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1

SHARPE RATIO MAXIMIZATION AND EXPECTED UTILITY WHEN ASSET PRICES HAVE JUMPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze portfolio strategies which are locally optimal, meaning that they maximize the Sharpe ratio in a general continuous time jump-diffusion framework. These portfolios are characterized explicitly and compared to utility based strategies. We show that in the presence of jumps, maximizing the Sharpe ratio is generally inconsistent with maximizing expected utility, in the sense that a utility maximizing individual

MORTEN MOSEGAARD CHRISTENSEN; ECKHARD PLATEN

2007-01-01

2

Photometric stereo via expectation maximization.  

PubMed

This paper presents a robust and automatic approach to photometric stereo, where the two main components, namely surface normals and visible surfaces, are respectively optimized by Expectation Maximization (EM). A dense set of input images is conveniently captured using a digital video camera while a handheld spotlight is being moved around the target object and a small mirror sphere. In our approach, the inherently complex optimization problem is simplified into a two-step optimization, where EM is employed in each step: 1) Using the dense input, the weight or importance of each observation is alternately optimized with the normal and albedo at each pixel and 2) using the optimized normals and employing the Markov Random Fields (MRFs), surface integrabilities and discontinuities are alternately optimized in visible surface reconstruction. Our mathematical derivation gives simple updating rules for the EM algorithms, leading to a stable, practical, and parameter-free implementation that is very robust even in the presence of complex geometry, shadows, highlight, and transparency. We present high-quality results on normal and visible surface reconstruction, where fine geometric details are automatically recovered by our method. PMID:20075477

Wu, Tai-Pang; Tang, Chi-Keung

2010-03-01

3

Separation Theorems and Expected Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a number of separation theorems for linear spaces, then explores the relationships between these theorems and expected utility theory. Three topics in expected utility are discussed: axioms for expected utility; unanimous expectations;...

P. C. Fishburn

1974-01-01

4

Dense Photometric Stereo by Expectation Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate a robust method using Expectation Maximiza- tion (EM) to address the problem of dense photometric stereo. Previous approaches using Markov Random Fields (MRF) utilized a dense set of noisy photometric images for estimating an initial normal to encode the matching cost at each pixel, followed by normal refinement by consid- ering the neighborhood of the pixel. In this

Tai-pang Wu; Chi-keung Tang

2006-01-01

5

Utility maximization in incomplete markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of utility maximization for small traders on incom- plete financial markets. As opposed to most of the papers dealing with this subject, the investors' trading strategies we allow underly constraints described by closed, but not necessarily convex, sets. The final wealths obtained by trading under these constraints are identified as stochastic processes which usually are supermartingales,

Ying Hu; Peter Imkeller; Matthias Muller

2003-01-01

6

Utility maximization in incomplete markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of utility maximization for small traders on incomplete financial markets. As opposed to most of the papers dealing with this subject, the investors' trading strategies we allow underly constraints described by closed, but not necessarily convex, sets. The final wealths obtained by trading under these constraints are identified as stochastic processes which usually are supermartingales, and

Ying Hu; Peter Imkeller; Matthias Muller

2005-01-01

7

Maximum Expected Utility via MCMC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper provides a pure simulation approach to solving maximum,expected utility (MEU) problems. MEU problems require both integration, to compute the expected utility, and optimization, to find the optimal decision. In most cases of interest, the expected utility does not have a analytical solution, even for a given value of the decision. One must apply gradient methods around numerical

Eric Jacquier; Michael Johannes; Nicholas Polson

8

Maximizing the Expected Lifetime of Replaceable Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consider the following model. A system has one vital component with n spares. When the vital component fails, the system fails. Derman, Lieberman, and Ross have considered the problem of maximizing the time until failure of the system. They obtained optim...

M. M. Perkins

1984-01-01

9

Inexact Matching of Ontology Graphs Using Expectation-Maximization  

PubMed Central

We present a new method for mapping ontology schemas that address similar domains. The problem of ontology matching is crucial since we are witnessing a decentralized development and publication of ontological data. We formulate the problem of inferring a match between two ontologies as a maximum likelihood problem, and solve it using the technique of expectation-maximization (EM). Specifically, we adopt directed graphs as our model for ontology schemas and use a generalized version of EM to arrive at a map between the nodes of the graphs. We exploit the structural, lexical and instance similarity between the graphs, and differ from the previous approaches in the way we utilize them to arrive at, a possibly inexact, match. Inexact matching is the process of finding a best possible match between the two graphs when exact matching is not possible or is computationally difficult. In order to scale the method to large ontologies, we identify the computational bottlenecks and adapt the generalized EM by using a memory bounded partitioning scheme. We provide comparative experimental results in support of our method on two well-known ontology alignment benchmarks and discuss their implications.

Doshi, Prashant; Kolli, Ravikanth; Thomas, Christopher

2009-01-01

10

Tracking objects of arbitrary shape using expectation-maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the general object tracking with arbitrary shape using rangefinders, which is a key module for detecting surrounding traffic and infrastructure for an autonomous driving vehicle. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm with locally matching is proposed for motion estimation between two consecutive range images. The complexity of the algorithm is O(N) with N the numbers of scan points. Quantitative performance

Shuqing Zeng; Yuanhong Li; Yantao Shen

2011-01-01

11

Unsupervised Learning of Multiple Motifs in Biopolymers Using Expectation Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The MEME algorithm extends the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm foridentifying motifs in unalignedbiopolymer sequences. The aim of MEME is to discover new motifsin a set of biopolymer sequences where little or nothing is known in advance about any motifs thatmay be present. MEME innovations expand the range of problems which can be solved using EMand increase the chance of

Charles Elkan; Timothy L. Bailey

1993-01-01

12

Unsupervised Learning of Multiple Motifs in Biopolymers Using Expectation Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MEME algorithm extends the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for identifying motifs in unaligned biopolymer sequences. The aim of MEME is to discover new motifs in a set of biopolymer sequences where little or nothing is known in advance about any motifs that may be present. MEME innovations expand the range of problems which can be solved using EM and

Timothy L. Bailey; Charles Elkan

1995-01-01

13

Aerial lidar data classification using expectation-maximization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to classify 3D aerial lidar scattered height data into four categories: road, grass, buildings, and trees. To do so we use five features: height, height variation, normal variation, lidar return intensity, and image intensity. We also use only lidar-derived features to organize the data into three classes (the road and grass classes are merged). We apply and test our results using ten regions taken from lidar data collected over an area of approximately eight square miles, obtaining higher than 94% accuracy. We also apply our classifier to our entire dataset, and present visual classification results both with and without uncertainty. We use several approaches to evaluate the parameter and model choices possible when applying EM to our data. We observe that our classification results are stable and robust over the various subregions of our data which we tested. We also compare our results here with previous classification efforts using this data.

Lodha, Suresh K.; Fitzpatrick, Darren M.; Helmbold, David P.

2007-01-01

14

Expectation-Maximization Gaussian-Mixture Approximate Message Passing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When recovering a sparse signal from noisy compressive linear measurements, the distribution of the signal's non-zero coefficients can have a profound effect on recovery mean-squared error (MSE). If this distribution was apriori known, then one could use computationally efficient approximate message passing (AMP) techniques for nearly minimum MSE (MMSE) recovery. In practice, though, the distribution is unknown, motivating the use of robust algorithms like LASSO---which is nearly minimax optimal---at the cost of significantly larger MSE for non-least-favorable distributions. As an alternative, we propose an empirical-Bayesian technique that simultaneously learns the signal distribution while MMSE-recovering the signal---according to the learned distribution---using AMP. In particular, we model the non-zero distribution as a Gaussian mixture, and learn its parameters through expectation maximization, using AMP to implement the expectation step. Numerical experiments on a wide range of signal classes confirm the state-of-the-art performance of our approach, in both reconstruction error and runtime, in the high-dimensional regime, for most (but not all) sensing operators.

Vila, Jeremy P.; Schniter, Philip

2013-10-01

15

PESSIMISTIC PORTFOLIO ALLOCATION AND CHOQUET EXPECTED UTILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the theory of choice under uncertain ty and risk yield a pessimistic decision theory that replaces the c lassical expected utility criterion with a Choquet expectation that accentuates the l ikelihood of the least favorable outcomes. A parallel theory has recently emerged in the literature on risk assessment. It is shown that a general form of pessimistic

16

The biological basis of expected utility anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the biological basis of expected utility anomalies through an experiment of the Allais paradox. A questionnaire study of 120 subjects replicates the anomalies and further gathers information about the respondents’ bio-characteristics, such as gender, age, parenthood, handedness, second to fourth digit ratio, current emotional state, past negative experiences, and religiousness. We find that some of those bio-characteristics matter

Raul Matsushita; Dinorá Baldo; Bruna Martin; Sergio Da Silva

2007-01-01

17

Clustering Analysis Using Data Range Aware Seeding and Agglomerative Expectation Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation maximization (EM) is a local maximization method of the mixture model. When applied to clustering analysis, it generates good results only with reasonably good initialization, which can be produced by hierarchical agglomeration. However, hierarchical agglomeration has poor scalability due to its computational complexity. This paper presents a novel method, called ISOEM, to overcome this limitation. It uses a data

Hongwei Zhu; Honglei Zhu

2007-01-01

18

Numerical estimation of adsorption energy distributions from adsorption isotherm data with the expectation-maximization method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The expectation-maximization (EM) method of parameter estimation is used to calculate adsorption energy distributions of molecular probes from their adsorption isotherms. EM does not require prior knowledge of the distribution function or the isotherm, re...

B. J. Stanley G. Guiochon

1993-01-01

19

Market equilibrium with heterogeneous recursive-utility-maximizing agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper considers a heterogeneous agent Lucas style exchange economy. For a class of recursive utility functions containing the standard additive expected utility functions, I demonstrate that there exist market equilibria characterized by stationary (ergodic) Markov processes for consumption, portfolio holdings, asset prices and the unobserved utilities. No assumptions about market completeness are made, and there are no restrictions

Chenghu Ma

1993-01-01

20

What utilities should expect from competitive intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utilities are informationally dysfunctional. In a survey of electric utility managers, we found that while employees may possess the necessary information for decision-making, they may not understand how the information is used, why it is important, or who needs to know it. Utility managers feel that their organizations suffer from intelligence deficits in the following areas: (1) Customer Retention-Customer

L. M. Fuld; D. L. Borska

1995-01-01

21

Consistent dynamic choice and non-expected utility preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the application of the two most popular non-expected utility (NEU) models -Choquet Expected Utility (CEU) and Maximin Expected Utility (CEU)- to dynamic choice situations in a purely subjective framework. We give an appropriate version of the reduction of compound acts axiom, that states the equivalence between a static and a dynamic choice situation. We show that if

André Lapied; Pascal Toquebeuf

2009-01-01

22

Alternative Distributed Algorithms for Network Utility Maximization: Framework and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network utility maximization (NUM) problem formulations provide an important approach to conduct network resource allocation and to view layering as optimization decomposition. In the existing literature, distributed implementations are typically achieved by means of the so-called dual decomposition technique. However, the span of decomposition possibilities includes many other elements that, thus far, have not been fully exploited, such as the

Daniel P. Palomar; Mung Chiang

2007-01-01

23

A Tutorial on Decomposition Methods for Network Utility Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic understanding of the decomposability structures in network utility maximization is key to both resource allocation and functionality allocation. It helps us obtain the most appropriate distributed algorithm for a given network resource allocation problem, and quantifies the comparison across architectural alternatives of modularized network design. Decomposition theory naturally provides the mathematical language to build an analytic foundation for

Daniel Pérez Palomar; Mung Chiang

2006-01-01

24

Risk Aversion and Expected-Utility Theory: A Calibration Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the expected-utility framework, the only explanation for risk aversion is that the utility function for wealth is concave: A person has lower marginal utility for additional wealth when she is wealthy than when she is poor. This paper provides a theorem showing that expected-utility theory is an utterly implausible explanation for appreciable risk aversion over modest stakes: Within expected-utility

Matthew Rabin

2000-01-01

25

What utilities should expect from competitive intelligence  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities are informationally dysfunctional. In a survey of electric utility managers, we found that while employees may possess the necessary information for decision-making, they may not understand how the information is used, why it is important, or who needs to know it. Utility managers feel that their organizations suffer from intelligence deficits in the following areas: (1) Customer Retention-Customer (rather than competitor) intelligence is desparately needed, (2) Competitor Costs-As prices drive markets, utilities must learn how competitors use the technology to gain a cost advantage, and (3) Market Savvy-Recognizing threats means more that just crunching the numbers. It means converting raw data into a strategy that will expose a competitor`s weakness. The complex economics will require companies to apply all types of intelligence to solve competitive problems. This coherent approach requires changes in the way both management and the organization handle vital intelligence.

Fuld, L.M.; Borska, D.L. [Fuld & Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-03-01

26

Planning Routes Across Economic Terrains: Maximizing Utility, Following Heuristics  

PubMed Central

We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value). We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics) for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes.

Zhang, Hang; Maddula, Soumya V.; Maloney, Laurence T.

2010-01-01

27

Dynamic Choice and NonExpected Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how some widely studied classes of nonexpected utility models could be used in dynamic choice situations. A new 'sequential consistency' condition is introduced for single-stage and multi-stage decision problems. Sequential consistency requires that if a decision maker has committed to a family of models (e.g., the multiple priors family, the rank-dependent family, or the betweenness family) then

Rakesh Sarin; Peter P Wakker

1998-01-01

28

Identification and restoration of noisy blurred images using the expectation-maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum-likelihood approach to the blur identification problem is presented. The expectation-maximization algorithm is proposed to optimize the nonlinear likelihood function in an efficient way. In order to improve the performance of the identification algorithm, low-order parametric image and blur models are incorporated into the identification method. The resulting iterative technique simultaneously identifies and restores noisy blurred images

REGINALD L. LAGENDIJK; JAN BIEMOND; DICK E. BOEKEE

1990-01-01

29

A Batch Rival Penalized Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture Clustering with Automatic Model Selection  

PubMed Central

Within the learning framework of maximum weighted likelihood (MWL) proposed by Cheung, 2004 and 2005, this paper will develop a batch Rival Penalized Expectation-Maximization (RPEM) algorithm for density mixture clustering provided that all observations are available before the learning process. Compared to the adaptive RPEM algorithm in Cheung, 2004 and 2005, this batch RPEM need not assign the learning rate analogous to the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm (Dempster et al., 1977), but still preserves the capability of automatic model selection. Further, the convergence speed of this batch RPEM is faster than the EM and the adaptive RPEM in general. The experiments show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm on the synthetic data and color image segmentation.

Wen, Jiechang; Zhang, Dan; Cheung, Yiu-ming; Liu, Hailin; You, Xinge

2012-01-01

30

An Expectation-Maximization-Likelihood-Ratio Test for Handling Missing Data: Application in Experimental Crosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is an important research question in animal and human studies. Missing data are common in such study settings, and ignoring such missing data may result in biased estimates of the genotypic effect and thus may eventually lead to errant results and incorrect inferences. In this article, we developed an expectation-maximization (EM)-likelihood-ratio test (LRT)

Tianhua Niu; Adam A. Ding; Reinhold Kreutz; Klaus Lindpaintner

2005-01-01

31

An Iterative Expectation-Maximization Algorithm Based Joint Estimation Approach for CDMA\\/OFDM Composite Radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an innovative frequency domain joint estimation algorithm for synchronization parameter and channel impulse response (CIR) in direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems is proposed. The algorithm is based on the expectation-maximization (EM) method. It can provide accurate estimation of channel state information and synchronization parameter for a DS-CDMA receiver even with a simple equalization module

Tianqi Wang; Cheng Li; Hsiao-hwa Chen

2008-01-01

32

A Region-Based Image Fusion Method Using the Expectation-Maximization Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel region-based image fusion method using a rigorous application of estimation theory. This method takes advantage of the similar intensity or texture in a region for fusion. A statistical image formation model using Gaussian mixture distortion is built for each region and the EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm is used in conjunction with the model to develop the region-level

Jinzhong Yang; Rick S. Blum

2006-01-01

33

Expectation-Maximization x Self-Organizing Maps for Image Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

To deal with the huge volume of information provided by remote sensing satellites, which produce images used for agriculture monitoring, urban planning, deforestation detection and so on, several algorithms for image classification have been proposed in the literature. This article compares two approaches, called Expectation-Maximization (EM) and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) applied to unsupervised image classification, i.e. data clustering without direct

Thales Sehn Korting; Leila Maria Garcia Fonseca; F. L. Bacao

2008-01-01

34

NOTE: Weighted expectation maximization reconstruction algorithms with application to gated megavoltage tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and investigate weighted expectation maximization (EM) algorithms for image reconstruction in x-ray tomography. The development of the algorithms is motivated by the respiratory-gated megavoltage tomography problem, in which the acquired asymmetric cone-beam projections are limited in number and unevenly sampled over view angle. In these cases, images reconstructed by use of the conventional EM algorithm can contain ring-

Jin Zhang; Daxin Shi; Mark A. Anastasio; Jussi Sillanpaa; Jenghwa Chang

2005-01-01

35

Power Dependence in Individual Bargaining: The Expected Utility of Influence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses power-dependence theory as a framework for examining whether and how parties use information on each other's dependence to estimate the utility of an influence attempt. The effect of dependence in expected utilities is investigated (by role playing) in bargaining between employer and employee for a pay raise. (MF)

Lawler, Edward J.; Bacharach, Samuel B.

1979-01-01

36

Gaussian beam decomposition of high frequency wave fields using expectation-maximization  

SciTech Connect

A new numerical method for approximating highly oscillatory wave fields as a superposition of Gaussian beams is presented. The method estimates the number of beams and their parameters automatically. This is achieved by an expectation-maximization algorithm that fits real, positive Gaussians to the energy of the highly oscillatory wave fields and its Fourier transform. Beam parameters are further refined by an optimization procedure that minimizes the difference between the Gaussian beam superposition and the highly oscillatory wave field in the energy norm.

Ariel, Gil, E-mail: arielg@math.biu.ac.i [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Engquist, Bjoern, E-mail: engquist@math.utexas.ed [Department of Mathematics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Tanushev, Nicolay M., E-mail: nicktan@math.utexas.ed [Department of Mathematics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Tsai, Richard, E-mail: ytsai@math.utexas.ed [Department of Mathematics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2011-03-20

37

Risk Aversion and Expected Utility Theory: A Calibration Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

USING EXPECTED-UTILITY THEORY, economists model risk aversion as arising solely because the utility function over wealth is concave. This diminishing-marginal-utility-of- wealth theory of risk aversion is psychologically intuitive, and surely helps explain some of our aversion to large-scale risk: We dislike vast uncertainty in lifetime wealth because a dollar that helps us avoid poverty is more valuable than a dollar

Matthew Rabin

2008-01-01

38

Expectation maximization-based likelihood inference for flexible cure rate models with Weibull lifetimes.  

PubMed

Recently, a flexible cure rate survival model has been developed by assuming the number of competing causes of the event of interest to follow the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson distribution. This model includes some of the well-known cure rate models discussed in the literature as special cases. Data obtained from cancer clinical trials are often right censored and expectation maximization algorithm can be used in this case to efficiently estimate the model parameters based on right censored data. In this paper, we consider the competing cause scenario and assuming the time-to-event to follow the Weibull distribution, we derive the necessary steps of the expectation maximization algorithm for estimating the parameters of different cure rate survival models. The standard errors of the maximum likelihood estimates are obtained by inverting the observed information matrix. The method of inference developed here is examined by means of an extensive Monte Carlo simulation study. Finally, we illustrate the proposed methodology with a real data on cancer recurrence. PMID:23740876

Balakrishnan, Narayanaswamy; Pal, Suvra

2013-06-01

39

Automatic image segmentation for concealed object detection using the expectation-maximization algorithm.  

PubMed

We address an image segmentation method to detect concealed objects captured by passive millimeter wave (MMW) imaging. Passive MMW imaging can create interpretable imagery on the objects concealed under clothing, which gives the great advantage to the security system. In this paper, we propose the multi-level expectation maximization (EM) method to separate the concealed objects from the other area in the image. We apply the EM method to obtain a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) of the acquired image. In the experiments, we evaluate the performance by the average probability of error. We will show that the consecutive EM processes separates the object area more accurately than the conventional EM method. PMID:20588918

Lee, Dong-Su; Yeom, Seokwon; Son, Jung-Young; Kim, Shin-Hwan

2010-05-10

40

Mixed model for interoccurrence times of earthquakes based on the expectation-maximization algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the goodness-of-fit test based on a convex combination of Akaike and Bayesian information criteria is used to explain the features of interoccurrence times of earthquakes. By analyzing the seismic catalog of Iran for different tectonic settings, we have found that the probability distributions of time intervals between successive earthquakes can be described by the generalized normal distribution. This indicates that the sequence of successive earthquakes is not a Poisson process. It is found that by decreasing the threshold magnitude, the interoccurrence time distribution changes from the generalized normal distribution to the gamma distribution in some seismotectonic regions. As a new insight, the probability distribution of time intervals between earthquakes is described as a mixture distribution via the expectation-maximization algorithm.

Tahernia, Nadia; Khodabin, Morteza; Mirzaei, Noorbakhsh

2011-10-01

41

AUSI expected utility: An anticipated utility theory of relative disappointment aversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide an axiomatization for a representation of preferences over lotteries that is only one parameter richer than expected utility. Our model is a special case of Rank-Dependent Expected Utility. Moreover, we show that the same restriction on this parameter is required for: risk aversion; intuitive comparative static results for a reasonably general class of economically interesting

Simon Grant; Atsushi Kajii

1998-01-01

42

An expectation maximization based method for subcellular particle tracking using multi-angle TIRF microscopy.  

PubMed

Multi-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (MA-TIRFM) is a new generation of TIRF microscopy to study cellular processes near dorsal cell membrane in 4 dimensions (3D+t). To perform quantitative analysis using MA-TIRFM, it is necessary to track subcellular particles in these processes. In this paper, we propose a method based on a MAP framework for automatic particle tracking and apply it to track clathrin coated pits (CCPs). The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is employed to solve the MAP problem. To provide the initial estimations for the EM algorithm, we develop a forward filter based on the most probable trajectory (MPT) filter. Multiple linear models are used to model particle dynamics. For CCP tracking, we use two linear models to describe constrained Brownian motion and fluorophore variation according to CCP properties. The tracking method is evaluated on synthetic data and results show that it has high accuracy. The result on real data confirmed by human expert cell biologists is also presented. PMID:22003671

Liang, Liang; Shen, Hongying; De Camilli, Pietro; Toomre, Derek K; Duncan, James S

2011-01-01

43

Image segmentation with implicit color standardization using spatially constrained expectation maximization: detection of nuclei.  

PubMed

Color nonstandardness--the propensity for similar objects to exhibit different color properties across images--poses a significant problem in the computerized analysis of histopathology. Though many papers propose means for improving color constancy, the vast majority assume image formation via reflective light instead of light transmission as in microscopy, and thus are inappropriate for histological analysis. Previously, we presented a novel Bayesian color segmentation algorithm for histological images that is highly robust to color nonstandardness; this algorithm employed the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to dynamically estimate for each individual image the probability density functions that describe the colors of salient objects. However, our approach, like most EM-based algorithms, ignored important spatial constraints, such as those modeled by Markov random field (MRFs). Addressing this deficiency, we now present spatially-constrained EM (SCEM), a novel approach for incorporating Markov priors into the EM framework. With respect to our segmentation system, we replace EM with SCEM and then assess its improved ability to segment nuclei in H&E stained histopathology. Segmentation performance is evaluated over seven (nearly) identical sections of gastrointestinal tissue stained using different protocols (simulating severe color nonstandardness). Over this dataset, our system identifies nuclear regions with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.838. If we disregard spatial constraints, the AUC drops to 0.748. PMID:23285572

Monaco, James; Hipp, J; Lucas, D; Smith, S; Balis, U; Madabhushi, Anant

2012-01-01

44

An approach to operational modal analysis using the expectation maximization algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the Expectation Maximization algorithm (EM) applied to operational modal analysis of structures. The EM algorithm is a general-purpose method for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) that in this work is used to estimate state space models. As it is well known, the MLE enjoys some optimal properties from a statistical point of view, which make it very attractive in practice. However, the EM algorithm has two main drawbacks: its slow convergence and the dependence of the solution on the initial values used. This paper proposes two different strategies to choose initial values for the EM algorithm when used for operational modal analysis: to begin with the parameters estimated by Stochastic Subspace Identification method (SSI) and to start using random points.The effectiveness of the proposed identification method has been evaluated through numerical simulation and measured vibration data in the context of a benchmark problem. Modal parameters (natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of the benchmark structure have been estimated using SSI and the EM algorithm. On the whole, the results show that the application of the EM algorithm starting from the solution given by SSI is very useful to identify the vibration modes of a structure, discarding the spurious modes that appear in high order models and discovering other hidden modes. Similar results are obtained using random starting values, although this strategy allows us to analyze the solution of several starting points what overcome the dependence on the initial values used.

Cara, F. Javier; Carpio, Jaime; Juan, Jesús; Alarcón, Enrique

2012-08-01

45

Nonlinear impairment compensation using expectation maximization for dispersion managed and unmanaged PDM 16-QAM transmission.  

PubMed

In this paper, we show numerically and experimentally that expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is a powerful tool in combating system impairments such as fibre nonlinearities, inphase and quadrature (I/Q) modulator imperfections and laser linewidth. The EM algorithm is an iterative algorithm that can be used to compensate for the impairments which have an imprint on a signal constellation, i.e. rotation and distortion of the constellation points. The EM is especially effective for combating non-linear phase noise (NLPN). It is because NLPN severely distorts the signal constellation and this can be tracked by the EM. The gain in the nonlinear system tolerance for the system under consideration is shown to be dependent on the transmission scenario. We show experimentally that for a dispersion managed polarization multiplexed 16-QAM system at 14 Gbaud a gain in the nonlinear system tolerance of up to 3 dB can be obtained. For, a dispersion unmanaged system this gain reduces to 0.5 dB. PMID:23262850

Zibar, Darko; Winther, Ole; Franceschi, Niccolo; Borkowski, Robert; Caballero, Antonio; Arlunno, Valeria; Schmidt, Mikkel N; Gonzales, Neil Guerrero; Mao, Bangning; Ye, Yabin; Larsen, Knud J; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

2012-12-10

46

An homomorphic filtering and expectation maximization approach for the point spread function estimation in ultrasound imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern ultrasound imaging systems, the spatial resolution is severely limited due to the effects of both the finite aperture and overall bandwidth of ultrasound transducers and the non-negligible width of the transmitted ultrasound beams. This low spatial resolution remains the major limiting factor in the clinical usefulness of medical ultrasound images. In order to recover clinically important image details, which are often masked due to this resolution limitation, an image restoration procedure should be applied. To this end, an estimation of the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the ultrasound imaging system is required. This paper introduces a novel, original, reliable, and fast Maximum Likelihood (ML) approach for recovering the PSF of an ultrasound imaging system. This new PSF estimation method assumes as a constraint that the PSF is of known parametric form. Under this constraint, the parameter values of its associated Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) are then efficiently estimated using a homomorphic filter, a denoising step, and an expectation-maximization (EM) based clustering algorithm. Given this PSF estimate, a deconvolution can then be efficiently used in order to improve the spatial resolution of an ultrasound image and to obtain an estimate (independent of the properties of the imaging system) of the true tissue reflectivity function. The experiments reported in this paper demonstrate the efficiency and illustrate all the potential of this new estimation and blind deconvolution approach.

Benameur, S.; Mignotte, M.; Lavoie, F.

2012-02-01

47

Numerical estimation of adsorption energy distributions from adsorption isotherm data with the expectation-maximization method  

SciTech Connect

The expectation-maximization (EM) method of parameter estimation is used to calculate adsorption energy distributions of molecular probes from their adsorption isotherms. EM does not require prior knowledge of the distribution function, or the isotherm, requires no smoothing of the isotherm data, and converges with high stability toward the maximum-likelihood estimate. The method is therefore robust and accurate at high iteration numbers. The EM algorithm is tested with simulated energy distributions corresponding to unimodel Gaussian, bimodal Gaussian, Poisson distributions, and the distributions resulting from Misra isotherms. Theoretical isotherms are generated from these distributions using the Langmuir model, and then chromatographic band profiles are computed using the ideal model of chromatography. Noise is then introduced in the theoretical band profiles comparable to those observed experimentally. The isotherm is then calculated using the elution-by-characteristic points method. The energy distribution given by the EM method is compared to the original one. The results are contrasted to those obtained with the House and Jaycock algorithm HILDA and shown to be superior in terms of both robustness, accuracy, and information theory. 20 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Stanley, B.J.; Guiochon, G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1993-07-29

48

Numerical estimation of adsorption energy distributions from adsorption isotherm data with the expectation-maximization method  

SciTech Connect

The expectation-maximization (EM) method of parameter estimation is used to calculate adsorption energy distributions of molecular probes from their adsorption isotherms. EM does not require prior knowledge of the distribution function or the isotherm, requires no smoothing of the isotherm data, and converges with high stability towards the maximum-likelihood estimate. The method is therefore robust and accurate at high iteration numbers. The EM algorithm is tested with simulated energy distributions corresponding to unimodal Gaussian, bimodal Gaussian, Poisson distributions, and the distributions resulting from Misra isotherms. Theoretical isotherms are generated from these distributions using the Langmuir model, and then chromatographic band profiles are computed using the ideal model of chromatography. Noise is then introduced in the theoretical band profiles comparable to those observed experimentally. The isotherm is then calculated using the elution-by-characteristic points method. The energy distribution given by the EM method is compared to the original one. Results are contrasted to those obtained with the House and Jaycock algorithm HILDA, and shown to be superior in terms of robustness, accuracy, and information theory. The effect of undersampling of the high-pressure/low-energy region of the adsorption is reported and discussed for the EM algorithm, as well as the effect of signal-to-noise ratio on the degree of heterogeneity that may be estimated experimentally.

Stanley, B.J.; Guiochon, G. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-08-01

49

A real-time expectation-maximization algorithm for acquiring multiplanar maps of indoor environments with mobile robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract - This paper presents a real - time algorithm for ac - quiring compact 3D maps of indoor environments, using a mobile robot equipped with range and imaging sensors Building on previous work on real - time pose estimation during mapping [1], our approach extends the popular expectation maximization algorithm [2] to multi - surface models, and makes it

Sebastian Thrun; Christian Martin; Yufeng Liu; Dirk Hähnel; Rosemary Emery-Montemerlo; Deepayan Chakrabarti; Wolfram Burgard

2004-01-01

50

Distributed Optimization of Coupled Systems With Applications to Network Utility Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In network utility maximization (NUM) problems, it is generally assumed that user utilities are uncoupled, i.e., each utility depends only on local variables. Then the coupling in constraint functions among users sharing common resources can be decoupled by standard methods such as dual decomposition. However, in problems where cooperation or competition is modeled through the objective function, such as rate

Chee Wei Tan; Daniel P. Palomar; Mung Chiang

2006-01-01

51

Bandwidth utilization maximization of scientific RF communication systems  

SciTech Connect

A method for more efficiently utilizing the frequency bandwidth allocated for data transmission is presented. Current space and range communication systems use modulation and coding schemes that transmit 0.5 to 1.0 bits per second per Hertz of radio frequency bandwidth. The goal in this LDRD project is to increase the bandwidth utilization by employing advanced digital communications techniques. This is done with little or no increase in the transmit power which is usually very limited on airborne systems. Teaming with New Mexico State University, an implementation of trellis coded modulation (TCM), a coding and modulation scheme pioneered by Ungerboeck, was developed for this application and simulated on a computer. TCM provides a means for reliably transmitting data while simultaneously increasing bandwidth efficiency. The penalty is increased receiver complexity. In particular, the trellis decoder requires high-speed, application-specific digital signal processing (DSP) chips. A system solution based on the QualComm Viterbi decoder and the Graychip DSP receiver chips is presented.

Rey, D. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryan, W. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ross, M.

1997-01-01

52

Recursive expectation-maximization clustering: A method for identifying buffering mechanisms composed of phenomic modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between genetic and/or environmental factors are ubiquitous, affecting the phenotypes of organisms in complex ways. Knowledge about such interactions is becoming rate-limiting for our understanding of human disease and other biological phenomena. Phenomics refers to the integrative analysis of how all genes contribute to phenotype variation, entailing genome and organism level information. A systems biology view of gene interactions is critical for phenomics. Unfortunately the problem is intractable in humans; however, it can be addressed in simpler genetic model systems. Our research group has focused on the concept of genetic buffering of phenotypic variation, in studies employing the single-cell eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We have developed a methodology, quantitative high throughput cellular phenotyping (Q-HTCP), for high-resolution measurements of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on a genome-wide scale. Q-HTCP is being applied to the complete set of S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains, a unique resource for systematically mapping gene interactions. Genetic buffering is the idea that comprehensive and quantitative knowledge about how genes interact with respect to phenotypes will lead to an appreciation of how genes and pathways are functionally connected at a systems level to maintain homeostasis. However, extracting biologically useful information from Q-HTCP data is challenging, due to the multidimensional and nonlinear nature of gene interactions, together with a relative lack of prior biological information. Here we describe a new approach for mining quantitative genetic interaction data called recursive expectation-maximization clustering (REMc). We developed REMc to help discover phenomic modules, defined as sets of genes with similar patterns of interaction across a series of genetic or environmental perturbations. Such modules are reflective of buffering mechanisms, i.e., genes that play a related role in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. To develop the method, 297 gene deletion strains were selected based on gene-drug interactions with hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase enzyme activity, which is critical for DNA synthesis. To partition the gene functions, these 297 deletion strains were challenged with growth inhibitory drugs known to target different genes and cellular pathways. Q-HTCP-derived growth curves were used to quantify all gene interactions, and the data were used to test the performance of REMc. Fundamental advantages of REMc include objective assessment of total number of clusters and assignment to each cluster a log-likelihood value, which can be considered an indicator of statistical quality of clusters. To assess the biological quality of clusters, we developed a method called gene ontology information divergence z-score (GOid_z). GOid_z summarizes total enrichment of GO attributes within individual clusters. Using these and other criteria, we compared the performance of REMc to hierarchical and K-means clustering. The main conclusion is that REMc provides distinct efficiencies for mining Q-HTCP data. It facilitates identification of phenomic modules, which contribute to buffering mechanisms that underlie cellular homeostasis and the regulation of phenotypic expression.

Guo, Jingyu; Tian, Dehua; McKinney, Brett A.; Hartman, John L.

