Optimal combining quota-share and excess of loss reinsurance to maximize the expected utility
Zhibin Liang; Junyi Guo
2011-01-01
In this paper, from an insurer’s point of view, we consider the optimal combining quota-share and excess of loss reinsurance\\u000a to maximize the expected exponential utility from terminal wealth. By stochastic control theory and the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman\\u000a equation, we derive the closed form expressions of the optimal strategies and value function not only for the diffusion approximation\\u000a risk model but
Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations
Fujimoto, Kazufumi, E-mail: m_fuji@kvj.biglobe.ne.jp [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan)] [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan); Nagai, Hideo, E-mail: nagai@sigmath.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan)] [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Runggaldier, Wolfgang J., E-mail: runggal@math.unipd.it [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata (Italy)
2013-02-15
We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).
An Expectation Maximization Approach for Integrated
Fisher III, John
, anatomical labelmap, and a mapping from the atlas to the image space. An example of the approach is given the regis- tration of an atlas with the segmentation of MR images. We use an Expectation Maximization for a brain structure-dependent affine mapping approach. The algorithm produces high qual- ity segmentations
Variability Aware Network Utility Maximization
Joseph, Vinay
2011-01-01
Network Utility Maximization (NUM) provides the key conceptual framework to study resource allocation amongst a collection of users/entities across disciplines as diverse as economics, law and engineering. In network engineering, this framework has been particularly insightful towards understanding how Internet protocols allocate bandwidth, and motivated diverse research on distributed mechanisms to maximize network utility while incorporating new relevant constraints, on energy/power, storage, stability, etc., for systems ranging from communication networks to the smart-grid. However when the available resources and/or users' utilities vary over time, a user's allocations will tend to vary, which in turn may have a detrimental impact on the users' utility or quality of experience. This paper introduces a generalized NUM framework which explicitly incorporates the detrimental impact of temporal variability in a user's allocated rewards. It explicitly incorporates tradeoffs amongst the mean and variability in ...
Steganalysis feature improvement using expectation maximization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Benjamin M.; Peterson, Gilbert L.; Agaian, Sos S.
2007-04-01
Images and data files provide an excellent opportunity for concealing illegal or clandestine material. Currently, there are over 250 different tools which embed data into an image without causing noticeable changes to the image. From a forensics perspective, when a system is confiscated or an image of a system is generated the investigator needs a tool that can scan and accurately identify files suspected of containing malicious information. The identification process is termed the steganalysis problem which focuses on both blind identification, in which only normal images are available for training, and multi-class identification, in which both the clean and stego images at several embedding rates are available for training. In this paper an investigation of a clustering and classification technique (Expectation Maximization with mixture models) is used to determine if a digital image contains hidden information. The steganalysis problem is for both anomaly detection and multi-class detection. The various clusters represent clean images and stego images with between 1% and 10% embedding percentage. Based on the results it is concluded that the EM classification technique is highly suitable for both blind detection and the multi-class problem.
Space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization algorithm
Jeffrey A. Fessler; A. O. Hero
1994-01-01
The expectation-maximization (EM) method can facilitate maximizing likelihood functions that arise in statistical estimation problems. In the classical EM paradigm, one iteratively maximizes the conditional log-likelihood of a single unobservable complete data space, rather than maximizing the intractable likelihood function for the measured or incomplete data. EM algorithms update all parameters simultaneously, which has two drawbacks: 1) slow convergence, and
Maximizing expected utility over a knapsack constraint
2014-08-11
[4] U. Feige, A threshold of ln n for approximating set cover, Journal of the ACM 45 (4) (1998) 634–652. ... 4th International Workshop on Internet and Network Economics, WINE, 2008, pp ... Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2009.
Utility maximization and risk minimization in life and pension insurance
Peter Holm Nielsen
2006-01-01
We study the problem of nding optimal strategies for a life insurance company or pension fund that acts on behalf of an insured so as to maximize the expected utility (in a general form) of the pension benets through divi- dend allocation and investment in a nancial market. We take the uncertain course of life of the insured into account
Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard
2000-01-01
This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.
Purely Subjective Maxmin Expected Utility Shiri AlonH
Schmeidler, David
expected utility maximization. The descriptive validity of this model was put in doubt long ago. Today many think that Savage's postulates do not constitute a su¢ cient condition for rationality, and some doubt and should be reduced to risk, and that this is the only reasonable model of decision making on which
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Inexact Matching of Ontology Graphs Using Expectation-Maximization
Doshi, Prashant; Kolli, Ravikanth; Thomas, Christopher
2009-01-01
We present a new method for mapping ontology schemas that address similar domains. The problem of ontology matching is crucial since we are witnessing a decentralized development and publication of ontological data. We formulate the problem of inferring a match between two ontologies as a maximum likelihood problem, and solve it using the technique of expectation-maximization (EM). Specifically, we adopt directed graphs as our model for ontology schemas and use a generalized version of EM to arrive at a map between the nodes of the graphs. We exploit the structural, lexical and instance similarity between the graphs, and differ from the previous approaches in the way we utilize them to arrive at, a possibly inexact, match. Inexact matching is the process of finding a best possible match between the two graphs when exact matching is not possible or is computationally difficult. In order to scale the method to large ontologies, we identify the computational bottlenecks and adapt the generalized EM by using a memory bounded partitioning scheme. We provide comparative experimental results in support of our method on two well-known ontology alignment benchmarks and discuss their implications. PMID:20160892
Blood detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using expectation maximization clustering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Cox, Jay; Tang, Shou Jiang; Tibbals, Harry F.
2006-03-01
Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. Other endoscopies such as colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and intraoperative enteroscopy could be used to visualize up to the stomach, duodenum, colon, and terminal ileum, but there existed no method to view most of the small intestine without surgery. With the miniaturization of wireless and camera technologies came the ability to view the entire gestational track with little effort. A tiny disposable video capsule is swallowed, transmitting two images per second to a small data receiver worn by the patient on a belt. During an approximately 8-hour course, over 55,000 images are recorded to a worn device and then downloaded to a computer for later examination. Typically, a medical clinician spends more than two hours to analyze a WCE video. Research has been attempted to automatically find abnormal regions (especially bleeding) to reduce the time needed to analyze the videos. The manufacturers also provide the software tool to detect the bleeding called Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), but its accuracy is not high enough to replace human examination. It was reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of SBI were about 72% and 85%, respectively. To address this problem, we propose a technique to detect the bleeding regions automatically utilizing the Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed bleeding detection method achieves 92% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.
UNSUPERVISED LEARNING OF MULTIPLE MOTIFS IN BIOPOLYMERS USING EXPECTATION MAXIMIZATION
Wang, Deli
: The MEME algorithm extends the expectation maximization (EM) method for identifying motifs in unaligned biopolymer sequences. The aim of MEME is to discover new motifs in a set of biopolymer sequences where little or nothing is known in advance about any motifs that may be present. MEME enhancements expand the range
Blobworld: Image Segmentation Using Expectation-Maximization and
Malik, Jitendra
Blobworld: Image Segmentation Using Expectation-Maximization and Its Application to Image Querying Malik, Member, IEEE AbstractÐRetrieving images from large and varied collections using image content as a key is a challenging and important problem. We present a new image representation that provides
Investment in Series and Parallel Systems to Maximize Expected Life
S. E. Jacobsen; S. Arunkumar
1973-01-01
A series (parallel) system consisting of n stochastically independent components is considered. The system works if, and only it, each component (at least one component) works. The failure time distribution of each component can be influenced by investment in that component. The optimization problem is to choose an investment allocation which maximizes expected system life. It is demonstrated that this
Expectation-Maximization Gaussian-Mixture Approximate Message Passing
Schniter, Philip
Expectation-Maximization Gaussian-Mixture Approximate Message Passing Jeremy Vila and Philip). If this distribution was apriori known, one could use efficient approximate message passing (AMP) techniques for nearly.i.d from the marginal pdf pX (x) = fX (x) + (1 - )(x), (2) where (·) is the Dirac delta, f
Expectation-Maximization Bernoulli-Gaussian Approximate Message Passing
Schniter, Philip
Expectation-Maximization Bernoulli-Gaussian Approximate Message Passing Jeremy Vila and Philip@ece.osu.edu) Abstract--The approximate message passing (AMP) algorithm originally proposed by Donoho, Maleki. probabilistic viewpoint where the elements of x are drawn i.i.d from the marginal pdf pX (x) = f(x)+(1-)(x
Expectation-maximization framework for rock textures segmentation
Hewayda Lotfy; Adel Elmaghraby; Mehmed Kantardzic; Jafar Hadizadeh
2004-01-01
Image clustering can be viewed as a segmentation problem in which small image patches are grouped together based on their features. Rock texture segmentation is a challenging task since the texture is often nonhomogeneous. In this contribution, the new EM (expectation-maximization) rock textures segmentation framework EMRT is proposed. EMRT has two phases, in the first phase the image is divided
Expectation Maximization for Combined Phylogenetic and Hidden Markov Models
Keinan, Alon
Expectation Maximization for Combined Phylogenetic and Hidden Markov Models Adam Siepel December 5 with a combined phylogenetic and hidden Markov model. An efficient method is also shown for computing gradients be combined with hidden Markov models to create a very powerful hybrid model that captures spatial as well
Vehicle image classification via expectation-maximization algorithm
S. Pumrin; Daniel J. Dailey
2003-01-01
In this paper, we present a statistical method to extract images of passenger cars from highway traffic scenes. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used to classify the vehicles in the images as either being passenger cars or some other bigger vehicles, cars versus non-cars. The vehicle classification algorithm uses training sets of 100-frame video sequences. The car group is comprised
An Expectation-Maximization Method for Calibrating Synchronous Machine Models
Meng, Da; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang
2013-07-21
The accuracy of a power system dynamic model is essential to its secure and efficient operation. Lower confidence in model accuracy usually leads to conservative operation and lowers asset usage. To improve model accuracy, this paper proposes an expectation-maximization (EM) method to calibrate the synchronous machine model using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. First, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied to estimate the dynamic states using measurement data. Then, the parameters are calculated based on the estimated states using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. The EM method iterates over the preceding two steps to improve estimation accuracy. The proposed EM method’s performance is evaluated using a single-machine infinite bus system and compared with a method where both state and parameters are estimated using an EKF method. Sensitivity studies of the parameter calibration using EM method are also presented to show the robustness of the proposed method for different levels of measurement noise and initial parameter uncertainty.
Statistical Inference of DNA Translocation using Parallel Expectation Maximization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emmett, Kevin; Rosenstein, Jacob; Pfau, David; Bamberger, Akiva; Shepard, Ken; Wiggins, Chris
2013-03-01
DNA translocation through a nanopore is an attractive candidate for a next-generation DNA sequencing platform, however the stochastic motion of the molecules within the pore, allowing both forward and backward movement, prevents easy inference of the true sequence from observed data. We model diffusion of an input DNA sequence through a nanopore as a biased random walk with noise, and describe an algorithm for efficient statistical reconstruction of the input sequence, given data consisting of a set of time series traces. The data is modeled as a Hidden Markov Model, and parallel expectation maximization is used to learn the most probable input sequence generating the observed traces. Bounds on inference accuracy are analyzed as a function of model parameters, including forward bias, error rate, and the number of traces. The number of traces is shown to have the strongest influence on algorithm performance, allowing for high inference accuracy even in extremely noisy environments. Incorrectly identified state transitions account for the majority of inference errors, and we introduce entropy-based metaheuristics for identifying and eliminating these errors. Inference is robust, fast, and scales to input sequences on the order of several kilobases.
A distributed Newton method for Network Utility Maximization
Ermin Wei; Asuman E. Ozdaglar; Ali Jadbabaie
2010-01-01
Most existing work uses dual decomposition and subgradient methods to solve\\u000aNetwork Utility Maximization (NUM) problems in a distributed manner, which\\u000asuffer from slow rate of convergence properties. This work develops an\\u000aalternative distributed Newton-type fast converging algorithm for solving\\u000anetwork utility maximization problems with self-concordant utility functions.\\u000aBy using novel matrix splitting techniques, both primal and dual updates for
Carin, Lawrence
Online Expectation Maximization for Reinforcement Learning in POMDPs Miao Liu, Xuejun Liao present online nested expectation maximization for model-free reinforcement learning in a POMDP. The algorithm evaluates the policy only in the cur- rent learning episode, discarding the episode after
Maximizing Utility of Sensor-Mission Assignment with Uncertain Demands
Preece, Alun
Maximizing Utility of Sensor-Mission Assignment with Uncertain Demands Diego Pizzocaro, Matthew P of Computer Science, Cardiff University, UK §Department of Computing Science, University of Aberdeen, UK Department of Computer Science, City University of New York, US Department of Computer Science
Alvaro R. De Pierro
1995-01-01
The maximum likelihood (ML) expectation maximization (EM) approach in emission tomography has been very popular in medical imaging for several years. In spite of this, no satisfactory convergent modifications have been proposed for the regularized approach. Here, a modification of the EM algorithm is presented. The new method is a natural extension of the EM for maximizing likelihood with concave
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gold, Michael Steven; Bentler, Peter M.
2000-01-01
Describes a Monte Carlo investigation of four methods for treating incomplete data: (1) resemblance based hot-deck imputation (RBHDI); (2) iterated stochastic regression imputation; (3) structured model expectation maximization; and (4) saturated model expectation maximization. Results favored the expectation maximization methods. (SLD)
Dongxin Xu; Kun Yan; Hsiao-Chun Wu
2009-01-01
Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms have been widely adopted in a variety of areas such as clustering, hidden Markov modeling, channel estimation and equalization, etc. The EM-based approaches to resolve the likelihood maximization involving latent variables are usually very complicated for signal processing and communication applications. To combat this problem, we construct an alternative metric for likelihood or log-likelihood, namely auxiliary function,
Hongtu Zhu; Minggao Gu; Bradley S. Peterson
2007-01-01
We introduce a class of spatial random effects models that have Markov random fields (MRF) as latent processes. Calculating\\u000a the maximum likelihood estimates of unknown parameters in SREs is extremely difficult, because the normalizing factors of\\u000a MRFs and additional integrations from unobserved random effects are computationally prohibitive. We propose a stochastic approximation\\u000a expectation-maximization (SAEM) algorithm to maximize the likelihood functions
Subjective expected utility: A review of normative theories
Peter C. Fishburn
1981-01-01
This paper reviews theories of subjective expected utility for decision making under uncertainty. It focuses on normative interpretations and discusses the primitives, axioms and representation-uniqueness theorems for a number of theories. Similarities and differences among the various theories are highlighted. The interplay between realistic decision structures and structural axioms that facilitate mathematical derivations is also emphasized.
Raheja, Amar
Wavelet based multiresolution expectation maximization image reconstruction algorithm for positron. This work transforms the MGEM and MREM algorithm to a Wavelet based Multiresolution EM (WMREM) algorithm by performing a 2D-wavelet transform on the acquired tube data that is used to reconstruct images at different
Three-Dimensional Compton Imaging Using List-Mode Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization
Shawn R. Tornga; Mohini W. Rawool Sullivan; John P. Sullivan
2009-01-01
Compton imaging is a gamma ray imaging technique that has many possible applications including homeland security and medical imaging. Using the Compton scattering formula the origin of a scattered gamma-ray can be localized to a point on the surface of a cone using a minimum of two position and energy measurements. List-mode Maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) is an iterative
Fitting a Mixture Model By Expectation Maximization To Discover Motifs In Biopolymer
Timothy L. Bailey; Charles Elkan
1994-01-01
The algorithm described in this paper discovers one or more motifs in a collection of DNA or protein sequences by using the technique of expectation maximization to fit a two-component finite mixture model to the set of sequences. Multiple motifs are found by fitting a two-component finite mixture model to the data, probabilistically erasing the occurrences of the motif thus
Expectation Maximization Strategies for Multi-atlas Multi-label Segmentation
Pratt, Vaughan
Expectation Maximization Strategies for Multi-atlas Multi-label Segmentation Torsten Rohlfing1 to the unknown ground truth than the individual segmentations. In atlas-based image segmentation, multiple classifiers arise naturally by applying different registration methods to the same atlas, or the same
Identification and restoration of noisy blurred images using the expectation-maximization algorithm
REGINALD L. LAGENDIJK; JAN BIEMOND; DICK E. BOEKEE
1990-01-01
A maximum-likelihood approach to the blur identification problem is presented. The expectation-maximization algorithm is proposed to optimize the nonlinear likelihood function in an efficient way. In order to improve the performance of the identification algorithm, low-order parametric image and blur models are incorporated into the identification method. The resulting iterative technique simultaneously identifies and restores noisy blurred images
Combining Robust Expectation Maximization and Mean Shift algorithms for Multiple Sclerosis
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Combining Robust Expectation Maximization and Mean Shift algorithms for Multiple Sclerosis Brain of white matter lesions and normal appearing brain tissues in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is pre- sented. Two and local information to improve image segmentation. 1 Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic
A robust Expectation-Maximization algorithm for Multiple Sclerosis lesion segmentation
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
A robust Expectation-Maximization algorithm for Multiple Sclerosis lesion segmentation Daniel Garc, Rennes, France Abstract A fully automatic workflow for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation. 1 Introduction Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been used as a biomarker for Multiple Sclerosis
Is expected utility theory normative for medical decision making?
Cohen, B J
1996-01-01
Expected utility theory is felt by its proponents to be a normative theory of decision making under uncertainty. The theory starts with some simple axioms that are held to be rules that any rational person would follow. It can be shown that if one adheres to these axioms, a numerical quantity, generally referred to as utility, can be assigned to each possible outcome, with the preferred course of action being that which has the highest expected utility. One of these axioms, the independence principle, is controversial, and is frequently violated in experimental situations. Proponents of the theory hold that these violations are irrational. The independence principle is simply an axiom dictating consistency among preferences, in that it dictates that a rational agent should hold a specified preference given another stated preference. When applied to preferences between lotteries, the independence principle can be demonstrated to be a rule that is followed only when preferences are formed in a particular way. The logic of expected utility theory is that this demonstration proves that preferences should be formed in this way. An alternative interpretation is that this demonstrates that the independence principle is not a valid general rule of consistency, but in particular, is a rule that must be followed if one is to consistently apply the decision rule "choose the lottery that has the highest expected utility." This decision rule must be justified on its own terms as a valid rule of rationality by demonstration that violation would lead to decisions that conflict with the decision maker's goals. This rule does not appear to be suitable for medical decisions because often these are one-time decisions in which expectation, a long-run property of a random variable, would not seem to be applicable. This is particularly true for those decisions involving a non-trivial risk of death. PMID:8717589
A compact formulation for maximizing the expected number of transplants in kidney exchange programs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvelos, Filipe; Klimentova, Xenia; Rais, Abdur; Viana, Ana
2015-05-01
Kidney exchange programs (KEPs) allow the exchange of kidneys between incompatible donor-recipient pairs. Optimization approaches can help KEPs in defining which transplants should be made among all incompatible pairs according to some objective. The most common objective is to maximize the number of transplants. In this paper, we propose an integer programming model which addresses the objective of maximizing the expected number of transplants, given that there are equal probabilities of failure associated with vertices and arcs. The model is compact, i.e. has a polynomial number of decision variables and constraints, and therefore can be solved directly by a general purpose integer programming solver (e.g. Cplex).
On the Monte-Carlo expectation maximization for finding motifs in DNA sequences.
Maiti, Aniruddha; Mukherjee, Anirban
2015-03-01
Finding conserved locations or motifs in genomic sequences is of paramount importance. Expectation maximization (EM)-based algorithms are widely employed to solve motif finding problems. The present study proposes a novel initialization technique and model-shifting scheme for Monte-Carlo-based EM methods for motif finding. Two popular EM-based motif finding algorithms are compared to the proposed method, which offers improved motif prediction accuracy on a synthetic dataset and a true biological dataset. PMID:24833606
Spirtes, Peter
event. Coin lands heads Coin lands tails Even-money $20 bet on heads win $20 lose $20 Even-money $1 bet an even money bet on a coin landing heads at $40 stake, compared with an even money $2 bet on the same on heads win $1 lose $1 #12;Notes for Session 2, Expected Utility Theory, Summer School 2009 T.Seidenfeld 2
Spirtes, Peter
event. Coin lands heads Coin lands tails Even-money $20 bet on heads win $20 lose $20 Even-money $1 bet an even money bet on a coin landing heads at $40 stake, compared with an even money $2 bet on the same on heads win $1 lose $1 #12;Notes for Session 2, Expected Utility Theory, Summer School 2007 T.Seidenfeld 2
Spatially aware expectation maximization (SpAEM): application to prostate TRUS segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orooji, Mahdi; Sparks, Rachel; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Feleppa, Ernest; Barratt, Dean; Madabhushi, Anant
2014-03-01
In this paper we introduce Spatially Aware Expectation Maximization (SpAEM), a new parameter estimation method which incorporates information pertaining to spatial prior probability into the traditional expectation- maximization framework. For estimating the parameters of a given class, the spatial prior probability allows us to weight the contribution of any pixel based on the probability of that pixel belonging to the class of interest. In this paper we evaluate SpAEM for the problem of prostate capsule segmentation in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images. In cohort of 6 patients, SpAEM qualitatively and quantitatively outperforms traditional EM in distinguishing the foreground (prostate) from background (non-prostate) regions by around 45% in terms of the Sorensen Dice overlap measure, when compared against expert annotations. The variance of the estimated parameters measured via Cramer-Rao Lower Bound suggests that SpAEM yields unbiased estimates. Finally, on a synthetic TRUS image, the Cramer-Von Mises (CVM) criteria shows that SpAEM improves the estimation accuracy by around 51% and 88% for prostate and background, respectively, as compared to traditional EM.
Mobile Sensor Networks Self-Organization for System Utility Maximization: Work in Progress
Vladimir Marbukh; Kamran Sayrafian-Pour
2009-01-01
This paper reports on work in progress on mobile sensor network self-organization for system utility maximization with system utility being the difference between the aggregate utility of sensor information and penalty associated with sensor battery energy expenditure. We assume that location-dependent marginal utility of each sensor is determined and communicated back to the corresponding sensor by the sensor information access
Kullmann, D M
1989-12-01
The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is a robust method for maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of an incompletely sampled distribution. It has been used to resolve the trial-to-trial amplitude fluctuations of postsynaptic potentials, when these are recorded in the presence of noise. Its use has however been limited by the need for different recursion equations for each set of conditions defined by the signal and noise processes. These equations are derived for the following conditions which arise in studies of synaptic transmission: non-gaussian noise process; quantal fluctuation; quantal variability. In addition, a constraint can be incorporated to accommodate simple and compound binomial models of transmitter release. Some advantages of these methods are illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:2607784
Zhang, ZhiZhuo; Chang, Cheng Wei; Hugo, Willy; Cheung, Edwin; Sung, Wing-Kin
2013-03-01
Although de novo motifs can be discovered through mining over-represented sequence patterns, this approach misses some real motifs and generates many false positives. To improve accuracy, one solution is to consider some additional binding features (i.e., position preference and sequence rank preference). This information is usually required from the user. This article presents a de novo motif discovery algorithm called SEME (sampling with expectation maximization for motif elicitation), which uses pure probabilistic mixture model to model the motif's binding features and uses expectation maximization (EM) algorithms to simultaneously learn the sequence motif, position, and sequence rank preferences without asking for any prior knowledge from the user. SEME is both efficient and accurate thanks to two important techniques: the variable motif length extension and importance sampling. Using 75 large-scale synthetic datasets, 32 metazoan compendium benchmark datasets, and 164 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) libraries, we demonstrated the superior performance of SEME over existing programs in finding transcription factor (TF) binding sites. SEME is further applied to a more difficult problem of finding the co-regulated TF (coTF) motifs in 15 ChIP-Seq libraries. It identified significantly more correct coTF motifs and, at the same time, predicted coTF motifs with better matching to the known motifs. Finally, we show that the learned position and sequence rank preferences of each coTF reveals potential interaction mechanisms between the primary TF and the coTF within these sites. Some of these findings were further validated by the ChIP-Seq experiments of the coTFs. The application is available online. PMID:23461573
Kreitler, Jason R.; Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.
2014-01-01
Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.
Aerial fiber optic cables maximize profitability of utility rights of way
J. K. Cooper
2000-01-01
The ongoing deregulation of the electric utility industry, combined with the opening of telecommunications markets with the Telecommunications Act of 1996, have presented tremendous opportunities for electric utilities to maximize profitability of their rights of way. The addition of fiber optic cable to utility transmission and distribution lines for telecommunications purposes is creating additional and, historically, unexpected short and long
Astrid Matthey
2008-01-01
The paper introduces the concept of adjustment utility, that is, reference-dependent utility from expectations. It offers an explanation for observed preferences that cannot be explained with existing models, and yields new predictions for individual decision making. The model gives a simple explanation for, e.g., why people are reluctant to change their plans even when these turn out to be unexpectedly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichman, Daniel; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.
2014-05-01
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very promising technology for subsurface threat detection. A successful algorithm employing GPR should achieve high detection rates at a low false-alarm rate and do so at operationally relevant speeds. GPRs measure reflections at dielectric boundaries that occur at the interfaces between different materials. These boundaries may occur at any depth, within the sensor's range, and furthermore, the dielectric changes could be such that they induce a 180 degree phase shift in the received signal relative to the emitted GPR pulse. As a result of these time-of-arrival and phase variations, extracting robust features from target responses in GPR is not straightforward. In this work, a method to mitigate polarity and alignment variations based on an expectation-maximization (EM) principal-component analysis (PCA) approach is proposed. This work demonstrates how model-based target alignment can significantly improve detection performance. Performance is measured according to the improvement in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for classification before and after the data is properly aligned and phase-corrected.
Blind iterative decoding of side-informed data hiding using the expectation-maximization algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balado, Felix; Perez-Gonzalez, Fernando; Comesana, Pedro
2004-06-01
Distortion-Compensated Dither Modulation (DC-DM), also known as Scalar Costa Scheme (SCS), has been theoretically shown to be near-capacity achieving thanks to its use of side information at the encoder. In practice, channel coding is needed in conjunction with this quantization-based scheme in order to approach the achievable rate limit. The most powerful coding methods use iterative decoding (turbo codes, LDPC), but they require knowledge of the channel model. Previous works on the subject have assumed the latter to be known by the decoder. We investigate here the possibility of undertaking blind iterative decoding of DC-DM, using maximum likelihood estimation of the channel model within the decoding procedure. The unknown attack is assumed to be i.i.d. and additive. Before each iterative decoding step, a new optimal estimation of the attack model is made using the reliability information provided by the previous step. This new model is used for the next iterative decoding stage, and the procedure is repeated until convergence. We show that the iterative Expectation-Maximization algorithm is suitable for solving the problem posed by model estimation, as it can be conveniently intertwined with iterative decoding.
TRUST-TECH-based expectation maximization for learning finite mixture models.
Reddy, Chandan K; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong; Rajaratnam, Bala
2008-07-01
In spite of the initialization problem, the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is widely used for estimating the parameters of finite mixture models. Most popular model-based clustering techniques might yield poor clusters if the parameters are not initialized properly. To reduce the sensitivity of initial points, a novel algorithm for learning mixture models from multivariate data is introduced in this paper. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of TRUST-TECH (TRansformation Under STability-reTaining Equilibra CHaracterization) to compute neighborhood local maxima on likelihood surface using stability regions. Basically, our method coalesces the advantages of the traditional EM with that of the dynamic and geometric characteristics of the stability regions of the corresponding nonlinear dynamical system of the log-likelihood function. Two phases namely, the EM phase and the stability region phase, are repeated alternatively in the parameter space to achieve improvements in the maximum likelihood. The EM phase obtains the local maximum of the likelihood function and the stability region phase helps to escape out of the local maximum by moving towards the neighboring stability regions. The algorithm has been tested on both synthetic and real datasets and the improvements in the performance compared to other approaches are demonstrated. The robustness with respect to initialization is also illustrated experimentally. PMID:18550899
Statistical models of synaptic transmission evaluated using the expectation-maximization algorithm.
Stricker, C; Redman, S
1994-01-01
Amplitude fluctuations of evoked synaptic responses can be used to extract information on the probabilities of release at the active sites, and on the amplitudes of the synaptic responses generated by transmission at each active site. The parameters that describe this process must be obtained from an incomplete data set represented by the probability density of the evoked synaptic response. In this paper, the equations required to calculate these parameters using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm and the maximum likelihood criterion have been derived for a variety of statistical models of synaptic transmission. These models are ones where the probabilities associated with the different discrete amplitudes in the evoked responses are a) unconstrained, b) binomial, and c) compound binomial. The discrete amplitudes may be separated by equal (quantal) or unequal amounts, with or without quantal variance. Alternative models have been considered where the variance associated with the discrete amplitudes is sufficiently large such that no quantal amplitudes can be detected. These models involve the sum of a normal distribution (to represent failures) and a unimodal distribution (to represent the evoked responses). The implementation of the algorithm is described in each case, and its accuracy and convergence have been demonstrated. PMID:7948679
A Local Scalable Distributed Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhaduri, Kanishka; Srivastava, Ashok N.
2009-01-01
This paper offers a local distributed algorithm for expectation maximization in large peer-to-peer environments. The algorithm can be used for a variety of well-known data mining tasks in a distributed environment such as clustering, anomaly detection, target tracking to name a few. This technology is crucial for many emerging peer-to-peer applications for bioinformatics, astronomy, social networking, sensor networks and web mining. Centralizing all or some of the data for building global models is impractical in such peer-to-peer environments because of the large number of data sources, the asynchronous nature of the peer-to-peer networks, and dynamic nature of the data/network. The distributed algorithm we have developed in this paper is provably-correct i.e. it converges to the same result compared to a similar centralized algorithm and can automatically adapt to changes to the data and the network. We show that the communication overhead of the algorithm is very low due to its local nature. This monitoring algorithm is then used as a feedback loop to sample data from the network and rebuild the model when it is outdated. We present thorough experimental results to verify our theoretical claims.
Maximizing Classifier Utility when Training Data is Costly Gary M. Weiss and Ye Tian
Weiss, Gary
Maximizing Classifier Utility when Training Data is Costly Gary M. Weiss and Ye Tian Department}@cis.fordham.edu ABSTRACT Classification is a well-studied problem in machine learning and data mining. Classifier progressed, more sophisticated measures of classifier utility that better represented the value
What Does Industry Expect From An Electrical Utility
Jensen, C. V.
1989-01-01
The electric utility industry is an important supplier to Union Carbide and as such must become a proactive participant in our quality programs which are aimed at continuous improvement in everything we do. The essential ingredients in the supplier...
Bandwidth utilization maximization of scientific RF communication systems
Rey, D. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryan, W. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ross, M.
1997-01-01
A method for more efficiently utilizing the frequency bandwidth allocated for data transmission is presented. Current space and range communication systems use modulation and coding schemes that transmit 0.5 to 1.0 bits per second per Hertz of radio frequency bandwidth. The goal in this LDRD project is to increase the bandwidth utilization by employing advanced digital communications techniques. This is done with little or no increase in the transmit power which is usually very limited on airborne systems. Teaming with New Mexico State University, an implementation of trellis coded modulation (TCM), a coding and modulation scheme pioneered by Ungerboeck, was developed for this application and simulated on a computer. TCM provides a means for reliably transmitting data while simultaneously increasing bandwidth efficiency. The penalty is increased receiver complexity. In particular, the trellis decoder requires high-speed, application-specific digital signal processing (DSP) chips. A system solution based on the QualComm Viterbi decoder and the Graychip DSP receiver chips is presented.
Association studies with imputed variants using expectation-maximization likelihood-ratio tests.
Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Sun, Wei; Wu, Ying; Chen, Mengjie; Mohlke, Karen L; Lange, Leslie A; Li, Yun
2014-01-01
Genotype imputation has become standard practice in modern genetic studies. As sequencing-based reference panels continue to grow, increasingly more markers are being well or better imputed but at the same time, even more markers with relatively low minor allele frequency are being imputed with low imputation quality. Here, we propose new methods that incorporate imputation uncertainty for downstream association analysis, with improved power and/or computational efficiency. We consider two scenarios: I) when posterior probabilities of all potential genotypes are estimated; and II) when only the one-dimensional summary statistic, imputed dosage, is available. For scenario I, we have developed an expectation-maximization likelihood-ratio test for association based on posterior probabilities. When only imputed dosages are available (scenario II), we first sample the genotype probabilities from its posterior distribution given the dosages, and then apply the EM-LRT on the sampled probabilities. Our simulations show that type I error of the proposed EM-LRT methods under both scenarios are protected. Compared with existing methods, EM-LRT-Prob (for scenario I) offers optimal statistical power across a wide spectrum of MAF and imputation quality. EM-LRT-Dose (for scenario II) achieves a similar level of statistical power as EM-LRT-Prob and, outperforms the standard Dosage method, especially for markers with relatively low MAF or imputation quality. Applications to two real data sets, the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey study and the Women's Health Initiative Study, provide further support to the validity and efficiency of our proposed methods. PMID:25383782
Peters, David H; Paina, Ligia; Bennett, Sara
2012-10-01
Although health interventions start with good intentions to develop services for disadvantaged populations, they often distort the health market, making the delivery or financing of services difficult once the intervention is over: a condition called the 'Develop-Distort Dilemma' (DDD). In this paper, we describe how to examine whether a proposed intervention may develop or distort the health market. Our goal is to produce a tool that facilitates meaningful and systematic dialogue for practitioners and researchers to ensure that well-intentioned health interventions lead to productive health systems while reducing the undesirable distortions of such efforts. We apply the DDD tool to plan for development rather than distortions in health markets, using intervention research being conducted under the Future Health Systems consortium in Bangladesh, China and Uganda. Through a review of research proposals and interviews with principal investigators, we use the DDD tool to systematically understand how a project fits within the broader health market system, and to identify gaps in planning for sustainability. We found that while current stakeholders and funding sources for activities were easily identified, future ones were not. The implication is that the projects could raise community expectations that future services will be available and paid for, despite this actually being uncertain. Each project addressed the 'rules' of the health market system differently. The China research assesses changes in the formal financing rules, whereas Bangladesh and Uganda's projects involve influencing community level providers, where informal rules are more important. In each case, we recognize the importance of building trust between providers, communities and government officials. Each project could both develop and distort local health markets. Anyone intervening in the health market must recognize the main market perturbations, whether positive or negative, and manage them so as to maximize the benefits to the health system and population health. PMID:23014153
Angelis, G I; Reader, A J; Markiewicz, P J; Kotasidis, F A; Lionheart, W R; Matthews, J C
2013-08-01
Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of a resolution model within iterative reconstruction algorithms in an attempt to account for effects that degrade the spatial resolution of the reconstructed images. However, these algorithms suffer from slower convergence rates, compared to algorithms where no resolution model is used, due to the additional need to solve an image deconvolution problem. In this paper, a recently proposed algorithm, which decouples the tomographic and image deconvolution problems within an image-based expectation maximization (EM) framework, was evaluated. This separation is convenient, because more computational effort can be placed on the image deconvolution problem and therefore accelerate convergence. Since the computational cost of solving the image deconvolution problem is relatively small, multiple image-based EM iterations do not significantly increase the overall reconstruction time. The proposed algorithm was evaluated using 2D simulations, as well as measured 3D data acquired on the high-resolution research tomograph. Results showed that bias reduction can be accelerated by interleaving multiple iterations of the image-based EM algorithm solving the resolution model problem, with a single EM iteration solving the tomographic problem. Significant improvements were observed particularly for voxels that were located on the boundaries between regions of high contrast within the object being imaged and for small regions of interest, where resolution recovery is usually more challenging. Minor differences were observed using the proposed nested algorithm, compared to the single iteration normally performed, when an optimal number of iterations are performed for each algorithm. However, using the proposed nested approach convergence is significantly accelerated enabling reconstruction using far fewer tomographic iterations (up to 70% fewer iterations for small regions). Nevertheless, the optimal number of nested image-based EM iterations is hard to be defined and it should be selected according to the given application. PMID:23831633
Association Studies with Imputed Variants Using Expectation-Maximization Likelihood-Ratio Tests
Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Sun, Wei; Wu, Ying; Chen, Mengjie; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Li, Yun
2014-01-01
Genotype imputation has become standard practice in modern genetic studies. As sequencing-based reference panels continue to grow, increasingly more markers are being well or better imputed but at the same time, even more markers with relatively low minor allele frequency are being imputed with low imputation quality. Here, we propose new methods that incorporate imputation uncertainty for downstream association analysis, with improved power and/or computational efficiency. We consider two scenarios: I) when posterior probabilities of all potential genotypes are estimated; and II) when only the one-dimensional summary statistic, imputed dosage, is available. For scenario I, we have developed an expectation-maximization likelihood-ratio test for association based on posterior probabilities. When only imputed dosages are available (scenario II), we first sample the genotype probabilities from its posterior distribution given the dosages, and then apply the EM-LRT on the sampled probabilities. Our simulations show that type I error of the proposed EM-LRT methods under both scenarios are protected. Compared with existing methods, EM-LRT-Prob (for scenario I) offers optimal statistical power across a wide spectrum of MAF and imputation quality. EM-LRT-Dose (for scenario II) achieves a similar level of statistical power as EM-LRT-Prob and, outperforms the standard Dosage method, especially for markers with relatively low MAF or imputation quality. Applications to two real data sets, the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey study and the Women’s Health Initiative Study, provide further support to the validity and efficiency of our proposed methods. PMID:25383782
Whelan, Paul F.
Automatic seed initialization for the expectation-maximization algorithm and its application in 3D the number until the required seeds are found. The second method tries to optimize the sum of squares distribution curve into equal percentile cells. The *Corresponding author. Email: lynchm@eeng.dcu.ie #12;seeds
Expected life-time utility and hedging demands in a partially observable economy
Frederik Lundtofte
2008-01-01
This paper analyzes the expected life-time utility and the hedging demands in an exchange only, representative agent general equilibrium under incomplete information. We derive an expression for the investor's expected life-time utility, and analyze his hedging demands for intertemporal changes in the stochastic unobservable growth of the endowment process and the changing quality of information regarding these changes. The hedging
Power Utility Maximization for Multiple-Supply Systems by a Load-Matching Switch
Shinozuka, Masanobu
Power Utility Maximization for Multiple-Supply Systems by a Load-Matching Switch Chulsung Park {chulsung,phchou}@uci.edu ABSTRACT For embedded systems that rely on multiple power sources (MPS), power management must distribute the power by matching the sup- ply and demand in conjunction with the traditional
Utility Maximization with Addictive Consumption Habit Formation in Incomplete Semimartingale Markets
Yu, Xiang
2011-01-01
This paper studies the problem of continuous time utility maximization of consumption together with addictive habit formation in general incomplete semimartingale financial markets. By introducing the auxiliary state processes and the modified dual space, we embed our original problem into an auxiliary time separable utility maximization problem with the shadow random endowment. We establish existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution using convex duality approach on the product space by defining the primal value function both on the initial wealth and initial habit. We also provide market independent sufficient conditions both on stochastic discounting processes for the habit formation process and on the utility function for the validity of several key assertions of our main results to hold true.
Mathieu d’Acremont; Peter Bossaerts
2008-01-01
When modeling valuation under uncertainty, economists generally prefer expected utility because it has an axiomatic foundation,\\u000a meaning that the resulting choices will satisfy a number of rationality requirements. In expected utility theory, values are\\u000a computed by multiplying probabilities of each possible state of nature by the payoff in that state and summing the results. The drawback of this approach is
A Study on the Utility of Using Expected Quality Level as a Design for Testability Metric
Larrabee, Tracy
A Study on the Utility of Using Expected Quality Level as a Design for Testability Metric Douglas the quality level contribution of a cell to circuits that have yet to be designed. The PDFT metric shows what designs or, alternatively, to indicate which aspects of the physi cal design can be altered to improve
95Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain 2009, Elsevier Inc. The Expected Utility of Movement
Maloney, Laurence T.
95Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain © 2009, Elsevier Inc. The Expected Utility Decisions 106 Movement Under Risk, Decision Making Under Risk 106 Neural Correlates of Motor and Cognitive is a form of decision making as we choose one of many possible movement strategies to accomplish any given
Optimal DC Plan Design: Applications of Behavioural Finance and Non-expected Utility Theories
Zhang Yumeng
This paper discusses the applications of behavioural finance to defined contribution (DC) pension plan design and the use of non-expected utility in the dynamic asset allocation. The author chooses the features that are particularly relevant to the work of pension actuaries and then explores these applications to DC pension scheme design.
Expectation-Maximization Algorithm
Mohri, Mehryar
the value of Now say I let you flip the coin n times You get h heads and n-h tails What is the natural estimate of ? This is More formally, the likelihood of is governed by a binomial distribution: Can prove: relative entropy non-negative #12;11/31 EM Derivation EM Theorem: If then Proof: By some algebra and lemma
Expectation Maximization Vibhav Gogate
Gogate, Vibhav
General GMM assumption m1 m2 m3 1.What's a Multivariate Gaussian? 2.What's a Mixture Model? #12;Review, in a big messy space with lots of local optimum... #12;Learning general mixtures of Gaussian Â· Marginal mixture model (GMM) #12;What Model Should We Use? Â· Depends on X! Â· Here, maybe Gaussian NaÃ¯ve Bayes
The Expectation Maximization Algorithm
Frank Dellaert
This note represents my attempt at explaining the EM algorithm (Hartley, 1958; Dempster et al., 1977; McLachlan and Krishnan, 1997). This is just a slight variation on Tom Minka's tutorial (Minka, 1998), perhaps a little easier (or perhaps not). It includes a graphical example to provide some intuition.
Renz, John F.; Kin, Cindy; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Jan, Dominique; Varadarajan, Rhaghu; Goldstein, Michael; Brown, Robert; Emond, Jean C.
2005-01-01
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of systematic utilization of extended donor criteria liver allografts (EDC), including living donor allografts (LDLT), on patient access to liver transplantation (LTX). Summary Background Data: Utilization of liver allografts that do not meet traditional donor criteria (EDC) offer immediate expansion of the donor pool. EDC are typically allocated by transplant center rather than regional wait-list priority (RA). This single-institution series compares outcomes of EDC and RA allocation to determine the impact of EDC utilization on donor use and patient access to LTX. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 99 EDC recipients (49 deceased donor, 50 LDLT) and 116 RA recipients from April 2001 through April 2004. Deceased-donor EDC included: age >65 years, donation after cardiac death, positive viral serology (hepatitis C, hepatitis B core antibody, human T-cell lymphotrophic), split-liver, hypernatremia, prior carcinoma, steatosis, and behavioral high-risk donors. Outcome variables included patient and graft survival, hospitalization, initial graft function, and complication categorized as: biliary, vascular, wound, and other. Results: EDC recipients were more frequently diagnosed with hepatitis C virus or hepatocellular carcinoma and had a lower model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at LTX (P < 0.01). Wait-time, technical complications, and hospitalization were comparable. Log-rank analysis of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates demonstrated no difference in patient or graft survival; however, deaths among deceased-donor EDC recipients were frequently the result of patient comorbidities, whereas LDLT and RA deaths resulted from graft failure (P < 0.01). EDC increased patient access to LTX by 77% and reduced pre-LTX mortality by over 50% compared with regional data (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Systematic EDC utilization maximizes donor use, increases access to LTX, and significantly reduces wait-list mortality by providing satisfactory outcomes to select recipients. PMID:16192816
Lu, Chia-Feng; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chang, Feng-Chi; Huang, Shang-Ran; Chou, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yu-Te
2013-01-01
Automatic identification of various perfusion compartments from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance brain images can assist in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. The principle of segmentation methods was based on the clustering of bolus transit-time profiles to discern areas of different tissues. However, the cerebrovascular diseases may result in a delayed and dispersed local perfusion and therefore alter the hemodynamic signal profiles. Assessing the accuracy of the segmentation technique under delayed/dispersed circumstance is critical to accurately evaluate the severity of the vascular disease. In this study, we improved the segmentation method of expectation-maximization algorithm by using the results of hierarchical clustering on whitened perfusion data as initial parameters for a mixture of multivariate Gaussians model. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of proposed method under different levels of delay, dispersion, and noise of signal profiles in tissue segmentation. The proposed method was used to classify brain tissue types using perfusion data from five normal participants, a patient with unilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery, and a patient with moyamoya disease. Our results showed that the normal, delayed or dispersed hemodynamics can be well differentiated for patients, and therefore the local arterial input function for impaired tissues can be recognized to minimize the error when estimating the cerebral blood flow. Furthermore, the tissue in the risk of infarct and the tissue with or without the complementary blood supply from the communicating arteries can be identified. PMID:23894386
Ting, Chee-Ming; Samdin, S Balqis; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Omar, M Hafizi; Kamarulafizam, I
2012-01-01
This paper applies an expectation-maximization (EM) based Kalman smoother (KS) approach for single-trial event-related potential (ERP) estimation. Existing studies assume a Markov diffusion process for the dynamics of ERP parameters which is recursively estimated by optimal filtering approaches such as Kalman filter (KF). However, these studies only consider estimation of ERP state parameters while the model parameters are pre-specified using manual tuning, which is time-consuming for practical usage besides giving suboptimal estimates. We extend the KF approach by adding EM based maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters to obtain more accurate ERP estimates automatically. We also introduce different model variants by allowing flexibility in the covariance structure of model noises. Optimal model selection is performed based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The method is applied to estimation of chirp-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) for detection of wave V critical for assessment of hearing loss. Results shows that use of more complex covariances are better estimating inter-trial variability. PMID:23367426
Lee, Youngrok [Ames Laboratory
2013-05-15
Heterogeneity exists on a data set when samples from di#11;erent classes are merged into the data set. Finite mixture models can be used to represent a survival time distribution on heterogeneous patient group by the proportions of each class and by the survival time distribution within each class as well. The heterogeneous data set cannot be explicitly decomposed to homogeneous subgroups unless all the samples are precisely labeled by their origin classes; such impossibility of decomposition is a barrier to overcome for estimating #12;nite mixture models. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of #12;nite mixture models by soft-decomposition of heterogeneous samples without labels for a subset or the entire set of data. In medical surveillance databases we can find partially labeled data, that is, while not completely unlabeled there is only imprecise information about class values. In this study we propose new EM algorithms that take advantages of using such partial labels, and thus incorporate more information than traditional EM algorithms. We particularly propose four variants of the EM algorithm named EM-OCML, EM-PCML, EM-HCML and EM-CPCML, each of which assumes a specific mechanism of missing class values. We conducted a simulation study on exponential survival trees with five classes and showed that the advantages of incorporating substantial amount of partially labeled data can be highly signi#12;cant. We also showed model selection based on AIC values fairly works to select the best proposed algorithm on each specific data set. A case study on a real-world data set of gastric cancer provided by Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program showed a superiority of EM-CPCML to not only the other proposed EM algorithms but also conventional supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning algorithms.
Huda, Shamsul; Yearwood, John; Togneri, Roberto
2014-10-01
The expectation maximization (EM) is the standard training algorithm for hidden Markov model (HMM). However, EM faces a local convergence problem in HMM estimation. This paper attempts to overcome this problem of EM and proposes hybrid metaheuristic approaches to EM for HMM. In our earlier research, a hybrid of a constraint-based evolutionary learning approach to EM (CEL-EM) improved HMM estimation. In this paper, we propose a hybrid simulated annealing stochastic version of EM (SASEM) that combines simulated annealing (SA) with EM. The novelty of our approach is that we develop a mathematical reformulation of HMM estimation by introducing a stochastic step between the EM steps and combine SA with EM to provide better control over the acceptance of stochastic and EM steps for better HMM estimation. We also extend our earlier work and propose a second hybrid which is a combination of an EA and the proposed SASEM, (EA-SASEM). The proposed EA-SASEM uses the best constraint-based EA strategies from CEL-EM and stochastic reformulation of HMM. The complementary properties of EA and SA and stochastic reformulation of HMM of SASEM provide EA-SASEM with sufficient potential to find better estimation for HMM. To the best of our knowledge, this type of hybridization and mathematical reformulation have not been explored in the context of EM and HMM training. The proposed approaches have been evaluated through comprehensive experiments to justify their effectiveness in signal modeling using the speech corpus: TIMIT. Experimental results show that proposed approaches obtain higher recognition accuracies than the EM algorithm and CEL-EM as well. PMID:24686310
2014-01-01
Background Recovering individual genomes from metagenomic datasets allows access to uncultivated microbial populations that may have important roles in natural and engineered ecosystems. Understanding the roles of these uncultivated populations has broad application in ecology, evolution, biotechnology and medicine. Accurate binning of assembled metagenomic sequences is an essential step in recovering the genomes and understanding microbial functions. Results We have developed a binning algorithm, MaxBin, which automates the binning of assembled metagenomic scaffolds using an expectation-maximization algorithm after the assembly of metagenomic sequencing reads. Binning of simulated metagenomic datasets demonstrated that MaxBin had high levels of accuracy in binning microbial genomes. MaxBin was used to recover genomes from metagenomic data obtained through the Human Microbiome Project, which demonstrated its ability to recover genomes from real metagenomic datasets with variable sequencing coverages. Application of MaxBin to metagenomes obtained from microbial consortia adapted to grow on cellulose allowed genomic analysis of new, uncultivated, cellulolytic bacterial populations, including an abundant myxobacterial population distantly related to Sorangium cellulosum that possessed a much smaller genome (5 MB versus 13 to 14 MB) but has a more extensive set of genes for biomass deconstruction. For the cellulolytic consortia, the MaxBin results were compared to binning using emergent self-organizing maps (ESOMs) and differential coverage binning, demonstrating that it performed comparably to these methods but had distinct advantages in automation, resolution of related genomes and sensitivity. Conclusions The automatic binning software that we developed successfully classifies assembled sequences in metagenomic datasets into recovered individual genomes. The isolation of dozens of species in cellulolytic microbial consortia, including a novel species of myxobacteria that has the smallest genome among all sequenced aerobic myxobacteria, was easily achieved using the binning software. This work demonstrates that the processes required for recovering genomes from assembled metagenomic datasets can be readily automated, an important advance in understanding the metabolic potential of microbes in natural environments. MaxBin is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/maxbin/. PMID:25136443
Barbee, David L; Flynn, Ryan T; Holden, James E; Nickles, Robert J; Jeraj, Robert
2010-01-01
Tumor heterogeneities observed in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are frequently compromised of partial volume effects which may affect treatment prognosis, assessment, or future implementations such as biologically optimized treatment planning (dose painting). This paper presents a method for partial volume correction of PET-imaged heterogeneous tumors. A point source was scanned on a GE Discover LS at positions of increasing radii from the scanner’s center to obtain the spatially varying point spread function (PSF). PSF images were fit in three dimensions to Gaussian distributions using least squares optimization. Continuous expressions were devised for each Gaussian width as a function of radial distance, allowing for generation of the system PSF at any position in space. A spatially varying partial volume correction (SV-PVC) technique was developed using expectation maximization (EM) and a stopping criterion based on the method’s correction matrix generated for each iteration. The SV-PVC was validated using a standard tumor phantom and a tumor heterogeneity phantom, and was applied to a heterogeneous patient tumor. SV-PVC results were compared to results obtained from spatially invariant partial volume correction (SINV-PVC), which used directionally uniform three dimensional kernels. SV-PVC of the standard tumor phantom increased the maximum observed sphere activity by 55 and 40% for 10 and 13 mm diameter spheres, respectively. Tumor heterogeneity phantom results demonstrated that as net changes in the EM correction matrix decreased below 35%, further iterations improved overall quantitative accuracy by less than 1%. SV-PVC of clinically observed tumors frequently exhibited changes of ±30% in regions of heterogeneity. The SV-PVC method implemented spatially varying kernel widths and automatically determined the number of iterations for optimal restoration, parameters which are arbitrarily chosen in SINV-PVC. Comparing SV-PVC to SINV-PVC demonstrated that similar results could be reached using both methods, but large differences result for the arbitrary selection of SINV-PVC parameters. The presented SV-PVC method was performed without user intervention, requiring only a tumor mask as input. Research involving PET-imaged tumor heterogeneity should include correcting for partial volume effects to improve the quantitative accuracy of results. PMID:20009194
Moyad, Mark A; Lusk, William; Schwartz, Lawrence R
2007-10-01
The life expectancy of African Americans and Caucasians has been increasing in the United States and in many other countries around the world since the late 1800s. However, as long as statistics have been accrued on race and ethnicity, the life expectancy of African Americans and Blacks in general has been significantly lower than that of Caucasians. Basic public health and medical preventive education is needed because higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates is one of the primary reasons for the differences between life expectancy between African Americans and Caucasians. It is also of an apparent separate but perhaps related interest that several recent preliminary studies suggest that African Americans, more than any other race, may have some of the lowest uses of alternative medicine due to skepticism, as well as educational efforts and trust in their health care professional. Despite a common belief that African Americans harbor profound distrust of specific areas of the medical profession, it is of interest that this finding has not held validity in the area of alternative medicine. Therefore, since lifestyle changes are considered alternatives in most of these studies, this would suggest that a greater educational emphasis on behavioral modification could establish a foundation or a model of preventive medical education that can be utilized for underserved populations around the world. PMID:17990625
Maximizing coupling-efficiency of high-power diode lasers utilizing hybrid assembly technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zontar, D.; Dogan, M.; Fulghum, S.; Müller, T.; Haag, S.; Brecher, C.
2015-03-01
In this paper, we present hybrid assembly technology to maximize coupling efficiency for spatially combined laser systems. High quality components, such as center-turned focusing units, as well as suitable assembly strategies are necessary to obtain highest possible output ratios. Alignment strategies are challenging tasks due to their complexity and sensitivity. Especially in low-volume production fully automated systems are economically at a disadvantage, as operator experience is often expensive. However reproducibility and quality of automatically assembled systems can be superior. Therefore automated and manual assembly techniques are combined to obtain high coupling efficiency while preserving maximum flexibility. The paper will describe necessary equipment and software to enable hybrid assembly processes. Micromanipulator technology with high step-resolution and six degrees of freedom provide a large number of possible evaluation points. Automated algorithms are necess ary to speed-up data gathering and alignment to efficiently utilize available granularity for manual assembly processes. Furthermore, an engineering environment is presented to enable rapid prototyping of automation tasks with simultaneous data ev aluation. Integration with simulation environments, e.g. Zemax, allows the verification of assembly strategies in advance. Data driven decision making ensures constant high quality, documents the assembly process and is a basis for further improvement. The hybrid assembly technology has been applied on several applications for efficiencies above 80% and will be discussed in this paper. High level coupling efficiency has been achieved with minimized assembly as a result of semi-automated alignment. This paper will focus on hybrid automation for optimizing and attaching turning mirrors and collimation lenses.
Marco Brambilla; Barbara Cannillo; Marco Dominietto; Lucia Leva; Chiara Secco; Eugenio Inglese
2005-01-01
Purpose To characterize ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm with a fixed 3D Gauss post-reconstruction filtering (OSEM)\\u000a in99mTc SPECT as for noise, contrast and spatial resolution with varying number of subset and iteration and to compare OSEM with\\u000a an optimized set of parameters, with filtered backprojection (FBP) with filter parameters typical of brain and myocardial\\u000a SPECT, both with and without Chang’s method of
Lyle, W. M.; Bordovsky, J. P.
1980-01-01
through the field in a rectilinear fashion. The system is used in conjunction with micro-basin land preparation which also optimizes the utilization of rainfall. The combined system minimizes the effect of soil and climatic variables which adversely...
Utilizing expectations to measure economic depreciation and capital gains of farm machinery
Cole R. Gustafson; Peter J. Barry; Steven T. Sonka
1990-01-01
Rather than relying on ex post market data, this study derives theoretically more appropriate measures of economic depreciation and capital gains based on the expectations of farmers. In this context, values of depreciable assets are highly sensitive to the pattern of expected future earnings and unexpected windfall gains. Experimental survey data obtained from a panel of Illinois cash grain farmers
Illustrating Caffeine's Pharmacological and Expectancy Effects Utilizing a Balanced Placebo Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lotshaw, Sandra C.; And Others
1996-01-01
Hypothesizes that pharmacological and expectancy effects may be two principles that govern caffeine consumption in the same way they affect other drug use. Tests this theory through a balanced placebo design on 100 male undergraduate students. Expectancy set and caffeine content appeared equally powerful, and worked additionally, to affect…
An Interior-Point Method for Large Scale Network Utility Maximization
2007-09-30
Sep 30, 2007 ... an extension to problems that take into account delay or latency in the ..... where ?j ? 0 is a parameter used to trade off utility versus latency for flow j. ... This material is based on work supported by JPL award I291856, NSF ...
Maximizing the clinical utility of antimüllerian hormone testing in women's health
Leader, Benjamin; Baker, Valerie L.
2014-01-01
Purpose of review To provide an update on the latest clinical applications of serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) testing with practical approaches to mitigate the impact of significant variability in AMH results. Recent findings Recent studies continue to demonstrate that AMH is the best single serum test for ovarian response management with, at most, a weak-to-moderate age-independent association with live-birth rate and time to conception. Data confirm serum AMH levels improve menopause prediction, monitoring of ovarian damage, and identification of women at risk for several ovary-related disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome and premature or primary ovarian insufficiency. However, it is now recognized that serum AMH results can have dramatic variability due to common, biologic fluctuations within some individuals, use of hormonal contraceptives or other medications, certain surgical procedures, specimen treatment, assay changes, and laboratory calibration differences. Practical guidelines are provided to minimize the impact of variability in AMH results and maximize the accuracy of clinical decision-making. Summary AMH is an ovarian biomarker of central importance which improves the clinical management of women's health. However, with the simultaneous rapid expansion of AMH clinical applications and recognition of variability in AMH results, consensus regarding the clinical cutpoints is increasingly difficult. Therefore, a careful approach to AMH measurement and interpretation in clinical care is essential. PMID:24978853
Haas, Kevin R; Yang, Haw; Chu, Jhih-Wei
2013-12-12
The dynamics of a protein along a well-defined coordinate can be formally projected onto the form of an overdamped Lagevin equation. Here, we present a comprehensive statistical-learning framework for simultaneously quantifying the deterministic force (the potential of mean force, PMF) and the stochastic force (characterized by the diffusion coefficient, D) from single-molecule Förster-type resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments. The likelihood functional of the Langevin parameters, PMF and D, is expressed by a path integral of the latent smFRET distance that follows Langevin dynamics and realized by the donor and the acceptor photon emissions. The solution is made possible by an eigen decomposition of the time-symmetrized form of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation coupled with photon statistics. To extract the Langevin parameters from photon arrival time data, we advance the expectation-maximization algorithm in statistical learning, originally developed for and mostly used in discrete-state systems, to a general form in the continuous space that allows for a variational calculus on the continuous PMF function. We also introduce the regularization of the solution space in this Bayesian inference based on a maximum trajectory-entropy principle. We use a highly nontrivial example with realistically simulated smFRET data to illustrate the application of this new method. PMID:23937300
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.
2014-04-01
The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated solid-state technology for nuclear medicine applications. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). For Compton camera, especially with a large number of readout channels, image reconstruction presents a big challenge. In this work, results are presented for the List-Mode Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (LM-OSEM) image reconstruction algorithm on simulated data with the VIP Compton camera design. For the simulation, all realistic contributions to the spatial resolution are taken into account, including the Doppler broadening effect. The results show that even with a straightforward implementation of LM-OSEM, good images can be obtained for the proposed Compton camera design. Results are shown for various phantoms, including extended sources and with a distance between the field of view and the first detector plane equal to 100 mm which corresponds to a realistic nuclear medicine environment.
Hanly, Stephen
Utility Maximization and Hop-by-Hop Algorithms Qinghai Gao and Junshan Zhang Dept. of Electrical control in multi-hop wireless networks. Due to multi- path fading and co-channel interference, wireless is explicitly taken into account and distributed hop-by-hop rate control algorithms are developed. I
2014-01-01
Background Population genetics and association studies usually rely on a set of known variable sites that are then genotyped in subsequent samples, because it is easier to genotype than to discover the variation. This is also true for structural variation detected from sequence data. However, the genotypes at known variable sites can only be inferred with uncertainty from low coverage data. Thus, statistical approaches that infer genotype likelihoods, test hypotheses, and estimate population parameters without requiring accurate genotypes are becoming popular. Unfortunately, the current implementations of these methods are intended to analyse only single nucleotide and short indel variation, and they usually assume that the two alleles in a heterozygous individual are sampled with equal probability. This is generally false for structural variants detected with paired ends or split reads. Therefore, the population genetics of structural variants cannot be studied, unless a painstaking and potentially biased genotyping is performed first. Results We present svgem, an expectation-maximization implementation to estimate allele and genotype frequencies, calculate genotype posterior probabilities, and test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and for population differences, from the numbers of times the alleles are observed in each individual. Although applicable to single nucleotide variation, it aims at bi-allelic structural variation of any type, observed by either split reads or paired ends, with arbitrarily high allele sampling bias. We test svgem with simulated and real data from the 1000 Genomes Project. Conclusions svgem makes it possible to use low-coverage sequencing data to study the population distribution of structural variants without having to know their genotypes. Furthermore, this advance allows the combined analysis of structural and nucleotide variation within the same genotype-free statistical framework, thus preventing biases introduced by genotype imputation. PMID:24884587
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrin, Allen J.
Radio spectrum is a vital national asset; proper management of this finite resource is essential to the operation and development of telecommunications, radio-navigation, radio astronomy, and passive remote sensing services. To maximize the utility of the radio spectrum, knowledge of its current usage is beneficial. As a result, several spectrum studies have been conducted in urban Atlanta, suburban Atlanta, and rural North Carolina. These studies improve upon past spectrum studies by resolving spectrum usage by nearly all its possible parameters: frequency, time, polarization, azimuth, and location type. The continuous frequency range from 400MHz to 7.2 GHz was measured with a custom-designed system. More than 8 billion spectrum measurements were taken over several months of observation. A multi-parameter spectrum usage detection method was developed and analyzed with data from the spectrum studies. This method was designed to exploit all the characteristics of spectral information that was available from the spectrum studies. Analysis of the spectrum studies showed significant levels of underuse. The level of spectrum usage in time and azimuthal space was determined to be only 6.5 % for the urban Atlanta, 5.3 % for suburban Atlanta, and 0.8 % for the rural North Carolina spectrum studies. Most of the frequencies measured never experienced usage. Interference was detected in several protected radio astronomy and sensitive radio navigation bands. A cognitive radio network architecture to share spectrum with fixed microwave systems was developed. The architecture uses a broker-based sharing method to control spectrum access and investigate interference issues.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbee, David L.; Flynn, Ryan T.; Holden, James E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Jeraj, Robert
2010-01-01
Tumor heterogeneities observed in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are frequently compromised by partial volume effects which may affect treatment prognosis, assessment or future implementations such as biologically optimized treatment planning (dose painting). This paper presents a method for partial volume correction of PET-imaged heterogeneous tumors. A point source was scanned on a GE Discovery LS at positions of increasing radii from the scanner's center to obtain the spatially varying point spread function (PSF). PSF images were fit in three dimensions to Gaussian distributions using least squares optimization. Continuous expressions were devised for each Gaussian width as a function of radial distance, allowing for generation of the system PSF at any position in space. A spatially varying partial volume correction (SV-PVC) technique was developed using expectation maximization (EM) and a stopping criterion based on the method's correction matrix generated for each iteration. The SV-PVC was validated using a standard tumor phantom and a tumor heterogeneity phantom and was applied to a heterogeneous patient tumor. SV-PVC results were compared to results obtained from spatially invariant partial volume correction (SINV-PVC), which used directionally uniform three-dimensional kernels. SV-PVC of the standard tumor phantom increased the maximum observed sphere activity by 55 and 40% for 10 and 13 mm diameter spheres, respectively. Tumor heterogeneity phantom results demonstrated that as net changes in the EM correction matrix decreased below 35%, further iterations improved overall quantitative accuracy by less than 1%. SV-PVC of clinically observed tumors frequently exhibited changes of ±30% in regions of heterogeneity. The SV-PVC method implemented spatially varying kernel widths and automatically determined the number of iterations for optimal restoration, parameters which are arbitrarily chosen in SINV-PVC. Comparing SV-PVC to SINV-PVC demonstrated that similar results could be reached using both methods, but large differences result for the arbitrary selection of SINV-PVC parameters. The presented SV-PVC method was performed without user intervention, requiring only a tumor mask as input. Research involving PET-imaged tumor heterogeneity should include correcting for partial volume effects to improve the quantitative accuracy of results.
Barbee, David L; Flynn, Ryan T; Holden, James E; Nickles, Robert J; Jeraj, Robert
2010-01-01
Tumor heterogeneities observed in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are frequently compromised by partial volume effects which may affect treatment prognosis, assessment or future implementations such as biologically optimized treatment planning (dose painting). This paper presents a method for partial volume correction of PET-imaged heterogeneous tumors. A point source was scanned on a GE Discovery LS at positions of increasing radii from the scanner's center to obtain the spatially varying point spread function (PSF). PSF images were fit in three dimensions to Gaussian distributions using least squares optimization. Continuous expressions were devised for each Gaussian width as a function of radial distance, allowing for generation of the system PSF at any position in space. A spatially varying partial volume correction (SV-PVC) technique was developed using expectation maximization (EM) and a stopping criterion based on the method's correction matrix generated for each iteration. The SV-PVC was validated using a standard tumor phantom and a tumor heterogeneity phantom and was applied to a heterogeneous patient tumor. SV-PVC results were compared to results obtained from spatially invariant partial volume correction (SINV-PVC), which used directionally uniform three-dimensional kernels. SV-PVC of the standard tumor phantom increased the maximum observed sphere activity by 55 and 40% for 10 and 13 mm diameter spheres, respectively. Tumor heterogeneity phantom results demonstrated that as net changes in the EM correction matrix decreased below 35%, further iterations improved overall quantitative accuracy by less than 1%. SV-PVC of clinically observed tumors frequently exhibited changes of +/-30% in regions of heterogeneity. The SV-PVC method implemented spatially varying kernel widths and automatically determined the number of iterations for optimal restoration, parameters which are arbitrarily chosen in SINV-PVC. Comparing SV-PVC to SINV-PVC demonstrated that similar results could be reached using both methods, but large differences result for the arbitrary selection of SINV-PVC parameters. The presented SV-PVC method was performed without user intervention, requiring only a tumor mask as input. Research involving PET-imaged tumor heterogeneity should include correcting for partial volume effects to improve the quantitative accuracy of results. PMID:20009194
Developed in response to guidelines issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)1 under Section 515(a) of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law 106-554; H.R. 5658), the Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Ob...
Wang, X-R; Zhang, Y; Xing, N; Xu, Y-F; Wang, M-Q
2013-05-01
Data are inconsistent concerning whether the level of the surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity of jaw-closing muscles increases when biting forces elevated during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC). In this study, T-Scan III system and BioEMG III system were used to record bite force, occlusal contacts and SEMG activity of the anterior temporalis (TA) and of the masseter muscles (MM) simultaneously. Recordings were obtained from 16 healthy young adult males during different conditions: (i) a fast MVC from resting position to intercuspal position (ICP); (ii) mandibular movements from ICP to protrusive or lateral edge-to-edge positions with teeth in contact with biting; (iii) a fast MVC in protrusive and lateral edge-to-edge positions. A higher level of SEMG activity was associated with a higher bite force during occluding movements (P < 0.05). However, during fast MVC from rest to ICP, the largest number of occlusal contacts was achieved and distributed more symmetrically, the highest level of biting force was obtained, but the SEMG activity of the jaw elevator muscles was reduced compared with its maximum level (P < 0.05). This phenomenon was not observed during the fast MVC in protrusive or lateral edge-to-edge positions. The present results that a lower SEMG activity was associated with the largest number of occlusal contacts and the highest level of bite force during centric MVC demonstrated a complex integration of jaw-closing muscles when a stable occlusion is present. PMID:23480460
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Razali, Azhani Mohd; Abdullah, Jaafar
2015-04-01
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is a well-known imaging technique used in medical application, and it is part of medical imaging modalities that made the diagnosis and treatment of disease possible. However, SPECT technique is not only limited to the medical sector. Many works are carried out to adapt the same concept by using high-energy photon emission to diagnose process malfunctions in critical industrial systems such as in chemical reaction engineering research laboratories, as well as in oil and gas, petrochemical and petrochemical refining industries. Motivated by vast applications of SPECT technique, this work attempts to study the application of SPECT on a Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) using numerical phantom of pebbles inside the PBR core. From the cross-sectional images obtained from SPECT, the behavior of pebbles inside the core can be analyzed for further improvement of the PBR design. As the quality of the reconstructed image is largely dependent on the algorithm used, this work aims to compare two image reconstruction algorithms for SPECT, namely the Expectation Maximization Algorithm and the Exact Inversion Formula. The results obtained from the Exact Inversion Formula showed better image contrast and sharpness, and shorter computational time compared to the Expectation Maximization Algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beller-Simms, N.; Metchis, K.
