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Spatial based Expectation Maximizing (EM)  

PubMed Central

Background Expectation maximizing (EM) is one of the common approaches for image segmentation. Methods an improvement of the EM algorithm is proposed and its effectiveness for MRI brain image segmentation is investigated. In order to improve EM performance, the proposed algorithms incorporates neighbourhood information into the clustering process. At first, average image is obtained as neighbourhood information and then it is incorporated in clustering process. Also, as an option, user-interaction is used to improve segmentation results. Simulated and real MR volumes are used to compare the efficiency of the proposed improvement with the existing neighbourhood based extension for EM and FCM. Results the findings show that the proposed algorithm produces higher similarity index. Conclusions experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in compare to other existing algorithms on various noise levels. PMID:22029864



Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization  

E-print Network

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization made a brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification algorithm that uses a twostage applied to a set of normal brain MR images for further testing. We accomplished a working

Chen, Tsuhan


An Expectation Maximization Approach for Integrated  

E-print Network

, anatomical labelmap, and a mapping from the atlas to the image space. An example of the approach is given the regis- tration of an atlas with the segmentation of MR images. We use an Expectation Maximization for a brain structure-dependent affine mapping approach. The algorithm produces high qual- ity segmentations

Fisher III, John


Stability of utility-maximization in incomplete Kasper Larsen  

E-print Network

, in a certain sense. A novel result about the structure of the solution of the utility-maximization problem of the terminal wealth - the utility functional. Often, the utility functional is of the "expected-utility" type a given initial wealth x. U(·) is generally a concave and strictly increasing real-valued function defined

Larsen, Kasper


Expectation maximization applied to GMTI convoy tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collectively moving ground targets are typical of a military ground situation and have to be treated as separate aggregated entities. For a long-range ground surveillance application with airborne GMTI radar we inparticular address the task of track maintenance for ground moving convoys consisting of a small number of individual vehicles. In the proposed approach the identity of the individual vehicles within the convoy is no longer stressed. Their kinematical state vectors are rather treated as internal degrees of freedom characterizing the convoy, which is considered as a collective unit. In this context, the Expectation Maximization technique (EM), originally developed for incomplete data problems in statistical inference and first applied to tracking applications by STREIT et al. seems to be a promising approach. We suggest to embed the EM algorithm into a more traditional Bayesian tracking framework for dealing with false or unwanted sensor returns. The proposed distinction between external and internal data association conflicts (i.e. those among the convoy vehicles) should also enable the application of sequential track extraction techniques introduced by Van Keuk for aircraft formations, providing estimates of the number of the individual convoy vehicles involved. Even with sophisticated signal processing methods (STAP: Space-Time Adaptive Processing), ground moving vehicles can well be masked by the sensor specific clutter notch (Doppler blinding). This physical phenomenon results in interfering fading effects, which can well last over a longer series of sensor updates and therefore will seriously affect the track quality unless properly handled. Moreover, for ground moving convoys the phenomenon of Doppler blindness often superposes the effects induced by the finite resolution capability of the sensor. In many practical cases a separate modeling of resolution phenomena for convoy targets can therefore be omitted, provided the GMTI detection model is used. As an illustration we consider the contribution of the proposed GMTI sensor model to the problem of early recognition of a stopping convoy.

Koch, Wolfgang



Expected utility theory without the completeness axiom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of obtaining an expected utility representation for a potentially incomplete preference relation over lotteries by means of a set of von Neumann–Morgenstern utility functions. It is shown that, when the prize space is a compact metric space, a preference relation admits such a multi-utility representation provided that it satisfies the standard axioms of expected utility theory.