2010-06-01

53

Recursive expectation-maximization clustering: A method for identifying buffering mechanisms composed of phenomic modules  

PubMed Central

Interactions between genetic and?or environmental factors are ubiquitous, affecting the phenotypes of organisms in complex ways. Knowledge about such interactions is becoming rate-limiting for our understanding of human disease and other biological phenomena. Phenomics refers to the integrative analysis of how all genes contribute to phenotype variation, entailing genome and organism level information. A systems biology view of gene interactions is critical for phenomics. Unfortunately the problem is intractable in humans; however, it can be addressed in simpler genetic model systems. Our research group has focused on the concept of genetic buffering of phenotypic variation, in studies employing the single-cell eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We have developed a methodology, quantitative high throughput cellular phenotyping (Q-HTCP), for high-resolution measurements of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on a genome-wide scale. Q-HTCP is being applied to the complete set of S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains, a unique resource for systematically mapping gene interactions. Genetic buffering is the idea that comprehensive and quantitative knowledge about how genes interact with respect to phenotypes will lead to an appreciation of how genes and pathways are functionally connected at a systems level to maintain homeostasis. However, extracting biologically useful information from Q-HTCP data is challenging, due to the multidimensional and nonlinear nature of gene interactions, together with a relative lack of prior biological information. Here we describe a new approach for mining quantitative genetic interaction data called recursive expectation-maximization clustering (REMc). We developed REMc to help discover phenomic modules, defined as sets of genes with similar patterns of interaction across a series of genetic or environmental perturbations. Such modules are reflective of buffering mechanisms, i.e., genes that play a related role in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. To develop the method, 297 gene deletion strains were selected based on gene-drug interactions with hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase enzyme activity, which is critical for DNA synthesis. To partition the gene functions, these 297 deletion strains were challenged with growth inhibitory drugs known to target different genes and cellular pathways. Q-HTCP-derived growth curves were used to quantify all gene interactions, and the data were used to test the performance of REMc. Fundamental advantages of REMc include objective assessment of total number of clusters and assignment to each cluster a log-likelihood value, which can be considered an indicator of statistical quality of clusters. To assess the biological quality of clusters, we developed a method called gene ontology information divergence z-score (GOid_z). GOid_z summarizes total enrichment of GO attributes within individual clusters. Using these and other criteria, we compared the performance of REMc to hierarchical and K-means clustering. The main conclusion is that REMc provides distinct efficiencies for mining Q-HTCP data. It facilitates identification of phenomic modules, which contribute to buffering mechanisms that underlie cellular homeostasis and the regulation of phenotypic expression.

Guo, Jingyu; Tian, Dehua; McKinney, Brett A.; Hartman, John L.

2010-01-01

54

Convergence in Norm for Alternating Expectation-Maximization (EM) Type Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a sufficient condition for convergence of a general class of alternating estimationmaximization(EM) type continuous-parameter estimation algorithms with respect to a given norm.This class includes EM, penalized EM, Green's OSL-EM, and other approximate EM algorithms.The convergence analysis can be extended to include alternating coordinate-maximization EM algorithmssuch as Meng and Rubin's ECM and Fessler and Hero's SAGE. The condition for

Alfred O. Hero; Jeffrey A. Fessler

1995-01-01

55

A Real-Time Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Acquiring Multi-Planar Maps of Indoor Environments with Mobile Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a real-time algorithm for ac- quiring compact 3D maps of indoor environments, using a mobile robot equipped with range and imaging sensors. Building on previous work on real-time pose estimation during mapping (1), our approach extends the popular expectation maximization algorithm (2) to multi-surface models, and makes it amenable to real-time execution. Maps acquired by our algorithm

Sebastian Thrun; Christian Martin; Yufeng Liu; Dirk Hahnel; Rosemary Emery-Montemerlo; Deepayan Chakrabarti; Wolfram Burgard

56

Expectation Maximization Algorithm Based Haplotype Relative Risk (EM-HRR): Test of Linkage Disequilibrium Using Incomplete Case-Parents Trios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Haplotype Relative Risk (HRR) was first proposed [Falk et al., Ann Hum Genet 1987] to test for Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) between a marker and a putative disease locus using case-parent trios. Spurious association does not appear in such family-based studies under population admixture. In this paper, we extend the HRR to accommodate incomplete trios via the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm

Chao-Yu Guo; Anita L. DeStefano; Kathryn L. Lunetta; Josée Dupuis; L. Adrienne Cupples

2005-01-01

57

The Cocaine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ): Construction and Predictive Utility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An instrument to measure cocaine-related expectancies across a continuum of use, the Cocaine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ), was developed and tested with 765 college students and 87 cocaine abusers. Expectancy factors identified by the CEQ were found to be powerful predictors of cocaine use. (SLD)|

Jaffe, Adam J.; Kilbey, M. Marlyne

1994-01-01

58

The Effect of Placebo-Induced Changes in Expectancies on Maximal Force Production in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used false information about a placebo (milk-sugar tablet) to induce expectancies regarding force production. Forty-two college students were assigned to a placebo\\/placebo (PP), placebo\\/no-placebo (PN), or control group, and underwent baseline testing and two trials assessing one-repetition maximum (1 RM) strength on a bench press and seated leg press. The PP and PN groups improved significantly compared to

Vasandreas Kalasountas; Justy Reed; John Fitzpatrick

2007-01-01

59

An Anticipating Calculus Approach to the Utility Maximization of an Insider  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a financial market with an insider that has, at time t = 0, some additional information of the whole developing of the market. We use the forward integral, which is an anticipating integral, and the techniques of the Malliavin calculus so that we can take advantage of the privileged information to maximize the expected logarithmic

Jorge A; Reyla Navarro; David Nualarty

2003-01-01

60

Are pro-environmental consumption choices utility-maximizing? Evidence from subjective well-being data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies whether pro-environmental consumption choices are consistent with utility maximization and what role the consumption behavior of reference persons and one's own past behavior play in this context. By combining data on individuals' pro-environmental consumption from a unique data set with data on subjective well-being, we find that people could attain higher well-being (utility) by unilaterally consuming more

Heinz Welsch; Jan Kühling

2011-01-01

61

The Impact of Stochastic Noisy Feedback on Distributed Network Utility Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of distributed network utility maximization (NUM) algorithms hinges heavily on information feedback through message passing among network elements. In practical systems the feedback is often obtained using error-prone measurement mechanisms and suffers from random errors. In this paper, we investigate the impact of noisy feedback on distributed NUM. We first study the distributed NUM algorithms based on the

Junshan Zhang; Dong Zheng; Mung Chiang

2008-01-01

62

OPTUM : Optimum Portfolio Tool for Utility Maximization documentation and user's guide.  

SciTech Connect

The Optimum Portfolio Tool for Utility Maximization (OPTUM) is a versatile and powerful tool for selecting, optimizing, and analyzing portfolios. The software introduces a compact interface that facilitates problem definition, complex constraint specification, and portfolio analysis. The tool allows simple comparisons between user-preferred choices and optimized selections. OPTUM uses a portable, efficient, mixed-integer optimization engine (lp-solve) to derive the optimal mix of projects that satisfies the constraints and maximizes the total portfolio utility. OPTUM provides advanced features, such as convenient menus for specifying conditional constraints and specialized graphical displays of the optimal frontier and alternative solutions to assist in sensitivity visualization. OPTUM can be readily applied to other nonportfolio, resource-constrained optimization problems.

VanKuiken, J. C.; Jusko, M. J.; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

2008-09-30

63

Alternative Decompositions for Distributed Maximization of Network Utility: Framework and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network utility maximization (NUM) problems pro- vide an important approach to conduct network resource man- agement such as end-to-end rate allocation. In the existing literature, distributed implementations are typically achieved by the means of the so-called dual decomposition technique. However, the span of decomposition possibilities includes many other elements which thus far have not been fully exploited such as the

Daniel Pérez Palomar; Mung Chiang

2006-01-01

64

Distributed power control with limited message passing for nonconcave utility maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmit power control in wireless networks has long been recognized as an effective mechanism to mitigate co-channel interference. The optimal transmit power control problem is typically non-convex if a system utility is to be maximized. In our recent work [1], we proposed a distributed algorithm, referred to as GLAD, that obtains the global optimal solution to the non-convex power control

Li Ping Qian

2011-01-01

65

Expected Utility Illustrated: A Graphical Analysis of Gambles with More than Two Possible Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a simple geometric method to graphically illustrate the expected utility from a gamble with more than two possible outcomes. This geometric result gives economics students a simple visual aid for studying expected utility theory and enables them to analyze a richer set of decision problems under uncertainty compared to what…

Chen, Frederick H.

2010-01-01

66

Iterative three-dimensional expectation maximization restoration of single photon emission computed tomography images: Application in striatal imaging  

SciTech Connect

Single photon emission computed tomography imaging suffers from poor spatial resolution and high statistical noise. Consequently, the contrast of small structures is reduced, the visual detection of defects is limited and precise quantification is difficult. To improve the contrast, it is possible to include the spatially variant point spread function of the detection system into the iterative reconstruction algorithm. This kind of method is well known to be effective, but time consuming. We have developed a faster method to account for the spatial resolution loss in three dimensions, based on a postreconstruction restoration method. The method uses two steps. First, a noncorrected iterative ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction is performed and, in the second step, a three-dimensional (3D) iterative maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) a posteriori spatial restoration of the reconstructed volume is done. In this paper, we compare to the standard OSEM-3D method, in three studies (two in simulation and one from experimental data). In the two first studies, contrast, noise, and visual detection of defects are studied. In the third study, a quantitative analysis is performed from data obtained with an anthropomorphic striatal phantom filled with 123-I. From the simulations, we demonstrate that contrast as a function of noise and lesion detectability are very similar for both OSEM-3D and OSEM-R methods. In the experimental study, we obtained very similar values of activity-quantification ratios for different regions in the brain. The advantage of OSEM-R compared to OSEM-3D is a substantial gain of processing time. This gain depends on several factors. In a typical situation, for a 128x128 acquisition of 120 projections, OSEM-R is 13 or 25 times faster than OSEM-3D, depending on the calculation method used in the iterative restoration. In this paper, the OSEM-R method is tested with the approximation of depth independent resolution. For the striatum this approximation is appropriate, but for other clinical situations we will need to include a spatially varying response. Such a response is already included in OSEM-3D.

Gantet, Pierre; Payoux, Pierre; Celler, Anna; Majorel, Cynthia; Gourion, Daniel; Noll, Dominikus; Esquerre, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire de Biophysique EA3033, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, (France); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada); Laboratoire de Biophysique EA3033, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, (France); Laboratoire d'Analyse non lineaire et de geometrie, Faculte des sciences, Avignon, (France); Mathematiques pour l'Industrie et la Physique, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, (France); Laboratoire de Biophysique EA3033, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, (France)

2006-01-15

67

Novel Hybrid GPU-CPU Implementation of Parallelized Monte Carlo Parametric Expectation Maximization Estimation Method for Population Pharmacokinetic Data Analysis.  

PubMed

The development of a population PK/PD model, an essential component for model-based drug development, is both time- and labor-intensive. A graphical-processing unit (GPU) computing technology has been proposed and used to accelerate many scientific computations. The objective of this study was to develop a hybrid GPU-CPU implementation of parallelized Monte Carlo parametric expectation maximization (MCPEM) estimation algorithm for population PK data analysis. A hybrid GPU-CPU implementation of the MCPEM algorithm (MCPEMGPU) and identical algorithm that is designed for the single CPU (MCPEMCPU) were developed using MATLAB in a single computer equipped with dual Xeon 6-Core E5690 CPU and a NVIDIA Tesla C2070 GPU parallel computing card that contained 448 stream processors. Two different PK models with rich/sparse sampling design schemes were used to simulate population data in assessing the performance of MCPEMCPU and MCPEMGPU. Results were analyzed by comparing the parameter estimation and model computation times. Speedup factor was used to assess the relative benefit of parallelized MCPEMGPU over MCPEMCPU in shortening model computation time. The MCPEMGPU consistently achieved shorter computation time than the MCPEMCPU and can offer more than 48-fold speedup using a single GPU card. The novel hybrid GPU-CPU implementation of parallelized MCPEM algorithm developed in this study holds a great promise in serving as the core for the next-generation of modeling software for population PK/PD analysis. PMID:24002801

Ng, C M

2013-09-04

68

Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for Determining Natural Selection of Y-Linked Genes Through Two-Sex Branching Processes  

PubMed Central

Abstract A two-dimensional bisexual branching process has recently been presented for the analysis of the generation-to-generation evolution of the number of carriers of a Y-linked gene. In this model, preference of females for males with a specific genetic characteristic is assumed to be determined by an allele of the gene. It has been shown that the behavior of this kind of Y-linked gene is strongly related to the reproduction law of each genotype. In practice, the corresponding offspring distributions are usually unknown, and it is necessary to develop their estimation theory in order to determine the natural selection of the gene. Here we deal with the estimation problem for the offspring distribution of each genotype of a Y-linked gene when the only observable data are each generation's total numbers of males of each genotype and of females. We set out the problem in a non parametric framework and obtain the maximum likelihood estimators of the offspring distributions using an expectation-maximization algorithm. From these estimators, we also derive the estimators for the reproduction mean of each genotype and forecast the distribution of the future population sizes. Finally, we check the accuracy of the algorithm by means of a simulation study.

Gonzalez, M.; Martinez, R.

2012-01-01

69

Hemodynamic segmentation of brain perfusion images with delay and dispersion effects using an expectation-maximization algorithm.  

PubMed

Automatic identification of various perfusion compartments from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance brain images can assist in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. The principle of segmentation methods was based on the clustering of bolus transit-time profiles to discern areas of different tissues. However, the cerebrovascular diseases may result in a delayed and dispersed local perfusion and therefore alter the hemodynamic signal profiles. Assessing the accuracy of the segmentation technique under delayed/dispersed circumstance is critical to accurately evaluate the severity of the vascular disease. In this study, we improved the segmentation method of expectation-maximization algorithm by using the results of hierarchical clustering on whitened perfusion data as initial parameters for a mixture of multivariate Gaussians model. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of proposed method under different levels of delay, dispersion, and noise of signal profiles in tissue segmentation. The proposed method was used to classify brain tissue types using perfusion data from five normal participants, a patient with unilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery, and a patient with moyamoya disease. Our results showed that the normal, delayed or dispersed hemodynamics can be well differentiated for patients, and therefore the local arterial input function for impaired tissues can be recognized to minimize the error when estimating the cerebral blood flow. Furthermore, the tissue in the risk of infarct and the tissue with or without the complementary blood supply from the communicating arteries can be identified. PMID:23894386

Lu, Chia-Feng; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chang, Feng-Chi; Huang, Shang-Ran; Chou, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yu-Te

2013-07-19

70

Employing a Monte Carlo algorithm in expectation maximization restricted maximum likelihood estimation of the linear mixed model.  

PubMed

Multiple-trait and random regression models have multiplied the number of equations needed for the estimation of variance components. To avoid inversion or decomposition of a large coefficient matrix, we propose estimation of variance components by Monte Carlo expectation maximization restricted maximum likelihood (MC EM REML) for multiple-trait linear mixed models. Implementation is based on full-model sampling for calculating the prediction error variances required for EM REML. Performance of the analytical and the MC EM REML algorithm was compared using a simulated and a field data set. For field data, results from both algorithms corresponded well even with one MC sample within an MC EM REML round. The magnitude of the standard errors of estimated prediction error variances depended on the formula used to calculate them and on the MC sample size within an MC EM REML round. Sampling variation in MC EM REML did not impair the convergence behaviour of the solutions compared with analytical EM REML analysis. A convergence criterion that takes into account the sampling variation was developed to monitor convergence for the MC EM REML algorithm. For the field data set, MC EM REML proved far superior to analytical EM REML both in computing time and in memory need. PMID:23148971

Matilainen, K; Mäntysaari, E A; Lidauer, M H; Strandén, I; Thompson, R

2012-04-28

71

Expectation-maximization algorithm for determining natural selection of Y-linked genes through two-sex branching processes.  

PubMed

A two-dimensional bisexual branching process has recently been presented for the analysis of the generation-to-generation evolution of the number of carriers of a Y-linked gene. In this model, preference of females for males with a specific genetic characteristic is assumed to be determined by an allele of the gene. It has been shown that the behavior of this kind of Y-linked gene is strongly related to the reproduction law of each genotype. In practice, the corresponding offspring distributions are usually unknown, and it is necessary to develop their estimation theory in order to determine the natural selection of the gene. Here we deal with the estimation problem for the offspring distribution of each genotype of a Y-linked gene when the only observable data are each generation's total numbers of males of each genotype and of females. We set out the problem in a non parametric framework and obtain the maximum likelihood estimators of the offspring distributions using an expectation-maximization algorithm. From these estimators, we also derive the estimators for the reproduction mean of each genotype and forecast the distribution of the future population sizes. Finally, we check the accuracy of the algorithm by means of a simulation study. PMID:22924631

González, M; Gutiérrez, C; Martínez, R

2012-08-27

72

Evaluation of various wavelet bases for use in wavelet-based multiresolution expectation maximization image reconstruction algorithm for PET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation based Expectation Maximization (EM) reconstruction algorithm has shown to provide good quality reconstruction for PET. Our previous work introduced the multigrid EM (MGEM) and multiresolution (MREM) and Wavelet based Multiresolution EM (WMREM) algorithm for PET image reconstruction. This paper investigates the use of various wavelets in the new Wavelet based Multiresolution EM (WMREM) algorithm. The wavelets are used to construct a multiresolution data space, which is then used in the estimation process. The beauty of the wavelet transform to provide localized frequency-space representation of the data allows us to perform the estimation using these decomposed components. The advantage of this method lies with the fact that the noise in the acquired data becomes localized in the high-high or diagonal frequency bands and not using these bands for estimation at coarser resolution helps speed up the recovery of various frequency components with reduced noise estimation. Different wavelet bases result in different reconstructions. Custom wavelets are designed for the reconstruction process and these wavelets provide better results than the commonly known wavelets. The WMREM reconstruction algorithm is implemented to reconstruct simulated phantom data and real data.

Raheja, Amar; Dhawan, Atam P.

2000-06-01

73

Household Characteristics, Ability and Education: Evidence from a Dynamic Expected Utility Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate a Dynamic Programming model of the decision between continuing schooling or entering the labor market using a panel from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLSY). The model, set in an expected utility framework (with a power utility function), fits data on both schooling attainments and wage very well. We find a degree of relative risk aversion much smaller than

Christian Belzil; Jörgen Hansen

1999-01-01

74

Utility Maximization for Switched ATM Networks Using AN Integrated Cascade Overflow Model.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops a new network control framework that combines call admission control, bandwidth reservation, quasi-static VP dimensioning, and cascaded routing in an integrated fashion to optimize the weighted throughput. The scheme is called Integrated Cascade Overflow Model (I-COM) and is based on a multi-service multi-resource (MSMR) network environment. The model utilizes all of the available network resources to carry a connection instead of using only specific resources allocated for a particular class of service. I-COM maintains the simplicity of static virtual path (VP) allocations while exhibiting higher throughput properties of dynamic VP allocation. Increased efficiencies are achieved by using the concept of Virtual Capacity based on the overflow of low quality of service (QoS) connections to high QOS resources in a cascaded fashion under certain conditions. Simulation and performance results indicate that the adaptive I-COM outperforms schemes that completely share or dedicate resources. The trade-off between statistical gain and traffic isolation is quantified, and it is shown that I-COM allows sharing of network resources without compromising the quality of service requirements for all accepted connections. Partial sharing of resources in a controlled manner leads to increased weighted throughput. This new framework provides an optimal level of network control that is not based on fairness to a particular class of service but on the utility maximization of the network provider.

Bose, Joydeep

75

Correcting expected utility for comparisons between alternative outcomes: A unified parameterization of regret and disappointment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified parameterization of an expected utility model corrected for regret and disappointment effects is presented, constrained\\u000a to conform to a well-known choice pattern, the common consequence effect, a special case of the Allais paradox. For choices\\u000a subject to regret and disappointment effects to be consistent with this choice pattern, the function that corrects the utility\\u000a of the obtained outcome

Carlos E. Laciana; Elke U. Weber

2008-01-01

76

Joint Decision-Directed Channel and Noise-Variance Estimation for MIMO OFDM\\/SDMA Systems Based on Expectation-Conditional Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A joint channel impulse response (CIR) and noise-variance estimation scheme is proposed for multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency- division multiplexing\\/space-division multiple access (OFDM\\/ SDMA) systems, which is based on the expectation-conditional maximization (ECM) algorithm. Multiple users communicating over fading channels exhibiting a range of different characteristics are considered in this paper. Channel estimation becomes quite challenging in this scenario since

Jiankang Zhang; Lajos Hanzo; Xiaomin Mu

2011-01-01

77

The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or “repertoire” of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period

Gordon R Foxall; Jorge M Oliveira-Castro; Teresa C Schrezenmaier

2004-01-01

78

The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization.  

PubMed

Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize. PMID:15157975

Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

2004-06-30

79

Social and Professional Participation of Individuals Who Are Deaf: Utilizing the Psychosocial Potential Maximization Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article documents a strength-based understanding of how individuals who are deaf maximize their social and professional potential. This exploratory study was conducted with 49 adult participants who are deaf (n = 30) and who have typical hearing (n = 19) residing in America, Australia, England, and South Africa. The findings support a…

Jacobs, Paul G.; Brown, P. Margaret; Paatsch, Louise

2012-01-01

80

Social and Professional Participation of Individuals Who Are Deaf: Utilizing the Psychosocial Potential Maximization Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents a strength-based understanding of how individuals who are deaf maximize their social and professional potential. This exploratory study was conducted with 49 adult participants who are deaf (n = 30) and who have typical hearing (n = 19) residing in America, Australia, England, and South Africa. The findings support a…

Jacobs, Paul G.; Brown, P. Margaret; Paatsch, Louise

2012-01-01

81

Analysis of the volume of red blood cells: application of the expectation-maximization algorithm to grouped data from the doubly-truncated lognormal distribution.  

PubMed

In accordance with general principles recommended by the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (1982, Journal of Clinical Pathology 35, 1320-1322), we have developed statistical methods for the analysis of red cell volume distributions. To select an appropriate reference distribution for goodness-of-fit testing, we derived a mathematical model of erythropoiesis that predicted a lognormal form for the distribution of erythrocyte volumes. Model predictions were then tested using samples obtained from 50 healthy individuals. Each grouped red cell volume distribution was doubly-truncated to eliminate artifactual frequency counts. Distribution parameter estimates were computed using the expectation-maximization algorithm, a missing information technique. Results of the one-sample chi-square goodness-of-fit test showed a fairly even distribution of P-values over the interval. Examples of the application of these statistical procedures to distributions from patients with anemia are given. Our results suggest that, for the analysis of red blood cell volumes, (i) parameter estimation should be made with the expectation-maximization method, and (ii) the truncated lognormal distribution should be used as a reference distribution for goodness-of-fit testing. This method could be applied to any set of grouped doubly-truncated data which, after transformation, follows the normal model. PMID:3719051

McLaren, C E; Brittenham, G M; Hasselblad, V

1986-03-01

82

Developments in Non-expected Utility Theory: The Hunt for a Descriptive Theory of Choice under Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent developments in the economic theory of individual decision making under risk. Since the 1950s it has been known that individual choices violate the standard model of expected utility in predictable ways. Considerable research effort has now been devoted to the project of developing a superior descriptive model. Following an overview of non-expected utility theories which distinguishes

Chris Starmer

2000-01-01

83

The expectation-maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common task in signal processing is the estimation of the parameters of a probability distribution function. Perhaps the most frequently encountered estimation problem is the estimation of the mean of a signal in noise. In many parameter estimation problems the situation is more complicated because direct access to the data necessary to estimate the parameters is impossible, or some

T. K. Moon

1996-01-01

84

New method for tuning hyperparameter for the total variation norm in the maximum a posteriori ordered subsets expectation maximization reconstruction in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the tradeoff between noise and bias, and to improve uniformity of the reconstructed myocardium while preserving spatial resolution in parallel-beam collimator SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) we investigated the most advantageous approach to provide reliable estimate of the optimal value of hyperparameter for the Total Variation (TV) norm in the iterative Bayesian Maximum A Posteriori Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (MAP-OSEM) one step late tomographic reconstruction with Gibbs prior. Our aim was to find the optimal value of hyperparameter corresponding to the lowest bias at the lowest noise while maximizing uniformity and spatial resolution for the reconstructed myocardium in SPECT MPI. We found that the L-curve method that is by definition a global technique provides good guidance for selection of the optimal value of the hyperparameter. However, for a heterogeneous object such as human thorax the fine-tuning of the hyperparameter's value can be only accomplished by means of a local method such as the proposed bias-noise distance (BND) curve. We established that our BND-curve method provides accurate optimized hyperparameter's value estimation as long as the region of interest volume for which it is defined is sufficiently large and is located sufficiently close to the myocardium.

Yang, Zhaoxia; Krol, Andrzej; Xu, Yuesheng; Feiglin, David H.

2011-03-01

85

The Supply of University Enrollments: University Administrators as Utility Maximizing Bureaucrats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supply of enrollments in higher education has receivedrelatively little attention in both theoretical and empiricaleconomic research. To address this, we formulate and test amodel of the supply of enrollments in higher education inwhich administrators are modeled as utility maximizingbureaucrats. We find evidence that individual presidents andprovosts have a significant effect on enrollment supply andfaculty demand in a panel of

Dennis Coates; Brad R. Humphreys

2002-01-01

86

Nonlinear spatio-temporal filtering of dynamic PET data using a four-dimensional Gaussian filter and expectation-maximization deconvolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method for denoising dynamic PET data, spatio-temporal expectation-maximization (STEM) filtering, that combines four-dimensional Gaussian filtering with EM deconvolution. The initial Gaussian filter suppresses noise at a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies and EM deconvolution quickly restores the frequencies most important to the signal. We aim to demonstrate that STEM filtering can improve variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images without introducing significant bias. We evaluate STEM filtering with a dynamic phantom study, and with simulated and human dynamic PET studies of a tracer with reversible binding behaviour, [C-11]raclopride, and a tracer with irreversible binding behaviour, [F-18]FDOPA. STEM filtering is compared to a number of established three and four-dimensional denoising methods. STEM filtering provides substantial improvements in variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images generated with a number of kinetic analysis techniques while introducing little bias. STEM filtering does bias early frames, but this does not affect quantitative parameter estimates. STEM filtering is shown to be superior to the other simple denoising methods studied. STEM filtering is a simple and effective denoising method that could be valuable for a wide range of dynamic PET applications.

Floberg, J. M.; Holden, J. E.

2013-02-01

87

Illustrating Caffeine's Pharmacological and Expectancy Effects Utilizing a Balanced Placebo Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hypothesizes that pharmacological and expectancy effects may be two principles that govern caffeine consumption in the same way they affect other drug use. Tests this theory through a balanced placebo design on 100 male undergraduate students. Expectancy set and caffeine content appeared equally powerful, and worked additionally, to affect…

Lotshaw, Sandra C.; And Others

1996-01-01

88

Do non-expected utility choice patterns spring from hazy preferences? An experimental study of choice ‘errors’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals often have only incompletely known preferences when choosing between pair-wise gambles. Particular presentations of the choice problem may then passively encourage the use of some choice method to clarify the preference. Different presentational displays can then lead to choice patterns predicted by one or other Generalised Expected Utility theory. When a preference is not or cannot be constructed, choices

D. J. Butler

2000-01-01

89

A horse race around a Möbius strip: A review and a test of utility-maximizing and organizational-process models of public expenditure decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows how we might choose between utility-maximizing and organizational-process models of public expenditure decisions and concludes we ought not to try. Both contribute to our understanding of public expenditure outcomes. Furthermore, an integrated approach could better explain public expenditure decisions, than could either approach taken alone.

Fred Thompson; Richard Williams

1979-01-01

90

Maximizing the utility of radio spectrum: Broadband spectrum measurements and occupancy model for use by cognitive radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio spectrum is a vital national asset; proper management of this finite resource is essential to the operation and development of telecommunications, radio-navigation, radio astronomy, and passive remote sensing services. To maximize the utility of the radio spectrum, knowledge of its current usage is beneficial. As a result, several spectrum studies have been conducted in urban Atlanta, suburban Atlanta, and rural North Carolina. These studies improve upon past spectrum studies by resolving spectrum usage by nearly all its possible parameters: frequency, time, polarization, azimuth, and location type. The continuous frequency range from 400MHz to 7.2 GHz was measured with a custom-designed system. More than 8 billion spectrum measurements were taken over several months of observation. A multi-parameter spectrum usage detection method was developed and analyzed with data from the spectrum studies. This method was designed to exploit all the characteristics of spectral information that was available from the spectrum studies. Analysis of the spectrum studies showed significant levels of underuse. The level of spectrum usage in time and azimuthal space was determined to be only 6.5 % for the urban Atlanta, 5.3 % for suburban Atlanta, and 0.8 % for the rural North Carolina spectrum studies. Most of the frequencies measured never experienced usage. Interference was detected in several protected radio astronomy and sensitive radio navigation bands. A cognitive radio network architecture to share spectrum with fixed microwave systems was developed. The architecture uses a broker-based sharing method to control spectrum access and investigate interference issues.

Petrin, Allen J.

91

MAXIMIZING SCIENCE DATA RETURN: A FAST, COST EFFECTIVE METHOD TO SIMULATE AND ANALYZE EXPECTED DATA RETURN FOR THE MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER MISSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) will investigate Mars to a level of detail that will generate a 25-fold increase in data compared to previous missions, demanding time on an already crowded Deep Space Network (DSN). The MRO scientists and spacecraft provider will need to carefully design the spacecraft's instruments, command and data handling (C&DH), and telecommunications subsystems to maximize the

Cherissa Fischer

92

Privatization of state-owned electric utility in Thailand: Expected effects on economic efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation analyzes the prospects of improving the economic efficiency of electricity generation in Thailand by privatization. It examines the monopoly state-owned electric utility, its cost minimizing behavior, and the induced distortion in input prices. This study employs the generalized cost function to investigate the economic efficiency. The basic model follows the relative price efficiency analysis developed by Atkinson and Halvorsen (1984). The econometric models estimate and test the effects of the cost distortion on input utilization and on productivity growth. The existence of scale economies is tested. The empirical results reveal the efficient performance of EGAT under the current environment. One could not reject the efficiency of input choice. Productivity growth rose around 1.15 per cent per year during the study period. The total factor productivity (TFP) growth indicates no remarkably divergent predictions between the electricity generating sector and the industrial sector. This implies that EGAT's productivity grew at the same annual rate as that of the average for total privately owned manufacturing firms. It appears that the smaller power plants attained higher positive percentages of scale economies while the larger power plants did not. The minimum positive value of scale economies and the minimum average cost reported at 260 MW (computed at 65% load factor) of power plant size. The diseconomies of scale of the larger power plants and the U-shaped average cost curve support that the market could absorb several suppliers, particularly at the 260 MW size. The promotion of competition in the electricity generating sector could not be faulted in terms of sacrificing economies of scale. The recommendation drawn from this study is that there is no need to privatize EGAT. The price efficiency test could not reject the hypothesis that EGAT fulfill the objective of cost minimization.

Ruangrong, P.

1992-01-01

93

Training Parents To Utilize Support Strategies To Maximize Their Children's School Experiences and Foster Successful School Completion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One very active approach that school personnel can employ to help at-risk students to successfully complete school is to maximize the natural parent support system as early as possible. Parent training programs generally adhere to one of the following models: (1) the parent-as-teacher model, which trains parents to use behavior management…

Polirstok, Susan Rovet

94

GUIDELINES FOR ENSURING AND MAXIMIZING THE QUALITY, OBJECTIVITY, UTILITY, AND INTEGRITY OF INFORMATION DISSEMINATED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Developed in response to guidelines issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)1 under Section 515(a) of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law 106-554; H.R. 5658), the Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Ob...

95

Utility-connected power converter for maximizing power transfer from a photovoltaic source while drawing ripple-free current  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a power converter for coupling photovoltaic arrays to the utility grid. The converter draws a programmable, ripple-free DC current from the photovoltaic array and injects power into the grid at unity power factor. The programmable input current feature makes this converter ideal for use with maximum power point tracking technology. The proposed converter has an additional unique

T. Brekken; N. Bhiwapurkar; M. Rathi; N. Mohan; C. Henze; L. R. Moumneh

2002-01-01

96

Toxicity study of the volatile constituents of Myoga utilizing acute dermal irritation assays and the Guinea-pig Maximization test.  

PubMed

Myoga is a fragrant plant which is the special product of Japan and is cultivated throughout Japan. According to our earlier investigation (unpublished data) of myoga cultivators in Japan, 8 of 35 cultivators experienced contact dermatitis in the harvest season. The purpose of this study was to assess the allergenicity of myoga and its major volatile components. The volatile components of myoga were analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC). They included a-pinene, beta-pinene and R-(+)-limonene. We performed a toxicity study of each of the major fragrant components of myoga using acute dermal irritation assays and the Guinea-Pig Maximization test (GPMT) in order to probe the mechanism of allergic contact dermatitis. In acute dermal irritation assays, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and limonene showed positive responses at concentrations of 4%; limonene oxide at 20% and myoga showed a positive response at concentrations of 100%. From the results of the GPMT, according to Kligman scores, limonene oxide was identified as an extreme skin sensitizer and myoga as a mild skin sensitizer. The results of the present study show that R-(+)-limonene is the most important allergen amongst the chemical components of myoga, and we consider it to be the reason why myoga cultivators experience allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:17179641

Wei, Qingjun; Harada, Koichi; Ohmori, Shoko; Minamoto, Keiko; Wei, Changnian; Ueda, Atsushi

2006-11-01

97

Stable tooth contacts in intercuspal occlusion makes for utilities of the jaw elevators during maximal voluntary clenching.  

PubMed

Data are inconsistent concerning whether the level of the surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity of jaw-closing muscles increases when biting forces elevated during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC). In this study, T-Scan III system and BioEMG III system were used to record bite force, occlusal contacts and SEMG activity of the anterior temporalis (TA) and of the masseter muscles (MM) simultaneously. Recordings were obtained from 16 healthy young adult males during different conditions: (i) a fast MVC from resting position to intercuspal position (ICP); (ii) mandibular movements from ICP to protrusive or lateral edge-to-edge positions with teeth in contact with biting; (iii) a fast MVC in protrusive and lateral edge-to-edge positions. A higher level of SEMG activity was associated with a higher bite force during occluding movements (P < 0.05). However, during fast MVC from rest to ICP, the largest number of occlusal contacts was achieved and distributed more symmetrically, the highest level of biting force was obtained, but the SEMG activity of the jaw elevator muscles was reduced compared with its maximum level (P < 0.05). This phenomenon was not observed during the fast MVC in protrusive or lateral edge-to-edge positions. The present results that a lower SEMG activity was associated with the largest number of occlusal contacts and the highest level of bite force during centric MVC demonstrated a complex integration of jaw-closing muscles when a stable occlusion is present. PMID:23480460

Wang, X-R; Zhang, Y; Xing, N; Xu, Y-F; Wang, M-Q

2013-03-11

98

Dietary chromic oxide inclusion level required to maximize glucose utilization in hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus× O. aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the influence of dietary chromic oxide (Cr2O3) on glucose utilization and digestibility by hybrid juvenile tilapia. Eight levels of Cr2O3 (0, 2, 10, 50, 100, 300, 1000 and 5000 mg\\/kg) were incorporated into the basal diet containing glucose as the carbohydrate source. Each of the eight diets was fed to triplicate groups

Shi-Yen Shiau; Shwu-Mei Shy

1998-01-01

99

Home nursing and home help for dementia patients: Predictors for utilization and expected quality from a family caregiver's point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the factors that influence utilization of home nursing and home help or about quality expectations of family caregivers of a dementia patient. These questions are addressed in the following paper. The cross-sectional study was carried out as an anonymous written survey of family caregivers of dementia patients in four regions of Germany. Quantitative and qualitative data

Elmar Graessel; Katharina Luttenberger; Stefan Bleich; Raffaela Adabbo; Carolin Donath

2011-01-01

100

Four notions of mean preserving increase in risk, risk attitudes and applications to the Rank-Dependent Expected Utility model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract :This article presents various notions of risk generated by the intuitively appealing single-crossing operations between distribution functions. These stochastic orders, Bickel & Lehmann dispersion or (its equal-mean version) Quiggin's monotone mean-preserving increase in risk and Jewitt's location-independent risk, have proved to be useful in the study of Pareto allocations, ordering of insurance premia and other applications in the Expected

Alain Chateauneuf; Michele Cohen; Isaac Meilijson

2008-01-01

101

A Study of the Social Psychological Consequences of the Announcement to Close Naval Shipyards. A subjectively Expected Utility Model with Moderator Variables in Relation to Employee Decisions on Opposition to a Navy Yard Closing Announcement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subjectively expected utility (SEU) model of decision making under uncertainty requires subjective probability and subjective value or utility variables. The study, using non-experimental survey data collected from civilian employees at the Brooklyn N...