2014-12-01
Water utilities, reeling from increased impacts of successive extreme events such as floods, droughts, and derechos, are taking a more proactive role in preparing for future incursions. A recent study by Federal and water foundation investigators, reveals how six US water utilities and their regions prepared for, responded to, and coped with recent extreme weather and climate events and the lessons they are using to plan future adaptation and resilience activities. Two case studies will be highlighted. (1) Sonoma County, CA, has had alternating floods and severe droughts. In 2009, this area, home to competing water users, namely, agricultural crops, wineries, tourism, and fisheries faced a three-year drought, accompanied at the end by intense frosts. Competing uses of water threatened the grape harvest, endangered the fish industry and resulted in a series of regulations, and court cases. Five years later, new efforts by partners in the entire watershed have identified mutual opportunities for increased basin sustainability in the face of a changing climate. (2) Washington DC had a derecho in late June 2012, which curtailed water, communications, and power delivery during a record heat spell that impacted hundreds of thousands of residents and lasted over the height of the tourist-intensive July 4th holiday. Lessons from this event were applied three months later in anticipation of an approaching Superstorm Sandy. This study will help other communities in improving their resiliency in the face of future climate extremes. For example, this study revealed that (1) communities are planning with multiple types and occurrences of extreme events which are becoming more severe and frequent and are impacting communities that are expanding into more vulnerable areas and (2) decisions by one sector can not be made in a vacuum and require the scientific, sectoral and citizen communities to work towards sustainable solutions.
The Expectation Maximization Algorithm A short tutorial
Duckett, Tom
be arrived at, namely, f is convex iff [f(y) - f(z)] (1 - ) [f(z) - f(x)] (1) By the mean value theorem, s, x s z s.t. f(z) - f(x) = f (s)(z - x) (2) Similarly, applying the mean value theorem to f(y) - f convex). Theorem 1 If f(x) is twice differentiable on [a, b] and f (x) 0 on [a, b] then f(x) is convex
Abbey, Craig K; Gallas, Brandon D; Boone, John M; Niklason, Loren T; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Sahiner, Berkman; Samuelson, Frank W
2014-01-01
Rationale and Objectives Our objective is to determine whether expected utility (EU) and the area under the ROC (AUC) are consistent with one another as endpoints of observer performance studies in mammography. These two measures characterize ROC performance somewhat differently. We compare these two study endpoints at the level of individual reader effects, statistical inference, and components of variance across readers and cases. Materials and Methods We reanalyze three previously published laboratory observer performance studies that investigate various x-ray breast imaging modalities using EU and AUC. The EU measure is based on recent estimates of relative utility for screening mammography. Results The AUC and EU measures are correlated across readers for individual modalities (r = 0.93) and differences in modalities (r = 0.94 to 0.98). Statistical inference for modality effects based on multi-reader multi-case analysis is very similar, with significant results (p < 0.05) in exactly the same conditions. Power analyses show mixed results across studies, with a small increase in power on average for EU that corresponds to approximately a 7% reduction in the number of readers. Despite a large number of crossing ROC curves (59% of readers), modality effects only rarely have opposite signs for EU and AUC (6%). Conclusions We do not find any evidence of systematic differences between EU and AUC in screening mammography observer studies. Thus, when utility approaches are viable (i.e. an appropriate value of relative utility exists), practical effects such as statistical efficiency may be used to choose study endpoints. PMID:24594418
Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.; Mullette-Gillman, O’Dhaniel A.
2015-01-01
We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61–80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision-making for losses through changes in both individual preferences and the strategies individuals employ. PMID:26029092
Gimple, L.W.; Hutter, A.M. Jr.; Guiney, T.E.; Boucher, C.A. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))
1989-12-01
The prognostic value of predischarge dipyridamole-thallium scanning after uncomplicated myocardial infarction was determined by comparison with submaximal exercise electrocardiography and 6-week maximal exercise thallium imaging and by correlation with clinical events. Two endpoints were defined: cardiac events and severe ischemic potential. Of the 40 patients studied, 8 had cardiac events within 6 months (1 died, 3 had myocardial infarction and 4 had unstable angina requiring hospitalization). The finding of any redistribution on dipyridamole-thallium scanning was common (77%) in these patients and had poor specificity (29%). Redistribution outside of the infarct zone, however, had equivalent sensitivity (63%) and better specificity (75%) for events (p less than 0.05). Both predischarge dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise electrocardiography identified 5 of the 8 events (p = 0.04 and 0.07, respectively). The negative predictive accuracy for events for both dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise electrocardiography was 88%. In addition to the 8 patients with events, 16 other patients had severe ischemic potential (6 had coronary bypass surgery, 1 had inoperable 3-vessel disease and 9 had markedly abnormal 6-week maximal exercise tests). Predischarge dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise testing also identified 8 and 7 of these 16 patients with severe ischemic potential, respectively. Six of the 8 cardiac events occurred before 6-week follow-up. A maximal exercise thallium test at 6 weeks identified 1 of the 2 additional events within 6 months correctly. Thallium redistribution after dipyridamole in coronary territories outside the infarct zone is a sensitive and specific predictor of subsequent cardiac events and identifies patients with severe ischemic potential.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Siegrist, Kyle
This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.
The report, which has been reviewed by industry experts, reflects the experience developed in successfully applying combustion modifications to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Although the report emphasizes coal-fired equipment, the same principles can be ap...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jois, Manjunath Holaykoppa Nanjunda
The conventional Influence Maximization problem is the problem of finding such a team (a small subset) of seed nodes in a social network that would maximize the spread of influence over the whole network. This paper considers a lottery system aimed at maximizing the awareness spread to promote energy conservation behavior as a stochastic Influence Maximization problem with the constraints ensuring lottery fairness. The resulting Multi-Team Influence Maximization problem involves assigning the probabilities to multiple teams of seeds (interpreted as lottery winners) to maximize the expected awareness spread. Such a variation of the Influence Maximization problem is modeled as a Linear Program; however, enumerating all the possible teams is a hard task considering that the feasible team count grows exponentially with the network size. In order to address this challenge, we develop a column generation based approach to solve the problem with a limited number of candidate teams, where new candidates are generated and added to the problem iteratively. We adopt a piecewise linear function to model the impact of including a new team so as to pick only such teams which can improve the existing solution. We demonstrate that with this approach we can solve such influence maximization problems to optimality, and perform computational study with real-world social network data sets to showcase the efficiency of the approach in finding lottery designs for optimal awareness spread. Lastly, we explore other possible scenarios where this model can be utilized to optimally solve the otherwise hard to solve influence maximization problems.
Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush
2003-01-29
This is the ninth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. The pilot-scale testing phase of the project has been completed. Calculations are essentially completed for implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The REI Configurable Fireside Simulator (CFS) has proven to be an essential component to provide input for these calculations. Niksa Energy Associates expects to deliver their final report in February 2003. Work has continued on the project final report.
Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa
2003-04-30
In full-scale boilers, the effect of biomass cofiring on NO{sub x} and unburned carbon (UBC) emissions has been found to be site-specific. Few sets of field data are comparable and no consistent database of information exists upon which cofiring fuel choice or injection system design can be based to assure that NOX emissions will be minimized and UBC be reduced. This report presents the results of a comprehensive project that generated an extensive set of pilot-scale test data that were used to validate a new predictive model for the cofiring of biomass and coal. All testing was performed at the 3.6 MMBtu/hr (1.75 MW{sub t}) Southern Company Services/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility where a variety of burner configurations, coals, biomasses, and biomass injection schemes were utilized to generate a database of consistent, scalable, experimental results (422 separate test conditions). This database was then used to validate a new model for predicting NO{sub x} and UBC emissions from the cofiring of biomass and coal. This model is based on an Advanced Post-Processing (APP) technique that generates an equivalent network of idealized reactor elements from a conventional CFD simulation. The APP reactor network is a computational environment that allows for the incorporation of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and provides a new tool to quantify NOx and UBC emissions for any cofired combination of coal and biomass.
Pesaran, M Hashem; Weale, Martin
2006-03-14
in the Handbook of Economic Forecasting, G. Elliott, C.W.J. Granger, and A. Timmermann (eds.), North-Holland (forthcoming 2006). Helpful comments by two anonymous referees, Kajal Lahiri and Ron Smith are gratefully acknowledged. 1 Contents 1 Introduction 4 2 Part... ) more than exponentially. The error-correction and the general extrapolation model are algebraically equivalent, but the former is particularly convenient when survey data is available on expectations over different horizons. 15 2.3 Testable Implications...
Maximally Natural Supersymmetry
Savas Dimopoulos; Kiel Howe; John March-Russell
2014-04-29
We consider 4D weak scale theories arising from 5D supersymmetric (SUSY) theories with maximal Scherk-Schwarz breaking at a Kaluza-Klein (KK) scale of several TeV. Many of the problems of conventional SUSY are avoided. Apart from 3rd family sfermions the SUSY spectrum is heavy, with only ~50% tuning at a gluino mass of ~2TeV and a stop mass of ~650 GeV. A single Higgs doublet acquires a vacuum expectation value, so the physical Higgs is automatically Standard-Model-like. A new U(1)' interaction raises the Higgs mass to 126 GeV. For minimal tuning the associated Z', as well as the 3rd family sfermions, must be accessible to LHC13. A gravitational wave signal consistent with BICEP2 is possible if inflation occurs when the extra dimensions are small.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Richardson, Lea
2004-01-01
Planning and scheduling systems organize tasks into a timeline or schedule. Tasks are logically grouped into containers called models. Models are a collection of related tasks, along with their dependencies and requirements, that when met will produce the desired result. One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiments for the International Space Station. In these experiments, the equipment used is among the most complex hardware ever developed; the information sought is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor; and the procedures are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling International Space Station experiment operations calls for a maximally expressive modeling schema.
Subjective Probability and Expected Utility without Additivity
David Schmeidler
1989-01-01
An act maps states of nature to outcomes: deterministic outcomes, as well as random outcomes, are included. Two acts f and g are comonotonic, by definition, if it never happens that f(s) > f(t) and g(t) > g(s) for some states of nature s and t. An axiom of comonotonic independence is introduced here. It weakens the von Neumann-Morgenstern axiom
UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Option price without expected utility
Shaw, W. Douglass
and Kahneman (1992) develop cumulative 36 prospect theory (CPT), which has become another widely used non- 37 49 ante) from mortality risks tied to shipping nuclear wastes to the 50national high level nuclear
Maximally Expressive Task Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.
Maximally incompatible quantum observables
Teiko Heinosaari; Jussi Schultz; Alessandro Toigo; Mario Ziman
2013-12-12
The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.
Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.
Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…
Surrogate utilities in civil engineering: the Kelly criterion and Shannon's information
S. O. Denis Russell; W. F. Caselton
1984-01-01
Large-scale engineering projects often entail large financial and environmental risks because of their size and long life. Decisions usually have to be made long before the risks can be appreciated. Decision theory should be helpful in this but utility curves are needed for its application and these are almost impossible to obtain. The Kelly criterion, which involves maximizing the expected
Maximization, learning, and economic behavior
Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E.
2014-01-01
The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design. PMID:25024182
Noncommutative maximal ergodic theorems
Marius Junge; Quanhua Xu
2005-01-01
This paper is devoted to the study of various maximal ergodic theorems in noncommutative $L_p$-spaces. In particular, we prove the noncommutative analogue of the classical Dunford-Schwartz maximal ergodic inequality for positive contractions on $L_p$ and the analogue of Stein's maximal inequality for symmetric positive contractions. We also obtain the corresponding individual ergodic theorems. We apply these results to a family
Maximally nonlocal theories cannot be maximally random.
de la Torre, Gonzalo; Hoban, Matty J; Dhara, Chirag; Prettico, Giuseppe; Acín, Antonio
2015-04-24
Correlations that violate a Bell inequality are said to be nonlocal; i.e., they do not admit a local and deterministic explanation. Great effort has been devoted to study how the amount of nonlocality (as measured by a Bell inequality violation) serves to quantify the amount of randomness present in observed correlations. In this work we reverse this research program and ask what do the randomness certification capabilities of a theory tell us about the nonlocality of that theory. We find that, contrary to initial intuition, maximal randomness certification cannot occur in maximally nonlocal theories. We go on and show that quantum theory, in contrast, permits certification of maximal randomness in all dichotomic scenarios. We hence pose the question of whether quantum theory is optimal for randomness; i.e., is it the most nonlocal theory that allows maximal randomness certification? We answer this question in the negative by identifying a larger-than-quantum set of correlations capable of this feat. Not only are these results relevant to understanding quantum mechanics' fundamental features, but also put fundamental restrictions on device-independent protocols based on the no-signaling principle. PMID:25955039
The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...
Zhaofang Bai; Shuanping Du
2015-03-24
Relative entropy measure quantifying coherence, a key property of quantum system, is proposed recently. In this note, we investigate the maximally coherent state (MCS) with respect to relative entropy measure. %(denoted by $\\mathcal C_{RE}$)%. We show that there are not mixed maximally coherent states and give a complete characterization of pure maximally coherent states. Based on this characterization, for a bipartite MCS with $d_A=d_B$, we obtain that the super-additivity equality of relative entropy measure holds if and only if the state is a product state of its reduced states. From the viewpoint of resource in quantum information, we find there exists a MCS with maximal entanglement. Originated from the behaviour of quantum correlation under the influence of noisy operations, we further classify the incoherent operations which send maximally coherent states to themselves.
Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics: expectations and practical benefits.
Turner, R M; Pirmohamed, M
2014-03-01
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pharmacogenomics is the study of genetic determinants of interindividual variation in drug response and aims to facilitate personalized medicine, through genotype-informed drug and dose selection, to maximize drug efficacy and/or minimize adverse drug reactions. Despite high expectations, no cardiovascular pharmacogenomic association is currently in widespread clinical practice; evidential, logistical, financial, and knowledge implementation barriers exist. Nevertheless, VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 variants have been associated with warfarin dose requirements, and CYP2C19 variants have been associated with perturbed antiplatelet response to clopidogrel. However, at present, controversy exists over the clinical utility of these genetic associations. There is an increased risk of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity in SLCO1B1*5 carriers, ADRB1 and ADRA2C polymorphisms are associated with differential response to bucindolol, and rare congenital arrhythmia gene variants have been identified in drug-induced torsade de pointes. Practical benefits are still anticipated, but much work remains. PMID:24322971
Expectations, Life Expectancy, and Economic Behavior
Daniel S. Hamermesh
1985-01-01
Unlike price expectations, which are central to macroeconomic theory and have been examined extensively using survey data, formation of individuals' horizons, which are central to the theory of life-cycle behavior, have been completely neglected. This is especially surprising since life expectancy of adults has increased especially rapidly in Western countries in the past ten years. This study presents the results
Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch
2009-01-01
Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Branzburg, Jeffrey
2004-01-01
Google is shaking out to be the leading Web search engine, with recent research from Nielsen NetRatings reporting about 40 percent of all U.S. households using the tool at least once in January 2004. This brief article discusses how teachers and students can maximize their use of Google.
Maximal Marcinkiewicz multipliers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honzík, Petr
2014-04-01
Let be a family of Marcinkiewicz multipliers of sufficient uniform smoothness in . We show that the L p norm, 1< pmaximal operator is at most C(log( N+2)) n/2. We show that this bound is sharp.
On generating maximal nondominated Benders cuts
Hanif D. Sherali; Brian J. Lunday
In this paper, we explore certain algorithmic strategies for accelerating the convergence of Benders decomposition method\\u000a via the generation of maximal nondominated cuts. Based on interpreting the seminal work of Magnanti and Wong (Operations Research,\\u000a 29(3), 464–484, 1981) for generating nondominated cuts within a multiobjective framework, we propose an algorithmic strategy that utilizes a preemptively\\u000a small perturbation of the right-hand-side
Infrared Maximally Abelian Gauge
Tereza Mendes; Attilio Cucchieri; Antonio Mihara
2006-11-01
The confinement scenario in Maximally Abelian gauge (MAG) is based on the concepts of Abelian dominance and of dual superconductivity. Recently, several groups pointed out the possible existence in MAG of ghost and gluon condensates with mass dimension 2, which in turn should influence the infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators. We present preliminary results for the first lattice numerical study of the ghost propagator and of ghost condensation for pure SU(2) theory in the MAG.
Maximal repetitions in strings Maxime Crochemore a,1
Boyer, Edmond
Science, King's College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK and Institut Gaspard-Monge, UniversitÂ´e Paris-Est, F at Institut Gaspard-Monge. Corresponding author Email addresses: maxime.crochemore@kcl.ac.uk (Maxime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Xia, Dandan; Zhao, Yuandong; Guo, Danqing; Qi, Tong; Wan, Houzhao
2014-05-01
Self-standing NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays have been in situ grown on Ni foam by the anion-exchange reaction and directly used as the electrode for supercapacitors. The NiCo2S4 nanotube in the arrays effectively reduces the inactive material and increases the electroactive surface area because of the ultrathin wall, which is quite competent to achieve high utilization efficiency at high electroactive materials mass loading. The NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays hybrid electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 14.39 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 with excellent rate performance (67.7% retention for current increases 30 times) and cycling stability (92% retention after 5000 cycles) at a high mass loading of 6 mg cm-2. High areal capacitance (4.68 F cm-2 at 10 mA cm-2), high energy density (31.5 Wh kg-1 at 156.6 W kg-1) and high power density (2348.5 W kg-1 at 16.6 Wh kg-1) can be achieved by assembling asymmetric supercapacitor with reduced graphene oxide at a total active material mass loading as high as 49.5 mg. This work demonstrates that NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays structure is a superior electroactive material for high-performance supercapacitors even at a mass loading of potential application-specific scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dienstfrey, Harris
1968-01-01
In examining the findings of "Pygmalion in the Classroom," an experimental study of the positive effects of favorable teacher expectations on the intellectual development of disadvantaged elementary school students, this review speculates about why the experimental students, whom the teachers expected to improve, and the control students, who were…
Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.
1993-01-01
Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.
Maximal Bell's Inequality Violation for Non Maximal Entanglement
M. Kobayashi; F. Khanna; A. Mann; M. Revzen; A. Santana
2003-11-19
Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a {\\it product} state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, $\\zeta$. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non negative and the average value of either polarization is nil.
Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.
1999-01-01
An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720
The expectations trap hypothesis
Lawrence J. Christiano; Christopher J. Gust
2000-01-01
The authors examine the inflation take-off of the early 1970s in terms of the expectations trap hypothesis, according to which fear of violating the public’s inflation expectations pushed the Fed into producing high inflation. This interpretation is compared with the Phillips curve hypothesis, according to which the Fed produced high inflation as the unfortunate byproduct of a conscious decision to
The futility of utility: how market dynamics marginalize Adam Smith
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCauley, Joseph L.
2000-10-01
Economic theorizing is based on the postulated, nonempiric notion of utility. Economists assume that prices, dynamics, and market equilibria are supposed to be derived from utility. The results are supposed to represent mathematically the stabilizing action of Adam Smith's invisible hand. In deterministic excess demand dynamics I show the following. A utility function generally does not exist mathematically due to nonintegrable dynamics when production/investment are accounted for, resolving Mirowski's thesis. Price as a function of demand does not exist mathematically either. All equilibria are unstable. I then explain how deterministic chaos can be distinguished from random noise at short times. In the generalization to liquid markets and finance theory described by stochastic excess demand dynamics, I also show the following. Market price distributions cannot be rescaled to describe price movements as ‘equilibrium’ fluctuations about a systematic drift in price. Utility maximization does not describe equilibrium. Maximization of the Gibbs entropy of the observed price distribution of an asset would describe equilibrium, if equilibrium could be achieved, but equilibrium does not describe real, liquid markets (stocks, bonds, foreign exchange). There are three inconsistent definitions of equilibrium used in economics and finance, only one of which is correct. Prices in unregulated free markets are unstable against both noise and rising or falling expectations: Adam Smith's stabilizing invisible hand does not exist, either in mathematical models of liquid market data, or in real market data.
Ray, P.E.
1998-09-04
This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.
Maximized Posttest Contrasts: A Clarification.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hollingsworth, Holly
1980-01-01
A solution to some problems of maximized contrasts for analysis of variance situations when the cell sizes are unequal is offered. It is demonstrated that a contrast is maximized relative to the analysis used to compute the sum of squares between groups. Interpreting a maximum contrast is discussed. (Author/GK)
PILL, PATCH, OR SHOT? SUBJECTIVE EXPECTATIONS AND BIRTH CONTROL CHOICE
Adeline Delavande
2008-01-01
When choosing a contraception method, women base their decisions on their subjective expectations about the realizations of method-related outcomes. Examples of outcomes include getting pregnant and contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). I combine innovative data on probabilistic expectations with observed contraceptive choices to estimate a random utility model of birth control choice. The availability of expectations data is essential
Maximizing Brightness in Photoinjectors
Limborg-Deprey, C.; /SLAC; Tomizawa, H.; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo
2011-11-30
If the laser pulse driving photoinjectors could be arbitrarily shaped, the emittance growth induced by space charge effects could be totally compensated for. In particular, for RF guns the photo-electron distribution leaving the cathode should have a 3D-ellipsoidal shape. The emittance at the end of the injector could be as small as the cathode emittance. We explore how the emittance and the brightness can be optimized for photoinjector based on RF gun depending on the peak current requirements. Techniques available to produce those ideal laser pulse shapes are also discussed. If the laser pulse driving photoinjectors could be arbitrarily shaped, the emittance growth induced by space charge effects could be totally compensated for. In particular, for RF guns, the photo-electron distribution leaving the cathode should be close to a uniform distribution contained in a 3D-ellipsoid contour. For photo-cathodes which have very fast emission times, and assuming a perfectly uniform emitting surface, this could be achieved by shaping the laser in a pulse of constant fluence and limited in space by a 3D-ellipsoid contour. Simulations show that in such conditions, with the standard linear emittance compensation, the emittance at the end of the photo-injector beamline approaches the minimum value imposed by the cathode emittance. Brightness, which is expressed as the ratio of peak current over the product of the two transverse emittance, seems to be maximized for small charges. Numerical simulations also show that for very high charge per bunch (10nC), emittances as small as 2 mm-mrad could be reached by using 3D-ellipsoidal laser pulses in an S-Band gun. The production of 3D-ellipsoidal pulses is very challenging, but seems worthwhile the effort. We briefly discuss some of the present ideas and difficulties of achieving such pulses.
Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devine, Kelley
Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…
Terry Clarence L Sr
2009-01-01
Expectations of the System is a student-created film which details the findings of a participatory action research (PAR) project conducted in South Los Angeles. In the summer of 2008, a critical research team composed of seven high school-aged Black males and a mathematics education researcher (also a Black male) conducted qualitative and quantitative research to explore the incarceration and university
Research on Teacher Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Good, Thomas L.
This paper reviews significant research findings from the past 10 years which demonstrate that teachers' attitudes, expectations, and behavior have significant practical effects on student achievement. Although causes of differential interaction are not definitely established, it is clear that many teachers vary sharply in their interaction…
Heterogeneity in expected longevities.
Pijoan-Mas, Josep; Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor
2014-12-01
We develop a new methodology to compute differences in the expected longevity of individuals of a given cohort who are in different socioeconomic groups at a certain age. We address the two main problems associated with the standard use of life expectancy: (1) that people's socioeconomic characteristics change, and (2) that mortality has decreased over time. Our methodology uncovers substantial heterogeneity in expected longevities, yet much less heterogeneity than what arises from the naive application of life expectancy formulae. We decompose the longevity differences into differences in health at age 50, differences in the evolution of health with age, and differences in mortality conditional on health. Remarkably, education, wealth, and income are health-protecting but have very little impact on two-year mortality rates conditional on health. Married people and nonsmokers, however, benefit directly in their immediate mortality. Finally, we document an increasing time trend of the socioeconomic gradient of longevity in the period 1992-2008, and we predict an increase in the socioeconomic gradient of mortality rates for the coming years. PMID:25391225
R. Mc D. YOUNG; J. P. CONNOR; L. A. RICCIARDELLI; J. B. SAUNDERS
2006-01-01
Aims: University student alcohol misuse is a considerable problem. Alcohol expectancy research has contributed signific- antly to our understanding of problem drinking in young adults. Most of this research has investigated positive expectancy alone. The current study utilized two measures of alcohol expectancy, the alcohol expectancy questionnaire (AEQ) and the drinking expectancy profile (consisting of the drinking expectancy questionnaire (DEQ)
Secure Communications Over Wireless Broadcast Networks: Stability and Utility Maximization
Yingbin Liang; H. Vincent Poor; Lei Ying
2011-01-01
Awirelessbroadcastnetworkmodelwithsecrecycon- straints is investigated, in which a source node broadcasts confi- dential messageflows to user nodes, with each message intended to be decoded accurately by one user and to be kept secret from all other users (who are thus considered to be eavesdroppers with re- gard to all other messages but their own). The source maintains a queue for each
Unified Utility Maximization Framework for Resource Selection Language Technology Inst.
Callan, Jamie
centralized database for the purpose of indexing. Distributed information retrieval, also known as federated search [1,4,7,11,14,22] is different from ad-hoc information retrieval as it addresses the cases when
Utilizing Partnerships to Maximize Resources in College Counseling Services
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, Allison; Moffat, Meridith; Travers, Heather; Cummins, Douglas
2015-01-01
Research indicates an increasing number of college students are experiencing severe psychological problems that are impacting their academic performance. However, many colleges and universities operate with constrained budgets that limit their ability to provide adequate counseling services for their student population. Moreover, accessing…
From Competition to Complementarity: Comparative Influence Diffusion and Maximization
Lu, Wei; Lakshmanan, Laks V S
2015-01-01
Influence maximization is a well-studied problem that asks for a small set of influential users from a social network, such that by targeting them as early adopters, the expected total adoption through influence cascades over the network is maximized. However, almost all prior work focuses on cascades of a single propagating entity or purely-competitive entities. In this work, we propose the Comparative Independent Cascade (Com-IC) model that covers the full spectrum of entity interactions from competition to complementarity. In Com-IC, users' adoption decisions depend not only on edge-level information propagation, but also on a node-level automaton whose behavior is governed by a set of model parameters, enabling our model to capture not only competition, but also complementarity, to any possible degree. We study two natural optimization problems, Self Influence Maximization and Complementary Influence Maximization, in a novel setting with complementary entities. Both problems are NP-hard, and we devise eff...
Maximizing efficiency of solar-powered systems by load matching
Dexin Li; Pai H. Chou
2004-01-01
Solar power is an important source of renewable energy for many low-power systems. Matching the power consumption level with the supply level can make a great difference in the efficiency of power utilization. This paper proposes a source-tracking power management strategy that maximizes the panel's total energy output under a given solar profile by load matching. The power efficiency was
Xiong, Hao
2009-05-15
in Mice Lung Cells Ex- posed to Carbonyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 3. LQT for MAPK Pathway in Cell Lines Disturbed by Wild Type and Mutant Type R80A HIV Type I Vpr Protein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 ix CHAPTER Page D...
EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition)
Rock, Chris
44 EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition) An expected learning outcome is a formal statement of what students are expected to learn in a course. Expected learning outcome statements refer to specific knowledge, practical skills, areas of professional
Distinguishability of maximally entangled states
Ghosh, S; Roy, A; Sarkar, D; Ghosh, Sibasish; Kar, Guruprasad; Roy, Anirban; Sarkar, Debasis
2002-01-01
In $2 \\otimes 2$, more than two orthogonal Bell states with single copy can never be discriminated with certainty if only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed. We generalize this result to $d \\otimes d$, where we show that any $d$ number of orthogonal maximally entangled states can always be discriminated with certainty by LOCC. But more than $d$ maximally orthogonal entangled states can never be discriminated with certainty when a single copy of the states is provided. Interestingly we show that all orthogonal maximally entangled states can be discriminated with certainty if and only if two copies of the states are provided.
Tractable Robust Expected Utility and Risk Models for Portfolio ...
Mar 13, 2008 ... of only the mean, covariance and support information. ... provides a foundation of how the investor would make his choice in this setting. ... at-risk (VaR) is a risk metric which is widely used by banks, security firms and other ...
All maximally entangling unitary gates
Scott M. Cohen
2011-08-19
We characterize all maximally entangling bipartite unitary operators, acting on systems $A,B$ of arbitrary finite dimensions $d_A\\le d_B$, when use of ancillary systems by both parties is allowed. Several useful and interesting consequences of this characterization are discussed, including an understanding of why the entangling and disentangling capacities of a given (maximally entangling) unitary can differ and a proof that these capacities must be equal when $d_A=d_B$.
Maximizing biodiversity, information and sustainability
Charles W. Fowler
2008-01-01
Numerous global changes—notably anthropogenic extinction—force reconsideration of our management practices and the ways we\\u000a regulate human influence in today’s world. Here, I define management to maximize biodiversity and illustrate the science that\\u000a provides information to set goals for such management. Maximizing biodiversity simultaneously achieves sustainability and\\u000a systemic health by avoiding the abnormal or pathological. The normal or sustainable are determined
Work Placement in UK Undergraduate Programmes. Student Expectations and Experiences.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leslie, David; Richardson, Anne
1999-01-01
A survey of 189 pre- and 106 post-sandwich work-experience students in tourism suggested that potential benefits were not being maximized. Students needed better preparation for the work experience, especially in terms of their expectations. The work experience needed better design, and the role of industry tutors needed clarification. (SK)
The Learning Styles, Expectations, and Needs of Online Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mupinga, Davison M.; Nora, Robert T.; Yaw, Dorothy Carole
2006-01-01
Each student comes to class with certain learning experiences, expectations, and needs that have to be addressed, and to which instructors need to be sensitive, to maximize the students' learning experiences. However, because of the unknown make-up of online classes, the characteristics of online students may be unclear, making it difficult to…
A row-action alternative to the EM algorithm for maximizing likelihood in emission tomography
Jolyon Browne; Alvaro R. De Pierro
1996-01-01
The maximum likelihood (ML) approach to estimating the radioactive distribution in the body cross section has become very popular among researchers in emission computed tomography (ECT) since it has been shown to provide very good images compared to those produced with the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is an often-used iterative approach for maximizing the
Profit Maximization of a Power Plant Martin Kragelund, John Leth, Rafal Wisniewski, and Ulf Jonsson
Hansen, René Rydhof
Profit Maximization of a Power Plant Martin Kragelund, John Leth, Rafal Wisniewski, and Ulf J¨onsson Abstract-- This paper addresses the problem of profit maximization of a power plant by utilizing three and time-varying feedforward term. Its performance is tested against input noise. I. Introduction
Distinguishability of maximally entangled states
Ghosh, Sibasish; Kar, Guruprasad; Roy, Anirban [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India); Sarkar, Debasis [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)
2004-08-01
In 2x2, more than two orthogonal Bell states with a single copy can never be discriminated with certainty if only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed. We show here that more than d numbers of pairwise orthogonal maximally entangled states in dxd, which are in canonical form, used by Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895 (1993)], can never be discriminated with certainty by LOCC, when single copies of the states are provided. Interestingly we show here that all orthogonal maximally entangled states, which are in canonical form, can be discriminated with certainty by LOCC if and only if two copies of each of the states are provided. We provide here a conjecture regarding the highly nontrivial problem of local distinguishability of any d or fewer numbers of pairwise orthogonal maximally entangled states in dxd (in the single copy case)
Distinguishability of maximally entangled states
Sibasish Ghosh; Guruprasad Kar; Anirban Roy; Debasis Sarkar
2003-11-17
In $2 \\otimes 2$, more than 2 orthogonal Bell states with single copy can never be discriminated with certainty if only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed. More than $d$ orthogonal maximally entangled states in $d \\otimed d$, which are in cannonical form, used by Bennett et. al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 (1993) 1895] can never be discriminated with certainty when a single copy of the states is provided. Interestingly we show that all orthogonal maximally entangled states, which are in cannonical form, can be discriminated with certainty if and only if two copies of each of the states are provided. The highly nontrivial problem of local discrimination of $d$ or less no. of pairwise orthogonal maximally entangled states in $d \\otimes d$ (in single copy case), which are in cannonical form, is also discussed.
New standard exceeds expectations
Bennett, M.J. (Environmental Data Resources Inc., Southport, CT (United States))
1993-08-01
The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.
Using Utility Information to Calibrate Customer Demand Management Behavior Models
Using Utility Information to Calibrate Customer Demand Management Behavior Models Murat Fahrio calibration, load curtailment, system security. Introduction The best resource for a utility to solve its]. Mechanism design theory [6] has been utilized to optimize the contracts to maximize utility benefit
On learning statistical mixtures maximizing the complete likelihood
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, Frank
2015-01-01
Statistical mixtures are semi-parametric models ubiquitously met in data science since they can universally model smooth densities arbitrarily closely. Finite mixtures are usually inferred from data using the celebrated Expectation-Maximization framework that locally iteratively maximizes the incomplete likelihood by assigning softly data to mixture components. In this paper, we present a novel methodology to infer mixtures by transforming the learning problem into a sequence of geometric center-based hard clustering problems that provably maximizes monotonically the complete likelihood. Our versatile method is fast and uses low memory footprint: The core inner steps can be implemented using various generalized k-means type heuristics. Thus we can leverage recent results on clustering to mixture learning. In particular, for mixtures of singly-parametric distributions including for example the Rayleigh, Weibull, or Poisson distributions, we show how to use dynamic programming to solve exactly the inner geometric clustering problems. We discuss on several extensions of the methodology.