Juan Dubra; Fabio Maccheroni; Efe A. Ok



Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah



Blood detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using expectation maximization clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. Other endoscopies such as colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and intraoperative enteroscopy could be used to visualize up to the stomach, duodenum, colon, and terminal ileum, but there existed no method to view most of the small intestine without surgery. With the miniaturization of wireless and camera technologies came the ability to view the entire gestational track with little effort. A tiny disposable video capsule is swallowed, transmitting two images per second to a small data receiver worn by the patient on a belt. During an approximately 8-hour course, over 55,000 images are recorded to a worn device and then downloaded to a computer for later examination. Typically, a medical clinician spends more than two hours to analyze a WCE video. Research has been attempted to automatically find abnormal regions (especially bleeding) to reduce the time needed to analyze the videos. The manufacturers also provide the software tool to detect the bleeding called Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), but its accuracy is not high enough to replace human examination. It was reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of SBI were about 72% and 85%, respectively. To address this problem, we propose a technique to detect the bleeding regions automatically utilizing the Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed bleeding detection method achieves 92% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Cox, Jay; Tang, Shou Jiang; Tibbals, Harry F.



Blobworld: Image Segmentation Using Expectation-Maximization and  

E-print Network

Blobworld: Image Segmentation Using Expectation-Maximization and Its Application to Image Querying Malik, Member, IEEE AbstractÐRetrieving images from large and varied collections using image content as a key is a challenging and important problem. We present a new image representation that provides

Malik, Jitendra



E-print Network

IMPROVED COLOR BARCODES VIA EXPECTATION MAXIMIZATION STYLE INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION Orhan Bulan- work for extending monochrome barcodes to color with increased data rates. The undesired absorption to cross-channel color interference that significantly dete- riorates the performance of the color barcode

Sharma, Gaurav


Expectation Maximization for Combined Phylogenetic and Hidden Markov Models  

E-print Network

Expectation Maximization for Combined Phylogenetic and Hidden Markov Models Adam Siepel December 5 with a combined phylogenetic and hidden Markov model. An efficient method is also shown for computing gradients be combined with hidden Markov models to create a very powerful hybrid model that captures spatial as well

Keinan, Alon


Wealth-Path Dependent Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets  

E-print Network

Wealth-Path Dependent Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets #3; Bruno BOUCHARD Laboratoire de for an incomplete semimartin- gale model extending the classical terminal wealth utility maximization problem. This modelling leads to the formulation of a wealth path-dependent utility maximization problem. Our main result

Pham, Huyên


Conditionally Risky Behavior vs Expected Value Maximization in Evolutionary Games  

E-print Network

. Under the most traditional model of decision making, expected utility theory, a rational agent seeks of human decision-making involving risk (e.g. Prospect Theory, Regret Theory, SP/A Theory). An open of the existing literature on models of decision making under risk, the construction of such models is approached

Nau, Dana S.


PEM-PCA: a parallel expectation-maximization PCA face recognition architecture.  


Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages' complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA. PMID:24955405

Rujirakul, Kanokmon; So-In, Chakchai; Arnonkijpanich, Banchar



PEM-PCA: A Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA Face Recognition Architecture  

PubMed Central

Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages' complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA. PMID:24955405

Rujirakul, Kanokmon; Arnonkijpanich, Banchar



An Expectation-Maximization Method for Calibrating Synchronous Machine Models  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of a power system dynamic model is essential to its secure and efficient operation. Lower confidence in model accuracy usually leads to conservative operation and lowers asset usage. To improve model accuracy, this paper proposes an expectation-maximization (EM) method to calibrate the synchronous machine model using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. First, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied to estimate the dynamic states using measurement data. Then, the parameters are calculated based on the estimated states using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. The EM method iterates over the preceding two steps to improve estimation accuracy. The proposed EM method’s performance is evaluated using a single-machine infinite bus system and compared with a method where both state and parameters are estimated using an EKF method. Sensitivity studies of the parameter calibration using EM method are also presented to show the robustness of the proposed method for different levels of measurement noise and initial parameter uncertainty.