R. H. Flast S. S. Zalkind

1973-01-01

102

Prognostic utility of predischarge dipyridamole-thallium imaging compared to predischarge submaximal exercise electrocardiography and maximal exercise thallium imaging after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

The prognostic value of predischarge dipyridamole-thallium scanning after uncomplicated myocardial infarction was determined by comparison with submaximal exercise electrocardiography and 6-week maximal exercise thallium imaging and by correlation with clinical events. Two endpoints were defined: cardiac events and severe ischemic potential. Of the 40 patients studied, 8 had cardiac events within 6 months (1 died, 3 had myocardial infarction and 4 had unstable angina requiring hospitalization). The finding of any redistribution on dipyridamole-thallium scanning was common (77%) in these patients and had poor specificity (29%). Redistribution outside of the infarct zone, however, had equivalent sensitivity (63%) and better specificity (75%) for events (p less than 0.05). Both predischarge dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise electrocardiography identified 5 of the 8 events (p = 0.04 and 0.07, respectively). The negative predictive accuracy for events for both dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise electrocardiography was 88%. In addition to the 8 patients with events, 16 other patients had severe ischemic potential (6 had coronary bypass surgery, 1 had inoperable 3-vessel disease and 9 had markedly abnormal 6-week maximal exercise tests). Predischarge dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise testing also identified 8 and 7 of these 16 patients with severe ischemic potential, respectively. Six of the 8 cardiac events occurred before 6-week follow-up. A maximal exercise thallium test at 6 weeks identified 1 of the 2 additional events within 6 months correctly. Thallium redistribution after dipyridamole in coronary territories outside the infarct zone is a sensitive and specific predictor of subsequent cardiac events and identifies patients with severe ischemic potential.

Gimple, L.W.; Hutter, A.M. Jr.; Guiney, T.E.; Boucher, C.A. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

1989-12-01

103

Life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give simple upper and lower bounds on life expectancy. In a life-table population, if e(0) is the life expectancy at birth, M is the median length of life, and e(M) is the expected remaining life at age M, then (M+e(M))\\/2?e(0)?M+e(M)\\/2. In general, for any age x, if e(x) is the expected remaining life at age x, and ?(x) is

Joel E. Cohen

2011-01-01

104

GUIDELINES FOR NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. PROCEDURES FOR REDUCTION OF NOX EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZATION OF BOILER EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, which has been reviewed by industry experts, reflects the experience developed in successfully applying combustion modifications to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Although the report emphasizes coal-fired equipment, the same principles can be ap...

105

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the ninth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. The pilot-scale testing phase of the project has been completed. Calculations are essentially completed for implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The REI Configurable Fireside Simulator (CFS) has proven to be an essential component to provide input for these calculations. Niksa Energy Associates expects to deliver their final report in February 2003. Work has continued on the project final report.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2003-01-29

106

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 10), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was compiled with Galatia coal and injected through the dual-register burner. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur Illinois Basin coal ({approx}1.0% S). The dual-register burner is a generic low-NO{sub x} burner that incorporates two independent wind boxes. In the second test (Test 11), regular ({approx}70% passing 200 mesh) and finely ground ({approx}90% passing 200 mesh) Pratt Seam coal was injected through the single-register burner to determine if coal grind affects NO{sub x} and unburned carbon emissions. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Significant progress has been made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. No additional results of CFD modeling have been received as delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator is expected during the next quarter. Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments with the single-register burner and a low-volatility bituminous coal. Some delays have been experienced in the acquisition and processing of biomass. Finally, a project review was held at the offices of Southern Research in Birmingham, on February 27, 2002.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2002-04-30

107

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

In full-scale boilers, the effect of biomass cofiring on NO{sub x} and unburned carbon (UBC) emissions has been found to be site-specific. Few sets of field data are comparable and no consistent database of information exists upon which cofiring fuel choice or injection system design can be based to assure that NOX emissions will be minimized and UBC be reduced. This report presents the results of a comprehensive project that generated an extensive set of pilot-scale test data that were used to validate a new predictive model for the cofiring of biomass and coal. All testing was performed at the 3.6 MMBtu/hr (1.75 MW{sub t}) Southern Company Services/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility where a variety of burner configurations, coals, biomasses, and biomass injection schemes were utilized to generate a database of consistent, scalable, experimental results (422 separate test conditions). This database was then used to validate a new model for predicting NO{sub x} and UBC emissions from the cofiring of biomass and coal. This model is based on an Advanced Post-Processing (APP) technique that generates an equivalent network of idealized reactor elements from a conventional CFD simulation. The APP reactor network is a computational environment that allows for the incorporation of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and provides a new tool to quantify NOx and UBC emissions for any cofired combination of coal and biomass.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa

2003-04-30

108

Great Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…

Natale, Jo Anna

1993-01-01

109

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2008-10-17

110

Discovery of sleep composition types using expectation-maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human sleep exhibits characteristic patterns during the course of a full night, exemplified by alternation of deep sleep (stage N3\\/4) and light sleep (stages N1 and N2 occasionally interrupted by REM sleep). However, individual variations in this pattern occur. This paper uncovers ac oarse classif ication of such sleep patterns into types described by varyingbalancesamongall-night summary variables such as sleep

Amro Khasawneh; Sergio A. Alvarez; Carolina Ruiz; Shivin Misra; Majaz Moonis

2010-01-01

111

SLAM with Expectation Maximization for moveable object tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is to compute the posterior distribution over landmark poses. Typically, this is made possible through the static world assumption - the landmarks remain in the same location throughout the mapping procedure. Some prior work has addressed this assumption by splitting maps into static and dynamic sets, or by recognizing moving landmarks and

John G. Rogers; Alexander J. B. Trevor; Carlos Nieto-Granda; Henrik I. Christensen

2010-01-01

112

UTILITY MAXIMIZATION IN AN INSIDER INFLUENCED MARKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a controlled stochastic system whose state is described by a stochastic differential equation with anticipating coefficients. This setting is used to model markets where insiders have some influence on the dynamics of prices. We give a characterization theorem for the optimal logarithmic portfolio of an investor with a different information flow from that of the insider. We provide

Arturo Kohatsu-Higa; Agnès Sulem

2006-01-01

113

RESOLVING EMG PULSE SUPERPOSITIONS VIA UTILITY MAXIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major task in the decomposition of multi-channel Electromyographic (EMG) signals into their uni-source pulse train (UPT) components is to resolve pulse superpositions. Even optimal segmental analysis that fits linear combinations of temporally aligned UPT pulses to short data segments gives rise to errors because of pulse evolution and the presence of non-stationary noise. To address such shortcomings, we use

S. Hamid Nawab; Robert Wotiz; Carlo J De Luca

114

Unextendible maximally entangled bases  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the notion of the unextendible maximally entangled basis (UMEB), a set of orthonormal maximally entangled states in C{sup d} x C{sup d} consisting of fewer than d{sup 2} vectors which have no additional maximally entangled vectors orthogonal to all of them. We prove that UMEBs do not exist for d=2 and give explicit constructions for a six-member UMEB with d=3 and a 12-member UMEB with d=4.

Bravyi, Sergei; Smolin, John A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

2011-10-15

115

Is CP violation maximal  

SciTech Connect

Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references.

Gronau, M.

1984-01-01

116

Do Juries Meet Our Expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony,

Hal R. Arkes; Barbara A. Mellers

2002-01-01

117

How To: Maximize Google  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Google is shaking out to be the leading Web search engine, with recent research from Nielsen NetRatings reporting about 40 percent of all U.S. households using the tool at least once in January 2004. This brief article discusses how teachers and students can maximize their use of Google.|

Branzburg, Jeffrey

2004-01-01

118

Maximizing Research Methods Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Offers some insights on how to maximize the research methods course, such that students will take from the course a meaningful learning experience as opposed to a short-term exercise on memorizing terms and, ideally, administrators who review the course will recognize communication as an academic discipline rich in theory and methodology. (SG)|

Denham, Bryan E.

2003-01-01

119

Subjective Probability and Expected Utility without Additivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An act maps states of nature to outcomes: deterministic outcomes, as well as random outcomes, are included. Two acts f and g are comonotonic, by definition, if it never happens that f(s) > f(t) and g(t) > g(s) for some states of nature s and t. An axiom of comonotonic independence is introduced here. It weakens the von Neumann-Morgenstern axiom

David Schmeidler

1989-01-01

120

A Maximal Frequent Itemset Approach for Web Document Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

To efficiently and yet accurately cluster Web documents is of great interests to Web users and is a key component of the searching accuracy of a Web search engine. To achieve this, this paper introduces a new approach for the clustering of Web documents, which is called maximal frequent itemset (MFI) approach. Iterative clustering algorithms, such as K-means and expectation-maximization

Ling Zhuang; Honghua Dai

2004-01-01

121

On maximally superintegrable systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Locally any completely integrable system is maximally superintegrable system since we have the necessary number of the action-angle variables. The main problem is the construction of the single-valued additional integrals of motion on the whole phase space by using these multi-valued action-angle variables. Some constructions of the additional integrals of motion for the Stäckel systems and for the integrable systems related with two different quadratic r-matrix algebras are discussed. Among these system there are the open Heisenberg magnet and the open Toda lattices associated with the different root systems.

Tsiganov, A. V.

2008-06-01

122

Maximizing relationship possibilities: relational maximization in romantic relationships.  

PubMed

Using Rusbult's (1980) investment model and Schwartz's (2000) conceptualization of decision maximization, we sought to understand how an individual's propensity to maximize his or her decisions factored into investment, satisfaction, and awareness of alternatives in romantic relationships. In study one, 275 participants currently involved in romantic relationships completed measures of maximization, satisfaction, investment size, quality of alternatives, and commitment. In study two, 343 participants were surveyed as part of the creation of a scale of relational maximization. Results from both studies revealed that the tendency to maximize (in general and in relationships specifically) was negatively correlated with satisfaction, investment, and commitment, and positively correlated with quality of alternatives. Furthermore, we found that satisfaction and investments mediated the relationship between maximization and relationship commitment. PMID:23951952

Mikkelson, Alan C; Pauley, Perry M

123

Efficiently Mining Maximal Frequent Itemsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present GenMax, a backtrack search based algorithm for mining maximal frequent itemsets. GenMax uses a num- ber of optimizations to prune the search space. It uses a novel technique called progressive focusing to perform maximality checking, and diffset propagation to perform fast frequency computation. Systematic experimental com- parison with previous work indicates that different methods have varying strengths and

Karam Gouda; Mohammed Javeed Zaki

2001-01-01

124

Should National Happiness Be Maximized ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-disciplinary ?happiness research? has made big progress in the measurement of individual welfare. This development makes it tempting to pursue the old dream of maximizing aggregate happiness as a social welfare function. However, we postulate that the appropriate approach is not to maximize aggregate happiness in seeking to improve outcomes by direct policy interventions. The goal of happiness research should

Bruno S. Frey; Alois Stutzer

2007-01-01

125

Should We Maximize National Happiness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-disciplinary ‘happiness research’ has made big progress in the measurement of individual welfare. This development makes it tempting to pursue the old dream of maximizing aggregate happiness as a social welfare function. However, we postulate that the appropriate approach is not to maximize aggregate happiness in seeking to improve outcomes by direct policy interventions. The goal of happiness research should

Bruno S. Frey; Alois Stutzer

2006-01-01

126

Do juries meet our expectations?  

PubMed

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony, and weather forecasting, we argue that the frequency of mistakes probably far exceeds these "tolerable" levels. We are not arguing against the use of juries. Rather, we point out that a closer look at jury decisions reveals a serious gap between what we expect from juries and what probably occurs. When deciding issues of guilt and/or punishing convicted criminals, we as a society should recognize and acknowledge the abundance of error. PMID:12508698

Arkes, Hal R; Mellers, Barbara A

2002-12-01

127

Client expectation from doctors: Expectation - reality gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims and objectives: To determine client expectation from doctors, a descriptive survey was conducted amongst people above 18 years of age and doctors of Faridpur District. Methodology: For this purpose a total of 400 patients and 30 doctors were involved. Both rural and urban population were included. A sample of 30 doctors was selected from the outdoor department of Faridpur

Rahman MM; Rahman S; Begum N; Asaduzzaman AKM

128

The realism of expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of expectation are considered to be distributed along a continuum with realistic at one extreme and unrealistic at the other. Experimental data were analyzed with reference to the several criteria. Reliability and generality of the level of expectation were shown to be sensitive to the position of the expectations on the realism-unrealism continuum. Failure to control this characteristic of

Francis W. Irwin

1944-01-01

129

Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.  

PubMed

Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2009-01-01

130

Maximization of Tsallis entropy in the combinatorial formulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the mathematical reformulation for maximization of Tsallis entropy Sq in the combinatorial sense. More concretely, we generalize the original derivation of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law to Tsallis statistics by means of the corresponding generalized multinomial coefficient. Our results reveal that maximization of S2-q under the usual expectation or Sq under q-average using the escort expectation are naturally derived from the combinatorial formulations for Tsallis statistics with respective combinatorial dualities, that is, one for additive duality and the other for multiplicative duality.

Suyari, Hiroki

2010-12-01

131

Conditional preparation of maximal polarization entanglement  

SciTech Connect

A simple experimental setup consisting of a spontaneous parametric down-conversion source and passive linear optics is proposed for conditional preparation of a maximally entangled polarization state of two photons. Successful preparation is unambiguously heralded by coincident detection of four auxiliary photons. The proposed scheme utilizes the down-conversion term corresponding to the generation of three pairs of photons. We analyze imperfect detection of the auxiliary photons and demonstrate that its deleterious effect on the fidelity of the prepared state can be suppressed at the cost of decreasing the efficiency of the scheme.

Sliwa, Cezary [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Centre for Theoretical Physics, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Banaszek, Konrad [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

2003-03-01

132

Maximize x(a - x)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

Lange, L. H.

1974-01-01

133

A Superintendent's High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

Pascopella, Angela

2009-01-01

134

Maximal exercise studies in Scottish athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate, maximal exercise ventilation and the ventilatory response to exercise in 24 male and 14 female Scottish athletes. The values for maximal oxygen uptake are similar to those reported in other international studies. In eight athletes repeat measurements of maximal oxygen uptake 7-11 months after the initial study showed no change from

A. G. Leitch; L. Clancy

1976-01-01

135

Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

2006-01-01

136

Can Monkeys Make Investments Based on Maximized Pay-off?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana) in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by

Sophie Steelandt; Valérie Dufour; Marie-Hélène Broihanne; Bernard Thierry; Laurie Santos

2011-01-01

137

Expectations for computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a sampling of the author's expectations for the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the areas of research, development and application. The primary focus of the discussion herein is related to the non-linear transonic flow regime, and more specifically, for calculations about commercial transport aircraft. However, many of these topics are pertinent to all flow field regimes and aircraft designs. The underlying goal is to enable the automation of multi-disciplinary design processes, which utilize state-of-the-art numerical simulation methods. These include issues pertaining to accuracy, robustness, efficiency, ease-of-use, uncertainty requirements and other challenges.

Vassberg, John C.

2005-11-01

138

Health expectancy indicators.  

PubMed Central

An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities.

Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

1999-01-01

139

Asserting Performance Expectations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traditional techniques for performance analysis provide a means for extracting and analyzing raw performance information from applications. Users then reason about and compare this raw performance data to their performance expectations for important appli...

J. S. Vetter P. Worley

2002-01-01

140

Learning Taxonomies by Dependence Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a family of unsupervised algorithms, numerical taxonomy cluster- ing, to simultaneously cluster data, and to learn a taxonomy that encodes the re- lationship between the clusters. The algorithms work by maximizing the depen- dence between the taxonomy and the original data. The resulting taxonomy is a more informative visualization of complex data than simple clustering; in ad- dition,

Matthew B. Blaschko; Arthur Gretton

2008-01-01

141

Analyzer monitors SOâ, maximizes recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a solution to Sohio's plant problem of needing a highly reliable analyzer to monitor hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide concentrations in its refinery production of gasoline, LPG, distillate fuels, asphalt and coke. The solution to this problem was the installation of analyzers which effectively monitor sulfur dioxide levels and maximize sulfur recovery. The HâS and SOâ analyzer

1982-01-01

142

Creating an Agent Based Framework to Maximize Information Utility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With increased reliance on communications to conduct military operations, information centric network management becomes vital. A Defense department study of information management for net-centric operations lists the need for tools for information triage...

J. M. Pecarina

2008-01-01

143

Teleportation via maximally and non-maximally entangled mixed states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the efficacy of two-qubit mixed entangled states as resources for quantum teleportation. We first consider two maximally entangled mixed states, viz., the Werner state\\\\cite{werner}, and a class of states introduced by Munro {\\\\it et al.} \\\\cite{munro}. We show that the Werner state when used as teleportation channel, gives rise to better average teleportation fidelity compared to the latter

S. Adhikari; S. Roy; B. Ghosh; A. S. Majumdar; N. Nayak

2008-01-01

144

Reserve selection as a maximal covering location problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many alternative approaches have been proposed for setting conservation priorities from a database of species (or communities) by site. We present a model based on the premise that reserve selection or site prioritization can be structured as a classic covering problem commonly used in many location problems. Specifically, we utilize a form of the maximal covering location model to identify

Richard L. Church; David M. Stoms; Frank W. Davis

1996-01-01

145

Maximizing efficiency of solar-powered systems by load matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar power is an important source of renewable energy for many low-power systems. Matching the power consumption level with the supply level can make a great difference in the efficiency of power utilization. This paper proposes a source-tracking power management strategy that maximizes the panel's total energy output under a given solar profile by load matching. The power efficiency was

Dexin Li; Pai H. Chou

2004-01-01

146

Cognitive Somatic Behavioral Interventions for Maximizing Gymnastic Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological training programs developed and implemented for gymnasts of a wide range of age and varying ability levels are examined. The programs utilized strategies based on cognitive-behavioral intervention. The approach contends that mental training plays a crucial role in maximizing performance for most gymnasts. The object of the training…

Ravizza, Kenneth; Rotella, Robert

147

Second use of transportation batteries: Maximizing the value of batteries for transportation and grid services  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to gain significant market share over the next decade. The economic viability for such vehicles is contingent upon the availability of cost-effective batteries with high power and energy density. For initial commercial success, government subsidies will be highly instrumental in allowing PHEVs to gain a foothold. However, in the long-term, for electric vehicles to be commercially viable, the economics have to be self-sustaining. Towards the end of battery life in the vehicle, the energy capacity left in the battery is not sufficient to provide the designed range for the vehicle. Typically, the automotive manufacturers indicated the need for battery replacement when the remaining energy capacity reaches 70-80%. There is still sufficient power (kW) and energy capacity (kWh) left in the battery to support various grid ancillary services such as balancing, spinning reserve, load following services. As renewable energy penetration increases, the need for such balancing services is expected to increase. This work explores optimality for the replacement of transportation batteries to be subsequently used for grid services. This analysis maximizes the value of an electric vehicle battery to be used as a transportation battery (in its first life) and then as a resource for providing grid services (in its second life). The results are presented across a range of key parameters, such as depth of discharge (DOD), number of batteries used over the life of the vehicle, battery life in vehicle, battery state of health (SOH) at end of life in vehicle and ancillary services rate. The results provide valuable insights for the automotive industry into maximizing the utility and the value of the vehicle batteries in an effort to either reduce the selling price of EVs and PHEVs or maximize the profitability of the emerging electrification of transportation.

Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

2010-09-30

148

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

149

Is the beta phase maximal?  

SciTech Connect

indicates that 2|Vub / Vcb/ Vus| = (1-z) with z given by z = 0.19 +(-) 0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase beta is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is beta = pi/6 - z/sqrt{3} for gamma = pi/3 + z/sqrt{3}, which implies alpha = pi/2. Alternatively, assuming that beta is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement, sin(2beta) = 0.726+(-) 0.037, the phase gamma is predicted to be gamma = pi/2 - beta = 66.3 +(-) 1.7. The maximality of beta, if confirmed by the near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation.

Ferrandis, Javier; Ferrandis, Javier

2005-04-20

150

Expected Relationship Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing collaborative business-to-business relationships demands an understanding of how relationships create value for the firm and a method to accurately assess that value. The purpose of this research is to propose a new construct, expected relationship value, and an innovative method for its measurement. The proposed methodology relies on qualitative research techniques to gather dispersed organizational knowledge about the relationship.

John E Hogan

2001-01-01

151

Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

Devine, Kelley

152

Expectations of the System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectations of the System is a student-created film which details the findings of a participatory action research (PAR) project conducted in South Los Angeles. In the summer of 2008, a critical research team composed of seven high school-aged Black males and a mathematics education researcher (also a Black male) conducted qualitative and quantitative research to explore the incarceration and university

Terry Clarence L Sr

2009-01-01

153

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

154

Behavior, Expectations and Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

2010-01-01

155

Natural selection maximizes Fisher information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In biology, information flows from the environment to the genome by the\\u000aprocess of natural selection. But it has not been clear precisely what sort of\\u000ainformation metric properly describes natural selection. Here, I show that\\u000aFisher information arises as the intrinsic metric of natural selection and\\u000aevolutionary dynamics. Maximizing the amount of Fisher information about the\\u000aenvironment captured by

Steven A. Frank

2009-01-01

156

Maximal Functions Associated to Filtrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let T be a bounded linear, or sublinear, operator from Lp(Y) to Lq(X). A maximal operator T*f(x)=supj|T(f·?Yj)(x)| is associated to any sequence of subsets Yj of Y. Under the hypotheses that q>p and the sets Yj are nested, we prove that T* is also bounded. Classical theorems of Menshov and Zygmund are obtained as corollaries. Multilinear generalizations of this theorem

Michael Christ; Alexander Kiselev

2001-01-01

157

Maximize Student Time On Task  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student time on task is the most influential factor in student achievement. To maximize time on task, teachers need to make decisions about the systems they install in their classroom well before any students enter the room. Beginning the school year by explicitly teaching process skills and having classroom operating systems that reinforce process skills are two strategies that lay the foundation for logical thinking throughout the year, which are discussed in this article.

Peters, Erin

2004-09-01

158

Trust Maximization in Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Trust is a human-related phenomenon in social networks. Trust research on social networks has gained much attention on its\\u000a usefulness, and on modeling propagations. There is little focus on finding maximum trust in social networks which is particularly\\u000a important when a social network is oriented by certain tasks. In this paper, we propose a trust maximization algorithm based\\u000a on the

Justin Zhan; Xing Fang

2011-01-01

159

Utility Theory for Decision Making.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents a concise yet mathematically complete treatment of modern utility theories that covers nonprobabilistic preference theory, the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected-utility theory and its extensions, and the joint axiomatization of utility an...

P. C. Fishburn

1970-01-01

160

Expectation States Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation states theory is, in many ways, a textbook example of a theoretical research program. It is deductive, programmatic,\\u000a formalized mathematically, cumulative, precise, and predictive; and its propositions have been subjected to rigorous evaluation.\\u000a More importantly, however, it is a theory that illuminates core issues in social psychology and sociology more broadly. It\\u000a is fundamentally a “macro-micro-macro” explanation about one

Shelley J. Correll; Cecilia L. Ridgeway

161

Expectations and Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The above quote illustrates the trajectory this teen would use to reach her personal and professional future goals. Children\\u000a begin to acquire a sense of their future during the period of early to mid adolescence. During this developmental period,\\u000a they develop hopes, dreams, and aspirations for their future. Life-course expectations influence the goals that girls set\\u000a for themselves and the

Faye Z. Belgrave

162

Imaging a black hole: MAXIM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the general acceptance of black holes as real entities the astrophysics community has turned its attention to studying their behavior and properties. Because of the great distance and compact size of the central engine, astronomers are limited to spectroscopic analysis. But to take a picture, or better yet a movie, of the black hole in silhouette against its accretion disk would be a triumph of exploration and scientific inquiry. Probing to the event horizon is best accomplished in the X-ray band, where material primarily radiates in the last orbits before its final plunge. Not only will the signal be bright and minimally confused in the X-ray, but the size of the required interferometer drops dramatically. We describe MAXIM, the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission, which is now being studied and developed by NASA. We will explain the preliminary mission concept which will use currently existing technology to achieve spatial resolution one million times higher than that of the Hubble Space Telescope and capture the image of an event horizon in a nearby Active Galactic Nucleus. We will also describe the MAXIM Pathfinder. Designed as a stepping stone at resolution of 100 micro-arcseconds, it will demonstrate the techniques of X-ray interferometry and perform groundbreaking science like resolving the coronae of the nearby stars.

Cash, W.

163

Dynamics in maximal settling capacity in an activated sludge treatment plant with highly loaded secondary settlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary settling dynamics at maximal capacity were investigated at a full scale wastewater treatment plant which utilizes a unique process solution incorporating pre-denitrification with post- nitrification in nitrifying trickling filters. Since nitrogen removal is greater when more secondary effluent is recirculated to the trickling filters, the secondary settlers generally operate at close to their maximal capacity. The settling and flocculation

B.-M. Wilén; D. Lumley; A. Nordqvist

2004-01-01

164

Expectation Maximization and Complex Duration Distributions for Continuous Time Bayesian Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous time Bayesian networks (CTBNs) describe structured stochastic processes with finitely many states that evolve over continuous time. A CTBN is a directed (possibly cyclic) de- pendency graph over a set of variables, each of which represents a finite state continuous time Markov process whose transition model is a function of its parents. We address the prob- lem of learning

Uri Nodelman; Christian R. Shelton; Daphne Koller

2005-01-01

165

Feature Normalization via Expectation Maximization and Unsupervised Nonparametric Classification For M-FISH Chromosome Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) techniques provide color karyotyping that allows simultaneous analysis of numerical and structural abnormalities of whole human chromosomes. Chromosomes are stained combinatorially in M-FISH. By analyzing the intensity combinations of each pixel, all chromosome pixels in an image are classified. Often, the intensity distributions between different images are found to be considerably different and the

Hyohoon Choi; Alan C. Bovik; Kenneth R. Castleman

2008-01-01

166

Maximizing the Use of APE Consultants: What the General Physical Educator Has the Right To Expect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|General physical educators can take advantage of the skills and knowledge of adapted physical education consultants in order to provide instruction for students with disabilities in mainstream classes. This article describes student assessment, development of the Individual Education Plan, program recommendations, transition planning, and…

Huettig, Carol; Roth, Kristi

2002-01-01

167

Cyclic minimizers, majorization techniques, and the expectation-maximization algorithm: a refresher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many parameter estimation problems in signal processing can be reduced to the task of minimizing a function of the unknown parameters. This task is difficult owing to the existence of possibly local minima and the sharpness of the global minimum. In this article we review three approaches that can be used to minimize functions of the type encountered in parameter

P. Stoica; Y. Selen

2004-01-01

168

A multiscale expectation-maximization semisupervised classifier suitable for badly posed image classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of badly posed image classification. Although underestimated in practice, bad-posedness is likely to affect many real-world image classification tasks, where reference samples are difficult to collect (e.g., in remote sensing (RS) image mapping) and\\/or spatial autocorrelation is relevant. In an image classification context affected by a lack of reference samples, an original inductive learning

Andrea Baraldi; Lorenzo Bruzzone; Palma Blonda

2006-01-01

169

Great expectations: what do patients expect and how can expectations be managed?  

PubMed

Patients' expectations of their treatment are a key determinant in their satisfaction with treatment. Expectations may encompass not only notions of the outcome of treatment, but also the process of treatment. This article explores the processes by which expectations are formed, differences in expectations across patient groups, and the psychopathology of individuals with unrealistic expectations of treatment manifest in body dysmorphic disorder. PMID:23794691

Newton, J T; Cunningham, S J

2013-06-01

170

Multiattribute Fixed-State Utility Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is concerned with the assessment of utility functions for multiple attributes. The literature on utility assessment, multidimensional scaling, conjoint measurement, and conditional expected utility theory is reviewed. A procedure for utility as...

D. L. Libby M. R. Novick

1981-01-01

171

Getting used to it: The adaptive global utility model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper expands the standard model of utility maximization to endogenize the ubiquitous phenomenon of adaptation. We assume that total utility is an aggregate function of the utility associated with different domains of life, with relative weights that are optimized according to the effort that the individual expends on producing utility in each domain. Comparative statics from the general maximization

W. David Bradford; Paul Dolan

2010-01-01

172

The effects of breathing a helium–oxygen gas mixture on maximal pulmonary ventilation and maximal oxygen consumption during exercise in acute moderate hypobaric hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that maximal exercise pulmonary ventilation ($$ \\\\dot{V}{\\\\text{E}}_{ \\\\max } $$) is a limiting factor affecting maximal oxygen uptake ($$ \\\\dot{V}{\\\\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\\\\text{max}}}} $$) in moderate hypobaric hypoxia (H), we examined the effect of breathing a helium–oxygen gas mixture (He–O2; 20.9% O2), which would reduce air density and would be expected to increase $$ \\\\dot{V}{\\\\text{E}}_{ \\\\max }

Takeshi Ogawa; Jose A. L. Calbet; Yasushi Honda; Naoto Fujii; Takeshi Nishiyasu

2010-01-01

173

The Learning Styles, Expectations, and Needs of Online Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each student comes to class with certain learning experiences, expectations, and needs that have to be addressed, and to which instructors need to be sensitive, to maximize the students' learning experiences. However, because of the unknown make-up of online classes, the characteristics of online students may be unclear, making it difficult to…

Mupinga, Davison M.; Nora, Robert T.; Yaw, Dorothy Carole

2006-01-01

174

Maximal Oxygen Intake and Maximal Work Performance of Active College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maximal oxygen intake and associated physiological variables were measured during strenuous exercise on women subjects (N=20 physical education majors). Following assessment of maximal oxygen intake, all subjects underwent a performance test at the work level which had elicited their maximal oxygen intake. Mean maximal oxygen intake was 41.32…

Higgs, Susanne L.

175

A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model  

SciTech Connect

We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.

Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2012-02-17

176

A Probabilistic Expected Utility Theory of Risky Binary Choices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let P be a real function on pairs of gambles with quantitative outcomes, with P(p,q) interpreted as the probability that an individual will choose gamble p over q when required to make a choice between the two. Assuming that outcome x is preferred to y wh...

P. C. Fishburn

1976-01-01

177

Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

2012-01-01

178

Intervening in Expectation Communication: The "Alterability" of Teacher Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Theoretical and practical implications of the proposition that teachers' differential behavior toward high and low expectation students serves a control function were tested. As predicted, initial performance expectations were found related to later perceptions of control over performance, even when the initial relationship between expectations

Cooper, Harris M.

179

Irony and Language Expectancy Theory: Evaluations of Expectancy Violation Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language expectancy theory (LET) provides the basis for a study of the relationship of ironic and literal messages in terms of persuasiveness and expectedness. The experimental design was a 2 (literal vs. ironic) × 2 (compliment vs. criticism) factor design. The expectation was that literal messages would be more expected and criticisms less preferred to compliments. The results indicated that the ironic

Joshua M. Averbeck

2010-01-01

180

Task-oriented maximally entangled states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B.

2010-06-01

181

On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of \\AdS_4\\times S^7 and find that it is isomorphic to \\mathfrak{osp}(1|32) . We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to \\AdS_4 \\times S^7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simón, Joan

2009-02-01

182

Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and ...

2008-01-01

183

Can Differences in Breast Cancer Utilities Explain Disparities in Breast Cancer Care?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Black, older, and less affluent women are less likely to receive adjuvant breast cancer therapy than their counterparts. Whereas preference contributes to disparities in other health care scenarios, it is unclear if preference explains differential rates of breast cancer care. OBJECTIVE To ascertain utilities from women of diverse backgrounds for the different stages of, and treatments for, breast cancer and to determine whether a treatment decision modeled from utilities is associated with socio-demographic characteristics. PARTICIPANTS A stratified sample (by age and race) of 156 English-speaking women over 25 years old not currently undergoing breast cancer treatment. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS We assessed utilities using standard gamble for 5 breast cancer stages, and time-tradeoff for 3 therapeutic modalities. We incorporated each subject's utilities into a Markov model to determine whether her quality-adjusted life expectancy would be maximized with chemotherapy for a hypothetical, current diagnosis of stage II breast cancer. We used logistic regression to determine whether socio-demographic variables were associated with this optimal strategy. RESULTS Median utilities for the 8 health states were: stage I disease, 0.91 (interquartile range 0.50 to 1.00); stage II, 0.75 (0.26 to 0.99); stage III, 0.51 (0.25 to 0.94); stage IV (estrogen receptor positive), 0.36 (0 to 0.75); stage IV (estrogen receptor negative), 0.40 (0 to 0.79); chemotherapy 0.50 (0 to 0.92); hormonal therapy 0.58 (0 to 1); and radiation therapy 0.83 (0.10 to 1). Utilities for early stage disease and treatment modalities, but not metastatic disease, varied with socio-demographic characteristics. One hundred and twenty-two of 156 subjects had utilities that maximized quality-adjusted life expectancy given stage II breast cancer with chemotherapy. Age over 50, black race, and low household income were associated with at least 5-fold lower odds of maximizing quality-adjusted life expectancy with chemotherapy, whereas women who were married or had a significant other were 4-fold more likely to maximize quality-adjusted life expectancy with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS Differences in utility for breast cancer health states may partially explain the lower rate of adjuvant therapy for black, older, and less affluent women. Further work must clarify whether these differences result from health preference alone or reflect women's perceptions of sources of disparity, such as access to care, poor communication with providers, limitations in health knowledge or in obtaining social and workplace support during therapy.