Ventromedial frontal lobe damage disrupts value maximization in humans
Camille, Nathalie; Griffiths, Cathryn A.; Vo, Khoi; Fellows, Lesley K.; Kable, Joseph W.
2011-01-01
Recent work in neuroeconomics has shown that regions in orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex encode the subjective value of different options during choice. However, these electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies cannot demonstrate whether such signals are necessary for value-maximizing choices. Here we used a paradigm developed in experimental economics to empirically measure and quantify violations of utility theory in humans with damage to the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF). We show that people with such damage are more likely to make choices that violate the generalized axiom of revealed preference, which is the one necessary and sufficient condition for choices to be consistent with value maximization. These results demonstrate that the VMF plays a critical role in value-maximizing choice. PMID:21593337
Educational Expectations and Attainment. NBER Working Paper No. 15683
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacob, Brian A.; Wilder, Tamara
2010-01-01
This paper examines the role of educational expectations in the educational attainment process. We utilize data from a variety of datasets to document and analyze the trends in educational expectations between the mid-1970s and the early 2000s. We focus on differences across racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups and examine how young people…
Maximizing algebraic connectivity in air transportation networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Peng
In air transportation networks the robustness of a network regarding node and link failures is a key factor for its design. An experiment based on the real air transportation network is performed to show that the algebraic connectivity is a good measure for network robustness. Three optimization problems of algebraic connectivity maximization are then formulated in order to find the most robust network design under different constraints. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem with flight routes addition or deletion is first formulated. Three methods to optimize and analyze the network algebraic connectivity are proposed. The Modified Greedy Perturbation Algorithm (MGP) provides a sub-optimal solution in a fast iterative manner. The Weighted Tabu Search (WTS) is designed to offer a near optimal solution with longer running time. The relaxed semi-definite programming (SDP) is used to set a performance upper bound and three rounding techniques are discussed to find the feasible solution. The simulation results present the trade-off among the three methods. The case study on two air transportation networks of Virgin America and Southwest Airlines show that the developed methods can be applied in real world large scale networks. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem is extended by adding the leg number constraint, which considers the traveler's tolerance for the total connecting stops. The Binary Semi-Definite Programming (BSDP) with cutting plane method provides the optimal solution. The tabu search and 2-opt search heuristics can find the optimal solution in small scale networks and the near optimal solution in large scale networks. The third algebraic connectivity maximization problem with operating cost constraint is formulated. When the total operating cost budget is given, the number of the edges to be added is not fixed. Each edge weight needs to be calculated instead of being pre-determined. It is illustrated that the edge addition and the weight assignment can not be studied separately for the problem with operating cost constraint. Therefore a relaxed SDP method with golden section search is developed to solve both at the same time. The cluster decomposition is utilized to solve large scale networks.
Distinguishability of maximally entangled states
Sibasish Ghosh; Guruprasad Kar; Anirban Roy; Debasis Sarkar
2004-01-01
In 2?2 , more than two orthogonal Bell states with a single copy can never be discriminated with certainty if only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed. We show here that more than d numbers of pairwise orthogonal maximally entangled states in d?d , which are in canonical form, used by Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70,
Expecting the Best for Students: Teacher Expectations and Academic Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rubie-Davies, Christine; Hattie, John; Hamilton, Richard
2006-01-01
Background: Research into teacher expectations has shown that these have an effect on student achievement. Some researchers have explored the impact of various student characteristics on teachers' expectations. One attribute of interest is ethnicity. Aims: This study aimed to explore differences in teachers' expectations and judgments of student…
Takeshi Ogawa; Jose A. L. Calbet; Yasushi Honda; Naoto Fujii; Takeshi Nishiyasu
2010-01-01
To test the hypothesis that maximal exercise pulmonary ventilation ($$ \\\\dot{V}{\\\\text{E}}_{ \\\\max } $$) is a limiting factor affecting maximal oxygen uptake ($$ \\\\dot{V}{\\\\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\\\\text{max}}}} $$) in moderate hypobaric hypoxia (H), we examined the effect of breathing a helium–oxygen gas mixture (He–O2; 20.9% O2), which would reduce air density and would be expected to increase $$ \\\\dot{V}{\\\\text{E}}_{ \\\\max }
Maximal violation of Bell inequalities for mixed states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braunstein, Samuel L.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.
1992-06-01
We show that mixed states can produce maximal violations in the Bell inequality due to Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH). This follows from the degeneracy of the operator which is naturally associated with the Bell inequality (here called the Bell operator). We have calculated the form of all the eigenvalues for the generic CHSH Bell operator. Finally, we consider several examples which demonstrate the utility of studying the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Bell operator.
Elliptic functions and maximal unitarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang
2015-04-01
Scattering amplitudes at loop level can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent Feynman integrals. The integral coefficients are extracted from generalized unitarity cuts which define algebraic varieties. The topology of an algebraic variety characterizes the difficulty of applying maximal cuts. In this work, we analyze a novel class of integrals of which the maximal cuts give rise to an algebraic variety with irrational irreducible components. As a phenomenologically relevant example, we examine the two-loop planar double-box contribution with internal massive lines. We derive unique projectors for all four master integrals in terms of multivariate residues along with Weierstrass' elliptic functions. We also show how to generate the leading-topology part of otherwise infeasible integration-by-parts identities analytically from exact meromorphic differential forms.
Ferrandis, Javier; Ferrandis, Javier
2005-04-20
indicates that 2|Vub / Vcb/ Vus| = (1-z) with z given by z = 0.19 +(-) 0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase beta is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is beta = pi/6 - z/sqrt{3} for gamma = pi/3 + z/sqrt{3}, which implies alpha = pi/2. Alternatively, assuming that beta is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement, sin(2beta) = 0.726+(-) 0.037, the phase gamma is predicted to be gamma = pi/2 - beta = 66.3 +(-) 1.7. The maximality of beta, if confirmed by the near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation.
Unruh temperature with maximal acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benedetto, Elmo; Feoli, Antonio
2015-04-01
In this paper, we modify the geometry of Rindler space so as to include an upper limit on the acceleration. Caianiello and his collaborators, in a series of papers, have analyzed the corrections to the classical spacetime metrics due to the existence of a maximal acceleration. Our goal is to derive, in this context, in a very simple way, the so-called Unruh temperature.
Maximal Functions Associated to Filtrations
Michael Christ; Alexander Kiselev
2001-01-01
Let T be a bounded linear, or sublinear, operator from Lp(Y) to Lq(X). A maximal operator T*f(x)=supj|T(f·?Yj)(x)| is associated to any sequence of subsets Yj of Y. Under the hypotheses that q>p and the sets Yj are nested, we prove that T* is also bounded. Classical theorems of Menshov and Zygmund are obtained as corollaries. Multilinear generalizations of this theorem
Trust Maximization in Social Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Justin; Fang, Xing
Trust is a human-related phenomenon in social networks. Trust research on social networks has gained much attention on its usefulness, and on modeling propagations. There is little focus on finding maximum trust in social networks which is particularly important when a social network is oriented by certain tasks. In this paper, we propose a trust maximization algorithm based on the task-oriented social networks.
Online Influence Maximization (Extended Version)
Lei, Siyu; Mo, Luyi; Cheng, Reynold; Senellart, Pierre
2015-01-01
Social networks are commonly used for marketing purposes. For example, free samples of a product can be given to a few influential social network users (or "seed nodes"), with the hope that they will convince their friends to buy it. One way to formalize marketers' objective is through influence maximization (or IM), whose goal is to find the best seed nodes to activate under a fixed budget, so that the number of people who get influenced in the end is maximized. Recent solutions to IM rely on the influence probability that a user influences another one. However, this probability information may be unavailable or incomplete. In this paper, we study IM in the absence of complete information on influence probability. We call this problem Online Influence Maximization (OIM) since we learn influence probabilities at the same time we run influence campaigns. To solve OIM, we propose a multiple-trial approach, where (1) some seed nodes are selected based on existing influence information; (2) an influence campaign ...
Prediction on Travel-Time Distribution for Freeways Using Online Expectation Maximization Algorithm
Horowitz, Roberto
traffic and provides a probability distribution for travel time. On-ramp and mainline flow profiles. The simulation is implemented with a reasonable stopping criterion in order to reduce sample size requirement revised from original submittal. #12;INTRODUCTION Travel-time is among the most important traffic
Fitting a mixture model by expectation maximization to discover motifs in biopolymers
Wang, Deli
as an unlabeled sample. The MM algorithm has been implemented as an opÂ tion to the MEME software for discovering of each motif, MEME using MM is able to find motifs with different numbers of occurrences in a single dataset. This increases the usefulness of MEME as a tool for exploring datasets t
Incorporating Non-rigid Registration into Expectation Maximization Algorithm to Segment MR Images
Pohl, Kilian M.
el. [5] uses a detailed atlas with over 30 different labels to segment the brain. The ANIMAL http://www.spl.harvard.edu Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis St Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, 221 Longwood Av., Boston, MA 02115 USA, guimond
Simultaneous Covariance Driven Correspondence (CDC) and Transformation Estimation Science Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York 121803590 {sofka,yangg2,stewart}@cs.rpi.edu http://www.vision.cs.rpi.edu/CDC/ Abstract This paper proposes a new registration algorithm, Co- variance Driven Correspondences (CDC
Blobworld: Image Segmentation Using Expectation-Maximization and Its Application to Image Querying
Chad Carson; Serge Belongie; Hayit Greenspan; Jitendra Malik
2002-01-01
Retrieving images from large and varied collections us- ing image content as a key is a challenging and important problem. We present a new image representation which pro- vides a transformation from the raw pixel data to a small set of image regions which are coherent in color and tex- ture. This \\
An adaptive ExpectationMaximization algorithm with GPU implementation for electron cryomicroscopy
Duncan, James S.
to the estimation of multiple image classes (Scheres et al., 2005b) and for the optimization of unit-cell alignment, then aligns the cryo-EM images with the struc- ture, and averages the aligned images to update the structure. The alignment step is especially critical in overcoming noise and improving resolution. For the alignment step
Sequence estimation in the presence of interference via the expectation-maximization algorithm
Zhang, Quan G
1996-01-01
performance in terms of bit error rate (BER) for single tone interference with both random phase and amplitude. We compare the algorithm with the suboptimal approach of using a digital transversal filter as a notch filter. Finally we present simulation results...
Timmer, Jens
models Wolfgang Mader a,b, , Yannick Linke a,b , Malenka Mader a,b,c , Linda Sommerlade d , Jens Timmer a.Mader@fdm.uni-freiburg.de (W. Mader), Yannick.Linke@fdm.uni-freiburg.de (Y. Linke), Malenka.Mader@fdm. uni-freiburg.de (M
An Expectation-Maximization Framework for the Estimation of Bathymetry from Side-scan Sonar Images
Petillot, Yvan
of seabed altitude information from side-scan sonar data is presented. Although side-scan sensors do not provide direct measures of seabed elevation, their images are directly related to seabed topography. Using a mathematical model for the sonar ensonification process, approximations to the seabed characteristics can
Jingyu Guo; Dehua Tian; Brett A. McKinney; John L. Hartman
2010-01-01
Interactions between genetic and\\/or environmental factors are ubiquitous, affecting the phenotypes of organisms in complex ways. Knowledge about such interactions is becoming rate-limiting for our understanding of human disease and other biological phenomena. Phenomics refers to the integrative analysis of how all genes contribute to phenotype variation, entailing genome and organism level information. A systems biology view of gene interactions
Fast linear expected-time alogorithms for computing maxima and convex hulls
Jon Louis Bentley; Kenneth L. Clarkson; David B. Levine
1990-01-01
This paper examines the expected complexity of boundary problems on a set of N points in Kspace. We assume that the points are chosen from a probability distribution in which each component of a point is chosen independently of all other components. We present an algorithm to find the maximal points lldllg KN + O(N’-“= log 1\\/K N) expected scalar
DAU StatRefresher: Expectations
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This interactive tutorial on expectations helps students understand the concept of expectations, recognize and use variance and standard deviation, understand the method of moments, recognize and use co-variance, and solve exercise problems using expectations. Each component has its own explanation, demonstration and quiz questions. At the end, there is a series of questions to test the students full understanding of the concepts covered.
Expectancy bias in anxious samples
Cabeleira, Cindy M.; Steinman, Shari A.; Burgess, Melissa M.; Bucks, Romola S.; MacLeod, Colin; Melo, Wilson; Teachman, Bethany A.
2014-01-01
While it is well documented that anxious individuals have negative expectations about the future, it is unclear what cognitive processes give rise to this expectancy bias. Two studies are reported that use the Expectancy Task, which is designed to assess expectancy bias and illuminate its basis. This task presents individuals with valenced scenarios (Positive Valence, Negative Valence, or Conflicting Valence), and then evaluates their tendency to expect subsequent future positive relative to negative events. The Expectancy Task was used with low and high trait anxious (Study 1: N = 32) and anxiety sensitive (Study 2: N = 138) individuals. Results suggest that in the context of physical concerns, both high anxious samples display a less positive expectancy bias. In the context of social concerns, high trait anxious individuals display a negative expectancy bias only when negatively valenced information was previously presented. Overall, this suggests that anxious individuals display a less positive expectancy bias, and that the processes that give rise to this bias may vary by type of situation (e.g., social or physical) or anxiety difficulty. PMID:24798678
Multiqubit symmetric states with maximally mixed one-qubit reductions
Dorian Baguette; Thierry Bastin; John Martin
2014-09-19
We present a comprehensive study of maximally entangled symmetric states of arbitrary numbers of qubits in the sense of the maximal mixedness of the one-qubit reduced density operator. A general criterion is provided to easily identify whether given symmetric states are maximally entangled in that respect or not. We show that these maximally entangled symmetric (MES) states are the only symmetric states for which the expectation value of the associated collective spin of the system vanishes, as well as in corollary the dipole moment of the Husimi function. We establish the link between this kind of maximal entanglement, the anticoherence properties of spin states, and the degree of polarization of light fields. We analyze the relationship between the MES states and the classes of states equivalent through stochastic local operations with classical communication (SLOCC). We provide a nonexistence criterion of MES states within SLOCC classes of qubit states and show in particular that the symmetric Dicke state SLOCC classes never contain such MES states, with the only exception of the balanced Dicke state class for even numbers of qubits. The 4-qubit system is analyzed exhaustively and all MES states of this system are identified and characterized. Finally the entanglement content of MES states is analyzed with respect to the geometric and barycentric measures of entanglement, as well as to the generalized N-tangle. We show that the geometric entanglement of MES states is ensured to be larger than or equal to 1/2, but also that MES states are not in general the symmetric states that maximize the investigated entanglement measures.
Multiple criterion optimization with yield maximization
MICHAEL R. LIGHTNER; STEPHEN W. DIRECTOR
1981-01-01
A number of recent papers have described circuit optimization methods in which maximizing yield was the sole design criterion. However, in actual practice there are many competing design criteria such as minimizing power and area, maximizing speed, etc., as well as maximizing yield. In this paper the techniques of Multiple Criterion Optimization (MCO) are used to provide a framework within
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schleper, David R.
1995-01-01
Setting low standards and expectations for the language achievement of students with deafness or hearing impairments results in a self-fulfilling prophecy. A whole-language approach is based on a philosophy of high expectations and recognizes differences among students as factors that add richness to the exploration of language. (JDD)
Modeling life expectancy in Turkey
Ferda Halicioglu
2011-01-01
This study is concerned with understanding the factors of life expectancy in Turkey for the period 1965–2005. The determinants of life expectancy in Turkey are related to selected social, economical and environmental factors. Bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to compute the long-run elasticities of longevity with respect to the selected economic, social and environmental factors. There exists no
Modelling life expectancy in Turkey
Ferda Halicioglu
2010-01-01
This study is concerned with understanding the factors of life expectancy in Turkey for the period 1965-2005. The determinants of life expectancy in Turkey are related to selected social, economical and environmental factors. Bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to compute the long-run elasticities of longevity with respect to the selected economic, social and environmental factors. There exists no
Heinzelman, Wendi
MAXIMIZING THE LIFETIME OF CLUSTERS WITH SLEPIAN-WOLF CODING Tianqi Wang, Wendi Heinzelman, Alireza transmit power and source coding rates, to maximize the lifetime of a cluster utilizing Slepian-Wolf source their data using DSC without communicating each other. Slepian-Wolf coding, which is concerned with lossless
Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization
Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo
2014-01-01
Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold’s topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan’s presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821
Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.
Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo
2014-04-01
Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821
Maximally incompressible neutron star matter
Timothy S. Olson
2000-12-07
Relativistic kinetic theory, based on the Grad method of moments as developed by Israel and Stewart, is used to model viscous and thermal dissipation in neutron star matter and determine an upper limit on the maximum mass of neutron stars. In the context of kinetic theory, the equation of state must satisfy a set of constraints in order for the equilibrium states of the fluid to be thermodynamically stable and for perturbations from equilibrium to propagate causally via hyperbolic equations. Application of these constraints to neutron star matter restricts the stiffness of the most incompressible equation of state compatible with causality to be softer than the maximally incompressible equation of state that results from requiring the adiabatic sound speed to not exceed the speed of light. Using three equations of state based on experimental nucleon-nucleon scattering data and properties of light nuclei up to twice normal nuclear energy density, and the kinetic theory maximally incompressible equation of state at higher density, an upper limit on the maximum mass of neutron stars averaging 2.64 solar masses is derived.
Maximal Oxygen Intake and Maximal Work Performance of Active College Women.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgs, Susanne L.
Maximal oxygen intake and associated physiological variables were measured during strenuous exercise on women subjects (N=20 physical education majors). Following assessment of maximal oxygen intake, all subjects underwent a performance test at the work level which had elicited their maximal oxygen intake. Mean maximal oxygen intake was 41.32…
Maximally coherent mixed states: Complementarity between maximal coherence and mixedness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Uttam; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Pati, Arun Kumar
2015-05-01
Quantum coherence is a key element in topical research on quantum resource theories and a primary facilitator for design and implementation of quantum technologies. However, the resourcefulness of quantum coherence is severely restricted by environmental noise, which is indicated by the loss of information in a quantum system, measured in terms of its purity. In this work, we derive the limits imposed by the mixedness of a quantum system on the amount of quantum coherence that it can possess. We obtain an analytical trade-off between the two quantities that upperbound the maximum quantum coherence for fixed mixedness in a system. This gives rise to a class of quantum states, "maximally coherent mixed states," whose coherence cannot be increased further under any purity-preserving operation. For the above class of states, quantum coherence and mixedness satisfy a complementarity relation, which is crucial to understand the interplay between a resource and noise in open quantum systems.
Maximally coherent mixed states: Complementarity between maximal coherence and mixedness
Uttam Singh; Manabendra Nath Bera; Himadri Shekhar Dhar; Arun Kumar Pati
2015-05-28
Quantum coherence is a key element in topical research on quantum resource theories and a primary facilitator for design and implementation of quantum technologies. However, the resourcefulness of quantum coherence is severely restricted by environmental noise, which is indicated by the loss of information in a quantum system, measured in terms of its purity. In this work, we derive the limits imposed by the mixedness of a quantum system on the amount of quantum coherence that it can possess. We obtain an analytical trade-off between the two quantities that upperbound the maximum quantum coherence for fixed mixedness in a system. This gives rise to a class of quantum states, "maximally coherent mixed states," whose coherence cannot be increased further under any purity-preserving operation. For the above class of states, quantum coherence and mixedness satisfy a complementarity relation, which is crucial to understand the interplay between a resource and noise in open quantum systems.
Maximally Expressive Modeling of Operations Tasks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaap, John; Richardson, Lea; Davis, Elizabeth
2002-01-01
Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiments for the International Space Station. In these experiments, the equipment used is among the most complex hardware ever developed, the information sought is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling International Space Station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema.
Doyle, T W; Shugart, H H; West, D C
1981-01-01
This study examines the utilization and management of natural forest lands to meet growing wood-energy demands. An application of a forest simulation model is described for assessing energy returns and long-term ecological impacts of wood-energy harvesting under four general silvicultural practices. Results indicate that moderate energy yields could be expected from mild cutting operations which would significantly effect neither the commercial timber market nor the composition, structure, or diversity of these forests. Forest models can provide an effective tool for determining optimal management strategies that maximize energy returns, minimize environmental detriment, and complement existing land-use plans.
Berrier, Francois
little wife Thanh Nha who has sup- ported me enormously all along, and especially when I thought I would never see the light at the end of the PhD tunnel. Finally, I would also like to thank Karen Romani, Ulrich Jetzek and Markus Spahn from Ericsson... on time, on an agent’s level of (discounted) wealth and on ran- domness, and for which the classical problem of finding the optimal strategy pi, which maximizes the expected utility of wealth Et [ U(T, X(pi)T (?), ?) ] , gives results which are independent...
Externalities, expectations, and Pigouvian taxes
Cornes, R.; Sandler, T.
1985-03-01
This article derives Pigouvian-type corrective measures for reciprocal externalities when non-Nash behavior characterizes the participants. These reciprocal externalities may involve various kinds of environmental pollutants, such as acid rain. A comparison between corrective measures for Nash and non-Nash behavior demonstrates that positive conjectures, regarding the other agent's externality-generating activity, have an expectation-internalizing influence that usually reduces the required corrective measures. Negative conjectures (e.g., free-riding expectations), however, have an expectation-externalizing effect that increases the required corrective measures. The article analyzes both two-person and n-person externalities. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table.
Signaling Schemes for Revenue Maximization
Emek, Yuval; Gamzu, Iftah; Leme, Renato Paes; Tennenholtz, Moshe
2012-01-01
Signaling is an important topic in the study of asymmetric information in economic settings. In particular, the transparency of information available to a seller in an auction setting is a question of major interest. We introduce the study of signaling when conducting a second price auction of a probabilistic good whose actual instantiation is known to the auctioneer but not to the bidders. This framework can be used to model impressions selling in display advertising. We study the problem of computing a signaling scheme that maximizes the auctioneer's revenue in a Bayesian setting. While the general case is proved to be computationally hard, several cases of interest are shown to be polynomially solvable. In addition, we establish a tight bound on the minimum number of signals required to implement an optimal signaling scheme and show that at least half of the maximum social welfare can be preserved within such a scheme.
EXPECTATIONS: POINTESTIMATES, PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS, CONFIDENCE,
Chen, Yiling
EXPECTATIONS: POINTESTIMATES, PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS, CONFIDENCE, AND FORECASTS* David and probability distributions from nonexperts. As in the previous literature, respondents are overconfident. My captures "bestestimate" pointestimates and then probability distributions from nonexperts on upcoming
Uncovering the expectancy effect: the validation of Acupuncture Expectancy Scale
Mao, Jun J.; Xie, Sharon X.; Bowman, Marjorie A.
2013-01-01
Purpose Research suggests that expectancy may modulate the response to medical interventions, including acupuncture. However, the paucity of validated tools to measure expectancy limits rigorous evaluation. We sought to validate a previously developed Acupuncture Expectancy Scale (AES) as an instrument to measure patients’ expected responses to acupuncture. Methods Participants were patients with stage I to III cancers seen in outpatient medical and radiation oncology clinics. They were drawn from three study cohorts that included 404 participants. We examined the reliability, validity and responsiveness of AES. Results The scores of AES had internal consistency (Cronbach’s ? coefficient) of 0.95 and test-retest reliability of 0.62 over four weeks without acupuncture treatment. Those who had previously used acupuncture had higher AES compared to those who were acupuncture naïve (12.4 vs. 9.5, p=0.002). AES was higher in those who reported willingness to participate in an acupuncture trial compared to those who did not want to participate in an acupuncture trial (11.5 vs. 8.1, p<0.001). Those patients who enrolled in a pilot trial of acupuncture had higher AES score than the general outpatient population (13.0 vs. 9.8, p=0.02), and expectancy increased during the course of acupuncture treatment (13.0 to 16.5, p<0.017). Conclusion The AES is reliable and valid, and scores appear to increase during or after prior therapy. Incorporation of AES in clinical trials and outcome studies can evaluate the role of expectancy on acupuncture outcomes. PMID:21280459
Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?
Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald
2014-01-01
Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404
Moduli space metric for maximally-charged dilaton black holes
Kiyoshi Shiraishi
2014-07-21
The system consisting of slowly-moving, maximally charged, nonrotating dilaton black holes is investigated. We obtain the metric on the moduli space of the system in the low-velocity limit. We find that: (1) only two-body interactions exist between the extreme black holes in string theory; (2) the mutual interaction between the black holes vanishes if the dilaton can be interpreted as a Kaluza-Klein scalar; and (3) for general dilaton couplings, there exist many-body interactions among the extreme black holes. We analyze the low-energy classical scattering of the two extreme black holes in string theory by utilizing the moduli space metric.
TRENDS IN SENESCENT LIFE EXPECTANCY
Bongaarts, John
2009-01-01
The distinction between senescent and non-senescent mortality proves to be very valuable for describing and analyzing age patterns of death rates. Unfortunately, standard methods for estimating these mortality components are lacking. The first part of this study discusses alternative methods for estimating background and senescent mortality among adults and proposes a simple approach based on death rates by causes of death. The second part examines trends in senescent life expectancy (i.e. the life expectancy implied by senescent mortality) and compares them with trends in conventional longevity indicators between 1960 and 2000 in a group of 17 developed countries with low mortality. Senescent life expectancy for females rises at an average rate of 1.54 years per decade between 1960 and 2000 in these countries. The shape of the distribution of senescent deaths by age remains relatively invariant while the entire distribution shifts over time to higher ages as longevity rose. PMID:19851933
A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model
Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-02-17
We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.
A maximally supersymmetric Kondo model
Sarah Harrison; Shamit Kachru; Gonzalo Torroba
2012-02-17
We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N=4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial three-sphere in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.
A maximally supersymmetric Kondo model
Harrison, Sarah; Torroba, Gonzalo
2011-01-01
We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N=4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux pie...
Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities
Kodama, Hideo
2015-01-01
We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of ${\\rm SO}(4,4)$ and ${\\rm SO}(5,3)$ dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter vacuum. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the {\\bf 36} and {\\bf 36'} representations of ${\\rm SL}(8)$, we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the ${\\rm SO}(3)\\times {\\rm SO}(3)$-invariant subsectors of ${\\rm SO}(4,4)$ and ${\\rm SO}(5,3)$ gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the ${\\rm SO}(4,4)$ gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in thi...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2008-01-01
Glary Utilities offers this free application to help users improve their system's performance and also protect their privacy. After installing the application, users can remove and back up faculty registry entries, along with offering a secure file deletion feature. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer.
Coute, W.A. (ed.)
1983-01-01
Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources (Cunia, T.); Aerial photo biomass equation (Kasile, J.); Forest biomass utilization in Greece (Tsoumis, C.); Mass propagation of selected trees for biomass by tissue culture (Venketeswaran, S. et al.); The anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of wood (Coete, W.A.); Some structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis lignins (Papadopoulos, J.); Thermochemical routes to chemicals, fuels and energy from forestry and agricultural residues (Soltes, E.J.); Pyrolysis of wood wastes (Figueiredo, J.L. et al.); Efficient utilization of woody biomass: a cellulose-particleboard-synfuels model (Young, R.A.; Achmadi, S.); and Methanol from wood, a state of the art review (Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van).
Expectations for computational fluid dynamics
John C. Vassberg
2005-01-01
This article presents a sampling of the author's expectations for the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the areas of research, development and application. The primary focus of the discussion herein is related to the non-linear transonic flow regime, and more specifically, for calculations about commercial transport aircraft. However, many of these topics are pertinent to all flow field
Reflexive Expectation Formation Timo Ehrig
Jost, Jürgen
, and macroeconomic quantities, agents need not only take into account their belief regarding fundamental values there is a fundamental uncertainty about the market process, like after financial crises? How does the formation entertain higher order beliefs regarding the expectations of other economic agents, which are the basis
Expectancy Bias in Trait Anxiety
Calais K. Y. Chan; Peter F. Lovibond
1996-01-01
The ability of anxious and control participants to learn about signals for danger and safety was tested within an autonomic conditioned inhibition (A+\\/AB?) procedure. Only participants who could verbalize the differential contingencies between the stimuli and shock (aware participants) showed discrimination on electrodermal and shock expectancy measures. In Experiment 1, aware high-anxious participants showed similar responding to control participants. However
Does expectancy affect alcohol absorption?
Shirley Cole-Harding; Vicki J. Michels
2007-01-01
Many factors influence alcohol absorption, yet few studies have addressed the issue of whether or not experimental manipulations themselves may affect alcohol absorption. The current balanced placebo design study comparing the expectancy effects of root beer and non-alcoholic beer vehicles resulted in significantly lower blood alcohol levels in the root beer condition than in the beer condition even though alcohol
Ambiguity and rational expectations equilibria
Jayant V Ganguli; Scott Condie
2008-01-01
This paper proves the existence and robustness of partially-revealing rational expectations equilibria (REE) when this equilibrium concept is expanded to allow for some agents to have preferences that display ambiguity aversion. Furthermore, the generic existence of fully- revealing REE is proven for a commonly-used subset of the class of ambiguity averse preferences. This finding illustrates that models with ambiguity aversion
Career Expectations of Accounting Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis
2010-01-01
The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…
PARENTING WORKSHOP SERIES Expecting Parents
Loudon, Catherine
PARENTING WORKSHOP SERIES Expecting Parents Learn how to navigate the UCI Disability leave process 200 Infant and Child First Aid and CPR Be Prepared. Learn and practice the proper techniques Lam. 12-1PM ARC Kitchen/Classroom. 680 California Ave. Adult First Aid and CPR Learn and practice
Double-Entry Expectancy Tables.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wesman, Alexander G.
1966-01-01
Double-entry expectancy tables are used to make admissions, guidance, or employment decisions based on two predictors. Examples of their use in showing relationships between high school and college performance are explained. The advantages of double-entry expectacy tables given are: (1) relative simplicity of preparation requiring no formal…
Acquiring Procedural Knowledge in EXPECT
Yolanda Gil; Jim Blythe; Jihie Kim; Surya Ramachandran
2000-01-01
The EXPECT project has focused on acquiring problem- solving knowledge for users for the last decade, using an expressive language that is open to inspection. Our aim has been to alleviate the bottleneck in creating knowledge-based systems by providing support for both knowledge engineers and end users to specify problem-solving knowledge. In this paper we summarize selected areas of current
Tourism motivation and expectation formation
Juergen Gnoth
1997-01-01
This theoretical study introduces a model of tourism motivation and expectation formation. It is based on a discussion and operationalization of both the behaviorist notion of drive reduction and the cognitivist constructs of attitudes and values. While the satisfaction of inner-directed values and motivations depends on classes of objects, outer-directed values target specific objects. In the case of trying to
Expected Case for Projecting Points
Sergio Cabello; Matt Devos; Bojan Mohar
2006-01-01
We consider the expected case of projecting points onto a random graduated line, provided that the closest pair of the point set is at least at distance one. For point sets consisting of n points, there is a lower bound of ( ? nlogn) given by Matouÿsek in (4). We show an upper
Maximizing the Minimum Load for Selfish Agents
Leah Epstein; Rob Van Stee
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of maximizing the minimum load for machines that are controlled by selfish agents, who are only interested in maximizing their o wn profit. Unlike the regular load balancing problem, this problem has not been considered in this context before. For a constant number of machines, m, we show a monotone polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS) with
Maximizing the minimum load for selfish agents
Leah Epstein; Rob Van Stee
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of maximizing the minimum load (completion time) for machines that are controlled by selfish agents, who are only interested in maximizing their own profit. Unlike the classical load balancing problem, this problem has not been considered for selfish agents until now. The goal is to design a truthful mechanism, i.e., one in which all users have
Maximal complements in finite groups Martyn Quick
St Andrews, University of
Maximal complements in finite groups Martyn Quick School of Mathematics and Statistics X . The maxi mal subgroups of G which complement N and their conjugacy classes are parametrised Introduction In [8], Parker and the author classified maximal subgroups of a wreath prod uct which complement
Maximal complements in finite groups Martyn Quick
St Andrews, University of
Maximal complements in finite groups Martyn Quick School of Mathematics and Statistics X. The maxi- mal subgroups of G which complement N and their conjugacy classes are parametrised Introduction In [8], Parker and the author classified maximal subgroups of a wreath prod- uct which complement
SETTING-UP AND PAYING UTILITIES SIGNING UP FOR UTILITY SERVICE
Bogaerts, Steven
SETTING-UP AND PAYING UTILITIES SIGNING UP FOR UTILITY SERVICE When you sign up for utility before signing up for service: Do I have to pay a deposit? How much is the deposit? When can I expect of your name at the end of the school year. If you made a deposit when you signed up for service, find
Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda
2004-01-01
The Micro-Arcsecond Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imaging mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 microarcsecond imaging. To achieve mission requirements, MAXIM will have to improve on pointing by orders of magnitude. This pointing requirement impacts the control and design of the formation. Currently the architecture is comprised of 25 spacecraft, which will form the sparse apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This configuration will deploy 24 spacecraft as optics modules and one as the detector. The formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis and trades of several control efforts that are dependent upon the pointing requirements and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions that minimize the control efforts and we address both continuous and discrete control via LQR and feedback linearization. Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.