Meng, Da; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang



Parallel expectation-maximization algorithms for PET image reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image reconstruction using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) involves estimating an unknown number of photon pairs emitted from the radiopharmaceuticals within the tissues of the patient's body. The generation of the photons can be described as a Poisson process, and the difficulty of image reconstruction involves approximating the parameter of the tissue density distribution function. A significant amount of artifactual noise exists in the reconstructed image with the convolution back projection method. Using the Maximum Likelihood (ML) formulation, a better estimate can be made for the unknown image information. Despite the better quality of images, the Expectation Maximization (EM) iterative algorithm is not being used in practice due to the tremendous processing time. This research proposes new techniques in designing parallel algorithms in order to speed the reconstruction process. Using the EM algorithm as an example, several general parallel techniques were studied for both distributed-memory architecture and message-passing programming paradigm. Both intra- and inter-iteration latency-hiding schemes were designed to effectively reduce the communication time. Dependencies that exist in and between iterations were rearranged by overlap communication and computation with MPI's non-blocking collective reduction operation. A performance model was established to estimate the processing time of the algorithms and was found to agree with the experimental results. A second strategy, the sparse matrix compaction technique, was developed to reduce the computational time of the computation-bound EM algorithm with better use of PET system geometry. The proposed techniques are generally applicable to many scientific computation problems that involve sparse matrix operations as well as iterative types, of algorithms.

Jeng, Wei-Min



Risk Aversion and Expected-Utility Theory: A Calibration Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the expected-utility framework, the only explanation for risk aversion is that the utility function for wealth is concave: A person has lower marginal utility for additional wealth when she is wealthy than when she is poor. This paper provides a theorem showing that expected-utility theory is an utterly implausible explanation for appreciable risk aversion over modest stakes: Within expected-utility

Matthew Rabin



Matching Pupils and Teachers to Maximize Expected Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To achieve a good teacher-pupil match, it is necessary (1) to predict the learning outcomes that will result when each student is instructed by each teacher, (2) to use the predicted performance to compute an Optimality Index for each teacher-pupil combination to indicate the quality of each combination toward maximizing learning for all students,…

Ward, Joe H., Jr.; And Others


CRRA Utility Maximization under Risk Constraints  

E-print Network

This paper studies the problem of optimal investment with CRRA (constant, relative risk aversion) preferences, subject to dynamic risk constraints on trading strategies. The market model considered is continuous in time and incomplete; furthermore, financial assets are modeled by It\\^{o} processes. The dynamic risk constraints (time, state dependent) are generated by risk measures. The optimal trading strategy is characterized by a quadratic BSDE. Special risk measures (\\textit{Value-at-Risk}, \\textit{Tail Value-at-Risk} and \\textit{Limited Expected Loss}) are considered and a three--fund separation result is established in these cases. Numerical results emphasize the effect of imposing risk constraints on trading.

Moreno-Bromberg, Santiago; Réveillac, Anthony



A Tutorial on Decomposition Methods for Network Utility Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic understanding of the decomposability structures in network utility maximization is key to both resource allocation and functionality allocation. It helps us obtain the most appropriate distributed algorithm for a given network resource allocation problem, and quantifies the comparison across architectural alternatives of modularized network design. Decomposition theory naturally provides the mathematical language to build an analytic foundation for

Daniel Pérez Palomar; Mung Chiang



A Suboptimal Network Utility Maximization Approach for Scalable Multimedia Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wired and wireless data networks have witnessed an explosive growth of inelastic traffics such as real-time or media streaming applications. Recently, applications relying on layered encoding schemes appeared in the context of live-streaming and video and audio delivery applications. This paper addresses the Network Utility Maximization (NUM) for scalable multimedia transmission which is relying on layered encoding schemes. Nonconvexity of

Mohammad Sadegh Talebi; Ahmad Khonsari; Mohammad Hassan Hajiesmaili; Sina Jafarpour



An expected utility maximizer walks into a bar…  

PubMed Central

We conducted field experiments at a bar to test whether blood alcohol concentration (BAC) correlates with violations of the generalized axiom of revealed preference (GARP) and the independence axiom. We found that individuals with BACs well above the legal limit for driving adhere to GARP and independence at rates similar to those who are sober. This finding led to the fielding of a third experiment to explore how risk preferences might vary as a function of BAC. We found gender-specific effects: Men did not exhibit variations in risk preferences across BACs. In contrast, women were more risk averse than men at low BACs but exhibited increasing tolerance towards risks as BAC increased. Based on our estimates, men and women’s risk preferences are predicted to be identical at BACs nearly twice the legal limit for driving. We discuss the implications for policy-makers. PMID:24244072

Glimcher, Paul W.; Lazzaro, Stephanie C.