Schleinitz, Mark D; DePalo, Dina; Blume, Jeffrey; Stein, Michael

2006-01-01

184

Life expectancy and endogenous growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an overlapping generations model with uncertain lifetime and endogenous growth. Individuals have to choose the length of time devoted to schooling before starting to work. We show that it depends positively on life expectancy. Moreover, the effect of life expectancy on growth is positive for economies with a relatively low life expectancy, but could be negative in more

David de la Croix; Omar Licandro

1999-01-01

185

Patient (customer) expectations in hospitals.  

PubMed

The expectations of patient are one of the determining factors of healthcare service. The purpose of this study is to measure the Patients' Expectations, based on Patient's Rights. This study was done with Likert-Survey in Trabzon population. The analyses showed that the level of the expectations of the patient was high on the factor of receiving information and at an acceptable level on the other factors. Statistical meaningfulness was determined between age, sex, education, health insurance, and the income of the family and the expectations of the patients (p<0.05). According to this study, the current legal regulations have higher standards than the expectations of the patients. The reason that the satisfaction of the patients high level is interpreted due to the fact that the level of the expectation is low. It is suggested that the educational and public awareness studies on the patients' rights must be done in order to increase the expectations of the patients. PMID:17028043

Bostan, Sedat; Acuner, Taner; Yilmaz, Gökhan

2006-10-06

186

Sales Maximation and Specific Human Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profit-maximizing owners of firms may find it optimal to provide managers with incentives to maximize sales in addition to profits. This influences the outcome of the bargaining game between workers and managers over workers' wages and helps to solve the problem of underinvestment by workers in specific human capital. Iinvestigate optimal managerial contracts from this point of view and show

Jan Zabojnik

1998-01-01

187

On Generating All Maximal Independent Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm that generates all maximal independent sets of a graph in lexicographic order, with only polynomial delay between the output of two successive independent sets. We also show that there is no polynomial-delay algorithm for generating all maximal independent sets in reverse lexicographic order, unless P = NP.

David S. Johnson; Christos H. Papadimitriou; Mihalis Yannakakis

1988-01-01

188

Diurnal Variations in Maximal Oxygen Uptake.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study attempted to determine if diurnal (daily cyclical) variations were present during maximal exercise. The subjects' (30 female undergraduate physical education majors) oxygen consumption and heart rates were monitored while they walked on a treadmill on which the grade was raised every minute. Each subject was tested for maximal oxygen…

McClellan, Powell D.

189

Maximally Stable Local Description for Scale Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scale and ane-in variant local features have shown excellent performance in image matching, object and texture recognition. This pa- per optimizes keypoint detection to achieve stable local descriptors, and therefore, an improved image representation. The technique performs scale selection based on a region descriptor, here SIFT, and chooses re- gions for which this descriptor is maximally stable. Maximal stability is

Gyuri Dorkó; Cordelia Schmid

2006-01-01

190

Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal

Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.

2007-01-01

191

Maxims in The Battle of Maldon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article suggests that maxims are traditional forms of expression which reflect a socially sanctioned world view. Maxims function like proverbs in two main ways: affectively, when they are intended to influence future conduct, and evaluatively, when they are intended to judge past actions. They have authority as accepted answers to recurrent errors, problems and conflicts. This authority extends beyond

Paul Cavill

1998-01-01

192

Expected Performance of Real-Time Interactive System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum describes the expected real-time performance of an interactive long-period seismic processing system and of an interactive complex cepstrum program, both utilizing a graphic output. It was found that a highly automated system could probabl...

S. S. Lane

1975-01-01

193

Statistical mechanics of maximal independent sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The graph theoretic concept of maximal independent set arises in several practical problems in computer science as well as in game theory. A maximal independent set is defined by the set of occupied nodes that satisfy some packing and covering constraints. It is known that finding minimum and maximum-density maximal independent sets are hard optimization problems. In this paper, we use cavity method of statistical physics and Monte Carlo simulations to study the corresponding constraint satisfaction problem on random graphs. We obtain the entropy of maximal independent sets within the replica symmetric and one-step replica symmetry breaking frameworks, shedding light on the metric structure of the landscape of solutions and suggesting a class of possible algorithms. This is of particular relevance for the application to the study of strategic interactions in social and economic networks, where maximal independent sets correspond to pure Nash equilibria of a graphical game of public goods allocation.

Dall'Asta, Luca; Pin, Paolo; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl

2009-12-01

194

USING EXPECTATIONS DATA TO INFER MANAGERIAL OBJECTIVES AND CHOICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a theory-driven empirical framework to analyze managerial decision-making that incorporates subjective expectations data. Our goal is to recover parameters of the manager's utility function and assess the sensitivity of estimated preferences to alternative assumptions regarding the manager's expectations. We apply the model to examine the advertising decisions of the marketing manager of a large university performing arts center.

Tat Y. Chan; Barton H. Hamilton; Christopher Makler

2008-01-01

195

Music Cognition: Learning, Perception, Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in music cognition domain has shown that non musician listeners have implicit knowledge about the Western tonal musical\\u000a system. This knowledge, acquired by mere exposure to music in everyday life, influences perception of musical structures and\\u000a allows developing expectations for future incoming events. Musical expectations play a role for musical expressivity and influence\\u000a event processing: Expected events are processed

Barbara Tillmann

2007-01-01

196

Tonal expectations influence pitch perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the influence of tonal relatedness on pitch perception in melodies. Tonal expectations for\\u000a target tones were manipulated in melodic contexts while controlling sensory expectations, thus allowing us to assess specifically\\u000a the influence of tonal expectations on pitch perception. Three experiments provided converging evidence that tonal relatedness\\u000a modulates pitch perception in nonmusician listeners. Experiment 1 showed,

F. Marmel; B. Tillmann; W. J. Dowling

2008-01-01

197

Genomic medicine: too great expectations?  

PubMed

As advances in genomic medicine have captured the interest and enthusiasm of the public, an unintended consequence has been the creation of unrealistic expectations. Because these expectations may have a negative impact on individuals as well as genomics in general, it is important that they be understood and confronted. PMID:23872832

O'Rourke, P P

2013-08-01

198

Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is any one really ready for the Spanish Inquisition? Assign studnets to participate in reading the play, The Spanish Inquisition by Monty Python. While readiang the play, display the following pictures at appropiate times. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion Confess!!! Get the Cushions!!!! Get the comfy Chair! Now you'll confess! Confess women, CONFESS!!! Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!!! ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2005-04-08

199

Expected stock returns and volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relation between stock returns and stock market volatility. We find evidence that the expected market risk premium (the expected return on a stock portfolio minus the Treasury bill yield) is positively related to the predictable volatility of stock returns. There is also evidence that unexpected stock market returns are negatively related to the unexpected change in

Kenneth R. French; G. William Schwert; Robert F. Stambaugh

1987-01-01

200

Name Stereotypes and Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The studies described here were executed to explore and verify the conjecture that teachers' expectations are likely to be systematically associated with implicit stereotyped perceptions of names, and these stereotypical expectations may in turn be reflected in teachers' subjective evaluation of student products and performance. (Author/RK)

Harari, Herbert; McDavid, John W.

1973-01-01

201

THE PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL EXPECTATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectancy plays a central role in both structural descriptions of music, as well as psychological explanations of the apprehension of such music structure. This experiment investigates some of the factors underlying global expectancy formation, using a production task. Performers saw a number of melodic and combined melodic\\/harmonic contexts, and were asked to complete these fragments in terms of how they

Mark A. Schmuckler

1990-01-01

202

Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, the National Task Force on Health Information recommended that in order to assess the health of Canadians, the health information system should include an aggregate index of population health. This article presents such an index—Health- Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)—as one possibility in a range of indicators. In contrast to conventional life expectancy, which considers all years as equal,

Michael C. Wolfson

1996-01-01

203

Smokers' expectations to quit smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effectiveness of different smoking policies on smokers' expectations to quit smoking using a choice experiment on a sample of smokers identified within the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA Project. Our results indicate that restricted availability, increased cigarette prices, cessation subsidies and regulations at restaurants, bars and cafés increase the expected probability of smoking cessation. Regulations at work

Henrik Hammar; Fredrik Carlsson

2005-01-01

204

Maximal Extended Supergravity Theory in Seven Dimensions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A maximal extended supergravity Lagrangian is constructed in seven dimensions, which exhibits USp(4) approx.= SO(5) local and SL(5,R) global invariances. We find that the antisymmetric second rank tensor fields must possess a generalized gauge invariance ...

E. Sezgin A. Salam

1982-01-01

205

Utility franchises reconsidered  

SciTech Connect

It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

Weidner, B.

1981-11-01

206

Ischemic preconditioning improves maximal performance in humans.  

PubMed

Repeated episodes of ischemia followed by reperfusion, commonly referred to as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), represent an endogenous protective mechanism that delays cell injury. IPC also increases blood flow and improves endothelial function. We hypothesize that IPC will improve physical exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of ischemic preconditioning in leg skeletal muscles on cycling exercise performance in healthy individuals. Fifteen healthy, well-trained subjects performed two incremental maximal exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer. Power output, oxygen consumption, ventilation, respiratory quotient, and heart rate were measured continuously. Blood pressure and blood lactate were measured before and after the test. One exercise test was performed after the application of ischemic preconditioning, using a protocol of three series of 5-min ischemia at both legs with resting periods of 5 min in between. The other maximal cycling test served as a control. Tests were conducted in counterbalanced order, at least 1 week apart, at the same time of the day. The repeated ischemic periods significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption from 56.8 to 58.4 ml/min per kg (P = 0.003). Maximal power output increased significantly from 366 to 372 W (P = 0.05). Ischemic preconditioning had no effect on ventilation, respiratory quotient, maximal heart rate, blood pressure or on blood lactate. Repeated short-term leg ischemia prior to an incremental bicycle exercise test improves maximal oxygen consumption by 3% and power output by 1.6%. This protocol, which is suggested to mimic the effects of ischemic preconditioning, may have important implications for exercise performance. PMID:19760432

de Groot, Patricia C E; Thijssen, Dick H J; Sanchez, Manuel; Ellenkamp, Reinier; Hopman, Maria T E

2009-09-18

207

Resources and energetics determined dinosaur maximal size  

PubMed Central

Some dinosaurs reached masses that were ?8 times those of the largest, ecologically equivalent terrestrial mammals. The factors most responsible for setting the maximal body size of vertebrates are resource quality and quantity, as modified by the mobility of the consumer, and the vertebrate's rate of energy expenditure. If the food intake of the largest herbivorous mammals defines the maximal rate at which plant resources can be consumed in terrestrial environments and if that limit applied to dinosaurs, then the large size of sauropods occurred because they expended energy in the field at rates extrapolated from those of varanid lizards, which are ?22% of the rates in mammals and 3.6 times the rates of other lizards of equal size. Of 2 species having the same energy income, the species that uses the most energy for mass-independent maintenance of necessity has a smaller size. The larger mass found in some marine mammals reflects a greater resource abundance in marine environments. The presumptively low energy expenditures of dinosaurs potentially permitted Mesozoic communities to support dinosaur biomasses that were up to 5 times those found in mammalian herbivores in Africa today. The maximal size of predatory theropods was ?8 tons, which if it reflected the maximal capacity to consume vertebrates in terrestrial environments, corresponds in predatory mammals to a maximal mass less than a ton, which is what is observed. Some coelurosaurs may have evolved endothermy in association with the evolution of feathered insulation and a small mass.

McNab, Brian K.

2009-01-01

208

Resources and energetics determined dinosaur maximal size.  

PubMed

Some dinosaurs reached masses that were approximately 8 times those of the largest, ecologically equivalent terrestrial mammals. The factors most responsible for setting the maximal body size of vertebrates are resource quality and quantity, as modified by the mobility of the consumer, and the vertebrate's rate of energy expenditure. If the food intake of the largest herbivorous mammals defines the maximal rate at which plant resources can be consumed in terrestrial environments and if that limit applied to dinosaurs, then the large size of sauropods occurred because they expended energy in the field at rates extrapolated from those of varanid lizards, which are approximately 22% of the rates in mammals and 3.6 times the rates of other lizards of equal size. Of 2 species having the same energy income, the species that uses the most energy for mass-independent maintenance of necessity has a smaller size. The larger mass found in some marine mammals reflects a greater resource abundance in marine environments. The presumptively low energy expenditures of dinosaurs potentially permitted Mesozoic communities to support dinosaur biomasses that were up to 5 times those found in mammalian herbivores in Africa today. The maximal size of predatory theropods was approximately 8 tons, which if it reflected the maximal capacity to consume vertebrates in terrestrial environments, corresponds in predatory mammals to a maximal mass less than a ton, which is what is observed. Some coelurosaurs may have evolved endothermy in association with the evolution of feathered insulation and a small mass. PMID:19581600

McNab, Brian K

2009-07-06

209

Confronting Diversity in the Community College Classroom: Six Maxims for Good Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emphasizes the leadership role of community college faculty in developing critical teaching strategies focusing attention on the needs of women and minorities. Describes six maxims of teaching excellence: engaging students' desire to learn, increasing opportunities, eliminating obstacles, empowering students through high expectations, offering…

Gillett-Karam, Rosemary

1992-01-01

210

Expectancy of line segment orientation.  

PubMed

The question was asked whether briefly flashed line segments are easier to detect when presented at an expected, rather than an unexpected, orientation. Detection rates were measured in a two-interval forced choice (2IFC) paradigm that did not require the subject to identify the orientation of the line segment, only to detect its presence. The 2IFC paradigm was used to rule out bias or criterion effects. Subjects were led to expect lines in a particular or primary orientation by being presented lines with that orientation as cues before every trial, and by being tested with only that orientation during practice. Lines of the orthogonal, probe orientation replaced the primary on 25% of experimental trials. When the stimulus location was known in advance, lines of the primary orientation were detected more accurately than were probe lines, but when stimulus location was not known, detection rates were equal. Detection rates were also equal when subjects were informed of the probe at the end of the practice period, so that both orientations were expected; hence the subjects' expectations, not the probability of stimulus occurrence, are necessary for the effect to occur. Thus expecting a line of a particular orientation at a particular location facilities its detection. PMID:8903137

Kurylo, D D; Reeves, A; Scharf, B

1996-01-01

211

Scaling properties of maximally compact chains  

SciTech Connect

Scaling of the exact function for the number of intramolecular nonbonded contacts in a single maximally compact linear homopolymer on hypercubic lattices is determined as a function of number {ital N} of monomers and dimension {ital d}. A representative maximally compact structure is designed and an exact recursive expression for the maximum number m{sub max} of contacts is derived from that design. The equivalent nonrecursive expression yields the asymptotic scaling of m{sub max} as (d{minus}1)N{minus}dN{sup {Delta}}+1, with {Delta}=(d{minus}1)/d. Implications in polymer and protein studies are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Foreman, K.W. [The Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, 3333 California Avenue, San Francisco, California 94118 (United States)

1999-05-01

212

Learning curves for mutual information maximization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered.

Urbanczik, R.

2003-07-01

213

Practical concentrators for attaining maximal concentration  

SciTech Connect

A new class of radiation concentrators is described that achieve maximal concentration of radiation from a uniform source. Unlike ideal concentrators, which accept all radiation within a given acceptance angle and none outside, the new maximal concentration collectors may reject some radiation from within the nominal acceptance angle. However, the new concentrators offer small mirror or refractor area, high practical concentration levels (unlike ideal designs, which must be truncated), and an adaptable concentration response versus radiation incident angle. The new concentrators are exceptionally well suited to solar-energy applications and should also prove useful for radiation detection or distribution.

Harting, E.; Mills, D.R.; Giutronich, J.E.

1980-01-01

214

Factors in Maximal Power Production and in Exercise Endurance Relative to Maximal Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship of muscle fiber type and mass to maximal powe r production and the maintenance of power (endurance time to exhaustion) at 36, 55, and 73% of maximal power was investigated in 18 untrained but physically active male subjects. Power output ...

J. F. Patton W. J. Kraemer H. G. Knuttgen E. A. Harman

1988-01-01

215

Implicit Maximization of Flows over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flows over time may be maximized by computing a static maximum o w on the corresponding time-expanded network, which contains a copy of the original network for each discrete time step. This makes available the whole algorithmic toolbox developed for static o ws. The major drawback of this method compared to a polynomial (motivated by Ford and Fulker- son (6,

Daniel Sawitzki

216

Web Service Hosting and Revenue Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An architecture of a hosting system is presented, where a number of servers are used to provide different types of web services to paying customers. There are charges for running jobs and penalties for failing to meet agreed QualityofService requirements. The objective is to maximize the total average revenue per unit time. Dynamic policies for making server allocation and job

Michele Mazzucco; Isi Mitrani; Jennie Palmer; Mike Fisher; Paul McKee

2007-01-01

217

Web Service Hosting and Revenue Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An architecture of a hosting system is presented, where a number of servers are used to provide different types of web services to paying customers. There are charges for run- ning jobs and penalties for failing to meet agreed Quality- of-Service requirements. The objective is to maximize the total average revenue per unit time. Dynamic policies for making server allocation

Michele Mazzucco; Isi Mitrani; Jennie Palmer; Mike Fisher; Paul Mckee

2007-01-01

218

Maximizing the Phytonutrient Content of Potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are exploring to what extent the rich genetic diversity of potatoes can be used to maximize the nutritional potential of potatoes. Metabolic profiling is being used to screen potatoes for genotypes with elevated amounts of vitamins and phytonutrients. Substantial differences in phytonutrients am...

219

Maximizing the Spectacle of Water Fountains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For a given initial speed of water from a spigot or jet, what angle of the jet will maximize the visual impact of the water spray in the fountain? This paper focuses on fountains whose spigots are arranged in circular fashion, and couches the measurement of the visual impact in terms of the surface area and the volume under the fountain's natural…

Simoson, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

220

Faculty Salaries and the Maximization of Prestige  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the lens of the emerging economic theory of higher education, we look at the relationship between salary and prestige. Starting from the premise that academic institutions seek to maximize prestige, we hypothesize that monetary rewards are higher for faculty activities that confer prestige. We use data from the 1999 National Study of…

Melguizo, Tatiana; Strober, Myra H.

2007-01-01

221

Maximizing Campus Impact: Lessons from the Trenches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The question of how best to serve its constituents arises for any organization that is part of a campus or community. This guide is intended to address questions regarding assessment of impact, identifying targets for improvement, and ensuring organizational recognition. Seven strategies for maximizing impact are presented: (1) Be focused; (2) Be…

New Media Consortium, 2006

2006-01-01

222

Maximally Selected Rank Statistics in R  

Microsoft Academic Search

of the selected cutpoint is evaluated. Maximally selected rank statistics can be used for esti- mation as well as evaluation of a simple cutpoint model. We show how this problems can be treated with the maxstat package and illustrate the usage of the package by gene expression proling data.

Torsten Hothorn; Berthold Lausen

223

Maximizing the guessability of symbolic input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guessability is essential for symbolic input, in which users enter gestures or keywords to indicate characters or commands, or rely on labels or icons to access features. We present a unified approach to both maximizing and evaluating the guessability of symbolic input. This approach can be used by anyone wishing to design a symbol set with high guessability, or to

Jacob O. Wobbrock; Htet Htet Aung; Brandon Rothrock; Brad A. Myers

2005-01-01

224

Maximally concentrating collectors for solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance characteristics of a solar energy collector can be described by a function relating the concentration to the direction of incident radiation. A strict bound on the integral of this function is established. This is used to define a realistic class of collectors with maximal concentration which can serve as a basis for design and optimality studies.

E. J. Guay

1980-01-01

225

Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution…

Ashbaugh, Henry S.

2010-01-01

226

Profit maximization: The ethical mandate of business  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a model for business ethics which arises directly from business practice. This model is based on a behavioral definition of the economic theory of profit maximization and situates business ethics within opportunity costs. Within that context, they argue that good business and good ethics are synonymous, that ethics is at the heart and center of business, that

Patrick Primeaux; John Stieber

1994-01-01

227

Network lifetime maximization via sensor selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the state estimation carried over a sensor network. At each time step, only a subset of all sensors are selected to send their observations to the fusion center, where a Kalman filter is implemented to perform the state estimation. The sensors are selected to maximize the lifetime of the network while maintaining a desired quality

Yilin Mo; Ling Shit; Roberto Ambrosino; Bruno Sinopoli

2009-01-01

228

Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict “normal” MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for

Ke Li; David J. Hewson; Jacques Duchêne; Jean-Yves Hogrel

2010-01-01

229

Tandem Teaching Relieves Boredom, Maximizes Class Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tandem teaching employs the best qualities of seven innovative classroom approaches (team teaching, core curriculum, flexible scheduling, elective classes, individualized instruction, peer tutoring, and computer-assisted instruction) to restructure the curriculum, relieve boredom, and maximize class time. Success depends on careful planning and…

Bergman, Floyd L.

1990-01-01

230

Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strength training has become an accepted method of con- ditioning in children. However, there is concern among some observers that maximal strength testing may be inappropri- ate or potentially injurious to children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children. Thirty- two girls and 64 boys

AVERY D. FAIGENBAUM; LAURIE A. MILLIKEN; WAYNE L. WESTCOTT

2003-01-01

231

Alcohol expectancies of women and men in relation to alcohol use and perceptions of the effects of alcohol on the opposite sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was intended to identify specific alcohol expectancies of women and men that could be targeted in expectancy-based interventions to maximize their impact on alcohol use. The Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was revised to specifically refer to women, men, or the respondent, and was administered to 433 undergraduates with a measure of alcohol use. When asked about expectancies

Wiveca I Borjesson; Michael E Dunn

2001-01-01

232

SOLVING LINEAR RATIONAL EXPECTATIONS MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

t = 1,...,T , where C is a vector of constants, z(t) is an exogenously evolving, possi- bly serially correlated, random disturbance, and ?(t) is an expectational error, satisfying Et?(t + 1 )= 0, all t. The ?(t) terms are not given exogenously, but instead are treated as determined as part of the model solution. Models with more lags, or

CHRISTOPHER A. SIMS

1996-01-01

233

Tourism motivation and expectation formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study introduces a model of tourism motivation and expectation formation. It is based on a discussion and operationalization of both the behaviorist notion of drive reduction and the cognitivist constructs of attitudes and values. While the satisfaction of inner-directed values and motivations depends on classes of objects, outer-directed values target specific objects. In the case of trying to

Juergen Gnoth

1997-01-01

234

Expectations of indoor climate control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses reassessment of indoor climate control in the context of current thermal comfort practice and research. We review the limitations of comfort models and standards with several examples. We examine how people's thermal sensation and preference may be influenced by culture and climate and associated issues of thermal expectations and adaptation. Finally, we discuss how incorporating these factors

Marc Fountain; Gail Brager; Richard de Dear

1996-01-01

235

Children's Judgments of Expected Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

1994-01-01

236

Babbage's Expectations for his Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Babbage's expectations for his Difference Engine were those of a young enthusiast. Although he failed to complete his version of the engine, an independent implementation of his ideas was carried through by Georg and Edvard Scheutz. Two Scheutz engines were built and put to work, one at the Registrar-General's Office in London and one at the Dudley Observatory in Albany,

Maurice V. Wilkes

1991-01-01

237

Expectations in Incremental Discourse Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way in which discourse features express connections back to the previous discourse has been described in the literature in terms of on a suitably defined right frontier, can be used to both process expectations and constrain discouse processing in general.

Dan Cristea; Bonnie Lynn Webber

1997-01-01

238

Optimal expectations with complete markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Because agents have anticipatory feelings about future risks, it is optimal for them to manipulate their expectations. As in Brunnermeier and Parker (2003) and Gollier (2004), we examine the trade-off between the costs of erro- neous decisions based on these manipulated beliefs and the benefits of antici- pating a better future. In this paper, we assume that contingent markets

Christian Gollier

2007-01-01

239

Expectation Grammars: Leveraging High-Level Expectations for Activity Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-based recognition and prediction of a temporally ex- tended activity can benefit from a detailed description of high-level expectations about the activity. Stochastic gr am- mars allow for an efficient representation of such expecta- tions and are well-suited for the specification of temporall y well-ordered activities. In this paper, we extend stochast ic grammars by adding event parameters, state checks,

David Minnen; Irfan A. Essa; Thad Starner

2003-01-01

240

Fitting method based on correlation maximization: Applications in space physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new fitting method based on the maximization of the correlation between two curves or sets of discreet observations. We show that this correlation maximization fitting method is mathematically well defined under certain conditions. The key element is the sensitivity of the method—a measure of how localized the correlation maximum is. The most important advantage of the method is that it can be applied to disparate data sets that are expected to be correlated but not fitted to each other. The method is valuable in the analysis of space data sets from (1) physically remote sources that may have complicated and hidden causal linkages or (2) physically distinguished quantities that are reasonably connected. The derived possible relations can be examined by testing the correlation between their observational signals or other measurements. Finally, we examine data of density and temperature in the inner heliosheath, inferred from Interstellar Boundary Explorer observations, and show that the globally distributed flux of energetic neutral atoms represents a source plasma under isobaric thermodynamic processes.

Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.

2013-06-01

241

M-Theory and Maximally Supersymmetric Gauge Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this informal review for nonspecialists, we discuss the construction of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories that arise on the world-volume branes in string theory and M-theory. We focus on the relatively recent construction of M2-brane world-volume theories. In a formal sense, the existence of these quantum field theories can be viewed as predictions of M-theory. Their construction is therefore a reinforcement of the ideas underlying string theory and M-theory. We also briefly discuss the six-dimensional conformal field theory that is expected to arise on M5-branes. The construction of this theory is not only an important open problem for M-theory but also a significant challenge to our current understanding of quantum field theory more generally.

Lambert, Neil

2012-11-01

242

Maximal violation of state-independent contextuality inequalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discussion on noncontextual hidden variable models as an underlying description for the quantum-mechanical predictions started in ernest with 1967 paper by Kochen and Specker. There, it was shown that no noncontextual hidden-variable model can give these predictions. The proof used in that paper is complicated, but recently, a paper by Yu and Oh [PRL, 2012] proposes a simpler statistical proof that can also be the basis of an experimental test. Here we report on a sharper version of that statistical proof, and also explain why the algebraic upper bound to the expressions used are not reachable, even with a reasonable contextual hidden variable model. Specifically, we show that the quantum mechanical predictions reach the maximal possible value for a contextual model that keeps the expectation value of the measurement outcomes constant.

Larsson, Jan-A.?ke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Budroni, Constantino; Gühne, Otfried; Cabello, Adán

2012-12-01

243

Home Health Care Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study develops and tests a causal model of home health care utilization by the Lucas County elderly. Path analysis was employed to evaluate the model on an area probability sample of 400 Ohio elderly. The findings indicate that the predictors of home health care are more diverse than was expected with the need factor (need for care, use

Richard A. Starrett; Daniel Rogers; Gary Walters

1989-01-01

244

Maximizing Communication Concurrency via Link-Layer Packet Salvaging in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrier-sense Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols such as IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) avoid collisions by holding up pending packet tran smission requests when a carrier signal is observed a bove a certain threshold. However, this often results in unnecessarily conservative communication, thus making it difficult to maximize the utilization of the spatial spe ctral resource. This paper shows

Chansu Yu; Kang G. Shin; Lubo Song

2007-01-01

245

Mothers’ developmental expectations for young  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to investigate the developmental timetables of rural and urban mothers in the Central Visayas, Philippines. Examined were mothers’ expectations for children’s development (physical\\/perceptual-motor, cognitive, and psychosocial) and mothers’ child rearing practices, as influenced by four selected variables (child’s gender and ordinal position, mother’s education, and rural or urban residence). The total sample size was

Phoebe Dauz Williams; Arthur R. Williams; Marcelo Lopez; Nenita P. Tayko

2000-01-01

246

Expectation to hydrologists on groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water demands are increasing globally since the latter half of 20th century. Especially, underground water demands have been increasing rapidly everywhere in the world. As a result, various kinds of environmental destruction were also occurred world-widely. Climate change is accelerating to increase the severe disasters and water crisis including the underground water critical situation. Thus, underground hydrologist's duty is very important, and it is expected to research and solve the above-mentioned matters for them.

Takahasi, Yutaka

247

Youth – lifestyle, expectation and media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterises modern young people as adventurous, high-tech and time-poor, and reviews how media and brands are attempting to evolve to match the needs of this market. Focuses on how the UK’s fourth largest daily national newspaper “Metro” has designed itself to fit the urban 18-24 year olds group. Reports research carried out by “Metro” which identified ten expectations of young

Katharine King

2006-01-01

248

[The kidney and life expectancy].  

PubMed

Basic renal functions are physiologically determined as precisely regulated relation between more and less physical events with low energy consumption and energy dependent cellular transport mechanisms. All well in ageing as under various conditions of renal diseases adaptive processes become biologically effective, so that stabilisation of homöostasis is possible up to a loss of 95% of normal function. Life expectancy has to be defined under the new conditions of renal replacement therapy effective beyond this biologically defined border line. PMID:1796531

Schoeppe, W

1991-12-01

249

Using return on investment to maximize conservation effectiveness in Argentine grasslands  

PubMed Central

The rapid global loss of natural habitats and biodiversity, and limited resources, place a premium on maximizing the expected benefits of conservation actions. The scarcity of information on the fine-grained distribution of species of conservation concern, on risks of loss, and on costs of conservation actions, especially in developing countries, makes efficient conservation difficult. The distribution of ecosystem types (unique ecological communities) is typically better known than species and arguably better represents the entirety of biodiversity than do well-known taxa, so we use conserving the diversity of ecosystem types as our conservation goal. We define conservation benefit to include risk of conversion, spatial effects that reward clumping of habitat, and diminishing returns to investment in any one ecosystem type. Using Argentine grasslands as an example, we compare three strategies: protecting the cheapest land (“minimize cost”), maximizing conservation benefit regardless of cost (“maximize benefit”), and maximizing conservation benefit per dollar (“return on investment”). We first show that the widely endorsed goal of saving some percentage (typically 10%) of a country or habitat type, although it may inspire conservation, is a poor operational goal. It either leads to the accumulation of areas with low conservation benefit or requires infeasibly large sums of money, and it distracts from the real problem: maximizing conservation benefit given limited resources. Second, given realistic budgets, return on investment is superior to the other conservation strategies. Surprisingly, however, over a wide range of budgets, minimizing cost provides more conservation benefit than does the maximize-benefit strategy.

Murdoch, William; Ranganathan, Jai; Polasky, Stephen; Regetz, James

2010-01-01

250

Learning reward expectations in honeybees  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to test whether honeybees develop reward expectations. In our experiment, bees first learned to associate colors with a sugar reward in a setting closely resembling a natural foraging situation. We then evaluated whether and how the sequence of the animals’ experiences with different reward magnitudes changed their later behavior in the absence of reinforcement and within an otherwise similar context. We found that the bees that had experienced increasing reward magnitudes during training assigned more time to flower inspection 24 and 48 h after training. Our design and behavioral measurements allowed us to uncouple the signal learning and the nutritional aspects of foraging from the effects of subjective reward values. We thus found that the animals behaved differently neither because they had more strongly associated the related predicting signals nor because they were fed more or faster. Our results document for the first time that honeybees develop long-term expectations of reward; these expectations can guide their foraging behavior after a relatively long pause and in the absence of reinforcement, and further experiments will aim toward an elucidation of the neural mechanisms involved in this form of learning.

Gil, Mariana; De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Menzel, Randolf

2007-01-01

251

Nondecoupling of maximal supergravity from the superstring.  

PubMed

We consider the conditions necessary for obtaining perturbative maximal supergravity in d dimensions as a decoupling limit of type II superstring theory compactified on a (10-d) torus. For dimensions d=2 and d=3, it is possible to define a limit in which the only finite-mass states are the 256 massless states of maximal supergravity. However, in dimensions d>or=4, there are infinite towers of additional massless and finite-mass states. These correspond to Kaluza-Klein charges, wound strings, Kaluza-Klein monopoles, or branes wrapping around cycles of the toroidal extra dimensions. We conclude that perturbative supergravity cannot be decoupled from string theory in dimensions>or=4. In particular, we conjecture that pure N=8 supergravity in four dimensions is in the Swampland. PMID:17678349

Green, Michael B; Ooguri, Hirosi; Schwarz, John H

2007-07-25

252

[Corneal arcus and life expectancy].  

PubMed

In 1964-66, the authors completed the comprehensive medical screening of 1412 persons. Apart from the indicators of health state they also recorded their social and cultural parameters. The diagnoses they registered included AC, which has been covered in literature in rather contradicting ways. They found no data concerning survival; as analysing such a correlation is only possible within the frame-work of a several-decade follow-up study. By the end of the follow-up stage (31:12:1994), after 30 years, 1375 persons had died. Their death certificates and--if there were any--necropsy records have been processed and thoroughly analysed. They examined the occurrence of AC, life duration and survival probability--all in correlation with age, gender, constitution, certain diseases (hypertonia, ostheoarthrosis) and diagnoses at death (ischaemic heart diseases, acute myocardiac infarction, cerebrovascular diseases). They point it out that the occurrence of AC is significantly higher among males, but it increases in strong correlation with age in both sexes. Those who had AC were found to be older at the time of death, but it doesn't mean that AC correlates with better life expectancy--it means that AC occurs at older age. The survival probability of men over 75 was better than that of women. On the whole, AC is unfavourable concerning life expectancy, but the later it occurs, the less it can be used as an indicator of life expectancy. It was found that greater average weight correlated with longer average life duration, while among females the more a person weighed, the less frequent AC became. It was true for each weight group that those with AC had worse life expectancy. Altogether those with no AC were found to suffer from hypertonia significantly more frequently. The life expectancy of those with both AC and hypertonia, however, was always worse than those with hypertonia only, regardless of age and the type of hypertonia. Generally women are in a more favourable position, but in the 'serious' and 'very serious' hypertonia groups there is practically no difference in the survival of the two sexes. The authors have also found that AC has a significant negative prognostical value concerning survival and correlation with ostheoarthrosis, ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. The correlation of AC with acute myocardiac infarction could not be proved convincingly. PMID:10628193

Károlyi, G; Balázsy, K

1999-12-01

253

Conjugate operators for finite maximal subdiagonal algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $\\\\M$ be a von Neumann algebra with a faithful normal trace $\\\\T$, and let $H^\\\\infty$ be a finite, maximal, subdiagonal algebra of $\\\\M$. Fundamental theorems on conjugate functions for weak$^*$\\\\!-Dirichlet algebras are shown to be valid for non-commutative $H^\\\\infty$. In particular the conjugation operator is shown to be a bounded linear map from $L^p(\\\\M, \\\\T)$ into $L^p(\\\\M, \\\\T)$ for

Narcisse Randrianantoanina

1996-01-01

254

On maximizing service-level-agreement profits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a methodology for maximizing profits in a general class of e-commerce environments. The cost model is based on revenues that are generated when Quality-of-Service (QoS) guarantees are satisfied and on penalties that are incurred otherwise. The corresponding QoS criteria are derived from multiclass Service-Level-Agreements (SLAs) between service providers and their clients, which include the tail distributions of the

Zhen Liu; Mark S. Squillante; Joel L. Wolf

2001-01-01

255

Ischemic preconditioning improves maximal performance in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated episodes of ischemia followed by reperfusion, commonly referred to as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), represent an\\u000a endogenous protective mechanism that delays cell injury. IPC also increases blood flow and improves endothelial function.\\u000a We hypothesize that IPC will improve physical exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption. The purpose of the study\\u000a was to examine the effect of ischemic preconditioning in leg

Patricia C. E. de Groot; Dick H. J. Thijssen; Manuel Sanchez; Reinier Ellenkamp; Maria T. E. Hopman

2010-01-01

256

A Generalization of maximal independent sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize the concept of maximal-independent set in the following way. For a nonnegative integer k we define a k-insulated set of a graph G as a subset S of its vertices such that each vertex in S is adjacent to at most k other vertices in S and each vertex not in S is adjacent to at least k+1

Arun K. Jagota; Giri Narasimhan; Lubomír Soltés

2001-01-01

257

Maximally entangled set of multipartite quantum States.  