Wilén, B M; Lumley, D; Nordqvist, A
2004-01-01
Secondary settling dynamics at maximal capacity were investigated at a full scale wastewater treatment plant which utilizes a unique process solution incorporating pre-denitrification with post-nitrification in nitrifying trickling filters. Since nitrogen removal is greater when more secondary effluent is recirculated to the trickling filters, the secondary settlers generally operate at close to their maximal capacity. The settling and flocculation properties of the activated sludge are therefore a major capacity-determining factor for plant operation. Due to the short sludge age, the flocculation properties, with respect to both thickening and clarification, can change quickly. The dynamics in these changes were studied and the factors that determine the maximal settling capacity were assessed. Solids flux curves were constructed from batch settling tests and compared with the actual maximal settling capacities. PMID:15553475
An expectation-based memory deficit in aging
Bollinger, Jacob; Rubens, Michael T.; Masangkay, Edrick; Kalkstein, Jonathan; Gazzaley, Adam
2011-01-01
Memory performance can be enhanced by expectations regarding the appearance of ensuing stimuli. Here, we investigated the influence of stimulus-category expectation on memory performance in aging, and used fMRI to explore age-related alterations in associated neural mechanisms. Unlike younger adults, who demonstrated both working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance benefits for face stimuli when this stimulus category was expected, older adults did not exhibit these memory benefits. Concordantly, older adults did not exhibit expectation-period activity modulation in visual association cortex (i.e., fusiform face area (FFA)). However, within the older population, individuals who demonstrated face-expectation memory benefits also exhibited expectation-period FFA activity modulation equivalent to younger adults. The older cohort also displayed diminished expectation-related functional connectivity between regions of the prefrontal cortex and the FFA, relative to younger adults, suggesting that network alterations underlie the absence of expectation-mediated cortical modulation and memory benefits. This deficit may have broader consequences for the effective utilization of predictive cues to guide attention and engender optimal cognitive performance in older individuals. PMID:21272595
Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kodama, Hideo; Nozawa, Masato
2015-05-01
We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter critical point. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the {36} and {36'} representations of SL(8), we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the SO(3)× SO(3)-invariant subsectors of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the SO(4,4) gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in this sector near the Dall'Agata-Inverso de Sitter critical point at which the negative eigenvalue of the scalar mass square with the largest modulus goes to zero as the deformation parameter s approaches a critical value sc. We find that when the deformation parameter s is taken sufficiently close to the critical value, inflation lasts more than 60 e-folds even if the initial point of the inflaton allows an O(0.1) deviation in Planck units from the Dall'Agata-Inverso critical point. It turns out that the spectral index ns of the curvature perturbation at the time of the 60 e-folding number is always about 0.96 and within the 1? range ns=0.9639±0.0047 obtained by Planck, irrespective of the value of the ? parameter at the critical saddle point. The tensor-scalar ratio predicted by this model is around 10?3 and is close to the value in the Starobinsky model.
Computing Partial Expectations from Tables
Jörg Grüner; Klaus Zoller
1997-01-01
Many applications in inventory control, reliability engineering and preventive maintenance involve frequent calculations of\\u000a probabilities and partial expectations. In the design of high-volume computer-based applications recourse to internal tables\\u000a may therefore be preferable to an import of statistical packages. While interpolation in tabulated cdf’s will often prove\\u000a sufficiently accurate from the point of view of statistical representation of the underlying
Televisions, Physicians, and Life Expectancy
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Rossman, Allan
This article, created by Allan Rossman of Dickinson College, describes a dataset on life expectancies, densities of people per television set, and densities of people per physician in various countries of the world. The example addresses correlation versus causation and data transformations. The author states that "the example has proven very useful for helping students to discover the fundamental principle that correlation does not imply causation."
Richard W. Richardson; Gary P. Maul
2001-01-01
Robust process design seeks to maximize the process performance, taking into account uncertainty in the “noise” factors that cannot be controlled. A methodology for robust process design is presented that is based on direct minimization of the expected loss. The proposed methods are compared with alternatives, including methods based on Taguchi's signal-to-noise ratios. Several formulations of the expected loss are
Task-Oriented Maximally Entangled States
Pankaj Agrawal; B. Pradhan
2007-08-16
We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the tasks for which a quantum state is used as the resource. This concept may be more fruitful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for {\\em n}-qubit systems.
Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.
2011-01-01
Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…
VALUATION DOMAINS WITH A MAXIMAL IMMEDIATE EXTENSION OF FINITE RANK.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
VALUATION DOMAINS WITH A MAXIMAL IMMEDIATE EXTENSION OF FINITE RANK. FRANC¸OIS COUCHOT Abstract. If R is a valuation domain of maximal ideal P with a maximal immediate extension of finite rank holds if R has a maximal immediate extension of rank 2. Let R be a valuation domain of maximal ideal P
[Marital status and life expectancy].
Chen, M C; Lee, M L
1997-06-01
"[Many] researchers [have] used RMR (Relative Mortality Rate) to study marital status and mortality trying to reveal the selection and protection effects of marriage on death. This study instead employs life table technique to analyze their effects on life expectancy. Although this study does not intend to differentiate the relative importance between selection and protection effects,...modeling various hypothetical cohort's marital experiences in [the] life course allows us to control all [factors other] than the sole effect of marital status." (EXCERPT) PMID:12222460
Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation
Ming Li; Shao-Ming Fei; Xianqing Li-Jost
2011-02-25
We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively.
Brief Communications Auditory Cortical Neurons Convey Maximal
Oregon, University of
on neuronal variability (Butts and Goldman, 2006). When trial-to-trial variability is high, a model neuron of neuronal variability. Which regions of the tuning curve convey maximal informa- tion in real neurons? Butts
Managing Milk Composition: Maximizing Rumen Function
Stokes, Sandra R.; Jordan, Ellen R.; Looper, Mike; Waldner, Dan
2000-12-11
Feeding strategies that optimize rumen function also maximize milk production and milk component percentages and yield. This publication offers guidelines for feeding forage, grain protein and ration fiber to enhance rumen function....
Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited
Hirofumi Tanaka; Kevin D Monahan; Douglas R Seals
2001-01-01
OBJECTIVESWe sought to determine a generalized equation for predicting maximal heart rate (HRmax) in healthy adults.BACKGROUNDThe age-predicted HRmax equation (i.e., 220 ? age) is commonly used as a basis for prescribing exercise programs, as a criterion for achieving maximal exertion and as a clinical guide during diagnostic exercise testing. Despite its importance and widespread use, the validity of the HRmax
Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation
Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki [Department of Physics, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)
2005-09-01
We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases.
Some properties of maximally entangled ELW game
Katarzyna Bolonek-Lason; Piotr Kosinski
2013-05-10
The Eisert et al. maximally entangled quantum game is studied within the framework of (elementary) group theory. It is shown that the game can be described in terms of real Hilbert space of states. It is also shown that the crucial properties of the maximally entangled case, like quaternionic structure and the existence, to any given strategy, the corresponding counterstrategy, result from the existence of large stability subgroup of initial state of the game.
Motor activity improves temporal expectancy.
Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth
2015-01-01
Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813
Understanding violations of Gricean maxims in preschoolers and adults
Okanda, Mako; Asada, Kosuke; Moriguchi, Yusuke; Itakura, Shoji
2015-01-01
This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants' understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity), avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity), be truthful (maxim of quality), be relevant (maxim of relation), avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner), and be polite (maxim of politeness). Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds' understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner), and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Gender wage gap in expectations and realizations
Antonio Filippin; Andrea Ichino
2005-01-01
Realized wages are affected by investments and signals concerning productivity, which workers undertake on the basis of expectations on future job prospects. Thus, the gender wage gap is also likely to depend on workers' expectations. Using data on wage expectations of students and wage realizations of graduates from the same University (Bocconi, Italy), we show that the expected gender gap
Dopaminergic Balance between Reward Maximization and Policy Complexity
Parush, Naama; Tishby, Naftali; Bergman, Hagai
2011-01-01
Previous reinforcement-learning models of the basal ganglia network have highlighted the role of dopamine in encoding the mismatch between prediction and reality. Far less attention has been paid to the computational goals and algorithms of the main-axis (actor). Here, we construct a top-down model of the basal ganglia with emphasis on the role of dopamine as both a reinforcement learning signal and as a pseudo-temperature signal controlling the general level of basal ganglia excitability and motor vigilance of the acting agent. We argue that the basal ganglia endow the thalamic-cortical networks with the optimal dynamic tradeoff between two constraints: minimizing the policy complexity (cost) and maximizing the expected future reward (gain). We show that this multi-dimensional optimization processes results in an experience-modulated version of the softmax behavioral policy. Thus, as in classical softmax behavioral policies, probability of actions are selected according to their estimated values and the pseudo-temperature, but in addition also vary according to the frequency of previous choices of these actions. We conclude that the computational goal of the basal ganglia is not to maximize cumulative (positive and negative) reward. Rather, the basal ganglia aim at optimization of independent gain and cost functions. Unlike previously suggested single-variable maximization processes, this multi-dimensional optimization process leads naturally to a softmax-like behavioral policy. We suggest that beyond its role in the modulation of the efficacy of the cortico-striatal synapses, dopamine directly affects striatal excitability and thus provides a pseudo-temperature signal that modulates the tradeoff between gain and cost. The resulting experience and dopamine modulated softmax policy can then serve as a theoretical framework to account for the broad range of behaviors and clinical states governed by the basal ganglia and dopamine systems. PMID:21603228
An Expectancy Model of Laboratory Preparedness Effects
Graham C. L. Davey
1992-01-01
Experiments investigating differential unconditioned stimulus (UCS) expectancy during fear-relevant (prepared) and fear-irrelevant (unprepared) stimuli revealed that (a) a UCS expectancy bias is apparent before conditioning, (b) initial differential UCS expectancy appears in spite of instructions informing the Ss of no UCS presentations, (c) differential UCS expectancies to fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli dissipate with continued nonreinforcement, (d) differential UCS expectancies may
Maximizing System Throughput by Cooperative Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks
Li, Shuang; Ekici, Eylem; Shroff, Ness
2011-01-01
Cognitive Radio Networks allow unlicensed users to opportunistically access the licensed spectrum without causing disruptive interference to the primary users (PUs). One of the main challenges in CRNs is the ability to detect PU transmissions. Recent works have suggested the use of secondary user (SU) cooperation over individual sensing to improve sensing accuracy. In this paper, we consider a CRN consisting of a single PU and multiple SUs to study the problem of maximizing the total expected system throughput. We propose a Bayesian decision rule based algorithm to solve the problem optimally with a constant time complexity. To prioritize PU transmissions, we re-formulate the throughput maximization problem by adding a constraint on the PU throughput. The constrained optimization problem is shown to be NP-hard and solved via a greedy algorithm with pseudo-polynomial time complexity that achieves strictly greater than 1/2 of the optimal solution. We also investigate the case for which a constraint is put on th...
Effect of creatine feeding on maximal exercise performance in vegetarians.
Shomrat, A; Weinstein, Y; Katz, A
2000-07-01
The effect of creatine supplementation on exercise performance in vegetarians was examined. Creatine was ingested for 1 week by a group of vegetarians (VC) and meat-eaters (MC); a control group of meat-eaters was fed only glucose (MG). Exercise performance during three, 20-s maximal cycling tests (modified Wingate anaerobic test, WAnT) was determined before and after creatine supplementation. Blood samples were also drawn before and after exercise prior to and after supplementation. Basal plasma creatine (after an overnight fast) averaged (SE) 11 (2) microM in VC, and 24 (2) and 23 (7) microM in MG and MC, respectively (P < 0.05 for VC vs meat-eaters). These findings were expected, since most of the body's exogenous creatine source is meat. There was no significant difference in any other parameter between groups prior to supplementation. Creatine feedings significantly increased body mass (approximately 1 kg) and mean power output during the WAnTs (approximately 5%) to a similar extent in the VC and MC groups (P < 0.05-0.001). These parameters were not affected by supplementation in the MG group. Peak power output was also significantly increased by supplementation in MC (approximately 5%, P < 0.05), but not in VC. It is concluded that vegetarians and meat-eaters respond to creatine feedings with similar increases in mean power output during short-term, maximal exercise. PMID:10958375
Price of anarchy is maximized at the percolation threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skinner, Brian
2015-05-01
When many independent users try to route traffic through a network, the flow can easily become suboptimal as a consequence of congestion of the most efficient paths. The degree of this suboptimality is quantified by the so-called price of anarchy (POA), but so far there are no general rules for when to expect a large POA in a random network. Here I address this question by introducing a simple model of flow through a network with randomly placed congestible and incongestible links. I show that the POA is maximized precisely when the fraction of congestible links matches the percolation threshold of the lattice. Both the POA and the total cost demonstrate critical scaling near the percolation threshold.
On a nonstandard Brownian motion and its maximal function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrade, Bernardo B. de
2015-07-01
This article uses Radically Elementary Probability Theory (REPT) to prove results about the Wiener walk (the radically elementary Brownian motion) without the technical apparatus required by stochastic integration. The techniques used replace measure-theoretic tools by discrete probability and the rigorous use of infinitesimals. Specifically, REPT is applied to the results in Palacios (The American Statistician, 2008) to calculate certain expectations related to the Wiener walk and its maximal function. Because Palacios uses mostly combinatorics and no measure theory his results carry over through REPT with minimal changes. The paper also presents a construction of the Wiener walk which is intended to mimic the construction of Brownian motion from "continuous" white noise. A brief review of the nonstandard model on which REPT is based is given in the Appendix in order to minimize the need for previous exposure to the subject.
Maximal Holevo Quantity Based on Weak Measurements
Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
The Holevo bound is a keystone in many applications of quantum information theory. We propose “ maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements” as the generalization of the maximal Holevo quantity which is defined by the optimal projective measurements. The scenarios that weak measurements is necessary are that only the weak measurements can be performed because for example the system is macroscopic or that one intentionally tries to do so such that the disturbance on the measured system can be controlled for example in quantum key distribution protocols. We evaluate systematically the maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements for Bell-diagonal states and find a series of results. Furthermore, we find that weak measurements can be realized by noise and project measurements. PMID:26090962
Factors in maximal power production and in exercise endurance relative to maximal power
J. F. Patton; W. J. Kraemer; H. G. Knuttgen; E. A. Harman
1990-01-01
Summary The relationship of muscle fiber type and mass to maximal power production and the maintenance of power (endurance time to exhaustion) at 36%, 55%, and 73% of maximal power was investigated in 18 untrained but physically active men. Power output was determined at constant pedalling rate (60 rev · min–1) on a cycle ergometer instrumented with force transducers and interfaced
Uplink Array Calibration via Far-Field Power Maximization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, V.; Mukai, R.; Lee, D.
2006-01-01
Uplink antenna arrays have the potential to greatly increase the Deep Space Network s high-data-rate uplink capabilities as well as useful range, and to provide additional uplink signal power during critical spacecraft emergencies. While techniques for calibrating an array of receive antennas have been addressed previously, proven concepts for uplink array calibration have yet to be demonstrated. This article describes a method of utilizing the Moon as a natural far-field reflector for calibrating a phased array of uplink antennas. Using this calibration technique, the radio frequency carriers transmitted by each antenna of the array are optimally phased to ensure that the uplink power received by the spacecraft is maximized.
Maximize crude unit No. 2 oil yield design and operation
Sloley, A.W. [Process Consulting Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)
1997-05-01
Recent refinery industry trends are to optimize crude unit operation with advanced control technology such as real-time-optimization. One potential crude unit optimization objective could be maximizing diesel product yields and minimizing the quantity of diesel boiling range material in the FCC feed. Appropriately designed advanced process control technology for a crude unit can be used to fully utilize existing equipment performance. The advanced process control scheme (or operator) can adjust the appropriate process variables to optimize the diesel yields against the current unit limitations. Process and equipment design changes may nevertheless be required to fully implement the diesel product optimization, depending on the crude unit equipment limitations. Therefore, crude unit process variable optimization and potential equipment design issues should be carefully addressed. While each refinery crude unit`s design, operation and equipment constraints are different, the fundamental operating variables and the process and equipment design issues are common to all crude units.
Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti
2015-12-01
Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes the major source of uncertainty.
Obesity and Trends in Life Expectancy
Walls, Helen L.; Backholer, Kathryn; Proietto, Joseph; McNeil, John J.
2012-01-01
Background. Increasing levels of obesity over recent decades have been expected to lead to an epidemic of diabetes and a subsequent reduction in life expectancy, but instead all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality rates have decreased steadily in most developed countries and life expectancy has increased. Methods. This paper suggests several factors that may be masking the effects of obesity on life expectancy. Results. It is possible that health and life expectancy gains could be even greater if it was not for the increasing prevalence of extreme obesity. It is also possible that the principal impact of obesity is on disability-free life expectancy rather than on life expectancy itself. Conclusion. If the principal impact of obesity were through disability-free life expectancy rather than on life expectancy itself, this would have substantial implications for the health of individuals and the future burden on the health care system. PMID:22655173
Integrated life sciences technology utilization development program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
The goal of the TU program was to maximize the development of operable hardware and systems which will be of substantial benefit to the public. Five working prototypes were developed, and a meal system for the elderly is now undergoing evaluation. Manpower utilization is shown relative to the volume of requests in work for each month. The ASTP mobile laboratories and post Skylab bedrest study are also described.
Quantifying maximal loss of anonymity in protocols
Han Chen; Pasquale Malacaria
2009-01-01
There is a natural intuitive match between anonymity and information theory. In particular, the maximal anonymity loss in anonymity protocols can be matched to the information theoretical notion of channel capacity. However, there is also a significant mismatch between the theories and reality: current theories can only characterize channel capacity based upon certain assumptions of symmetry, which are rarely satisfied
Time machines, maximal extensions and Zorn's lemma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Low, Robert J.
2012-05-01
We consider the use of Zorn's lemma in establishing the existence of maximal extensions of spacetimes, and consider Krasnikov's theorem (Krasnikov 2002 Class. Quantum Grav. 19 4109-29) on the non-existence of time machines in the light of these considerations.
Maximal Indecomposable Past Sets and Event Horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Królak, Andrzej
1984-02-01
The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown.
Maximizing the Motivated Mind for Emergent Giftedness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rea, Dan
2001-01-01
This article explains how the theory of the motivated mind conceptualizes the productive interaction of intelligence, creativity, and achievement motivation and how this theory can help educators to maximize students' emergent potential for giftedness. It discusses the integration of cold-order thinking and hot-chaotic thinking into fluid-adaptive…
Maximal Brownian motions Jean Brossard1
Boyer, Edmond
Maximal Brownian motions Jean Brossard1 , Michel Â´Emery2 , and Christophe Leuridan3 1 Institut-Martin-d'H`eres Cedex, France christophe.leuridan@ujf-grenoble.fr Summary. Let Z = (X, Y ) be a planar Brownian motion, Z the filtration it gen- erates, and B a linear Brownian motion in the filtration Z. One says that B
MAXIMAL FUNCTION ON GENERALIZED LEBESGUE SPACES Lp(·)
L. DIENING
We prove the boundedness of the Hardy-Littlewood maximal function on the general- ized Lebesgue space Lp(·)(Rd) under a continuity assumption on p that is weaker than uniform H¨ older continuity. We deduce continuity of mollifying sequences and density of C?(?) in W1,p(·)(?).
JWST: MAXIMIZING EFFICIENCY AND MINIMIZING GROUND SYSTEMS
Ilana Dashevsky
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will use an innovative event-driven architecture, which will maximize the flexibility of telescope operations. The autonomy of the event-driven system provides commanding of the spacecraft and science instruments based on the telemetry response. In the event of a failure, the telescope will continue with the portions of the science observation plan unaffected by the
Formation Control for the Maxim Mission.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.
2004-01-01
Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the spacebased scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today's technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. The Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the same order of those for MAXIM. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; (2) the formation control architecture devised for such missions; (3) the design of the formation control laws to maintain very high precision relative positions; and (4) the levels of fuel usage required in the duration of these missions. Specific preliminary results are presented for two spacecraft within the MAXIM mission.
Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar-
O'Laughlin, Jay
Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar- beet yields while minimizing disease- cially with furrow irrigation. Root diseases such as rhizomania and rhizoctonia root and crown rots will be reduced. Unnecessary irrigations can be reduced if grow- ers use information on water status at deeper
Maximizing the Storage Capacity of Nonvolatile Memories
Jiang, Anxiao "Andrew"
memories, phase-change memories, etc.). We derive its storage capacity, and analyze its performance on rewriting data. I. INTRODUCTION For nonvolatile memories (NVMs) including flash mem- ories, phase-changeMaximizing the Storage Capacity of Nonvolatile Memories Anxiao (Andrew) Jiang Computer Science
Efficient Seeds Computation Michalis Christou, Maxime Crochemore,
Lonardi, Stefano
Efficient Seeds Computation Revisited Michalis Christou, Maxime Crochemore, Costas S. Iliopoulos a b a Seed: every letter of the string is covered by some occurrence of the seed, occurrences may. Another problem: Seed computation find the shortest seed (all the seeds) of a string 4/1 #12;Main related
Maximizing Technology for Children with Hearing Loss
O'Toole, Alice J.
Systems, and Cochlear Implants Linda M Thibodeau, Ph.D. Professor University of Texas at Dallas Callier SYSTEMS WITH COCHLEAR IMPLANTS 3G Speech Processor with Phonak MLxS FM Receiver #12;2/7/2012 6 Demo of CI2/7/2012 1 Maximizing Technology for Children with Hearing Loss: Verification of Hearing Aids, FM
Protein Function Prediction Using Dependence Maximization
Domeniconi, Carlotta
Protein Function Prediction Using Dependence Maximization Guoxian Yu1 , Carlotta Domeniconi2@scut.edu.cn Abstract. Protein function prediction is one of the fundamental tasks in the post genomic era. The vast amount of available proteomic data makes it possible to computationally annotate proteins. Most computa
Maximal Controllability for Boundary Control Problems
Engel, Klaus-Jochen, E-mail: engel@ing.univaq.i [University of L'Aquila, Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics (Italy); Kramar Fijavz, Marjeta, E-mail: marjeta.kramar@fgg.uni-lj.s [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering (Slovenia); Kloess, Bernd, E-mail: bekl@fa.uni-tuebingen.de; Nagel, Rainer, E-mail: rana@fa.uni-tuebingen.d [University of Tuebingen, Mathematics Institute (Germany); Sikolya, Eszter, E-mail: seszter@cs.elte.h [Eoetvoes Lorand University Budapest, Department of Applied Analysis (Hungary)
2010-10-15
We develop a semigroup approach to abstract boundary control problems which allows to characterize the space of all approximately reachable states. We then introduce the 'maximal reachability space' giving an upper bound for this space. The abstract results are applied to the flow in a network controlled in a single vertex.
A Model of College Tuition Maximization
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.
2009-01-01
This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…
MAXIMAL PRIME DIVISORS IN ARITHMETICAL RINGS Introduction ...
In this sense, the maximal prime divisors of an ideal of a Noetherian ring ... The results that lay the groundwork for this theorem touch on several interesting ..... without loss of generality that s = 1; that is, we assume for the rest of the proof.
Network lifetime maximization via sensor selection
Yilin Mo; Ling Shit; Roberto Ambrosino; Bruno Sinopoli
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider the state estimation carried over a sensor network. At each time step, only a subset of all sensors are selected to send their observations to the fusion center, where a Kalman filter is implemented to perform the state estimation. The sensors are selected to maximize the lifetime of the network while maintaining a desired quality
Maximally discordant mixed states of two qubits
Fernando Galve; Gian Luca Giorgi; Roberta Zambrini
2011-01-01
We study the relative strength of classical and quantum correlations, as measured by discord, for two-qubit states. Quantum correlations appear only in the presence of classical correlations, while the reverse is not always true. We identify the family of states that maximize the discord for a given value of the classical correlations and show that the largest attainable discord for
Maximizing the Phytonutrient Content of Potatoes
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
We are exploring to what extent the rich genetic diversity of potatoes can be used to maximize the nutritional potential of potatoes. Metabolic profiling is being used to screen potatoes for genotypes with elevated amounts of vitamins and phytonutrients. Substantial differences in phytonutrients am...
Toward mining of spatiotemporal maximal frequent patterns
Malerba, Donato
spatiotemporal data including envi- ronmental and medical data, keystroke dynamics data or text. We intro- duceToward mining of spatiotemporal maximal frequent patterns Lubos Popel´insk´y and Jan Blat´ak KD Lab show that propositional spatiotemporal logic PSTL is a powerful tool for mining in various
How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Lewis
2014-01-01
In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…
Maximizing the Lifetime of Dominating Sets
Thomas Moscibroda; Roger Wattenhofer
2005-01-01
We investigate the problem of maximizing the lifetime of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. Being battery pow- ered, nodes in such networks have to perform their intended task under rigid energy restrictions that forces the design- ers to impose a judicious power management and schedul- ing. For the purpose of saving energy, dominating set based clustering has turned out
THE STRUCTURE OF FACTOR ORACLES MAXIME CROCHEMORE
Boyer, Edmond
introduce a framework where various oracles can be compared. The factor oracle is better than several of a string the factor oracle is a particular case here and build a framework for comparing such oraclesTHE STRUCTURE OF FACTOR ORACLES MAXIME CROCHEMORE Institut Gaspard-Monge, Universit´e de Marne
Supply Chain Network Design Under Profit Maximization
Nagurney, Anna
Chain Anna Nagurney Supply Chain Network Design Under Competition #12;Examples of Supply Chains food;Food Supply Chains Anna Nagurney Supply Chain Network Design Under Competition #12;High Tech ProductsSupply Chain Network Design Under Profit Maximization and Oligopolistic Competition Anna Nagurney
Violated expectancies: Cause and function of exploration, fear, and aggression.
van Kampen, Hendrik S
2015-08-01
To be able to reproduce, animals need to survive and interact with an ever changing environment. Therefore, they create a cognitive representation of that environment, from which they derive expectancies regarding current and future events. These expected events are compared continuously with information gathered through exploration, to guide behaviour and update the existing representation. When a moderate discrepancy between perceived and expected events is detected, exploration is employed to update the internal representation so as to alter the expectancy and make it match the perceived event. When the discrepancy is relatively large, exploration is inhibited, and animals will try to alter the perceived event utilizing aggression or fear. The largest discrepancies are associated with a tendency to flee. When an exploratory, fear, or aggressive behaviour pattern proofs to be the optimal solution for a particular discrepancy, the response will become conditioned to events that previously preceded the occurrence of that discrepancy. When primary needs are relatively low, animals will actively look for or create moderately violated expectancies in order to learn about objects, behaviour patterns, and the environment. In those situations, exploratory tendencies will summate with ongoing behaviour and, when all primary needs are satiated, may even be performed exclusively. This results in behavioural variability, play, and active information-seeking. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. PMID:24878517
STOCK MARKET CRASH AND EXPECTATIONS OF AMERICAN HOUSEHOLDS.
Hudomiet, Péter; Kézdi, Gábor; Willis, Robert J
2011-01-01
This paper utilizes data on subjective probabilities to study the impact of the stock market crash of 2008 on households' expectations about the returns on the stock market index. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study that was fielded in February 2008 through February 2009. The effect of the crash is identified from the date of the interview, which is shown to be exogenous to previous stock market expectations. We estimate the effect of the crash on the population average of expected returns, the population average of the uncertainty about returns (subjective standard deviation), and the cross-sectional heterogeneity in expected returns (disagreement). We show estimates from simple reduced-form regressions on probability answers as well as from a more structural model that focuses on the parameters of interest and separates survey noise from relevant heterogeneity. We find a temporary increase in the population average of expectations and uncertainty right after the crash. The effect on cross-sectional heterogeneity is more significant and longer lasting, which implies substantial long-term increase in disagreement. The increase in disagreement is larger among the stockholders, the more informed, and those with higher cognitive capacity, and disagreement co-moves with trading volume and volatility in the market. PMID:21547244
Siting samplers to minimize expected time to detection.
Walter, Travis; Lorenzetti, David M; Sohn, Michael D
2012-12-01
We present a probabilistic approach to designing an indoor sampler network for detecting an accidental or intentional chemical or biological release, and demonstrate it for a real building. In an earlier article, Sohn and Lorenzetti developed a proof of concept algorithm that assumed samplers could return measurements only slowly (on the order of hours). This led to optimal "detect to treat" architectures that maximize the probability of detecting a release. This article develops a more general approach and applies it to samplers that can return measurements relatively quickly (in minutes). This leads to optimal "detect to warn" architectures that minimize the expected time to detection. Using a model of a real, large, commercial building, we demonstrate the approach by optimizing networks against uncertain release locations, source terms, and sampler characteristics. Finally, we speculate on rules of thumb for general sampler placement. PMID:22551059
Community Expectations of College Completion and Attendance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Derden, Michael Wade
2011-01-01
Communities relay expectations of behavior that influence residents' decision making processes. The study's purpose was to define and identify social, cultural, and human capital variables relevant to understanding community expectations of postsecondary attainment. The study sought an operational model of community expectancy that would allow…
Learning, Adaptive Expectations and Technology Shocks &ast
Kevin X. D. Huang; Zheng Liu; Tao Zha
2009-01-01
This study explores the macroeconomic implications of adaptive expectations in a standard growth model. We show that the self-confirming equilibrium under adaptive expectations is the same as the steady state rational expectations equilibrium for all admissible parameter values, but that dynamics around the steady state are substantially different between the two equilibria. The differences are driven mainly by the dampened
Do expectations matter? The Great Moderation revisited
Fabio Canova; Luca Gambetti
2008-01-01
We examine the role of expectations in the Great Moderation episode. We derive theoretical restrictions in a New-Keynesian model and test them using measures of ex- pectations obtained from survey data, the Greenbook and bond markets. Expectations explain the dynamics of inflation and of interest rates but their importance is roughly unchanged over time. Systems with and without expectations display
Overestimate of relative aerobic contribution with maximal accumulated oxygen deficit: a review.
Li, Y; Niessen, M; Chen, X; Hartmann, U
2015-05-01
Maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) is widely utilized in calculating energy production during supra-maximal exercises. Since its introduction by Medbo et al. in 1988, debate on MAOD existed. The purpose of this review was to summarize the development and description of MAOD and another method of calculating energy production (Pcr-La-O2). We reviewed similar studies on relative aerobic contribution (O2%) and analyzed various results of O2% calculated using MAOD or Pcr-La-O2. An overestimate of O2% was found when using MAOD compared to Pcr-La-O2. The overestimate when using MAOD is likely due to the linear extrapolation of oxygen uptake at supra-maximal intensity, the neglect of anaerobic energy release and the reduced duration of each step in sub-maximal incremental test. Since it is unknown which method provides a more reliable estimation of O2%, an exponential regression function (y=22.404 * ex + 45.176, where y=O2% in percentage, x=duration of the supra-maximal exercise in minute) was drawn from the existing data using both methods. PMID:25303069
Hemodynamic responses of quadriplegics to maximal arm-cranking and FNS leg cycling exercise
Stephen F. Figoni; Roger M. Glaser; Debra M. Hendershot; Satyendra C. Gupta; Agaram G. Suryaprasad; Mary M. Rodgers; Bertram N. Ezenwa
1988-01-01
The purpose of this study was to compare maximal central hemodynamic responses of spinal-cord-injured quadriplegic subjects to voluntary arm-crank exercise (ACE) and to electrically induced leg cycling exercise. Six C6-C7 quadriplegic men performed graded exercises to maximum with both an arm-crank ergometer and a leg-cycle ergometer, utilizing functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) of paralyzed leg musculature. Both exercise modes produced a
Lior Rokach; Lihi Naamani; Armin Shmilovici
2008-01-01
In business applications such as direct marketing, decision-makers are required to choose the action which best maximizes a utility function. Cos t-sensitive learning methods can help them achieve this goal. In this paper, we introduce Pess imistic Active Learning (PAL). PAL employs a novel pessimistic measure, which relies on confiden ce intervals and is used to balance the exploration\\/exploitation trade-off.
Maximal Poisson Commutative subalgebras for truncated parabolicsubalgebras of maximal index in sl n
A. Joseph; P. Lamprou
2007-01-01
We show that several properties of the semisimple algebras carry over to a certain family of parabolic subalgebras of maximal\\u000a index in sln. More precisely we prove an analogue of Kostant's slice theorem [B. Kostant, Amer. J. Math. 85 (1963), 327-404] for these\\u000a algebras and construct a maximal Poisson commutative subalgebra in the symmetric algebra, following the theory presented in
Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.
Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R
2015-09-01
The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. PMID:25973773
Maximizing the bandgap of BCN nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldez, Raisi; Piquini, Paulo; Schmidt, Alex; Kuroda, Marcelo
2015-03-01
Carbon and boron-nitride based compounds share many electronic and structural features. This fact permits mixed carbon-boron-nitride compounds to be easily synthesized without significant structural changes. Further, the partially ionic character of the boron-nitrogen bonds allow to modify the electronics of carbon based materials, introducing a variability that can be used to tune the electronic properties according to the boron and nitrogen contents. Graphene and graphene nanoribbons have emerged as promising materials for electronic applications, due to the high mobility of its charge carriers. In this work we use the genetic algorithm approach to search for configurations with variable B, C and N contents that maximize the band gap of BxCyNz nanoribbons. Different stoichiometries are analyzed and the structural patterns that lead to the maximal band gaps are presented.
Creating Maximally Entangled States by Gluing
Zahra Raissi; Vahid Karimipour
2015-05-14
A state is called Maximally Multipartite Entangled State (MMES) if it is maximally entangled according to any balanced bipartition. Such states are also important in setting up quantum networks. In this work, we introduce a method for creating such states or very good approximations of them, by gluing Bell states in a step by step manner. Three different strategies based on linear, star and branch geometries are investigated. Beside creating GHZ, W and asymmetric W states, we obtain other entangled states up to seven-qubit states. In each case we calculate the measure of multiparty entanglement first introduced in [1, 2] in the form of an average of purity over all bi-partitions.
Absolutely Maximally Entangled Qudit Graph States
Wolfram Helwig
2013-06-12
Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are multipartite entangled states that are maximally entangled for any possible bipartition. In this paper, we study the description of AME states within the graph state formalism. The graphical representation provides an intuitive framework to visualize the entanglement in graph states, which makes them a natural candidate to describe AME states. We show two different methods of determining bipartite entanglement in graph states and use them to define various AME graph states. We further show that AME graph states exist for all number of parties, and that any AME graph states shared between an even number of parties can be used to describe quantum secret sharing schemes with a threshold or ramp access structure directly within the graph states formalism.
