. Beach shallow water area lost to riprap represented up to 1.6% of the total from the mouth to 12.9 km upstream. Reductions in shallow water area could restrict salmon feeding, resting, and refuge from predators and potentially reduce opportunities for the expression of the full range of life-history strategies. Although climate change analyses provided useful information, detailed analyses are prohibitive at the project scale for the multitude of small projects reviewed annually. The benefits of our approach to resource managers include a wider geographic context for reviewing similar small projects in concert with climate change, an approach to analyze cumulative effects of similar actions, and estimation of the

  15. Population Structure of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Technical Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; National Science Foundation

    2002-08-01

    The population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead trout is presented as an assimilation of the life history forms that have evolved in synchrony with diverse and complex environments over their Pacific range. As poikilotherms, temperature is described as the overwhelming environmental influence that determines what life history options occur and where they are distributed. The different populations represent ecological types referred to as spring-, summer-, fall, and winter-run segments, as well as stream- and ocean-type, or stream- and ocean-maturing life history forms. However, they are more correctly described as a continuum of forms that fall along a temporal cline related to incubation and rearing temperatures that determine spawn timing and juvenile residence patterns. Once new habitats are colonized, members of the founding populations spread through adaptive evolution to assume complementary life history strategies. The related population units are collectively referred to as a metapopulation, and members most closely associated within common temporal and geographic boundaries are designated as first-order metapopulations. Population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin, therefore, is the reflection of the genetic composition of the founding source or sources within the respective region, shaped by the environment, principally temperature, that defines life history evolutionary strategy to maximize fitness under the conditions delineated. The complexity of structure rests with the diversity of opportunities over the elevations that exist within the Basin. Consistent with natural selection, rather than simply attempting to preserve populations, the challenge is to provide opportunities to expand their range to new or restored habitat that can accommodate genetic adaptation as directional environmental changes are elaborated. Artificial propagation can have a critical role in this process, and the emphasis must be placed on

  16. Mortality of Yearling Chinook Salmon Prior to Arrival at Lower Granite Dam, on the Snake River : Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.

    1991-10-01

    Efforts have been initiated to develop a research plan that will provide insight into causes of, and ultimately solutions to, the apparent excessive mortality of juvenile chinook upstream from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River. In the context of the proposed salmon stock listings under the Endangered Species Act, issues that potentially affect wild stocks of spring chinook salmon probably warrant immediate consideration and resolution. Mark-recapture data at Lower Granite Dam indicate that few yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts survive to that site after release from various hatcheries. Upriver stocks of yearling spring and summer chinook exhibit pronounced losses en route to the dam. In 1989 and 1990, only about 8 to 18% of PIT-tagged representatives from McCall or Sawtooth hatchery were detected at the dam. General survival indices for these stocks indicate that perhaps only 15 to 35% of the yearlings survived to that site. This suggests these stocks may sustain as much mortality traversing this unobstructed reach of river as the general population would passing through the entire hydroelectric complex.

  17. Evaluation of fall chinook salmon spawning adjacent to the In-Situ Redox Manipulation treatability test site, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.P.; Geist, D.R.

    1998-10-02

    The In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) experiment is being evaluated as a potential method to remove contaminants from groundwater adjacent to the Columbia River near the 100-D Area. The ISRM experiment involves using sodium dithionate (Na{sub 2}O{sub 6}S{sub 2}) to precipitate chromate from the groundwater. The treatment will likely create anoxic conditions in the groundwater down-gradient of the ISRM treatability test site; however, the spatial extent of this anoxic plume is not exactly known. Surveys were conducted in November 1997, following the peak spawning of fall chinook salmon. Aerial surveys documented 210 redds (spawning nests) near the downstream island in locations consistent with previous surveys. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented fall chinook spawning in the vicinity of the ISRM treatability test site. Based on measurements of depth, velocity, and substrate, less than 1% of the study area contained suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat, indicating low potential for fall chinook salmon to spawn in the vicinity of the ISRM experiment.

  18. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Lofy, Peter T.

    2002-11-01

    This is the second annual report of a multi-year, multi-agency project to restore spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River Basin (Grande Ronde Endemic Chinook Salmon Program--GRESCP). The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) operates adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to increase natural production and restore fisheries in these two streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 1999: (1) Participate in development and continued implementation of the comprehensive multi year operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Supplementation Program. (2) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2000. (3) Monitor adult endemic spring chinook salmon populations and collect broodstock. (4) Plan detailed Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (5) Monitor population abundance and characteristics and local environmental factors that may influence abundance and run timing of Grande Ronde River spring chinook populations. (6) Participate in Monitoring and Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to assure this component is contributing to the Program. (7) Participate in data collection for incidentally-caught bull trout and summer steelhead and planning for recovery of summer steelhead populations. (8) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agencies. (9) Communicate project results to the scientific community.

  19. Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservior, 1982 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David R.; Sims, Carl W.

    1983-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration is conducting a 6-year study of the effects of instream flows on the passage time, survival, and migrational behavior of juvenile fall and summer (O-age) chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir. In 1982, the second year of the study, research activities concentrated on refining distribution and behavior data in John Day Reservoir and on releasing and recapturing marked fish needed to define flow/travel time relationships. Twenty-two groups (61,887 fish) of marked O-age chinook salmon were wire-tagged, branded, and released into the tailrace at McNary Dam, and forty-four groups (13,128 fish) were branded and released into the reservoir at various other sites. Sampling at the John Day Dam airlift facility captured 54,647 subyearling chinook salmon including 482 marked recoveries. Additional marks (279) were recovered from purse seine samples taken at various sites throughout the reservoir. The average passage time to John Day Dam for marked O-age chinook salmon released in the McNary tailrace was 23 days. Weekend flow reductions at McNary Dam did not affect passage time of subyearling chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir. There was no statistical evidence to indicate that instream flows affected either the rate of movement or residence time of O-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir.

  20. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1996-08-01

    Spawning ground surveys were conducted in 1994 as part of a five year study of Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawyacha begun in 1991. Observations of fall chinook salmon spawning in the Snake River were limited to infrequent aerial red counts in the years prior to 1987. From 1987-1990, red counts were made on a limited basis by an interagency team and reported by the Washington Department of Fisheries. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and other cooperating agencies and organizations, expanded the scope of spawning ground surveys to include: (1) additional aerial surveys to improve red counts and provide data on the timing of spawning; (2) the validation (ground truthing) of red counts from aerial surveys to improve count accuracy; (3) underwater searches to locate reds in water too deep to allow detection from the air; and (4) bathymetric mapping of spawning sites for characterizing spawning habitat. This document is the 1994 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon. The studies were undertaken because of the growing concern about the declining salmon population in the Snake River basin.

  1. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Spring 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John R.

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at The Dalles Dam during spring 2010. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal 0.015. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay boat-restricted zone (BRZ) to the tailrace BRZ at The Dalles Dam, as well as the forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A virtual/paired-release design was used to estimate dam passage survival at The Dalles Dam. The approach included releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam that contributed to the formation of a virtual release at the face of The Dalles Dam. A survival estimate from this release was adjusted by a paired release below The Dalles Dam. A total of 4,298 yearling Chinook salmon and 4,309 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation. The dam passage survival results are summarized as follows: Yearling Chinook Salmon 0.9641 (SE = 0.0096) and Steelhead 0.9535 (SE = 0.0097).

  2. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  3. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in

  4. Evacuation of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags from Northern Pikeminnow Consuming Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prey fish implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags can be used in predation studies if the timing of tag evacuation from the predators is understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how PIT tags in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were consumed by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis were evacuated in relation to various parameters. The rate of evacuation was directly related to temperature, while predator size and the number of prey consumed had less effect on the timing of tag evacuation. A power model was fitted to predict the proportion of tags expected to be evacuated at different intervals after ingestion. These results could be used in planning field or laboratory predation experiments with PIT-tagged prey fish.

  5. Efficacy of cellular vaccines and genetic adjuvants against bacterial kidney disease in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Linda D; Rathbone, Cindra K; Corbett, Stephen C; Harrell, Lee W; Strom, Mark S

    2004-04-01

    DNA adjuvants and whole bacterial cell vaccines against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) were tested in juvenile chinook salmon. Whole cell vaccines of either a nonpathogenic Arthrobacter spp. or an attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strain provided limited prophylactic protection against acute intraperitoneal challenge with virulent R. salmoninarum, and the addition of either synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides or purified R. salmoninarum genomic DNA as adjuvants did not increase protection. However, a combination of both whole cell vaccines significantly increased survival among fish naturally infected with R. salmoninarum, and the surviving fish treated with the combination vaccine exhibited reduced levels of bacterial antigens in the kidney. This is the first demonstration of a potential therapeutic effect of a whole cell vaccine against BKD. PMID:15123289

  6. Monitoring of Juvenile Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Summer 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; CH0) at John Day Dam (JDA) during summer 2010. This study was conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and the University of Washington (UW). The study was designed to estimate the effects of 30% and 40% spill treatment levels on single release survival rates of CH0 passing through two reaches: (1) the dam, and 40 km of tailwater, (2) the forebay, dam, and 40 km of tailwater. The study also estimated additional passage performance measures which are stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  7. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Axel, Gordon A.

    2000-12-01

    This reports details the 1998 study results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends observed in the cumulative data resulting from this project; data has been collected from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after 3 years of detection data from PIT-tags (passive-integrated-transponder tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish. Data showing these patterns had originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate a smolt transportation program conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish for this project. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam. We continued to tag fish from Idaho in all years subsequent to 1992. Principal results from our tagging and interrogation efforts during 1997-1998 are given.

  8. Effects of Acoustic Transmitters on the Swimming Performance and Predator Avoidance of Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Anglea, Steven M.; Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.; Mcdonald, Robert D.

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were negatively influenced by the implantation of acoustic transmitters. The critical swimming speed (Ucrit) of tagged fish, sham (surgery but no tag), and control fish was measured in a respirometer to determine tag effects on swimming performance. Predator avoidance was evaluated by comparing the proportion of each treatment group eaten: active tag, inactive tag, sham, and control after being exposed to piscivorous adult rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Results from this study demonstrated that the surgical implantation of acoustic tags in juvenile fall chinook salmon does not significantly affect swimming performance. Swimming performance was similar between treatment groups (control, sham, and inactive tag) at 1- and 21-day post-surgery intervals. Critical swimming speeds for all treatment groups were similar to values reported in the literature. Implantation of acoustic transmitters (active and inactive) did not result in tagged fish being more susceptible to predation over untagged fish. Percentages of each prey group consumed in each of the four trials were highly variable and demonstrated no obvious selection preference by adult rainbow trout. In summary, measurable differences were not found between tagged and un-tagged fish, however, trends were consistent in the two experiments with tagged fish consistently performing slightly worse than un-tagged fish. We conclude that based on the current body of knowledge and findings of the present study, fish implanted with an acoustic tag perform and/or behave similarly to the population-at-large recognizing that subtle differences exist in the behavior of tagged fish.

  9. Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Casper, Brandon M.; Woodley, Christa M.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of effects to fishes and other aquatic life from impulsive sound produced by activities such as pile driving and seismic exploration is increasing throughout the world, particularly with the increased exploitation of oceans for energy production. At the same time, there are few data that provide insight into the effects of these sounds on fishes. The goal of this study was to provide quantitative data to define the levels of impulsive sound that could result in the onset of barotrauma to fish. A High Intensity Controlled Impedance Fluid filled wave Tube was developed that enabled laboratory simulation of high-energy impulsive sound that were characteristic of aquatic far-field, plane-wave acoustic conditions. The sounds used were based upon the impulsive sounds generated by an impact hammer striking a steel shell pile. Neutrally buoyant juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were exposed to impulsive sounds and subsequently evaluated for barotrauma injuries. Observed injuries ranged from mild hematomas at the lowest sound exposure levels to organ hemorrhage at the highest sound exposure levels. Frequency of observed injuries were used to compute a biological response weighted index (RWI) to evaluate the physiological impact of injuries at the different exposure levels. As single strike and cumulative sound exposure levels (SELss, SELcum respectively) increased, RWI values increased. Based on the results, tissue damage associated with adverse physiological costs occurred when the RWI was greater than 2. In terms of sound exposure levels a RWI of 2 was achieved for 1920 strikes by 177 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s SELss yielding a SELcum of 210 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s, and for 960 strikes by 180 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s SELss yielding a SELcum of 210 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s. These metrics define thresholds for onset of injury in juvenile Chinook salmon. PMID:22745695

  10. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, D.R.; Brown, R.S.; Cullinan, V.I.; Mesa, M.G.; VanderKooi, S.P.; McKinstry, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rates of adult spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha increased with swim speed and, depending on temperature and fish mass, ranged from 609 mg O2 h-1 at 30 cm s-1 (c. 0.5 BLs-1) to 3347 mg O2 h-1 at 170 cm s -1 (c. 2.3 BLs-1). Corrected for fish mass, these values ranged from 122 to 670 mg O2 kg-1 h-1, and were similar to other Oncorhynchus species. At all temperatures (8, 12.5 and 17??C), maximum oxygen consumption values levelled off and slightly declined with increasing swim speed >170 cm s-1, and a third-order polynomial regression model fitted the data best. The upper critical swim speed (Ucrit) of fish tested at two laboratories averaged 155 cm s -1 (2.1 BLs-1), but Ucrit of fish tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were significantly higher (mean 165 cm s-1) than those from fish tested at the Columbia River Research Laboratory (mean 140 cm s-1). Swim trials using fish that had electromyogram (EMG) transmitters implanted in them suggested that at a swim speed of c. 135 cm s-1, red muscle EMG pulse rates slowed and white muscle EMG pulse rates increased. Although there was significant variation between individual fish, this swim speed was c. 80% of the Ucrit for the fish used in the EMG trials (mean Ucrit 168.2 cm s-1). Bioenergetic modelling of the upstream migration of adult chinook salmon should consider incorporating an anaerobic fraction of the energy budget when swim speeds are ???80% of the Ucrit. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Preliminary Optimization for Spring-Run Chinook Salmon Environmental Flows in Lassen Foothill Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, J.; Kelsey, R.; Howard, J.; Hall, M.; Lund, J. R.; Viers, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Stream flow controls physical and ecological processes in rivers that support freshwater ecosystems and biodiversity vital for services that humans depend on. This master variable has been impaired by human activities like dam operations, water diversions, and flood control infrastructure. Furthermore, increasing water scarcity due to rising water demands and droughts has further stressed these systems, calling for the need to find better ways to identify and allocate environmental flows. In this study, a linear optimization model was developed for environmental flows in river systems that have minimal or no regulation from dam operations, but still exhibit altered flow regimes due to surface water diversions and groundwater abstraction. Flow regime requirements for California Central Valley spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) life history were used as a test case to examine how alterations to the timing and magnitude of water diversions meet environmental flow objectives while minimizing impact to local water supply. The model was then applied to Mill Creek, a tributary of the Sacramento River, in northern California, and its altered flow regime that currently impacts adult spring-run Chinook spawning and migration. The resulting optimized water diversion schedule can be used to inform water management decisions that aim to maximize benefit for the environment while meeting local water demands.

  12. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout 0. mykiss adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects.

  13. Otolith analysis of pre-restoration habitat use by Chinook salmon in the delta-flats and nearshore regions of the Nisqually River Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 salmon stocks in the Puget Sound (Washington) evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Extensive restoration of the Nisqually River delta ecosystem is currently taking place to assist in recovery of the stock as juvenile Fall Chinook salmon are dependent on the estuary. A pre-restoration baseline that includes the characterization of life history strategies, estuary residence times, growth rates, and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and to determine restoration success. Otolith analysis was selected as a tool to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually River estuary. Previously funded work on samples collected in 2004 (marked and unmarked) and 2005 (unmarked only) partially established a juvenile baseline on growth rates and length of residence associated with various habitats (freshwater, forested riverine tidal, emergent forested transition, estuarine emergent marsh, delta-flats and nearshore). However, residence times and growth rates for the delta-flats (DF) and nearshore (NS) habitats have been minimally documented due to small sample sizes. The purpose of the current study is to incorporate otolith microstructural analysis using otoliths from fish collected within the DF and NS habitats during sampling years 2004-08 to increase sample size and further evaluate between-year variation in otolith microstructure. Our results from this analysis indicated the delta-flats check (DFCK) on unmarked and marked Chinook samples in 2005-08 varied slightly in appearance from that seen on samples previously analyzed only from 2004. A fry migrant life history was observed on otoliths of unmarked Chinook collected in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Generally, freshwater mean increment width of unmarked fish, on average, was smaller compared to marked

  14. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinat, Michael P.; Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood during 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program will collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2001 BY fish have been selected. As of Jan 1, 2002, WDFW has 17 BY 1997, 159 BY 1998, 316 BY 1999, 448 BY 2000, and approximately 1,200 BY 2001 fish on hand at LFH. The 2001 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 4) was 233,894 eggs from 125 ripe females. Egg survival was 69%. Mean fecundity based on the 105 fully spawned females was 1,990 eggs/female. The 2001 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 3) was 47,409 eggs from 41 ripe females. Egg survival was 81%. Mean fecundity based on the 39 fully spawned females was 1,160 eggs/female. The total 2001 eggtake from the captive brood program was 281,303 eggs. As of May 1, 2002 we have 171,495 BY 2001 captive brood progeny on hand. A total of 20,592 excess fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and will be released during early May, 2002 into the Tucannon River (rkm 40-45). This will allow us to stay within our maximum allowed number (150,000) of smolts released. During April 2002, WDFW volitionally

  15. Estuarine and early-marine survival of transported and in-river migrant Snake River spring Chinook salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M; McKern, John L

    2012-01-01

    Many juvenile Snake River Chinook salmon are transported downriver to avoid hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River basin. As mortality to the final dam is ∼50%, transported fish should return as adults at roughly double the rate of nontransported fish; however, the benefit of transportation has not been realized consistently. "Delayed" mortality caused by transportation-induced stress is one hypothesis to explain reduced returns of transported fish. Differential timing of ocean entry is another. We used a large-scale acoustic telemetry array to test whether survival of transported juvenile spring Chinook is reduced relative to in-river migrant control groups after synchronizing ocean entry timing. During the initial 750 km, 1 month long migration after release, we found no evidence of decreased estuarine or ocean survival of transported groups; therefore, decreased survival to adulthood for transported Chinook is likely caused by factors other than delayed effects of transportation, such as earlier ocean entry. PMID:22690317

  16. Effects of surgically implanted acoustic transmitters >2% of body mass on the swimming performance, survival, and growth of juvenile sockeye and Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Grassel, Mark A.

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the influence of surgical implantation of an acoustic transmitter on the swimming performance, growth, and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). The transmitter weighed 0.72g in air and the fish weighed 6 to 23 g. Mean critical swimming speeds for fall Chinook salmon ranged from 47.5 to 51.2 cm s-1 (4.34 to 4.69 body lengths [BL] s-1) and did not differ among tagged, untagged and sham-tagged groups. Tagged sockeye salmon, however, did have lower Ucrit than control or sham fish. The mean Ucrit for tagged sockeye salmon was 46.1 cm s-1 (4.1 BL s-1) which was approximately 5% less than the mean Ucrit for control and sham fish (both groups were 48.6 cm s-1 or 4.3 BL s-1). There was no difference in length or weight among treatments (control, sham, tag) either at the start or the end of the test period suggesting that implantation did not negatively influence the growth of either species. None of the sockeye salmon died from the influence of surgical implantation of transmitters. In contrast, we did find that the 21-d survival differed between tagged and control groups of fall Chinook salmon although this result was confounded by the poor health of fall Chinook salmon treatment groups.

  17. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1994-12-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered fall chinook salmon necessitates knowledge of the factors limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which affect spawning of the fish in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing seward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs. The spawning was generally a November event in 1993, with some activity in late Oct. and early Dec. Spawning habitat availability was assessed by applying hydraulic and habitat models to known fall chinook salmon spawning sites. Juveniles were seined and PIT tagged in the free-flowing Snake River, and in the Columbia River in he Hanford Reach and in McNary Reservoir. Subyearling fish were marked at McNary Dam to relate river flow and migration patterns of juveniles to adult returns. Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted on McNary and John Day reservoirs and in net pens.

  18. Fasting and diet content affect stress-induced changes in plasma glucose and cortisol in Juvenile chinook salmon. [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, B.A.; Schreck, C.B. ); Fowler, L.G. )

    1988-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared on low-, medium-, or high-lipid diets for 18 weeks were either kept on their respective diets or fasted for 20 d; then they were subjected to a 30-s handling stress or to handling plus continuous confinement. In fish that were handled but not confined, poststress hyperglycemia was greatest in fed fish that received the high-lipid diet and was generally lower in fasted than in fed fish. Plasma cortisol elevations in response to handling or handling plus confinement stress were not appreciably affected by diet type or fasting. The result indicated that prior feeding regimes and the types of diet fed should be considered when one is interpreting the magnitude of hyperglycemic stress responses in juvenile chinook salmon.

  19. Effect of differential gastric evacuation and multispecies prey items on estimates of daily energy intake in juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, A.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The caloric density of stomach contents in juvenile chinook salmon,Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, was not affected by gastric evacuation, suggesting a constant caloric density of stomach contents during evacuation. Differences in the caloric density of prey consumed did affect caloric density of stomach contents over a 24-h period. Consumption of the amphipodCorophium sp. was associated with reduced caloric densities of stomach contents. During periods whenCorophium contributed more than 4% of the stomach contents, average caloric density declined from 5.56 to 5.33 kcal g−1. Despite this difference, estimates of daily energy intake of juvenile chinook salmon were only 3%, greater when developed from the mean caloric density of stomach contents excludingCorophium.

  20. Genetic differences in growth, migration, and survival between hatchery and wild steelhead and Chinook salmon: Introduction and executive summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of studies testing for genetically based differences in performance (growth, migration, and survival) between hatchery and wild populations of steelhead and Chinook salmon (Project Number 90-052). The report is organized into 10 chapters with a general study introduction preceding the first chapter. A growing body of data shows that domestication and a resulting loss of fitness for natural rearing occur in hatchery populations of anadromous salmonids; however, the magnitude of domestication will vary among species and hatchery programs. Better information on domestication is needed to accurately predict the consequences when hatchery and wild fish interbreed. The intent of hatchery supplementation is to increase natural production through introduction of hatchery fish into natural production areas. The goal of this study was to provide managers with information on the genetic risks of hatchery supplementation to wild populations of Columbia River Basin summer steelhead and spring Chinook salmon.

  1. Linking marine and freshwater growth in western Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Agler, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that growth in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. is dependent on previous growth was tested using annual scale growth measurements of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, Alaska, from 1964 to 2004. First-year marine growth in individual O. tshawytscha was significantly correlated with growth in fresh water. Furthermore, growth during each of 3 or 4 years at sea was related to growth during the previous year. The magnitude of the growth response to the previous year's growth was greater when mean year-class growth during the previous year was relatively low. Length (eye to tail fork, LETF) of adult O. tshawytscha was correlated with cumulative scale growth after the first year at sea. Adult LETF was also weakly correlated with scale growth that occurred during freshwater residence 4 to 5 years earlier, indicating the importance of growth in fresh water. Positive growth response to previous growth in O. tshawytscha was probably related to piscivorous diet and foraging benefits of large body size. Faster growth among O. tshawytscha year classes that initially grew slowly may reflect high mortality in slow growing fish and subsequent compensatory growth in survivors. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in this study exhibited complex growth patterns showing a positive relationship with previous growth and a possible compensatory response to environmental factors affecting growth of the age class.

  2. Impact of Ichthyophonus infection on spawning success of Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, Toshihide; Kahler, Eryn; Borba, Bonnie M; Burton, Tamara

    2013-11-01

    We examined the impacts of Ichthyophonus infection on spawning success of Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at spawning grounds of the Chena and Salcha Rivers, Alaska, USA. During the period 2005 to 2006, 1281 salmon carcasses (628 male, 652 female) were collected throughout the spawning season and from the entire spawning reaches of the Chena and Salcha Rivers. For each fish, infection status was determined by culture method and visual inspection of lesions of heart tissue as uninfected (culture negative), infected without lesions (culture positive with no visible lesions), and infected with lesions (culture positive with visible lesions), and spawning status was determined by visually inspecting the percentage of gametes remaining as full-spawned (<10%), partial-spawned (10-50%), and unspawned (>50%). Among the 3 groups, the proportion of full-spawned (i.e. spawning success) females was lower for those infected without lesions (69%) than those uninfected (87%) and infected with lesions (86%), but this did not apply to males (uninfected 42%, infected without lesions 38%, infected with lesions 41%). At the population level, the combined (infected and uninfected) proportion of female spawning success was 86%, compared to 87% when all females were assumed uninfected. These data suggest that while Ichthyophonus infection slightly reduces spawning success of infected females, its impact on the spawning population as a whole appears minimal. PMID:24191998

  3. Migratory Behavior of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River and its Tributaries: Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Migration patterns of adult spring chinook salmon above Willamette Falls differed depending on when the fish passed the Falls, with considerable among-fish variability. Early-run fish often terminated their migration for extended periods of time, in association with increased flows and decreased temperatures. Mid-run fish tended to migrate steadily upstream at a rate of 30-40 km/day. Late-run fish frequently ceased migrating or fell back downstream after migrating 10-200 km up the Willamette River or its tributaries; this appeared to be associated with warming water during summer and resulted in considerable mortality. Up to 40% of the adult salmon entering the Willamette River System above Willamette Falls (i.e. counted at the ladder) may die before reaching upriver spawning areas. Up to 10% of the fish passing up over Willamette Falls may fall-back below the Falls; some migrate to the Columbia River or lower Willamette River tributaries. If rearing conditions at hatcheries affect timing of adult returns because of different juvenile development rates and improper timing of smolt releases, then differential mortality in the freshwater segment of the adult migrations may confound interpretation of studies evaluating rearing practices.