PubMed

Entanglement is a resource in quantum information theory when state manipulation is restricted to local operations assisted by classical communication (LOCC). It is therefore of paramount importance to decide which LOCC transformations are possible and, particularly, which states are maximally useful under this restriction. While the bipartite maximally entangled state is well known (it is the only state that cannot be obtained from any other and, at the same time, it can be transformed to any other by LOCC), no such state exists in the multipartite case. In order to cope with this fact, we introduce here the notion of the maximally entangled set (MES) of n-partite states. This is the set of states which are maximally useful under LOCC manipulation; i.e., any state outside of this set can be obtained via LOCC from one of the states within the set and no state in the set can be obtained from any other state via LOCC. We determine the MES for states of three and four qubits and provide a simple characterization for them. In both cases, infinitely many states are required. However, while the MES is of measure zero for 3-qubit states, almost all 4-qubit states are in the MES. This is because, in contrast to the 3-qubit case, deterministic LOCC transformations are almost never possible among fully entangled four-partite states. We determine the measure-zero subset of the MES of LOCC convertible states. This is the only relevant class of states for entanglement manipulation. PMID:24074062

de Vicente, J I; Spee, C; Kraus, B

2013-09-10

258

Time flies when you maximize - maximizers and satisficers perceive time differently when making decisions.  

PubMed

Three experiments assessed whether maximizing and satisficing decision-making types were associated with differences in perception of time, as a consequence of their different cognitive workloads. Findings showed that maximizers and satisficers perceived time differently during decision-making, but not during other tasks. In particular, compared to satisficers, maximizers tended to underestimate time while choosing, independently of the number of options and the specific task requirements. Satisficers instead tended to underestimate time only when the number of options or the task requirements were more challenging. Our findings suggest that the perception of time may serve as a measure of the cognitive workload associated with decision-making types. The findings furthermore suggest that satisficers adopt a more malleable decision-making process than maximizers. PMID:23584103

Misuraca, Raffaella; Teuscher, Ursina

2013-04-10

259

Maximal respiratory pressures among adolescent swimmers.  

PubMed

Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressures (MEP) are useful indices of respiratory muscle strength in athletes. The aims of this study were: to describe the strength of the respiratory muscles of Olympic junior swim team, at baseline and after a standard physical training; and to determine if there is a differential inspiratory and expiratory pressure response to the physical training. A cross-sectional study evaluated 28 international-level swimmers with ages ranging from 15 to 17 years, 19 (61 %) being males. At baseline, MIP was found to be lower in females (P = .001). The mean values reached by males and females were: MIP(cmH2O) = M: 100.4 (± 26.5)/F: 67.8 (± 23.2); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 87.4 (± 20.7)/F: 73.9 (± 17.3). After the physical training they reached: MIP (cmH2O) = M: 95.3 (± 30.3)/F: 71.8 (± 35.6); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 82.8 (± 26.2)/F: 70.4 (± 8.3). No differential pressure responses were observed in either males or females. These results suggest that swimmers can sustain the magnitude of the initial maximal pressures. Other studies should be developed to clarify if MIP and MEP could be used as a marker of an athlete's performance. PMID:21477568

Rocha Crispino Santos, M A; Pinto, M L; Couto Sant'Anna, C; Bernhoeft, M

260

Inapproximability of Maximal Strip Recovery: II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR) is an optimization problem proposed by Zheng, Zhu, and Sankoff for reliably recovering syntenic blocks from genomic maps in the midst of noise and ambiguities. Given d genomic maps as sequences of gene markers, the objective of MSR-d is to find d subsequences, one subsequence of each genomic map, such that the total length of syntenic blocks in these subsequences is maximized. In our recent paper entitled "Inapproximability of Maximal Strip Recovery" in ISAAC 2009, we proved that MSR-d is APX-hard for any constant d ? 2, and presented the first explicit lower bounds for approximating MSR-2, MSR-3, andMSR-4, even for the most basic version of the problem in which all markers are distinct and appear in positive orientation in each genomic map. In this paper, we present several further inapproximability results for MSR-d and its variants CMSR-d, ?-gap-MSR-d, and ?-gap-CMSR-d. One of our main results is that MSR-d is NP-hard to approximate within ?(d/ log d) even if all markers appear in positive orientation in each genomic map. From the other direction, we show that there is a polynomial-time 2d-approximation algorithm for MSR-d even if d is not a constant but is part of the input.

Jiang, Minghui

261

Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations. PMID:21560747

Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J

2011-03-01

262

Maximal violation of tight Bell inequalities for maximal high-dimensional entanglement  

SciTech Connect

We propose a Bell inequality for high-dimensional bipartite systems obtained by binning local measurement outcomes and show that it is tight. We find a binning method for even d-dimensional measurement outcomes for which this Bell inequality is maximally violated by maximally entangled states. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Bell inequality is applicable to continuous variable systems and yields strong violations for two-mode squeezed states.

Lee, Seung-Woo [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Jaksch, Dieter [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Keble College, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PG (United Kingdom)

2009-07-15

263

Critique of ``Expected Value`` models  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of models in the defense community which use a methodology referred to as ``Expected Value`` to perform sequential calculations of unit attritions or expenditures. The methodology applied to two-sided, dependent, sequential events can result in an incorrect model. An example of such an incorrect model is offered to show that these models may yield results which deviate significantly from a stochastic or Markov process approach. The example was derived from an informal discussion at the Center for Naval Analyses.

May, W.L.

1996-06-01

264

Psychosocial assessment of expectant fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background: Comprehensive antenatal psychosocial assessment of mothers prior to the birth is established in many regions. While the influence\\u000a of fathers on infant and maternal well-being is also recognised as commencing before birth, the early identification of needs\\u000a among expectant fathers has not been addressed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: The current study surveyed fathers attending antenatal classes in public and private hospitals

R. Fletcher; G. Vimpani; G. Russell; D. Sibbritt

2008-01-01

265

Are One Man's Rags Another Man's Riches? Identifying Adaptive Expectations Using Panel Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the motivations frequently cited by Sen and Nussbaum for moving away from a utility metric towards a capabilities framework is a concern about adaptive preferences or conditioned expectations. If utility is related to the satisfaction of aspirations or expectations, and if these are affected by the individual's previous experience of…

Burchardt, Tania

2005-01-01

266

NORMATIVE EXPECTATIONS AND INDIVIDUAL DECISIONS CONCERNING MEDIA GRATIFICATION CHOICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from this study, in which subjects evaluated gratifications for various media channels based on their beliefs concerning how “most people” would respond, indicate that each medium has a clear, socially defined image. This suggests a two-stage model of media channel utilization, of normative expectations followed by individual decisions.

ALLEN LICHTENSTEIN; LAWRENCE ROSENFELD

1984-01-01

267

Normative Expectations and Individual Decisions concerning Media Gratification Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results indicate that each of the nine media studied (newspapers, magazines, commercial and public television, books, radio, friends, recorded music, film) has a clear, socially defined image, suggesting a two-stage model of media channel utilization--normative expectations followed by individual decisions. (PD)|

Lichtenstein, Allen; Rosenfeld, Lawrence

1984-01-01

268

Rehabilitation Professionals' Participation Intensity and Expectations of Transition Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this mixed-methods study, an on-line survey and interviews were utilized to gather data regarding the level of participation and expectations rehabilitation professionals have of teachers, youth with disabilities, parents, and themselves during the transition process. The survey response rate was 73.0% (N = 46). Six were selected for…

Oertle, Kathleen Marie

2009-01-01

269

Expected Reachability-Time Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an expected reachability-time game (ERTG) two players, Min and Max, move a token along the transitions of a probabilistic timed automaton, so as to minimise and maximise, respectively, the expected time to reach a target. These games are concurrent since at each step of the game both players choose a timed move (a time delay and action under their control), and the transition of the game is determined by the timed move of the player who proposes the shorter delay. A game is turn-based if at any step of the game, all available actions are under the control of precisely one player. We show that while concurrent ERTGs are not always determined, turn-based ERTGs are positionally determined. Using the boundary region graph abstraction, and a generalisation of Asarin and Maler's simple function, we show that the decision problems related to computing the upper/lower values of concurrent ERTGs, and computing the value of turn-based ERTGs are decidable and their complexity is in NEXPTIME ? co-NEXPTIME.

Forejt, Vojt?ch; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Norman, Gethin; Trivedi, Ashutosh

270

Maximizing versus satisficing: happiness is a matter of choice.  

PubMed

Can people feel worse off as the options they face increase? The present studies suggest that some people--maximizers--can. Study 1 reported a Maximization Scale, which measures individual differences in desire to maximize. Seven samples revealed negative correlations between maximization and happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and positive correlations between maximization and depression, perfectionism, and regret. Study 2 found maximizers less satisfied than nonmaximizers (satisficers) with consumer decisions, and more likely to engage in social comparison. Study 3 found maximizers more adversely affected by upward social comparison. Study 4 found maximizers more sensitive to regret and less satisfied in an ultimatum bargaining game. The interaction between maximizing and choice is discussed in terms of regret, adaptation, and self-blame. PMID:12416921

Schwartz, Barry; Ward, Andrew; Monterosso, John; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; White, Katherine; Lehman, Darrin R

2002-11-01

271

Maximizing performance for higher K gate dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Further scaling of complementary metal oxide semiconductor gate stacks will require gate dielectrics with a higher dielectric constant (K) than HfO2. We point out that this will require strategies to minimize the overall effective oxide thickness of the gate stack, and not just maximizing the dielectric constant, so that the channel mobility is not impaired and there is still control of the flatband voltages. This may require retention of a SiO2-based interfacial layer, and attention should be paid to the flatband voltages of lanthanide oxides. Phase control of HfO2 and ZrO2 by addition of group IV elements offers simpler advances.

Robertson, John

2008-12-01

272

Bohm's interpretation and maximally entangled states  

SciTech Connect

Several no-go theorems showed the incompatibility between the locality assumption and quantum correlations obtained from maximally entangled spin states. We analyze these no-go theorems in the framework of Bohm's interpretation. The mechanism by which nonlocal correlations appear during the results of measurements performed on distant parts of entangled systems is explicitly put into evidence in terms of Bohmian trajectories. It is shown that a GHZ-like contradiction of the type +1=-1 occurs for well-chosen initial positions of the Bohmian trajectories and that it is this essential nonclassical feature that makes it possible to violate the locality condition.

Durt, Thomas [TENA, TONA Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pierseaux, Yves [Attached to ELEM, TENA, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

2002-11-01

273

Detection of the maximally connected state  

SciTech Connect

The maximally connected state (MCS) which was first introduced by Briegel and Raussendorf [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 910 (2001)] has many interesting properties in quantum information theory. Many important states that we are focusing on currently are included in this special set of states. To decide whether a state is a MCS or not is the main problem concerned in this paper. In this paper (1) we give a general criterion for MCS; (2) when the ranks of all of the two-qubit reduced density matrices are two, we give a convenient criterion.

Han, Y.-J.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, Y.-S.; Guo, G.-C. [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

2005-12-15

274

Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.  

PubMed

This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and/or weightlifting exercises performed with loads ranging from 50% to 90% of 1RM appears to be the most potent loading stimulus for improving maximal power in complex movements. Furthermore, plyometric exercises should involve stretch rates as well as stretch loads that are similar to those encountered in each specific sport and involve little to no external resistance. These loading conditions allow for superior transfer to performance because they require similar movement velocities to those typically encountered in sport. Third, it is vital to consider the individual athlete's window of adaptation (i.e. the magnitude of potential for improvement) for each neuromuscular factor contributing to maximal power production when developing an effective and efficient power training programme. A training programme that focuses on the least developed factor contributing to maximal power will prompt the greatest neuromuscular adaptations and therefore result in superior performance improvements for that individual. Finally, a key consideration for the long-term development of an athlete's maximal power production capacity is the need for an integration of numerous power training techniques. This integration allows for variation within power meso-/micro-cycles while still maintaining specificity, which is theorized to lead to the greatest long-term improvement in maximal power. PMID:21244105

Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

2011-02-01

275

Inertial likelihood maximization for reaction coordinates with high transmission coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For bilinearly coupled oscillator models, we examine the statistical relationship between transmission coefficients and committor distribution variances for reaction coordinates obtained by likelihood maximization. Transmission coefficients usually but not always increase as committor distributions narrow for the original version of likelihood maximization. We propose a new inertial version of likelihood maximization that uses velocity information to optimize purely configuration dependent coordinates. The coordinates from inertial likelihood maximization have higher transmission coefficients than coordinates from the original likelihood maximization procedure. Inertial likelihood maximization should be useful for understanding mechanisms of inertial reactions from atomistic simulations.

Peters, Baron

2012-12-01

276

Coal utilization  

SciTech Connect

This paper overviews coal utilization in the U.S. Electric utilities are by far the largest consumers of coal produced in the United States. In 1988, US utilities purchased about 690 Mt (760 million st). This represented 78% of total domestic coal production. Many coalfields are mined solely for the utility market. Many western coalfields are owned by utilities, generally through subsidiaries or joint ventures. Coal-fired generation is the backbone of the utility industry. It accounted for more than 1.5 billion (57%) of the 2.7 billion kW-hr generated in 1988. The tie between coal producers and consumers is underscored by the fuel bill. Utilities spent $23 billion for coal in 1988. That represented 80% of the operations and maintenance cost of coal-fired generation.

O'Conner, D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Harrison, C.D. (CQ Inc. (US))

1990-06-01

277

Reliability of Maximal Strength Testing in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Phillips WT, Batterham AM, Valenzuela JE, Burkett LN. Reliability of maximal,strength testing in older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:329-34. Objectives: To determine (1) the reliability of a maximal

Wayne T. Phillips; Alan M. Batterham; Julie E. Valenzuela; Lee N. Burkett

2004-01-01

278

Complete maximal surfaces in static Robertson Walker 3-spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a large family of complete maximal surfaces in the static Robertson Walker 3-spaces with negative base curvature. These examples provide a wide variety of non-standard foliations of such spaces by entire maximal graphs.

Fernández, Isabel; Mira, Pablo

2007-12-01

279

Optimal power flow with expected security costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research introduces the expected security-cost optimal power flow (ESCOPF) model. The ESCOPF problem is the standard optimal power flow (OPF) problem, but also includes the costs of the system operating within operational limits in post-contingency states as part of the total cost to minimize. Redispatch of the power system in the post-contingency state, given that the system has been operating at a given pre-contingency state prior to the contingency, yields a new total cost of system operation, which is considered the security cost of the particular contingency as a function of the pre-contingency state. The security cost is then included in the objective function. In other words, the ESCOPF problem is the OPF problem that handles system security as an economic cost instead of as a constraint, which is what has been done in previous studies of security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF). In addition, after the contingency, we allow post-contingency rescheduling of generators and the ability to interrupt customer loads if necessary. However, the cost of post-contingency rescheduling, such as the interruption cost the utility must pay to the interrupted customers, must be included in the post-contingency security cost. The proposed ESCOPF problem can be solved using either a decomposition method or an integrated solution method. The proposed model has been successfully tested on 3-bus, 5-bus and IEEE 14-bus cases. The numerical results of the proposed model are used to study the values of spinning reserve and interruptible load in power systems considering system security. The marginal value of spinning reserve and the marginal value of interruptible load tell us how much the expected security cost will be reduced by the availability of another MW of spinning reserve or interruptible load.

Damrongkulkamjorn, Parnjit

280

Application of a forest-simulation model to assess the energy yield and ecological impact of forest utilization for energy  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the utilization and management of natural forest lands to meet growing wood-energy demands. An application of a forest simulation model is described for assessing energy returns and long-term ecological impacts of wood-energy harvesting under four general silvicultural practices. Results indicate that moderate energy yields could be expected from mild cutting operations which would significantly effect neither the commercial timber market nor the composition, structure, or diversity of these forests. Forest models can provide an effective tool for determining optimal management strategies that maximize energy returns, minimize environmental detriment, and complement existing land-use plans.

Doyle, T.W.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

1981-01-01

281

Reduced maximal cardiac output at altitude — mechanisms and significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a lowlander ascends to altitude and acclimatizes over days to weeks, both maximal exercise capacity and maximal cardiac output are reduced compared to sea level. Of the several possible mechanisms underlying this reduction of maximal cardiac output, the available data are interpreted as supporting the simplest hypothesis — that this merely reflects the reduced requirement for muscle blood flow

Peter D Wagner

2000-01-01

282

Maximal diagnosis of interconnects of random access memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach for the maximal diagnosis of all faults (stuck-at, open and short) in the interconnect of a random access memory (RAM); and the interconnect includes data and address lines. This approach accomplishes maximal diagnosis under a complex model in which the lines in the interconnect of the RAM can be affected by multiple faults. Maximal diagnosis

Jun Zhao; Fred J. Meyer; Fabrizio Lombardi

2003-01-01

283

Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate some properties of n( >= 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C2 vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.

Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya

2011-08-01

284

Maximally polarized states for quantum light fields  

SciTech Connect

The degree of polarization of a quantum field can be defined as its distance to an appropriate set of states. When we take unpolarized states as this reference set, the states optimizing this degree for a fixed average number of photons N present a fairly symmetric, parabolic photon statistic, with a variance scaling as N{sup 2}. Although no standard optical process yields such a statistic, we show that, to an excellent approximation, a highly squeezed vacuum can be taken as maximally polarized. We also consider the distance of a field to the set of its SU(2) transformed, finding that certain linear superpositions of SU(2) coherent states make this degree to be unity.

Sanchez-Soto, Luis L.; Yustas, Eulogio C. [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bjoerk, Gunnar [School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); Klimov, Andrei B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

2007-10-15

285

Fermi surfaces in maximal gauged supergravity.  

PubMed

We obtain fermion fluctuation equations around extremal charged black hole geometries in maximal gauged supergravity in four and five dimensions, and we demonstrate that their solutions display Fermi surface singularities for the dual conformal field theories at finite chemical potential. The four-dimensional case is a massless charged fermion, while in five dimensions we find a massive charged fermion with a Pauli coupling. In both cases, the corresponding scaling exponent is less than one half, leading to non-Fermi liquid behavior with no stable quasiparticles, although some excitations have widths more than 10 times smaller than their excitation energy. In the five-dimensional case, both the Fermi momentum and the scaling exponent appear to have simple values, and a Luttinger calculation suggests that the gauginos may carry most of the charge of the black hole. PMID:23004583

DeWolfe, Oliver; Gubser, Steven S; Rosen, Christopher

2012-06-19

286

Constrained maximal power in small engines.  

PubMed

Efficiency at maximum power is studied for two simple engines (three- and five-state systems). This quantity is found to be sensitive to the variable with respect to which the maximization is implemented. It can be wildly different from the well-known Curzon-Ahlborn bound (one minus the square root of the temperature ratio), or can be even closer than previously realized. It is shown that when the power is optimized with respect to a maximum number of variables the Curzon-Ahlborn bound is a lower bound, accurate at high temperatures, but a rather poor estimate when the cold reservoir temperature approaches zero (at which point the Carnot limit is achieved). PMID:21230439

Gaveau, B; Moreau, M; Schulman, L S

2010-11-05

287

Proverbs, Maxims and Phrases of All Ages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lyrical poet Horace once said that "The road of death must be travelled by all." He said many other things, and some of his sayings may be found within this classic volume. Originally published in 1887, the volume "Proverbs, Maxims and Phrases of All Ages" was compiled by Robert Christy. The intent of this volume was to serve as a reference volume for libraries and personal use. The people at Bartleby.com have made it available here in its entirety, and it may serve as a source of inspiration to budding writers, philosophers, and orators. Visitors can search the work by categories like "Advice," "Fortune," and "Honor." Also, the formal Preface is quite an elaborate bit of writing, and sets an appropriate tone for the work.

288

An Expectancy Model of Laboratory Preparedness Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments investigating differential unconditioned stimulus (UCS) expectancy during fear-relevant (prepared) and fear-irrelevant (unprepared) stimuli revealed that (a) a UCS expectancy bias is apparent before conditioning, (b) initial differential UCS expectancy appears in spite of instructions informing the Ss of no UCS presentations, (c) differential UCS expectancies to fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli dissipate with continued nonreinforcement, (d) differential UCS expectancies may

Graham C. L. Davey

1992-01-01

289

Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints  

PubMed Central

Signal to noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the output of a system is highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generation is a necessary feature appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multi-step cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multi-state system with no memory (i.e. a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, there is an energy cost associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e. the number of states). Thus an infinite length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.

Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam

2011-01-01

290

On the tractability of maximal strip recovery.  

PubMed

Given two genomic maps G and H represented by a sequence of n gene markers, a strip (syntenic block) is a sequence of distinct markers of length at least two which appear as subsequences in the input maps, either directly or in reversed and negated form. The problem Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR) is to find two subsequences G' and H' of G and H, respectively, such that the total length of disjoint strips in G' and H' is maximized (or, conversely, the number of markers hence deleted, is minimized). Previously, several heuristic algorithms which work well in practice, have been proposed. Theoretically, a factor-4 polynomial-time approximation is known for the MSR problem. Moreover, several close variants of MSR, MSR-d (with d > 2 input maps), MSR-DU (with marker duplications) and MSR-WT (with markers weighted) have been proved to be NP-complete. Before this work, the complexity of the original MSR problem was left open. In this article, we solve the open problem by showing that MSR is NP-complete, using a polynomial time reduction from One-in-Three 3SAT. We also present some fixed-parameter tractable algorithms for the (complement of) MSR problem and its variants. Let k be the minimum number of markers deleted in an optimal solution. The running time of our algorithms are O(2(3.61k)n + n(2)) for MSR, [Formula: see text] for MSR-d, and O(2(7.22k)n + n(2)) for MSR-DU, respectively. PMID:20632870

Wang, Lusheng; Zhu, Binhai

2010-07-01

291

Determinants of time trial performance and maximal incremental exercise in highly trained endurance athletes.  

PubMed

Human endurance performance can be predicted from maximal oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)), lactate threshold, and exercise efficiency. These physiological parameters, however, are not wholly exclusive from one another, and their interplay is complex. Accordingly, we sought to identify more specific measurements explaining the range of performance among athletes. Out of 150 separate variables we identified 10 principal factors responsible for hematological, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, and neurological variation in 16 highly trained cyclists. These principal factors were then correlated with a 26-km time trial and test of maximal incremental power output. Average power output during the 26-km time trial was attributed to, in order of importance, oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the vastus lateralis muscle (P = 0.0005), steady-state submaximal blood lactate concentrations (P = 0.0017), and maximal leg oxygenation (sO(2LEG)) (P = 0.0295), accounting for 78% of the variation in time trial performance. Variability in maximal power output, on the other hand, was attributed to total body hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass); P = 0.0038), Vo(2max) (P = 0.0213), and sO(2LEG) (P = 0.0463). In conclusion, 1) skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is the primary predictor of time trial performance in highly trained cyclists; 2) the strongest predictor for maximal incremental power output is Hb(mass); and 3) overall exercise performance (time trial performance + maximal incremental power output) correlates most strongly to measures regarding the capability for oxygen transport, high Vo(2max) and Hb(mass), in addition to measures of oxygen utilization, maximal oxidative phosphorylation, and electron transport system capacities in the skeletal muscle. PMID:21885805

Jacobs, R A; Rasmussen, P; Siebenmann, C; Díaz, V; Gassmann, M; Pesta, D; Gnaiger, E; Nordsborg, N B; Robach, P; Lundby, C

2011-09-01

292

Obesity and Trends in Life Expectancy  

PubMed Central

Background. Increasing levels of obesity over recent decades have been expected to lead to an epidemic of diabetes and a subsequent reduction in life expectancy, but instead all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality rates have decreased steadily in most developed countries and life expectancy has increased. Methods. This paper suggests several factors that may be masking the effects of obesity on life expectancy. Results. It is possible that health and life expectancy gains could be even greater if it was not for the increasing prevalence of extreme obesity. It is also possible that the principal impact of obesity is on disability-free life expectancy rather than on life expectancy itself. Conclusion. If the principal impact of obesity were through disability-free life expectancy rather than on life expectancy itself, this would have substantial implications for the health of individuals and the future burden on the health care system.

Walls, Helen L.; Backholer, Kathryn; Proietto, Joseph; McNeil, John J.

2012-01-01

293

Mining Maximally Banded Matrices in Binary Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary data occurs often in several real world applications ranging from social networks to bioinformatics. Extract- ing patterns from such data has been a focus of fundamen- tal data mining tasks including association rule analysis, se- quence mining and bi-clustering. Recently, the utility of banded structures in binary matrices has been pointed out with applications in paleontology, bioinformatics and social

Faris Alqadah; Raj Bhatnagar; Anil G. Jegga

2010-01-01

294

A utility model for teaching load decisions in academic departments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors model the class size and teaching load decisions of academic departments in terms of a departmental utility function. Utility is postulated to be asymmetric around class size and teaching load norms, and variables for curricular structure, disciplinary domain, and institutional type are taken into account. Maximization of the utility function produces decision rules for the number of sections

William F. Massy; Robert Zemsky

1997-01-01

295

Synthesis of maximally flat pattern for the transmitting antenna in a microwave power transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is proposed which allows the synthesis of a maximally flat pattern for the transmitting antenna in a microwave power transmission system for a given value of the power transmission efficiency (less than the maximum efficiency). The optimization criterion is a modified version of that given by Mintz et al. (1988) and Minkovitz (1979). It is also shown that, for a given value of efficiency, a pattern can exist that is associated with a higher area utilization coefficient of the receiving antenna.

Vanke, V. A.; Zaporozhets, A. A.

1989-12-01

296

Use of a Best Estimate Power Monitoring Tool to Maximize Power Plant Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Best Estimate Power Monitor (BEPM) is a tool that was developed to maximize nuclear power plant generation, while ensuring regulatory compliance in the face of venturi fouling, industry ultra-sonic flowmeter issues and other technical challenges. The BEPM uses ASME approved 'best estimate' methodology described in PTC 19.1-1985, 'Measurement Uncertainty', Section 3.8, 'Weighting Method'. The BEPM method utilizes many different

Dziuba; Lindsey L

2006-01-01

297

Utility Green Pricing Programs: A Statistical Analysis of Program Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs.

Wiser, R.; Olson, S.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

2004-02-01

298

Reliability of maximal lactate-steady-state.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the analysis of reliability and day-to-day-variability of power (PMLSS), blood lactate concentration (BLCMLSS) and heart rate (HRMLSS) in maximal lactate- steady-state during cycle ergometry. 32 male subjects (25±3 years, 180±7 cm, 76±8 kg) have undergone several constant-load-tests lasting 30 min to determine 4 PMLSS. During the test, blood-samples were taken from the earlobe after 4, 8,10, 14, 18, 22, 26 und 30 min for detecting the BLCMLSS. PMLSS was defined as the highest workload that can be maintained without accumulation of BLC by more than 0.05 mmol/l/min during the last 20 min. Mean PMLSS was 244±45 W, according to 75% of VO2max. Mean of BLCMLSS was 5.3±1.5 mmol/l/min, mean of HRMLSS was 166±10 1/min. The coefficient of variability (CV) was calculated for PMLSS, BLCMLSS and HRMLSS with 3%, 16.6% and 6.3%, respectively. The Intra-Class-Coefficient for PMLSS, BLCMLSS and for HRMLSS was determined with 0.98 (p?0.001), 0.71 (p?0.001), 0.92 (p?0.001) respectively. PMLSS and HRMLSS are characterized by a low day-to-day variability that is comparable with results of different lactate threshold concepts. In comparison to PMLSS, BLCMLSS shows a greater day-to-day-variability. PMID:22972242

Hauser, T; Bartsch, D; Baumgärtel, L; Schulz, H

2012-09-12

299

Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict "normal" MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for both dominant and non-dominant sides. Several anthropometric data were also measured: height; weight; hand, wrist and forearm circumference; hand and palm length. Among these data, hand circumference had the strongest correlation with MGS for all three dynamometers and for both hands (0.789 and 0.782 for Jamar; 0.829 and 0.824 for Myogrip; 0.663 and 0.730 for Vigorimeter). In addition, the only anthropometric variable systematically selected by a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also hand circumference. Based on this parameter alone, a predictive regression model presented good results (r(2) = 0.624 for Jamar; r(2) = 0.683 for Myogrip and r(2) = 0.473 for Vigorimeter; all adjusted r(2)). Moreover a single equation was predictive of MGS for both men and women and for both non-dominant and dominant hands. "Normal" MGS can be predicted using hand circumference alone. PMID:20708427

Li, Ke; Hewson, David J; Duchêne, Jacques; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

2010-08-12

300

Maximally localized Wannier functions: Theory and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic ground state of a periodic system is usually described in terms of extended Bloch orbitals, but an alternative representation in terms of localized “Wannier functions” was introduced by Gregory Wannier in 1937. The connection between the Bloch and Wannier representations is realized by families of transformations in a continuous space of unitary matrices, carrying a large degree of arbitrariness. Since 1997, methods have been developed that allow one to iteratively transform the extended Bloch orbitals of a first-principles calculation into a unique set of maximally localized Wannier functions, accomplishing the solid-state equivalent of constructing localized molecular orbitals, or “Boys orbitals” as previously known from the chemistry literature. These developments are reviewed here, and a survey of the applications of these methods is presented. This latter includes a description of their use in analyzing the nature of chemical bonding, or as a local probe of phenomena related to electric polarization and orbital magnetization. Wannier interpolation schemes are also reviewed, by which quantities computed on a coarse reciprocal-space mesh can be used to interpolate onto much finer meshes at low cost, and applications in which Wannier functions are used as efficient basis functions are discussed. Finally the construction and use of Wannier functions outside the context of electronic-structure theory is presented, for cases that include phonon excitations, photonic crystals, and cold-atom optical lattices.

Marzari, Nicola; Mostofi, Arash A.; Yates, Jonathan R.; Souza, Ivo; Vanderbilt, David

2012-10-01

301

Maximal width of the separatrix chaotic layer.  

PubMed

The main goal of the paper is to find the absolute maximum of the width of the separatrix chaotic layer as function of the frequency of the time-periodic perturbation of a one-dimensional Hamiltonian system possessing a separatrix, which is one of the major unsolved problems in the theory of separatrix chaos. For a given small amplitude of the perturbation, the width is shown to possess sharp peaks in the range from logarithmically small to moderate frequencies. These peaks are universal, being the consequence of the involvement of the nonlinear resonance dynamics into the separatrix chaotic motion. Developing further the approach introduced in the recent paper by Soskin [Phys. Rev. E 77, 036221 (2008)], we derive leading-order asymptotic expressions for the shape of the low-frequency peaks. The maxima of the peaks, including in particular the absolute maximum of the width, are proportional to the perturbation amplitude times either a logarithmically large factor or a numerical, still typically large, factor, depending on the type of system. Thus, our theory predicts that the maximal width of the chaotic layer may be much larger than that predicted by former theories. The theory is verified in simulations. An application to the facilitation of global chaos onset is discussed. PMID:20365259

Soskin, S M; Mannella, R

2009-12-29

302

Lens-mirror combinations with maximal concentration.  

PubMed

By the addition of suitable reflectors the concentration of a lens can be increased to the thermodynamic limit, which is equivalent to an f-number of one half. Such lens-mirror combinations are useful whenever concentration rather than image formation is important, for example, in radiation detectors and solar energy collectors. The design of lens-mirror combinations with maximal concentration is described. To the approximation that the lens has sharp focal points at off-axis incidence, the solution for the reflector is readily found to be compound hyperbolic. With proper choice of the f-number of the lens the hyperbolic reflector reduces to a V-trough or cone, an arrangement which offers considerable advantages for fabrication. The 2-D case (line focus lens) suffers from aberrations due to focal length variation with nonplanar incidence. The optical performance of 2-D lens-mirror combinations at nonplanar incidence is analyzed and evaluated for its suitability in solar energy applications. A prototype Fresn l lens plus V-trough has been built, and test data are presented. PMID:20174212

Collares-Pereira, M; Rabl, A; Winston, R

1977-10-01

303

Economic implications of non-utility generation on composite generation and transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a utility buys electric energy from a non-utility generation (NUG) at short notice, such as a few hours, one of the most difficult issues encountered by the utility is the evaluation of the rate (buyback rate) it should pay the NUG such that the utility maximizes its economic benefits. Utilities calculate their purchase rates based on a number of

R. Gupta; L. Goel

2001-01-01

304

Community Expectations of College Completion and Attendance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communities relay expectations of behavior that influence residents' decision making processes. The study's purpose was to define and identify social, cultural, and human capital variables relevant to understanding community expectations of postsecondary attainment. The study sought an operational model of community expectancy that would allow…

Derden, Michael Wade

2011-01-01

305

Parental Expectations of Their Adolescents' Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines parental expectations of their children's teachers through use of the Expectations of Teachers questionnaire. Participating parents (N=765) reported greater expectations for help and assistance, followed by teaching competence and fairness on the part of the teacher. Mothers were found to hold higher fairness, help, and assistance…

Tatar, Moshe; Horenczyk, Gabriel

2000-01-01

306

Measuring Student Expectations and Their Effects on Satisfaction: The Importance of Managing Student Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigate the relationship between student expectations and student satisfaction. Can students’ satisfaction with a course be accurately predicted by comparing their perceptions to their expectations (as suggested by the expectancy\\/disconfirmation paradigm)? The results of these studies suggest that the answer to this question is strongly affected by the method used to measure student expectations. When recalled expectations and

Sara L. Appleton-Knapp; Kathleen A. Krentler

2006-01-01

307

Maximizing power to constrain simple conceptual models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, hydrological models are calibrated to observables such as discharge or groundwater levels. However, in recent years more and more researchers recognize that catchments organize themselves, and there have been strong arguments for behavioral models (i.e. models that constrain their parameters by an organizing principle). The principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) is an often mentioned candidate. But until now, only limited studies explore the use of this principle. In this study we explore the principle of maximum power (which is equivalent to MEP) to constrain the water partitioning in the unsaturated zone and link that to widely applied bucket models such as HBV. Maximum power (or MEP) only applies to systems that are in steady state. By only considering the yearly water balance, the system can be assumed to be in steady state. Therefore we limit ourselves to the unsaturated zone in which the partitioning between transpiration and runoff takes place. For each time step the matrix potential in the unsaturated zone has been determined. The matrix potential influences the driving gradients of both evapotranspiration and runoff to the stream. Power was then determined by multiplying the water flux with the gradient driving that flux. By varying the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil depth and a shape factor accounting for the spatial variability in soil depth, power has been maximized. Since a catchment is never in steady state due to e.g. tectonic movement, only those parameter sets were considered that mimic the yearly water balance correctly. This study is one of the first studies that explore the principle of maximum Power (or MEP) to model real world catchments. It sheds light on its usefulness in hydrology and its limitation and it may bring the hydrological sciences a step further in understanding catchment behavior.