Maximally discordant mixed states of two qubits
Galve, Fernando; Giorgi, Gian Luca; Zambrini, Roberta [IFISC (UIB-CSIC), Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, UIB Campus, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2011-01-15
We study the relative strength of classical and quantum correlations, as measured by discord, for two-qubit states. Quantum correlations appear only in the presence of classical correlations, while the reverse is not always true. We identify the family of states that maximize the discord for a given value of the classical correlations and show that the largest attainable discord for mixed states is greater than for pure states. The difference between discord and entanglement is emphasized by the remarkable fact that these states do not maximize entanglement and are, in some cases, even separable. Finally, by random generation of density matrices uniformly distributed over the whole Hilbert space, we quantify the frequency of the appearance of quantum and classical correlations for different ranks.
Maximally discordant mixed states of two qubits
Fernando Galve; Gian Luca Giorgi; Roberta Zambrini
2011-01-14
We study the relative strength of classical and quantum correlations, as measured by discord, for two-qubit states. Quantum correlations appear only in the presence of classical correlations, while the reverse is not always true. We identify the family of states that maximize the discord for a given value of the classical correlations and show that the largest attainable discord for mixed states is greater than for pure states. The difference between discord and entanglement is emphasized by the remarkable fact that these states do not maximize entanglement and are, in some cases, even separable. Finally, by random generation of density matrices uniformly distributed over the whole Hilbert space, we quantify the frequency of the appearance of quantum and classical correlations for different ranks.
Maximally discordant mixed states of two qubits
Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta
2010-01-01
We study the relative strength of classical and quantum correlations, as measured by discord, for two-qubit states. Quantum correlations appear only in presence of classical ones, while the reverse is not always true. We identify the family of states maximizing the discord for a given value of the classical correlations showing that largest attainable discord for mixed states is greater than for pure ones. The difference between discord and entanglement is emphasized by the remarkable fact that these states do not maximize entanglement being in some cases even separable. Finally, by random generation of density matrices uniformly distributed over the whole Hilbert space, we quantify the frequency of appearance of quantum and classical correlations for different ranks.
Maximally Entangled States of Four Nonbinary Particles
Mario Gaeta; Andrei Klimov; Jay Lawrence
2015-01-24
Systems of four nonbinary particles, each having three or more internal states, exhibit maximally entangled states that are inaccessible to four qubits. This breaks the pattern of two- and three-particle systems, in which the existing graph states are equally accessible to binary and nonbinary systems alike. We compare the entanglement properties of these special states (called P-states) with those of the more familiar GHZ and cluster states accessible to qubits. The comparison includes familiar entanglement measures, the "steering" of states by projective measurements, and the probability that two such measurements, chosen at random, leave the remaining particles in a Bell state. These comparisons demonstrate not only that P-state entanglement is stronger than the other types, but that it is maximal in a well-defined sense. We prove that GHZ, cluster, and P-states represent all possible entanglement classes of four-particle graph states with a prime number (>2) of states per particle.
Nondecoupling of maximal supergravity from the superstring.
Green, Michael B; Ooguri, Hirosi; Schwarz, John H
2007-07-27
We consider the conditions necessary for obtaining perturbative maximal supergravity in d dimensions as a decoupling limit of type II superstring theory compactified on a (10-d) torus. For dimensions d=2 and d=3, it is possible to define a limit in which the only finite-mass states are the 256 massless states of maximal supergravity. However, in dimensions d>or=4, there are infinite towers of additional massless and finite-mass states. These correspond to Kaluza-Klein charges, wound strings, Kaluza-Klein monopoles, or branes wrapping around cycles of the toroidal extra dimensions. We conclude that perturbative supergravity cannot be decoupled from string theory in dimensions>or=4. In particular, we conjecture that pure N=8 supergravity in four dimensions is in the Swampland. PMID:17678349
Maximal Degeneracy Points of GKZ Systems
S. Hosono; B. H. Lian; S. -T. Yau
1996-11-19
Motivated by mirror symmetry, we study certain integral representations of solutions to the Gel'fand-Kapranov-Zelevinsky(GKZ) hypergeometric system. Some of these solutions arise as period integrals for Calabi-Yau manifolds in mirror symmetry. We prove that for a suitable compactification of the parameter space, there exists certain special boundary points, which we called maximal degeneracy points, at which all but one solutions become singular.
Surface group representations with maximal Toledo invariant
Marc Burger; Alessandra Iozzi; Anna Wienhard
2010-01-01
We develop the theory of maximal representations of the fundamental group of\\u000aa compact connected oriented surface with boundary, into a group of Hermitian\\u000atype. For any such representation we define the Toledo invariant, for which we\\u000aestablish properties such as uniform boundedness on the representation variety,\\u000aadditivity under connected sum of surfaces and congruence relations. We thus\\u000aobtain geometric
Hussain Fatakdawala; Ajay Basavanhally; Jun Xu; Gyan Bhanot; Shridar Ganesan; Michael D. Feldman; John Tomaszewski; Anant Madabhushi
2009-01-01
The presence of lymphocytic infiltration (LI) has been correlated with nodal metastasis and tumor recurrence in HER2+ breast cancer (BC), making it important to study LI. The ability to detect and quantify extent of LI could serve as an image based prognostic tool for HER2+ BC patients. Lymphocyte segmentation in H & E-stained BC histopathol- ogy images is, however, complicated
Yongyue Zhang; Michael Brady; Stephen M. Smith
2001-01-01
The finite mixture (FM) model is the most commonly used model for statistical segmentation of brain magnetic reso- nance (MR) images because of its simple mathematical form and the piecewise constant nature of ideal brain MR images. However, being a histogram-based model, the FM has an intrinsic limita- tion—no spatial information is taken into account. This causes the FM model
Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics.
Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J
2011-03-01
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations. PMID:21560747
Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension.
Fine, Alex B; Jaeger, T Florian; Farmer, Thomas A; Qian, Ting
2013-01-01
When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers' syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called "garden path sentences"). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909
A. V. Rajarathnam; B. Fahimi; M. Ehsani
1997-01-01
Online self-tuning control is essential as optimize the performance of a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive in the presence of parameter variations. This paper introduces an advanced adaptive neural network (NN) based control scheme to maximize torque per ampere in the low speed region. The proposed control technique utilizes a heuristic search method to find the change in the optimal
Defining and managing expectations for early immunotherapy cancer trials.
Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Pennisi, Angela; Lane, Anna; Siegel, Eric; Cannon, Martin; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Makhoul, Issam
2015-01-01
This review discusses the concept of expectations in assessing direct benefit to participants in phase I immunotherapy studies. With the push toward a faster assessment of clinical benefit or efficacy, limiting phase I studies to safety determination only is now viewed as obsolete and has been replaced by designs that draw attention to therapeutic benefit or efficacy. While this approach is touted as being more flexible in trial conduct, these designs are particularly problematic for immunotherapy studies. Defining and managing expectations is paramount on understanding the key axioms that emerge that include i) understanding bias in models and mechanistic results, ii) that no test is perfect, iii) it is difficult to select a good predictive biomarker in the absence of clinical data, even for targeted therapies, iv) markers predictive for monotherapy may not be predictive for combination therapy, and v) all about improved patient selection. Considering the heterogeneity of cancers and the immune response of the host, we think that immunotherapy should be developed in parallel with the identification of different clinico-pathological models of immune response to cancer. This approach would accomplish two important goals: 1) provide a biological understanding of the complete in vivo environment, thereby giving investigators the opportunity to optimize and maximize the effect of a specific immunotherapy agent and 2) addressing host environment issues simultaneously so that safety data and perceived benefit can be achieved more quickly. PMID:25723736
Maximizing Photosynthetic Efficiencies and Hydrogen Production in Microalga Cultures
Polle, Jürgen
1 Maximizing Photosynthetic Efficiencies and Hydrogen Production in Microalga Cultures Juergen) that photosynthetic efficiencies and hydrogen production by microalgal cultures can be increased upon minimizing cultures and H2 production, conditions that maximize photosynthetic productivity and solar conversion
Information and Transformation at Swiss Re: Maximizing Economic Value
Beath, Cynthia M.
2007-12-01
In 2007 Swiss Re was striving to maximize economic value, a metric that would allow the company to assess its performance over time despite the volatility of the reinsurance industry. Maximizing economic value required ...
Sharon R. Sears; Annette L. Stanton
2001-01-01
This prospective study examined effects of expectancy of exercise benefits, value of benefits, expectancy violation, and self-efficacy (SE) on exercise behavior and study dropout in sedentary women (n = 86). SE predicted exercise for study completers but did not predict study dropout. After 6 and 12 weeks, participants evidenced expectancy violations, particularly for fitness and weight. Initial value, expectancy, and
Water Utility Makes Use of National Weather Service Radar
Stephen C. Gerwin
1987-01-01
The Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission (WSSC) has tied into the National Weather Service radar system to take measures against the disruptions in water service caused by power outages during frequent severe summer thunderstorms. Advance warnings of potential outages enable the utility to fill elevated storage tanks to maximal capacities, and pumping can be done during offpeak periods when electric rates
Maximizing LoS MIMO Capacity Using Reconfigurable Antenna Arrays
Sayeed, Akbar M.
Maximizing LoS MIMO Capacity Using Reconfigurable Antenna Arrays Michail Matthaiou, Akbar M. Sayeed. In this paper, we present a versa- tile methodology for maximizing LoS-MIMO capacity at any operating signal configurations and ii) MIMO capacity maximization with recon- figurable antenna arrays. Our theoretical
Generating all maximal efficient faces for multiple objective linear programs
J. G. Ecker; N. S. Hegner; I. A. Kouada
1980-01-01
A method for generating the entire efficient set for a multiple objective linear program is developed. The method is based on two characterizations of maximal efficient faces. The first characterization is used to determine the set of maximal efficient faces incident to a given efficient vertex, and the second characterization ensures that previously generated maximal efficient faces are easily recognized
Lifetime Maximization for Sensor Networks with Hetrogeneous Nodes
Chang-Kyung Sung; Iain B. Collings
2009-01-01
We consider joint optimization problems among link, MAC, and routing layers for wireless sensor networks with hetrogeneous nodes where battery lifetime maximization for a certain portion of nodes is more important than the maximization across all nodes in the network. For such applications, we propose two battery lifetime maximization schemes: a sequential joint link, MAC, and routing optimization, and a
Maximal Oxygen Uptake, Sweating and Tolerance to Exercise in the Heat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenleaf, J. E.; Castle, B. L.; Ruff, W. K.
1972-01-01
The physiological mechanisms that facilitate acute acclimation to heat have not been fully elucidated, but the result is the establishment of a more efficient cardiovascular system to increase heat dissipation via increased sweating that allows the acclimated man to function with a cooler internal environment and to extend his performance. Men in good physical condition with high maximal oxygen uptakes generally acclimate to heat more rapidly and retain it longer than men in poorer condition. Also, upon first exposure trained men tolerate exercise in the heat better than untrained men. Both resting in heat and physical training in a cool environment confer only partial acclimation when first exposed to work in the heat. These observations suggest separate additive stimuli of metabolic heat from exercise and environmental heat to increase sweating during the acclimation process. However, the necessity of utilizing physical exercise during acclimation has been questioned. Bradbury et al. (1964) have concluded exercise has no effect on the course of heat acclimation since increased sweating can be induced by merely heating resting subjects. Preliminary evidence suggests there is a direct relationship between the maximal oxygen uptake and the capacity to maintain thermal regulation, particularly through the control of sweating. Since increased sweating is an important mechanism for the development of heat acclimation, and fit men have high sweat rates, it follows that upon initial exposure to exercise in the heat, men with high maximal oxygen uptakes should exhibit less strain than men with lower maximal oxygen uptakes. The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine if men with higher maximal oxygen uptakes exhibit greater tolerance than men with lower oxygen uptakes during early exposure to exercise in the heat, and (2) to investigate further the mechanism of the relationship between sweating and maximal work capacity.
Techniques and technologies to maximize mucosal exposure.
Moons, Leon M G; Gralnek, Ian M; Siersema, Peter D
2015-04-01
Performing high-quality colonoscopy is one of the important goals of gastroenterology practices and requires achieving a high level of bowel cleansing, performing good and safe polypectomy, and detecting all polyps present in the colon. This article summarizes currently available techniques and technologies to maximize mucosal visualization. Several maneuvers can be applied during insertion and withdrawal of the colonoscope to optimize mucosal visualization and decrease the number of missed polyps. Newly developed technologies support the endoscopist in the detection of polyps. Each technique is reviewed, with emphasis on the impact on colorectal polyp detection. PMID:25839682
Maximally entangled mixed states and conditional entropies
Batle, J.; Casas, M. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears and IMEDEA-CSIC, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Plastino, A. [Argentina's National Research Council (CONICET), Casilla de Correo 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Department of Physics, National University La Plata, Casilla de Correo 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Plastino, A.R. [Department of Physics, National University La Plata, Casilla de Correo 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Faculty of Astronomy and Geophysics, National University La Plata, Casilla de Correo 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria (South Africa)
2005-02-01
The maximally entangled mixed states of Munro et al. [Phys. Rev. A 64, 030302 (2001)] are shown to exhibit interesting features vis a vis conditional entropic measures. The same happens with the Ishizaka and Hiroshima states [Phys. Rev. A 62, 022310 (2000)], whose entanglement degree cannot be increased by acting on them with logic gates. Special types of entangled states that do not violate classical entropic inequalities are seen to exist in the space of two qubits. Special meaning can be assigned to the Munro et al. special participation ratio of 1.8.
Electromagnetically induced grating with maximal atomic coherence
Carvalho, Silvania A.; Araujo, Luis E. E. de [Instituto de Fisica ''Gleb Wataghin'', Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP, 13083-859 Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2011-10-15
We describe theoretically an atomic diffraction grating that combines an electromagnetically induced grating with a coherence grating in a double-{Lambda} atomic system. With the atom in a condition of maximal coherence between its lower levels, the combined gratings simultaneously diffract both the incident probe beam as well as the signal beam generated through four-wave mixing. A special feature of the atomic grating is that it will diffract any beam resonantly tuned to any excited state of the atom accessible by a dipole transition from its ground state.
Detection of the maximally connected state
Han, Y.-J.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, Y.-S.; Guo, G.-C. [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)
2005-12-15
The maximally connected state (MCS) which was first introduced by Briegel and Raussendorf [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 910 (2001)] has many interesting properties in quantum information theory. Many important states that we are focusing on currently are included in this special set of states. To decide whether a state is a MCS or not is the main problem concerned in this paper. In this paper (1) we give a general criterion for MCS; (2) when the ranks of all of the two-qubit reduced density matrices are two, we give a convenient criterion.
Minimal Holographic Superconductors from Maximal Supergravity
Nikolay Bobev; Arnab Kundu; Krzysztof Pilch; Nicholas P. Warner
2011-10-16
We study a truncation of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity that provides a realization of the minimal model of a holographic superconductor. We find various flow solutions in this truncation at zero and finite temperature with a non-trivial profile for the charged scalar. Below a critical temperature we find holographic superconductor solutions that represent the thermodynamically preferred phase. Depending on the choice of boundary conditions, the superconducting phase transition is either first or second order. For vanishing temperature we find a flow with a condensing charged scalar that interpolates between two perturbatively stable AdS_4 vacua and is the zero-temperature ground state of the holographic superconductor.
Teacher Expectations and Underachieving Gifted Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolb, Kathryn J.; Jussim, Lee
1994-01-01
Three ways in which teacher expectations relate to scholastic performance are documented: self-fulfilling prophecy, perceptual bias, and accuracy. The role that teacher expectations may play in gifted underachievement is explored, and recommendations are offered for enhancing the school experiences of gifted underachievers. (JDD)
Expectancy and Phobic Level: Effects on Desensitization
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sullivan, Bernard J.; Denney, Douglas R.
1977-01-01
Expectancy instructions were introduced six times during the four-week treatment, and effectiveness of these instructions was demonstrated with independent nonreactive measures of subjects' expectancies. An analysis of self-report, behavioral, and unobtrusive measures of snake anxiety revealed significant main effects for instructions, with…
Gender and Grade Expectation in University Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schnorr, Janet K.; And Others
Since World War II, women have become a permanent part of the American work force but are under-represented in most scientific professions. Researchers are now aware of gender influences on expectations and achievement in academic settings, with research indicating that females have lower expectations of competence in science-related professions.…
TIGHT BOUNDS ON EXPECTED ORDER STATISTICS
Bertsimas, Dimitris
TIGHT BOUNDS ON EXPECTED ORDER STATISTICS DIIIMMMIIITTTRRRIIISSS BEEERRRTTTSSSIIIMMMAAASSS Sloan@nus.edu.sg In this article, we study the problem of finding tight bounds on the expected value of the kth-order statistic E of the highest-order statistic E @Xn:n# can be computed with a bisection search algo- rithm+ An extremal discrete
47 CFR 90.743 - Renewal expectancy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal expectancy. 90.743 Section 90.743...Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.743 Renewal expectancy. (a) All licensees seeking renewal of their authorizations at the end of...
Adaptive Expectations, Confirmatory Bias, and Informational Efficiency
Gani Aldashev; Timoteo Carletti; Simone Righi
2010-01-01
We study the informational efficiency of a market with a single traded asset. The price initially differs from the fundamental value, about which the agents have noisy private information (which is, on average, correct). A fraction of traders revise their price expectations in each period. The price at which the asset is traded is public information. The agents' expectations have
Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.
2004-01-01
Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…
Course Expectations and Career Management Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben
2008-01-01
Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…
Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sparks, Sarah D.
2010-01-01
Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…
Tipping behaviour: a disconfirmation of expectation perspective
Alan C. Tse
2003-01-01
This study examines the effect of expectancy–disconfirmation on tipping behaviour. Findings of our study show that restaurant patrons determine how much tips to give based on the discrepancy between the actual and expected level of food and service quality, rather than the absolute level of food and service quality. That is, given a positive disconfirmation, customers would give more tips.
Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark
2012-01-01
Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…
K-12 Technology Coordinators: Expectations and Realities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reinhart, Julie; Slowinski, Joseph
2004-01-01
This paper reports the findings of an exploratory study that investigates what Technology Coordinators (TC) are expected to do and what they actually do. Schools have invested large sums of money on technology and they have high expectations for the educational outcomes associated with the use of such technology. A question then arises regarding…
Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki
The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture
Industrial - Utility Cogeneration Systems
Harkins, H. L.
1979-01-01
Cogeneration may be described as an efficient method for the production of electric power in conjunction with process steam or heat which optimizes the energy supplied as fuel to maximize the energy produced for consumption. In a conventional...
Solar energy research and utilization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cherry, W. R.
1974-01-01
The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2002-10-02
...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES Notice of Guidelines for...Disseminated by the National Endowment for the Arts September 26, 2002. AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and...
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
Networks]: Network Architecture and Design--Wireless communication, Network topology; E.4 [Data]: Coding and Information Theory-- Data compaction and compression; G.3 [Probability and Statistics]: Queuing Theory General nodes failures in disaster monitoring networks [7], random fluctu- ations of link qualities in wireless
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
and Design|Wireless communication, Network topology ; E.4 [Data]: Coding and Information Theory| Data are then discussed. Categories and Subject Descriptors C.2.1 [Computer-Communication Networks]: Network Architecture compaction and compression; G.3 [Probability and Statistics]: Queuing Theory Permission to make digital
Lyle, W. M.; Bordovsky, J. P.
A new concept in irrigation system design, which has the potential of significant savings in both water and energy requirements, has been developed and is under evaluation. The system is characterized by and has been labeled a low energy...
Portfolio sire selection to maximize the utility of individual management and breeding goals
Bloom, Andrew Scott
1988-01-01
) used linear programming to produce complementary sire selections based on producers' breeding goals for production and type traits. Holstein Association's Holstein Nate (39), which is very similar to the method proposed by NcGilliard and Clay (50...'s for milk, fat and type for all active Holstein Sires. Semen prices were obtained from the DRPC 8 Raleigh (52). The data set was restricted to four AI organizations readily available in the southern region, representing over 59% of all active AI sires...
Anderson, Richard
and Pedro Domingos Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 learning (Heckerman, Geiger, and Chickering 1995; Della Pietra, Della Pietra, and Laf- ferty 1997) involve
Optimal Real-Time Pricing Algorithm Based on Utility Maximization for Smart Grid
Pedram Samadi; Amir-Hamed Mohsenian-Rad; Robert Schober; Vincent W. S. Wong; Juri Jatskevich
2010-01-01
In this paper, we consider a smart power infrastructure, where several subscribers share a common energy source. Each subscriber is equipped with an energy consumption controller (ECC) unit as part of its smart meter. Each smart meter is connected to not only the power grid but also a communication infrastructure such as a local area network. This allows two-way communication
Currens, J.C.
1999-01-01
Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations should be sampled. Either the geometric mean or the flow-weighted average of the suspended constituents should be used. If automatic samplers are used, then they may be programmed to collect storm samples as frequently as every few minutes to provide details on the arrival time of constituents of interest. However, only samples collected bihourly should be used to calculate averages. By adopting a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with high-flow samples, the need to continuously monitor discharge, or to search for and analyze existing data to develop a statistically valid monitoring plan, is lessened.Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations should be sampled. Either the geometric mean or the flow-weighted average of the suspended constituents should be used. If automatic samplers are used, then they may be programmed to collect storm samples as frequently as every few minutes to provide details on the arrival time of constituents of interest. However, only samples collected bihourly should be used to calculate averages. By adopting a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with high-flow samples, the need to continuously monitor discharge, or to search for and analyze existing data to develop a statistically valid monitoring plan, is lessened.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.; Hu, Wei
2015-05-01
A single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) semi-active vibration control system based on a magnetorheological (MR) damper with an inner bypass is investigated in this paper. The MR damper employing a pair of concentric tubes, between which the key structure, i.e., the inner bypass, is formed and MR fluids are energized, is designed to provide large dynamic range (i.e., ratio of field-on damping force to field-off damping force) and damping force range. The damping force performance of the MR damper is modeled using phenomenological model and verified by the experimental tests. In order to assess its feasibility and capability in vibration control systems, the mathematical model of a SDOF semi-active vibration control system based on the MR damper and skyhook control strategy is established. Using an MTS 244 hydraulic vibration exciter system and a dSPACE DS1103 real-time simulation system, experimental study for the SDOF semi-active vibration control system is also conducted. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements.
In order to utilize the light maximally, it is important that the
auto-cleaving of photonic waveguides sets a new standard Flexible waveguidesInterposer PIC InP PIC the substrate material is (locally) removed, the waveguide material is free to expand in order to release
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-08-10
...substances for potential endocrine effects. Potentially...Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes, may...chemical substances for endocrine effects. This listing...Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes...
Content Specificity of Expectancy Beliefs and Task Values in Elementary Physical Education
Chen, Ang; Martin, Robert; Ennis, Catherine D.; Sun, Haichun
2015-01-01
The curriculum may superimpose a content-specific context that mediates motivation (Bong, 2001). This study examined content specificity of the expectancy-value motivation in elementary school physical education. Students’ expectancy beliefs and perceived task values from a cardiorespiratory fitness unit, a muscular fitness unit, and a traditional skill/game unit were analyzed using constant comparison coding procedures, multivariate analysis of variance, ?2, and correlation analyses. There was no difference in the intrinsic interest value among the three content conditions. Expectancy belief, attainment, and utility values were significantly higher for the cardiorespiratory fitness curriculum. Correlations differentiated among the expectancy-value components of the content conditions, providing further evidence of content specificity in the expectancy-value motivation process. The findings suggest that expectancy beliefs and task values should be incorporated in the theoretical platform for curriculum development based on the learning outcomes that can be specified with enhanced motivation effect. PMID:18664044
Tailoring inputs to achieve maximal neuronal firing
2011-01-01
We consider the constrained optimization of excitatory synaptic input patterns to maximize spike generation in leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) and theta model neurons. In the case of discrete input kicks with a fixed total magnitude, optimal input timings and strengths are identified for each model using phase plane arguments. In both cases, optimal features relate to finding an input level at which the drop in input between successive spikes is minimized. A bounded minimizing level always exists in the theta model and may or may not exist in the LIF model, depending on parameter tuning. We also provide analytical formulas to estimate the number of spikes resulting from a given input train. In a second case of continuous inputs of fixed total magnitude, we analyze the tuning of an input shape parameter to maximize the number of spikes occurring in a fixed time interval. Results are obtained using numerical solution of a variational boundary value problem that we derive, as well as analysis, for the theta model and using a combination of simulation and analysis for the LIF model. In particular, consistent with the discrete case, the number of spikes in the theta model rises and then falls again as the input becomes more tightly peaked. Under a similar variation in the LIF case, we numerically show that the number of spikes increases monotonically up to some bound and we analytically constrain the times at which spikes can occur and estimate the bound on the number of spikes fired. PMID:22656323
Maximizing strain in miniaturized dielectric elastomer actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosset, Samuel; Araromi, Oluwaseun; Shea, Herbert
2015-04-01
We present a theoretical model to optimise the unidirectional motion of a rigid object bonded to a miniaturized dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA), a configuration found for example in AMI's haptic feedback devices, or in our tuneable RF phase shifter. Recent work has shown that unidirectional motion is maximized when the membrane is both anistropically prestretched and subjected to a dead load in the direction of actuation. However, the use of dead weights for miniaturized devices is clearly highly impractical. Consequently smaller devices use the membrane itself to generate the opposing force. Since the membrane covers the entire frame, one has the same prestretch condition in the active (actuated) and passive zones. Because the passive zone contracts when the active zone expands, it does not provide a constant restoring force, reducing the maximum achievable actuation strain. We have determined the optimal ratio between the size of the electrode (active zone) and the passive zone, as well as the optimal prestretch in both in-plane directions, in order to maximize the absolute displacement of the rigid object placed at the active/passive border. Our model and experiments show that the ideal active ratio is 50%, with a displacement twice smaller than what can be obtained with a dead load. We expand our fabrication process to also show how DEAs can be laser-post-processed to remove carefully chosen regions of the passive elastomer membrane, thereby increasing the actuation strain of the device.
Feature Extraction Using Supervised Independent Component Analysis by Maximizing Class Distance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaguchi, Yoshinori; Ozawa, Seiichi; Kotani, Manabu
Recently, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been applied to not only problems of blind signal separation, but also feature extraction of patterns. However, the effectiveness of pattern features extracted by conventional ICA algorithms depends on pattern sets; that is, how patterns are distributed in the feature space. As one of the reasons, we have pointed out that ICA features are obtained by increasing only their independence even if the class information is available. In this context, we can expect that more high-performance features can be obtained by introducing the class information into conventional ICA algorithms. In this paper, we propose a supervised ICA (SICA) that maximizes Mahalanobis distance between features of different classes as well as maximize their independence. In the first experiment, two-dimensional artificial data are applied to the proposed SICA algorithm to see how maximizing Mahalanobis distance works well in the feature extraction. As a result, we demonstrate that the proposed SICA algorithm gives good features with high separability as compared with principal component analysis and a conventional ICA. In the second experiment, the recognition performance of features extracted by the proposed SICA is evaluated using the three data sets of UCI Machine Learning Repository. From the results, we show that the better recognition accuracy is obtained using our proposed SICA. Furthermore, we show that pattern features extracted by SICA are better than those extracted by only maximizing the Mahalanobis distance.
Comparison between static maximal force and handbrake pulling force.
Chateauroux, E; Wang, X
2012-01-01
The measurement of maximum pulling force is important not only for specifying force limit of industrial workers but also for designing controls requiring high force. This paper presents a comparison between maximal static handbrake pulling force (FST) and force exerted during normal handbrake pulling task (FDY). These forces were measured for different handle locations and subject characteristics. Participants were asked to pull a handbrake on an adjustable car mock-up as they would do when parking their own car, then to exert a force as high as possible on the pulled handbrake. Hand pulling forces were measured using a six-axes force sensor. 5 fixed handbrake positions were tested as well as a neutral handbrake position defined by the subject. FST and FDY were significantly correlated. Both were found to be dependent on handbrake position, age and gender. As expected, women and older subjects exerted lower forces. FST was significantly higher than FDY. The ratio FmR (FDY divided by FST) was also analyzed. Women showed higher FmR than men meaning that the task required a higher amount of muscle capability for women. FmR was also influenced by handbrake location. These data will be useful for handbrake design. PMID:22316898
Maximizing the liquid fuel yield in a biorefining process.
Zhang, Bo; von Keitz, Marc; Valentas, Kenneth
2008-12-01
Biorefining strives to recover the maximum value from each fraction, at minimum energy cost. In order to seek an unbiased and thorough assessment of the alleged opportunity offered by biomass fuels, the direct conversion of various lignocellulosic biomass was studied: aspen pulp wood (Populus tremuloides), aspen wood pretreated with dilute acid, aspen lignin, aspen logging residues, corn stalk, corn spathe, corn cob, corn stover, corn stover pellet, corn stover pretreated with dilute acid, and lignin extracted from corn stover. Besides the heating rate, the yield of liquid products was found to be dependent on the final liquefaction temperature and the length of liquefaction time. The major compounds of the liquid products from various origins were identified by GC-MS. The lignin was found to be a good candidate for the liquefaction process, and biomass fractionation was necessary to maximize the yield of the liquid bio-fuel. The results suggest a biorefinery process accompanying pretreatment, fermentation to ethanol, liquefaction to bio-crude oil, and other thermo-conversion technologies, such as gasification. Other biorefinery options, including supercritical water gasification and the effectual utilization of the bio-crude oil, are also addressed. PMID:18781691
Mammogram segmentation using maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata.
Anitha, J; Peter, J Dinesh
2015-08-01
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer among women. Mammogram is one of the most effective tools for early detection of the breast cancer. Various computer-aided systems have been introduced to detect the breast cancer from mammogram images. In a computer-aided diagnosis system, detection and segmentation of breast masses from the background tissues is an important issue. In this paper, an automatic segmentation method is proposed to identify and segment the suspicious mass regions of mammogram using a modified transition rule named maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata (CA). In coarse-level segmentation, the proposed method performs an adaptive global thresholding based on the histogram peak analysis to obtain the rough region of interest. An automatic seed point selection is proposed using gray-level co-occurrence matrix-based sum average feature in the coarse segmented image. Finally, the method utilizes CA with the identified initial seed point and the modified transition rule to segment the mass region. The proposed approach is evaluated over the dataset of 70 mammograms with mass from mini-MIAS database. Experimental results show that the proposed approach yields promising results to segment the mass region in the mammograms with the sensitivity of 92.25 % and accuracy of 93.48 %. PMID:25841356
What to Expect After Carotid Endarterectomy
... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Carotid Endarterectomy After carotid endarterectomy (CEA), you may stay in the hospital for ... stroke. Rate This Content: NEXT >> December 1, 2010 Carotid Endarterectomy Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...
Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearl, Shela
1986-01-01
Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)
Anesthesia: What to Expect (For Parents)
KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Resources for Parents > Anesthesia - What to Expect Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? Before Surgery Questions to Ask In the Operating Room After ...
What to Expect during Cardiac Rehabilitation
... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Cardiac Rehabilitation During cardiac rehabilitation (rehab), you'll learn how to: Increase your ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> December 24, 2013 Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...
What to Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation
... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation Most pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs last a few months. At the ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> August 1, 2010 Pulmonary Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...
The vortex-finding property of maximal center (and other) gauges
Faber, M.; Greensite, J.; Olejnik, S.; Yamada, D.
1999-10-01
The authors argue that the vortex-finding property of maximal center gauge, i.e. the ability of this gauge to locate center vortices inserted by hand on any given lattice, is the key to its success in extracting the vortex content of thermalized lattice configurations. The authors explain how this property comes about, and why it is expected not only in maximal center gauge, but also in an infinite class of gauge conditions based on adjoint-representation link variables. In principle, the vortex-finding property can be foiled by Gribov copies. This fact is relevant to a gauge-fixing procedure devised by Kovacs and Tomboulis, where they show that the loss of center dominance, found in their procedure, is explained by a corresponding loss of the vortex-finding property. The dependence of center dominance on the vortex-finding property is demonstrated numerically in a number of other gauges.
Effects of handicap on life expectancy
DJ Lai; LM Lee; ES Lee
2000-01-01
The purpose of this study was to quantify and partition the expected years of life with and without handicap for the Chinese population according to various types of handicaps, age–sex groups and regions.A large-scale sample survey on handicapped persons conducted in 1987, and the 1990 population census constitute the basis for computing the expected years of life free of handicapped
Howard E. A. Tinsley; Sharon L. Bowman; Stephen B. Ray
1988-01-01
A comprehensive review was undertaken of investigations in which an attempt was made to manipulate clients' expectations for counseling or psychotherapy. Six strategies that have been used in attempting expectancy manipulation were described, and their effectiveness evaluated. Three sets of conclusions seem to be supported by the present data. First, the use of a complicated experimental intervention to manipulate expectancies
Identifying Energy Systems that Maximize Cogeneration Savings
Ahner, D. J.
IDENTIFYING ENERGY SYSTEMS THAT MAXIMIZE COGENERATION SAVINGS DAVID J. AHNER Manager Systems Eng1neer1ng Schenectady. New York ABSTRACT Th1s paper d1scusses the max1m1z1ng of Reg10nal cogenerat10n Energy Sav1ngs ut1l1z1ng var10us... technolog1es and fuels w1th1n a g1ven serv1ce reg10n. A methodology 1s developed to estab11sh the allocat10n of power to the 1nd1v1dual cogenerators such that overall energy econom1c benef1ts are max1m1zed wh1le process steam needs are s1multaneously...
Proverbs, Maxims and Phrases of All Ages
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The lyrical poet Horace once said that "The road of death must be travelled by all." He said many other things, and some of his sayings may be found within this classic volume. Originally published in 1887, the volume "Proverbs, Maxims and Phrases of All Ages" was compiled by Robert Christy. The intent of this volume was to serve as a reference volume for libraries and personal use. The people at Bartleby.com have made it available here in its entirety, and it may serve as a source of inspiration to budding writers, philosophers, and orators. Visitors can search the work by categories like "Advice," "Fortune," and "Honor." Also, the formal Preface is quite an elaborate bit of writing, and sets an appropriate tone for the work.
Maximizing computational tools for successful drug discovery.
Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Virapong
2015-04-01
Drug discovery is an iterative cycle of identifying promising hits followed by lead optimization via bioisosteric replacements. In the search for compounds affording good bioactivity, equal importance should also be placed on achieving those with favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Thus, the balance and realization of both key properties is an intricate problem that requires great caution. In this editorial, the authors explore the available computational tools in the context of the extant of big data that has borne out via advents of the Omics revolution. As such, the selection of appropriate computational tools for analyzing the vast number of chemical libraries, target proteins and interactomes is the first step toward maximizing the chance for success. However, in order to realize this, it is also necessary to have a solid foundation on the big concepts of drug discovery as well as knowing which tools are available in order to give drug discovery scientists the best opportunity. PMID:25693813
Identifying Energy Systems that Maximize Cogeneration Savings
Ahner, D. J.
1988-01-01
IDENTIFYING ENERGY SYSTEMS THAT MAXIMIZE COGENERATION SAVINGS DAVID J. AHNER Manager Systems Eng1neer1ng Schenectady. New York ABSTRACT Th1s paper d1scusses the max1m1z1ng of Reg10nal cogenerat10n Energy Sav1ngs ut1l1z1ng var10us... technolog1es and fuels w1th1n a g1ven serv1ce reg10n. A methodology 1s developed to estab11sh the allocat10n of power to the 1nd1v1dual cogenerators such that overall energy econom1c benef1ts are max1m1zed wh1le process steam needs are s1multaneously...
A multistate analysis of active life expectancy.
Rogers, A; Rogers, R G; Branch, L G
1989-01-01
With today's lower mortality rates, longer expectations of life, and new medical technologies, the nation's health policy focus has shifted from emphasis on individual survival to emphasis on personal health and independent living. Using longitudinal data sets and new methodological techniques, researchers have begun to assess active life expectancies, estimating not only how long a subpopulation can expect to live beyond each age, but what fractions of the expected remaining lifetime will be lived as independent, dependent, or institutionalized. New ideas are addressed, applying recently developed multistate life table methods to Waves One and Two of the Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study. Expectations of active life are presented for those 65 and older who initially are in one of two functional states of well-being. Included are expectations of life, for those, for example, who were independent and remained so, or those who were dependent and became independent. Although public health officials are concerned about the number of elderly who cease being independent, preliminary analysis shows that a significant number of the dependent elderly regain their independence, a situation which needs to be addressed in health care planning. PMID:2498971
Quantifying the Expected Utility of Information in Multi-Agent Scheduling Tasks
Kraus, Sarit
,2 , Sarit Kraus2 , and Charlie Ortiz3 1 Department of Industrial Engineering Jerusalem College of Technology first-response, and military conflicts [12]. Agents can quickly compute possible group compositions as the "Coordination Autonomy" (CA) problem. While using computer agents in these tasks can be beneficial
Expected Utility as a Policy Making Tool: An Environmental Health Example
environmental contamination. 1 Introduction Decisionmaking under uncertainty has long been an aim into the framework of making a decision that is optimal in some sense, the problem of accounting for the evaluation for consideration of some of the more qualitative aspects of decision making. The outline of the paper is as follows
Public utility pricing and capacity choice under risk: A rational expectations approach
Stephen Coate; John C. Panzar
1989-01-01
Over the last two decades there has developed an extensive literature on the theory of public enterprise pricing and capacity choice under uncertainty. A major concern has been the analysis of the rationing of consumers in states in which demand exceeds available system capacity. An issue that has been largely ignored however is the effect that consumers' probability of being
Expected Utility as a Policy Making Tool: An Environmental Health Example
Lara J. Wolfson; Joseph B. Kadane
Statistical decision theory can be a valuable tool when considering the results of a statisticalanalysis for health policy decisions. In this paper, we review briefly the history of decisiontheory in statistics, and introduce methods for eliciting loss functions to be used when twoparties with possibly conflicting interests need to reach a decision. We illustrate the methodswith examples concerning public exposure
The Futility of Utility: how market dynamics marginalize Adam Smith
Joseph L. McCauley
2000-02-02
Econometrics is based on the nonempiric notion of utility. Prices, dynamics, and market equilibria are supposed to be derived from utility. Utility is usually treated by economists as a price potential, other times utility rates are treated as Lagrangians. Assumptions of integrability of Lagrangians and dynamics are implicitly and uncritically made. In particular, economists assume that price is the gradient of utility in equilibrium, but I show that price as the gradient of utility is an integrability condition for the Hamiltonian dynamics of an optimization problem in econometric control theory. One consequence is that, in a nonintegrable dynamical system, price cannot be expressed as a function of demand or supply variables. Another consequence is that utility maximization does not describe equiulibrium. I point out that the maximization of Gibbs entropy would describe equilibrium, if equilibrium could be achieved, but equilibrium does not describe real markets. To emphasize the inconsistency of the economists' notion of 'equilibrium', I discuss both deterministic and stochastic dynamics of excess demand and observe that Adam Smith's stabilizing hand is not to be found either in deterministic or stochastic dynamical models of markets, nor in the observed motions of asset prices. Evidence for stability of prices of assets in free markets simply has not been found.
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of
Center for By-Products Utilization DURABILITY OF CAST-CONCRETE PRODUCTS UTILIZING RECYCLED MATERIAL of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONISN-MILWAUKEE #12;Strength and Durability of Cast-Concrete Products Utilizing Recycled Materials Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Yoon-Moon Chun, and Bruce R. Ramme
Miscellaneous Mathematical Utilities
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Several online mathematical utilities intended for college and university students (math, physics, engineering, etc. students). Numerical utilities to solve (among others): N Equations in N Unknowns, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Roots of Functions, and Numerical Integration. More utilities are constantly being added.
Laboratory cost and utilization containment.
Steiner, J W; Root, J M; White, D C
1991-01-01
The authors analyzed laboratory costs and utilization in 3,771 cases of Medicare inpatients admitted to a New England academic medical center ("the Hospital") from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. The data were derived from the Hospital's Decision Resource System comprehensive data base. The authors established a historical reference point for laboratory costs as a percentage of total inpatient costs using 1981-82 Medicare claims data and cost report information. Inpatient laboratory costs were estimated at 9.5% of total inpatient costs for pre-Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) Medicare discharges. Using this reference point and adjusting for the Hospital's 1990 case mix, the "expected" laboratory cost was 9.3% of total cost. In fact, the cost averaged 11.5% (i.e., 24% above the expected cost level), and costs represented an even greater percentage of DRG reimbursement at 12.9%. If we regard the reimbursement as a total cost target (to eliminate losses from Medicare), then that 12.9% is 39% above the "expected" laboratory proportion of 9.3%. The Hospital lost an average of $1,091 on each DRG inpatient. The laboratory contributed 29% to this loss per case. Compared to other large hospitals, the Hospital was slightly (3%) above the mean direct cost per on-site test and significantly (58%) above the mean number of inpatient tests per inpatient day compared to large teaching hospitals. The findings suggest that careful laboratory cost analyses will become increasingly important as the proportion of patients reimbursed in a fixed manner grows. The future may hold a prospective zero-based laboratory budgeting process based on predictable patterns of DRG admissions or other fixed-reimbursement admission and laboratory utilization patterns. PMID:10113716
Adolescent expectations of early death predict young adult socioeconomic status.
Nguyen, Quynh C; Hussey, Jon M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Poole, Charles
2012-05-01
Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations; PSE), predictors of PSE, and associations between PSE and future socioeconomic status attainment. We utilized the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-1995 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-2002 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). At Wave I, 14% reported ?50% chance of living to age 35 and older adolescents reported lower PSE than younger adolescents. At Wave III, PSE were similar across age. Changes in PSE from Wave I to III were moderate, with 89% of respondents reporting no change (56%), one level higher (22%) or one level lower (10%) in a 5-level PSE variable. Higher block group poverty rate, perceptions that the neighborhood is unsafe, and less time in the U.S. (among the foreign-born) were related to low PSE at Waves I and III. Low PSE at Waves I and III predicted lower education attainment and personal earnings at Wave IV in multinomial logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors such as previous family socioeconomic status, individual demographic characteristics, and depressive symptoms. Anticipation of an early death is prevalent among adolescents and predictive of lower future socioeconomic status. Low PSE reported early in life may be a marker for worse health trajectories. PMID:22405687
Home care technology through an ability expectation lens.
Wolbring, Gregor; Lashewicz, Bonnie
2014-01-01
Home care is on the rise, and its delivery is increasingly reliant on an expanding variety of health technologies ranging from computers to telephone "health apps" to social robots. These technologies are most often predicated on expectations that people in their homes (1) can actively interact with these technologies and (2) are willing to submit to the action of the technology in their home. Our purpose is to use an "ability expectations" lens to bring together, and provide some synthesis of, the types of utility and disadvantages that can arise for people with disabilities in relation to home care technology development and use. We searched the academic databases Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO ALL, IEEE Xplore, and Compendex to collect articles that had the term "home care technology" in the abstract or as a topic (in the case of Web of Science). We also used our background knowledge and related academic literature pertaining to self-diagnosis, health monitoring, companionship, health information gathering, and care. We examined background articles and articles collected through our home care technology search in terms of ability expectations assumed in the presentation of home care technologies, or discussed in relation to home care technologies. While advances in health care support are made possible through emerging technologies, we urge critical examination of such technologies in terms of implications for the rights and dignity of people with diverse abilities. Specifically, we see potential for technologies to result in new forms of exclusion and powerlessness. Ableism influences choices made by funders, policy makers, and the public in the development and use of home health technologies and impacts how people with disabilities are served and how useful health support technologies will be for them. We urge continued critical examination of technology development and use according to ability expectations, and we recommend increasing incorporation of participatory design processes to counteract potential for health support technology to render people with disabilities technologically excluded and powerless. PMID:24956581
Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.
Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus
2015-01-01
By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters. PMID:25068851
The subjective marijuana experience: great expectations.
Stark-Adamec, C; Adamec, R E; Pihl, R O
1981-10-01
Participants' expectations of marijuana effects are frequently cited as unmeasured post hoc explanations of variability in response to the drug, or of the data which fail to conform to the experimenters' expectations of the drug's effects. Twenty-four male volunteers, experienced in the use of marijuana, participated in research involving the administration of coltsfoot, placebo, and marijauna to investigate whether expectancy of marijuana effects could be measured and related to observed effects. Data for the Expectancy Questionnaire were derived from the Marihuana Effects Questions filled out when potential participants volunteered for the study and were compared to the High Questionnaire filled out after drug administration sessions. Expectancy was shown to have a quantifiable effect on the drug experience (both placebo and marijuana), even in an experimental situation. Prior frequency of occurrence of specific effects was positively related to both the intensity and duration of the effects in the laboratory. The data are discussed in terms of the learned components in getting stoned, and in terms of the social nature of cannabis intoxication. PMID:6976947
Maximal and sub-maximal functional lifting performance at different platform heights.
Savage, Robert J; Jaffrey, Mark A; Billing, Daniel C; Ham, Daniel J
2015-05-01
Introducing valid physical employment tests requires identifying and developing a small number of practical tests that provide broad coverage of physical performance across the full range of job tasks. This study investigated discrete lifting performance across various platform heights reflective of common military lifting tasks. Sixteen Australian Army personnel performed a discrete lifting assessment to maximal lifting capacity (MLC) and maximal acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) at four platform heights between 1.30 and 1.70 m. There were strong correlations between platform height and normalised lifting performance for MLC (R(2) = 0.76 ± 0.18, p < 0.05) and MAWL (R(2) = 0.73 ± 0.21, p < 0.05). The developed relationship allowed prediction of lifting capacity at one platform height based on lifting capacity at any of the three other heights, with a standard error of < 4.5 kg and < 2.0 kg for MLC and MAWL, respectively. PMID:25420678
HARDY-LITTLEWOOD MAXIMAL OPERATOR ON Lp(x)(R)
ALES NEKVINDA
We consider Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator on the general Lebesgue space Lp(x)(Rn) with variable exponent. A sufficient condition on the function p is known for the boundedness of the maximal operator on Lp(x)(?) with an open bounded ? .O ur main aim is to find an additional condition to p to guarantee the boundedness of the maximal operator on Lp(x)(Rn). From
Rock, Chris
The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from selected courses. United States and individuals associated with the history of the United States. Introduction to Business At the end democratic principles · Outline the structure of the Constitution of the U.S. · Identity and define
Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension
Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles
2009-01-01
In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution. PMID:18609404
Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems
Chen Jingling [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Center for Combinatorics and LPMC, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Kwek, L. C. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Nanyang Technological University, National Institute of Education, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Ge Molin [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Center for Combinatorics and LPMC, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)
2006-09-15
We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |{psi}>{sub app} that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information.
The Dopaminergic Midbrain Encodes the Expected Certainty about Desired Outcomes.
Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Friston, Karl
2014-07-23
Dopamine plays a key role in learning; however, its exact function in decision making and choice remains unclear. Recently, we proposed a generic model based on active (Bayesian) inference wherein dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about optimal policies. Put simply, dopamine discharges reflect the confidence that a chosen policy will lead to desired outcomes. We designed a novel task to test this hypothesis, where subjects played a "limited offer" game in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Subjects had to decide how long to wait for a high offer before accepting a low offer, with the risk of losing everything if they waited too long. Bayesian model comparison showed that behavior strongly supported active inference, based on surprise minimization, over classical utility maximization schemes. Furthermore, midbrain activity, encompassing dopamine projection neurons, was accurately predicted by trial-by-trial variations in model-based estimates of precision. Our findings demonstrate that human subjects infer both optimal policies and the precision of those inferences, and thus support the notion that humans perform hierarchical probabilistic Bayesian inference. In other words, subjects have to infer both what they should do as well as how confident they are in their choices, where confidence may be encoded by dopaminergic firing. PMID:25056572
Universal horizons in maximally symmetric spaces
Jishnu Bhattacharyya; David Mattingly
2014-08-27
Universal horizons in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity and Einstein-{\\ae}ther theory are the equivalent of causal horizons in general relativity and appear to have many of the same properties, including a first law of horizon thermodynamics and thermal radiation. Since universal horizons are infrared solutions of a putative power counting renormalizable quantum gravitational theory, fully understanding their thermodynamics will shed light on the interplay between black hole thermodynamics and quantum gravity. In this paper, we provide a complete classification, including asymptotic charges, of all four dimensional static and spherically symmetric universal horizon solutions with maximally symmetric asymptotics -- the equivalents of the Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild de Sitter or Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter spacetimes. Additionally we derive the associated first laws for the universal horizon solutions. Finally we prove that independent of asymptotic boundary conditions, any spherically symmetric solution in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity with a universal horizon is also a solution of Einstein-{\\ae}ther theory, thereby broadening and complementing the known equivalence region of the solution spaces.
Maximizing Exosome Colloidal Stability Following Electroporation
Hood, Joshua L.; Scott, Michael J.; Wickline, Samuel A.
2014-01-01
Development of exosome based semi-synthetic nanovesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes requires novel approaches to load exosomes with cargo. Electroporation has previously been used to load exosomes with RNA. However, investigations into exosome colloidal stability following electroporation have not been considered. Herein, we report the development of a unique trehalose pulse media (TPM) that minimizes exosome aggregation following electroporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and RNA absorbance were employed to determine the extent of exosome aggregation and electroextraction post electroporation in TPM compared to common PBS pulse media or sucrose pulse media (SPM). Use of TPM to disaggregate melanoma exosomes post electroporation was dependent on both exosome concentration and electric field strength. TPM maximized exosome dispersal post electroporation for both homogenous B16 melanoma and heterogeneous human serum derived populations of exosomes. Moreover, TPM enabled heavy cargo loading of melanoma exosomes with 5 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION5) while maintaining original exosome size and minimizing exosome aggregation as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Loading exosomes with SPION5 increased exosome density on sucrose gradients. This provides a simple, label free means to enrich exogenously modified exosomes and introduces the potential for MRI driven theranostic exosome investigations in vivo. PMID:24333249
Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.
2014-01-01
A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required environment/organisms for the production of desired sugar and lipid end-products.
Refining the Utility Metric for Utility-Based Cache Partitioning Xing Lin, Rajeev Balasubramonian
Balasubramonian, Rajeev
multiple programs is an important problem and has re- ceived much attention in recent years. Typically, the ways or sets of a cache are partitioned across multiple com- peting programs. Most recent work is built on the con- cept of marginal utility, i.e., a way is assigned to a pro- gram that is expected to benefit most
Unrealistic Expectations Businesses Have about Translators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rodriguez, Cecilia M.
Increased international business and technological advances that speed business communication are affecting the expectations that business has for translators. More companies are asking translation agencies to translate such items as English business letters, advertising campaigns, flyers, brochures, and technical manuals into other languages,…
Probability gains expected for renewal process models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imoto, M.
2004-06-01
We usually use the Brownian distribution, lognormal distribution, Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution, and exponential distribution to calculate long-term probability for the distribution of time intervals between successive events. The values of two parameters of these distributions are determined by the maximum likelihood method. The difference in log likelihood between the proposed model and the stationary Poisson process model, which scores both the period of no events and instances of each event, is considered as the index for evaluating the effectiveness of the earthquake probability model. First, we show that the expected value of the log-likelihood difference becomes the expected value of the logarithm of the probability gain. Next, by converting the time unit into the expected value of the interval, the hazard is made to represent a probability gain. This conversion reduces the degrees of freedom of model parameters to 1. We then demonstrate that the expected value of the probability gain in observed parameter values ranges between 2 and 5. Therefore, we can conclude that the long-term probability calculated before an earthquake may become several times larger than that of the Poisson process model.
Characteristics Orientation, Needs and Expectations. Symposium.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
2002
This document contains three papers from a symposium on characteristics orientation, needs, and expectations. "Characteristics Orientation of Emerging Professions: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice of Continuing Professional Education" (William H. Young, Margot B. Weinstein) reports on a qualitative study that examined emerging…
Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hodges, Linda C.
2014-01-01
This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…
Expectations and received knowledge by surgical patients
SIRKKU RANKINEN; SANNA SALANTERA; KATJA HEIKKINEN; KIRSI JOHANSSON; ANNE KALJONEN; HELI VIRTANEN; HELENA LEINO-KILPI
2007-01-01
Objective. Here, the aim is to compare surgical patients' knowledge expectations at admission with the knowledge they received during their hospital stay. Design. The study used a descriptive and comparative design. Setting. The study was conducted on surgical wards at one randomly selected university hospital in Finland. Participants. The sample (n ¼ 237) consisted of surgical patients (traumatological, gastroenterological, urological
Developing expectations regarding the boundaries of expertise.
Landrum, Asheley R; Mills, Candice M
2015-01-01
Three experiments examined elementary school-aged children's and adults' expectations regarding what specialists (i.e., those with narrow domains of expertise) and generalists (i.e., those with broad domains of expertise) are likely to know. Experiment 1 demonstrated developmental differences in the ability to differentiate between generalists and specialists, with younger children believing generalists have more specific trivia knowledge than older children and adults believed. Experiment 2 demonstrated that children and adults expected generalists to have more underlying principles knowledge than specific trivia knowledge about unfamiliar animals. However, they believed that generalists would have more of both types of knowledge than themselves. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that children and adults recognized that underlying principles knowledge can be generalized between topics closely related to the specialists' domains of expertise. However, they did not recognize when this knowledge was generalizable to topics slightly less related, expecting generalists to know only as much as they would. Importantly, this work contributes to the literature by showing how much of and what kinds of knowledge different types of experts are expected to have. In sum, this work provides insight into some of the ways children's notions of expertise change over development. The current research demonstrates that between the ages of 5 and 10, children are developing the ability to recognize how experts' knowledge is likely to be limited. That said, even older children at times struggle to determine the breadth of an experts' knowledge. PMID:25460394
Men's Alcohol Expectancies at Selected Community Colleges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Derby, Dustin C.
2011-01-01
Men's alcohol expectancies are an important cognitive-behavioral component of their consumption; yet, sparse research details such behaviors for men in two-year colleges. Selected for inclusion with the current study were 563 men from seven Illinois community colleges. Logistic regression analysis indicated four significant, positive relationships…
Teacher Expectation and West Indian Underachievement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Short, Geoffrey
1985-01-01
Examines the claim that unintentional racism is widespread within the teaching profession and contributes, via the self-fulfilling prophecy, to the relative academic failure of West Indian children. This article deals with the latter in terms of the model of teacher expectations advanced by Brophy and Good (1970). (Author/CT)
Teacher Expectancy or My Fair Lady.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fleming, Elyse S.; Anttonen, Ralph C.
This study examined the effects of teacher expectancy on changes in intelligence, known as the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy. Differences in sex, socioeconomic status, and teacher opinion about standardized tests were control factors. The teachers completed a questionnaire that provided the basis for classifying teachers into high,…
Risk Acceptance and Expectations of Laryngeal Allotransplantation
Jo, Hyun Kyo; Park, Jang Wan; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong; Shin, Jun Ho
2014-01-01
Background Laryngeal allotransplantation (LA) is a technique involving transplantation of a deceased donor's larynx into a recipient, and it may be substituted for conventional laryngeal reconstruction. There are widely different views on LA, as the recipient is administered continuous, potentially life-threatening, immunosuppressive therapy for a functional or aesthetic result, which is not directly related to life extension. The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference in risk acceptance and expectations of LA between four population groups. Methods A survey was performed to examine patients' risk acceptance and expectations of LA. The survey included 287 subjects in total (general public, n=100; kidney transplant recipients, n=53; post-laryngectomy patients, n=34; doctors, n=100), using a Korean translated version of the louisville instrument for transplantation (LIFT) questionnaire. Results All four groups responded differently at various levels of their perception in risk acceptance and expectations. The kidney transplant recipients reported the highest risk acceptance and expectations, and the doctor group the lowest. Conclusions This study examined the disparate perception between specific population groups of the risks and benefits of using LA for the promotion of the quality of life. By addressing the information gaps about LA in the different populations that have been highlighted from this survey, we suggest that LA can become a more viable alternative to classical surgery with resultant improved quality of life for patients. PMID:25276642
Expectant Parent Classes: A Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beebe, E. Rick
1978-01-01
Mental health problems among children resulting from poor parenting, a high neonatal death rate, and a low level of medical education in the county provided impetus for developing a primary prevention program--Expectant Parent Program. This article summarizes the development, content, staff, funding, and results of the program. (Author)
Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for males
Trent A. Petrie; Laura J. Austin; Barbara J. Crowley; Annette Helmcamp; Courtney E. Johnson; Regan Lester; Rebecca Rogers; Jeff Turner; Kevin Walbrick
1996-01-01
Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for women have been studied extensively, but little research has focused on this topic with males. Using the two most popular men's fashion magazines (GQand Esquire), this study examined article and advertisement content as well as male models' body sizes to determine the extent to which men have received messages from the media on how to
Inverse momentum expectation values for hydrogenic systems
Delbourgo, R.; Elliott, D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, GPO, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)
2009-06-15
By using the Fourier transforms of the general hydrogenic bound state wave functions (as ultraspherical polynomials), one may find expectation values of arbitrary functions of momentum p. In this manner the effect of a reciprocity perturbation b/p can be evaluated for all hydrogenic states.
Solving Rational Expectations Models Using Excel
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strulik, Holger
2004-01-01
Simple problems of discrete-time optimal control can be solved using a standard spreadsheet software. The employed-solution method of backward iteration is intuitively understandable, does not require any programming skills, and is easy to implement so that it is suitable for classroom exercises with rational-expectations models. The author…
Expectancy determinants of intrinsically motivated behavior
Zur Shapira
1976-01-01
Conducted an experiment to contrast and reconcile 2 cognitive theories of motivation and to investigate the expectancy determinants of intrinsically motivated behavior. 60 undergraduates were presented with 7 challenging tasks which varied in their level of difficulty. Ss were asked to select their most preferred task to work on and then to rank order the remaining tasks on their preferences
Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.
2010-01-01
Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…
Expectations, validity, and reality in pharmacogenetics
Nita A. Limdi; David L. Veenstra
2010-01-01
In this review, we discuss the potential expectations, validity, predictive ability, and reality of pharmacogenetics in (1) titration of medication dose, (2) prediction of intended (efficacy) drug response, and (3) dose prediction of unintended (adverse) drug response. We expound on what these potential genetic predictors tell us and, more importantly, what they cannot tell us.Although pharmacogenetic markers have been hailed
STUDENT EXPECTATIONS FOR RESIDENCE PROGRAMS January 2013
Ellis, Randy
be summarized as follows: a. The Code of Conduct is based on the principle of RESPECT; b. There is zero tolerance for drugs or alcohol - no exceptions. You will be sent home. c. Fighting, racist or sexist clothes for this educational program. Students are expected to dress appropriately and they will be told
Expected benefits of information security investments
Julie J. C. H. Ryan; Daniel J. Ryan
2006-01-01
Ideally, decisions concerning investments of scarce resources in new or additional procedures and technologies that are expected to enhance information security will be informed by quantitative analyses. But security is notoriously hard to quantify, since absence of activity challenges us to establish whether lack of successful attacks is the result of good security or merely due to good luck. However,
Monitoring social expectations in Second Life
Stephen Cranefield; Guannan Li
2009-01-01
Online virtual worlds such as Second Life provide a rich medium for unstructured human interaction in a shared simulated 3D environment. However, many human interactions take place in a structured social context where partic- ipants play particular roles and are subject to expectations governing their be- haviour, and current virtual worlds do not provide any support for this type of
Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCallum, Bennett T.
1994-01-01
Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)
Culture and Caregiving: Goals, Expectations, & Conflict.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
2003-01-01
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care services.…
Can subjective survival expectations explain retirement behaviour?
Owen ODonnell; Federica Teppa; Eddy van Doorslaer
2008-01-01
Theory predicts a number of mechanisms through which survival expectations influence retirement decisions: a wealth effect of a longer lifespan; an uncertainty effect through the return on savings; a longevity risk effect; and, an adverse selection effect from pooling within pensions. We use data from the first three waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing to test whether the
Smoking, Physical Activity, and Active Life Expectancy
Luigi Ferrucci; Grant Izmirlian; Suzanne Leveille; Caroline L. Phillips; Maria-Chiara Corti; Dwight B. Brock; Jack M. Guralnik
The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged >65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for
Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy
Hutton, Jane
Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy J L Hutton, K Hemming and UKCP collaboration What is UKCP? Information about the physical effects of cerebral palsy on the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy which collect information about children within specific local areas. They are the Mersey
VCG AUCTION MECHANISM COST EXPECTATIONS AND VARIANCES
Janson, Svante
demanded. The problem with this and many other mechanisms is that the owners have an incentive to lie aboutVCG AUCTION MECHANISM COST EXPECTATIONS AND VARIANCES SVANTE JANSON AND GREGORY B. SORKIN Abstract, known only to the owner. One obvious "mechanism" for choosing a spanning tree to buy is to ask each
Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Australian Adolescents
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter
2007-01-01
Adolescents across the five years of high school (169 females and 164 males) completed a survey that identified occupational status aspirations and expectations coded into six types-- realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional--according to the RIASEC model (Holland, 1997). As the focus of the study was to explore…
Statistical Translation, Heat Kernels and Expected Distances
Joshua Dillon; Yi Mao; Jian Zhang
High dimensional structured data such as text and images is often poorly understood and misrepresented in statistical modeling. The standard histogram representation suf- fers from high variance and performs poorly in general. We explore novel connections between statistical translation, heat kernels on manifolds and graphs, and expected dis- tances. These connections provide a new framework for unsupervised metric learning for
A Model for Determining the Optimal Capacity Investment for Utility Computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, In
Utility computing has emerged as a new IT model for future computing and storage resource management for enterprises. Utility computing has drawn attention from enterprise customers who seek to reduce upfront IT investment and enhance computing agility. Major IT service providers envisioned that the commoditization and standardization of IT resources would usher in the shift of the IT paradigm towards utility computing. In this paper, a decision model is presented for determining the optimal capacity of a utility computing which maximizes the total profit for a utility computing service provider. The model considers both capacity investment cost and demand level, and derives closed from solutions for the investment.
Utility financing of energy projects
McGeown, D.I.
1997-06-01
In this paper the author examines the changing role of today`s regulated utility and the emergence of new businesses focused on maximizing the value of each dollar spent on energy. These new Energy Service Providers will offer customers choices. They will have the capability to supply the basic energy commodities, electricity, gas and oil, and to integrate these with capital infrastructure projects aimed at improving energy efficiency. The capital injection from these companies offers the opportunity to revitalize the construction industry. Attention to short term investments in core business has resulted in neglect and, therefore, inefficiency in energy related functions. This provides opportunities for well heeled energy companies. Following the business trend toward outsourcing of non-core services, one will see an increase in energy outsourcing as a part of a facility management strategy. Energy suppliers will own the resources required to supply and convert energy into the commodities required for the client`s business. Customers will purchase air conditioning, lighting, process chilled water and similar services on an as needed basis.
Probing the maximally deformed light rare-earth region around the drip-line nucleus 130Sm
M. Petri; E. S. Paul; P. J. Nolan; A. J. Boston; R. J. Cooper; M. R. Dimmock; S. Gros; B. M. McGuirk; H. C. Scraggs; G. Turk; B. Rossé; M. Meyer; N. Redon; Ch Schmitt; O. Stézowski; D. Guinet; Ph Lautesse; G. DeFrance; S. Bhattachasyya; G. Mukherjee; F. Rejmund; M. Rejmund; H. Savajols; J. N. Scheurer; A. Astier; I. Deloncle; A. Prévost; B. M. Nyakó; J. Gál; J. Molnár; J. Timár; L. Zolnai; K. Juhász; V. F. E. Pucknell; R. Wadsworth; P. Joshi; G. La Rana; R. Moro; M. Trotta; E. Vardaci; G. Hackman; G. Ball
2006-01-01
The neutron deficient rare-earth nuclei of the A~130 region are of particular interest since highly deformed prolate ground states are expected. Indeed these nuclei are predicted to show maximal ground-state deformations of beta2 ~ 0.40 (axis ratio of 3:2), comparable to the deformation deduced for superdeformed cerium isotopes at high spin. A fusion-evaporation experiment was performed with radioactive ion beams
Miscellaneous Mathematical Utilities
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This outstanding collection of online mathematical utilities allows users to perform fairly complex computations based upon calculus, linear algebra, quadratic programming, and trigonometry. Each utility is presented its own Webpage, which includes a brief description of the purpose of the utility and instructions about how to use it. An interesting discussion about computer precision is also provided, explaining how accurately numerical data can be represented on a computer. Two papers on quadratic programming are available for download as well.
arXiv:physics/001003915Oct2000 Maximally Informative Statistics
George, Edward I.
statistics, and when lower-than-data-dimension sufficient statistics do not exist. In section 5 we presentarXiv:physics/001003915Oct2000 Maximally Informative Statistics Maximally Informative Statistics: egeorge@mail.utexas.edu Revision history: April 1996. Presented Bayesian Statistics 6, Valencia, 1998
Maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster
Meierfrankenfeld, Ulrich
Maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster Abstract The lists of the maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster simple groups in the Atlas are complete. 1 Introduction The Monster and the Baby Monster are the two
Maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster
Meierfrankenfeld, Ulrich
Maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster U. Meierfrankenfeld and S. Shpectorov September 6, 2002 Abstract The lists of the maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster simple groups in the Atlas are complete. 1 Introduction The Monster and the Baby Monster are the two largest
Revenue Maximization in Spectrum Auctions for Dynamic Spectrum Access
Teneketzis, Demosthenis
1 Revenue Maximization in Spectrum Auctions for Dynamic Spectrum Access Ali Kakhbod, Ashutosh maximization problems in auctions for dynamic spectrum access. We consider the frequency division and spread spectrum methods of dynamic spectrum shar- ing. In the frequency division method, a primary spectrum user
Decision Strategies that Maximize the Area Under the LROC Curve
1 Decision Strategies that Maximize the Area Under the LROC Curve Parmeshwar Khurd, Student Member of the signal, then it would be similarly valuable to have a decision strategy that optimized a relevant scalar uncertainty using the LROC method- ology. Therefore, we derive decision strategies that maximize the area
Maximally localized Wannier functions: Theory and applications Nicola Marzari
Vanderbilt, David
Maximally localized Wannier functions: Theory and applications Nicola Marzari Theory and Simulation in terms of localized ``Wannier functions'' was introduced by Gregory Wannier in 1937. The connection-principles calculation into a unique set of maximally localized Wannier functions, accomplishing the solid
Exercise Biology 124 Physiology of Maximal Human Performance
Wainwright, Peter C.
Exercise Biology 124 Physiology of Maximal Human Performance Winter 2011 CRN 43696 Dr. Keith Baar 4 units Molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to training. Students learn how to exercise to maximize their own performance as well as learning how the frequency, intensity and timing of exercise and nutrition
arXiv:physics/0010039 Maximally Informative Statistics
Wolf, David R.
arXiv:physics/0010039 v1 15 Oct 2000 Maximally Informative Statistics Maximally Informative Statistics David R. Wolf PO 8308, Austin, TX 78713-8308, USA, E-mail: drwolf@realtime.net Dr. Wolf: egeorge@mail.utexas.edu Revision history: April 1996. Presented Bayesian Statistics 6, Valencia, 1998
ThroughputMaximizing FIR Transmit Filters for Linear Dispersive Channels
Al-Dhahir, Naofal
ThroughputÂMaximizing FIR Transmit Filters for Linear Dispersive Channels Naofal AlÂDhahir \\Lambda Abstract OptimumFIR transmit filters for symbol--by--symboltransmission on linear dispersive additive constraint. This maximized throughput is compared with that achievable with water--pour and flat transmit
Metabolic Heterogeneity in Human Calf Muscle During Maximal Exercise
K. Vandenborne; K. McCully; H. Kakihira; M. Prammer; L. Bolinger; J. A. Detre; K. de Meirleir; G. Walter; B. Chance; J. S. Leigh
1991-01-01
Human skeletal muscle is composed of various muscle fiber types. We hypothesized that differences in metabolism between fiber types could be detected noninvasively with ^31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy during maximal exercise. This assumes that during maximal exercise all fiber types are recruited and all vary in the amount of acidosis. The calf muscles of seven subjects were studied. Two
Signaling Schemes for Revenue Maximization YUVAL EMEK, ETH Zurich
Fiat, Amos
but not to the bidders. This framework can be used to model impressions selling in display advertising. We establishSignaling Schemes for Revenue Maximization YUVAL EMEK, ETH Zurich MICHAL FELDMAN, Hebrew University that maximizes the auctioneer's revenue in a Bayesian setting. We show that this problem is polynomially solvable
Maximal Arithmetic Progressions in Random Subsets Itai Benjamini
Zeitouni, Ofer
Maximal Arithmetic Progressions in Random Subsets Itai Benjamini Ariel Yadin Ofer Zeitouni July 24, 2007 Abstract Let U(N) denote the maximal length of arithmetic progressions in a random uni- form W (N) of arithmetic progressions (mod N). When considered in the natural way on a common probability
Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pace, Andrew K.