  4. In situ biomonitoring of caged, juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Lower Duwamish Waterway

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Matthew; Gillespie, Annika; Zhou, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Shu; Meador, James P.; Duncan, Bruce; Donnelly, Kirby; McDonald, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Contaminated sediments may have wide-ranging impacts on human and ecological health. A series of in situ caged exposure studies using juvenile Chinook salmon was conducted in the Lower Duwamish Waterway (LDW). Chemical analysis of sediment, water, and fish tissue were completed. Additionally, in 2004, DNA adducts in hepatic and gill tissues were measured. Gills contained significantly higher DNA adducts at stations B2 and B4, prompting further analysis of gills in 2006 and 2007. Fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in bile, and CYP1A1 in hepatic tissue were also measured during the 2006 and 2007, respectively. FACs in field-caged fish were comparable or significantly higher than wild-caught fish LDW fish and significantly higher than lab fish after only 8–10 days, demonstrating the equivalency of exposure to that of migrating salmon. Furthermore, selected biomarkers appear to be capable of detecting spikes in contamination between sampling years, emphasizing the need for multiple year data collection. PMID:21906759

  5. Reproductive success of captively bred and naturally spawned Chinook salmon colonizing newly accessible habitat.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph H; Faulds, Paul L; Atlas, William I; Quinn, Thomas P

    2013-02-01

    Captively reared animals can provide an immediate demographic boost in reintroduction programs, but may also reduce the fitness of colonizing populations. Construction of a fish passage facility at Landsburg Diversion Dam on the Cedar River, WA, USA, provided a unique opportunity to explore this trade-off. We thoroughly sampled adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at the onset of colonization (2003-2009), constructed a pedigree from genotypes at 10 microsatellite loci, and calculated reproductive success (RS) as the total number of returning adult offspring. Hatchery males were consistently but not significantly less productive than naturally spawned males (range in relative RS: 0.70-0.90), but the pattern for females varied between years. The sex ratio was heavily biased toward males; therefore, inclusion of the hatchery males increased the risk of a genetic fitness cost with little demographic benefit. Measurements of natural selection indicated that larger salmon had higher RS than smaller fish. Fish that arrived early to the spawning grounds tended to be more productive than later fish, although in some years, RS was maximized at intermediate dates. Our results underscore the importance of natural and sexual selection in promoting adaptation during reintroductions. PMID:23467446

  6. Reproductive success of captively bred and naturally spawned Chinook salmon colonizing newly accessible habitat

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joseph H; Faulds, Paul L; Atlas, William I; Quinn, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Captively reared animals can provide an immediate demographic boost in reintroduction programs, but may also reduce the fitness of colonizing populations. Construction of a fish passage facility at Landsburg Diversion Dam on the Cedar River, WA, USA, provided a unique opportunity to explore this trade-off. We thoroughly sampled adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at the onset of colonization (2003–2009), constructed a pedigree from genotypes at 10 microsatellite loci, and calculated reproductive success (RS) as the total number of returning adult offspring. Hatchery males were consistently but not significantly less productive than naturally spawned males (range in relative RS: 0.70–0.90), but the pattern for females varied between years. The sex ratio was heavily biased toward males; therefore, inclusion of the hatchery males increased the risk of a genetic fitness cost with little demographic benefit. Measurements of natural selection indicated that larger salmon had higher RS than smaller fish. Fish that arrived early to the spawning grounds tended to be more productive than later fish, although in some years, RS was maximized at intermediate dates. Our results underscore the importance of natural and sexual selection in promoting adaptation during reintroductions. PMID:23467446

  7. Pen rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1994 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Novotny, Jerry F.

    1994-06-01

    Results of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon juveniles in net pens and a barrier net enclosure in two backwater areas and a pond along the Columbia River were compared with traditional hatchery methods. Growth, smoltification, and general condition of pen-reared fish receiving supplemental feeding were better than those of fish reared using traditional methods. Juvenile fish receiving no supplemental feeding were generally in poor condition resulting in a net loss of production. Rearing costs using pens were generally lower than in the hatchery. However, low adult returns resulted in greater cost per adult recovery than fish reared and released using traditional methods. Much of the differences in recovery rates may have been due to differences in rearing locations, as study sites were as much as 128 mi upstream from the hatcheries and study fish may have incurred higher mortality associated with downstream migration than control fish. Fish reared using these methods could be a cost-effective method of enhancing salmon production in the Columbia River Basin.

  8. Influence of flow and temperature on survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Burge, H.L.; Yearsley, J.R.; Bjornn, T.C.

    2003-01-01

    Summer flow augmentation to increase the survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is implemented annually to mitigate for the development of the hydropower system in the Snake River basin, but the efficacy of this practice has been disputed. We studied some of the factors affecting survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon from capture, tagging, and release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of the first dam encountered by smolts en route to the sea. We then assessed the effects of summer flow augmentation on survival to the tailrace of this dam. We tagged and released 5,030 wild juvenile fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River from 1998 to 2000. We separated these tagged fish into four sequential within-year release groups termed cohorts (N = 12). Survival probability estimates (mean ?? SE) to the tailrace of the dam for the 12 cohorts when summer flow augmentation was implemented ranged from 36% ?? 4% to 88% ?? 5%. We fit an ordinary least-squares multiple regression model from indices of flow and temperature that explained 92% (N = 12; P < 0.0001) of the observed variability in cohort survival. Survival generally increased with increasing flow and decreased with increasing temperature. We used the regression model to predict cohort survival for flow and temperature conditions observed when summer flow augmentation was implemented and for approximated flow and temperature conditions had the summer flow augmentation not been implemented. Survival of all cohorts was predicted to be higher when flow was augmented than when flow was not augmented because summer flow augmentation increased the flow levels and decreased the temperatures fish were exposed to as they moved seaward. We conclude that summer flow augmentation increases the survival of young fall chinook salmon.

  9. Heritability and Y-chromosome influence in the jack male life history of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Heath, D D; Rankin, L; Bryden, C A; Heath, J W; Shrimpton, J M

    2002-10-01

    Jacking in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is an alternative reproductive strategy in which males sexually mature at least 1 year before other members of their year class. We characterize the genetic component of this reproductive strategy using two approaches; hormonal phenotypic sex manipulation, and a half-sib breeding experiment. We 'masculinized' chinook salmon larvae with testosterone, reared them to first maturation, identified jacks and immature males based on phenotype, and genotyped all fish as male ('XY') or female ('XX') using PCR-based Y-chromosome markers. The XY males had a much higher incidence of jacking than the XX males (30.8% vs 9.9%). There was no difference in body weight, gonad weight, and plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol between the two jack genotypes, although XY jacks did have a higher gonadosomatic index (GSI) than XX jacks. In the second experiment, we bred chinook salmon in two modified half-sib mating designs, and scored the number of jacks and immature fish at first maturation. Heritability of jacking was estimated using two ANOVA models: dams nested within sires, and sires nested within dams with one-half of the half-sib families common to the two models. The sire component of the additive genetic variance yielded a high heritability estimate and was significantly higher than the dam component (h(2)(sire) = 0.62 +/- 0.21; h(2)(dam) = -0.14 +/- 0.12). Our experiments both indicated a strong sex-linked component (Y-chromosome) to jacking in chinook salmon, although evidence for at least some autosomal contribution was also observed. PMID:12242648

  10. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead at McNary Dam, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, James S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Batton, George; Carlson, Thomas J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Deng, Zhiqun; Etherington, D. J.; Fu, Tao; Greiner, Michael J.; Ingraham, John M.; Kim, Jin A.; Li, Xi; Martinez, Jayson J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Seaburg, Adam; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Wagner, Katie A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-12-23

    The study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at McNary Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. This study supports the USACE’s continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  11. Impact of stressors on transmission potential of Renibacterium salmoninarum in Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Winton, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) affecting several species of Pacific salmon.  The severity of BKD can range from a chronic infection to overt disease with high mortality as in the case of large losses of adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Great Lakes during late 1980s. The goal of this study was to empirically evaluate how environmental stressors relevant to the Great Lakes impact R. salmoninarum disease progression and bacterial shedding, the latter parameter being a proxy of horizontal transmission. In the first study (Aim 1), we focused on how endogenous host thiamine levels and dietary fatty acids impacted resistance of Chinook salmon to R. salmoninarum. Juvenile fish were fed one of four experimental diets, including a (1) thiamine replete diet formulated with fish oil, (2) thiamine deplete diet formulated with fish oil, (3) thiamine replete diet formulated with soybean oil, and (4) thiamine deplete diet formulated with soybean oil, before being challenged with buffer or R. salmoninarum. We observed significantly higher mortality in the R. salmoninarum infected groups relative to the corresponding mock controls in only the thiamine replete diet groups. We also observed a significant effect of time and diet on kidney bacterial load and bacterial shedding, with a significant trend towards higher shedding and bacterial load in the fish oil – thiamine replete diet group. However, during the course of the study, unexpected mortality occurred in all groups attributed to the myxozoan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta. Since the fish were dually-infected with C. shasta, we evaluated parasite DNA levels (parasitic load) in the kidney of sampled fish. We found that parasite load varied across time points but there was no significant effect of diet. However, parasite load did differ significantly between the mock and R. salmoninarum challenge groups with a trend towards longer persistence of C. shasta

  12. Effects of Renibacterium salmoninarum on olfactory organs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) marked with coded wire tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Conway, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum can cause significant morbidity and mortality in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), particularly in Chinook salmon of the stream (spring) life history type, which migrate to sea as yearlings rather than subyearlings. R. salmoninarum can be transmitted vertically from the female parent to the progeny in association with the egg, as well as horizontally from fish to fish. This study was conducted as part of a research project to investigate whether the prevalence and intensity of R. salmoninarum infections in adult spring Chinook salmon could affect the survival and pathogen prevalence and intensity in their progeny (Pascho et al., 1991, 1993; Elliott et al., 1995). Fish from two brood years (1988 and 1989) were reared at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (Idaho, USA) for about 1-1/2 years, released as yearling smolts, and allowed to migrate to the Pacific Ocean for maturation. The majority of progeny fish were marked with coded wire tags (CWTs) about 4 months before they were released from the hatchery so that adult returns could be monitored. The CWTs were implanted in the snouts of the fish by an experienced team of fish markers using automated wire-tagging machines. The intended placement site was the cartilage, skeletal muscle or loose connective tissue of the snout.

  13. Transportation of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, smolts in the Columbia River and effects on adult returns

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, were captured at Little Goose Dam in the Snake River during their seaward migration and transported 400 km downstream to the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Their survival was increased from 1.1 to 15 times as compared with control fish which passed by seven mainstem low-level dams and reservoirs. Variations in survival were mainly dependent on species and environmental conditions in the river during the period fish were transported. The homing ability of the adult fish was not significantly diminished; less than 0.2% of strays occurred among adult returns from groups transported. Transportation did not affect ocean age or size of returning adult steelhead, but ocean age of returning adult chinook salmon may have been affected. Steelhead returned to Little Goose Dam at a substantially higher rate (1.4 to 2.7%) than chinook salmon (0.1 to 0.8%) from groups transported. The timing of adult returns of both species to Little Goose Dam was not related to the time of capture and downstream release of smolts.

  14. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, Robert N.; Sandford, Benjamin P.; McIntyre, Kenneth W.

    1994-04-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate survival of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. The goals of the study were to: (1) field test and evaluate the Single-Release, Modified-Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models for the estimation of survival probabilities through sections of a river and hydroelectric projects; (2) identify operational and logistical constraints to the execution of these models; and (3) determine the usefulness of the models in providing estimates of survival probabilities. Field testing indicated that the numbers of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon needed for accurate survival estimates could be collected at different areas with available gear and methods. For the primary evaluation, seven replicates of 830 to 1,442 hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon were purse-seined from Lower Granite Reservoir, PIT tagged, and released near Nisqually John boat landing (River Kilometer 726). Secondary releases of PIT-tagged smolts were made at Lower Granite Dam to estimate survival of fish passing through turbines and after detection in the bypass system. Similar secondary releases were made at Little Goose Dam, but with additional releases through the spillway. Based on the success of the 1993 pilot study, the authors believe that the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models will provide accurate estimates of juvenile salmonid passage survival for individual river sections, reservoirs, and hydroelectric projects in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

  15. Variables influencing the presence of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in shoreline habitats of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Clark, L.O.; Garland, R.D.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Little information currently exists on habitat use by subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha rearing in large, main-stem habitats. We collected habitat use information on subyearlings in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River during May 1994 and April-May 1995 using point abundance electrofishing. We analyzed measures of physical habitat using logistic regression to predict fish presence and absence in shoreline habitats. The difference between water temperature at the point of sampling and in the main river channel was the most important variable for predicting the presence and absence of subyearlings. Mean water velocities of 45 cm/s or less and habitats with low lateral bank slopes were also associated with a greater likelihood of subyearling presence. Intermediate-sized gravel and cobble substrates were significant predictors of fish presence, but small (<32-mm) and boulder-sized (>256-mm) substrates were not. Our rearing model was accurate at predicting fish presence and absence using jackknifing (80% correct) and classification of observations from an independent data set (76% correct). The habitat requirements of fall Chinook salmon in the Hanford Reach are similar to those reported for juvenile Chinook salmon in smaller systems but are met in functionally different ways in a large river.

  16. Performance Assessment of Suture Type, Water Temperature, and Surgeon Skill in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Eppard, M. B.; Seaburg, Adam

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed performance of seven suture types in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha implanted with acoustic microtransmitters. Nonabsorbable (Ethilon) and absorbable (Monocryl) monofilament and nonabsorbable (Nurolon, silk) and absorbable (Vicryl, Vicryl Plus, Vicryl Rapide) braided sutures were used to close incisions in Chinook salmon. Monocryl exhibited greater suture retention than all other suture types 7 d after surgery. Both monofilament suture types were retained better than all braided suture types at 14 d. Incision openness and tag retention did not differ among suture types. Wound inflammation was similar for Ethilon, Monocryl, and Nurolon at 7 d. Wound ulceration was lower for Ethilon, Monocryl, and Nurolon than for all other suture types at 14 d post-surgery. Fish held in 12°C water had more desirable post-surgery healing characteristics (i.e., higher suture and tag retention and lower incision openness, wound inflammation, and ulceration) at 7 and 14 d after surgery than those held in 17°C water. The effect of surgeon was a significant predictor for all response variables at 7 d. This result emphasizes the importance of including surgeon as a variable in telemetry study analyses when multiple surgeons are used. Monocryl performed better with regard to post-surgery healing characteristics in the study fish. The overall results support the conclusion that Monocryl is the best suture material to close incisions created during surgical implantation of acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon.

  17. Estimated Fall Chinook Salmon Survival to Emergence in Dewatered Redds in a Shallow Side Channel of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; James, B B.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-08-01

    Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) often spawn in the tailraces of large hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Redds built in shallow habitats downstream of these dams may be periodically dewatered due to hydropower operations prior to the emergence of fry. To determine whether fall Chinook salmon redds were successful in a shallow area subjected to periodic dewatering downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River, we installed 7 redd caps and monitored fry emergence. Large numbers of live fry were captured from the redds between March 9 and May 18, 2003. Estimated survival from egg to fry for these redds, which were all subjected to some degree of dewatering during the incubation and post-hatch intragravel rearing period, ranged from 16.1 to 63.2 percent and averaged 27.8 percent (assuming 4,500 eggs/redd). The peak emergence date ranged from April 1 to 29, with the average peak about April 14, 2003. Mean fork length of fall Chinook salmon emerging from individual redds ranged from 38.3 to 41.2 mm, and lengths of fish emerging from individual redds increased throughout the emergence period.

  18. Detection of PIT-tagged subyearling Chinook salmon at a Snake River dam: Implications for summer flow augmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Burge, H.L.; Bennett, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Rearing subyearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (≥60 mm in fork length) were captured in the Snake River and tagged with passive integrated transponders to provide an index of their survival to Lower Granite Dam, the first of eight dams encountered by seaward migrants. Water was released from reservoirs upstream of Lower Granite Dam to augment summer flows and thereby increase subyearling chinook salmon survival. Mean summer flow and maximum summer water temperature in Lower Granite Reservoir were highly correlated (N = 4; r = −0.999). Acknowledging this correlation, we conducted two separate least-squares regressions using detection rate as the dependent variable. Detection rate at Lower Granite Dam was positively related to mean summer flow (N = 4; r 2 = 0.993; P = 0.003) and negatively related to maximum summer water temperature (N = 4; r 2 = 0.984; P = 0.008). Summer flow augmentation increased flow and decreased water temperature in Lower Granite Reservoir especially in low-flow years. Our results support summer flow augmentation as a beneficial interim recovery measure for enhancing survival of subyearling chinook salmon in the Snake River. Additional research should include replicate within-year releases of PIT-tagged subyearlings as well as studies of fish guidance efficiency.

  19. Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservoir : Annual Report 1983.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David R.; Sims, Carl W.

    1984-06-01

    The effects of instream river flow on the passage time, survival, and migrational behavior of juvenile fall and summer (O-age) chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir is being studied. In 1983, the final year of juvenile sampling in the reservoir, research activities continued to refine flow/travel time relationships and distributional behavior of O-age chinook salmon. Fifteen groups (72,559 fish) of marked O-age chinook salmon were wire-tagged, branded, and released into the tailrace at McNary Dam, and thirty-two groups (22,206 fish) were branded and released into the reservoir at various other sites. Sampling at John Day Dam, utilizing the airlift pump system in the B and C slots of Turbine Intake Unit 3, captured 82,698 subyearling chinook salmon including 640 mark recoveries. Additional marks (458) were recovered from purse seine samples taken at various sites throughout the reservoir. Weekly mean fork lengths of O-age chinook salmon captured at McNary and John fsm Dams and in the reservoir by purse seine ranged from 103 mm in mid-June to 166 mm in mid-December. Fish captured at the John Day Dam monitoring facility and by purse seine throughout the reservoir were in excellent condition. Preliminary analysis of stomach samples taken in 1982 and 1983 from purse seine catches indicates active feeding is taking place. The average passage time of the fastest moving marked O-age chinook salmon from McNary Dam to John Day Dam was 11 days (based on 25th percentile of mark recaptures). The average reservoir residence time was 22 days. Regression analysis was used to develop a description of the relationship of river flow to the rate of downstream movement of O-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir in 1983. The slope of this line and the correlation coefficient (R) were not significantly different from zero.

  20. Using remotely sensed imagery and GIS to monitor and research salmon spawning: A case study of the Hanford Reach fall chinook (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha)

    SciTech Connect

    RH Visser

    2000-03-16

    The alteration of ecological systems has greatly reduced salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, for example, is a component of the last ecosystem in eastern Washington State that supports a relatively healthy population of fall chinook salmon ([Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], Huntington et al. 1996). This population of fall chinook may function as a metapopulation for the Mid-Columbia region (ISG 1996). Metapopulations can seed or re-colonize unused habitat through the mechanism of straying (spawning in non-natal areas) and may be critical to the salmon recovery process if lost or degraded habitat is restored (i.e., the Snake, Upper Columbia, and Yakima rivers). For these reasons, the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is extremely important for preservation of the species in the Columbia River Basin. Because this population is important to the region, non-intrusive techniques of analysis are essential for researching and monitoring population trends and spawning activities.

  1. Mucous lysozyme levels in hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) early in the parr-smolt transformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrock, R.M.; Smith, S.D.; Maule, A.G.; Doulos, S.K.; Rockowski, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Mucous lysozyme concentrations were determined in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) to establish reference levels during the time associated with the parr-smolt transformation. The first reported naris and vent mucous lysozyme levels are provided for spring chinook salmon and coho salmon. Naris mucous lysozyme levels ranged between 300 and 700 ??g ml-1, vent mucous lysozyme from 100 to 300 ??g ml-1, and skin mucous lysozyme levels were below 130 ??g ml-1. Lysozyme levels in the two species showed the same relationship with the highest levels in naris mucous, and the lowest in skin mucous. A seasonal decrease occurred in both species with a significant decrease in naris mucous lysozyme between February and March. Gill ATPase levels used to monitor smolt development during the same period did not reach ranges reported for smolts for either species during emigration. Identification of seasonal levels of lysozyme activity in mucous provides an alternative determination of developmental status prior to release of fish from the hatchery when salmonids are still undergoing the parr-smolt transformation. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. A Dense Linkage Map for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Reveals Variable Chromosomal Divergence After an Ancestral Whole Genome Duplication Event

    PubMed Central

    Brieuc, Marine S. O.; Waters, Charles D.; Seeb, James E.; Naish, Kerry A.

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons between the genomes of salmon species reveal that they underwent extensive chromosomal rearrangements following whole genome duplication that occurred in their lineage 58−63 million years ago. Extant salmonids are diploid, but occasional pairing between homeologous chromosomes exists in males. The consequences of re-diploidization can be characterized by mapping the position of duplicated loci in such species. Linkage maps are also a valuable tool for genome-wide applications such as genome-wide association studies, quantitative trait loci mapping or genome scans. Here, we investigated chromosomal evolution in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) after genome duplication by mapping 7146 restriction-site associated DNA loci in gynogenetic haploid, gynogenetic diploid, and diploid crosses. In the process, we developed a reference database of restriction-site associated DNA loci for Chinook salmon comprising 48528 non-duplicated loci and 6409 known duplicated loci, which will facilitate locus identification and data sharing. We created a very dense linkage map anchored to all 34 chromosomes for the species, and all arms were identified through centromere mapping. The map positions of 799 duplicated loci revealed that homeologous pairs have diverged at different rates following whole genome duplication, and that degree of differentiation along arms was variable. Many of the homeologous pairs with high numbers of duplicated markers appear conserved with other salmon species, suggesting that retention of conserved homeologous pairing in some arms preceded species divergence. As chromosome arms are highly conserved across species, the major resources developed for Chinook salmon in this study are also relevant for other related species. PMID:24381192

  3. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2003-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys to identify fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas located in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in the fall of 2002. This report documents the number and extent of chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce Islands of the Columbia River, and is the fourth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The main objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds located in the deeper sections near below Hamilton Creek. There was a significant increase in the number of fall chinook salmon redds found in the locations surveyed during the 2002 surveys when compared to previous surveys by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A total of 192 redds were found in two general locations adjacent to Pierce Island (river km 228.5) encompassing an area of approximately 9.31 ha. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 15, 2002. An estimated 1,768 fall chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding {approx}1.m ({approx} 125 kcfs) were documented in 2002. This estimate is the expanded number based on the number of redds found within the pre-defined survey area. Fall chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 0.9 to 8.5 m and were constructed in gravel to large cobble ranging in size from 4.83 to 13.4 cm in diameter. No chum salmon redds were found in areas surveyed during 2002, although several carcasses were found at the mouth of Woodward Creek and in the deeper sections below Hamilton Creek.

  4. In Vitro Hepatic Metabolism of 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 99) in Chinook Salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha)

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Eva P.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Kelly, Shannon M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants that persist in the environment and are present in geographically widespread fish species. PBDE concentrations can be particularly high in resident Chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Puget Sound, Washington. Although PBDE residues in salmon and other fish are often dominated by lower brominated congeners, these congeners are not produced commercially in the greatest quantity, suggesting bioaccumulation of the lower molecular weight PBDEs or debromination of more fully brominated congeners. We determined the capacity of Chinook liver fractions to debrominate 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 99), a model PBDE congener readily debrominated by common carp (Cyprinus caprio). Liver subcellular fractions from two strains of Chinook were incubated with BDE 99 prior to liquid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis (GC/MS analysis) to identify metabolites and debromination products. In contrast to common carp, debromination of BDE 99 to BDE 47 (2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) was not observed in microsomal fractions from either strain of Chinook salmon. However, Chinook salmon liver microsomes from both Chinook strains slowly debrominated BDE 99 to BDE 49 (2,2′,4,5′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether), a unique debromination product whose formation has not been reported in other fish. Three-year old males belonging to a Rapid River Spring Chinook salmon genetic strain showed a somewhat greater microsomal debromination capacity than older hatchery returning male Chinook, but were still inefficient in the debromination of BDE 99 relative to carp. Microsomal debromination of BDE 99 to BDE 49 was not NADPH-dependent, indicating a lack of cytochrome P450 involvement. By contrast, omission of the reductant dithiothreitol (DTT) from Chinook microsomal preparations resulted in a lack of BDE 99 debromination, suggesting the involvement of a

  5. Spring Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Veach, Eric R.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1998-10-01

    For the fourth consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A screw trap was used to collect emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Uncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 25 to June 27, 1997. A total of 270 natural chinook salmon, 10,616 hatchery chinook salmon, 864 natural steelhead trout (and 13 natural steelhead parr), and 7,345 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during emigration studies on the Imnaha River. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low: 0.37% for natural chinook, 0.11% for hatchery chinook, 0.11% for natural steelhead, and 0.39% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Natural chinook salmon smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River from February 25 to June 10 and had a mean length of 108 mm, average weight of 13 g, and mean condition factor of 1.02. The peak period of natural chinook smolt emigration, based on number of fish collected, occurred between March 25 and April 30. Hatchery reared chinook salmon smolts were collected from April 9 to May 9, with 99% of the smolts being caught within 10 days after release. Hatchery chinook smolts mean length, weight, and condition factor were 131 mm, 25.4 g, and 1.12, respectively. Emigration of natural steelhead smolts in the Imnaha River occurred between March 14 and June 25. Peak emigration occurred from May 1 to May 15. Natural steelhead smolts averaged 175 mm in fork length, 55.8 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 1 .OO. Hatchery steelhead smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River between April 15 and June 27. Hatchery steelhead smolts averaged 210 mm in fork length, 88 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 0.93. Spring runoff water conditions in 1997 provided above average flows for emigrating anadromous salmonid smolts. Imnaha River mean daily discharge during spring emigration ranged from 7

  6. Post-release behavior and movement patterns of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after capture using alternative commercial fish gear, lower Columbia River, Washington and Oregon, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, WDFW conducted post-release mortality studies of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) that were captured using beach or purse seines. These studies were comprised of two groups of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags): (1) treatment fish that were captured by one of the gear types 9–25 river kilometers (rkm) downstream of Bonneville Dam (rkm 234); and (2) control fish that were captured at the Adult Fish Facility near the Washington shore fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, and then transported and released 8 rkm downstream of the Bonneville Dam. Fish were confirmed to have survived if they moved upstream and were detected on PIT-tag antennas at or upstream of Bonneville Dam, were recovered at hatcheries or at the dam, or were captured by commercial or sport fishers. Post-release survival estimates were higher for steelhead (89–98 percent) than for Chinook salmon and coho salmon (50–90 percent; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpub. data, 2014). However, some Chinook salmon and coho salmon return to hatcheries, or spawn in the mainstem Columbia River and in tributaries downstream of Bonneville Dam. The proportion of Chinook salmon and coho salmon in the treatment group that were destined for areas downstream of Bonneville Dam likely was higher than in the control group because the control fish were collected as they were attempting to pass the dam. If this assertion was true, mortality would have been overestimated in these studies, so WDFW developed a study plan to determine the post-release movements and intended location of Chinook salmon and coho salmon collected with beach and purse seines in the lower Columbia River.