Planning Routes Across Economic Terrains: Maximizing Utility, Following Heuristics  

PubMed Central

We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value). We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics) for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes. PMID:21833269

Zhang, Hang; Maddula, Soumya V.; Maloney, Laurence T.



Coding for Parallel Links to Maximize the Expected Value of Decodable Messages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When multiple parallel communication links are available, it is useful to consider link-utilization strategies that provide tradeoffs between reliability and throughput. Interesting cases arise when there are three or more available links. Under the model considered, the links have known probabilities of being in working order, and each link has a known capacity. The sender has a number of messages to send to the receiver. Each message has a size and a value (i.e., a worth or priority). Messages may be divided into pieces arbitrarily, and the value of each piece is proportional to its size. The goal is to choose combinations of messages to send on the links so that the expected value of the messages decodable by the receiver is maximized. There are three parts to the innovation: (1) Applying coding to parallel links under the model; (2) Linear programming formulation for finding the optimal combinations of messages to send on the links; and (3) Algorithms for assisting in finding feasible combinations of messages, as support for the linear programming formulation. There are similarities between this innovation and methods developed in the field of network coding. However, network coding has generally been concerned with either maximizing throughput in a fixed network, or robust communication of a fixed volume of data. In contrast, under this model, the throughput is expected to vary depending on the state of the network. Examples of error-correcting codes that are useful under this model but which are not needed under previous models have been found. This model can represent either a one-shot communication attempt, or a stream of communications. Under the one-shot model, message sizes and link capacities are quantities of information (e.g., measured in bits), while under the communications stream model, message sizes and link capacities are information rates (e.g., measured in bits/second). This work has the potential to increase the value of data returned from spacecraft under certain conditions.

Klimesh, Matthew A.; Chang, Christopher S.



Risk Aversion and Expected Utility Theory: A Calibration Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

USING EXPECTED-UTILITY THEORY, economists model risk aversion as arising solely because the utility function over wealth is concave. This diminishing-marginal-utility-of- wealth theory of risk aversion is psychologically intuitive, and surely helps explain some of our aversion to large-scale risk: We dislike vast uncertainty in lifetime wealth because a dollar that helps us avoid poverty is more valuable than a dollar

Matthew Rabin



Quasi-Optimal Network Utility Maximization for Scalable Video Streaming  

E-print Network

This paper addresses rate control for transmission of scalable video streams via Network Utility Maximization (NUM) formulation. Due to stringent QoS requirements of video streams and specific characterization of utility experienced by end-users, NUM formulation for these streams is nonconvex and even nonsmooth, hence making dual methods often incompetent to solve them. Convexity plays an important role in this work as it permits the use of existing dual methods to solve NUM problem iteratively and distributively. Hence, to tackle the nonsmoothness and nonconvexity, we aim at reformulating the NUM problem by employing a series of approximation and transformation of the ideal discretely adaptive utility functions for scalable video streams. The reformulated problem is shown to be smooth and strictly convex under certain conditions. To obtain a distributed rate control algorithm, we then solve the reformulated NUM using existing dual methods. Our experimental results show that the proposed rate control algorith...

Talebi, Mohammad Sadegh; Hajiesmaili, Mohammad Hassan; Jafarpour, Sina



Testing for linkage disequilibrium in genotypic data using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize an approach suggested by Hill (Heredity, 33, 229–239, 1974) for testing for significant association among alleles at two loci when only genotype and not haplotype frequencies are available. The principle is to use the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to resolve double heterozygotes into haplotypes and then apply a likelihood ratio test in order to determine whether the resolutions of

Montgomery Slatkin; Laurent Excoffier



A robust Expectation-Maximization algorithm for Multiple Sclerosis lesion segmentation  

E-print Network

A robust Expectation-Maximization algorithm for Multiple Sclerosis lesion segmentation Daniel Garc, Rennes, France Abstract A fully automatic workflow for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation. 1 Introduction Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been used as a biomarker for Multiple Sclerosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Combining Robust Expectation Maximization and Mean Shift algorithms for Multiple Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Combining Robust Expectation Maximization and Mean Shift algorithms for Multiple Sclerosis Brain of white matter lesions and normal appearing brain tissues in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is pre- sented. Two and local information to improve image segmentation. 1 Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