2005-01-01
This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of
Center for By-Products Utilization PRELIMINARY DRAFT NOT EDITED VERSION USES OF CKD OTHER THAN..........................................................................................................................ii CEMENT KILN DUST (CKD.....................................................................................................................2 The Generation of CKD
Decreasing bullying behaviors in middle school: expect respect.
Nese, Rhonda N T; Horner, Robert H; Dickey, Celeste Rossetto; Stiller, Brianna; Tomlanovich, Anne
2014-09-01
A nonconcurrent multiple baseline across 3 middle schools was used to assess the impact that teaching all students to follow the Bullying and Harassment Prevention in Positive Behavior Support: Expect Respect intervention had on bullying behaviors. The 3 schools were using School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and as part of this effort all students in each school had been taught to discriminate "respectful" versus "nonrespectful" behavior. The Expect Respect intervention included, 3 1-hr lessons over a 6-month period to learn (a) how to signal "stop" when encountering nonrespectful behavior, (b) how to follow a "stopping routine" when asked to stop, (c) how to utilize the "bystander routine" when you are a witness to disrespectful behavior that does not stop even after the perpetrator has been asked to, and (d) how to recruit adult support if bullying behaviors endured. Before intervention implementation, 8 students from each school were engaged in focus groups to define the perceived need for bully prevention, and the bully prevention routines that best fit the social culture of their school. Data assessing the fidelity of intervention implementation indicate that the program was used with high fidelity and that in each of the 3 schools a reduction of verbal or physical aggression in the cafeteria was documented via direct observation. No consistent patterns were found with respect to the conditional probabilities that bystanders or recipients of bullying would use the bully prevention routines. No consistent changes were reported in student pre-post rating of school climate. PMID:24820010
Maximally entangled states in pseudo-telepathy games
Laura Man?inska
2015-06-23
A pseudo-telepathy game is a nonlocal game which can be won with probability one using some finite-dimensional quantum strategy but not using a classical one. Our central question is whether there exist two-party pseudo-telepathy games which cannot be won with probability one using a maximally entangled state. Towards answering this question, we develop conditions under which maximally entangled states suffice. In particular, we show that maximally entangled states suffice for weak projection games which we introduce as a relaxation of projection games. Our results also imply that any pseudo-telepathy weak projection game yields a device-independent certification of a maximally entangled state. In particular, by establishing connections to the setting of communication complexity, we exhibit a class of games $G_n$ for testing maximally entangled states of local dimension $\\Omega(n)$. We leave the robustness of these self-tests as an open question.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafferis, Noah T.; Smith, Michael J.; Wood, Robert J.
2015-06-01
Increasing the energy and power density of piezoelectric actuators is very important for any weight-sensitive application, and is especially crucial for enabling autonomy in micro/milli-scale robots and devices utilizing this technology. This is achieved by maximizing the mechanical flexural strength and electrical dielectric strength through the use of laser-induced melting or polishing, insulating edge coating, and crack-arresting features, combined with features for rigid ground attachments to maximize force output. Manufacturing techniques have also been developed to enable mass customization, in which sheets of material are pre-stacked to form a laminate from which nearly arbitrary planar actuator designs can be fabricated using only laser cutting. These techniques have led to a 70% increase in energy density and an increase in mean lifetime of at least 15× compared to prior manufacturing methods. In addition, measurements have revealed a doubling of the piezoelectric coefficient when operating at the high fields necessary to achieve maximal energy densities, along with an increase in the Young’s modulus at the high compressive strains encountered—these two effects help to explain the higher performance of our actuators as compared to that predicted by linear models.
Verification of automotive networks -what to expect (and not expect) from each
Navet, Nicolas
Verification of automotive networks - what to expect (and not expect) from each technique Nicolas NAVET nicolas.navet@uni.lu "Automotive Bus systems + Ethernet" Stuttgart, Germany, December 9-11, 2013. December 09, 2013 #12;1 Outline - 212/11/2013Automotive Bus systems + Ethernet Early-stage timing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.
2009-01-01
Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…
Long-Term Trends in Life Expectancy and Active Life Expectancy in the United States
Kenneth G. Manton; XiLiang Gu; Vicki L. Lamb
2006-01-01
Changes in life expectancy and in active life expectancy may have effects on the fiscal integrity of both the Social Security and Medicare programs. Analysis of the fiscal stability of these programs shows that the most serious problem may be the growth of Medicare expenditures projected to surpass, in about 2024, Social Security costs. This is aggravated by the associated
Boyer, Edmond
Students' Motivation The Effects of Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation On Teachers Autonomy-Supportive' motivation on the frequency of controlling and autonomy-supportive behaviors. Following the assessment, autonomy-support, control, teaching behaviors. hal-00389007,version1-27May2009 #12;Teachers' Expectations
Young infants have biological expectations about animals.
Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel
2013-10-01
What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants' expectations about animals' insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134
What did we really expect from deinstitutionalization?
Lamb, H R
1981-02-01
Long-term, severely disabled psychiatric patients are almost by definition a marginal population. Yet the expectations of deinstitutionalization are often expressed in such terms as "helping them become a part of the mainstream of our society" and "normalization." Although only a minority of long-term patients can realize these expectations, the programs that receive the most attention are those geared to the higher-functioning minority. When scrutinized, proposed "solutions" to the problem of deinstitutionalization are found to be simplistic and unrealistic. Deinstitutionalization will have accomplished a tremendous amount if the mentally ill can live lives of dignity and a reasonable amount of comfort in the community, a good that will require increased investment of both effort and funds in their living arrangements. The private sector, given sufficient financial incentives and proper supervision and support, can provide quality services to chronic patients on a large scale. PMID:7275024
Candidate preferences and expectations of election outcomes.
Delavande, Adeline; Manski, Charles F
2012-03-01
Analysis of data from the American Life Panel shows that in the presidential election of 2008 and in multiple statewide elections in 2010, citizens exhibited large differences in their expectations of election outcomes. Expectations were strongly positively associated with candidate preferences, persons tending to believe that their preferred candidate is more likely to win the election. Committed supporters of opposing candidates regularly differed by 20-30% in their assessments of the likelihood that each candidate would win. These findings contribute evidence on the false consensus effect, the empirical regularity that own preferences tend to be positively associated with perceptions of social preferences. We used unique measures of preferences and perceptions that enabled respondents to express uncertainty flexibly. We studied a setting that would a priori seem inhospitable to false consensus--one where persons have little private information on social preferences but substantial common knowledge provided by media reports of election polls. PMID:22355121
Faculty Expectations and Development: The Tenure Case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, S. Suzanne
Professionals seeking careers in academia should understand the tenure process, and how to prepare successfully for the evaluations linked to the tenure decision. This chapter offers suggestions for persons pursuing tenure-track faculty positions in the discipline of food science. The first promotion process in academia (i.e., from assistant professor to associate professor) is typically linked to tenure consideration. The focus of this chapter is explaining tenure, tenure expectations, resources for guidance, how to manage the process, and how to prepare the tenure and promotion document. While most people are fearful of the promotion and tenure process, this fear and apprehension can be minimized by understanding the process and its expectations, and having good advice to follow to help ensure success.
Teeters, Jenni B; Ginley, Meredith K; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W; Pearlson, Godfrey D
2015-03-01
Compared to college females, college males are more likely to report frequent gambling. Research on gambling outcome expectancies has shown that expectations about gambling influence gambling behavior and that endorsement of particular expectancies differs by gender. Knowledge regarding the differential predictive utility of specific gambling expectancies based on gender would help to determine how beliefs about gambling may be fundamentally different for men and women. The present study explored whether gender moderates the relation between gambling expectancy and gambling frequency in a college sample. 421 college students completed an online survey that included questions about their demographics, gambling frequency, and gambling expectancies. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that gender moderated the relations between the expectancies of social consequences, material gain, and gambling frequency. For females, greater endorsement of social consequences predicted less frequent gambling. For both males and females, greater endorsement of material gain predicted more frequent gambling. The current findings can help inform prevention and intervention efforts by identifying gambling expectations that are differentially related to college student gambling behavior choices. PMID:24065315
PLATO Simulator: Realistic simulations of expected observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Huygen, R.; Samadi, R.; Green, J.; Piotto, G.; Salmon, S.; Catala, C.; Rauer, H.
2015-06-01
PLATO Simulator is an end-to-end simulation software tool designed for the performance of realistic simulations of the expected observations of the PLATO mission but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. It models and simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources.
The Exact Theoretical Rational Expectations Monetary Aggregate
Barnett, William A.; Hinich, Melvin J.; Yue, Piyu
2000-06-01
in ms and in xs for some such partition of as. Hence there exists a monetary aggregator ("category utility") function, M, and consumer goods 10 aggregator function, X, and a utility function, u*, such that u(as, xs) = u*(M(ms),hs,X(xs) ). (5) We assume...*smis], and let ?(s) = {(hs,xs,As) ?Y: ? = n i isis xp 1 = + ? i=1 k2 [(1 + ii,s-1)p*s-1 hi,s-1 - p*shis] + (1 + Rs-1)p*s-1As-1 - p*s As + Ds}. (7) 11 Let the deterministic point (a*t ,x*t ,A*t ) and the stochastic process (a*s,x*s,A*s), s ? t...
Learning what to expect (in visual perception)
Seriès, Peggy; Seitz, Aaron R.
2013-01-01
Expectations are known to greatly affect our experience of the world. A growing theory in computational neuroscience is that perception can be successfully described using Bayesian inference models and that the brain is “Bayes-optimal” under some constraints. In this context, expectations are particularly interesting, because they can be viewed as prior beliefs in the statistical inference process. A number of questions remain unsolved, however, for example: How fast do priors change over time? Are there limits in the complexity of the priors that can be learned? How do an individual’s priors compare to the true scene statistics? Can we unlearn priors that are thought to correspond to natural scene statistics? Where and what are the neural substrate of priors? Focusing on the perception of visual motion, we here review recent studies from our laboratories and others addressing these issues. We discuss how these data on motion perception fit within the broader literature on perceptual Bayesian priors, perceptual expectations, and statistical and perceptual learning and review the possible neural basis of priors. PMID:24187536
Conditional expectations associated with quantum states
Gerd Niestegge
2010-01-21
An extension of the conditional expectations (those under a given subalgebra of events and not the simple ones under a single event) from the classical to the quantum case is presented. In the classical case, the conditional expectations always exist; in the quantum case, however, they exist only if a certain weak compatibility criterion is satisfied. This compatibility criterion was introduced among others in a recent paper by the author. Then, state-independent conditional expectations and quantum Markov processes are studied. A classical Markov process is a probability measure, together with a system of random variables, satisfying the Markov property and can equivalently be described by a system of Markovian kernels (often forming a semigroup). This equivalence is partly extended to quantum probabilities. It is shown that a dynamical (semi)group can be derived from a given system of quantum observables satisfying the Markov property, and the group generators are studied. The results are presented in the framework of Jordan operator algebras, and a very general type of observables (including the usual real-valued observables or self-adjoint operators) is considered.
Maximizing energy transfer in vibrofluidized granular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Windows-Yule, C. R. K.; Rosato, A. D.; Parker, D. J.; Thornton, A. R.
2015-05-01
Using discrete particle simulations validated by experimental data acquired using the positron emission particle tracking technique, we study the efficiency of energy transfer from a vibrating wall to a system of discrete, macroscopic particles. We demonstrate that even for a fixed input energy from the wall, energy conveyed to the granular system under excitation may vary significantly dependent on the frequency and amplitude of the driving oscillations. We investigate the manner in which the efficiency with which energy is transferred to the system depends on the system variables and determine the key control parameters governing the optimization of this energy transfer. A mechanism capable of explaining our results is proposed, and the implications of our findings in the research field of granular dynamics as well as their possible utilization in industrial applications are discussed.
Raul Perez Galvez; Jean-Pascal Berge
2013-01-01
The shortage of marine resources calls for the implementation of new technological processes for providing a better utilization of waste and by-products from fisheries and fish processing activities. Most of these by-products are currently used as raw materials for animal feed. It is estimated that their utilization in human foodstuffs, nutraceuticals, pharmacy, or cosmetics would increase their value fivefold. This
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of
1 Center for By-Products Utilization DURABILITY OF CAST-CONCRETE PRODUCTS UTILIZING RECYCLED of Concrete in Barcelona, Spain, June 2000 Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONISN-MILWAUKEE #12;1 Durability of Cast-Concrete
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of
Center for By-Products Utilization RECYCLED MATERIALS IN CONCRETE INDUSTRY By Tarun R. Naik-consumer activities along with their possible recycling for the utilization in concrete industry. These by, plastics, glass, recycled concrete pavements for aggregates, recycled asphalt pavement for asphalt
Nonparametric Predictive Utility Inference
B. Houlding; F. P. A. Coolen
This work considers the combination of two strands of recent statistical research: that of decision making with uncertain utility and that of nonparametric predictive inference. In doing so we discuss the use of Nonparametric Predictive Utility Inference (NPUI) within a sequential decision selection problem for the situation of a Decision Maker (DM) who is confronted with a choice set that
Miles Kimball; Robert Willis
Psychologists have developed effective survey methods of measuring how happy people feel at a given time. The relationship between how happy a person feels and utility is an unresolved question. Existing work in Economics either ignores happiness data or assumes that felt happiness is more or less the same thing as flow utility. The approach we propose in this paper
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of
Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST OF CLASS F FLYASHAND CLEAN-COAL ASHBLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS Authors: TarunR.Naik, Director, Center,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research Associate, UWM Center forBy-Products Utilization Shiw S
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of
, and chloride-ion penetration as a function #12;-ii- of age. For air entrained concrete mixtures, test specimensCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST CONCRETE UTILIZING FOUNDRY INDUSTRY BY TECHNICAL REPORT October 15, 1996, through October 14, 1997 Project Title: DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST CONCRETE
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of
-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, WI 53201 d Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute * Director UWM products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much products that utilize clean coal ash. With increasing federal regulations on power plant emissions, finding
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of
Center for By-Products Utilization CLEAN COAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION IN ROADWAY, EMBANKMENTS-fueled plants, particularly use of eastern coals, has lead to the use of clean coal and using advanced sulfur dioxide control technologies. Figure 1 shows clean coal technology benefits(2) . In 1977, the concept
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of
for use of wood ash generated by the forest products industry in concrete (structural-grade concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization DEMONSTRATION OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR CONCRETE AND CLSM Principal Investigator: Tarun R. Naik UWM Center for By-Products Utilization University of Wisconsin
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of
generated by the Wisconsin forest products industry in concrete (structural-grade concrete) and flowableCenter for By-Products Utilization DEMONSTRATION OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR CONCRETE AND CLSM. Naik UWM Center for By-Products Utilization University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Other Project Personnel
Ghoudjehbaklou, H.; Puttgen, H.B.
1988-01-01
This paper outlines an optimum spot price determination procedure in the general context of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act, PURPA, provisions. PURPA stipulates that local utilities must offer to purchase all available excess electric energy from Qualifying Facilities, QF, at fair market prices. As a direct consequence of these PURPA regulations, a growing number of owners are installing power producing facilities and optimize their operational schedules to minimize their utility related costs or, in some cases, actually maximize their revenues from energy sales to the local utility. In turn, the utility strives to use spot prices which maximize its revenues from any given Small Power Producing Facility, SPPF, a schedule while respecting the general regulatory and contractual framework. the proposed optimum spot price determination procedure fully models the SPPF operation, it enforces the contractual and regulatory restrictions, and it ensures the uniqueness of the optimum SPPF schedule.
Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic effect of Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root extract.
Hu, Xuansheng; Cheng, Delin; Wang, Linbo; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yuepeng; Li, Kejuan; Yang, Yingnan; Zhang, Zhenya
2015-05-01
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of ethanol extract from Actinidiakolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root (AKE).An in vitroevaluation was performed by using rat intestinal ?-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase), the key enzymes linked with type 2 diabetes. And an in vivoevaluation was also performed by loading maltose, sucrose, glucose to normal rats. As a result, AKE showed concentration-dependent inhibition effects on rat intestinal maltase and rat intestinal sucrase with IC50 values of 1.83 and 1.03mg/mL, respectively. In normal rats, after loaded with maltose, sucrose and glucose, administration of AKE significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia, which is similar to acarboseused as an anti-diabetic drug. High contents of total phenolics (80.49 ± 0.05mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoids (430.69 ± 0.91mg RE/g extract) were detected in AKE. In conclusion, AKE possessed anti-hyperglycemic effects and the possible mechanisms were associated with its inhibition on ?-glucosidase and the improvement on insulin release and/or insulin sensitivity as well. The anti-hyperglycemic activity possessed by AKE maybe attributable to its high contents of phenolicand flavonoid compounds. PMID:26051735
D2-brane Chern-Simons theories: F-maximization = a-maximization
Fluder, Martin
2015-01-01
We study a system of N D2-branes probing a generic Calabi-Yau three-fold singularity in the presence of a non-zero quantized Romans mass n. We argue that the low-energy effective N = 2 Chern-Simons quiver gauge theory flows to a superconformal fixed point in the IR, and construct the dual AdS_4 solution in massive IIA supergravity. We compute the free energy F of the gauge theory on S^3 using localization. In the large N limit we find F = c(nN)^{1/3}a^{2/3}, where c is a universal constant and a is the a-function of the "parent" four-dimensional N = 1 theory on N D3-branes probing the same Calabi-Yau singularity. It follows that maximizing F over the space of admissible R-symmetries is equivalent to maximizing a for this class of theories. Moreover, we show that the gauge theory result precisely matches the holographic free energy of the supergravity solution, and provide a similar matching of the VEV of a BPS Wilson loop operator.
Tabita, F. Robert [The Ohio State University] [The Ohio State University
2013-07-30
In this study, the Principal Investigator, F.R. Tabita has teemed up with J. C. Liao from UCLA. This project's main goal is to manipulate regulatory networks in phototrophic bacteria to affect and maximize the production of large amounts of hydrogen gas under conditions where wild-type organisms are constrained by inherent regulatory mechanisms from allowing this to occur. Unrestrained production of hydrogen has been achieved and this will allow for the potential utilization of waste materials as a feed stock to support hydrogen production. By further understanding the means by which regulatory networks interact, this study will seek to maximize the ability of currently available “unrestrained” organisms to produce hydrogen. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Moreover, due to their great metabolic versatility, such organisms highly regulate these processes in the cell and since virtually all such capabilities are dispensable, excellent experimental systems to study aspects of molecular control and biochemistry/physiology are available.
Friedman, Ronald S; McCarthy, Denis M; Pedersen, Sarah L; Hicks, Joshua A
2009-06-01
According to information-processing models of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies constitute representations in long-term memory that may be activated in the presence of drinking-related cues, thereby influencing alcohol consumption. A fundamental implication of this approach is that primed expectancies should affect drinking only for those individuals who possess the specific expectancies primed. To test this notion, in the present study, participants were initially assessed on 3 distinct domains of positive alcohol expectancies. Approximately 1 week later, they completed an ad libitum drinking study during which only a single expectancy domain (sociability) was primed in the experimental condition. Consistent with predictions, following exposure to sociability primes but not control primes, individuals with stronger expectancies that alcohol would enhance sociability uniquely showed increased placebo consumption of nonalcoholic beer. These results, which demonstrate the moderating role of compatibility between the specific content of primes and that of underlying expectancies, offer new, direct support for memory network-based models of drinking behavior. PMID:19586149
Utilities reconsider load leveling with large-scale storage batteries
Smock
1985-01-01
Large, load-leveling batteries could help utilities reduce costs. They offer an alternative to pumped hydro storage that can be built in small modules and are easier to site. Batteries can maximize generation from low-cost sources, such as coal-fired or nuclear plants. They can also reduce demand charges for users who have large, narrow daily peaks. The Electric Power Research Institute-sponsored
Ventilatory threshold measurement to evaluate maximal endurance performance.
Reybrouck, T; Ghesquiere, J; Weymans, M; Amery, A
1986-02-01
The ventilatory (anaerobic) threshold during short-term exercise has been defined as the O2 uptake (VO2) immediately below the VO2 at which pulmonary ventilation (VE) increases disproportionally relative to VO2 and the ventilatory threshold for long-term exercise as the VO2 immediately below the VO2 at which the VE continues to increase with time rather than attain a steady state. Maximal endurance performance was determined by measurement of the maximal endurance time during treadmill runs at 90%, and 70% of the previously determined VO2 max. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how maximal endurance performance was related to both ventilatory thresholds and to VO2max, and to select which variable best explained maximal endurance performance. The subjects were 11 healthy males. Maximal endurance performance was significantly correlated with the ventilatory threshold for long-term exercise and VO2max. A stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that maximal endurance performance was best predicted by the ventilatory threshold for long-term exercise. Combination of variables could not improve the prediction. It is concluded that the ventilatory threshold for long-term exercise better explains maximal endurance performance than VO2max or the ventilatory threshold during short-term exercise. PMID:3082780
Reinforcement expectancies and alcoholism treatment outcome after a one-year follow-up.
Brown, S A
1985-07-01
The relationship of alcohol-related expectancies with the drinking behavior and treatment compliance of alcoholics was examined 1 year posttreatment, along with the utility of reinforcement expectancy as a predictor of alcoholism treatment outcome. Of the original sample of 42 men veteran inpatients from an alcoholism treatment program, 81% were interviewed 1 year after treatment. Prediction variables identified in the multiple-regression analyses accounted for 40-57% of the criterion variance. It was found that more limited expectancies of alcohol-produced relaxation were associated with abstinence, as well as nonproblematic drinking. It was also found that there was a consistent negative linear relationship between alcohol expectancies and measures of treatment success. PMID:2993749
Maximal compatible splitting and diagonals of Kempf varieties
Lauritzen, Niels
2010-01-01
Lakshmibai, Mehta and Parameswaran (LMP) introduced the notion of maximal multiplicity vanishing in Frobenius splitting. In this paper we define the algebraic analogue of this concept and construct a Frobenius splitting vanishing with maximal multiplicity on the diagonal of the full flag variety. Our splitting induces a diagonal Frobenius splitting of maximal multiplicity for a special class of smooth Schubert varieties first considered by Kempf. Consequences are Frobenius splitting of tangent bundles, of blow-ups along the diagonal in flag varieties along with the LMP and Wahl conjectures in positive characteristic for the special linear group.
[Interest in registered partnership higher than expected].
Harmsen, C N; Latten, J J
1998-10-01
"Since 1 January 1998 non-married couples of the same or opposite sex [in the Netherlands have been] allowed to have their partnership officially registered. In the first half of 1998 about 1.8 thousand couples of the same sex and 0.8 thousand of opposite sex were registered. These numbers are somewhat higher than the [legislators] expected at the time of introduction of this legal provision. The average age of persons who registered their partnership is considerably higher than that of persons who married. The average age difference between two male partners is almost twice as large as between two marrying persons." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321796
Helpful and harmful expectations of premarital interventions.
Valiente, Carlos E; Belanger, Catherine J; Estrada, Ana U
2002-01-01
Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of premarital programs, estimates indicate that only 30% of couples use these services. This study examined the helpful and harmful aspects of premarital programs that may encourage or discourage participation. As expected, participants identified improved communication and problem solving skills as most beneficial. Disclosing secrets or past relationship issues that threaten the stability of the relationship was viewed as most harmful. Implications for the recruitment of couples and for the design and implementation of premarital programs are discussed. PMID:11928181
Maximizing Exposure Therapy: An Inhibitory Learning Approach
Craske, Michelle G.; Treanor, Michael; Conway, Chris; Zbozinek, Tomislav; Vervliet, Bram
2014-01-01
Exposure therapy is an effective approach for treating anxiety disorders, although a substantial number of individuals fail to benefit or experience a return of fear after treatment. Research suggests that anxious individuals show deficits in the mechanisms believed to underlie exposure therapy, such as inhibitory learning. Targeting these processes may help improve the efficacy of exposure-based procedures. Although evidence supports an inhibitory learning model of extinction, there has been little discussion of how to implement this model in clinical practice. The primary aim of this paper is to provide examples to clinicians for how to apply this model to optimize exposure therapy with anxious clients, in ways that distinguish it from a ‘fear habituation’ approach and ‘belief disconfirmation’ approach within standard cognitive-behavior therapy. Exposure optimization strategies include 1) expectancy violation, 2) deepened extinction, 3) occasional reinforced extinction, 4) removal of safety signals, 5) variability, 6) retrieval cues, 7) multiple contexts, and 8) affect labeling. Case studies illustrate methods of applying these techniques with a variety of anxiety disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, and panic disorder. PMID:24864005
The Long Arm of Expectancies: Adolescent Alcohol Expectancies Predict Adult Alcohol Use
Patrick, Megan E.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Finlay, Andrea K.; Maggs, Jennifer L.
2010-01-01
Aims: Alcohol expectancies are strong concurrent predictors of alcohol use and problems, but the current study addressed their unique power to predict from adolescence to midlife. Method: Long-term longitudinal data from the national British Cohort Study 1970 (N = 2146, 59.8% female) were used to predict alcohol use and misuse in the mid-30s by alcohol expectancies reported in adolescence. Results: Cohort members with more positive alcohol expectancies at age 16 reported greater alcohol quantity concurrently, increases in alcohol quantity relative to their peers between ages 16 and 35, and a higher likelihood of lifetime and previous year alcohol misuse at age 35, independent of gender, social class in family of origin, age of alcohol use onset, adolescent delinquent behavior and age 16 exam scores. Conclusions: Alcohol expectancies were strong proximal predictors of alcohol use and predicted relative change in alcohol use and misuse across two decades into middle adulthood. PMID:19808940
Kong, Jian
Recent advances in placebo research have demonstrated the mind's power to alter physiology. In this study, we combined an expectancy manipulation model with both verum and sham acupuncture treatments to address: 1) how and ...
Expectation and surprise determine neural population responses in the ventral visual stream.
Egner, Tobias; Monti, Jim M; Summerfield, Christopher
2010-12-01
Visual cortex is traditionally viewed as a hierarchy of neural feature detectors, with neural population responses being driven by bottom-up stimulus features. Conversely, "predictive coding" models propose that each stage of the visual hierarchy harbors two computationally distinct classes of processing unit: representational units that encode the conditional probability of a stimulus and provide predictions to the next lower level; and error units that encode the mismatch between predictions and bottom-up evidence, and forward prediction error to the next higher level. Predictive coding therefore suggests that neural population responses in category-selective visual regions, like the fusiform face area (FFA), reflect a summation of activity related to prediction ("face expectation") and prediction error ("face surprise"), rather than a homogenous feature detection response. We tested the rival hypotheses of the feature detection and predictive coding models by collecting functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the FFA while independently varying both stimulus features (faces vs houses) and subjects' perceptual expectations regarding those features (low vs medium vs high face expectation). The effects of stimulus and expectation factors interacted, whereby FFA activity elicited by face and house stimuli was indistinguishable under high face expectation and maximally differentiated under low face expectation. Using computational modeling, we show that these data can be explained by predictive coding but not by feature detection models, even when the latter are augmented with attentional mechanisms. Thus, population responses in the ventral visual stream appear to be determined by feature expectation and surprise rather than by stimulus features per se. PMID:21147999
Maximizing a transport platform through computer technology.
Hudson, Timothy L
2003-01-01
One of the most recent innovations coalescing computer technology and medical care is the further development of integrated medical component technology coupled with a computer subsystem. One such example is the self-contained patient transport system known as the Life Support for Trauma and Transport (LSTAT(tm)). The LSTAT creates a new transport platform that integrates the most current medical monitoring and therapeutic capabilities with computer processing capacity, creating the first "smart litter". The LSTAT is built around a computer system that is network capable and acts as the data hub for multiple medical devices and utilities, including data, power, and oxygen systems. The system logs patient and device data in a simultaneous, time-synchronized, continuous format, allowing electronic transmission, storage, and electronic documentation. The third-generation LSTAT includes an oxygen system, ventilator, clinical point-of-care blood analyzer, suction, defibrillator, infusion pump, and physiologic monitor, as well as on-board power and oxygen systems. The developers of LSTAT and other developers have the ability to further expand integrative component technology by developing and integrating clinical decision support systems. PMID:12802947
Utilities and state regulators are failing to take advantage of emission allowance trading
Bohi, D.R. (Energy and Natural Resources, Washington, DC (United States))
1994-03-01
Regulators are not providing active encouragement to utilities to engage in emissions trading, and utilities are behaving as if trading were restricted to state or system borders. If this pattern of behavior continues, emission allowance trading among U.S. electric utilities will prove to be considerably less successful--and less cost-effective--than originally expected.
and expected value can be used as decision making tools for choosing a strategy. We include two examples below tool here and choose the strategy that maximizes our probability of success. This decision making tool for review. Example; The Monty Hall problem (Review: Using probability to decide on a strategy
Identifying, meeting, and assessing customer expectations
Danner, T.A.
1995-02-01
Maintaining proficiency in carrying out mission goals is fundamental to the success of any organization. The definitive mission of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is {open_quotes}to conduct waste management activities in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient manner{close_quotes}. In order to effectively fulfill this mission, must meet or exceed several standards in respect to our customers. These include: (1) identifying current and future customer expectations; (2) managing our relationships with our customers; (3) ensuring our commitment to our customers; and (4) measuring our success m customer satisfaction. Our customers have a great variety of requirements and expectations. Many of these are in the form of local, state, and federal regulations and environmental standards. Others are brought to our attention through inquires made to the Department of Energy (DOE).Consumer surveys have proven to be effective tools which have been used to make improvements, enhance certain program elements, and identify beneficial areas in already existing programs. In addition, national working groups, technology transfer meetings, and manager/contractor`s meeting offer excellent opportunities to assess our activities.
Foiled Expectations: When Democracy Doesn't Deliver
Wimpy, Cameron
2014-08-25
expectations. My primary empirical focus is on developing democracies. Within that context I focus on the expectation that voters have for property rights. As such I place property rights in the broader theoretical context of voters’ expectations...
Limited Life Expectancy Among a Subgroup of Medicare Beneficiaries Receiving Screening Colonoscopies
Mittal, Sahil; Lin, Yu-Li; Tan, Alai; Kuo, Yong-Fang; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Goodwin, James S.
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND & AIMS Life expectancy is an important consideration when assessing appropriateness of preventive programs for older individuals. Most studies on this subject have used age cutoffs as a proxy for life expectancy. We analyzed patterns of utilization of screening colonoscopy in Medicare enrollees using estimated life expectancy. METHODS We used a 5% random national sample of Medicare claims data to identify average-risk patients who underwent screening colonoscopies from 2008 through 2010. Colonoscopies were considered to be screening colonoscopies in the absence of diagnoses for non-screening indications, based on either colonoscopies or any claims in the preceding 3 months. We estimated life expectancies using a model that combined age, sex, and comorbidity. Among patients who underwent screening colonoscopies, we calculated the percentage of those with life expectancies <10 y. RESULTS Among the 57,597 Medicare beneficiaries 66 y old or older who received at least 1 screening colonoscopy, 24.8% had an estimated life expectancy of <10 y. There was a significant positive association between total Medicare per capita costs in hospital referral regions and the proportion of patients with limited life expectancies (<10 y) at the time of screening colonoscopy (R=0.25; P<.001, Pearson correlation test). In a multivariable analysis, men were substantially more likely than women to have limited life expectancy at the time of screening colonoscopy (odds ratio=2.25; 95% confidence interval, 2.16–2.34). Conclusion Nearly 25% of Medicare beneficiaries, especially men, had life expectancies <10 y at the time of screening colonoscopies. Life expectancy should therefore be incorporated in decision making for preventive services. PMID:23973925
Maximal violation of Bell's inequalities and Pauli spin matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohata, Martin; Hamhalter, Jan
2009-08-01
The paper deals with the structure of Bell's inequalities (Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) form). It is established that ?2 is the universal bound for Bell's correlations given by a general correlation duality on a complex linear space. Using geometric arguments the maximal violation of Bell's inequalities is described on this abstract level. It is proved that Bell's inequalities are maximally violated for general ?-algebras and a faithful state exactly when the corresponding elements are the Pauli spin matrices. Interesting structural consequences of this result are derived. They demonstrate that the maximal violation requires a very "nonclassical" position of the local systems. Moreover, the maximal strength of Bell's correlations for a general state with respect to nearly commuting subalgebras is characterized in terms of the spin systems and tracial properties of the local states.
Lifetime Maximization in Wireless Sensor Networks by Distributed Binary Search
that the operational time of the network, for given initial battery levels, is maximized [1,2]. We address) in a given region or, say, a forest-fire alarm network, where most of the data traffic consists of regular
MAXIMIZING AUDIOVISUAL QUALITY AT LOW BITRATES Stefan Winkler
Winkler, Stefan
MAXIMIZING AUDIOVISUAL QUALITY AT LOW BITRATES Stefan Winkler Genista Corporation Rue du The^atre 5 1820 Montreux, Switzerland stefan.winkler@genista.com Christof Faller Audiovisual Communications Lab
Quantitative genetics of maximal oxygen consumption in a garter snake
Garland Jr., Theodore
presumed full-sibling offspring from each of 45 wild- caught gravid garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis; heritability; Thamnophis sirtalis MAXIMAL AEROBIC POWER is one of the most important factors influencing