  7. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-09-24

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures

  8. Using a laboratory-based growth model to estimate mass- and temperature-dependent growth parameters across populations of juvenile Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Plumb, John M.; Huntington, Charles

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the parameters that govern mass- and temperature-dependent growth, we conducted a meta-analysis of existing growth data from juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were fed an ad libitum ration of a pelleted diet. Although the growth of juvenile Chinook Salmon has been well studied, research has focused on a single population, a narrow range of fish sizes, or a narrow range of temperatures. Therefore, we incorporated the Ratkowsky model for temperature-dependent growth into an allometric growth model; this model was then fitted to growth data from 11 data sources representing nine populations of juvenile Chinook Salmon. The model fit the growth data well, explaining 98% of the variation in final mass. The estimated allometric mass exponent (b) was 0.338 (SE = 0.025), similar to estimates reported for other salmonids. This estimate of b will be particularly useful for estimating mass-standardized growth rates of juvenile Chinook Salmon. In addition, the lower thermal limit, optimal temperature, and upper thermal limit for growth were estimated to be 1.8°C (SE = 0.63°C), 19.0°C (SE = 0.27°C), and 24.9°C (SE = 0.02°C), respectively. By taking a meta-analytical approach, we were able to provide a growth model that is applicable across populations of juvenile Chinook Salmon receiving an ad libitum ration of a pelleted diet.

  9. Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservoir, 1981 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, Carl W.; Miller, David R.

    1982-06-01

    Research was conducted by NMFS in 1981 to define the effects of instream flows on the passage time, survival, and migrational behavior of 0-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir. Fourteen groups (74,683 fish) of marked 0-age chinook salmon were wire-tagged, branded, and released into the tailrace at McNary Dam, fourteen groups (13,746 fish) were branded and released into the reservoir at River Kilometer 375, and 34 groups (14,273) were branded and released into the reservoir at various other sites. More than 55,000 0-age chinook salmon were sampled at the John Day Dam airlift facility. This sample included 623 mark recoveries. Four hundred and eight (408) additional marks were recovered from purse seine samples taken at various sites throughout the reservoir. The average passage time of marked 0-age chinook salmon released in the McNary trailrace was 22 days in 1981. There was no statistically significant evidence to indicate that instream flows affected either the rate of movement or residence time of 0-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir in 1981. 7 references, 1 figure, 12 tables.

  10. Lakewide estimates of alewife biomass and Chinook salmon abundance and consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989–2005: implications for prey fish sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murry, Brent A.; Connerton, Michael J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Stewart, Donald J.; Ringlerd, Neil H.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking levels of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for Lake Ontario have been highly controversial since the early 1990s, largely because of uncertainties about lakewide abundance and rates of prey consumption. Previous estimates have focused on years before 1995; since then, however, the Lake Ontario ecosystem has undergone substantial changes, and there is new evidence of extensive natural recruitment. Presented here are new abundance estimates of Chinook salmon and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario and a reevaluation of the potential risk of alewife population collapse. We found that Lake Ontario has been supporting, on average (1989–2005), 1.83 × 106 (range, 1.08 × 106 to 3.24 × 106) Chinook salmon of ages 1–4, amounting to a mean annual biomass of 11.33 × 103 metric tons (range, 5.83 × 103 to 23.04 × 103 metric tons). During the same period (1989–2005), the lake supported an alewife biomass of 173.66 × 103 metric tons (range, 62.37 × 103 to 345.49 × 103 metric tons); Chinook salmon of ages 1–4 consumed, on average, 22% (range, 11–44%) of the alewife biomass annually. Because our estimates probably underestimate total consumption and because Chinook salmon are only one of several salmonine species that depend on alewives, predation pressure on the Lake Ontario alewife population may be high enough to raise concerns about long-term stability of this predator–prey system.

  11. Pre-Restoration Habitat Use by Chinook Salmon in the Nisqually Estuary Using Otolith Analysis: An Additional Year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preservation and extensive restoration of the Nisqually delta ecosystem is currently taking place to assist in recovery of the stock as juvenile Fall Chinook salmon are dependent upon the estuary. A pre-restoration baseline that includes characterization of life history types, estuary residence times, growth rates, and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and determine restoration success. Otolith analysis was selected to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually Estuary. Previously funded work on wild samples collected in 2004 established the growth rate and length of residence associated with various habitats. The purpose of the current study is to build on the previous work by incorporating otolith microstructure analysis from 2005 (second sampling year), to verify findings from 2004, and to evaluate between-year variation in otolith microstructure. Our results from this second year of analysis indicated no inter-annual variation in the appearance of the tidal delta check (TDCK) and delta-flats check (DFCK). However, a new life history type (fry migrant) was observed on samples collected in 2005. Fish caught in the tidal delta regardless of capture date spent an average of 17 days in the tidal delta. There was a corresponding increase in growth rate as the fish migrated from freshwater (FW) to tidal delta to nearshore (NS) habitats. Fish grew 33 percent faster in the tidal delta than in FW habitat and slightly faster (14 percent) in the delta flats (DF) habitat compared to the tidal delta.

  12. Threshold for onset of injury in Chinook salmon from exposure to impulsive pile driving sounds.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Michele B; Casper, Brandon M; Woodley, Christa M; Carlson, Thomas J; Popper, Arthur N

    2012-01-01

    The risk of effects to fishes and other aquatic life from impulsive sound produced by activities such as pile driving and seismic exploration is increasing throughout the world, particularly with the increased exploitation of oceans for energy production. At the same time, there are few data that provide insight into the effects of these sounds on fishes. The goal of this study was to provide quantitative data to define the levels of impulsive sound that could result in the onset of barotrauma to fish. A High Intensity Controlled Impedance Fluid filled wave Tube was developed that enabled laboratory simulation of high-energy impulsive sound that were characteristic of aquatic far-field, plane-wave acoustic conditions. The sounds used were based upon the impulsive sounds generated by an impact hammer striking a steel shell pile. Neutrally buoyant juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were exposed to impulsive sounds and subsequently evaluated for barotrauma injuries. Observed injuries ranged from mild hematomas at the lowest sound exposure levels to organ hemorrhage at the highest sound exposure levels. Frequency of observed injuries were used to compute a biological response weighted index (RWI) to evaluate the physiological impact of injuries at the different exposure levels. As single strike and cumulative sound exposure levels (SEL(ss), SEL(cum) respectively) increased, RWI values increased. Based on the results, tissue damage associated with adverse physiological costs occurred when the RWI was greater than 2. In terms of sound exposure levels a RWI of 2 was achieved for 1920 strikes by 177 dB re 1 µPa(2)⋅s SEL(ss) yielding a SEL(cum) of 210 dB re 1 µPa(2)⋅s, and for 960 strikes by 180 dB re 1 µPa(2)⋅s SEL(ss) yielding a SEL(cum) of 210 dB re 1 µPa(2)⋅s. These metrics define thresholds for onset of injury in juvenile Chinook salmon. PMID:22745695

  13. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations: Annual report 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; St John, Scott J.; Erhardt, John M.; Haskell, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes three research activities conducted in 2010-2011. The first was a radiotelemetry study conducted in the lower Clearwater River. The second was a hydroacoustic study conducted in Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs. The third was an analysis of covariates affecting juvenile fall Chinook salmon survival and behavior. In 2010, we used radiotelemetry to evaluate the migratory behavior, delay, and relative mortality of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River and Lower Granite Reservoir. We captured, tagged, and released a total of 100 run-at-large subyearlings in the Transition Zone of the lower Clearwater River in late July and monitored their downstream movement past fixed detection sites and by mobile tracking through the end of August. The Transition Zone is that portion of the river where it transitions from free-flowing to impounded habitat. Median residence time of fish that passed through the Transition Zone, Confluence, and Upper Reservoir reaches was relatively short (8.8-25.6 h). However, for fish that remained in the Transition Zone that were detected by mobile tracking, median residence time was over 30 d (N=6). Median migration rates through the study reaches were variable but slow (range 2.9-17.2 km/d) compared to that of more active migrants indicating that subyearlings from the Clearwater River were not actively migrating during July and August. The fate of radio-tagged subyearlings was determined from mobile tracking records. A total of 37 of the 71 fish detected during tracking were deemed to be dead, 22 were determined to be alive, and the fate of 16 was unknown. We also radio tagged 66 smallmouth bass in the Confluence reach and later detected 59 bass during mobile tracking. Predators were primarily located along shorelines in the Confluence reach, but a few fish did swim downstream into the Upper Reservoir reach. Most radio-tagged subyearlings that we determined to be dead were also located in shoreline

  14. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  15. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  16. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde Riiver Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report 1 September 1995 to 1 August 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1997-09-01

    Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only sustainable stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. In addition to a decline in population abundance, a reduction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde River basin. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies exhibited by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. During the past year the focus was on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. The study design included three objectives: (1) document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; (2) estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; and (3) determine summer and winter habitat utilization and preference of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek.

  17. Disease Susceptibility of Hatchery Snake River Spring-Summer Chinook Salmon with Different Juvenile Migration Histories in the Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Arkoosh, Mary R; Kagley, Anna N; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Boylen, Deborah A; Sandford, Benjamin P; Loge, Frank J; Johnson, Lyndal L; Collier, Tracy K

    2006-12-01

    Various methods have been developed to mitigate the effects of dams on juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. migrating to the Pacific Ocean through the Columbia River basin. In this study, we examined the health of hatchery Snake River spring and summer Chinook salmon relative to two mitigating strategies: dam bypass and transportation (e.g., barging). The health of out-migrants was assessed in terms of the difference in the incidence of mortality among fish, categorically grouped into no-bypass, bypass, and transportation life histories, in response to challenge with the marine pathogen Listonella anguillarum during seawater holding. These three life histories were defined as follows: (1) fish that were not detected at any of the juvenile bypass systems above Bonneville Dam were classified as having a no-bypass life history; (2) fish that were detected at one or more juvenile bypass systems above Bonneville Dam were classified as having a bypass life history; and (3) fish that were barged were classified as having the transportation life history. Barged fish were found to be less susceptible to L. anguillarum than in-river fish-whether bypassed or not-which suggests that transportation may help mitigate the adverse health effects of the hydropower system of the Columbia River basin on Snake River spring-summer Chinook salmon. The findings of this study are not necessarily transferable to other out-migrant stocks in the Columbia River basin, given that only one evolutionarily significant unit, that is, Snake River spring-summer Chinook salmon, was used in this study. PMID:26599158

  18. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Albaladejo, Victor D.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1999-12-01

    The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest naturally-produced populations of spring chinook in the mid-Columbia River basin. The study of life history and natural escapement conducted from 1978 to 1985 (Lindsay et al. 1986) provided valuable information on production and productivity of the John Day River spring chinook. With the exception of two years since completion of the study in 1985 (1989 and 1995), spring chinook spawning surveys were conducted in index areas only and have not provided adequate information to assess age composition, progeny-to-parent production values, and estimate natural spawning escapement. The PATH project (Marmorek and Peters 1996) has identified the John Day basin spring chinook as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin. To meet the data needs as an index stock, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age composition, and smolt-to-adult survival are essential. There is need to determine the annual spawner escapement and age composition for the John Day basin spring chinook to provide us the ability to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. This need can be met by expanding the annual chinook spawning surveys, estimating the annual escapement, and determining age composition by scale pattern analyses. This project provides information as directed under two measures of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 4.3C specifies that the key indicator populations should be monitored to provide detailed stock status information. In addition, measure 7.1C identifies the need for collection of population status, life history, and other data on wild and naturally spawning populations. This project was developed in direct response to recommendations and needs of the PATH project, the Fish and Wildlife Program, and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Multi-Year Implementation Plan.

  19. Efficacy of an infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus DNA vaccine in Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and sockeye O. nerka salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, K.A.; LaPatra, S.E.; Kurath, G.

    2005-01-01

    The level of protective immunity was determined for Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and sockeye/kokanee salmon (anadromous and landlocked) O. nerka following intramuscular vaccination with a DNA vaccine against the aquatic rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). A DNA vaccine containing the glycoprotein gene of IHNV protected Chinook and sockeye/kokanee salmon against waterborne or injection challenge with IHNV, and relative percent survival (RPS) values of 23 to 86% were obtained under a variety of lethal challenge conditions. Although this is significant protection, it is less than RPS values obtained in previous studies with rainbow trout (O. mykiss). In addition to the variability in the severity of the challenge and inherent host susceptibility differences, it appears that use of a cross-genogroup challenge virus strain may lead to reduced efficacy of the DNA vaccine. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected in both Chinook and sockeye that had been vaccinated with 1.0 and 0.1 ??g doses of the DNA vaccine, and vaccinated fish responded to viral challenges with higher antibody titers than mock-vaccinated control fish. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  20. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat near Ives and Pierce Islands in the Columbia River, Progress Report 1999-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, Rodney; Tiffan, Kenneth; Rondorf, Dennis

    2003-09-01

    The area around Ives Island below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River supports spawning populations of chum and fall chinook salmon. Because this area is sensitive to water level fluctuations caused by changes in discharge from Bonneville Dam and from tidal cycles, we initiated a study to quantify flow-dependent changes in available spawning habitat for chum and fall chinook salmon. We conducted surveys to characterize the substrates available in the Ives Island study area. Detailed bathymetry was also obtained to serve as a foundation for two-dimension hydrodynamic modeling, which was used to estimate water velocities, depths, and wetted area over a range of simulated flows. Habitat surveys were conducted and logistic regression was used to identify physical habitat variables that were important in determining the presence of chum and fall chinook salmon redds. The physical habitat data were analyzed using the logistic regression models to create probability coverages for the presence of redds in a Geographic Information System. There was generally good agreement between chum and fall chinook salmon redd locations and areas where we predicted suitable spawning habitat. We found that at Columbia River discharges less than 120 kcfs, an important chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek could only be supported by discharge from Hamilton Creek. Chum salmon did not appear to spawn in proportion to habitat availability, however our predictive model did not include all variables known to be important to chum salmon redd-site selection. Fall chinook salmon spawning habitat was less sensitive to flow and the main channel of the Columbia River along Pierce Island was predicted to contain sufficient habitat at all modeled flows.

  1. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. This project to date has developed good information on the relationship between adult chinook salmon escapement and smolt production at low to medium seeding levels. This information for steelhead includes a fair estimate of carrying capacity. To date, we have been unable to accurately estimate egg-to-parr survival for steelhead. Future efforts will include determining the relationship between adult steelhead trout escapement and age 1 + parr production, determining environmental and habitat factors that affect smolt production, and developing project results to help the region make good management decisions for anadromous fish.

  2. Effects of dewatering on chinook salmon redds: tolerance of four developmental phases to daily dewaterings

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.; Fickeisen, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    Four intergravel developmental phases of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were dewatered experimentally in artificial redds. The redds consisted of aquaria containing a gravel mix and supplied with 4 liters of water per minute at 10 C. Cleavage eggs and embryos (the egg phases), and eleutheroembryos and pre-emergent alevins (the alevin phases) were dewatered 20 consecutive times in 22-day tests. The egg phases were considerably more tolerant than alevins. Some cleavage eggs were killed by 12- and 16-hour daily dewaterings, but embryos survived up to 22-hour daily dewaterings. Embryos also tolerated extended, multiple dewaterings (over 60% survival for four consecutive 118-hour periods) and one-time, continuous dewatering for up to 12 consecutive days (over 80% survival). In contrast, about half the eleutheroembryos were killed by 4-hour daily dewaterings, and nearly all pre-emergent alevins were killed by 1-hour daily dewaterings. Intergravel temperatures were affected by insolation and air temperature. Intergravel temperatures increased to lethal levels during dewatering of cleavage eggs in early fall, and limited their survival. Growth of egg phases from some females was retarded by dewatering, but this phenomenon was not consistent for all egg groups. The size of surviving eleutheroembryos decreased as the length of daily dewatering periods increased.

  3. Recovery of Barotrauma Injuries in Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Exposure to Pile Driving Sound

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Brandon M.; Popper, Arthur N.; Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J.; Halvorsen, Michele B.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, were exposed to simulated high intensity pile driving signals to evaluate their ability to recover from barotrauma injuries. Fish were exposed to one of two cumulative sound exposure levels for 960 pile strikes (217 or 210 dB re 1 µPa2·s SELcum; single strike sound exposure levels of 187 or 180 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s SELss respectively). This was followed by an immediate assessment of injuries, or assessment 2, 5, or 10 days post-exposure. There were no observed mortalities from the pile driving sound exposure. Fish exposed to 217 dB re 1 µPa2·s SELcum displayed evidence of healing from injuries as post-exposure time increased. Fish exposed to 210 dB re 1 µPa2·s SELcum sustained minimal injuries that were not significantly different from control fish at days 0, 2, and 10. The exposure to 210 dB re 1 µPa2·s SELcum replicated the findings in a previous study that defined this level as the threshold for onset of injury. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that one or two Mild injuries resulting from pile driving exposure are unlikely to affect the survival of the exposed animals, at least in a laboratory environment. PMID:22745794

  4. Genotyping by sequencing resolves shallow population structure to inform conservation of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Wesley A; Seeb, Lisa W; Everett, Meredith V; Waples, Ryan K; Templin, William D; Seeb, James E

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in population genomics have made it possible to detect previously unidentified structure, obtain more accurate estimates of demographic parameters, and explore adaptive divergence, potentially revolutionizing the way genetic data are used to manage wild populations. Here, we identified 10 944 single-nucleotide polymorphisms using restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to explore population structure, demography, and adaptive divergence in five populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from western Alaska. Patterns of population structure were similar to those of past studies, but our ability to assign individuals back to their region of origin was greatly improved (>90% accuracy for all populations). We also calculated effective size with and without removing physically linked loci identified from a linkage map, a novel method for nonmodel organisms. Estimates of effective size were generally above 1000 and were biased downward when physically linked loci were not removed. Outlier tests based on genetic differentiation identified 733 loci and three genomic regions under putative selection. These markers and genomic regions are excellent candidates for future research and can be used to create high-resolution panels for genetic monitoring and population assignment. This work demonstrates the utility of genomic data to inform conservation in highly exploited species with shallow population structure. PMID:24665338

  5. Immune and endocrine responses of adult spring Chinook salmon during freshwater migration and sexual maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Schrock, R.M.; Slater, C.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C. B.

    1996-01-01

    The immune –endocrine responses in spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined during their freshwater migration and final maturation. In 1990, migrating fish had high plasma cortisol titres (means 200 ng ml−1) and generated relatively few antibody-producing cells (APC) from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) (100 –200 per culture). After three weeks acclimation in constant environmental conditions, plasma cortisol was reduced and APC increased. There were no changes in number or affinity of glucocorticoid receptors. Concentrations of several sex steroids correlated with APC in females, but there were no such correlations in males. In 1993, fish in a hatchery had significantly greater cortisol concentrations in primary circulation than in secondary circulation, but sex steroid concentrations did not differ between circulations. Mean lysozyme activity in the primary and secondary circulation did not differ in June. In August, activity in the primary circulation was significantly less than that of the secondary, perhaps the result of acute stress associated with sampling. While some sex steroids correlated with lysozyme activity, the fact that in both years all endocrine and immune variables that correlated with each other also correlated with the date of sample, raises the question as to whether or not these are cause-and-effect relations.

  6. Salinity effects on plasma ion levels, cortisol, and osmolality in Chinook salmon following lethal sampling.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Heather A; Noakes, David L G; Cogliati, Karen M; Peterson, James T; Iversen, Martin H; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-02-01

    Studies on hydromineral balance in fishes frequently employ measurements of electrolytes following euthanasia. We tested the effects of fresh- or salt-water euthanasia baths of tricaine mesylate (MS-222) on plasma magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) ions, cortisol and osmolality in fish exposed to saltwater challenges, and the ion and steroid hormone fluctuations over time following euthanasia in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Salinity of the euthanasia bath affected plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) concentrations as well as osmolality, with higher concentrations in fish euthanized in saltwater. Time spent in the bath positively affected plasma Mg(2+) and osmolality, negatively affected cortisol, and had no effect on Na(+) concentrations. The difference of temporal trends in plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) suggests that Mg(2+) may be more sensitive to physiological changes and responds more rapidly than Na(+). When electrolytes and cortisol are measured as endpoints after euthanasia, care needs to be taken relative to time after death and the salinity of the euthanasia bath. PMID:26603557

  7. Body morphology differs in wild juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Willamette River, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billman, E.J.; Whitman, L.D.; Schroeder, R.K.; Sharpe, C.S.; Noakes, David L. G.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Body morphology of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the upper Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A., was analysed to determine if variation in body shape is correlated with migratory life-history tactics followed by juveniles. Body shape was compared between migrating juveniles that expressed different life-history tactics, i.e. autumn migrants and yearling smolts, and among parr sampled at three sites along a longitudinal river gradient. In the upper Willamette River, the expression of life-history tactics is associated with where juveniles rear in the basin with fish rearing in downstream locations generally completing ocean ward migrations earlier in life than fish rearing in upstream locations. The morphological differences that were apparent between autumn migrants and yearling smolts were similar to differences between parr rearing in downstream and upstream reaches, indicating that body morphology is correlated with life-history tactics. Autumn migrants and parr from downstream sampling sites had deeper bodies, shorter heads and deeper caudal peduncles compared with yearling smolts and parr from the upstream sampling site. This study did not distinguish between genetic and environmental effects on morphology; however, the results suggest that downstream movement of juveniles soon after emergence is associated with differentiation in morphology and with the expression of life-history variation.

  8. Genotyping by sequencing resolves shallow population structure to inform conservation of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Larson, Wesley A; Seeb, Lisa W; Everett, Meredith V; Waples, Ryan K; Templin, William D; Seeb, James E

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in population genomics have made it possible to detect previously unidentified structure, obtain more accurate estimates of demographic parameters, and explore adaptive divergence, potentially revolutionizing the way genetic data are used to manage wild populations. Here, we identified 10 944 single-nucleotide polymorphisms using restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to explore population structure, demography, and adaptive divergence in five populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from western Alaska. Patterns of population structure were similar to those of past studies, but our ability to assign individuals back to their region of origin was greatly improved (>90% accuracy for all populations). We also calculated effective size with and without removing physically linked loci identified from a linkage map, a novel method for nonmodel organisms. Estimates of effective size were generally above 1000 and were biased downward when physically linked loci were not removed. Outlier tests based on genetic differentiation identified 733 loci and three genomic regions under putative selection. These markers and genomic regions are excellent candidates for future research and can be used to create high-resolution panels for genetic monitoring and population assignment. This work demonstrates the utility of genomic data to inform conservation in highly exploited species with shallow population structure. PMID:24665338

  9. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. PMID:24455130

  10. The effects of electroshock on immune function and disease progression in juvenile spring chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Maule, A.G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Although much is known about the effects of electroshock on fish physiology, consequences to the immune system and disease progression have not received attention. Our objectives were to determine the effects of electroshock on selected immune function in juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, the mechanism of any observed alteration, and the effects of electroshock on disease progression. We found that the ability of anterior kidney leukocytes to generate antibody-producing cells (APC) was suppressed 3 h after a pulsed-DC electroshock (300 V, 50 Hz, 8 ms pulse width) but recovered within 24 h. This response was similar in timing and magnitude to that of fish subjected to an acute handling stress. The mechanism of suppression is hypothesized to be via an elevation of plasma cortisol concentrations in response to stress. Other monitored immune functions, skin mucous lysozyme levels, and respiratory burst activity were not affected by exposure to electroshock. The progression of a Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS) infection may have been altered after exposure to an electroshock. The electroshock did not affect infection severity or the number of mortalities, but may have accelerated the time to death. The limited duration of APC suppression and lack of effects on lysozyme and respiratory burst, as well as infection severity and mortality levels in RS-infected fish, led us to conclude that electrofishing under the conditions we tested is a safe procedure in regards to immunity and disease.

  11. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

    1984-02-01

    Backwaters and protected sites located along the Columbia River between John Day and Priest Rapids dams, and the lower reaches of the Umatilla, Yakima, and Snake rivers were surveyed to determine their suitability for experimental rearing of age-0 fall (upriver bright) chinook salmon. All but eight potential study sites observed were judged as unusable based on criteria which included depth, area, accessibility, potential water level and temperature fluctuations, entrance-access to the river, public use, and obvious water quality problems. These eight sites were then thoroughly evaluated to determine suitability for rearing studies, using water quality and biological data to supplement physical observations. The criteria used in the final selection of rearing sites included an assessment of water source, depth, temperature, and quality, proximity to natural spawning sites, ease of adult capture, and benthos and zooplankton abundance. Two sites were selected as satisfying the most criteria for experimental rearing studies: Rock Creek (river km 337) and Social Security Pond (river km 468). All other sites surveyed were ranked as either less desirable, or unusable for these studies.