An Expectation Maximization Approach to the Synergy between Image Segmentation and Object Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we deal with the problem of modelling and exploiting the interaction between the processes of image segmentation and object categorization. We propose a novel framework to address this problem that is based on the com- bination of the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and generative models for object categories. Using a con- cise formulation of the interaction between

Iasonas Kokkinos; Petros Maragos



Fitting a Mixture Model By Expectation Maximization To Discover Motifs In Biopolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algorithm described in this paper discovers one or more motifs in a collection of DNA or protein sequences by using the technique of expectation maximization to fit a two-component finite mixture model to the set of sequences. Multiple motifs are found by fitting a two-component finite mixture model to the data, probabilistically erasing the occurrences of the motif thus

Timothy L. Bailey; Charles Elkan



Identification and restoration of noisy blurred images using the expectation-maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum-likelihood approach to the blur identification problem is presented. The expectation-maximization algorithm is proposed to optimize the nonlinear likelihood function in an efficient way. In order to improve the performance of the identification algorithm, low-order parametric image and blur models are incorporated into the identification method. The resulting iterative technique simultaneously identifies and restores noisy blurred images




Reliability assessment with amalgamated data via the expectation-maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solution is given to the problem of estimating reliability indicators in a context of crude data arising in an industrial study devoted to the reliability assessment of electronic calculators used in modern airplanes. The authors introduce the concept of amalgamated data and develop an expectation-maximization algorithm to obtain a maximum likelihood estimator of the reliability function and the cumulative

Evans Gouno; Luc Courtrai



MAP estimation of target manoeuvre sequence with the expectation-maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two algorithms are derived for the problem of tracking a manoeuvring target based on a sequence of noisy measurements of the state. Manoeuvres are modeled as unknown input (acceleration) terms entering linearly into the state equation and chosen from a discrete set. The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is first applied, resulting in a multi-pass estimator of the MAP sequence of




Expectation Maximization Strategies for Multi-atlas Multi-label Segmentation  

E-print Network

Expectation Maximization Strategies for Multi-atlas Multi-label Segmentation Torsten Rohlfing1 to the unknown ground truth than the individual segmentations. In atlas-based image segmentation, multiple classifiers arise naturally by applying different registration methods to the same atlas, or the same

Pratt, Vaughan


Optimal Insurance Design under Rank-Dependent Expected Utility  

E-print Network

Optimal Insurance Design under Rank-Dependent Expected Utility Carole Bernard , Xue Dong He , Jia-An Yan§ and Xun Yu Zhou¶ October 8, 2012 Abstract We consider an optimal insurance design problem of quantile formulation, we solve the problem explicitly. We show that the optimal contract not only insures


Purely Subjective Maxmin Expected Utility Shiri AlonH  

E-print Network

and should be reduced to risk, and that this is the only reasonable model of decision making on which, importantly, does not assume the von Neuman & Morgenstern (vNM) expected utility models for decision under Introduction There is a respectable body of literature dealing with axiomatic foundations of decision theory

Schmeidler, David


Subjective expected utility: A review of normative theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews theories of subjective expected utility for decision making under uncertainty. It focuses on normative interpretations and discusses the primitives, axioms and representation-uniqueness theorems for a number of theories. Similarities and differences among the various theories are highlighted. The interplay between realistic decision structures and structural axioms that facilitate mathematical derivations is also emphasized.

Peter C. Fishburn



A simple test of expected utility theory using professional traders  

PubMed Central

We compare behavior across students and professional traders from the Chicago Board of Trade in a classic Allais paradox experiment. Our experiment tests whether independence, a necessary condition in expected utility theory, is systematically violated. We find that both students and professionals exhibit some behavior consistent with the Allais paradox, but the data pattern does suggest that the trader population falls prey to the Allais paradox less frequently than the student population. PMID:15634739

List, John A.; Haigh, Michael S.