Westhoff, M.; Zehe, E.

2012-04-01

308

Utility solar water heating workshops  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

Barrett, L.B. (Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States))

1992-01-01

309

Suboptimal provision of preventive healthcare due to expected enrollee turnover among private insurers.  

PubMed

Many preventive healthcare procedures are widely recognized as cost-effective but have relatively low utilization rates in the US. Because preventive care is a present-period investment with a future-period expected financial return, enrollee turnover among private insurers lowers the expected return of this investment. In this paper, I present a simple theoretical model to illustrate the suboptimal provision of preventive healthcare that results from insurers 'free riding' off of the provision from others. I also provide an empirical test of this hypothesis using data from the Community Tracking Study's Household Survey. I use lagged market-level measures of employment-induced insurer turnover to identify variation in insurers' expectations and test for the effect of turnover on several different measures of medical utilization. As expected, I find that turnover has a significantly negative effect on the utilization of preventive services and has no effect on the utilization of acute services used as a control. PMID:19353530

Herring, Bradley

2010-04-01

310

Labeled Influence Maximization in Social Networks for Target Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence maximization problem is to find a set of seed nodes which maximize the spread of influence in a social network. The seed nodes are used for the viral marketing to gain the maximum profits through the effective word-of-mouth. However, in more real-world cases, marketers usually target certain products at particular groups of customers. While original influence maximization problem

Fa-Hsien Li; Cheng-Te Li; Man-Kwan Shan

2011-01-01

311

Building hospital TQM teams: effective polarity analysis and maximization.  

PubMed

Building and maintaining teams require careful attention to and maximization of such polar opposites (¿polarities¿) as individual and team, directive and participatory leadership, task and process, and stability and change. Analyzing systematic elements of any polarity and listing blocks, supports, and flexible ways to maximize it will prevent the negative consequences that occur when treating a polarity like a solvable problem. Flexible, well-timed shifts from pole to pole result in the maximization of upside and minimization of downside consequences. PMID:10159641

Hurst, J B

1996-09-01

312

Efficiency of rate-maximization game under bounded channel uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of competitive rate-maximization is an important signal-processing problem for power-constrained multi-user systems. It involves solving the power control problem for mutually interfering users operating across multiple frequencies. We introduced robust rate-maximization game for systems with bounded channel uncertainty. In this paper, we analyse the effect of uncertainty on the global efficiency of the robust rate-maximization game. For a

Animashree Anandkumar; S. Lambotharan; J. Chambers

2010-01-01

313

Computing the demand of agents with a law invariant utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a class of concave law invariant utilities which contains the Rank Dependent Expected Utility (RDU). For this class, we show that computation of the demand for a contingent claim, although not as simple as in the Expected Utility (EU) case, is still tractable. Specific attention is given to the RDU case. Numerous examples are fully solved.

G. Carlier; R.-A. Dana

314

Maximally Epistemic Interpretations of the Quantum State and Contextuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the relationship between quantum contextuality (in both the standard Kochen-Specker sense and in the generalized sense proposed by Spekkens) and models of quantum theory in which the quantum state is maximally epistemic. We find that preparation noncontextual models must be maximally epistemic, and these in turn must be Kochen-Specker noncontextual. This implies that the Kochen-Specker theorem is sufficient to establish both the impossibility of maximally epistemic models and the impossibility of preparation noncontextual models. The implication from preparation noncontextual to maximally epistemic then also yields a proof of Bell’s theorem from an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-like argument.

Leifer, M. S.; Maroney, O. J. E.

2013-03-01

315

Utility Function from Maximum Entropy Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently we used the maximum entropy principle for finding the price density in a multi agent insurance market. The result is similar to what the Buhlmann had obtained by maximizing the utility function. Here we begin with the price density that is derived by applying the maximum entropy principle to a conservative economic system (exchange market), then reverse the Buhlmann calculation to find the utility function and the risk aversion of agents with respect to this density.

Darooneh, Amir H.

2006-03-01

316

The vortex-finding property of maximal center (and other) gauges  

SciTech Connect

The authors argue that the vortex-finding property of maximal center gauge, i.e. the ability of this gauge to locate center vortices inserted by hand on any given lattice, is the key to its success in extracting the vortex content of thermalized lattice configurations. The authors explain how this property comes about, and why it is expected not only in maximal center gauge, but also in an infinite class of gauge conditions based on adjoint-representation link variables. In principle, the vortex-finding property can be foiled by Gribov copies. This fact is relevant to a gauge-fixing procedure devised by Kovacs and Tomboulis, where they show that the loss of center dominance, found in their procedure, is explained by a corresponding loss of the vortex-finding property. The dependence of center dominance on the vortex-finding property is demonstrated numerically in a number of other gauges.

Faber, M.; Greensite, J.; Olejnik, S.; Yamada, D.

1999-10-01

317

Prediction of Maximal Oxygen Uptake from Submaximal Exercise Testing in Aerobically Fit and Nonfit Men. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerobic physical fitness, as determined by the body's maximal capacity to utilize oxygen (VO sub 2max) during demanding work, is an important determinant of a person's ability to perform many military tasks. The present 2.4 km (1.5 mile) run has not prove...

G. H. Hartung L. P. Krock C. G. Crandall R. U. Bisson L. G. Myhre

1993-01-01

318

STOCK MARKET CRASH AND EXPECTATIONS OF AMERICAN HOUSEHOLDS.  

PubMed

This paper utilizes data on subjective probabilities to study the impact of the stock market crash of 2008 on households' expectations about the returns on the stock market index. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study that was fielded in February 2008 through February 2009. The effect of the crash is identified from the date of the interview, which is shown to be exogenous to previous stock market expectations. We estimate the effect of the crash on the population average of expected returns, the population average of the uncertainty about returns (subjective standard deviation), and the cross-sectional heterogeneity in expected returns (disagreement). We show estimates from simple reduced-form regressions on probability answers as well as from a more structural model that focuses on the parameters of interest and separates survey noise from relevant heterogeneity. We find a temporary increase in the population average of expectations and uncertainty right after the crash. The effect on cross-sectional heterogeneity is more significant and longer lasting, which implies substantial long-term increase in disagreement. The increase in disagreement is larger among the stockholders, the more informed, and those with higher cognitive capacity, and disagreement co-moves with trading volume and volatility in the market. PMID:21547244

Hudomiet, Péter; Kézdi, Gábor; Willis, Robert J

2011-01-01

319

Women's Retirement Expectations: How Stable Are They?  

PubMed Central

Objective Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examine between- and within-person differences in expected retirement age as a key element of the retirement planning process. The expectation typologies of 1,626 women born between 1923 and 1937 were classified jointly on the basis of specificity and consistency. Methods Latent class analysis was used to determine retirement expectation patterns over a 7-year span. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effects of demographic and status characteristics on the likelihood of reporting 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of retirement expectations. Results Substantial heterogeneity in reports of expected retirement age between and within individuals over the 7-year span was found. Demographic and status characteristics, specifically age, race, marital status, job tenure, and recent job change, sorted respondents into different retirement expectation patterns. Conclusions The frequent within-person fluctuations and substantial between-person heterogeneity in retirement expectations indicate uncertainty and variability in both expectations and process of expectation formation. Variability in respondents' reports suggests that studying retirement expectations at multiple time points better captures the dynamics of preretirement planning.

Hardy, Melissa A.

2009-01-01

320

Improving data mining utility with projective sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall performance of the data mining process depends not just on the value of the induced knowledge but also on various costs of the process itself such as the cost of acquiring and pre-processing training examples, the CPU cost of model induction, and the cost of committed errors. Recently, several progressive sampling strategies for maximizing the overall data mining utility

Mark Last

2009-01-01

321

Biomass utilization  

SciTech Connect

Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources (Cunia, T.); Aerial photo biomass equation (Kasile, J.); Forest biomass utilization in Greece (Tsoumis, C.); Mass propagation of selected trees for biomass by tissue culture (Venketeswaran, S. et al.); The anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of wood (Coete, W.A.); Some structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis lignins (Papadopoulos, J.); Thermochemical routes to chemicals, fuels and energy from forestry and agricultural residues (Soltes, E.J.); Pyrolysis of wood wastes (Figueiredo, J.L. et al.); Efficient utilization of woody biomass: a cellulose-particleboard-synfuels model (Young, R.A.; Achmadi, S.); and Methanol from wood, a state of the art review (Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van).

Coute, W.A. (ed.)

1983-01-01

322

Glary Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glary Utilities offers this free application to help users improve their system's performance and also protect their privacy. After installing the application, users can remove and back up faculty registry entries, along with offering a secure file deletion feature. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer.

2008-01-01

323

Alternate Waiting List Strategies for Heart Transplantation Maximize Donor Organ Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Alternate waiting list strategies have been promoted as a means to offer the benefit of heart trans- plantation to a greater number of candidates. We under- took the current study to evaluate our experience with transplantation in alternate list (AL) candidates. Methods. Adults undergoing heart transplantation from January 1, 2001, through April 15, 2004, were eval- uated. Selected patients

Jonathan M. Chen; Mark J. Russo; Kim M. Hammond; Donna M. Mancini; Aftab R. Kherani; Jen M. Fal; Pamela A. Mazzeo; Sean P. Pinney; Niloo M. Edwards; Yoshifumi Naka

2005-01-01

324

Solving for Optimal Retirement Financial Plans by Maximizing a Discounted Habit Formation Utility Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the increasing popularity of defined-benefit retirement plans, retiring individuals are looking for professional financial advice to help manage their nest eggs. Commonly prescribed generic 'one size fits all' rules of thumb such as the 4% Rule can c...

W. P. Johnson

2009-01-01

325

Complex midface reconstruction: maximizing contour and bone graft survival utilizing periosteal free flaps.  

PubMed

Midfacial bone and soft tissue defects present a unique challenge because they require a complex arrangement of tissues in a relatively limited space. This may be difficult to achieve with free osteocutaneous flaps. The use of bone grafts allows greater flexibility in reconstruction but is limited by graft resorption. This is the report of midface reconstruction using a large iliac crest graft covered with a radial forearm free fascioperiosteal flap to augment graft survival. Histopathology and patient follow-up evaluation are presented demonstrating viable bone throughout the graft at biopsy 4 months postoperatively. PMID:14501347

Kelley, Patrick; Klebuc, Michael; Hollier, Larry

2003-09-01

326

Marketing as a Tool for Maximizing the Utilization of Findings from Outcome Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Decreased resources, increased accountability demands, and the need for economic survival have made the evaluation of the outcomes of continuing education efforts in nursing a salient need. Economic survival, in particular, is largely dependent upon the skill of the continuing educator in achieving the desirable balance between organizational and…

Bond, Susan B.; Waltz, Carolyn F.

327

Maximizing spectral utilization in WDM systems by microwave domain filtering of tandem single sidebands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an optical tandem single-sideband receiver that enables the detection of signals having different information in the two sidebands of the same optical carrier. The technique relies on the use of a dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator and achieves heterodyne detection without the use of an optical local oscillator. Sharp filtering requirements are met in the electrical domain, eliminating the need

Adithyaram Narasimha; Xuejun Meng; Cedric F. Lam; Ming C. Wu; Eli Yablonovitch

2001-01-01

328

Generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation predict change in anxiety and depression among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative mood regulation (NMR) expectancies, or the beliefs held by individuals that, when faced with various manifestations of stress and negative affect, they can successfully cope with such mood states, have proven to be a most useful construct in the context of better understanding self-regulatory processes. In the present prospective study, we examined the predictive utility of NMR expectancies with

Jon D. Kassel; Marina Bornovalova; Neera Mehta

2007-01-01

329

Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations for Native American Youth in New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Levels of educational and occupational aspiration and expectation of 139 male and female, rural, New Mexican, American Indian youth (sophomores and seniors) were examined. Utilizing questionnaires and fixed-choice stimulus questions, data were gathered to determine: educational and occupational aspirations and expectations; goal deflections for…

Edington, Everett D.

330

Institutional barriers to increased utilization of power plant ash in Maryland: analysis and recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is directed at the problems of disposal and utilization of coal fired power plant solid wastes in Maryland. Each year, Maryland and D.C. power plants produce over 0.8 million tons of fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag (collectively, 'ash') and this quantity is expected to increase to 1.5 million tons by 1990. While only a small fraction of these wastes is presently used as a resource, increased utilization is possible, thus decreasing the quantities landfilled. Given the potential for increased use, a question is whether the state can aid utilities in finding markets for their solid wastes, so that use can be maximized and disposal minimized. For example, if existing state and local regulations present unreasonable barriers which delay use, or make use impractical or expensive, such barriers should be removed. Positive actions might also be taken to increase utilization of the ash resource. Based on surveys of eight states and detailed analysis of the Maryland situation, this report presents the existing institutional barriers to increased ash use in Maryland. 'Institutional barriers' as used in this report refer to legal, regulatory, and administrative activities of government agents which impact utilization efforts. Along with the list of barriers, this report includes a detailed survey of the regulatory treatment of ash and standards for highway construction use of ash. The report also provides comparisons with other states and presents a set of potential remedies for consideration.

Hudson, J.F.; Stoler, M.; Demeter, C.; Farrell, S.O.

1982-01-01

331

Grief experiences and expectance of suicide.  

PubMed

Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief Experience Questionnaire and additional measurements on expectance and understanding. Results supported the prediction of a link between expecting suicide and understanding the suicide. Higher expectance and understanding were related to less searching for explanation and preoccupation with the suicide. There was no direct association with other grief experiences. We conclude that more attention should be brought to the relation between expecting the suicide of a loved one and later grief responses in research and in clinical practice. PMID:22276805

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-25

332

expect: Curing Those Uncontrollable Fits of Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNIX programs used to be designed so that they could be connected with pipes createdby a shell. This paradigm is insufficient when dealing with many modern programsthat demand to be used interactively.expect is a program designed to control interactive programs. expect reads a scriptthat resembles the dialogue itself but which may include multiple paths through it.Scripts include:. send\\/expect sequences -

Don Libes

1990-01-01

333

Time-Variation in Expected Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article characterizes the stochastic behavior of expected retu rns on common stocks. The authors assume market efficiency and postulate an autoregressive process for conditional expected returns. They use weekly returns of ten size-based portfolios over the 1962-8 5 period and find that (1) the variation through time in expected returns is well characterized by a stationary first-order autoregression process;

Jennifer Conrad; Gautam Kaul

1988-01-01

334

Optimal power flow with expected security costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the expected-security-cost optimal power flow (ESCOPF) problem. The objective of the problem is to minimize the expected total cost of system operation subject to power system constraints and expected security costs. The probabilities of operating in the pre-contingency operating state and the probabilities of operating in all possible post-contingency states are considered. In addition, the ESCOPF problem

John Condren; Thomas W. Gedra; P. Damrongkulkamjorn

2006-01-01

335

Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.  

PubMed

Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each. PMID:24000836

Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

2013-09-01

336

Capillary DNA Sequencing: Maximizing the Sequence Output  

PubMed Central

Like most other DNA sequencing core facilities, one of our continuing goals is to improve our sequence output without substantially adding to cost. To minimize sample-to-sample variability in template DNA concentration, we implemented the rolling circle amplification (RCA) procedure for preparing our DNA templates. In addition to saving time and reducing the number of steps in template DNA preparation, the RCA method has the potential to normalize the DNA concentration in samples that can be sequenced directly without additional purification. In the present study, we used RCA-generated templates to test a recently reported procedure that increased sequence quality by resuspending the sequenced products in low concentrations of agarose before capillary electrophoresis (CE) on a MegaBACE 1000 platform. Although we did not obtain the expected result using the specified procedure, a modification resulted in up to 60% increase in total sequence yield per sample plate. A combination of agarose and formamide-EDTA in the resuspension solution enabled us to generate long-read and high-quality sequences for more than 38,000 templates with minimal additional cost.

Almira, Ernesto C.; Panayotova, Nedka; Farmerie, William G.

2003-01-01

337

Capillary DNA sequencing: maximizing the sequence output.  

PubMed

Like most other DNA sequencing core facilities, one of our continuing goals is to improve our sequence output without substantially adding to cost. To minimize sample-to-sample variability in template DNA concentration, we implemented the rolling circle amplification (RCA) procedure for preparing our DNA templates. In addition to saving time and reducing the number of steps in template DNA preparation, the RCA method has the potential to normalize the DNA concentration in samples that can be sequenced directly without additional purification. In the present study, we used RCA-generated templates to test a recently reported procedure that increased sequence quality by resuspending the sequenced products in low concentrations of agarose before capillary electrophoresis (CE) on a MegaBACE 1000 platform. Although we did not obtain the expected result using the specified procedure, a modification resulted in up to 60% increase in total sequence yield per sample plate. A combination of agarose and formamide-EDTA in the resuspension solution enabled us to generate long-read and high-quality sequences for more than 38,000 templates with minimal additional cost. PMID:14715885

Almira, Ernesto C; Panayotova, Nedka; Farmerie, William G

2003-12-01

338

Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…

Pace, Andrew K.

2005-01-01

339

Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across a wide range of species and body mass a close matching exists between maximal conductive oxygen delivery and mitochondrial respiratory rate. In this study we investigated in humans how closely in-vivo maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) is matched to state 3 muscle mitochondrial respiration. High resolution respirometry was used to quantify mitochondrial respiration from the biopsies of arm and

Robert Boushel; Erich Gnaiger; Jose A. L. Calbet; Jose Gonzalez-Alonso; Cynthia Wright-Paradis; Hans Sondergaard; Ignacio Ara; Jørn W. Helge; Bengt Saltin

2011-01-01

340

Conditional Information Control to Maximize and Minimize Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we propose a new information-theoretic method called conditional information control . The method is introduced to maximize and minimize information in one network. To maximize and minimize information, we use conditional information that can take different values for different input patterns. We introduce distortion between Shannon and Renyi information functions to control information. By minimizing this distortion,

Ryotaro Kamimura

2003-01-01

341

On profit-maximizing envy-free pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of pricing items for sale to consumers so as to maximize the seller's revenue. We assume that for each consumer, we know the maximum amount he would be willing to pay for each bundle of items, and want to find pricings of the items with corresponding allocations that maximize seller profit and at the same time

Venkatesan Guruswami; Jason D. Hartline; Anna R. Karlin; David Kempe; Claire Kenyon; Frank McSherry

2005-01-01

342

On Profit-Maximizing Envy-free Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of pricing items for sale to consumers so as to maximize the seller's revenue. We assume that for each consumer, we know the maximum amount he would be willing to pay for each bundle of items, and want to find pricings of the items with corresponding allocations that maximize seller profit and at the same time

Venkatesan Guruswami; Jason D. Hartline; Anna R. Karlin; David Kempe; Frank McSherry

343

Robust Rate Maximization Game Under Bounded Channel Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of decentralized power allocation for competitive rate maximization in a frequency-selective Gaussian interference channel under bounded channel uncertainty. We formulate a distribution-free robust framework for the rate maximization game. We present the robust optimization equilibrium for this game and derive sufficient conditions for its existence and uniqueness. We show that an iterative waterfilling algorithm converges to

Amod J. G. Anandkumar; Animashree Anandkumar; Sangarapillai Lambotharan; Jonathon A. Chambers

2011-01-01

344

Japanese utilities` plutonium utilization program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan`s 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance

Matsuo; Yuichiro

1996-01-01

345

System performance evaluation of the MAXIM concept with integrated modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAXIM (Mico-Arcsecond X-Ray Imaging Mission) and MAXIM Pathfinder, a technology precursor mission, is considered by NASA as 'visionary missions' in space astronomy. Currently the MAXIM mission design would fly multiple spacecraft in formation, each carrying precision optics, to direct x-rays from an astronomical source to collector and imaging spacecrafts. The mission architecture is complex and provides technical challenges in formaiton flying and external metrology, and target acquisition. To further develop the concept, an integrated model (IM) of the MAXIM and MAXIM Pathfinder was developed. Individual subsystem models from disciplines in structural dynamics, optics, controls, signal processing, detector physics and disturbance modelign are seamlessly integrated into one cohesive model to efficiently support system level trades and analysis. The optical system design is a unique combination of optical concepts and therefore results from the IM were extensively compared with ASAP optical software.

Lieber, Michael D.; Gallagher, Dennis J.; Cash, Webster C.; Shipley, Ann F.

2003-03-01

346

Maximizing the Hilbert space for a finite number of distinguishable quantum states.  

PubMed

Given a particular quantum computing architecture, how might one optimize its resources to maximize its computing power? We consider quantum computers with a number of distinguishable quantum states, and entangled particles shared between those states. Hilbert-space dimensionality is linked to nonclassicality and, hence, quantum computing power. We find that qutrit-based quantum computers optimize the Hilbert-space dimensionality and so are expected to be more powerful than other qudit implementations. In going beyond qudits, we identify structures with much higher Hilbert-space dimensionalities. PMID:15089514

Greentree, Andrew D; Schirmer, S G; Green, F; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Hamilton, A R; Clark, R G

2004-03-05

347

The effect of fear-arousing communications on cigarette smoking: An expectancy-value approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model, derived from subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, which attempts to explain the effects of a fear-arousing communication about smoking and lung cancer on smokers' decisions to try to stop smoking. According to the model, the strength of the smoker's intention to try to stop smoking will depend on three factors: (1) the utility of lung

Stephen R. Sutton; J. Richard Eiser

1984-01-01

348

International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)|

Calvert, Philip J.

2001-01-01

349

Antecedents and Consequences of TESOL Student Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective variables can help understand differences in student performance. This paper presents student expectations as an affective variable that has so far received little research attention. Students have expectations from educational providers, the fulfilment of which can create a positive learning environment leading to better performance.…

Bordia, Sarbari; Wales, Lynn; Gallois, Cindy; Pittam, Jeffery

2008-01-01

350

Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2010-01-01

351

Parental Educational Expectations for Adolescents with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data on eighth-grade students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study compared parent expectations for students with visual impairment, hearing impairment, deafness, orthopedic impairment, or no disability. Parental educational expectations were higher for students with disabilities than for those without. Student…

Masino, Linda L.; Hodapp, Robert M.

1996-01-01

352

Socioeconomic inequalities in health expectancy in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various international studies have demonstrated socio-economic differences in health. Linking the 1991 Census to the National Register and using the Health Interview Survey 1997 has enabled assessment of the association between the level of education and health in Belgium using the composite indicator ‘health expectancy’.The Sullivan method was used to calculate health expectancy on the basis of current probability of

N Bossuyt; S Gadeyne; P Deboosere; H Van Oyen

2004-01-01

353

Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

2011-01-01

354

Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the

Katy Carlson; Michael Walsh Dickey; Lyn Frazier; Charles Clifton Jr

2009-01-01

355

Employer Expectations of Students Attending Job Fairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a survey about employer expectations of students attending job fairs, including how students should conduct themselves and dress. More than one-third indicated they expect students to be knowledgeable about their company. According to respondents, lack of clear career objectives accounts for the most common mistake made by students.…

Palomares, Amber

2000-01-01

356

Health expectancies in the older Thai population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate health expectancies in five domains: cognitive health, psychological health, physical health, functional ability and self-perceived global health (SPGH) in the older Thai population. There are few studies reporting health expectancies in multidimensional health domains, most of which reported only one health dimension. The dataset used was from the Bangkok Longitudinal Study by Siriraj Hospital for

Weerasak Muangpaisan; Prasert Assantachai; Somboon Intalapaporn; Kathryn Richardson; Carol Brayne

2011-01-01

357

What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-01-01

358

What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-01-01

359

Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and…

Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2012-01-01

360

Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-01

361

College students' dining expectations in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of the study is to investigate college students' dining expectations and define the factors that shape their dining choices. In addition, the study investigates whether gender, ethnic origin, prior food and beverage working experience, spending habits and dining frequency influence students' dining expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A quantitative questionnaire was developed and randomly administered to college

Anastasios Zopiatis; Jovana Pribic

2007-01-01

362

Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

2012-01-01

363

Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

2004-01-01

364

Bicameralism and Representation: partisanship and party expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Major party affiliated Upper House representatives in the Australian Parliament face two forms of representative expectations: Party and factors that are ancillary to party (often competing). The party and competing expectations on major party Senators are evolving with the increased professionalisation of political operations in Australia. Partisanship in the Senate is not necessarily driven primarily by loyalty or ideological

Peter van Onselen

2004-01-01

365

Adjusted expectations, satisfaction and loyalty development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary contribution of this article is an analysis of the influence of the use of individual's expectations about a service consumption on the behavior models, that examine the process according to which loyalty and satisfaction are generated. More specifically, the research examines the implications of considering adjusted expectations, namely those that tourists have after having visited a destination, rather

Ramón Rufín; Cayetano Medina; Manuel Rey

2012-01-01

366

Marijuana Primes, Marijuana Expectancies, and Arithmetic Efficiency*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Previous research has shown that primes associated with alcohol influence behavior consistent with specific alcohol expectancies. The present study examined whether exposure to marijuana-related primes and marijuana expectancies interact to produce similar effects. Specifically, the present study examined whether marijuana primes and marijuana expectancies regarding cognitive and behavioral impairment interact to influence performance on an arithmetic task. Method: Two independent samples (N = 260) of undergraduate students (both marijuana users and nonusers) first completed measures of marijuana-outcome expectancies associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment and with general negative effects (Sample 2). Later in the semester, participants were exposed to marijuana-related (or neutral) primes and then completed an arithmetic task. Results: Results from Sample 1 indicated that participants who were exposed to marijuana-themed magazine covers performed more poorly on the arithmetic task if they expected that marijuana would lead to cognitive and behavioral impairment. Results from Sample 2 indicated that, for marijuana users, cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies, but not expectancies regarding general negative effects, similarly moderated arithmetic performance for participants exposed to marijuana-related words. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that the implicit activation of specific marijuana-outcome expectancies can influence cognitive processes. Implications for research on marijuana are discussed.

Hicks, Joshua A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Friedman, Ronald S.

2009-01-01

367

Changes in life expectancy 1900-1990.  

PubMed

Life expectancy at birth has risen in all industrialized countries during the last 100 years, but mortality improvements by gender and region often have proceeded at very different rates. Although some countries have experienced increases in overall mortality during recent decades, the levels of life expectancy gains in countries such as Japan have confounded demographic predictions and have led to renewed research and debate over future mortality decline and the limits to human life. This paper reviews levels of and changes in life expectancy at birth and at older ages in industrialized countries during the 20th century. Trends in mortality and morbidity at older ages are summarized in the context of the historic epidemiological disease transition from infectious to chronic. Cause-specific and active/inactive decompositions of life expectancy are examined, as are initial attempts to correlate life expectancy with physical attributes that may reflect differential nutritional status. PMID:1590256

Kinsella, K G

1992-06-01

368

Functional Relationships Between Risky and Riskless Multiattribute Utility Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Expected utility theory and conjoint measurement theory form two major classes of models and assessment procedures to construct multi-attribute utility functions. In conjoint measurement theory a value function v is constructed which preserves preferences...

D. Von Winterfeldt

1979-01-01

369

PRODCOST: an electric utility generation simulation code  

SciTech Connect

The PRODCOST computer code simulates the operation of an electric utility generation system. Through a probabilistic simulation the expected energy production, fuel consumption, and cost of operation for each plant are determined. Total system fuel consumption, energy generation by type, total generation costs, as well as system loss of load probability and expected unserved energy are also calculated.

Hudson, II, C. R.; Reynolds, T. M.; Smolen, G. R.

1981-02-01

370

A taxonomic approach to communicating maxims in interstellar messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous discussions of interstellar messages that could be sent to extraterrestrial intelligence have focused on descriptions of mathematics, science, and aspects of human culture and civilization. Although some of these depictions of humanity have implicitly referred to our aspirations, this has not clearly been separated from descriptions of our actions and attitudes as they are. In this paper, a methodology is developed for constructing interstellar messages that convey information about our aspirations by developing a taxonomy of maxims that provide guidance for living. Sixty-six maxims providing guidance for living were judged for degree of similarity to each of other. Quantitative measures of the degree of similarity between all pairs of maxims were derived by aggregating similarity judgments across individual participants. These composite similarity ratings were subjected to a cluster analysis, which yielded a taxonomy that highlights perceived interrelationships between individual maxims and that identifies major classes of maxims. Such maxims can be encoded in interstellar messages through three-dimensional animation sequences conveying narratives that highlight interactions between individuals. In addition, verbal descriptions of these interactions in Basic English can be combined with these pictorial sequences to increase intelligibility. Online projects to collect messages such as the SETI Institute's Earth Speaks and La Tierra Habla, can be used to solicit maxims from participants around the world.

Vakoch, Douglas A.

2011-02-01

371

Preschoolers can recognize violations of the Gricean maxims  

PubMed Central

Grice (Syntax and semantics: Speech acts, 1975, pp. 41–58, Vol. 3) proposed that conversation is guided by a spirit of cooperation that involves adherence to several conversational maxims. Three types of maxims were explored in the current study: 1) Quality, to be truthful; 2) Relation, to say only what is relevant to a conversation; and 3) Quantity, to provide as much information as required. Three- to five-year-olds were tested to determine the age at which an awareness of these Gricean maxims emerges. Children requested the help of one of two puppets in finding a hidden sticker. One puppet always adhered to the maxim being tested, while the other always violated it. Consistently choosing the puppet that adhered to the maxim was considered indicative of an understanding of that maxim. The results indicate that children were initially only successful in the Relation condition. While in general, children performed better at first in the Quantity condition compared with the Quality condition, 3-year-olds never performed above chance in the Quantity condition. The findings of the present study indicate that preschool children are sensitive to the violation of the Relation, Quality, and Quantity maxims at least under some conditions.

Eskritt, Michelle; Whalen, Juanita; Lee, Kang

2010-01-01

372

Inpatients' expectations and experiences of hospital pharmacy services: qualitative study.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Hospital pharmacists' have traditionally focused on the manufacture and supply of medicines. However, the increasing complexity and range of medicines and a greater awareness of medication errors has facilitated a change towards a patient-centred role. Given this movement, it is surprising that a search of the published literature shows very little research that evaluated patients' views of hospital-based pharmacy services. OBJECTIVE: To explore inpatients' expectations and experiences of hospital-based pharmacy services. STUDY SETTING AND DESIGN: Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with inpatients admitted to acute medical wards of three NHS general hospitals. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventy-four inpatients were interviewed: 37 were male with average age 73 years (age range of 19 -86 years). The predominate number of participants (62/74, 84%) being in the 65-80 years of age group. Thematic analysis of the data was driven by three themes; patients' expectations of the pharmacist's involvement in their treatment and care, the patients' experiences of any interaction that may have taken place and the patients' evaluation of their interaction with the pharmacist. CONCLUSIONS: There was a dichotomy of expectations and opinions from patients about the role of hospital pharmacists and the services being provided. As pharmacists' roles are developing towards a patient-orientated model in which pharmacists have direct contact with patients and their care, it is important to ensure that patients are aware of these developments to help them maximize the benefit they derive from their country's health-care system. PMID:23647781

Morecroft, Charles W; Thornton, David; Caldwell, Neil A

2013-05-01

373

Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging  

PubMed Central

Purpose:?Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians’ age expectations likely influence patients’ expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians’ age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging Survey (ERA-12) was used to assess (a) age expectations in a sample of primary care clinicians practicing in the United States and (b) clinician characteristics associated with ERA-12 scores.?Design and Methods:?This study was a cross-sectional survey of primary care clinicians affiliated with 5 practice-based research networks, October 2008 to June 2009. A total of 374 of the 1,510 distributed surveys were returned (24.8% response rate); 357 analyzed. Mean respondent age was 48.6 years (SD = 11.6; range 23–87 years); 88.0% physicians, 96.0% family medicine, 94.9% White, and 61.9% male.?Results:?Female clinicians reported higher ERA-12 scores; clinicians’ age expectations decreased with greater years in practice. Among the clinicians, higher ERA-12 scores were associated with higher clinician ratings of the importance of and personal skill in administering preventive counseling and the importance of delivering preventive services. Agreement with individual ERA-12 items varied widely.?Implications:?Unrealistically high or low ERA could negatively influence the quality of care provided to patients and patients’ own age expectations. Research should examine the etiology of clinicians’ age expectations and their association with older adult diagnoses and treatment. Medical education must incorporate strategies to promote clinician attitudes that facilitate successful patient aging.

Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

2011-01-01

374

Maximal invariant subspaces for a class of operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note, we characterize maximal invariant subspaces for a class of operators. Let T be a Fredholm operator and 1-TT^{*}inmathcal{S}p for some p?1. It is shown that if M is an invariant subspace for T such that dim M ? TMmaximal invariant subspace of M is of codimension 1 in M. As an immediate consequence, we obtain that if M is a shift invariant subspace of the Bergman space and dim M ? zMmaximal invariant subspace of M is of codimension 1 in M. We also apply the result to translation operators and their invariant subspaces.

Guo, Kunyu; He, Wei; Hou, Shengzhao

2010-10-01

375

Exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle exercise: no contralateral effects on muscle activity in maximal motor performances.  

PubMed

Minor cross-over effects of unilateral muscle fatigue have been reported after isometric exercises. The present study re-examined this possibility after an exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC)-type exercise. Twenty-five subjects performed on a sledge apparatus a unilateral exhaustive rebound exercise involving mostly the triceps surae muscle group. Ipsilateral vs contralateral fatigue effects were compared in uni- and bilateral tests that included a maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) and a series of 10 maximal drop jumps (DJ). These tests were carried out just before and after (POST) the exhaustive SSC exercise, and were repeated 2 days later (D2), at the expected time of major inflammation and pain. The exercised (fatigued) leg analysis revealed significant declines in MVC and DJ performances at POST and D2, the latter ones being associated with significant decreases in voluntary muscle activity. In contrast, no significant change was found for the non-fatigued leg. These results do not support the existence of cross-over effects after exhaustive SSC exercise, at least when tested in maximal static and dynamic unilateral motor tasks. PMID:17316375

Regueme, S C; Barthèlemy, J; Nicol, C

2007-02-19

376

Training across Cultures: What To Expect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses four critical dimensions that help explain the variation in cultural expectations: (1) egalitarianism versus hierarchy; (2) individualism versus collectivism; (3) achievement versus relationship orientation; and (4) loose versus tight structure. Explains how to apply these dimensions in training. (JOW)|

Weech, William A.