  12. Physiological characterization of juvenile Chinook salmon utilizing different habitats during migration through the Columbia River Estuary.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Kyle C; Ostrand, Kenneth G; Glenn, Richard A

    2012-11-01

    Although off-channel habitats in the estuaries of large rivers impart many benefits to fish that rear within them, it is less clear how these habitats benefit migrating anadromous species that utilize these habitats for short periods of time. We evaluated the physiological correlates (nutritional condition, growth, and smoltification) of habitat utilization (main-channel vs. off-channel) by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha during emigration. Fish from the off-channel had higher condition factor scores and relative weights than fish from the main-channel throughout the study period. Plasma triglyceride and protein concentrations were significantly different between habitat types and across the sampling period, suggesting that fish utilizing the off-channel habitats were compensating for energy losses associated with emigration as compared to main-channel fish. Growth potential (RNA to DNA ratio) did not vary by habitat or sampling period, presumably due to short residency time. There were no differences in osmoregulatory capacity (gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity) based on habitat type. Our results indicate that short-term off-channel habitat use may mitigate for energy declines incurred during migration, but likely does not impart significant gains in energy stores or growth. PMID:22842392

  13. Effects of routine handling and tagging procedures on physiological stress responses in juvenile chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharpe, C.S.; Thompson, D.A.; Blankenship, H.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were subjected to handling and tagging protocols typical of normal hatchery operations and monitored for their physiological response to stress. Treatments included coded-wire-tagging, counting, ventral fin clipping, adipose fin clipping, and a procedure simulating a pond split. Treatment fish were also subjected to a standardized stress challenge (1 h confinement) to evaluate their ability to deal with disturbances subsequent to a handling or tagging procedure. Circulating levels of cortisol and glucose were used as indicators of stress. Each of the treatments elicited very similar responses among treatment groups. Cortisol increased from resting levels of about 20 ng/mL to about 90 ng/mL by 1 h poststress and returned to near resting levels by 8 h poststress. Glucose levels increased from 50 mg/dL to about 80 mg/dL by 1 h poststress and remained elevated for much of the experiment. The cortisol and glucose responses to the confinement stress did not differ over time or among treatments. However, the confinement stress results do suggest a small but significant cumulative response, indicating small residual effects of the original handling protocols. No deaths were noted among treatment groups.

  14. Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Katie A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Seaburg, Adam; Skalski, John R.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2014-07-17

    While many studies have investigated the effects of transmitters on fish condition, behavior, and survival, to our knowledge, no studies have taken into account anesthetic exposure time in addition to tag and surgery effects. We investigated stress responses to prolonged MS-222 exposure after stage 4 induction in surgically implanted juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Survival, tag loss, plasma cortisol concentration, and blood Na+, K+, Ca2+, and pH were measured immediately following anesthetic exposure and surgical implantation and 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment. Despite the prolonged anesthetic exposure, 3-15 minutes post Stage 4 induction, there were no mortalities or tag loss in any treatment. MS-222 was effective at delaying immediate cortisol release during surgical implantation; however, osmotic disturbances resulted, which were more pronounced in longer anesthetic time exposures. From day 1 to day 14, Na+, Ca2+, and pH significantly decreased, while cortisol significantly increased. The cortisol increase was exacerbated by surgical implantation. There was a significant interaction between MS-222 time exposure and observation day for Na+, Ca2+, K+, and pH; variations were seen in the longer time exposures, although not consistently. In conclusion, stress response patterns suggest stress associated with surgical implantation is amplified with increased exposure to MS-222.

  15. Acoustic Telemetry Studies of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Survival at the Lower Columbia Projects in 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-02-01

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct three studies using acoustic telemetry to estimate detection probabilities and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at three hydropower projects on the lower Columbia River. The primary goals were to estimate detection and survival probabilities based on sampling with JSATS equipment, assess the feasibility of using JSATS for survival studies, and estimate sample sizes needed to obtain a desired level of precision in future studies. The 2006 JSATS arrays usually performed as well or better than radio telemetry arrays in the JDA and TDA tailwaters, and underperformed radio arrays in the BON tailwater, particularly in spring. Most of the probabilities of detection on at least one of all arrays in a tailwater exceeded 80% for each method, which was sufficient to provide confidence in survival estimates. The probability of detection on one of three arrays includes survival and detection probabilities because fish may die or pass all three arrays undetected but alive.

  16. Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Powell, M; Overturf, K; Hogge, C; Johnson, K

    2005-10-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assay has been developed to detect varying levels of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease. This assay allows for the direct enumeration of bacterial DNA or RNA copy number within tissues and body fluids. The assay can be applied non-lethally and can be used to determine whether R. salmoninarum is transcriptionally active. The presence of R. salmoninarum in kidney tissues from 430 chinook salmon collected from five Idaho Fish and Game operated hatcheries was initially evaluated using the widely employed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with two sets of Kirkegaard and Perry Laboratories polyclonal antibodies, 'mother batches' 1 and 2. The same tissue samples were then analysed using the novel QPCR assay and the results compared. At moderate to high levels of infection [optical density (OD > 0.5)], ELISA values and estimated DNA copy number were highly correlated (r(2) > 0.80), although correlation to specific antibody batches varied. However, lower ELISA values (OD < 0.5) observed with either antibody batch did not correlate well with the QPCR assay (R(2)

  17. Assessment of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by titanium oxide nanoparticles on Chinook salmon cells.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Koigoora; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C; Ahmad, Iqbal; Rao, Janapala Venkateswara

    2015-10-01

    Titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have received wide attention in diverse application, but the potential impact of these nanomaterials on the environment, aquatic life and especially on fish cell lines is lacking. The present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by TiO2 NPs on Chinook salmon cells derived from Oncorhynchus tshawytscha embryos (CHSE-214). The The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] and neutral red (NR) assays in CHSE-214 cells exposed to TiO2 NPs revealed concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect in the range of 10 to 60 μg/ml for 24 h. CHSE-214 cells exposed to TiO2 NPs (10-60 μg/ml) exhibited significant decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) glutathione (GSH) content and increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) in a concentration-dependent manner. TiO2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in CHSE-214 cells which serve as a base line studies for future studies. PMID:26013742

  18. MFO activity and contaminant analysis of overwintering juvenile chinook salmon in the Fraser River

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.; Glickman, B.; Addison, R.; Gordon, R.; Martens, D.

    1995-12-31

    Various organic contaminants, including some PAHs, PCBs and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, induce liver cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and its associated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase; EROD). In this study, analysis of carcasses for dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and PCBs were compared to liver MFO activity. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were sampled in March, 1994 at a reference site on the Nechako River free from the influence of industrial activity and at sites near Prince George, Stoner, Longbar and Soda Creek on the Fraser River, and on the Thompson River. Fish from the Nechako site had the lowest MFO activities, accompanied by the lowest whole body dioxin and furan concentrations. Fish from Longbar, Soda Creek and the Thompson River had the highest MFO activities. Fish from Prince George contained the highest dioxin concentrations, but furans and mono-ortho substituted PCBs were highest at the Soda Creek and Thompson sites. MFO activity correlated most strongly with PCB concentrations. The results of this study suggest that liver MFO activity in O. tshawytscha could be employed as one biological index of environmental quality in the Fraser River.

  19. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinat, Michael; Varney, Michelle

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program during 2002. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program collected fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). As of January 1, 2003, WDFW has approximately 11 BY 1998, 194 BY 1999, 314 BY 2000, 447 BY 2001, and 300 BY 2002 (for extra males) fish on hand at LFH. The 2002 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 5) was 13,176 eggs from 10 ripe females. Egg survival was 22%. Mean fecundity based on the 5 fully spawned females was 1,803 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 4) was 143,709 eggs from 93 ripe females. Egg survival was 29%. Mean fecundity based on the 81 fully spawned females was 1,650 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1999 brood year (Age 3) was 19,659 eggs from 18 ripe females. Egg survival was 55%. Mean fecundity based on the 18 fully spawned fish was 1,092 eggs/female. The total 2002 eggtake from the captive brood program was 176,544 eggs. A total of 120,833 dead eggs (68%) were removed with 55,711 live eggs remaining for the program. As of May 1, 2003 we had 46,417 BY 2002 captive brood progeny on hand A total of 20,592 excess BY 01 fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and

  20. Identification of a genetic marker that discriminates ocean-type and stream-type chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, C.; Ostberg, C.O.; Clifton, D.R.; Holloway, J.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A marker based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), OT-38, was discovered that nonlethally discriminates between stream-type and ocean-type populations of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin, including the threatened fall-run (ocean-type) and spring-run (stream-type) Snake River populations. This marker was developed by amplifying chinook salmon genomic DNA with a single RAPD primer, sequencing the termini of the polymorphic products, and designing primer pairs for allele-specific amplification. It was used to assay 18-80 individuals from several wild and hatchery populations differing in year-class, freshwater life history, and location along the Columbia River OT-38 unambiguously distinguished ocean-type from stream-type populations in 93.1% of the chinook salmon sampled.

  1. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity in shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata) and juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) after application of carbaryl to control burrowing shrimp within Willapa Bay, Washington.

    PubMed

    Troiano, Alexandra T; King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Ekblad, Cathy J

    2013-11-01

    Carbaryl has been applied in Willapa Bay, Washington, for five decades to control burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) on commercial oyster (Crassostrea gigas) beds. Concerns about effects on nontarget species, including fishes, have led to restrictions in use despite a lack of data on in situ exposure. We measured brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in adult Shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata) and juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) after operational applications. We hypothesized that exposure in Shiner perch would be greater than in juvenile Chinook salmon because of their greater site fidelity and benthic foraging. However, Shiner perch exhibited no statistically significant AChE inhibition. Enzyme activity was statistically decreased (≤14 %) in juvenile Chinook salmon after a second spray event; however, inhibition was less than that associated with overt effects and was similar to controls by 48 h after the spray. Diet analyses confirmed that Shiner perch were primarily feeding on benthic invertebrates and that juvenile Chinook salmon were feeding primarily within the water column. Composition of Shiner perch diets and amount of food consumed varied little among channels and time periods; however, Shiner perch on beds consumed more food 6 h after application than those at other time points and locations. There were no consistent differences in the diets of juvenile Chinook salmon within channels among time periods. Results suggest (1) that carbaryl applications pose little hazard to fish in the bay having habitat and dietary preferences similar to those of Shiner perch and juvenile Chinook salmon and (2) that quantification of direct exposure in the field is essential to adequately assess risk. PMID:24042340

  2. Immunosuppression in progeny of chinook salmon infected with Renibacterium salmoninarum: re-analysis of a brood stock segregation experiment.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Owen S

    2005-06-14

    Female spawner infection level and temperature variation through rearing are sufficient to explain in-hatchery mortality rates and infection levels and smolt to adult return ratios (SARs) of progeny of Renibacterium salmoninarum infected spring chinook salmon. Data from published reports and manuscripts regarding a 1988 brood stock segregation experiment that held progeny of highly infected female spring chinook salmon spawners separate from progeny of other spawners during 16 mo of hatchery rearing are analyzed to test the hypothesis that immunosuppression could account for differences in survival and infection levels between the 2 segregates. Immunosuppression, caused by the presence of the p57 antigen of R. salmoninarum in sufficient concentration within the salmon egg before spawning, can account for differences in infection levels, mortality rates, and SARs for each hatchery raceway in that study. This immunosuppression may be characterized by immunotolerance, or might only affect cell mediated immunity, which appears the most effective defense mechanism against R. salmoninarum infection, as antibody production can result in tissue damaging antibody-antigen complexes. Low-temperature mediated immunosuppression can account for the nearly identical trajectories of infection and mortality between the 2 segregates during the first 8 mo of hatchery rearing. There is no evidence of widespread vertical infection from spawner to progeny, nor is there evidence that brood stock segregation reduces overall mortality. Rather, the suppression of cell-mediated immune mechanisms may condemn progeny of highly infected female spawners to an almost certain eventual premature demise. PMID:16042041

  3. Use of electromyogram telemetry to assess swimming activity of adult spring Chinook salmon migrating past a Columbia River dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.S.; Geist, D.R.; Mesa, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Electromyogram (EMG) radiotelemetry was used to estimate the swim speeds of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating upstream past a Columbia River dam. Electrodes from EMG transmitters were surgically implanted in the red muscle of fish captured at Bonneville Dam, and output from the tags was calibrated to defined swim speeds for each fish in a tunnel respirometer. The fish were then released below Bonneville Dam and radio-tracked as they migrated through the tailraces, fishways, and forebays of the dam. On average, swim speed was significantly higher when tagged salmon were moving through tailraces than when they were moving through other parts of the dam. Specifically, swim speeds for fish in tailraces (106.4 cm/s) were 23% higher than those of fish in fishways (84.9 cm/s) and 32% higher than those of fish in forebays (80.2 cm/s). Swim speeds were higher in fishways during the day than during the night, but there were no diel differences in swim speeds in tailraces and forebays. During dam passage, Chinook salmon spent the most time in tailraces, followed by fishways and forebays. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  4. Hyporheic discharge of river water into fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. )

    1999-12-01

    Fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawned predominantly in areas of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River where hyporheic water discharged into the river channel. This upwelling water had a dissolved solids content (i.e., specific conductance) indicative of river water and was presumed to have entered highly permeable riverbed substrate at locations upstream of the spawning areas. Hyporheic discharge zones composed of undiluted ground water or areas with little or no upwelling were not used by spawning salmon. Rates of upwelling into spawning areas averaged 1,200 L?m-2?day-1 (95% C.I.= 784 to 1,665 L?m-2?day-1) as compared to approximately 500 L?m-2?day-1 (95% C.I.= 303 to 1,159 L?m-2?day-1) in non-spawning areas. Dissolved oxygen content of the hyporheic discharge near salmon spawning areas was about 9 mg?L-1 (+ 0.4 mg?L-1) whereas in non-spawning areas dissolved oxygen values were 7 mg?L-1 (+ 0.9 mg?L-1) or lower. In both cases dissolved oxygen of the river water was higher (11.3+ 0.3 mg?L-1). Physical and chemical gradients between the hyporheic zone and the river may provide cues for adult salmon to locate suitable spawning areas. This information will help fisheries managers to describe the suitability of salmon spawning habitat in large rivers.

  5. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Spawning Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2002-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated studies to identify potential fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat and assess the extent of spawning in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in the fall of 1999. This report provides results from 2001, the third year of our effort. The main objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the area. The secondary objective was to map any chum salmon redds located in the deeper sections near Hamilton Slough. River flows during the spawning surveys in 2001 were lower than in 1999 and 2000. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 9, 2001. The location of the spawning area was similar to that of 1999 and 2000. One difference was the majority of redds were found in deeper water (>1.5 m) and closer to the shoreline adjacent to Pierce Island. Because of the low river flows during the fall of 2001, only a handful of redds were found using the boat-deployed video system within Hamilton Slough. No chum salmon (O. keta) redds were found in areas surveyed during 2000. (Note: surveys were limited to deeper sections of Hamilton Slough and near the main river channel.) An estimated 717 fall chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding 1.5 m ({approx} 125 kcfs) were documented in 2001. These estimates are expanded from the number of redds found within a predefined survey area. Fall chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.5-4.6 m and were located in a general area of {approx} 4.9 ha. Fall chinook salmon redds were constructed in gravels ranging from 3.2-13.4 cm in diameter and water velocities of 0.29-0.70 m/s.

  6. Quantifying flow-dependent changes in subyearling fall chinook salmon rearing habitat using two-dimensional spatially explicit modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Garland, R.D.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    We used an analysis based on a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the amount of rearing habitat and stranding area for subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River at steady-state flows ranging from 1,416 to 11,328 m3/s. High-resolution river channel bathymetry was used in conjunction with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate water velocities, depths, and lateral slopes throughout our 33-km study area. To relate the probability of fish presence in nearshore habitats to measures of physical habitat, we developed a logistic regression model from point electrofishing data. We only considered variables that were compatible with a GIS and therefore excluded other variables known to be important to juvenile salmonids. Water velocity and lateral slope were the only two variables included in our final model. The amount of available rearing habitat generally decreased as flow increased, with the greatest decreases occurring between 1,416 and 4,814 m3/s. When river discharges were between 3,682 and 7,080 m3/s, flow fluctuations of 566 m3/s produced the smallest change in available rearing area (from -6.3% to +6.8% of the total). Stranding pool area was greatly reduced at steady-state flows exceeding 4,531 m3/s, but the highest net gain in stranding area was produced by 850 m3/s decreases in flow when river discharges were between 5,381 and 5,664 m3/s. Current measures to protect rearing fall chinook salmon include limiting flow fluctuations at Priest Rapids Dam to 850 m3/s when the dam is spilling water and when the weekly flows average less than 4,814 m3/s. We believe that limiting flow fluctuations at all discharges would further protect subyearling fall chinook salmon.

  7. A model of the effects of flow fluctuations on fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat availability in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Murray, Christopher J.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Xie, YuLong

    2008-12-01

    Previously we reported that about 30% to 60% of the area predicted to be used by fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for spawning in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River did not contain redds. One explanation for the overprediction of habitat was that our model did not incorporate streamflow fluctuation. Daily fluctuation in flow caused by load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Priest Rapids Dam, situated at the upper end of the Hanford Reach, changes the hydraulic characteristics to which fish respond in selecting redd sites. The purpose of the study described here was to examine the effect of flow changes on spawning habitat modeling and, in particular, to look at the connection between spawning and the variability and persistence of habitat variables caused by rapid changes in flow resulting from load-following operations at Priest Rapids Dam. We found that spawning habitat use by fall Chinook salmon was consistent with previous fall Chinook salmon studies in the Reach. Dynamic variables that were based on hourly time series were used to account for the variability in habitat as a result of flow fluctuations. The analysis showed that the proportion of velocities that fell within the range of 1.0 to 2.5 m/s differed significantly between locations that were predicted to be spawning by the logistic regression model where spawning actually occurred and locations that were predicted to be spawning where spawning did not occur. However, the resulting sequential logistic regression model that incorporated the dynamic variables did not provide significant improvement in the percentage of errors for areas predicted to be spawning; the model’s overprediction errors still ranged from 63% to 78%. We suggest that while flow fluctuation may affect spawning habitat and individual fish behavior, the high correlation between time-averaged velocities and the proportion of hourly velocities that fell within the most

  8. Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2008 Annual Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Wayne H.; Schricker, Jaym'e; Ruzychi, James R.

    2009-02-13

    The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations remain depressed relative to historic levels and limited information is available for steelhead life history. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects have been implemented in the basin to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival. However, these projects often lack effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed programmatic or watershed (status and trend) information to help evaluate project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts as well as meet some data needs as index stocks. Our continued monitoring efforts to estimate salmonid smolt abundance, age structure, SAR, smolts/redd, freshwater habitat use, and distribution of critical life states will enable managers to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival. Because Columbia Basin managers have identified the John Day subbasin spring Chinook population as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin (Schaller et al. 1999) we continue our ongoing studies. This project is high priority based on the level of emphasis by the NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program, Independent Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB), Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP), NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds (OWEB). Each of these groups have placed priority on monitoring and evaluation to provide the real-time data to guide restoration and adaptive management in the region. The objective is to estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and summer

  9. Migration depths of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead relative to total dissolved gas supersaturation in a Columbia River reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, J.W.; Maule, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The in situ depths of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. were studied to determine whether hydrostatic compensation was sufficient to protect them from gas bubble disease (GBD) during exposure to total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation from a regional program of spill at dams meant to improve salmonid passage survival. Yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead O. mykiss implanted with pressure-sensing radio transmitters were monitored from boats while they were migrating between the tailrace of Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River and the forebay of McNary Dam on the Columbia River during 1997-1999. The TDG generally decreased with distance from the tailrace of the dam and was within levels known to cause GBD signs and mortality in laboratory bioassays. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that the mean depths of juvenile steelhead were similar throughout the study area, ranging from 2.0 m in the Snake River to 2.3 m near the McNary Dam forebay. The mean depths of yearling Chinook salmon generally increased with distance from Ice Harbor Dam, ranging from 1.5 m in the Snake River to 3.2 m near the forebay. Juvenile steelhead were deeper at night than during the day, and yearling Chinook salmon were deeper during the day than at night. The TDG level was a significant covariate in models of the migration depth and rates of each species, but no effect of fish size was detected. Hydrostatic compensation, along with short exposure times in the area of greatest TDG, reduced the effects of TDG exposure below those generally shown to elicit GBD signs or mortality. Based on these factors, our results indicate that the TDG limits of the regional spill program were safe for these juvenile salmonids.

  10. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2004-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys in fall 2003 to identify spawning areas for fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam. This report documents the number and extent of Chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce islands of the Columbia River, and is the fifth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The primary objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall Chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds in the deeper sections near below Hamilton Creek. Results from the 2003 study show a continuing trend upward in the number of fall Chinook salmon redds found within the survey zones. The number of fall Chinook redds found in the Ives Pierce Island complex (river km 228.5) has increased by a factor of five since the surveys began in 1999. The total number of redds found during 2003 was 336, which compares to 192 in 2002, 43 in 2001, 76 in 2000, and 64 in 1999. The redds encompassed an area of 13.7 ha occurring adjacent to the lower part of Ives Island and Pierce Island. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 24, 2003. An expanded redd count based on percentage of video coverage in the primary and secondary search zones was 3,218 fall Chinook salmon redds in water exceeding 1 m deep and flowing at about 125 kcfs. Fall Chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.07 to 7.6 m and were constructed predominantly of medium cobbles ranging from 7.6 to 15.2 cm in diameter. Two chum salmon redds were found in a small location downstream from Hamilton Creek in water depths of approximately 1 m. No salmon redds were found in other areas searched, including near

  11. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2005-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys to identify fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas located in deep water (greater than 1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in fall 2004. This report documents the number and extent of Chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce Islands of the Columbia River and is the sixth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The main objectives of this study were to find deepwater spawning locations of fall Chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The primary search area was adjacent to the upper portion of Pierce Island, and the secondary search zone was downstream of this area near the lower portion of Pierce Island. A secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds in the deeper sections downstream of Hamilton Creek (slough zone search area). Fall Chinook salmon redd numbers were down slightly from the record number found during 2003. The number of fall Chinook redds found in the Ives-Pierce Island complex (river km 228.5) during 2004 was 293, which does not include the number of shallow water redds found by visual observation by boat by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The redds encompassed an area of 14.6 ha occurring adjacent to the lower part of Ives Island and Pierce Island. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 16, 2004. An expanded redd count based on percentage video coverage in the primary and secondary search zones was 3,198 fall Chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding approximately 1.0 m (approximately 125 kcfs) with an estimated spawning population of 10,800. Fall Chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.07 to 7.6 m and were constructed predominantly of medium cobbles ranging in size from 7

  12. Effects of Handling and Crowding on the Stress Response and Viability of Chinook Salmon Parr and Smolts, 1984 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Congleton, James L.

    1985-02-01

    Transportation of migrating chinook salmon smolts from Snake River dams to the Columbia River estuary has not reversed a downward trend in Idaho stocks of this species that first became apparent in the late 1960s. Poor survival of transported smolts may be a consequence of physiological responses to stressful events during collection and transportation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the intensity of stress responses in transported smolts, to determine if stress responses decrease the viability of transported smolts, and to investigate ways of avoiding or mitigating stressful events during transportation. 34 refs., 58 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Antibody-producing cells correlated to body weight in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acclimated to optimal and elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrahy, L.N.M.; Schreck, C.B.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The immune response of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ranging in weight from approximately 10 to 55 g was compared when the fish were acclimated to either 13 or 21?? C. A haemolytic plaque assay was conducted to determine differences in the number of antibody-producing cells (APC) among fish of a similar age but different body weights. Regression analyses revealed significant increases in the number of APC with increasing body weight when fish were acclimated to either water temperature. These results emphasise the importance of standardising fish weight in immunological studies of salmonids before exploring the possible effects of acclimation temperatures. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; James, Brenda B.; Johnson, Christopher L.

    2003-05-01

    This report examines some of the factors that can influence the success of supplementation, which is currently being tested in the Yakima Basin using upper Yakima stock of spring chinook salmon. Supplementation success in the Yakima Basin is defined relative to four topic areas: natural production, genetics, ecological interactions, and harvest (Busack et al. 1997). The success of spring chinook salmon supplementation in the Yakima Basin is dependent, in part, upon fish culture practices and favorable physical and biological conditions in the natural environment (Busack et al. 1997). Shortfalls in either of these two topics (i.e., failure in culturing many fish that have high long-term fitness or environmental conditions that constrain spring chinook salmon production) will cause supplementation success to be limited. For example, inadvertent selection or propagation of spring chinook that residualize or precocially mature may hinder supplementation success. Spring chinook salmon that residualize (do not migrate during the normal migration period) may have lower survival rates than migrants and, additionally, may interact with wild fish and cause unacceptable impacts to non-target taxa. Large numbers of precocials (nonanadromous spawners) may increase competition for females and significantly skew ratios of offspring sired by nonanadromous males, which could result in more nonanadromous spring chinook in future generations. Conditions in the natural environment may also limit the success of spring chinook supplementation. For example, intra or interspecific competition may constrain spring chinook salmon production. Spring chinook salmon juveniles may compete with each other for food or space or compete with other species that have similar ecological requirements. Monitoring of spring chinook salmon residuals, precocials, prey abundance, carrying capacity, and competition will help researchers interpret why supplementation is working or not working (Busack et al

  15. Behavioural response of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha during a sudden temperature increase and implications for survival

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Mueller, Robert P.; Monroe, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The behaviours of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were evaluated during a temperature increase from 8.8 to 23.2°C, which was designed to simulate unique thermal conditions present in a hydroelectric reservoir. The percent of fish with an active swimming behaviour increased from 26 to 93 % and mean opercular beat rates increased from 76 to 159 beats per minute between basal and maximum temperatures. Fish equilibrium did not change significantly throughout the experiment and relatively little mortality (12 %) occurred. Thermal stress is likely incurred by juvenile salmon experiencing a temperature change of this magnitude; however, stress induced in this study was primarily sublethal. Behavioural changes accompanying thermal stress (e.g., erratic swimming) may increase predation potential in the wild despite being sublethal during laboratory experiments.

  16. The use of immobilised digestive lipase from Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to generate flavour compounds in milk.