Spatially aware expectation maximization (SpAEM): application to prostate TRUS segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce Spatially Aware Expectation Maximization (SpAEM), a new parameter estimation method which incorporates information pertaining to spatial prior probability into the traditional expectation- maximization framework. For estimating the parameters of a given class, the spatial prior probability allows us to weight the contribution of any pixel based on the probability of that pixel belonging to the class of interest. In this paper we evaluate SpAEM for the problem of prostate capsule segmentation in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images. In cohort of 6 patients, SpAEM qualitatively and quantitatively outperforms traditional EM in distinguishing the foreground (prostate) from background (non-prostate) regions by around 45% in terms of the Sorensen Dice overlap measure, when compared against expert annotations. The variance of the estimated parameters measured via Cramer-Rao Lower Bound suggests that SpAEM yields unbiased estimates. Finally, on a synthetic TRUS image, the Cramer-Von Mises (CVM) criteria shows that SpAEM improves the estimation accuracy by around 51% and 88% for prostate and background, respectively, as compared to traditional EM.

Orooji, Mahdi; Sparks, Rachel; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Feleppa, Ernest; Barratt, Dean; Madabhushi, Anant



A Social Group Utility Maximization Framework with Applications in Database Assisted Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

between these two extreme cases. Indeed, with the explosive growth of online social networks maximization (SGUM) framework for cooperative networking that takes into account both social relationships network utility, each user aims to maximize its social group utility that hinges heavily on its social

Reisslein, Martin


A Social Group Utility Maximization Framework with Applications in Database Assisted Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

. Indeed, with the explosive growth of online social networks such as Facebook and Twitter, more and more maximization (SGUM) framework for cooperative networking that takes into account both social relationships network utility, each user aims to maximize its social group utility that hinges heavily on its social

Reisslein, Martin


Maximizing Network Utilization with Max-Min Fairness in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

1 Maximizing Network Utilization with Max-Min Fairness in Wireless Sensor Networks Avinash networks is to use additive increase algorithms to achieve fair rate allocation while implicity trying the problem of maximizing the network utilization subject to a max-min fair rate allocation constraint

Krishnamachari, Bhaskar


Implementation and evaluation of an expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm for gamma emission breast tomosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We are developing a dual modality tomosynthesis breast scanner in which x-ray transmission tomosynthesis and gamma emission tomosynthesis are performed sequentially with the breast in a common configuration. In both modalities projection data are obtained over an angular range of less than 180° from one side of the mildly compressed breast resulting in incomplete and asymmetrical sampling. The objective of this work is to implement and evaluate a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) reconstruction algorithm for gamma emission breast tomosynthesis (GEBT). Methods: A combination of Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments was used to test the MLEM algorithm for GEBT. The algorithm utilizes prior information obtained from the x-ray breast tomosynthesis scan to partially compensate for the incomplete angular sampling and to perform attenuation correction (AC) and resolution recovery (RR). System spatial resolution, image artifacts, lesion contrast, and signal to noise ratio (SNR) were measured as image quality figures of merit. To test the robustness of the reconstruction algorithm and to assess the relative impacts of correction techniques with changing angular range, simulations and experiments were both performed using acquisition angular ranges of 45°, 90° and 135°. For comparison, a single projection containing the same total number of counts as the full GEBT scan was also obtained to simulate planar breast scintigraphy. Results: The in-plane spatial resolution of the reconstructed GEBT images is independent of source position within the reconstructed volume and independent of acquisition angular range. For 45° acquisitions, spatial resolution in the depth dimension (the direction of breast compression) is degraded with increasing source depth (increasing distance from the collimator surface). Increasing the acquisition angular range from 45° to 135° both greatly reduces this depth dependence and improves the average depth dimension resolution from 10.8 to 4.8 mm. The 135° acquisition results in a near-isotropic, spatially uniform 3D resolution of approximately 4.3 mm full width at half maximum. Background nonuniformity (cupping) artifacts arise primarily from angular incompleteness for small angular range acquisition but primarily from gamma ray attenuation at larger angular range. However, background artifacts can be largely eliminated if both prior information regularization and AC are applied. An artificial decrease in lesion voxel value with increasing lesion depth can also be substantially reduced through a combination of AC and RR. In experiments using compressible gelatin breast phantoms, lesion contrast and SNR are about 2.6–8.8 times and 2.3–5.6 times higher, respectively, in GEBT than in planar breast scintigraphy depending on the acquisition angle, the gamma camera trajectory, and the lesion location. In addition, the strong reduction in lesion contrast and SNR with increasing lesion depth that is observed in planar breast scintigraphy can be largely overcome in GEBT. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated a promising EM-based reconstruction scheme for use in GEBT. Compared to planar breast scintigraphy GEBT provides superior and less position-dependent lesion contrast, lesion SNR, and spatial resolution as well as more accurate quantification of lesion-to-background activity concentration ratio. PMID:23231306