2001-01-01

377

What Can We Expect from Future Accelerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This talk covers a general but highly subjective overview of the expectation for new accelerator development. An updated version of the Livingston chart demonstrates the exponential growth in time of the equivalent laboratory energy of accelerators. A sim...

W. K. H. Panofsky

1984-01-01

378

Training across Cultures: What To Expect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four critical dimensions that help explain the variation in cultural expectations: (1) egalitarianism versus hierarchy; (2) individualism versus collectivism; (3) achievement versus relationship orientation; and (4) loose versus tight structure. Explains how to apply these dimensions in training. (JOW)

Weech, William A.

2001-01-01

379

Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We develop a multiple asset rational expectations model of securities prices to explain the determinants of nancial market contagion. Our primary focus is on con- tagion through the cross-market hedging (rebalancing) of shared macroeconomic risks. Through...

L. E. Kodres M. Pritsker

1999-01-01

380

5 CFR 470.301 - Program expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND DEMONSTRATIONS PROJECTS...Demonstration Projects § 470.301 Program expectations. ...procedures to be used to assess the success or failure of the project from...improve personnel management programs or...

2013-01-01

381

Preferences as expectation-driven inferences: effects of affective expectations on affective experience.  

PubMed

Presents a model arguing that affect and emotion are often formed in an expectation-driven fashion. A pilot study and 2 experiments manipulated undergraduate Ss' affective expectations (e.g., how funny they expected a set of cartoons to be) and whether Ss' expectations were confirmed (e.g., whether the cartoons really were funny). When the value of a stimulus was consistent with an affective expectation, people formed evaluations relatively quickly. Even when the value of a stimulus was discrepant from an affective expectation, people sometimes assimilated the value of the stimulus to their expectations. Other times, such as when making a more fine-grained evaluation of the cartoons, people noticed that they were discrepant from their affective expectations. Under these conditions, people appeared to have more difficulty forming preferences. They took longer to evaluate and spent more time thinking about the cartoons. PMID:2709307

Wilson, T D; Lisle, D J; Kraft, D; Wetzel, C G

1989-04-01

382

Bernoullian Utilities for Multiple-Factor Situations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the context of von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory for n attributes, the paper presents axioms on preferences that are necessary and sufficient for the existence of a particular form of utility function that involves sums and product of...

P. C. Fishburn

1972-01-01

383

Subjective probabilities for state dependent continuous utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the expected utility model with state dependent utilities, Karni, Schmeidler & Vind (1983, Econometrica) show how to recover uniquely the involved subjective probabilities if the preferences, contingent on a hypothetical probability distribution over the state space, are known. This they do for consequence spaces, consisting of lotteries on sets of prizes. This paper adapts their work to consequence spaces

Peter Wakker

1987-01-01

384

Stability criteria for q-expectation values  

Microsoft Academic Search

In statistical physics lately a specific kind of average, called the q-expectation value, has been extensively used in the context of q-generalized statistics dealing with distributions following power laws. In this context q-expectation value appear naturally. Since it was recently shown that this non-linear functional is instable, using a very strong notion of stability, it is therefore of high interest

Rudolf Hanel; Stefan Thurner

2009-01-01

385

Cliqueing--A Technique for Producing Maximally Connected Clusters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains a technique whereby a large data base may be automatically classified into maximally connected clusters called cliques. The data base used is a section of United States patents. (Author/ MBR)|

Gerson, Gordon M.

1978-01-01

386

Maximizing Your Investment in Building Automation System Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how organizational issues and system standardization can be important factors that determine an institution's ability to fully exploit contemporary building automation systems (BAS). Further presented is management strategy for maximizing BAS investments. (GR)

Darnell, Charles

2001-01-01

387

Heart rate recovery following maximal arm and leg-ergometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Different exercise modes result in different heart rate recovery (HRR) patterns which could be related to the greater vagal\\u000a reactivation following arm compared to leg-ergometry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Heart rate recovery was calculated following maximal arm and leg-ergometry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  HRR-1 following maximal arm-ergometry was significantly higher than HRR-1 post maximal and sub-maximal leg-ergometry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion  This may be of clinical significance to individuals relying on their

Sushant M. Ranadive; Christopher A. Fahs; Huimin Yan; Lindy M. Rossow; Stamatis Agliovlastis; Bo Fernhall

2011-01-01

388

Maximal slicing of D-dimensional spherically symmetric vacuum spacetime  

SciTech Connect

We study the foliation of a D-dimensional spherically symmetric black-hole spacetime with D{>=}5 by two kinds of one-parameter families of maximal hypersurfaces: a reflection-symmetric foliation with respect to the wormhole slot and a stationary foliation that has an infinitely long trumpetlike shape. As in the four-dimensional case, the foliations by the maximal hypersurfaces avoid the singularity irrespective of the dimensionality. This indicates that the maximal slicing condition will be useful for simulating higher-dimensional black-hole spacetimes in numerical relativity. For the case of D=5, we present analytic solutions of the intrinsic metric, the extrinsic curvature, the lapse function, and the shift vector for the foliation by the stationary maximal hypersurfaces. These data will be useful for checking five-dimensional numerical-relativity codes based on the moving puncture approach.

Nakao, Ken-ichi; Abe, Hiroyuki [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Yoshino, Hirotaka [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Shibata, Masaru [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2009-10-15

389

Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through...

1991-01-01

390

A throughput-maximizing facility planning and layout model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a throughput-maximizing algorithm for facility planning and layout of flexible manufacturing systems. It uses a computationally efficient mean-value analysis model to analyse system configurations, and extends the methodology of CRAFT in layout planning.

HENRY CO; ALBERT WU; ARNOLD REISMAN

1989-01-01

391

Sensitivity to conversational maxims in deaf and hearing children.  

PubMed

We investigated whether access to a sign language affects the development of pragmatic competence in three groups of deaf children aged 6 to 11 years: native signers from deaf families receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction, native signers from deaf families receiving oralist instruction and late signers from hearing families receiving oralist instruction. The performance of these children was compared to a group of hearing children aged 6 to 7 years on a test designed to assess sensitivity to violations of conversational maxims. Native signers with bimodal/bilingual instruction were as able as the hearing children to detect violations that concern truthfulness (Maxim of Quality) and relevance (Maxim of Relation). On items involving these maxims, they outperformed both the late signers and native signers attending oralist schools. These results dovetail with previous findings on mindreading in deaf children and underscore the role of early conversational experience and instructional setting in the development of pragmatics. PMID:19719886

Surian, Luca; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Siegal, Michael

2009-09-01

392

Magellan Project: Evolving Enhanced Operations Efficiency to Maximize Science Value.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magellan has been one of NASA's most successful spacecraft, returning more science data than all planetary spacecraft combined. The Magellan Spacecraft Team (SCT) has maximized the science return with innovative operational techniques to overcome anomalie...

A. R. Cheuvront J. C. Neuman J. F. Mckinney

1994-01-01

393

Quality in pediatric nursing care: children's expectations.  

PubMed

Children's perceptions of pediatric nursing care have not been systematically taken into account in the development of the quality of care. Usually, parents have evaluated children's care and its quality. The purpose of this study was to examine children's expectations concerning the quality of pediatric nursing care by interviewing 20 preschool and 20 school-aged children in Finland. Twenty of them had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and visited the hospital on a regular basis, and 20 were treated on a surgical ward for a short period. Using content analysis, the interviews were coded and categories and subcategories identified. The children's expectations concerning the quality of nursing care were related to the nurse, nursing activities, and environment. They expected the nurses to be humane and reliable, have a good sense of humor, and wear colorful clothes at work. Both the nurses and the parents were expected to take part in nursing activities. The children expected from nurses, in particular, entertainment, educational, caring, and safety activities, while parents were expected to relieve fears and longing and to provide company. The children also emphasized the role of other children as part of good care. The results demonstrate that children are capable of offering valuable insights into the quality of pediatric nursing care. The results open new avenues for strengthening children's perspectives on pediatric nursing. PMID:15371112

Pelander, Tiina; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

394

A Role for Dopamine in Temporal Decision Making and Reward Maximization in Parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

Converging evidence implicates striatal dopamine (DA) in reinforcement learning, such that DA increases enhance “Go learning” to pursue actions with rewarding outcomes, whereas DA decreases enhance “NoGo learning” to avoid non-rewarding actions. Here we test whether these effects apply to the response time domain. We employ a novel paradigm which requires the adjustment of response times to a single response. Reward probability varies as a function of response time, whereas reward magnitude changes in the opposite direction. In the control condition, these factors exactly cancel, such that the expected value across time is constant (CEV). In two other conditions, expected value increases (IEV) or decreases (DEV), such that reward maximization requires either speeding up (Go learning) or slowing down (NoGo learning) relative to the CEV condition. We tested patients with Parkinson's disease (depleted striatal DA levels) on and off dopaminergic medication, compared with age-matched controls. While medicated, patients were better at speeding up in the DEV relative to CEV conditions. Conversely, nonmedicated patients were better at slowing down to maximize reward in the IEV condition. These effects of DA manipulation on cumulative Go/NoGo response time adaptation were captured with our a priori computational model of the basal ganglia, previously applied only to forced-choice tasks. There were also robust trial-to-trial changes in response time, but these single trial adaptations were not affected by disease or medication and are posited to rely on extrastriatal, possibly prefrontal, structures.

Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Cohen, Michael X.; Sherman, Scott J.; Frank, Michael J.

2011-01-01

395

Depends on who you ask: what maximizes participation of families in early intervention programs.  

PubMed

This two-part study was a preliminary investigation of the types of procedures that could be useful in maximizing the participation of families in early intervention programs for their special-needs infants, toddlers, and pre-schoolers. In Study 1, 64 professionals in the early intervention field completed a survey that described 29 potential techniques for maximizing participation of families. For each technique, the respondents endorsed whether they employed the procedure, or would if they could. In addition, they rated the expected effectiveness of each procedure. Verbal praise and encouragement were highly rated and almost universally in use, as were various types of written and resource materials. Tangible reinforcement was seldom employed and professional respondents tended to indicate that they did not expect that such techniques would be useful. In Study 2, 29 mothers of high-risk infants and toddlers currently in early intervention rated the same 29 procedures, but were significantly more likely to endorse the use of tangible reinforcers and logistical support. Comparisons among respondents from professional and parent samples were discussed, along with implications of the findings and necessary directions for future research in this area. PMID:2147955

Saylor, C F; Elksnin, N; Farah, B A; Pope, J A

1990-08-01

396

On the completeness of topological rings in maximal topologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article studies rings that are direct sums of an infinite family of subrings. The question of the completeness of these rings in maximal ring topologies is investigated for various classes of ring topologies. In particular it is shown that if the continuum hypothesis is assumed, then both complete and non-complete maximal ring topologies exist on a ring that is an infinite direct sum of copies of the same finite field.

Arnautov, V. I.

1996-02-01

397

Maximally supersymmetric string theories in {ital D}{lt}10  

SciTech Connect

The existence of maximally supersymmetric solutions to heterotic string theory that are not toroidal compactifications of the ten-dimensional superstring is established. We construct an exact fermionic realization of an {ital N}=1 supersymmetric string theory in {ital D}=8 with non-simply-laced gauge group Sp(20). Toroidal compactification to six and four dimensions gives maximally extended supersymmetric theories with reduced rank (4,12) and (6,14), respectively.

Chaudhuri, S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-4030 (United States); Hockney, G.; Lykken, J. [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

1995-09-18

398

Comparison of maximal unilateral versus bilateral voluntary contraction force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine whether the difference in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) forces between\\u000a unilateral (UL) and bilateral (BL) contractions could be due to a difference in the timing of MVC peak force production between\\u000a legs during BL MVC, or due to the maximal voluntary activation level (VAL) in each leg between UL and BL

Boris Matkowski; Alain Martin; Romuald Lepers

399

Constrained Non-Monotone Submodular Maximization: Offline and Secretary Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constrained submodular maximization problems have long been studied, with\\u000anear-optimal results known under a variety of constraints when the submodular\\u000afunction is monotone. The case of non-monotone submodular maximization is less\\u000aunderstood: the first approximation algorithms even for the unconstrainted\\u000asetting were given by Feige et al. (FOCS '07). More recently, Lee et al. (STOC\\u000a'09, APPROX '09) show how

Anupam Gupta; Aaron Roth; Grant Schoenebeck; Kunal Talwar

2010-01-01

400

The maximal {-1,1}-determinant of order 15  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the D-optimality of the 15×15 ?1,1-matrix discovered independently by Smith and Cohn. This matrix has determinant 25515×214 and is unique up to Hadamard equivalence. In addition, we confirm the previously established values of the maximal determinant for all other odd orders up to 21, excluding 19, and we improve the upper bounds on the maximal determinant in orders

William P. Orrick

2005-01-01

401

Maximal-ratio eigen-combining for smarter antenna arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In typical mobile wireless scenarios, signals are received with power azimuth angle spectrum (p. a. s. ) of variable azimuth angle spread (AS). Therefore, conventional maximum average signal-to-noise ratio beamforming (BF) or maximal-ratio combining (MRC) may not necessarily be effective in terms of performance or signal processing complexity. A newer, more flexible, approach, called maximal-ratio eigen-combining (MREC) is analyzed and

C. Siriteanu

2006-01-01

402

Maximal-Ratio Eigen-Combining for Smarter Antenna Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In typical mobile wireless scenarios, signals are received with power azimuth angle spectrum (p.a.s.) of variable azimuth angle spread (AS). Therefore, conventional maximum average signal-to-noise ratio beamforming (BF) or maximal- ratio combining (MRC) may not necessarily be effective in terms of performance or signal processing complexity. A newer, more flexible, approach, called maximal-ratio eigen-combining (MREC) is analyzed and found to

Constantin Siriteanu; Steven D. Blostein

2007-01-01

403

Maximal-ratio eigen-combining: a performance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximal-ratio eigen-combining (MREC) for wireless communications channels, also known as eigen-beamforming for receivers equipped with antenna arrays, integrates conventional maximum average signal-to-noise-ratio beamforming (Max-ASNR BF) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) to provide both high average SNR in high fading correlation as well as diversity in low fading correlation. Previous studies of MREC were based on simulation or limited analysis and suggested

Constantin Siriteanu; Steven D. Blostein

2004-01-01

404

Towards Constructing Story Databases Using Maximal Analogies Between Stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In order to construct story databases, it is crucial to have an effective index that represents the plot and event sequences\\u000a in a document. For this purpose, we have already proposed a method using the concept of maximal analogy to represent a generalized\\u000a event sequence of documents with a maximal set of events. However, it is expensive to calculate a

Masaharu Yoshioka; Makoto Haraguchi; Akihito Mizoe

2004-01-01

405

Incremental Maintenance of Discovered Mobile User Maximal Moving Sequential Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the context of mobile computing, a special sequential pattern, moving sequential pattern that reflects the moving behavior\\u000a of mobile users attracted researchers’ interests recently. While there have been a number of efficient moving sequential pattern\\u000a mining algorithms reported, this paper concentrates on the maintenance of mined maximal moving sequential patterns. In particular,\\u000a we developed an incremental approach, where maximal

Shuai Ma; Shiwei Tang; Dongqing Yang; Tengjiao Wang; Chanjun Yang

2004-01-01

406

Effect of temporal focus on the recall of expectancy-consistent and expectancy-inconsistent information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the impact of temporal focus on the recall of information that is consistent or inconsistent with an expectation. A consistent pattern of results across 4 experiments indicates that when Ss' expectations are temporally unfocused, better memory for consistent information is observed. In contrast, when expectations are focused in time—that is, Ss know when the relevant events are

Scott F. Madey; Thomas Gilovich

1993-01-01

407

?-Bond maximization of graphene in hydrogen addition reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic stability of graphene hydrides increases in an approximately linear way with the numbers of ?-bonds they contain. Thus, ?-bond maximization is the primary driving force for hydrogen addition reactions of graphene. The previously reported thermal preference of sp2/sp3-phase separation of graphene hydrides is a straightforward effect of ?-bond maximization. Although not well applicable to hydroxylation and epoxidation, the ?-bond maximization principle also holds approximately for the fluorination reactions of graphene. The findings can be used to help locate the lowest-energy structures for graphene hydrides and to estimate the hydrogenation energy without first-principles calculations.Thermodynamic stability of graphene hydrides increases in an approximately linear way with the numbers of ?-bonds they contain. Thus, ?-bond maximization is the primary driving force for hydrogen addition reactions of graphene. The previously reported thermal preference of sp2/sp3-phase separation of graphene hydrides is a straightforward effect of ?-bond maximization. Although not well applicable to hydroxylation and epoxidation, the ?-bond maximization principle also holds approximately for the fluorination reactions of graphene. The findings can be used to help locate the lowest-energy structures for graphene hydrides and to estimate the hydrogenation energy without first-principles calculations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Computational details, Figures, energy and Cartesian coordinates of graphene hydrides and epoxides. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11048a

Gao, Xingfa; Zhao, Yuliang; Liu, Bo; Xiang, Hongjun; Zhang, Shengbai B.

2012-02-01

408

Controlled-Joint Remote Preparation of an Arbitrary Two-Qubit State via Non-maximally Entangled Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we make a study on how to efficiently transmit an arbitrary two-qubit pure state to remote receiver via non-maximal entangled quantum channel. As a special case, in the first section we present a controlled-joint remote state preparation scheme based on maximally entangled channel. By some local convertible projective measurement bases, two message carriers and one controller can help the receiver Charlie reconstruct the desired state with success probability p=100 %. Then, we extend it to the case of non-maximally entangled channel. Utilizing positive operator-valued measure (POVM) measurement instead of projective measurement, the controller can assist the two senders to fulfill the task. Compared with some previous schemes, our protocol will succeed with a higher probability. And success or failure will only depend on the controller's measurement outcome, but has nothing to do with two senders' measurement results.

Guan, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yang, Yi-Xian

2012-11-01

409

[Knowledge and expectations of childbirth in primigravidas].  

PubMed

The primigravida's experience of childbirth is influenced by the knowledge and expectations she has of childbirth. Her expectations of childbirth are based on the information she got from the antenatal clinic, the nursing staff, her mother, friends and family. The purpose of this research was to determine the knowledge and expectations the primigravida has of childbirth. An exploratory, descriptive design was used within the context of an academic hospital in Johanneburg. The survey method was used. The method of research firstly consisted of a literature study of the primigravida's knowledge and expectations of childbirth. This was done in order to put the problem in perspective and also to serve as a theoretical framework for the study. Secondly, a structured questionnaire was used to make a survey of the primigravida's knowledge and expectations of childbirth. From this research it is clear that the respondents had insufficient knowledge of childbirth and the handling of pain during childbirth. This insufficient knowledge can mainly be attributed to the poor attendance of antenatal preparation classes, inadequate professional counselling and the mother of the primigravida as the primary source of information on childbirth. The respondents, however, had realistic expectations with regard to their handling of labour, as well as of the role of the midwife and the doctor. From this research it is clear that a large gap exists in the primigravida's preparation for childbirth. The group participating in this research is therefore not adequately prepared for childbirth to have realistic expectations. The group must rely on the support of the midwife in the labour ward.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1301309

Bester, M B; Nolte, A G

1992-12-01

410

Alcohol Expectancy Priming and Drinking Behavior: The Role of Compatibility between Prime and Expectancy Content  

PubMed Central

According to information-processing models of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies constitute representations in long-term memorythat may be activated in the presence of drinking-related cues, thereby influencing alcohol consumption. A fundamental implication of this approach is that primed expectancies should affect drinking only for those individuals who possess the specific expectancies primed. To test this notion, in the present study, participants were initially assessed on three distinct domains of positive alcohol expectancies. Approximately one week later, they completed an ad libitum drinking study during which only a single expectancy domain (sociability) was primed in the experimental condition. Consistent with predictions, following exposure to sociability primes, but not control primes, individuals with stronger expectancies that alcohol would enhance sociability uniquely showed increased placebo consumption of nonalcoholic beer. These results, which demonstrate the moderating role of compatibility between the specific content of primes and that of underlying expectancies, offer new, direct support for memory network-based models of drinking behavior.

Friedman, Ronald S.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Hicks, Joshua A.

2009-01-01

411

Volatile Constituents of the Essential Oil of Orthodon dianthera Maxim.(Syn. Mosla dianthera Maxim.) from Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steam distilled oil of the aerial parts of Orthodon dianthera Maxim, (syn. Mosla dianthera Maxim.), obtained in 0.2% v\\/w on fresh weight basis, was found to contain ?-caryophyllene (52.9%) and ?-humulene (23.8%). The remainder of the oil consisted mainly of (E)-asarone (5.7%), (Z)-asarone (5.5%), a mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes and oxygenated compounds

Le Van Hac; Ngo Xuan Luong; Ngûyen Xuân D?ng; Naja Klinkby; Piet A Leclercq

2001-01-01

412

Time Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time Utilities are software tools that, in principal, allow one to calculate BJD to a precision of 1 ?s for any target from anywhere on Earth or from any spacecraft. As the quality and quantity of astrophysical data continue to improve, the precision with which certain astrophysical events can be timed becomes limited not by the data themselves, but by the manner, standard, and uniformity with which time itself is referenced. While some areas of astronomy (most notably pulsar studies) have required absolute time stamps with precisions of considerably better than 1 minute for many decades, recently new areas have crossed into this regime. In particular, in the exoplanet community, we have found that the (typically unspecified) time standards adopted by various groups can differ by as much as a minute. Left uncorrected, this ambiguity may be mistaken for transit timing variations and bias eccentricity measurements. We recommend using BJD_TDB, the Barycentric Julian Date in the Barycentric Dynamical Time standard for any astrophysical event. The BJD_TDB is the most practical absolute time stamp for extraterrestrial phenomena, and is ultimately limited by the properties of the target system. We compile a general summary of factors that must be considered in order to achieve timing precisions ranging from 15 minutes to 1 ?s, and provide software for download and online webapps for use.

Eastman, Jason

2012-06-01

413

Content specificity of expectancy beliefs and task values in elementary physical education.  

PubMed

The curriculum may superimpose a content-specific context that mediates motivation (Bong, 2001). This study examined content specificity of the expectancy-value motivation in elementary school physical education. Students' expectancy beliefs and perceived task values from a cardiorespiratory fitness unit, a muscular fitness unit, and a traditional skill/game unit were analyzed using constant comparison coding procedures, multivariate analysis of variance, X2, and correlation analyses. There was no difference in the intrinsic interest value among the three content conditions. Expectancy belief attainment, and utility values were significantly higher for the cardiorespiratory fitness curriculum. Correlations differentiated among the expectancy-value components of the content conditions, providing further evidence of content specificity in the expectancy-value motivation process. The findings suggest that expectancy beliefs and task values should be incorporated in the theoretical platform for curriculum development based on the learning outcomes that can be specified with enhanced motivation effect. PMID:18664044

Chen, Ang; Martin, Robert; Ennis, Catherine D; Sun, Haichun

2008-06-01

414

Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look.  

PubMed

The adaptogen concept is examined from an historical, biological, chemical, pharmacological and medical perspective using a wide variety of primary and secondary literature. The definition of an adaptogen first proposed by Soviet scientists in the late 1950s, namely that an adaptogen is any substance that exerts effects on both sick and healthy individuals by 'correcting' any dysfunction(s) without producing unwanted side effects, was used as a point of departure. We attempted to identify critically what an adaptogen supposedly does and to determine whether the word embodies in and of itself any concept(s) acceptable to western conventional (allopathic) medicine. Special attention was paid to the reported pharmacological effects of the 'adaptogen-containing plant' Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae), referred to by some as 'Siberian ginseng', and to its secondary chemical composition. We conclude that so far as specific pharmacological activities are concerned there are a number of valid arguments for equating the action of so-called adaptogens with those of medicinal agents that have activities as anti-oxidants, and/or anti-cancerogenic, immunomodulatory and hypocholesteroletic as well as hypoglycemic and choleretic action. However, 'adaptogens' and 'anti-oxidants' etc. also show significant dissimilarities and these are discussed. Significantly, the classical definition of an adaptogen has much in common with views currently being invoked to describe and explain the 'placebo effect'. Nevertheless, the chemistry of the secondary compounds of Eleutherococcus isolated thus far and their pharmacological effects support our hypothesis that the reported beneficial effects of adaptogens derive from their capacity to exert protective and/or inhibitory action against free radicals. An inventory of the secondary substances contained in Eleutherococcus discloses a potential for a wide range of activities reported from work on cultured cell lines, small laboratory animals and human subjects. Much of the cited work (although not all) has been published in peer-reviewed journals. Six compounds show various levels of activity as anti-oxidants, four show anti-cancer action, three show hypocholesterolemic activity, two show immunostimulatory effects, one has choleretic activity and one has the ability to decrease/moderate insulin levels, one has activity as a radioprotectant, one shows anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities and yet another has shown activity as an antibacterial agent. Some of the compounds show more than one pharmacological effect and some show similar effects although they belong to different chemical classes. Clearly, Eleutherococcus contains pharmacologically active compounds but one wishes that the term adaptogen could be dropped from the literature because it is vague and conveys no insights into the mechanism(s) of action. If a precise action can be attributed to it, then the exact term for said action should obviously be used; if not, we strongly urge that generalities be avoided. Also, comparison of Eleutherococcus with the more familiar Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae), 'true ginseng' has underscored that they differ considerably chemically and pharmacologically and cannot be justifiably considered as mutually interchangeable. Accordingly, we recommend that the designation 'Siberian ginseng' be dropped and be replaced with 'Eleutherococcus'. In the case of both Eleutherococcus and true ginseng, problems inherent in herbal preparation use include inconsistencies not only in terms of indications for use, but in the nomenclature of constituent chemical compounds, standardization, dosage and product labeling. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:10996277

Davydov, M; Krikorian, A D

2000-10-01

415

Adaptation of maximal aerobic and anaerobic tests for disabled swimmers.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to submit disabled swimmers to two maximal swimming tests, and by comparing the physiological and performance responses of disabled and normal swimmers to determine if these adapted tests can be used to design training programmes for this particular class of swimmer. Two groups of disabled (n = 8 and 6) and two groups of normal competitive swimmers (n = 9 and 13) were respectively submitted to a functional maximal aerobic power test (FMAPT) and a maximal anaerobic lactic test (MANLT). For the disabled, the FMAPT included a slower initial speed and a slower increase in swimming speeds. In the maximal aerobic test, exercise duration, peak heart rate, and the maximal speed relative to the respective best time of a 100-m race [55.5 (SD 3.9) compared to 56.5 (SD 2.8)%] were not significantly different between the disabled and normal swimmers. Peak lactate concentration was, however, higher in the disabled swimmers [10.8 (SD 3.5) compared to 6.8 (SD 1.6)mmol.l-1]. In the MNALT, peak lactate concentration [14.3 (SD 4) compared to 16.8 (SD 1.9)mmol.l-1], and the maximal speed relative to the respective best time in a 100-m race [99.1 (SD 3.2) compared to 98.3 (SD 2.5)%] were not significantly different between the disabled and normal swimmers. These results would seem to indicate that functional maximal aerobic and anaerobic field tests could be used to evaluate and design training programmes for disabled competitive swimmers. PMID:8983918

Pelayo, P; Moretto, P; Robin, H; Sidney, M; Gerbeaux, M; Latour, M G; Marc-Lavoie, J

1995-01-01

416

Caffeine expectancy: instrument development in the Rasch measurement framework.  

PubMed

Although caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world, the mechanisms associated with consumption are not well understood. Nonetheless, outcome expectancies for caffeine use are thought to underlie caffeine's reinforcing properties. To date, however, there is no available, sufficient measure by which to assess caffeine expectancy. Therefore, the current study sought to develop such a measure employing Rasch measurement models. Unlike traditional measurement development techniques, Rasch analyses afford dynamic and interactive control of the analysis process and generate helpful information to guide instrument construction. A 5-stage developmental process is described, ultimately yielding a 37-item Caffeine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) comprised of 4 factors representing "withdrawal symptoms," "positive effects," "acute negative effects," and "mood effects." Initial evaluation of the CEQ yielded sufficient evidence for various aspects of validity. Although additional research with more heterogeneous samples is required to further assess the measure's reliability and validity, the CEQ demonstrates potential with regard to its utility in experimental laboratory research and clinical application. PMID:19769434

Heinz, Adrienne J; Kassel, Jon D; Smith, Everett V

2009-09-01

417

Dental Therapy Assistant: Expectations, Preferences, and Reality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army has implemented a program in dental care delivery which consists of dental treatment teams utilizing Dental Therapy Assistants (DTAs). The primary purpose of the present study was to look for overall conflicts between DTAs' attitudes and performa...

A. D. Mangelsdorff

1976-01-01

418

Unequal Geographic Unequal Geographic Expectancy in Seoul.  

PubMed

This study examined life expectancies in 25 gus, administrative districts of Seoul, the capital of Korea, by gender in 1995, 2002, and 2008 to explore trends in mortality inequality among areas. The authors constructed single-decrement life tables and employed between-group variance, the Theil index, and mean log deviation to measure absolute and relative disparities in life expectancy among areas during the periods 1995-2002 and 2002-2008. It was found that life expectancy gaps between gus have widened in absolute and relative terms in both genders over the decade, and that this pattern was particularly dramatic in females after 2002. This increasing gap could be attributable to the more negative health impact on females since the late 1990s stemming from the economic crisis, eventually reflected in their places of residence. Thus, a social buffer system to narrow the health gap between geographic areas and social classes must be established. PMID:22535557

Kim, Sangmi; Yi, Seonju; Kim, Meekyung; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwayoung; Jeon, Taekryeon; Cho, Youngtae

2012-05-01

419

Life expectancy of persons with chronic disabilities.  

PubMed

The life expectancy is an important summary measure of an individual's prognosis for survival. The life table is the preferred method for computing life expectancies, but it is not always feasible. We show that for several chronic disabilities, the logarithms of the age-specific mortality ratios (relative to the general population) decline linearly with age, reaching parity at age 85 or older. This, combined with a standard modeling of an individual's current mortality rate, yields a set of age-specific mortality rates that can be used to produce a "customized" life table. The life expectancy is then immediately available. In a series of empirical comparisons the method performed better than an assumption of constant excess death rate (EDR), and much better than one of constant mortality ratio (MR). The method may be useful for a variety of non-progressive disabilities, such as cerebral palsy and injuries of the brain or spinal cord. PMID:10339302

Strauss, D; Shavelle, R

1998-01-01

420

Measuring developmental changes in alcohol expectancies.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to measure shifts in alcohol expectancies from childhood into adolescence while controlling for changes in the psychometric properties of the instrument. One thousand nine hundred ninety-three 4th-grade and 1,632 9th-grade students from South Dakota rated the likelihood that 23 outcomes would result from alcohol use. These expectancies were modeled using a 2-factor confirmatory factor analysis. After differences in the psychometric properties of the instrument were controlled, the cohorts were distinguished by a large difference in Alcohol Positivity, with older participants viewing alcohol's effects more positively. Additionally, older participants displayed greater Alcohol Potency, believing that alcohol has a larger impact on all outcomes. There were also significant differences in the interpretation of the alcohol expectancies items across cohorts. PMID:16011394

Schell, Terry L; Martino, Steven C; Ellickson, Phyllis L; Collins, Rebecca L; McCaffrey, Daniel

2005-06-01

421

Reflections on meeting women's childbirth expectations.  

PubMed

When care providers support their personal worth, use caring communication, facilitate consumer participation in decision making, seek optimal outcomes, and know the patient holistically, female patients feel that their dignity is respected. We compare women's expectations for dignified care in contemporary society with the expectations of women 40 years ago. Some progress has been made toward valuing women's voices and participation in decision making, the availability of interventions for optimal outcomes, and recognition of the importance of cultural competence. Continued work is needed to meet women's expectations for receiving individualized and tailored care, information about intervention effectiveness and risks, and support for the birth process that the family desires. A renewed focus on the recipient of care as a coparticipant in her birthing experiences may result in improved outcomes and resolution of tensions between childbearing women and sociopolitical forces and standards of care. PMID:21771068

Records, Kathie; Wilson, Barbara L

422

Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension  

PubMed Central

In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution.

Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

2009-01-01

423

Maximal Points of Head's Zone in Fixed Drug Eruption  

PubMed Central

The principles determining the primary localization of lesions in fixed drug eruption (FDE) are still unknown. Studies investigating the predilection areas in FDE have indicated drug-related, trauma-related, or inflammation-related specific site involvement, as well as visceracutaneous reflex-related specific site involvement. The importance of viscerocutaneous reflexes for the location of dermatoses was first recognized in the 1960s. Head's zones are viscerocutaneous reflex projection fields on the skin that extend over certain dermatomes and possess a reflex-associated maximal point. Recently, in a Turkish collective of patients, three women with the primary location of FDE lesions on the maximal points of Head's zones were presented. We also experienced 3 cases with FDE where the lesions were located at specific sites (buttocks), the so-called maximal points of Head's zones, which are known to be the most active dermatomal areas of an underlying visceral pathology. An underlying internal disturbance (ureter stone, pyelonephritis and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease) was found in all 3 patients, corresponding to the organ-related maximal point of Head's zones in each case. In conclusion, the primary location of FDE lesions on the maximal points of Head's zones revealed relevant organ disorders with corresponding projection fields.

Lee, Sang Sin; Hong, Dong Kyun; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young Joon

2011-01-01

424

Do obese children perceive submaximal and maximal exertion differently?  

PubMed

We examined how obese children perceive a maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test compared with a submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test. Twenty-one obese children (body mass index ?95th percentile, ages 10-17 years) completed maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness tests on 2 separate occasions. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and overall perceived exertion (Borg 15-category scale) were measured in both fitness tests. At comparable workloads, perceived exertion was rated significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test compared with the maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test. The submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test was significantly longer than the maximal test (14:21 ± 04:04 seconds vs. 12:48 ± 03:27 seconds, P < 0.001). Our data indicate that at the same relative intensity, obese children report comparable or even higher perceived exertion during submaximal fitness testing than during maximal fitness testing. Perceived exertion in a sample of children and youth with obesity may be influenced by test duration and protocol design. PMID:24052695

Belanger, Kevin; Breithaupt, Peter; Ferraro, Zachary M; Barrowman, Nick; Rutherford, Jane; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Colley, Rachel C; Adamo, Kristi B

2013-09-08

425

Do Obese Children Perceive Submaximal and Maximal Exertion Differently?  

PubMed Central

We examined how obese children perceive a maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test compared with a submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test. Twenty-one obese children (body mass index ?95th percentile, ages 10–17 years) completed maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness tests on 2 separate occasions. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and overall perceived exertion (Borg 15-category scale) were measured in both fitness tests. At comparable workloads, perceived exertion was rated significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test compared with the maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test. The submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test was significantly longer than the maximal test (14:21 ± 04:04 seconds vs. 12:48 ± 03:27 seconds, P < 0.001). Our data indicate that at the same relative intensity, obese children report comparable or even higher perceived exertion during submaximal fitness testing than during maximal fitness testing. Perceived exertion in a sample of children and youth with obesity may be influenced by test duration and protocol design.