    PubMed

    Kurtovic, Ivan; Marshall, Susan N; Cleaver, Helen L; Miller, Matthew R

    2016-05-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the potential of immobilised digestive lipase from Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to generate flavour compounds in milk. The lipase was immobilised on hydrophobic resin (Toyopearl® Butyl) and used to hydrolyse milk lipids in a batch reactor. The lipase was stable when immobilised and there was no significant resin fouling or enzyme inhibition between cycles. Eight cycles were achieved before the hydrolysis rate dropped significantly because of physical losses of the immobilised lipase. The immobilised lipase showed the highest specificity towards short-chain fatty acids butanoic and hexanoic acids, the main dairy product flavour and odour compounds. Based on the performance of the reactor, and the ability of the lipase to alter free fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of milk, the immobilised salmon lipase has potential applications in developing dairy products with unique flavours. PMID:26775978

  17. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally-Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, 1996 Annual Report : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovich, Paul; Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifth year of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally-produced chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), from northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulation and interannual variation in several early life history characteristics of naturally-produced chinook salmon from the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project provides information useful in the recovery of listed Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. Specific populations included in the study are (1) Catherine Creek, (2) upper Grande Ronde River, (3) Lostine River, (4) Imnaha River, (5) Wenaha River, and (6) Minam River. In this document, we present findings from research completed in 1996. Naturally-produced chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins have declined drastically in recent years due in part to habitat alterations and hydropower development. Declines have continued despite extensive mitigation efforts, including fish passage improvements, artificial production, supplementation, and habitat modification (BPA Division of Fish and Wildlife 1990). Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (hereafter referred to as chinook salmon), which include naturally-produced chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins, have been listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as threatened or endangered since 1992.

  18. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

    1985-05-01

    Upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are being reared in a backwater and a pond along John Day Reservoir to evaluate the benefits of rearing fish and releasing them off-station compared to traditional hatchery procedures. Fish reared in net pens at a density/feeding combination judged to be the economic optimum of those used during 1984 rearing trials exhibited good growth and smolt development. Size of fish averaged 112 fish/lb (4.0g/fish), ATPase activities ranged from 16.4 to 29.5 micromoles Pi/mg prot/hr at release and total mortality of fish was low among pens, ranging from 0.3 to 1.1%. Poor growth and smolt development was observed in fish reared in a large barrier net, especially during the initial two weeks after stocking. In addition, mortality of fish in the barrier net was high (49%) in relation to any of the other treatments tested thus far. The combined effects of generally poor condition of fish at stocking, low zooplankton densities during the initial two weeks of rearing, and losses to predation were thought to be the primary causes of the slow growth rates and high mortality. Unfed fish in pens utilized the available natural food base, but zooplankton densities were apparently not sufficient for growth, and may have been marginal for sustenance, especially at higher density. ATPase activities at release were significantly higher in low-density pens than in higher density pens, but development at all densities was retarded when compared with ATPase activities of fed fish. Preliminary cost estimates for producing fish-using the rearing strategies developed in the current pen-rearing study compared favorably with the average costs of rearing salmonids in a Northwest hatchery.

  19. Feeding bionomics of juvenile chinook salmon relative to thermal discharges in the central Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford environs of the central Columbia River, Washington consumed almost entirely adult and larval stages of aquatic insects. The food organisms were dominated by midges (Diptera: Tendipedidae); by numbers, adult midges provided 64 and 58% of the diet and larval midges 17 and 18% of the diet, in 1968 and 1969, respectively. The families Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera), Notonectidae (Hemiptera) and Hypogastruridae (Collembola) were of secondary importance. Small fry fed almost exclusively on the small tendipedids. Over 95% of all food organisms originated within the river ecosystem. The distinctive features of food and feeding activity were fourfold: first, relatively few insect groups were utilized; second, the fish depended on drifting, floating, or swimming organisms; third, they visually selected living prey moving in or on the water; and fourth, they were habitat opportunists to a high degree. The 1969 data, were studied to reveal possible thermal effects of heated discharges from plutonium production reactors at Hanford on food and growth parameters. All data were characterized by considerable variation between and within stations. No discernable effects between coldwater and warmwater stations were revealed by analyses of: (1) groups of food organisms utilized, (2) food and feeding activity, (3) numbers of insects consumed, (4) seasonal increases in fish length, (5) fish length-weight relationships, (6) fish coefficients of condition, and (7) stomach biomass. The lack of detectable thermal effects was apparently due to the fact that the main effluent plumes discharge in midstream and the effluents are well mixed before reaching inshore feeding areas. The transient nature of fish groups at each station, influenced by changes in regulated river flows, and the availability of food organisms in the river drift were ecological factors affecting critical thermal evaluation in situ.

  20. Comparing effects of transmitters within and among populations: application to swimming performance of juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Plumb, John M.; Fielding, Scott D.; Adams, Noah S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of fish to a transmitter depends on factors such as environmental conditions, fish morphology, life stage, rearing history, and tag design. However, synthesizing general trends across studies is difficult because each study focuses on a particular performance measure, species, life stage, and transmitter model. These differences motivated us to develop simple metrics that allow effects of transmitters to be compared among different species, populations, or studies. First, we describe how multiple regression analysis can be used to quantify the effect of tag burden (transmitter mass relative to fish mass) on measures of physiological performance. Next, we illustrate how the slope and intercept parameters can be used to calculate two summary statistics: θ, which estimates the tag burden threshold above which the performance of tagged fish begins to decline relative to untagged fish; and k, which measures the percentage change in performance per percentage point increase in tag burden. When θ = 0, k provides a single measure of the tag's effect that can be compared among species, populations, or studies. We apply this analysis to two different experiments that measure the critical swimming speed (U crit) of tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In both experiments, U crit declined as tag burden increased, but we found no significant threshold in swimming performance. Estimates of θ ranged from −0.6% to 2.1% among six unique treatment groups, indicating that swimming performance began to decline at a relatively low tag burden. Estimates of k revealed that U crit of tagged fish declined by −2.68% to −4.86% for each 1% increase in tag burden. Both θ and k varied with the tag's antenna configuration, tag implantation method, and posttagging recovery time. Our analytical approach can be used to gain insights across populations to better understand factors affecting the ability of fish to carry a transmitter.

  1. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Isaak, Daniel J; Thurow, Russell F; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B

    2007-03-01

    Declines in many native fish populations have led to reassessments of management goals and shifted priorities from consumptive uses to species preservation. As management has shifted, relevant environmental characteristics have evolved from traditional metrics that described local habitat quality to characterizations of habitat size and connectivity. Despite the implications this shift has for how habitats may be prioritized for conservation, it has been rare to assess the relative importance of these habitat components. We used an information-theoretic approach to select the best models from sets of logistic regressions that linked habitat quality, size, and connectivity to the occurrence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) nests. Spawning distributions were censused annually from 1995 to 2004, and data were complemented with field measurements that described habitat quality in 43 suitable spawning patches across a stream network that drained 1150 km2 in central Idaho. Results indicated that the most plausible models were dominated by measures of habitat size and connectivity, whereas habitat quality was of minor importance. Connectivity was the strongest predictor of nest occurrence, but connectivity interacted with habitat size, which became relatively more important when populations were reduced. Comparison of observed nest distributions to null model predictions confirmed that the habitat size association was driven by a biological mechanism when populations were small, but this association may have been an area-related sampling artifact at higher abundances. The implications for habitat management are that the size and connectivity of existing habitat networks should be maintained whenever possible. In situations where habitat restoration is occurring, expansion of existing areas or creation of new habitats in key areas that increase connectivity may be beneficial. Information about habitat size and connectivity also could be used to strategically

  2. Evidence that coded-wire-tagging procedures can enhance transmission of Renibacterium salmoninarum in chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Binary coded wire tags (CWTs) are used extensively for identification and management of anadromous salmonid populations. A study of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in two brood year groups of hatchery-reared spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha provided strong evidence that horizontal transmission of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of BKD, might be enhanced by CWT-marking procedures. About 4 months after CWTs were implanted in the snouts of juvenile fish, 14-16 different tissues were sampled from each of 60 fish per brood year group for histological analysis. Of the fish that were positive for R. salmoninarum by histological examination, 41% (7 of 17) of the 1988 brood year fish and 24% (10 of 42) of the 1989 brood year fish had BKD lesions confined to the head near the site of tag implantation. These lesions often resulted in the destruction of tissues of one or both olfactory organs. No focal snout infections were observed in fish that had not been marked with CWTs. Further data obtained from tissue analyses by use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a fluorescent antibody test for detection of R. salmoninarum supported the hypothesis that infections of R. salmoninarum can be initiated in the snout tissues of CWT-marked fish and then spread to other organs. The tagging procedures might promote transmission of the pathogen among fish via contaminated tagging needles, by facilitating the entry of pathogens through the injection wound, or both. Limited evidence from this study suggested that implantation of passive integrated transponder tags in the peritoneal cavities of fish might also promote the transmission of R. salmoninarum or exacerbate existing infections. The results indicated a need for strict sanitary procedures during the tagging of fish in populations positive for R. salmoninarum to reduce the probability of enhanced horizontal transmission of the pathogen.

  3. Behavioural thermoregulation by subyearling fall (autumn) Chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Kock, T.J.; Connor, W.P.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated behavioural thermoregulation by subyearling fall (autumn) Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a reservoir on the Snake River, Washington, U.S.A. During the summer, temperatures in the reservoir varied from 23?? C on the surface to 11?? C at 14 m depth. Subyearlings implanted with temperature-sensing radio transmitters were released at the surface at temperatures >20?? C during three blocks of time in summer 2004. Vertical profiles were taken to measure temperature and depth use as the fish moved downstream over an average of 5??6-7??2 h and 6??0-13??8 km. The majority of the subyearlings maintained average body temperatures that differed from average vertical profile temperatures during most of the time they were tracked. The mean proportion of the time subyearlings tracked within the 16-20?? C temperature range was larger than the proportion of time this range was available, which confirmed temperature selection opposed to random use. The subyearlings selected a depth and temperature combination that allowed them to increase their exposure to temperatures of 16-20?? C when temperatures 20?? C were available at lower and higher positions in the water column. A portion of the subyearlings that selected a temperature c. 17??0?? C during the day, moved into warmer water at night coincident with an increase in downstream movement rate. Though subyearlings used temperatures outside of the 16-20?? C range part of the time, behavioural thermoregulation probably reduced the effects of intermittent exposure to suboptimal temperatures. By doing so, it might enhance growth opportunity and life-history diversity in the population of subyearlings studied.

  4. Buoyancy compensation of juvenile chinook salmon implanted with two different size dummy transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, R.W.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effect of two different sizes of surgically implanted transmitters on the buoyancy compensation of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We determined buoyancy by measuring the density of fish with a filled air bladder in graded salinity baths. In addition, we examined the effect of pressure changes on buoyancy by measuring the pressure reduction (PR) at which fish became neutrally buoyant. We found no significant difference between the density of control and tagged groups, indicating that fish were able to compensate for the transmitter by filling their air bladders. However, both groups of tagged fish had significantly lower PR than control fish. Regression analysis of fish density on PR indicated that density of the tagged groups changed at a higher rate than that of the controls. As a result, tagged fish attained neutral buoyancy with less pressure reduction even though the tagged and control groups exhibited similar densities. This relation was confirmed by using Boyle's law to simulate buoyancy changes with change in depth. Although fish compensated for the transmitter, changes in depth affected the buoyancy of tagged fish more than that of untagged fish. Reduced buoyancy at depth may affect the behavior and physiology of tagged juvenile salmonids, and researchers should be aware of this potential bias in telemetry data. In addition, there was little difference in PR or the slope of the density - PR regression lines between tagged groups. This was caused by the small difference in excess mass (i.e., weight in water) of the two transmitters. Thus, although two transmitters may not weigh the same, their effects on buoyancy may be similar depending on the excess mass.

  5. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Novotny, Jerry F.

    1990-02-01

    The goal of this project is to compare net-pen rearing methods to traditional hatchery methods of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawvtscha). Fish were reared at several densities in net pens at three Columbia River backwater sites during 1984-1987, and in a barrier net at one site during 1984-1986; methods included both fed and unfed treatments. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results obtained from the unfed treatments and the current return of adults from all fed treatments and the barrier net. Zooplankton were the primary food item of unfed fish. Fish reared in net pens utilized insects colonizing the nets as an additional food source, whereas those reared in the barrier net did not. Growth and production of fish reared in the unfed treatments were low. Instantaneous growth rates of unfed fish were much lower than those of the fed treatments and hatchery controls except when zooplankton densities were high and chironomid larvae were important in the diet of unfed fish reared in pens. Only fish in the barrier net treatment resulted in consistent net gains in growth and production over the rearing periods. Adult returns of fish from all fed and unfed treatments are lower than those of control fish reared at the hatchery. Returns appear to be inversely related to rearing density. Even though adult returns are lower than those of traditional hatchery methods, a cost-benefit analysis, as return data becomes more complete, may prove these methods to be an economical means of expanding current hatchery production, particularly if thinning releases were used.

  6. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-07-09

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007

  7. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program; Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    prompting an early release. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 49 (0.05 %). The total number of fish released from the acclimation facility during the late period was 105,369. Maintenance and repair activities were conducted at the acclimation facilities in 2005. Facility maintenance work consisted of snow removal, installation of drainage lines, removal of gravel from intake area, installation of new gate at the CCAF, and complete overhaul of 2 travel trailers. The Catherine Creek Adult Capture Facility (CCACF) was put into operation on 11 February 2005. The first adult summer steelhead was captured on 4 March. A total of 190 adult summer steelhead were trapped and released from 4 March to 16 May 2005. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 8 April. The first adult spring Chinook salmon was captured at CCACF on 6 May 2005. A total of 226 spring Chinook salmon were trapped from 6 May to 8 July 2005. There were 56 adults and 4 jacks unmarked and 136 adult and 30 jack marked spring Chinook salmon trapped. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 10 June for the unmarked and marked fish. None of the captive broodstock returns were collected for broodstock. Broodstock was collected systematically over the entire return from 31 May to 6 July 2005. Ten of the 34 broodstock collected and transported from CCACF to LGH were unmarked fish trapped. About 18% of the naturally produced adult males and females trapped were taken to LGH for broodstock. One jack was collected for every 5 adult males that were taken to LGH. A total of 30 age 4 and 5 and 4 age 3 fish were transported to LGH for broodstock. The hatchery component of the broodstock was 66.7%. Five weekly spawning surveys were conducted below the weir on Catherine Creek beginning 30 June 2005. During these surveys no live or dead fish were observed. The trap was removed from Catherine Creek on 3 August 2005. Temperatures at the CCACF ranged from -0.1 C on 14 February to 23.7 C on 21 July. The hourly

  8. Influence of river level on temperature and hydraulic gradients in chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas downstream of Bonneville Dam, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Murray, Christopher J.; McGrath, Kathy; Bott, Yi-Ju; Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2008-02-01

    Chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon segregate spatially during spawning in the Ives Island side channel of the lower Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam. Previous research during one spawning season (2000) suggested that these species selected spawning habitats based on differences in hyporheic temperature and vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) with the river. In this study, we confirmed the spatial segregation of spawning based on hyporheic characteristics over four years (2001–2004) and examined the effects of load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Bonneville Dam on hyporheic function and characteristics. We found that during the study period, hyporheic temperature and VHG in chum salmon spawning areas were highly variable during periods of load-following operation when river levels fluctuated. In contrast, hyporheic water temperature and VHG within chum spawning areas fluctuated less when river levels were not changing due to load-following operation. Variable temperature and VHG could affect chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning segregation and incubation success by altering the cues each species uses to select redd sites. Alterations in site selection would result in a breakdown in the spatial segregation of spawning between chum and fall Chinook salmon, which would expose earlier spawning fall Chinook eggs to a greater risk of dislodgement from later spawning chum salmon. Additional research will be required to fully assess the effects of load-following operations on the hyporheic environment and spawning and incubation success of chum and fall Chinook salmon downstream from Bonneville Dam.

  9. Contaminant exposure and biochemical effects in outmigrant juvenile chinook salmon from urban and nonurban estuaries of Puget Sound, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.E.; Hom, T.; Collier, T.K.; Brown, D.W.; Varanasi, U.

    1995-06-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were sampled in Puget Sound, Washington, for 2 consecutive years from contaminated urban estuaries, a nonurban estuary, and from the respective hatcheries to assess exposure to anthropogenic chemicals and to determine if biochemical changes were occurring as a consequence of exposure. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated hydrocarbons, and butyltins was determined. The mean concentrations of PAHs and PCBs in stomach contents and PCBs in liver were significantly higher in salmon from the urban estuaries compared to fish from the nonurban estuary in both sampling years. Higher hepatic concentrations of PCBs than DDTs were found in fish from the urban estuaries, but butyltins were rarely detected. Further, mean concentrations of fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, an estimate of exposure to PAHs, and hepatic cytochrome P4501A and levels of hepatic DNA adducts were also significantly higher in salmon from the urban estuaries compared to either the nonurban estuary or the hatcheries. Results demonstrated increased exposure to chemical contaminants in outmigrant juvenile salmon during their relatively brief residence in urban estuaries of Puget Sound. Moreover, the exposure was sufficient to elicit biochemical responses, which suggest a potential for other biological effects to ensue.

  10. Sequence features and phylogenetic analysis of the stress protein Hsp90α in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a poikilothermic vertebrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Winton, James R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    1999-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a chinook salmon Hsp90 cDNA; sequence analysis shows it to be Hsp90??. Phylogenetic analysis supports the hypothesis that ?? and ?? paralogs of Hsp90 arose as a result of a gene duplication event and that they diverged early in the evolution of vertebrates, before tetrapods separated from the teleost lineage. Among several differences distinguishing poikilothermic Hsp90?? sequences from their bird and mammal orthologs, the teleost versions specifically lack a characteristic QTQDQP phosphorylation site near the N-terminus. We used the cDNA to develop an RNA (Northern) blot to quantify cellular Hsp90 mRNA levels. Chinook salmon embryonic (CHSE-214) cells responded to heat shock with a rapid rise in Hsp90 mRNA through 4 h, followed by a gradual decline over the next 20 h. Hsp90 mRNA level may be useful as a stress indicator, especially in a laboratory setting or in response to acute heat stress.

  11. Rapid growth in the early marine period improves the marine survival of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Elisabeth J.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of early marine entry timing and body size on the marine (smolt-to-adult) survival of Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We used data from coded wire tag release groups of hatchery Chinook salmon to test whether hatchery release date, release size, and size in offshore waters in July and September influenced marine survival. Marine survival was most strongly related to the average body size in July, with larger sizes associated with higher survivals. This relationship was consistent over multiple years (1997–2002), suggesting that mortality after July is strongly size-dependent. Release size and date only slightly improved this relationship, whereas size in September showed little relationship to marine survival. Specifically, fish that experienced the highest marine survivals were released before 25 May and were larger than 17 g (or 120 mm fork length) by July. Our findings highlight the importance of local conditions in Puget Sound (Washington, USA) during the spring and summer, and suggest that declines in marine survival since the 1980s may have been caused by reductions in the quality of feeding and growing conditions during early marine life.

  12. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achond, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    2003-07-01

    This report details the 2002 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these differences in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam.

  13. Effects of acute thermal stress on the survival, predator avoidance, and physiology of juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Weiland, L.K.; Wagner, P.

    2002-01-01

    We subjected juvenile fall chinook salmon from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to acute thermal stressors in the laboratory that were derived from field data. We assessed the effects of thermal stress on: (1) the extent of direct mortality; (2) the vulnerability of fish to predation by smallmouth bass; and (3) some general physiological stress responses and synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). Thermally-stressed fish showed little direct mortality and no increases in vulnerability to predation. However, these fish showed transient increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol, glucose, and lactate, and a dramatic (25-fold higher than controls) and persistent (lasting 2 wk) increase in levels of liver hsp70. Our results indicate that exposure of Hanford Reach juvenile fall chinook salmon to such stressors did not lead to significant increases in direct mortality or vulnerability to predation, but did alter physiological homeostasis, which should be of concern to those managing this resource. Because our fish received only a single exposure to one of the stressors we examined, we are also concerned about the consequences of exposing fish to multiple, cumulative stressors - a likely scenario for fish in the wild.

  14. Performance assessment of bi-directional knotless tissue-closure devices in juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-07-02

    Acoustic transmitters used in survival and telemetry studies are often surgically implanted in fish. While this is a well-established method, it has the potential to affect health, behavior, and survival, thus affecting study results. Much research has been done to try to minimize the harmful effects caused by the transmitter and tagging process. In 2009, we first investigated the use of a bi-directional knotless (barbed) suture material in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We found that it resulted in higher tag retention than the simple interrupted suture pattern; however, the occurrence of ulceration and redness increased. The objective of this study was to refine the suturing patterns of the bi-directional knotless suture and retest suture performance in juvenile Chinook salmon. We tested the bi-directional suture using 3 different suture patterns and two needle types: 6-Point (12-mm needle circumference), Wide “N” (12-mm needle circumference), Wide “N” Knot 12 (12-mm needle circumference), and Wide “N” Knot 18 (18-mm needle circumference).

  15. Rapid growth in the early marine period improves the marine survival of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of early marine entry timing and body size on the marine (smolt-to-adult) survival of Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We used data from coded wire tag release groups of hatchery Chinook salmon to test whether hatchery release date, release size, and size in offshore waters in July and September influenced marine survival. Marine survival was most strongly related to the average body size in July, with larger sizes associated with higher survivals. This relationship was consistent over multiple years (1997-2002), suggesting that mortality after July is strongly size-dependent. Release size and date only slightly improved this relationship, whereas size in September showed little relationship to marine survival. Specifically, fish that experienced the highest marine survivals were released before 25 May and were larger than 17 g (or 120 mm fork length) by July. Our findings highlight the importance of local conditions in Puget Sound (Washington, USA) during the spring and summer, and suggest that declines in marine survival since the 1980s may have been caused by reductions in the quality of feeding and growing conditions during early marine life.

  16. Effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio transmitters on swimming performance and predator avoidance of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.; Evans, S.D.; Kelly, J.E.; Perry, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Radiotelemetry data are often used to make inferences about an entire study population; therefore, the transmitter attachment method should be the one that least affects the study animal. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) <120 mm in fork length (FL) with either gastrically or surgically implanted transmitters had significantly lower critical swimming speeds than control fish 1 and 19-23 days after tagging. For fish >120 mm FL, fish with gastric implants swam as well as controls 1 day but not 19-23 days after tagging. In contrast, fish with surgical implants swam as well as controls 19-23 days but not 1 day after tagging. During predation trials, fish with gastric or surgical implants were eaten by smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in significantly greater numbers than controls. We do not recommend implanting transmitters (representing 4.6-10.4% of the fish's body weight) in fish <120 mm FL. Furthermore, surgical implants (representing 2.2-5.6% of the fish's body weight) may be the preferred method for biotelemetry studies of juvenile chinook salmon >120 mm FL.

  17. Effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio transmitters on growth and feeding behavior of juvenile chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.; Evans, S.D.; Kelly, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio transmitters (representing 2.3-5.5% of body weight) on the growth and feeding behavior of 192 juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (114-159 mm in fork length). Throughout the 54-d study, the 48 fish with transmitters in their stomachs (gastric fish) consistently grew more slowly than fish with surgically implanted transmitters (surgery fish), fish with surgery but no implanted transmitter (sham-surgery fish), or fish exposed only to handling (control fish). Growth rates of surgery fish were also slightly impaired at day 21, but by day 54 they were growing at rates comparable with those of control fish. Despite differences in growth, overall health was similar among all test fish. However, movement of the transmitter antenna caused abrasions at the corner of the mouth in all gastric fish, whereas only 22% of the surgery fish had inflammation around the antenna exit wound. Feeding activity was similar among groups, but gastric fish exhibited a coughing behavior and appeared to have difficulty retaining swallowed food. Because growth and feeding behavior were less affected by the presence of surgically implanted transmitters than by gastric implants, we recommend surgically implanting transmitters for biotelemetry studies of juvenile chinook salmon between 114 and 159 mm fork length.

  18. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations, 1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Smallmouth bass predation on subyearling fall Chinook salmon was examined in the upper portion of Lower Granite Reservoir during 2013. During the time subyearlings were present in the reservoir, smallmouth bass were collected, their stomach contents removed for diet analysis, and their abundance estimated with mark-recapture techniques. In 2013, the greatest consumption of subyearlings by smallmouth bass occurred in late May and early June—as much as 50% of their diet by weight. Sand rollers were the most common non-salmonid fish consumed by smallmouth bass. In the section of the reservoir above the confluence with the Clearwater River, the abundance of bass was higher in non-riprap habitat than in riprap, but the opposite was true in the section below the confluence. We estimated that over 168,000 subyearlings were lost to smallmouth bass predation in 2013. Given the predominance of sand rollers in the diet of smallmouth bass, we believe this species reduces predation on subyearling fall Chinook salmon. A complete report of our findings is provided in the Appendix.

  19. Use of Electromyogram Telemetry to Assess Swimmng Activity of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon Migrating Past a Columbia River Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2006-02-28

    Electromyogram (EMG) radiotelemetry was used to examine the amount of energy expended by spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating upstream past a Columbia River dam. Electrodes from EMG transmitters were surgically implanted in the red muscle of fish captured at Bonneville Dam and output from the tags was calibrated to defined swim speeds for each fish in a tunnel respirometer. The fish were then released below Bonneville Dam and radio-tracked as they migrated through the tailraces, fishways, and forebays of the dam. On average, the rate of aerobic energy used by spring Chinook salmon was significantly higher when they were moving through tailraces (1.27 kcal•kg-1•h-1) than when they were moving through other parts of the dam. Specifically, the rate of aerobic energy use for fish in tailraces was 14% higher than that used by fish in fishways (1.11 kcal•kg-1•h-1) and 27% higher than the rate used by fish in forebays (1.00 kcal•kg-1•h-1). Most (80%) of the aerobic energy used by fish to pass this dam was expended in the tailrace (25.5 kcal/kg), while only 18% (5.6 kcal/kg) and 2% (0.6 kcal/kg) were used in the fishways and forebays.

  20. Preliminary study of gill NA+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon following electroshock or handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    We compared gill Na+,K+-ATPase in subyearling and yearling spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 3 h, 24 h, and 7 d after exposure to either a short pulsed DC electroshock (300 V, 50 Hz, 8-ms pulse duration) or an acute handling stress. Mean gill Na+,K+-ATPase values ranged from 7.5 to 11.8 ??mol inorganic phosphate (Pi) ?? (mg protein)-1 ?? h-1. No significant differences were detected, with the exception of electroshocked subyearlings 7 d after treatment. Increased activity was attributed to the presence of two influential values. No significant differences were detected after removal of these observations, so the increase was not considered biologically significant. Inclusion of the outliers did not alter our interpretation of the results given that the observed increase was slight compared with the magnitude of changes reported under experimental conditions and in migrating juvenile salmonids. The treatment groups underwent a typical stress response and had significantly elevated cortisol and glucose levels 3 h after treatment. Recovery to control levels occurred within 24 h for cortisol and from 24 h to 7 d for glucose. Our results lead to the conclusion that neither acute electroshock nor acute handling stress alters Na+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon.

  1. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) outmigrating through a contaminated urban estuary: dynamics and application.

    PubMed

    Meador, James P; Ylitalo, Gina M; Sommers, Frank C; Boyd, Daryle T

    2010-01-01

    A field study was conducted to examine bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for hatchery-raised and naturally reared (wild) ocean-type juvenile chinook salmon outmigrating through the Lower Duwamish Waterway (LDW), a contaminated urban estuary in Seattle, WA, USA. These results show differences in bioaccumulation of PCBs over time and space in this estuary, which may also occur for any contaminant that is distributed heterogeneously in this system. Highly mobile, outmigrating salmon accumulated approximately 3-5 times more PCBs on the east side of the LDW than fish on the west side, which is supported by an almost identical difference in mean sediment concentrations. The tPCB concentration data suggest that for most of the spring and early summer, juvenile chinook were likely segregated between the east and west side of the LDW, but may have crossed the channel later in the year as larger fish. Additionally, we used biota-sediment accumulation factors to assess the relative degree of bioaccumulation and explore these factors as potential metrics for predicting adverse sediment concentrations. These results highlight the importance of time and space in sampling design for a highly mobile species in a heterogeneous estuary. PMID:19685184

  2. Evaluation of fast green FCF dye for non-lethal detection of integumental injuries in juvenile chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Conway, C.M.; Applegate, L.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    A rapid staining procedure for detection of recent skin and fin injuries was tested in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Immersion of anesthetized fish for 1 min in aerated aqueous solutions of the synthetic food dye fast green FCF (Food Green 3) at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.5% produced consistent and visible staining of integumental injuries. A 0.1% fast green concentration was satisfactory for visual evaluation of injuries, whereas a 0.5% concentration was preferable for digital photography. A rinsing procedure comprised of two 30 s rinses in fresh water was most effective for removal of excess stain after exposure of fish. Survival studies in fresh water and seawater and histopathological analyses indicated that short exposures to aqueous solutions of fast green were non-toxic to juvenile Chinook salmon. In comparisons of the gross and microscopic appearance of fish exposed to fast green at various times after injury, the dye was observed only in areas of the body where epidermal disruption was present as determined by scanning electron microscopy. No dye was observed in areas where epidermal integrity had been restored. Further comparisons showed that fast green exposure produced more consistent and intense staining of skin injury sites than a previously published procedure using trypan blue. Because of its relatively low cost, ease of use and the rapid and specific staining of integumental injuries, fast green may find widespread application in fish health and surface injury evaluations. ?? Inter-Research 2009.

  3. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, selenium, and iron on oxidative stress in sub-yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-variable central composite design coupled with surface-response analysis was used to examine the effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol + ascorbic acid (TOCAA), selenium (Se), and iron (Fe) on indices of oxidative stress in juvenile spring Chinook salmon. Each dietary factor was tested at five ...

  4. The potential for chromium to affect the fertilization process of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford reach of the Columbia River, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Farag, A M; Harper, D D; Cleveland, L; Brumbaugh, W G; Little, E E

    2006-05-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation in south central Washington was claimed by the federal government as a site for the production of plutonium. During the course of production and operation of the facilities at Hanford, radionuclides and chromium were discharged directly into the river and also contaminated the groundwater. This study was designed to assess the effects of chromium (Cr) on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) fertilization under exposure conditions similar to those of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Chinook salmon gametes were exposed to aqueous Cr concentrations ranging from 0 to 266 microg Cr l(-1). The current ambient water-quality criteria (AWQC) established for the protection of aquatic life (United States Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA] 1986) is 11 microg Cr l(-1). Cr has been measured in pore water from bottom sediments of the Columbia River at concentrations >600 microg Cr l(-1). Under exposure conditions designed to closely mimic events that occur in the river, the fertilization of Chinook salmon eggs was not affected by concentrations of Cr ranging from 11 to 266 microg Cr l(-1). Data suggest that the instantaneous nature of fertilization likely limits the potential effects of Cr on fertilization success. As a result, the current AWQC of 11 mug Cr l(-1) is most likely protective of Chinook salmon fertilization. PMID:16453067

  5. Residence times and diel passage distributions of radio-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in a gatewell and fish collection channel of a Columbia River Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, J.W.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The amount of time radio-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead O. mykiss spent within a gatewell and the juvenile collection channel at McNary Dam, Columbia River, USA, was measured to determine the diel passage behavior and residence times within these portions of the juvenile bypass system. The median gatewell residence times were 8.9 h for juvenile chinook salmon and 3.2 h for steelhead. Juvenile spring chinook salmon spent 83% of their time in the 18-m-deep gatewell at depths of 9 m or less, and juvenile steelhead spent 96% of their time in the upper 11 m. Fish released during midday and those released in the evening generally exited the gatewell in the evening, indicating that fish entering the gatewell during daylight will have prolonged residence times. Median collection-channel residence times of juvenile chinook salmon were much shorter (2.3 min) than those of steelhead (28.0 min), most likely because of the greater size of the steelhead and the high water velocities within the channel (2.1 m/s). This and other studies indicate most juvenile salmonids enter gatewells of several Columbia and Snake river dams in the evening and pass into the collection channels quickly. However, this is not consistent with the natural in-river migration patterns of these species and represents a delay in dam passage.

  6. The potential for chromium to affect the fertilization process of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, A.M.; Harper, D.D.; Cleveland, L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Little, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation in south central Washington was claimed by the federal government as a site for the production of plutonium. During the course of production and operation of the facilities at Hanford, radionuclides and chromium were discharged directly into the river and also contaminated the groundwater. This study was designed to assess the effects of chromium (Cr) on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) fertilization under exposure conditions similar to those of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Chinook salmon gametes were exposed to aqueous Cr concentrations ranging from 0 to 266 ??g Cr l-1. The current ambient water-quality criteria (AWQC) established for the protection of aquatic life (United States Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA] 1986) is 11 ??g Cr l-1. Cr has been measured in pore water from bottom sediments of the Columbia River at concentrations >600 ??g Cr l-1. Under exposure conditions designed to closely mimic events that occur in the river, the fertilization of Chinook salmon eggs was not affected by concentrations of Cr ranging from 11 to 266 ??g Cr l-1. Data suggest that the instantaneous nature of fertilization likely limits the potential effects of Cr on fertilization success. As a result, the current AWQC of 11 ??g Cr l-1 is most likely protective of Chinook salmon fertilization. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  7. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  8. Differences in neurobehavioral responses of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to copper and cobalt: Behavioral avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.A.; Marr, J.C.A.; Lipton, J.; Cacela, D.; Bergman, H.L.

    1999-09-01

    Behavioral avoidance of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and a Cu and Co mixture in soft water differed greatly between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Chinook salmon avoided at least 0.7 {micro}g Cu/L, 24 {micro}g Co/L, and the mixture of 1.0 {micro}g Cu/L and 0.9 {micro}g Co/L, whereas rainbow trout avoided at least 1.6 {micro}g Cu/L, 180 {micro}g Co/L, and the mixture of 2.6 {micro}g Cu/L and 2.4 {micro}g Co/L. Chinook salmon were also more sensitive to the toxic effects of Cu in that they failed to avoid {ge}44 {micro}g Cu/L, whereas rainbow trout failed to avoid {ge}180 {micro}g Cu/L. Furthermore, following acclimation to 2 {micro}g Cu/L, rainbow trout avoided 4 {micro}g Cu/L and preferred clean water, but chinook salmon failed to avoid any Cu concentrations and did not prefer clean water. The failure to avoid high concentrations of metals by both species suggests that the sensory mechanism responsible for avoidance responses was impaired. Exposure to Cu concentrations that were not avoided could result in lethality from prolonged Cu exposure or in impairment of sensory-dependent behaviors that are essential for survival and reproduction.

  9. Conceptual Spawning Habitat Model to Aid in ESA Recovery Plans for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a spawning habitat model that can be used to determine the physical habitat factors that are necessary to define the production potential for fall chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Columbia River's Hanford Reach and Snake River. This project addresses RPA 155 in the NMFS 2000 Biological Opinion: Action 155: BPA, working with BOR, the Corps, EPA, and USGS, shall develop a program to: (1) Identify mainstem habitat sampling reaches, survey conditions, describe cause-and-effect relationships, and identify research needs; (2) Develop improvement plans for all mainstem reaches; and (3) Initiate improvements in three mainstem reaches. During FY 2003 we continued to collect and analyze information on fall chinook salmon spawning habitat characteristics in the Hanford Reach that will be used to address RPA 155, i.e., items 1-3 above. For example, in FY 2003: (1) We continued to survey spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach and develop a 2-dimensional hydraulic and habitat model that will be capable of predicting suitability of fall chinook salmon habitat in the Hanford Reach; (2) Monitor how hydro operations altered the physical and chemical characteristics of the river and the hyporheic zone within fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach; (3) Published a paper on the impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon (Dauble et al. 2003). This paper was made possible with data collected on this project; (4) Continued to analyze data collected in previous years that will ultimately be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships and identify research needs that will assist managers in the improvement of fall chinook habitat quality in main-stem reaches. During FY 2004 we plan to: (1) Complete preliminary reporting and submit papers based on the results of the project through FY 2004. Although we have proposed additional analysis of data be

  10. Survival, development, and growth of fall Chinook salmon embryos, alevin, and fry exposed to variable thermal and dissolved oxygen regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Hand, Kristine D.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Chandler, James A.; Groves, Philip

    2006-11-15

    Some fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) initiate spawning in the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam at temperatures that exceed 13?C and at intergravel dissolved oxygen concentrations that are less than 8 mg O2/L. Although water temperature declines and dissolved oxygen increases soon after spawning, these temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet the water quality standards established by the states of Oregon and Idaho for salmonid spawning. Our objective was to determine if temperatures from 13 to 17 C and dissolved oxygen levels from 4 to greater than 8 mg O2/L during the first 40 days of incubation followed by declining temperature and rising dissolved oxygen affected survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon embryos, alevins, and fry. During the first 40 days of incubation, temperatures were adjusted downward approximately 0.2 C/day and oxygen was increased in increments of 2 mg O2/L to mimic the thermal and oxygen regime of the Snake River where these fish spawn. At 40 days post-fertilization, embryos were moved to a common exposure regime that followed the thermal and dissolved oxygen profile of the Snake River through emergence. Mortality of fall Chinook salmon embryos increased markedly at initial incubation temperatures equal to or greater than 17?C, and a rapid decline in survival occurred between 16.5 C and 17 C, with no significant difference in survival at temperatures less than or equal to 16.5 C. Initial dissolved oxygen levels as low as 4 mg O2/L over a range of initial temperatures from 15 to 16.5 C did not affect embryo survival to emergence. There were no significant differences across the range of initial temperature exposures for alevin and fry size at hatch and emergence. The number of days from fertilization to eyed egg, hatch, and emergence was highly related to temperature and dissolved oxygen; it took from 6 to 10 days longer to reach hatch at 4 mg O2/L than at saturation and up to

  11. Central administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone alters downstream movement in an artificial stream in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Clements, Shaun; Schreck, Carl B

    2004-05-15

    We evaluated the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on spatial distribution and downstream movement in an artificial stream in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during the period when the fish were able to tolerate seawater. An intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of CRH (500 ng) to hatchery fish significantly increased the proportion of fish that were distributed downstream of a mid-stream release site. A second group of hatchery fish were given ICV injections of saline (control) or CRH (500 ng) and released near the top of the stream. The time taken to enter a trap at the lower end of the stream was recorded. In all cases the groups given CRH had a higher proportion of fish that did not enter the trap within 60 min of release. However, in those fish that did enter the trap, treatment with CRH increased the speed of downstream movement to this point relative to control fish. Wild sub-yearling Chinook salmon were captured during their downstream migration to the estuary and given ICV injections of saline or CRH (500 ng) either 2, 3, or 7 days after transport from the river. As with hatchery fish, a significantly higher proportion of wild fish that were administered CRH did not enter the trap at the lower end of the stream. The mean time of passage for control fish decreased on each successive day (day 2 > day 3 > day 7). In contrast, the mean passage time of the wild fish that were given CRH was relatively constant through time, and was only significantly faster than control fish on day 2. The current study provides evidence that CRH alters the downstream movement of juvenile Chinook in a simulated stream environment, and produces behavioral effects similar to those of juvenile salmonids that are stressed during their downstream migration. PMID:15094330

  12. Self-sustaining populations, population sinks or aggregates of strays: chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Wood River system, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jocelyn E; Hilborn, Ray; Quinn, Thomas P; Hauser, Lorenz

    2011-12-01

    Small populations can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary aspects of species distributions over space and time. In the Wood River system in Alaska, USA, small aggregates of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) spawn in an area dominated by sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Our objective was to determine whether these Chinook and chum salmon are reproductively isolated, self-sustaining populations, population sinks that produce returning adults but receive immigration, or strays from other systems that do not produce returning adults. DNA samples collected from adult chum salmon from 16 streams and Chinook salmon from four streams in the Wood River system over 3 years were compared to samples from large populations in the nearby Nushagak River system, a likely source of strays. For both species, microsatellite markers indicated no significant genetic differentiation between the two systems. Simulations of microsatellite data in a large source and a smaller sink population suggested that considerable immigration would be required to counteract the diverging effects of genetic drift and produce genetic distances as small as those observed, considering the small census sizes of the two species in the Wood River system. Thus, the Wood River system likely receives substantial immigration from neighbouring watersheds, such as the Nushagak River system, which supports highly productive runs. Although no data on population productivity in the Wood River system exist, our results suggest source-sink dynamics for the two species, a finding relevant to other systems where salmonid population sizes are limited by habitat factors. PMID:22026559

  13. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Hodge, Jacob M.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    2005-06-01

    This report provides information on PIT-tagging of wild Chinook salmon parr in Idaho in 2003 and the subsequent monitoring of these fish and similarly tagged fish from Oregon. We report estimated parr-to-smolt survival and arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam, as well as interrogation data collected at several other sites throughout the Snake and Columbia River system. This research continues studies that began under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding in 1991. Results from previous study years were reported by Achord et al. (1994; 1995a,b; 1996a; 1997; 1998; 2000; 2001a,b; 2002, 2003, 2004). Goals of this ongoing study are: (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence migration patterns. (4) Characterize the migration behavior and estimate survival of different wild juvenile fish stocks as they emigrate from their natal rearing areas. This study provides critical information for recovery planning, and ultimately recovery for these ESA-listed wild fish stocks. In 2003-2004, we also continued to measure water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, water depth, and pH at five monitoring stations in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho for the Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program. These data, along with parr/smolt migration, survival, and timing data, will help to discern patterns or characteristic relationships between fish movement/survival and environmental factors.

  14. Interactive effects of water diversion and climate change for juvenile chinook salmon in the lemhi river basin (USA.).

    PubMed

    Walters, Annika W; Bartz, Krista K; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    The combined effects of water diversion and climate change are a major conservation challenge for freshwater ecosystems. In the Lemhi Basin, Idaho (U.S.A.), water diversion causes changes in streamflow, and climate change will further affect streamflow and temperature. Shifts in streamflow and temperature regimes can affect juvenile salmon growth, movement, and survival. We examined the potential effects of water diversion and climate change on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). To examine the effects for juvenile survival, we created a model relating 19 years of juvenile survival data to streamflow and temperature and found spring streamflow and summer temperature were good predictors of juvenile survival. We used these models to project juvenile survival for 15 diversion and climate-change scenarios. Projected survival was 42-58% lower when streamflows were diverted than when streamflows were undiverted. For diverted streamflows, 2040 climate-change scenarios (ECHO-G and CGCM3.1 T47) resulted in an additional 11-39% decrease in survival. We also created models relating habitat carrying capacity to streamflow and made projections for diversion and climate-change scenarios. Habitat carrying capacity estimated for diverted streamflows was 17-58% lower than for undiverted streamflows. Climate-change scenarios resulted in additional decreases in carrying capacity for the dry (ECHO-G) climate model. Our results indicate climate change will likely pose an additional stressor that should be considered when evaluating the effects of anthropogenic actions on salmon population status. Thus, this type of analysis will be especially important for evaluating effects of specific actions on a particular species. Efectos Interactivos de la Desviación del Agua y el Cambio Climático en Individuos Juveniles de Salmón Chinook en la Cuenca del Río Lemhi (E.U.A.). PMID:24299084

  15. Echolocation signals of free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) and modeling of foraging for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Ford, John K B; Horne, John K; Allman, Kelly A Newman

    2004-02-01

    Fish-eating "resident"-type killer whales (Orcinus orca) that frequent the coastal waters off northeastern Vancouver Island, Canada have a strong preference for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The whales in this region often forage along steep cliffs that extend into the water, echolocating their prey. Echolocation signals of resident killer whales were measured with a four-hydrophone symmetrical star array and the signals were simultaneously digitized at a sample rate of 500 kHz using a lunch-box PC. A portable VCR recorded the images from an underwater camera located adjacent to the array center. Only signals emanating from close to the beam axis (1185 total) were chosen for a detailed analysis. Killer whales project very broadband echolocation signals (Q equal 0.9 to 1.4) that tend to have bimodal frequency structure. Ninety-seven percent of the signals had center frequencies between 45 and 80 kHz with bandwidths between 35 and 50 kHz. The peak-to-peak source level of the echolocation signals decreased as a function of the one-way transmission loss to the array. Source levels varied between 195 and 224 dB re: 1 microPa. Using a model of target strength for chinook salmon, the echo levels from the echolocation signals are estimated for different horizontal ranges between a whale and a salmon. At a horizontal range of 100 m, the echo level should exceed an Orcinus hearing threshold at 50 kHz by over 29 dB and should be greater than sea state 4 noise by at least 9 dB. In moderately heavy rain conditions, the detection range will be reduced substantially and the echo level at a horizontal range of 40 m would be close to the level of the rain noise. PMID:15000201

  16. Echolocation signals of free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) and modeling of foraging for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Ford, John K. B.; Horne, John K.; Allman, Kelly A. Newman

    2004-02-01

    Fish-eating ``resident''-type killer whales (Orcinus orca) that frequent the coastal waters off northeastern Vancouver Island, Canada have a strong preference for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The whales in this region often forage along steep cliffs that extend into the water, echolocating their prey. Echolocation signals of resident killer whales were measured with a four-hydrophone symmetrical star array and the signals were simultaneously digitized at a sample rate of 500 kHz using a lunch-box PC. A portable VCR recorded the images from an underwater camera located adjacent to the array center. Only signals emanating from close to the beam axis (1185 total) were chosen for a detailed analysis. Killer whales project very broadband echolocation signals (Q equal 0.9 to 1.4) that tend to have bimodal frequency structure. Ninety-seven percent of the signals had center frequencies between 45 and 80 kHz with bandwidths between 35 and 50 kHz. The peak-to-peak source level of the echolocation signals decreased as a function of the one-way transmission loss to the array. Source levels varied between 195 and 224 dB re:1 μPa. Using a model of target strength for chinook salmon, the echo levels from the echolocation signals are estimated for different horizontal ranges between a whale and a salmon. At a horizontal range of 100 m, the echo level should exceed an Orcinus hearing threshold at 50 kHz by over 29 dB and should be greater than sea state 4 noise by at least 9 dB. In moderately heavy rain conditions, the detection range will be reduced substantially and the echo level at a horizontal range of 40 m would be close to the level of the rain noise.

  17. Fine-scale natal homing and localized movement as shaped by sex and spawning habitat in chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neville, Helen; Isaak, Daniel; Dunham, J.B.; Thurow, Russel; Rieman, B.

    2006-01-01

    Natal homing is a hallmark of the life history of salmonid fishes, but the spatial scale of homing within local, naturally reproducing salmon populations is still poorly understood. Accurate homing (paired with restricted movement) should lead to the existence of fine-scale genetic structuring due to the spatial clustering of related individuals on spawning grounds. Thus, we explored the spatial resolution of natal homing using genetic associations among individual Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an interconnected stream network. We also investigated the relationship between genetic patterns and two factors hypothesized to influence natal homing and localized movements at finer scales in this species, localized patterns in the distribution of spawning gravels and sex. Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed that spawning locations in both sub-basins of our study site were spatially clumped, but the upper sub-basin generally had a larger spatial extent and continuity of redd locations than the lower sub-basin, where the distribution of redds and associated habitat conditions were more patchy. Male genotypes were not autocorrelated at any spatial scale in either sub-basin. Female genotypes showed significant spatial autocorrelation and genetic patterns for females varied in the direction predicted between the two sub-basins, with much stronger autocorrelation in the sub-basin with less continuity in spawning gravels. The patterns observed here support predictions about differential constraints and breeding tactics between the two sexes and the potential for fine-scale habitat structure to influence the precision of natal homing and localized movements of individual Chinook salmon on their breeding grounds.

  18. Comparison of 180-degree and 90-degree needle rotation to reduce wound size in PIT-injected juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, Amanda J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Karls, Rhonda K.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-04-30

    Animal telemetry, which requires the implantation of passive transponders or active transmitters, is used to monitor and assess fish stock and conservation to gain an understanding of fish movement and behavior. As new telemetry technologies become available, studies of their effects on species of interest are imperative as is development of implantation techniques. In this study, we investigated the effects of bevel rotation (0-, 90-, 180-degree axis rotation) on wound extent, tag loss, and wound healing rates in juvenile Chinook salmon injected with an 8-gauge needle, which is required for implantation of the novel injectable Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry Systems (JSATS) acoustic transmitter or large passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Although the injection sites were not closed after injection (e.g., with sutures or glue), there were no mortalities, dropped tags, or indications of fungus, ulceration, and/or redness around the wound. On Day 0 and post-implantation Day 7, the 90-degree bevel rotation produced smaller wound extent than the 180-degree bevel rotation. No axis rotation (0-degrees) resulted in the PIT tag frequently misleading or falling out upon injection. The results of this study indicated the 90-degree bevel rotation was the more efficient technique, produced less wound extent. Given the wound extent compared to size of fish, we recommend researchers should consider a 90-degree rotation over the 180-degree rotation in telemetry studies. Highlights •Three degrees of needle rotation were examined for effects in Chinook salmon. •Mortality, tag loss, wound extent, healing, and infection indicators were measured. •There were no mortalities, tag loss, or indications of infection. •The 90-degree needle rotation through Day 7 produced the smallest wound extent.

  19. Estimating Adult Chinook Salmon Exposure to Dissolved Gas Supersaturation Downstream of Hydroelectric Dams Using Telemetry and Hydrodynamic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Peery, Christopher A.; Bennett, David H.; bjornn, Theodore C.; Caudill, Christopher C.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-11-01

    Gas bubble disease (GBD) has been recognized for years as a potential problem for fishes in the Columbia River basin. GBD results from exposure to gas supersaturated water created by discharge over dam spillways. Spill typically creates a downstream plume of water with high total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) that may be positioned along either shore or mid-channel, depending on dam operations. We obtained spatial data on fish migration paths and migration depths for 228 adult spring and summer Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, during 2000. Migration paths were compared to output from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and dissolved gas model to estimate the potential for GBD expression and to test for behavioral avoidance of the high TDGS plume in unrestrained fish migrating under field conditions. Consistent with our previous estimates using single-location estimates of TDGS, we observed salmon swam sufficiently deep in the water column to receive complete hydrostatic compensation 95.9% of time spent in the Bonneville tailrace and 88.1% of the time in the Ice Harbor tailrace. The majority of depth uncompensated exposure occurred at TDGS levels > 115%. Adult spring and summer Chinook salmon tended to migrate near the shoreline. Adults moved into the high dissolved gas plume as often as they moved out of it downstream of Bonneville Dam, providing no evidence that adults moved laterally to avoid areas with elevated dissolved gas levels. The strong influence of dam operations on the position of the high-TDGS plume and shoreline-orientation behaviors of adults suggest that exposure of adult salmonids to high-TDGS conditions may be minimized using operational conditions that direct the plume mid-channel, particularly during periods of high discharge and spill. More generally, our approach illustrates the potential for combined field and modeling efforts to estimate the fine-scale environmental conditions encountered by fishes in natural and regulated rivers.

  20. Prevalence and analysis of Renibacterium salmoninarum infection among juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in North Puget Sound.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Linda D; Durkin, Colleen; Nance, Shelly L; Rice, Casimir A

    2006-08-30

    Renibacterium salmoninarum causes bacterial kidney disease (BKD), a chronic and sometimes fatal disease of salmon and trout that could lower fitness in populations with high prevalences of infection. Prevalence of R. salmoninarum infection among juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha inhabiting neritic marine habitats in North Puget Sound, Washington, USA, was assessed in 2002 and 2003. Fish were collected by monthly surface trawl at 32 sites within 4 bays, and kidney infections were detected by a quantitative fluorescent antibody technique (qFAT). The sensitivity of the qFAT was within an order of magnitude of the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) sensitivity. Prevalence of infection was classified by fish origin (marked/hatchery vs. unmarked/likely natural spawn), month of capture, capture location and stock origin. The highest percentages of infected fish (63.5 to 63.8%) and the greatest infection severity were observed for fish collected in Bellingham Bay. The lowest percentages were found in Skagit Bay (11.4 to 13.5%); however, there was no difference in prevalence between marked and unmarked fish among the capture locations. The optimal logistic regression model of infection probabilities identified the capture location of Bellingham Bay as the strongest effect, and analysis of coded wire tagged (CWT) fish revealed that prevalence of infection was associated with the capture location and not with the originating stock. These results suggest that infections can occur during the early marine life stages of Chinook salmon that may be due to common reservoirs of infection or horizontal transmission among fish stocks. PMID:17058599

  1. Contaminant exposure and associated biological effects in juvenile chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from urban and nonurban estuaries of puget sound. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Casillas, E.; Arkoosh, M.R.; Hom, T.; Misitano, D.A.