Belanger, Kevin; Breithaupt, Peter; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Barrowman, Nick; Rutherford, Jane; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Colley, Rachel C.; Adamo, Kristi B.

2013-01-01

426

An Axiomatic Theory of Conjoint, Expected Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an axiomatization of subjective risk judgments that leads to a represen- tation of risk in terms of seven free parameters. This is shown to have considerable predictive ability for risk judgments made by 10 subjects. The risk function retains many of the features of the expectation modeIs--e.g., a constant number of parameters independent of the number of

R. DUNCAN LUCE; ELKE U. WEBER

1988-01-01

427

Solving Rational Expectations Models Using Excel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simple problems of discrete-time optimal control can be solved using a standard spreadsheet software. The employed-solution method of backward iteration is intuitively understandable, does not require any programming skills, and is easy to implement so that it is suitable for classroom exercises with rational-expectations models. The author…

Strulik, Holger

2004-01-01

428

Remote Library Users: Needs and Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

LIBRARIES OF M.I. TYPM iwk: PROVIDING an increasing number of resources that users can access from remote sites. Academic libraries, in particular, are becoming partners in their parent institutions' distance learning programs. As a result, library staff now work with remote users (both students and faculty) with their own unique characteristics, needs, and expectations. To promote user satisfaction, library staff

Rosemarie Cooper; Paula R. Dempsey

1998-01-01

429

Expected Environmental Impacts of Pervasive Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive Computing will bring about both additional loads on and benefits to the environment. The prevailing assessment of positive and negative effects will depend on how effectively energy and waste policy governs the development of ICT infrastructures and applications in the coming years. Although Pervasive Computing is not expected to change the impact of the technosphere on the environment radically,

Andreas Köhler; Lorenz Erdmann

2004-01-01

430

Interethnic Interactions: Expectancies, Emotions, and Behavioral Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examine Hispanic and non-Hispanic White people's responses to interethnic interactions. Consistent with previous findings regarding White\\/Black interactions, participants who had negative expectations about intergroup interactions reported more anger and anxiety about interethnic interactions. These negative emotional responses, in turn, were associated with negative behavioral intentions such as the desire to avoid interethnic interactions and the externalization of blame

E. Ashby Plant; David A. Butz; Margarita Tartakovsky

2008-01-01

431

Some Eclectic Considerations Regarding Student Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The occupational and educational expectations of high school seniors in 1970 were compared to those of seniors in 1963. Data were obtained in 1963 for 1,200 seniors and in 1970 for 3,100. Both samples were from North Carolina high schools, although the 1970 sample had a much larger urban component and included non-public school students. The…

Drabick, Lawrence W.

432

Minority Faculty Job Experience, Expectations, and Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Looks at the reasons educators of color gave for entering pedagogy, what they expected from academia, and whether they thought they would remain in education, or return to the professional media full time. Attempts to describe minority faculty academic and professional training. Finds that minority educators had more education and media…

Daufin, E-K.

2001-01-01

433

SELECTED DETERMINANTS OF ADOLESCENT EDUCATIONAL EXPECTATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|QUESTIONNAIRE DATA WERE USED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ADOLESCENT EDUCATIONAL EXPECTIONS (DEPENDENT VARIABLE) AND PATERNAL EDUCATION, FAMILY SOCIAL STATUS, PARENTAL EDUCATIONAL PRESSURE, AND FAMILY SIZE (INDEPENDENT OF PREDICTOR VARIABLES). THE DATA WERE GATHERED FROM 2,852 MALE SOPHOMORES (HIGH SCHOOL), LIVING IN SIX MIDDLE-SIZE…

REHBERG, RICHARD A.

434

Harmonic and rhythmic influences on musical expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of harmony and rhythm on expectancy formation were studied in two experiments. In both studies, we generated musical passages consisting of a melodic line accompanied by four har- monic (chord) events. These sequences varied in their harmonic content, the rhythmic periodicity of the three context chords prior to the final chord, and the ending time of the final

MARK A. SCHMUCKLER; MARILYN G. BOLTZ

1994-01-01

435

Online service failure, consumer attributions and expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences in consumers' attributions of blame for service failures and its affect on their expectations for recovery in both online and offline settings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of non-student adults participated in a 2 (service type) by 2 (shopping medium) experimental design testing the affects of on- and offline

Katherine E. Harris; Lois A. Mohr; Kenneth L. Bernhardt

2006-01-01

436

Lapse rate modeling: a rational expectation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surrender option embedded in many life insurance products is a clause that allows policyholders to terminate the contract early. Pricing techniques based on the American Contingent Claim (ACC) theory are often used, though the actual policyholders' behavior is far from optimal. Inspired by many prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing

Domenico De Giovanni

2010-01-01

437

Social skills, expectancies, and drinking in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the field of teenage drinking behavior has shown relationships between both social skills and drinking and alcohol expectancies and drinking. The present research investigated the comparative power of both of these sets of variables in predicting teenage drinking behavior, as well as looking at the contribution of more global cognitive structures. It was hypothesised that adolescents with high

Lisa Rosenthal Gaffney; Karen Thorpe; Ross Young; Robyn Collett; Stefano Occhipinti

1998-01-01

438

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

439

Organizational expectations of the novice teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on the teacher as an “organization person”, that is, a professional working in an organizational setting, and forms part of its administrative and human fabric. The purpose of the article is to describe the novice teacher’s expectations from teaching as a profession and from the school as a work organization. The novice teachers who participated in trainee

Isaac A. Friedman

2004-01-01

440

Children and Computers: Greek Parents' Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This survey investigated the expectations of Greek parents with regard to the potential impact of children's computer use on the fields of education, interpersonal relationships, and professional and social life. Considers socio-cultural environment; sex and age; and whether the parents had knowledge of computers, used computers at work, or had a…

Vryzas, Konstantinos; Tsitouridou, Melpomene

2002-01-01

441

Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for women have been studied extensively, but little research has focused on this topic with males. Using the two most popular men's fashion magazines (GQand Esquire), this study examined article and advertisement content as well as male models' body sizes to determine the extent to which men have received messages from the media on how to

Trent A. Petrie; Laura J. Austin; Barbara J. Crowley; Annette Helmcamp; Courtney E. Johnson; Regan Lester; Rebecca Rogers; Jeff Turner; Kevin Walbrick

1996-01-01

442

Audience uses and Gratifications: An Expectancy Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations as to why people attend to mass communications have generally not dealt with one of the assumed basic concepts of uses and gratifications research, namely, expectations about gratification. Nor have studies i n the area shown much concern for the question of whether gratifications sought from exposure to media are subsequently obtained; and if so, or if not, how

John J. Galloway

1981-01-01

443

Leaf palatability, life expectancy and herbivore damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on leaves from plants with a wide range of life-forms, ruderals to trees, indicate that palatability to insect herbivores is strongly correlated with the life-expectancy of the leaves. The amount of damage suffered in the field is however inversely correlated with palatability; although the rate of damage is less on unpalatable leaves, their longer life means that they accumulate

T. R. E. Southwood; V. K. Brown; P. M. Reader

1986-01-01

444

Suggestion and Expectancy in Emotional Socialization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Building on previous research indicating that among first, third, and fifth graders, older children expect affective expressive behavior to be regulated, a study was made of children's beliefs about rationales for and consequences of regulated affective expressive behavior. Children's beliefs were examined in conjunction with their parents' (1)…

Saarni, Carolyn

445

Influencing audience satisfaction by manipulating expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies examined whether people manipulate audience expectations about outcomes to influence audience satisfaction. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that waiting customers often receive overestimations of the time they must wait before they can speak to a customer service representative (Study 1) or receive a table at a restaurant (Study 2). Studies 3 and 4 revealed that restaurant staff members

James A. Shepperd; Kate Sweeny; Lisa C. Cherry

2007-01-01

446

Expect Respect television advertising campaign: evaluation report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Expect Respect project was a social marketing campaign to increase young people’s knowledge of the dynamics of healthy and unhealthy relationships. It represented the latest stage in an ongoing campaign by the Kids Really Count interagency committee (a collaboration between the Ballina Byron Family Centre, the NSW Strategy to Reduce Violence Against Women, Lismore & District Women’s Health Centre,

Chris White; Sallie Newell; Anne Graham

2006-01-01

447

Beyond Life Expectancy: Social Work with Centenarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the older population as a whole is increas- ing faster than any other age group, the most dramatic growth is in the oldest old. Centenarians, those individuals who have survived 100 or more years, have increased ten times in size over the past forty years. This population trajectory is expected to accelerate even more into the next century. Unfomately,

Nancy P. Kropf; Katherine L. Pugh

1995-01-01

448

Verbal expectancies and performance after alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

New verbal expectancies about the effects of alcohol were experimentally induced in subjects by suggesting in writing and verbally that food had positive, negative, or neutral effects on performance after alcohol. Subjects (n = 120, male) received this suggestion, food (fed or fasted), and alcohol (alcohol or placebo) in a between-subjects design. Alcohol impaired reaction time and tracking (with a

Richard Hammersley; Frances Finnigan; Keith Millar

1998-01-01

449

Effects of Syntactic Expectations on Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the effect of acoustic cues on speech segmentation has been extensively investigated, the role of higher order information (e.g., syntax) has received less attention. Here, the authors examined whether syntactic expectations based on subject-verb agreement have an effect on segmentation and whether they do so despite conflicting acoustic…

Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.; White, Laurence

2007-01-01

450

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

451

Effects of Syntactic Expectations on Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the effect of acoustic cues on speech segmentation has been extensively investigated, the role of higher order information (e.g., syntax) has received less attention. Here, the authors examined whether syntactic expectations based on subject-verb agreement have an effect on segmentation and whether they do so despite conflicting acoustic…

Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.; White, Laurence

2007-01-01

452

Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

2005-01-01

453

Outcome Expectancies and Risk-Taking Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

One explanation for risk-taking behavior despite warnings about the dangers is that anticipated positive consequences outweigh possible negative outcomes. In a five-part investigation, a new questionnaire was developed to assess outcome expectancies for the potential consequences of involvement in a variety of risky activities. Conceptual and methodological limitations of previously available questionnaires were addressed and content, construct, and criterion validity

Kim Fromme; Elizabeth C. Katz; Kathy Rivet

1997-01-01

454

EXPECTATIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF DNA TESTING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The benefits of DNA testing are briefly discussed. The number of DNA tests for quantitative traits in beef cattle has increased rapidly over the past four years and this trend is expected to continue. With the rapid growth of DNA testing in beef cattle, breeders have many decisions to make and littl...

455

Expected benefits of information security investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideally, decisions concerning investments of scarce resources in new or additional procedures and technologies that are expected to enhance information security will be informed by quantitative analyses. But security is notoriously hard to quantify, since absence of activity challenges us to establish whether lack of successful attacks is the result of good security or merely due to good luck. However,

Julie J. C. H. Ryan; Daniel J. Ryan

2006-01-01

456

Enhanced Expectancies Improve Performance Under Pressure  

PubMed Central

Beyond skill, beliefs in requisite abilities and expectations can affect performance. This experiment examined effects of induced perceptions of ability to perform well under generic situations of challenge. Participants (N?=?31) first completed one block of 20 trials on a throwing accuracy task. They then completed questionnaires ostensibly measuring individual differences in the ability to perform under pressure. Enhanced-expectancy group participants were told that they were well-suited to perform under pressure, while the control group received neutral information. Subsequently, all participants completed another block of 20 trials on the throwing task, with their performance videotaped and under the assumption that they could secure a prize for themselves and a paired participant with successful performance. Both groups had similar accuracy scores on the first trial block. The enhanced-expectancy group significantly increased their throwing accuracy in the higher-pressure situation (second block), whereas the control group showed no change in performance. Furthermore, beliefs regarding performance under challenge predicted throwing accuracy on the second block. The present findings provide evidence that enhancing individuals’ generic expectancies regarding performance under pressure can affect their motor performance.

McKay, Brad; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Wulf, Gabriele

2012-01-01

457

Culture and Caregiving: Goals, Expectations, & Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care services.…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2003-01-01

458

Children's Physical Appearance and Adult Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Caregivers' expectancies and behaviors in relationship to young handicapped children were investigated in this paper. Two studies were conducted in an attempt to answer three questions: (1) How will caregivers respond to the young handicapped child? (2) Do the child's stimulus characteristics, such as physical appearance, create biases in…

Feeg, Veronica DeCarolis; Peters, Donald L.

459

A Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a multiple asset rational expectations model of asset prices to explain nancial market contagion. Although the model allows contagion through several chan- nels, our focus is on contagion through cross-market rebalancing. Through this channel, investors transmit idiosyncratic shocks from one market to others by adjusting their portfolios' exposures to shared macroeconomic risks. The pattern and severity of nan-

Laura E. Kodres; Matthew Pritsker

1999-01-01

460

A Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a multiple asset rational expectations model of asset prices to explain financial market contagion. Although the model allows contagion through several channels, our focus is on contagion through cross-market rebalancing. Through this channel, investors transmit idiosyncratic shocks from one market to others by adjusting their portfolios' exposures to shared macroeconomic risks. The pattern and severity of financial contagion

Laura E; Matthew Pritsker

2002-01-01

461

Men's Alcohol Expectancies at Selected Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Men's alcohol expectancies are an important cognitive-behavioral component of their consumption; yet, sparse research details such behaviors for men in two-year colleges. Selected for inclusion with the current study were 563 men from seven Illinois community colleges. Logistic regression analysis indicated four significant, positive…

Derby, Dustin C.

2011-01-01

462

Rough probability and rough expected value models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rough set theory is a new and effective mathematical theory used for processing incomplete, uncertain and vague data. In this paper, new set-theoretic operators - rough operators are proposed based on Pawlak rough set. On the basis of rough operators, a self-duality measure -rough probability is presented. On the rough probability space, rough variable, rough distribution, and rough expected value

Yi-Jun Fan; Da-Zeng Tian; Ming-Hu Ha

2008-01-01

463

Teaching Objectives in Biology: Priorities and Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are differences between experienced BSCS biology teachers and those beginning to use BSCS, with respect to the ranking of objectives in order of importance and in the estimation of the ease of achieving the objectives. There is a disparity between the teachers' priorities and their expectations of achieving the objectives. (AL)|

Tamir, P.; Jungwirth, E.

1972-01-01

464

Nonverbal expectancy violations and conversational involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central feature of nonverbal expectancy violations theory is that unexpected behaviors trigger a cognitive-affective appraisal of such behavior, leading to a valencing of the behavior(s) as positive or negative. It has been proposed that communicator reward mediates the interpretation and evaluation of such violations but may be more important when the violative act is ambiguous in meaning than when

Judee K. Burgoon; Deborah A. Newton; Joseph B. Walther; E. James Baesler

1989-01-01

465

Alcohol Expectancy Priming and Drinking Behavior: The Role of Compatibility Between Prime and Expectancy Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to information-processing models of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies constitute representations in long-term memory that may be activated in the presence of drinking-related cues, thereby influencing alcohol consumption. A fundamental implication of this approach is that primed expectancies should affect drinking only for those individuals who possess the specific expectancies primed. To test this notion, in the present study, participants

Ronald S. Friedman; Denis M. McCarthy; Sarah L. Pedersen; Joshua A. Hicks

2009-01-01

466

Adolescent expectations of early death predict young adult socioeconomic status.  

PubMed

Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations; PSE), predictors of PSE, and associations between PSE and future socioeconomic status attainment. We utilized the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-1995 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-2002 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). At Wave I, 14% reported ?50% chance of living to age 35 and older adolescents reported lower PSE than younger adolescents. At Wave III, PSE were similar across age. Changes in PSE from Wave I to III were moderate, with 89% of respondents reporting no change (56%), one level higher (22%) or one level lower (10%) in a 5-level PSE variable. Higher block group poverty rate, perceptions that the neighborhood is unsafe, and less time in the U.S. (among the foreign-born) were related to low PSE at Waves I and III. Low PSE at Waves I and III predicted lower education attainment and personal earnings at Wave IV in multinomial logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors such as previous family socioeconomic status, individual demographic characteristics, and depressive symptoms. Anticipation of an early death is prevalent among adolescents and predictive of lower future socioeconomic status. Low PSE reported early in life may be a marker for worse health trajectories. PMID:22405687

Nguyen, Quynh C; Hussey, Jon M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Poole, Charles

2012-02-21

467

Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Adult Risk Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994–95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7–12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001–02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24–32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50–50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ? a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.

Nguyen, Quynh C.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Poole, Charles

2012-01-01

468

Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ? a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth. PMID:22870260

Nguyen, Quynh C; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W; Hussey, Jon M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Poole, Charles

2012-08-01

469

Scratch Collapse Test Localizes Osborne’s Band as the Point of Maximal Nerve Compression in Cubital Tunnel Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to demonstrate the utility of the scratch collapse test (SCT) in localizing the point of maximal\\u000a compression in cubital tunnel syndrome. From January 1, 2004 to December 1, 2005, 64 adult patients with cubital tunnel syndrome\\u000a were evaluated by a single surgeon. Cubital tunnel syndrome was diagnosed based upon symptoms of numbness, tingling, and\\/or

Justin M. Brown; David Mokhtee; Maristella S. Evangelista; Susan E. Mackinnon

2010-01-01

470

Does Television Viewing Cultivate Unrealistic Expectations About Marriage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines relationship between television viewing, holding idealistic expectations about marriage, and intentions to marry among undergraduate students. Finds overall television viewing has a negative association with idealistic marriage expectations; romantic genre programming was positively associated with high expectations; and expectations

Segrin, Chris; Nabi, Robin L.

2002-01-01

471

Genetic Drift Widens the Expected Cline but Narrows the Expected Cline Width  

PubMed Central

Random genetic drift shifts clines in space, alters their width, and distorts their shape. Such random fluctuations complicate inferences from cline width and position. Notably, the effect of genetic drift on the expected shape of the cline is opposite to the naive (but quite common) misinterpretation of classic results on the expected cline. While random drift on average broadens the overall cline in expected allele frequency, it narrows the width of any particular cline. The opposing effects arise because locally, drift drives alleles to fixation—but fluctuations in position widen the expected cline. The effect of genetic drift can be predicted from standardized variance in allele frequencies, averaged across the habitat: ?F?. A cline maintained by spatially varying selection (step change) is expected to be narrower by a factor of 1??F? relative to the cline in the absence of drift. The expected cline is broader by the inverse of this factor. In a tension zone maintained by underdominance, the expected cline width is narrower by about 1 – ?F? relative to the width in the absence of drift. Individual clines can differ substantially from the expectation, and we give quantitative predictions for the variance in cline position and width. The predictions apply to clines in almost one-dimensional circumstances such as hybrid zones in rivers, deep valleys, or along a coast line and give a guide to what patterns to expect in two dimensions.

Polechova, Jitka; Barton, Nick

2011-01-01

472

Positioning your facility for utility competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utility deregulation and competition are advancing to a point where energy managers need to prepare themselves to take advantage of the changes to come. Many steps can be taken now--before the rules change--to maximize those benefits. Some of those efforts may even yield savings before deregulation occurs. They include: collecting and managing load information, experimenting with time-sensitive tariffs, analyzing and\\/or

Audin

1997-01-01

473

Maximal entanglement, collective coordinates and tracking the King  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximal entangled states provide a basis to two d-dimensional particles in Hilbert space, d = prime ? 2. The maximally entangled states forming this basis are uniquely related to product states in the collective, center of mass and relative, coordinates. These states are associated (underpinned) with lines of finite geometry whose constituent points are associated with product states carrying mutual unbiased bases labels. This representation is shown to be convenient for the study of the mean King problem and a variant thereof, termed ‘tracking the King’, which proves to be a novel quantum communication channel. The main topics and notations used are reviewed in an attempt to keep the paper self contained.

Revzen, M.

2013-02-01

474

Maximal mass and size of celestial bodies born from superstrings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized Buchdahl inequality in the presence of a positive cosmological constant gives rise to a constraint on the mass density of celestial bodies. We find that such a constraint implies an upper bound on the mass and radius of spherical celestial bodies born from macroscopic superstrings. We obtain a maximal mass of about 1015 solar masses and a maximal radius of about 80 million light years, not far from the observed mass and size of the largest structures in the universe, viz. the superclusters of galaxies.

Massa, Corrado

2007-08-01

475

Maximization of thermal entanglement of arbitrarily interacting two qubits  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the thermal entanglement of interacting two qubits. We maximize it by tuning a local Hamiltonian under a given interaction Hamiltonian. We prove that the optimizing local Hamiltonian takes a simple form which does not depend on the temperature and that the corresponding optimized thermal entanglement decays as 1/(TlnT) at high temperatures. We also find that at low temperatures the thermal entanglement is maximum without any local Hamiltonians and that the second derivative of the maximized thermal entanglement changes discontinuously at the boundary between the high- and low-temperature phases.

Kuwahara, Tomotaka [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Hatano, Naomichi [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

2011-06-15

476

Projection of Two Biphoton Qutrits onto a Maximally Entangled State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bell state measurements, in which two quantum bits are projected onto a maximally entangled state, are an essential component of quantum information science. We propose and experimentally demonstrate the projection of two quantum systems with three states (qutrits) onto a generalized maximally entangled state. Each qutrit is represented by the polarization of a pair of indistinguishable photons—a biphoton. The projection is a joint measurement on both biphotons using standard linear optics elements. This demonstration enables the realization of quantum information protocols with qutrits, such as teleportation and entanglement swapping.

Halevy, A.; Megidish, E.; Shacham, T.; Dovrat, L.; Eisenberg, H. S.

2011-04-01

477

Robust rate-maximization game under bounded channel uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of decentralized power allocation for competitive\\u000arate-maximization in a frequency-selective Gaussian interference channel under\\u000abounded channel uncertainty. We formulate a distribution-free robust framework\\u000afor the rate-maximization game. The solution to the proposed game has each user\\u000aformulating a best response to the worst-case interference. We present the\\u000arobust-optimization equilibrium for this game and derive sufficient conditions

Animashree Anandkumar; Sangarapillai Lambotharan; Jonathon A. Chambers

2010-01-01

478

Maximally efficient protocols for direct secure quantum communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) using GHZ-like states have been proposed. It is shown that one of these protocols is maximally efficient and that can be modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). Security and efficiency of the proposed protocols are analyzed and compared. It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. Maximally efficient QSDC protocols are shown to be more efficient than their DSQC counterparts. This additional efficiency arises at the cost of message transmission rate.

Banerjee, Anindita; Pathak, Anirban

2012-10-01

479

Energetics of swimming at maximal speeds in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy cost per unit of distance (C\\u000a s, kilojoules per metre) of the front-crawl, back, breast and butterfly strokes was assessed in 20 elite swimmers. At sub-maximal\\u000a speeds (v), C\\u000a s was measured dividing steady-state oxygen consumption (V?O2) by the speed (v, metres per second). At supra-maximal v, C\\u000a s was calculated by dividing the total metabolic energy (E,

Carlo Capelli; Dave R. Pendergast; B. Termin

1998-01-01

480

Inhomogeneous symbols, the Newton polygon, and maximal L p -regularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove a maximal regularity result for operators corresponding to rotation invariant symbols (in space) which are inhomogeneous in space and time. Symbols of this type frequently arise in the treatment of half-space models for (free) boundary-value problems. The result is obtained by extending the Newton polygon approach to variables living in complex sectors and combining it with abstract results on the mathcal{H}^infty -calculus and mathcal{R} -bounded operator families. As an application, we derive maximal regularity for the linearized Stefan problem with Gibbs-Thomson correction.

Denk, R.; Saal, J.; Seiler, J.

2008-06-01

481

[Utilities: a solution of a decision problem?].  

PubMed

Utility is a concept that originates from utilitarianism, a highly influential philosophical school in the Anglo-American world. The cornerstone of utilitarianism is the principle of maximum happiness or utility. In the medical sciences, this utility approach has been adopted and developed within the field of medical decision making. On an operational level, utility is the evaluation of a health state or an outcome on a one-dimensional scale ranging from 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health). By adding the concept of expectancy, the graphic representation of both concepts in a decision tree results in the specification of expected utilities and helps to resolve complex medical decision problems. Criticism of the utility approach relates to the rational perspective on humans (which is rejected by a considerable fraction of research in psychology) and to the artificial methods used in the evaluation of utility, such as Standard Gamble or Time Trade Off. These may well be the reason why the utility approach has never been accepted in Germany. Nevertheless, innovative concepts for defining goals in health care are urgently required, as the current debate in Germany on "Nutzen" (interestingly translated as 'benefit' instead of as 'utility') and integrated outcome models indicates. It remains to be seen whether this discussion will lead to a re-evaluation of the utility approach. PMID:19216241

Koller, Michael; Ohmann, Christian; Lorenz, Wilfried

2008-01-01

482

Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…

Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.

2009-01-01

483

Teachers' Expectations of Teacher-Student Interaction: Complementary and Distinctive Expectancy Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study it is investigated what student responses teachers expect in particular teacher behaviour vignettes, and whether experience and gender produce differences in expectations. Teacher behaviour vignettes were presented to teachers (N = 46), who described the student responses they anticipated. Anticipated student responses were then…

de Jong, R. J.; van Tartwijk, J.; Verloop, N.; Veldman, I.; Wubbels, T.

2012-01-01

484

Expectancy and treatment interactions: A dissociation between acupuncture analgesia and expectancy evoked placebo analgesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in placebo research have demonstrated the mind's power to alter physiology. In this study, we combined an expectancy manipulation model with both verum and sham acupuncture treatments to address: 1) how and to what extent treatment and expectancy effects — including both subjective pain intensity levels (pain sensory ratings) and objective physiological activations (fMRI) — interact; and 2)

Jian Kong; Ted J. Kaptchuk; Ginger Polich; Irving Kirsch; Mark Vangel; Carolyn Zyloney; Bruce Rosen; Randy Gollub

2009-01-01

485

Attitudes and expectations: do attitudes towards education mediate the relationship between social networks and parental expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous international research has shown that educational goals are fundamental for explaining differences in the educational attainment between individuals. For a better understanding of educational inequality, it is therefore crucial to know more about the mechanisms leading to different expectations. Our paper contributes to this field of research by empirically testing how social networks affect educational expectations of mothers for

Tobias Roth; Zerrin Salikutluk

2012-01-01

486

Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible…

Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.

2009-01-01

487

Positive Outcome Expectancies and Smoking Behavior: The Role of Expectancy Accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between smoking outcome expectancy accessibility and smoking behavior. Daily smokers completed a smoking expectancy accessibility task in which they made timed judgments to a series of positive consequences of smoking either after 6 hr deprivation or within 10 min of smoking. Participants then completed a questionnaire battery that contained assessments of smoking behavior and smoking

Tibor P. Palfai

2002-01-01

488

Positive Outcome Expectancies and Smoking Behavior: The Role of Expectancy Accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between smoking outcome expectancy accessibil- ity and smoking behavior. Daily smokers completed a smoking expectancy accessibil- ity task in which they made timed judgments to a series of positive consequences of smoking either after 6 hr deprivation or within 10 min of smoking. Participants then completed a questionnaire battery that contained assessments of smoking behavior

Tibor P. Palfai

2002-01-01

489

The CMS tracker and expected performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust tracking and a detailed vertex reconstruction are essential characteristics of each modern High Energy Physics experiment. This is particularly true in the LHC environment where thousands of tracks are expected to cross the inner part of the detector each bunch crossing (25ns). In order to meet these requirements the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration has recently proposed to build a multi-layer full-silicon tracker with a pixel vertex detector close to the beam pipe. This layout is different from the one originally proposed in the CMS Tracker TDR (Technical Design Report, CERN/LHCC 98-6) where a inner silicon tracker surrounded by an outer MSGC tracker was foreseen. In this paper the reasons which led to change the CMS baseline proposal are explained, and the layout and expected performances of the recently proposed all-silicon tracker are described.

Bagliesi, G.

2001-07-01

490

[Decomposition of the differences in life expectancies].  

PubMed

"This study decomposes the differences between average life expectancies at age x by double standardization into effect of differences in the mortality structure by causes of death, and into effect of differences in the average life expectancies of those deceased due to certain causes of death, relying on abridged life tables by causes of death as for Belgium and Hungary in 1984.... The mortality structure by causes of death is more favourable in the case of females in both countries, but it contributes less to the rather significant differences in general mortality level. It is worth mentioning that the differences in the mortality level of males and females presents itself more definitely in Hungary than in Belgium." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12317010

Valkovics, E

491

Candidate preferences and expectations of election outcomes  

PubMed Central

Analysis of data from the American Life Panel shows that in the presidential election of 2008 and in multiple statewide elections in 2010, citizens exhibited large differences in their expectations of election outcomes. Expectations were strongly positively associated with candidate preferences, persons tending to believe that their preferred candidate is more likely to win the election. Committed supporters of opposing candidates regularly differed by 20–30% in their assessments of the likelihood that each candidate would win. These findings contribute evidence on the false consensus effect, the empirical regularity that own preferences tend to be positively associated with perceptions of social preferences. We used unique measures of preferences and perceptions that enabled respondents to express uncertainty flexibly. We studied a setting that would a priori seem inhospitable to false consensus—one where persons have little private information on social preferences but substantial common knowledge provided by media reports of election polls.

Delavande, Adeline; Manski, Charles F.

2012-01-01

492

Managing Users' Expectations of E-books  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the status quo regarding the e-book landscape that users must currently learn to traverse. A case is made for proactive action on the part of librarians in finding ways to minimize the expectations of e-book users while streamlining the electronic resources acquisitions and access processes. Additionally, the computational capabilities of e-books are discussed in terms of how

Elizabeth Kline; Barbara Williams

2008-01-01

493

Children and Computers: Greek Parents' Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey investigated the expectations of Greek parents with regard to the potential impact of children's computer use on the fields of education, interpersonal relationships, and professional and social life. A questionnaire was used, which was answered by 1,028 parents of children aged 10-11 and 14-15, from schools in Thessaloniki, Greece. The factors that were studied were: the socio-cultural environment

K. Vryzas; M. Tsitouridou

2002-01-01

494

Assessing Patients' Expectations in Ambulatory Medical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare three different approaches to the measurement of patients' expectations for care, we conducted a randomized controlled\\u000a trial. Medical outpatients (n = 318) of a small (six-physician), single-specialty (internal medicine), academically affiliated\\u000a private practice in Sacramento, California, were contacted by telephone the night before a scheduled office visit and enrolled\\u000a over a 5-month period in early 1994. Patients were

Richard L. Kravitz; Edward J. Callahan; Rahman Azari; Deirdre Antonius; Charles E. Lewis

1997-01-01

495

Healthcare stocks expected to remain strong.  

PubMed

While healthcare stocks are likely to remain at the top of Wall Street's list of favorites, healthcare analysts and money managers say they don't expect to see the same quality of healthcare companies issuing stock the rest of the year. They say that in the coming months, more companies of lesser quality will sell stock at inflated prices, compared with their earnings. PMID:10110753

Pallarito, K

1991-05-27

496

Expectation Propagation for approximate Bayesian inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new deterministic approx- imation technique in Bayesian networks. This method, ìExpectation Propagation,î unies two previous techniques: assumed-density ltering, an extension of the Kalman lter , and loopy be- lief propagation, an extension of belief propaga- tion in Bayesian networks. Loopy belief propa- gation, because it propagates exact belief states, is useful for a limited class of

Thomas P. Minka

2001-01-01

497

Goal Expectations as Predictors of Retirement Intentions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study explored the contribution of personal goals to retirement decisions. A SMARTER methodology (to assess multiattribute utility) and taxonomy of human goals were used to investigate the relationship between older workers' personal goals and their retirement intentions. Two hundred and fifty-one employees of a large university,…

Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

2005-01-01

498

Coherent states expectation values as semiclassical trajectories  

SciTech Connect

We study the time evolution of the expectation value of the anharmonic oscillator coordinate in a coherent state as a toy model for understanding the semiclassical solutions in quantum field theory. By using the deformation quantization techniques, we show that the coherent state expectation value can be expanded in powers of ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) such that the zeroth-order term is a classical solution while the first-order correction is given as a phase-space Laplacian acting on the classical solution. This is then compared to the effective action solution for the one-dimensional {phi}{sup 4} perturbative quantum field theory. We find an agreement up to the order {lambda}({Dirac_h}/2{pi}), where {lambda} is the coupling constant, while at the order {lambda}{sup 2}({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) there is a disagreement. Hence the coherent state expectation values define an alternative semiclassical dynamics to that of the effective action. The coherent state semiclassical trajectories are exactly computable and they can coincide with the effective action trajectories in the case of two-dimensional integrable field theories.

Dias, N. C.; Mikovic, A.; Prata, J. N. [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Av. do Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisbon (Portugal)

2006-08-15

499

Employee perceptions of 'profiled' customers' expectations.  

PubMed

There has been an increasing interest in the issues of quality in service delivery. The SERVQUAL theory addresses these issues and identifies the causes of service quality problems. The practical, managerial implications of the SERVQUAL theory and model are currently being addressed (Reidenbach and Sandifer-Smallwood, 1990; Woodside, Frey and Daly, 1989; Mangold and Babakus, 1991; Webster, 1989; Day, 1992). A handful of these articles have specifically addressed the managerial implications of the SERVQUAL Gap 1 analysis: the identification of employee and management perceptions of consumer expectations (Mangold and Babakus, 1991; Headley and Choi, 1992; Bebko, 1994). Previously, none of the research had mentioned the potential problems inherent in Gap 1 analysis when the organization is faced with several "types" of customers, each with possibly different expectations. Consequently, the results of the GAP 1 analysis may not represent the true picture of employee perceptions of consumer expectations. This would have implications for the validity of the SERVQUAL instrument in assessing a service's ability to deliver quality to consumers. PMID:10186252

Bebko, C P

1998-01-01

500

Couvade Syndrome among Polish expectant fathers  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the conducted study was to analyze the phenomenon of Couvade Syndrome amongst fathers expecting their children in Poland. The authors examined the frequency of couvade symptoms in male subjects as well as their associations with male empathy. Material/Methods The research involved 143 expectant fathers. All subjects attended antenatal classes, and their female partners were in their third trimester. Before the start of classes, participants were asked to fill in the following questionnaires: a survey for measurement of Couvade Syndrome (which includes a set of 16 symptoms identified by Lipkin and Lamb (19) and translated into Polish), and the Empathic Sensitiveness Scale (SWE). Although participants, on average, did not experience Couvade Syndrome, they did experience symptoms that are commonly linked with the syndrome, namely those related to weight (weight gain, changes in appetite and flatulence). Results The results indicate that expectant fathers experience couvade symptoms related to weight (weight gain, changes in appetite and flatulence). The only empathic component that positively correlates with Couvade Syndrome is personal distress, i.e. the tendency to take on the negative emotions of others. Demographic characteristics are not associated with Couvade Syndrome. Conclusions The frequency of couvade symptoms in male subjects is associated with male empathy. In other words, men who are emotionally sensitive or prone to distress may physiologically experience the pregnancy of their female partners, which can be interpreted as compathy.

Kazmierczak, Maria; Kielbratowska, Bogumila; Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Preis, Krzysztof

2013-01-01