    1993-04-01

    The report presents and interprets the results of chemical, biochemical, and biological studies on juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) outmigrating from urban and nonurban estuaries of Puget Sound, Washington. These studies were conducted between 1989 and 1991. The objective of these studies was to determine the degree of chemical exposure to juvenile chinook salmon as they migrate through urban-associated compared to nonurban estuaries and to evaluate the effects of chemical contaminant exposure on these animals. The chemical indicators of contaminant exposure include levels of hepatic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and biliary levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), which are semiquantitative measures of exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs). Stomach contents of juvenile salmon were also analyzed for selected AHs and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) to assess the importance of diet as a possible route of uptake of xenobiotics from polluted estuaries.

  2. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, October 20, 1999 to June 15, 2000 : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.

    2002-12-01

    This report details the smolt performance of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead from the Imnaha River to the Snake River and Columbia River dams during migration year 2000. Flow conditions in the Imnaha River and Snake River were appreciably lower during May and June in 2000, compared to historic levels at gauging stations, but flow conditions in the Imnaha and Snake River were above average during April. Overall, water conditions for the entire Columbia River were characterized by the Fish Passage Center as below normal levels. Spill occurred continuously at Lower Granite Dam (LGR), Little Goose Dam (LGO), and Lower Monumental Dam (LMO) from April 5, April 10, and April 4, respectively, to June 20, and encompassed the periods of migration of Imnaha River juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead, with a few exceptions. Outflow in the tailraces of LGR, LGO, and LMO decreased in May and June while temperatures increased. Chinook salmon and steelhead were captured using rotary screw traps at river kilometer (rkm) 74 and 7 during the fall from October 20 to November 24, 1999, and during the spring period from February 26 to June 15, 2000, at rkm 7. Spring trapping information was reported weekly to the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program. A portion of these fish were tagged weekly with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and were detected migrating past interrogation sites at Snake River and Columbia River dams. Survival of PIT tagged fish was estimated with the Survival Using Proportional Hazards model (SURPH model). Estimated survival of fall tagged natural chinook (with {+-} 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis) from the upper Imnaha (rkm 74) to LGR was 29.6% ({+-} 2.8 ). Natural chinook salmon tagged in the fall in the lower Imnaha River at rkm 7, which over wintered in the Snake River, had an estimated survival of 36.8% ({+-} 2.9%) to LGR. Spring tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower site had an estimated survival of 84

  3. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.

    1986-12-01

    Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and

  4. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William R.; Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.

    1987-12-01

    The 1987 field season was the third and final year fox the rearing and release of juvenile upriver bright chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at off-station sites. Disease problems in the hatchery where fish for the study were spawned and hatched resulted in the movement of trials to Drano Lake, a backwater located near river km 261, 105 km downstream of Rock Creek and 205 km downstream of Social Security Pond, the two off-station rearing sites where studies were completed in 1984--86. Fish in fed treatments were successfully reared in pens during March, April, and May and were released in the third week of May at a mean size of about 4,5 g (l00/lb). Growth and physiological development of fish reared In Drano Lake were only slightly faster than observed in hatchery controls over much of the rearing period. However, during the final two weeks of rearing, ATPase activities and growth of the fish reared in pens increased, and at release the fed treatments tested in Drano Lake were significantly larger, and physiological development was significantly ahead of hatchery controls. The health and condition of fed fish in Drano Lake remained good throughout the study and survival was high (>99%) in all treatments; no pathogens were detected in any of the groups. However, infectious hematopoietic necrosis was diagnosed among upriver brights being reared in the hatchery; the latter group was destroyed on May 21. Unfed fish grew poorly throughout the rearing period with little or no detectable growth in the two higher density treatments and mean growth of less than 0.3 g in the lower density. Survival of fish reared at the higher density was poor, while survival in the two lower density treatments was much better. Densities tested in pen rearing trials have been much lower than the maximum recommended in terms of available rearing spare. However, during periods of limited water exchange the highest density tested so fax (4.13 kg/ma) would be above the recommended

  5. Seasonal use of shallow water habitat in the Lower Snake River reservoirs by juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is preparing a long term management plan for sediments that affect the authorized project purposes of the Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor reservoirs (hereafter, the lower Snake River reservoirs), and the area from the mouth of the Snake River to Ice Harbor Dam. We conducted a study from spring 2010 through winter 2011 to describe the habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon within a selected group of shallow water habitat complexes (< 6 m deep) in the lower Snake River reservoirs to help inform the long-term plan. Natural fry and parr were present within all four shallow water habitat complexes that we studied from early spring through early summer, and parr ( = 40,345 ± 18,800 [error bound]) were more abundant than fry ( = 24,615 ± 5,701). Water < 2 m deep was highly used for rearing by natural fall Chinook salmon subyearlings (fry and parr combined; hereafter natural subyearlings) based on duration of use and relative group abundances during spring and summer, whereas the 2–6 m depth interval was more highly used by migratory hatchery fall Chinook salmon subyearlings and spring, summer, and fall Chinook salmon yearlings. Overall mean spring-summer apparent density of natural subyearlings was 15.5 times higher within the < 2 m depth interval than within the 2–6 m depth interval. Density of natural subyearlings also decreased as the distance a given shallow water habitat complex was located from the riverine spawning areas increased. Reservoir-type juveniles (or fish likely destined to become reservoir-type juveniles) were present in the lower Snake River reservoirs from fall 2010 through winter 2011; however, use of shallow water habitat by reservoir-type juveniles was limited during our study. We only collected 38 reservoir-type juveniles in shallow water habitat sites in beach and lampara seines during the fall. Radiotelemetry data revealed that though many tagged fish passed shallow water

  6. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  7. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

  8. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Brooks, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 a total of 364 adult fall chinook and 472 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 290 fall chinook and 403 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 214. The peak redd count for chum was 776. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 15 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 6 December. There were estimated to be a total of 1,881 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2002. The study area's 2002 chum population was estimated to be 4,232 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2002 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on February 3 2003 and ended 7 May 2003, with peak emergence occurring 20 April. 2002 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 27 January and continued through 6 April 2003. Peak chum emergence took place 1 March. A total of 10,925 juvenile chinook and 1,577 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 24 January and 21 July 2003 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2003 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2002 and 2003 the majority of fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock of fall chinook. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis

  9. Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1986-12-01

    FY 1986 was the eighth year of a study to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River. Tagging of hatchery fall chinook was completed in FY81. Sampling of sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and Columbia River hatcheries and adjacent streams occurred in 1986 as planned. Catches and returns of one brood year tagged for this study (1981) could have occurred in 1986. Returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities as of December 1, 1986 are 108,154. This return is already the fourth largest of the past seven years. Several facilities (Cowlitz, Grays River, and Washougal) are having the greatest returns since inception of the study. However, Spring Creek and Lewis River hatcheries are having the smallest return. Estimated Catches of coded wire tagged salmonids are available through 1984 for all fisheries except Alaska in 1981 and Washington in 1984. Catch proportions by fishery for the 1978 brood are .01, .39, .34, .07, 0, and .19 for the Alaska, Canada, Washington, Oregon, California, and Columbia River fisheries respectively. Catch proportions for the 1979 brood are similar to those for the 1978 brood (.03, .33, .37, .05, .01, and . 21) for the same fisheries respectively. The proportion of recoveries for the four age groups of 1978-brood fish caught are .07, .69, .23, .01 for the two-through five-year-old chinook respectively.

  10. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzycki, James R.; Wilson, Wayne H.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest populations of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the entire Columbia River basin. Spring chinook salmon in this basin are therefore, used as an important index stock to measure the effects of future management actions on other salmon stocks in the Columbia basin. To meet the data requirements as an index stock, we estimated annual spawner escapement, age-structure, and smolt-to-adult survival. This information will allow us to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. To estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates, 1,852 chinook smolts were tagged with PIT tags from 3 March to 5 May, 2000. Length of captured smolts varied, ranging from 80 to 147 mm fork length (mean = 113 mm). These fish will be monitored for PIT tags as returning adults at dams and during future spawning ground surveys. During spawning ground surveys, a total of 351.3 km of stream were surveyed resulting in the observation of 478 redds. When expanded, we estimated total number of redds at 481 and total number of spawners at 1,583 fish in the John Day River basin. We estimated that 13% of the redds were in the mainstem John Day, 27% in the Middle Fork, 34% in the North Fork, and 26% were in the Granite Creek basin. Sampled carcasses had a sex ratio comprised of 53% females and 47% males with an age structure comprised of 0.5% age-2, 6.3% age-3, 88.7% age-4, and 4.5% age-5 fish. Five of the 405 carcasses examined had fin clips suggesting they were of hatchery origin. The 1999 index redd count total for the North Fork, Mainstem, and Granite Creek was lower than the 1999 average (535) but well within the range of annual redd counts during this period. The index redd count for the Middle Fork was higher than the 1990's average (92) but considerably lower than the average from 1978-1985 (401). Although quite variable over the past 40 years, the number of redds in the John Day River basin during 1999 was well within the

  11. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Brooks, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 a total of 253 adult fall chinook and 113 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 221 fall chinook and 109 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 190. The peak redd count for chum was 262. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 24 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 24 November. There were estimated to be a total of 1,533 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2003. The study area's 2003 chum population was estimated to be 688 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2003 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on January 6, 2004 and ended 28 April 2004, with peak emergence occurring 13 April. 2003 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 22 February and continued through 15 April 2004. Peak chum emergence took place 25 March. A total of 25,433 juvenile chinook and 4,864 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 20 January and 28 June 2004 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2004 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2003 all of the fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis, juvenile emergence timing

  12. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Donald; Gee, Sally

    2009-03-31

    The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program is designed to rapidly increase numbers of Chinook salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation in Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and upper Grande Ronde River (GR). Natural parr are captured and reared to adulthood in captivity, spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Presmolt rearing was initially conducted at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LFH) but parr collected in 2003 and later were reared at Wallowa Fish Hatchery (WFH). Post-smolt rearing is conducted at Bonneville Fish Hatchery (BOH - freshwater) and at Manchester Research Station (MRS - saltwater). The CC and LR programs are being terminated, as these populations have achieved the goal of a consistent return of 150 naturally spawning adults, so the 2005 brood year was the last brood year collected for theses populations. The Grande Ronde River program continued with 300 fish collected each year. Currently, we are attempting to collect 150 natural parr and incorporate 150 parr collected as eggs from females with low ELISA levels from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Hatchery Program. This is part of a comparison of two methods of obtaining fish for a captive broodstock program: natural fish vs. those spawned in captivity. In August 2007, we collected 152 parr (BY 2006) from the upper Grande Ronde River and also have 155 Grande Ronde River parr (BY 2006) that were hatched from eyed eggs at LFH. During 2008, we were unable to collect natural parr from the upper Grande Ronde River. Therefore, we obtained 300 fish from low ELISA females from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Program. In October 2008 we obtained 170 eyed eggs from the upper Grande Ronde river Conventional

  13. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  14. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  15. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    2002-09-17

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations. (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (9

  16. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    1999-12-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6

  17. A Two-Stage Information-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Landscape-Level Attributes and Maximum Recruitment of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    2000-11-01

    Many anadromous salmonid stocks in the Pacific Northwest are at their lowest recorded levels, which has raised questions regarding their long-term persistence under current conditions. There are a number of factors, such as freshwater spawning and rearing habitat, that could potentially influence their numbers. Therefore, we used the latest advances in information-theoretic methods in a two-stage modeling process to investigate relationships between landscape-level habitat attributes and maximum recruitment of 25 index stocks of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin. Our first-stage model selection results indicated that the Ricker-type, stock recruitment model with a constant Ricker a (i.e., recruits-per-spawner at low numbers of fish) across stocks was the only plausible one given these data, which contrasted with previous unpublished findings. Our second-stage results revealed that maximum recruitment of chinook salmon had a strongly negative relationship with percentage of surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and private moderate-high impact managed forest. That is, our model predicted that average maximum recruitment of chinook salmon would decrease by at least 247 fish for every increase of 33% in surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and privately managed forest. Conversely, mean annual air temperature had a positive relationship with salmon maximum recruitment, with an average increase of at least 179 fish for every increase in 2 C mean annual air temperature.

  18. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Axel, Gordon A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2002-07-01

    This report details the 2001 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these data in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  19. Biological Manipulation of Migration Rate: The Use of Advanced Photoperiod to Accelerate Smoltification in Yearling Chinook Salmon, Annual Report 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.; Muir, William D.; Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1991-01-01

    Research was conducted to assess the feasibility of biologically manipulating physiological development and migratory behavior of yearling spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. At Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, treatment groups were exposed to a variety of advanced photoperiod cycles preceding release to accelerate smolt development. Physiological development and migratory performance were described for all groups. The treatments included a 14-week exposure to a 3-month advanced photoperiod cycle, an 18-week exposure to a 3-month advanced photoperiod cycle, and an 18-week exposure to a 4-month advanced photoperiod cycle. Two additional groups, an 18-week exposure to a 3-month advanced photoperiod and a control equivalent, were reared at an elevated water temperature (11{degrees}C) for 2 weeks prior to release. Results indicated that the treated fish which were the most physiologically advanced at release were detected in the highest proportion at collector dams and also migrated fastest downstream. 26 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Using otolith chemical and structural analysis to investigate reservoir habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Bourret, S L; Kennedy, B P; Caudill, C C; Chittaro, P M

    2014-11-01

    Isotopic composition of (87) Sr:(86) Sr and natural elemental tracers (Sr, Ba, Mg, Mn and Ca) were quantified from otoliths in juvenile and adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to assess the ability of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to reconstruct juvenile O. tshawytscha rearing habitat and growth. Daily increments were measured to assess relative growth between natal rearing habitats. Otolith microchemistry was able to resolve juvenile habitat use between reservoir and natal tributary rearing habitats (within headwater basins), but not among catchments. Results suggest that 90% (n = 18) of sampled non-hatchery adults returning to the Middle Fork Willamette River were reared in a reservoir and 10% (n = 2) in natal tributary habitat upstream from the reservoir. Juveniles collected in reservoirs had higher growth rates than juveniles reared in natal streams. The results demonstrate the utility of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to distinguish among rearing habitats, including habitats in highly altered systems. PMID:25229130

  1. Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare dam passage survival, at two spill treatment levels, of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at John Day Dam during spring 2010. The two treatments were 30% and 40% spill out of total project discharge. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal 0.015. The study also estimated forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. However, by agreement among the stakeholders, this study was not an official BiOp compliance test because the long-term passage measures at John Day Dam have yet to be finalized and another year of spill-treatment testing was desired.

  2. Mortality and kidney histopathology of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to virulent and attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Farrell, Caroline L.; Elliott, Diane G.; Landolt, Marsha L.

    2001-01-01

    An isolate of Renibacterium salmoninarum (strain MT 239) exhibiting reduced virulence in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was tested for its ability to cause bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a salmonid species more susceptible to BKD. Juvenile chinook salmon were exposed to either 33209, the American Type Culture Collection type strain of R. salmoninarum, or to MT 239, by an intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(3) or 1 x 10(6) bacteria fish(-1), or by a 24 h immersion in 1 x 10(5) or 1 x 10(7) bacteria ml(-1). For 22 wk fish were held in 12 degrees C water and monitored for mortality. Fish were sampled periodically for histological examination of kidney tissues. In contrast to fish exposed to the high dose of strain 33209 by either injection or immersion, none of the fish exposed to strain MT 239 by either route exhibited gross clinical signs or histopathological changes indicative of BKD. However, the MT 239 strain was detected by the direct fluorescent antibody technique in 4 fish that died up to 11 wk after the injection challenge and in 5 fish that died up to 20 wk after the immersion challenge. Viable MT 239 was isolated in culture from 3 fish that died up to 13 wk after the immersion challenge. Total mortality in groups injected with the high dose of strain MT 239 (12%) was also significantly lower (p < 0.05) than mortality in groups injected with strain 33209 (73 %). These data indicate that the attenuated virulence observed with MT 239 in rainbow trout also occurs in a salmonid species highly susceptible to BKD. The reasons for the attenuated virulence of MT 239 were not determined but may be related to the reduced levels of the putative virulence protein p57 associated with this strain.

  3. Mortality and kidney histopathology of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to virulent and attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Farrell, C. L.; Elliott, D.G.; Landolt, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    An isolate of Renibacterium salmoninarum (strain MT 239) exhibiting reduced virulence in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was tested for its ability to cause bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a salmonid species more susceptible to BKD. Juvenile chinook salmon were exposed to either 33209, the American Type Culture Collection type strain of R. salmoninarum, or to MT 239, by an intraperitoneal injection of 1 ?? 103 or 1 ?? 106 bacteria fish-1, or by a 24 h immersion in 1 ?? 105 or 1 ?? 107 bacteria ml-1. For 22 wk fish were held in 12??C water and monitored for mortality. Fish were sampled periodically for histological examination of kidney tissues. In contrast to fish exposed to the high dose of strain 33209 by either injection or immersion, none of the fish exposed to strain MT 239 by either route exhibited gross clinical signs or histopathological changes indicative of BKD. However, the MT 239 strain was detected by the direct fluorescent antibody technique in 4 fish that died up to 11 wk after the injection challenge and in 5 fish that died up to 20 wk after the immersion challenge. Viable MT 239 was isolated in culture from 3 fish that died up to 13 wk after the immersion challenge. Total mortality in groups injected with the high dose of strain MT 239 (12%) was also significantly lower (p < 0.05) than mortality in groups injected with strain 33209 (73%). These data indicate that the attenuated virulence observed with MT 239 in rainbow trout also occurs in a salmonid species highly susceptible to BKD. The reasons for the attenuated virulence of MT 239 were not determined but may be related to the reduced levels of the putative virulence protein p57 associated with this strain.

  4. Downstream movement of fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the lower Snake River reservoirs during winter and early spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank; Steinhorst, R. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a 3-year radiotelemetry study in the lower Snake River to (1) determine whether juvenile fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha pass dams during winter, when bypass systems and structures designed to prevent mortality are not operated; (2) determine whether downstream movement rate varies annually, seasonally, and from reservoir to reservoir; and (3) identify some of the factors that contribute to annual, seasonal, and spatial variation in downstream movement rate. Fall Chinook salmon juveniles moved downstream up to 169 km and at a sufficiently fast rate (7.5 km/d) such that large percentages (up to 93%) of the fish passed one or more dams during the winter. Mean downstream movement rate varied annually (9.2–11.3 km/d), increased from winter (7.5 km/d) to spring (16.4 km/d), and increased (from 6.9 to 16.8 km/d) as fish moved downstream from reservoir to reservoir. Fish condition factor at tagging explained some of the annual variation in downstream movement rate, whereas water particle velocity and temperature explained portions of the seasonal variation. An increase in migrational disposition as fish moved downstream helped to explain the spatial variation. The potential cost of winter movement might be reduced survival due to turbine passage at a time when the bypass systems and spillway passage structures are not operated. Efforts to understand and increase passage survival of winter migrants in large impoundments might help to rehabilitate some imperiled anadromous salmonid populations.

  5. Gamete-associated flavobacteria of the oviparous Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in lakes Michigan and Huron, North America.

    PubMed

    Loch, Thomas P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Flavobacterial diseases, caused by multiple members of the Family Flavobacteriaceae, elicit serious losses in wild and farmed fish around the world. Flavobacteria are known to be transmitted horizontally; however, vertical transmission has been suspected but proven only for one fish-pathogenic flavobacterial species (e.g., Flavobacterium psychrophilum). Herein, we report on the isolation and molecular identification of multiple Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium taxa from the ovarian fluid and eggs of feral Great Lakes Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Identified egg- and ovarian fluid-associated flavobacteria were either well-known flavobacterial fish pathogens (e.g., F. psychrophilum and F. columnare), most similar to emerging fish-associated flavobacteria (e.g., F. spartansii, F. tructae, F. piscis, C. piscium, C. scophthalmum), or were distinct from all other described Chryseobacterium and Flavobacterium spp., as determined by phylogenetic analyses using neighbor-joining, Bayesian, and Maximum Likelihood methodologies. The gamete-associated flavobacteria fell into three groups (e.g., those that were recovered from the ovarian fluid but not eggs; those that were recovered from the ovarian fluid and eggs; and those that were recovered from eggs but not ovarian fluid), a portion of which were recovered from eggs that were surface disinfected with iodophor at the commonly used dose and duration for egg disinfection. Some gamete-associated flavobacteria were also found in renal, splenic, and neurological tissues. Systemic polymicrobial infections comprised of F. psychrophilum and F. columnare were also detected at nearly an 11% prevalence. This study highlights the potential role that sexual products of female Great Lakes Chinook salmon may play in the transmission of fish-associated flavobacteria. PMID:27350613

  6. Additive and non-additive genetic components of the jack male life history in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Forest, Adriana R; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Heath, Daniel D; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2016-08-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, exhibit alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) where males exist in two phenotypes: large "hooknose" males and smaller "jacks" that reach sexual maturity after only 1 year in seawater. The mechanisms that determine "jacking rate"-the rate at which males precociously sexually mature-are known to involve both genetics and differential growth rates, where individuals that become jacks exhibit higher growth earlier in life. The additive genetic components have been studied and it is known that jack sires produce significantly more jack offspring than hooknose sires, and vice versa. The current study was the first to investigate both additive and non-additive genetic components underlying jacking through the use of a full-factorial breeding design using all hooknose sires. The effect of dams and sires descendant from a marker-assisted broodstock program that identified "high performance" and "low performance" lines using growth- and survival-related gene markers was also studied. Finally, the relative growth of jack, hooknose, and female offspring was examined. No significant dam, sire, or interaction effects were observed in this study, and the maternal, additive, and non-additive components underlying jacking were small. Differences in jacking rates in this study were determined by dam performance line, where dams that originated from the low performance line produced significantly more jacks. Jack offspring in this study had a significantly larger body size than both hooknose males and females starting 1 year post-fertilization. This study provides novel information regarding the genetic architecture underlying ARTs in Chinook salmon that could have implications for the aquaculture industry, where jacks are not favoured due to their small body size and poor flesh quality. PMID:27450674

  7. Mortality and kidney histopathology of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to virulent and attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strains.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, C L; Elliott, D G; Landolt, M L

    2000-12-21

    An isolate of Renibacterium salmoninarum (strain MT 239) exhibiting reduced virulence in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was tested for its ability to cause bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a salmonid species more susceptible to BKD. Juvenile chinook salmon were exposed to either 33209, the American Type Culture Collection type strain of R. salmoninarum, or to MT 239, by an intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(3) or 1 x 10(6) bacteria fish(-1), or by a 24 h immersion in 1 x 10(5) or 1 x 10(7) bacteria ml(-1). For 22 wk fish were held in 12 degrees C water and monitored for mortality. Fish were sampled periodically for histological examination of kidney tissues. In contrast to fish exposed to the high dose of strain 33209 by either injection or immersion, none of the fish exposed to strain MT 239 by either route exhibited gross clinical signs or histopathological changes indicative of BKD. However, the MT 239 strain was detected by the direct fluorescent antibody technique in 4 fish that died up to 11 wk after the injection challenge and in 5 fish that died up to 20 wk after the immersion challenge. Viable MT 239 was isolated in culture from 3 fish that died up to 13 wk after the immersion challenge. Total mortality in groups injected with the high dose of strain MT 239 (12%) was also significantly lower (p < 0.05) than mortality in groups injected with strain 33209 (73 %). These data indicate that the attenuated virulence observed with MT 239 in rainbow trout also occurs in a salmonid species highly susceptible to BKD. The reasons for the attenuated virulence of MT 239 were not determined but may be related to the reduced levels of the putative virulence protein p57 associated with this strain. PMID:11206735

  8. Comparison and evaluation of Renibacterium salmoninarum quantitative PCR diagnostic assays using field samples of Chinook and coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Sandell, Todd A; Jacobson, Kym C

    2011-01-21

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a Gram-positive bacterium causing bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in susceptible salmonid fishes. Several quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to measure R. salmoninarum infection intensity have been reported, but comparison and evaluation of these assays has been limited. Here, we compared 3 qPCR primer/probe sets for detection of R. salmoninarum in field samples of naturally exposed Chinook and coho salmon first identified as positive by nested PCR (nPCR). Additional samples from a hatchery population of Chinook salmon with BKD were included to serve as strong positive controls. The 3 qPCR assays targeted either the multiple copy major soluble antigen (msa) genes or the single copy abc gene. The msa/non-fluorescent quencher (NFQ) assay amplified R. salmoninarum DNA in 53.2% of the nPCR positive samples, whereas the abc/NFQ assay amplified 21.8% of the samples and the abc/TAMRA assay 18.2%. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) successfully quantified only 16.4% of the nPCR positive samples. Although the msa/NFQ assay amplified a greater proportion of nPCR positive samples, the abc/NFQ assay better amplified those samples with medium and high ELISA values. A comparison of the geometric mean quantity ratios highlighted limitations of the assays, and the abc/NFQ assay strongly amplified some samples that were negative in other tests, in contrast to its performance among the sample group as a whole. These data demonstrate that both the msa/NFQ and abc/NFQ qPCR assays are specific and effective at higher infection levels and outperform the ELISA. However, most pathogen studies will continue to require multiple assays to both detect and quantify R. salmoninarum infection. PMID:21381519

  9. Comparisons of spawning areas and times for two runs of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Kenai River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, C.V.; Wilmot, R.L.; Wangaard, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    From 1979 to 1982,188 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were tagged with radio transmitters to locate spawning areas in the glacial Kenai River, southcentral Alaska. Results confirmed that an early run entered the river in May and June and spawned in tributaries, and a late run entered the river from late June through August and spawned in the main stem. Spawning peaked during August in tributaries influenced by lakes, but during July in other tributaries. Lakes may have increased fall and winter temperatures of downstream waters, enabling successful reproduction for later spawning fish within these tributaries. This hypothesis assumes that hatching and emergence can be completed in a shorter time in lake-influenced waters. The time of upstream migration and spawning (mid- to late August) of the late run is unique among chinook stocks in Cook Inlet. This behavior may have developed only because two large lakes (Kenai and Skilak) directly influence the main-stem Kenai River. If run timing is genetically controlled, and if the various components of the two runs are isolated stocks that have adapted to predictable stream temperatures, there are implications for stock transplantation programs and for any activities of man that alter stream temperatures.

  10. Accumulation and clearance of orally administered erythromycin and its derivative, azithromycin, in juvenile fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Fairgrieve, William T; Masada, Cyndy L; McAuley, W Carlin; Peterson, Mark E; Myers, Mark S; Strom, Mark S

    2005-04-18

    Fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were fed practical diets medicated with azithromycin (30 mg kg(-1) fish for 14 d) or erythromycin (100 mg kg(-1) fish for 28 d) either 1, 2, or 3 times beginning 14 d after initiation of exogenous feeding (February) and ending at smoltification (June). Average tissue concentrations of azithromycin increased from 19.0 microg g(-1) in fry to 44.9 microg g(-1) in smolts, and persisted in the tissues > 76 d after treatment ceased. Tissue concentrations of erythromycin were comparatively low, ranging from 0.2 microg g(-1) in fry to 10.4 microg g(-1) in smolts. Erythromycin was not detectable 21 d post-treatment. Neither antibiotic caused histopathologically significant lesions in the trunk kidney or other organ tissues. The high tissue concentrations and prolonged retention of azithromycin in Chinook may be factors that increase the efficacy of the antibiotic against Renibacterium salmoninarum, compared with erythromycin, particularly in early life history stages before covertly infected fish show clinical signs of disease. PMID:15918472

  11. Summary of Temperature Data Collected to Improve Emergence Timing Estimates for Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon in the Lower Columbia River, 1998-2004 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, E.; Geist, D.; Hanrahan, T.

    2005-10-01

    From 1999 through 2004, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected temperature data from within chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning gravels and the overlying river at 21 locations in the Ives Island area approximately 5 km downstream from Bonneville Dam. Sample locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. The study objectives were to (1) collect riverbed and river temperature data each year from the onset of spawning (October) to the end of emergence (June) and (2) provide those data in-season to fisheries management agencies to assist with fall Chinook and chum salmon emergence timing estimates. Three systems were used over the life of the study. The first consisted of temperature sensors deployed inside piezometers that were screened to the riverbed or the river within chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. These sensors required direct access by staff to download data and were difficult to recover during high river discharge. The second system consisted of a similar arrangement but with a wire connecting the thermistor to a data logger attached to a buoy at the water surface. This system allowed for data retrieval at high river discharge but proved relatively unreliable. The third system consisted of temperature sensors installed in piezometers such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely via radio telemetry. After being downloaded, data were posted hourly on the Internet. Several times during the emergence season of each year, temperature data were downloaded manually and provided to management agencies. During 2003 and 2004, the real-time data were made available on the Internet to assist with emergence timing estimates. Examination of temperature data reveals several important patterns. Piezometer sites differ in the direction of vertical flow between surface and subsurface water. Bed temperatures in upwelling areas are more stable during salmon

  12. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2004-04-01

    Prior to 1992, decisions on dam operations and use of stored water relied on recoveries of branded hatchery fish, index counts at traps and dams, and flow patterns at the dams. The advent of PIT-tag technology provided the opportunity to precisely track the smolt migrations of many wild stocks as they pass through the hydroelectric complex and other monitoring sites on their way to the ocean. With the availability of the PIT tag, a more complete approach to these decisions was undertaken starting in 1992 with the addition of PIT-tag detections of several wild spring and summer chinook salmon stocks at Lower Granite Dam. Using data from these detections, we initiated development of a database on wild fish, addressing several goals of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Conservation Act (NPPC 1980). Section 304(d) of the program states, ''The monitoring program will provide information on the migrational characteristics of the various stocks of salmon and steelhead within the Columbia Basin.'' Further, Section 201(b) urges conservation of genetic diversity, which will be possible only if wild stocks are preserved. Section 5.9A.1 of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program states that field monitoring of smolt movement will be used to determine the best timing for water storage releases and Section 5.8A.8 states that continued research is needed on survival of juvenile wild fish before they reach the first dam with special attention to water quantity, quality, and several other factors. The goals of this ongoing study are as follows (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence these patterns. (4) Characterize the migrational behavior and estimate survival of

  13. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2001-08-01

    From 1997 to 2000, we collected data on the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon above Lower Granite Dam as part of a five-year evaluation of three acclimation/release facilities: Pittsburgh Landing, Captain John, and Big Canyon Creek. The use of multiple facilities is intended to distribute spawning throughout the habitat normally used in the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and our study was designed to determine if this is achieved. In the Snake River, spawning normally occurs throughout a 100 mile reach. Pittsburgh Landing is located within the upper half of this reach, and Captain John is located within the lower half. In the Clearwater River, most spawning occurs within the lower 41 miles and the Big Canyon Creek facility is located therein. Our approach for determining spawning distribution was to first trap returning fish at Lower Granite Dam, identify their origin (all yearling fish were externally marked before they were released), and use radio tags and redd searches to determine where they spawned. Thus far we radio tagged 203 adult fish that were initially released at the acclimation sites. We confirmed the spawning location of 74 of these fish, 42 from releases at Pittsburgh Landing, seven from Captain John, and 25 from releases at the Big Canyon Creek facility. All of the fish from Pittsburgh Landing spawned in the Snake River, 86% within the upper half of the Snake River study area, and 14% in the lower half. Of the adult fish from Captain John, roughly 71% spawned in the lower half of the Snake River study area, 14% spawned in the upper half, and 14% spawned in the Clearwater River. Of the adult fish from releases at Big Canyon Creek, 80% spawned in the Clearwater River and 20% spawned in the Snake River (four in the lower half and one in the upper half). To augment the study, we determined the spawning locations of 16 adult fish that were directly released as subyearlings at or near the three acclimation sites. Ten of the fish were from

  14. Changes in Habitat and Populations of Steelhead Trout, Coho Salmon, and Chinook Salmon in Fish Creek, Oregon; Habitat Improvement, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everest, Fred H.; Hohler, David B.; Cain, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, began in 1982 as a cooperative venture between the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1987) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Benefit-cost analysis of habitat improvements.

  15. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations, 1/1/2012 - 12/31/2012: Annual report 2002-032-00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, Willam P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Chittaro, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Finally, we examined the role of different invasive invertebrates in lower Snake River reservoir food webs that are food, or competitors for food, for juvenile fall Chinook salmon. The Siberian prawn, a relatively new invader, is relatively abundant but its role on the food web is largely unexplored. Prawns are successfully reproducing and their diet is 81% Neomysis (an invasive opossum shrimp) which is heavily used at times by juvenile salmon for food. Neomysis has become very abundant in lower Snake River reservoirs in recent years and may be a profitable food item for many fish species.

  16. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2004 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2004. Publication is a high priority of our staff. Publication provides our results to a wide audience, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 1991-02900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2005.

  17. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Connor, William P.

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2002 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2002. Peer-review publication remains a high priority of this research project, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers coauthored by personnel of project 199102900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2003.

  18. Analysis of dam-passage survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at The Dalles Dam, Oregon, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Smith, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a series of analyses of mark-recapture data from a study at The Dalles Dam during 2010 to determine if model assumptions for estimation of juvenile salmonid dam-passage survival were met and if results were similar to those using the University of Washington's newly developed ATLAS software. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and used acoustic telemetry of yearling Chinook salmon, juvenile steelhead, and subyearling Chinook salmon released at three sites according to the new virtual/paired-release statistical model. This was the first field application of the new model, and the results were used to measure compliance with minimum survival standards set forth in a recent Biological Opinion. Our analyses indicated that most model assumptions were met. The fish groups mixed in time and space, and no euthanized tagged fish were detected. Estimates of reach-specific survival were similar in fish tagged by each of the six taggers during the spring, but not in the summer. Tagger effort was unevenly allocated temporally during tagging of subyearling Chinook salmon in the summer; the difference in survival estimates among taggers was more likely a result of a temporal trend in actual survival than of tagger effects. The reach-specific survival of fish released at the three sites was not equal in the reaches they had in common for juvenile steelhead or subyearling Chinook salmon, violating one model assumption. This violation did not affect the estimate of dam-passage survival, because data from the common reaches were not used in its calculation. Contrary to expectation, precision of survival estimates was not improved by using the most parsimonious model of recapture probabilities instead of the fully parameterized model. Adjusting survival estimates for differences in fish travel times and tag lives increased the dam-passage survival estimate for yearling Chinook salmon by 0.0001 and for juvenile steelhead by 0.0004. The

  19. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Spellman, Bryant; Clark, Roy

    2001-10-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1999 to 30 September 2000. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates.

  20. Genetic effects of ELISA-based segregation for control of bacterial kidney disease in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hard, J.J.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Chase, D.M.; Park, L.K.; Winton, J.R.; Campton, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated genetic variation in ability of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to resist two bacterial pathogens: Renibacterium salmoninarum, the agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and Listonella anguillarum, an agent of vibriosis. After measuring R. salmoninarum antigen in 499 adults by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we mated each of 12 males with high or low antigen levels to two females with low to moderate levels and exposed subsets of their progeny to each pathogen separately. We found no correlation between R. salmoninarum antigen level in parents and survival of their progeny following pathogen exposure. We estimated high heritability for resistance to R. salmoninarum (survival h2 = 0.890 ?? 0.256 (mean ?? standard error)) independent of parental antigen level, but low heritability for resistance to L. anguillarum (h2 = 0.128 ?? 0.078). The genetic correlation between these survivals (rA = -0.204 ?? 0.309) was near zero. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between survival and antigen levels among surviving progeny exposed to R. salmoninarum were both negative (rA = -0.716 ?? 0.140; rP = -0.378 ?? 0.041), indicating that variation in antigen level is linked to survival. These results suggest that selective culling of female broodstock with high antigen titers, which is effective in controlling BKD in salmon hatcheries, will not affect resistance of their progeny. ?? 2006 NRC.

  1. Complexity of bioindicator selection for ecological, human, and cultural health: Chinook salmon and red knot as case studies.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Powers, Charles; Brown, Kevin; Clarke, James; Dey, Amanda; Kosson, David

    2015-03-01

    There is considerable interest in developing bioindicators of ecological health that are also useful indicators for human health. Yet, human health assessment usually encompasses physical/chemical exposures and not cultural well-being. In this paper, we propose that bioindicators can be selected for all three purposes. We use Chinook or king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and red knot (Calidris canutus rufa, a sandpiper) as examples of indicators that can be used to assess human, ecological, and cultural health. Even so, selecting endpoints or metrics for each indicator species is complex and is explored in this paper. We suggest that there are several endpoint types to examine for a given species, including physical environment, environmental stressors, habitat, life history, demography, population counts, and cultural/societal aspects. Usually cultural endpoints are economic indicators (e.g., number of days fished, number of hunting licenses), rather than the importance of a fishing culture. Development of cultural/societal endpoints must include the perceptions of local communities, cultural groups, and tribal nations, as well as governmental and regulatory communities (although not usually so defined, the latter have cultures as well). Endpoint selection in this category is difficult because the underlying issues need to be identified and used to develop endpoints that tribes and stakeholders themselves see as reasonable surrogates of the qualities they value. We describe several endpoints for salmon and knots that can be used for ecological, human, and cultural/societal health. PMID:25666646

  2. Comparison of electronarcosis and carbon dioxide sedation effects on travel time in adult Chinook and Coho Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keep, Shane G; Allen, M. Brady; Zendt, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    The immobilization of fish during handling is crucial in avoiding injury to fish and is thought to reduce handling stress. Chemical sedatives have been a primary choice for fish immobilization. However, most chemical sedatives accumulate in tissues, and often food fishes must be held until accumulations degrade to levels safe for human consumption. Historically, there have been few options for nonchemical sedation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been widely used for decades as a sedative, and while it does not require a degradation period, it does have drawbacks. The use of electronarcosis is another nonchemical option that does not require degradation time. However, little is known about the latent and delayed effects on migration rates of adult salmonids that have been immobilized with electricity. We compared the travel times of adult Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Coho Salmon O. kisutch through a fishway at river kilometer (rkm) 4, and to rkm 16 and rkm 32 after being immobilized with either CO2 or electronarcosis. Travel times of fish treated with either CO2 or electronarcosis were similar within species. Because of the nearly instantaneous induction of and recovery from electronarcosis, we recommend it as an alternative to CO2 for handling large adult salmonids.

  3. Stock-specific migration timing of adult spring-summer Chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, M.L.; Peery, C.A.; Jepson, M.A.; Tolotti, K.R.; Bjornn, T.C.; Stuehrenberg, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the migration timing patterns of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss is important for managing complex mixed-stock fisheries and preserving genetic and life history diversity. We examined adult return timing for 3,317 radio-tagged fish from 38 stocks of Columbia River basin spring-summer Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha over 5 years. Stock composition varied widely within and between years depending on the strength of influential populations. Most individual stocks migrated at similar times each year relative to overall runs, supporting the hypotheses that run timing is predictable, is at least partially due to genetic adaptation, and can be used to differentiate between some conspecific populations. Arrival timing of both aggregated radio-tagged stocks and annual runs was strongly correlated with river discharge; stocks arrived earlier at Bonneville Dam and at upstream dams in years with low discharge. Migration timing analyses identified many between-stock and between-year differences in anadromous salmonid return behavior and should and managers interested in protection and recovery of evolutionary significant populations.

  4. Influence of Incision Location on Transmitter Loss, Healing, Incision Lengths, Suture Retention, and Growth of Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Panther, Jennifer L.; Brown, Richard S.; Gaulke, Greggory L.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2010-05-11

    In this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, we measured differences in survival and growth, incision openness, transmitter loss, wound healing, and erythema among abdominal incisions on the linea alba, lateral and parallel to the linea alba (muscle-cutting), and following the underlying muscle fibers (muscle-sparing). A total of 936 juvenile Chinook salmon were implanted with both Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Tracking System transmitters (0.43 g dry) and passive integrated transponder tags. Fish were held at 12°C (n = 468) or 20°C (n = 468) and examined once weekly over 98 days. We found survival and growth did not differ among incision groups or between temperature treatment groups. Incisions on the linea alba had less openness than muscle-cutting and muscle-sparing incisions during the first 14 days when fish were held at 12°C or 20°C. Transmitter loss was not different among incision locations by day 28 when fish were held at 12°C or 20°C. However, incisions on the linea alba had greater transmitter loss than muscle-cutting and muscle-sparing incisions by day 98 at 12°C. Results for wound closure and erythema differed among temperature groups. Results from our study will be used to improve fish-tagging procedures for future studies using acoustic or radio transmitters.

  5. Influence of Incision Location on Transmitter Loss, Healing, Survival, Growth, and Suture Retention of Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Panther, Jennifer L.; Brown, Richard S.; Gaulke, Greg L.; Deters, Katherine A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. Brad

    2011-11-01

    Fisheries research involving surgical implantation of transmitters necessitates the use of methods that minimize transmitter loss and fish mortality and optimize healing of the incision. We evaluated the effects of three incision locations on transmitter loss, healing, survival, growth, and suture retention in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The three incision locations were (1) on the linea alba (LA incision), (2) adjacent and parallel to the LA (muscle-cutting [MC] incision), and (3) extending from the LA towards the dorsum at a 45° angle, between the parallel lines of myomeres (muscle-sparing [MS] incision). A Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System acoustic transmitter (0.44 g in air) and a passive integrated transponder tag (0.10 g in air) were implanted into each fish (total N = 936 fish). The fish were held at 12°C or 20°C and were examined weekly for 98 d. The progression of healing among incision locations and the variability in transmitter loss made it difficult to identify one incision location as the best choice. The LA incisions had a much smaller wound extent (area of visible subepidermal tissue) than MC and MS incisions during the first 28 d of the study. In both temperature treatments, apposition of incisions through day 14 was better for LA incisions than for MC and MS incisions. However, MC and MS incisions were less likely than LA incisions to reopen over time and thus were less likely to allow transmitter loss through the incision.

  6. Prey availability, consumption, and quality contribute to variation in growth of subyearling Chinook Salmon rearing in riverine and reservoir habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Erhardt, John M.; St. John, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined prey availability, prey consumed, and diet energy content as sources of variation in growth of natural fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha subyearlings rearing in riverine and reservoir habitats in the Snake River. Subyearlings in riverine habitat primarily consumed aquatic insects (e.g., Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera), of which a high proportion was represented by adult, terrestrial forms. In the reservoir, subyearlings also consumed aquatic insects but also preyed heavily at times on nonnative lentic amphipods Corophium spp. and the mysid Neomysis mercedis, which were absent in riverine habitats. The availability of prey was typically much higher in the reservoir due to N. mercedis often composing over 90% of the biomass, but when this taxon was removed from consideration, biomass estimates were more often higher in the riverine habitat. Subyearling diets during 2009–2011 were generally 17–40% higher in energy in the riverine habitat than in the reservoir. Observed growth in both length and weight were significantly higher in the riverine habitat than in the reservoir. Little is known about how temporal and spatial changes in the food web in large river landscapes influence populations of native anadromous fishes. Our results provide a glimpse of how the spread and establishment of nonnative prey species can reduce juvenile salmon growth in a large river impoundment, which in turn can affect migration timing and survival.

  7. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon for stocking in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Good, Christopher; Vinci, Brian; Summerfelt, Steven; Snekvik, Kevin; Adams, Ian; Dilly, Samuel

    2011-06-01

    To assess the suitability of water reuse technology for raising Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. for stocking purposes, fish health and welfare were compared between two groups of juvenile Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from the same spawn: one group was reared in a pilot partial water reuse system (circular tanks), and the other group was reared in a flow-through raceway. This observational study was carried out over a 21-week period in Washington State. Reuse and raceway fish were sampled repeatedly for pathogen screening and histopathology; fin erosion and whole-blood characteristics were also evaluated. By the study's end, no listed pathogens were isolated from either cohort, and survival was 99.3% and 99.0% in the reuse and raceway groups, respectively. Condition factor was 1.28 in raceway fish and 1.14 in reuse fish; this difference may have been attributable to occasional differences in feeding rates between the cohorts. Fin indices (i.e., length of the longest dorsal or caudal fin ray, standardized by fork length) were lower in reuse fish than in raceway fish, but fin erosion was not grossly apparent in either cohort. The most consistent histological lesion was gill epithelial hypertrophy in reuse fish; however, blood analyses did not suggest any corresponding physiological imbalances. Overall, results suggest that water reuse technology can be employed in rearing juvenile anadromous salmonids for stocking purposes. PMID:21834328

  8. Effects of disturbance on contribution of energy sources to growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in boreal streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, R.W.; Bradford, M.J.; Grout, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We used stable isotopes of carbon in a growth-dependent tissue-turnover model to quantify the relative contribution of autochthonous and terrestrial energy sources to juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in five small boreal streams tributary to the upper Yukon River. We used a tissue-turnover model because fish did not grow enough to come into isotopic equilibrium with their diet. In two streams, autochthonous energy sources contributed 23 and 41% to the growth of juvenile salmon. In the other three, fish growth was largely due to terrestrial (i.e., allochthonous) energy sources. This low contribution of autochthonous energy appeared to be related to stream-specific disturbances: a recent forest fire impacted two of the streams and the third was affected by a large midsummer spate during the study. These disturbances reduced the relative abundance of herbivorous macroinvertebrates, the contribution of autochthonous material to other invertebrates, and ultimately, the energy flow between stream algae and fish. Our findings suggest that disturbances to streams can be an important mechanism affecting transfer of primary energy sources to higher trophic levels.

  9. The Effects of Disease-Induced Juvenile Mortality on the Transient and Asymptotic Population Dynamics of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Masami; Mohr, Michael S.; Greenberg, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an increased disease mortality rate on the transient and asymptotic dynamics of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were investigated. Disease-induced mortality of juvenile salmon has become a serious concern in recent years. However, the overall effects of disease mortality on the asymptotic and transient dynamics of adult spawning abundance are still largely unknown. We explored various scenarios with regard to the density-dependent process, the distribution of survivorship over the juvenile phase, the disease mortality rate, and the infusion of stray hatchery fish. Our results suggest that the sensitivity to the disease mortality rate of the equilibrium adult spawning abundance and resilience (asymptotic return rate toward this equilibrium following a small perturbation) varied widely and differently depending on the scenario. The resilience and coefficient of variation of adult spawning abundance following a large perturbation were consistent with each other under the scenarios investigated. We conclude that the increase in disease mortality likely has an effect on fishery yield under a fluctuating environment, not only because the mean equilibrium adult spawning abundance has likely been reduced, but also because the resilience has likely decreased and the variance in adult spawning abundance has likely increased. We also infer the importance of incorporating finer-scale spatiotemporal information into population models and demonstrate a means for doing so within a matrix population modeling framework. PMID:24427310

  10. Complexity of bioindicator selection for ecological, human, and cultural health: Chinook salmon and red knot as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Powers, Charles; Brown, Kevin; Clarke, James; Dey, Amanda; Kosson, David

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing bioindicators of ecological health that are also useful indicators for human health. Yet, human health assessment usually encompasses physical/chemical exposures and not cultural well-being. In this paper, we propose that bioindicators can be selected for all three purposes. We use Chinook or king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and red knot (Calidris canutus rufa, a sandpiper) as examples of indicators that can be used to assess human, ecological, and cultural health. Even so, selecting endpoints or metrics for each indicator species is complex and is explored in this paper. We suggest that there are several endpoint types to examine for a given species, including physical environment, environmental stressors, habitat, life history, demography, population counts, and cultural/societal aspects. Usually cultural endpoints are economic indicators (e.g., number of days fished, number of hunting licenses), rather than the importance of a fishing culture. Development of cultural/societal endpoints must include the perceptions of local communities, cultural groups, and tribal nations, as well as governmental and regulatory communities (although not usually so defined, the latter have cultures as well). Endpoint selection in this category is difficult because the underlying issues need to be identified and used to develop endpoints that tribes and stakeholders themselves see as reasonable surrogates of the qualities they value. We describe several endpoints for salmon and knots that can be used for ecological, human, and cultural/societal health. PMID:25666646

  11. Passage and survival probabilities of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Dam, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Smith, Collin D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes studies of juvenile-salmon dam passage and apparent survival at Cougar Dam, Oregon, during two operating conditions in 2012. Cougar Dam is a 158-meter tall rock-fill dam used primarily for flood control, and passes water through a temperature control tower to either a powerhouse penstock or to a regulating outlet (RO). The temperature control tower has moveable weir gates to enable water of different elevations and temperatures to be drawn through the dam to control water temperatures downstream. A series of studies of downstream dam passage of juvenile salmonids were begun after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration determined that Cougar Dam was impacting the viability of anadromous fish stocks. The primary objectives of the studies described in this report were to estimate the route-specific fish passage probabilities at the dam and to estimate the survival probabilities of fish passing through the RO. The first set of dam operating conditions, studied in November, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,589 feet, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the weir gates, (3) most water routed through the turbines during the day and through the RO during the night, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 1.2 feet during the day and 3.2 feet during the night. The second set of dam operating conditions, studied in December, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,507 ft, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the RO bypass, (3) all water passing through the RO, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 7.3 feet during the day and 7.5 feet during the night. The studies were based on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) surgically implanted with radio transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Inferences about general dam passage percentage and timing of volitional migrants were based on surface-acclimated fish released in the reservoir. Dam passage and apparent

  12. Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to esfenvalerate and chlorpyrifos

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Craig E.; Eder, Kai J.; Werner, Inge; Huang, Huazhang; Jones, Paul D.; Brammell, Benjamin F.; Elskus, Adria A.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has traditionally been monitored as a biomarker of organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate exposure. However, AChE activity may not be the most sensitive endpoint for these agrochemicals, because OPs can cause adverse physiological effects at concentrations that do not affect AChE activity. Carboxylesterases are a related family of enzymes that have higher affinity than AChE for some OPs and carbamates and may be more sensitive indicators of environmental exposure to these pesticides. In this study, carboxylesterase and AChE activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein levels, and mortality were measured in individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following exposure to an OP (chlorpyrifos) and a pyrethroid (esfenvalerate). As expected, high doses of chlorpyrifos and esfenvalerate were acutely toxic, with nominal concentrations (100 and 1 μg/l, respectively) causing 100% mortality within 96 h. Exposure to chlorpyrifos at a high dose (7.3 μg/l), but not a low dose (1.2 μg/l), significantly inhibited AChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue (85% and 92% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure had no effect. In contrast, liver carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited at both the low and high chlorpyrifos dose exposure (56% and 79% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure still had little effect. The inhibition of carboxylesterase activity at levels of chlorpyrifos that did not affect AChE activity suggests that some salmon carboxylesterase isozymes may be more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by OPs. CYP1A protein levels were ∼30% suppressed by chlorpyrifos exposure at the high dose, but esfenvalerate had no effect. Three teleost species, Chinook salmon, medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), were examined for their ability to hydrolyze a series of pyrethroid surrogate substrates and in all cases hydrolysis activity was

  13. Identifying and Quantifying Sources of Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Gravel to the Snake River in Hells Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welcker, C. W.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Snake River in Hells Canyon supports a growing population of spawning Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) immediately downstream of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) of hydroelectric dams for the last 60 years. The long-term survival of this salmon run depends on the input of spawning gravel (25-150 mm) from local tributaries balancing the losses of spawning gravel through attrition and export out of the reach between the HCC and the Salmon River confluence. We are working to quantify the gravel input of these local tributaries at different time-scales and put this into the context of historical supply and transport. Long-term total sediment production rates of these tributaries estimated through various methods have varied by over 2 orders of magnitude, but we have recently completed 10Be work to constrain these estimates. We are measuring the change in storage of Fall Chinook spawning-size gravel through repeat multibeam echosounder surveys of the riverbed. The limited amount of repeat data collected to date has shown complex patterns of change in the riverbed. One possible driver of this complexity is the episodic and spatially variable nature of sediment inputs from these tributaries. We are attempting to quantify the frequency of the debris flows or floods capable of transporting spawning gravel through digitizing historic imagery of the last 60 years to determine the recurrence interval. We are measuring the magnitude of these events by surveying tributary fans pre and post-event to measure the sediment volume and particle size produced by specific events. These floods and debris flows are driven by extreme rainfall or snowmelt events, so we have also reconstructed historical meteorological conditions to identify the triggering conditions for transport, and identify the areas where snowmelt or rainfall is the more likely trigger. We are currently testing whether the unique bedrock geology of Hells Canyon can be used as a tracer to identify the

  14. Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in Chinook salmon (Oncorhync