Gong, Zongyi; Klanian, Kelly; Patel, Tushita; Sullivan, Olivia; Williams, Mark B.



Outlier Detection for the Nonlinear Gauss Helmert Model With Variance Components by the Expectation Maximization Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Best invariant quadratic unbiased estimates (BIQUE) of the variance and covariance components for a nonlinear Gauss Helmert (GH) model are derived. To detect outliers, the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm based on the variance-inflation model and the mean-shift model is applied, which results in an iterative reweighting least squares. Each step of the iterations for the EM algorithm therefore includes first the iterations for linearizing the GH model and then the iterations for estimating the variance components. The method is applied to fit a surface in three-dimensional space to the three coordinates of points measured, for instance, by a laser scanner. The surface is represented by a polynomial of second degree and the variance components of the three coordinates are estimated. Outliers are detected by the EM algorithm based on the variance-inflation model and identified by the EM algorithm for the mean-shift model.

Koch, Karl-Rudolf



Simultaneously learning DNA motif along with its position and sequence rank preferences through expectation maximization algorithm.  


Although de novo motifs can be discovered through mining over-represented sequence patterns, this approach misses some real motifs and generates many false positives. To improve accuracy, one solution is to consider some additional binding features (i.e., position preference and sequence rank preference). This information is usually required from the user. This article presents a de novo motif discovery algorithm called SEME (sampling with expectation maximization for motif elicitation), which uses pure probabilistic mixture model to model the motif's binding features and uses expectation maximization (EM) algorithms to simultaneously learn the sequence motif, position, and sequence rank preferences without asking for any prior knowledge from the user. SEME is both efficient and accurate thanks to two important techniques: the variable motif length extension and importance sampling. Using 75 large-scale synthetic datasets, 32 metazoan compendium benchmark datasets, and 164 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) libraries, we demonstrated the superior performance of SEME over existing programs in finding transcription factor (TF) binding sites. SEME is further applied to a more difficult problem of finding the co-regulated TF (coTF) motifs in 15 ChIP-Seq libraries. It identified significantly more correct coTF motifs and, at the same time, predicted coTF motifs with better matching to the known motifs. Finally, we show that the learned position and sequence rank preferences of each coTF reveals potential interaction mechanisms between the primary TF and the coTF within these sites. Some of these findings were further validated by the ChIP-Seq experiments of the coTFs. The application is available online. PMID:23461573

Zhang, ZhiZhuo; Chang, Cheng Wei; Hugo, Willy; Cheung, Edwin; Sung, Wing-Kin



Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture  

PubMed Central

Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management. PMID:25538868

Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.



Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

Kreitler, Jason R.; Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.



Optimal Real-time Pricing Algorithm Based on Utility Maximization for Smart Grid  

E-print Network

power grid in the United States includes more than 3,100 electric utilities operating more than 10 provider. I. INTRODUCTION Electricity is currently provided through an infrastructure consisting of utilityOptimal Real-time Pricing Algorithm Based on Utility Maximization for Smart Grid Pedram Samadi

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed


Target localization and signature extraction in GPR data using expectation-maximization and principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very promising technology for subsurface threat detection. A successful algorithm employing GPR should achieve high detection rates at a low false-alarm rate and do so at operationally relevant speeds. GPRs measure reflections at dielectric boundaries that occur at the interfaces between different materials. These boundaries may occur at any depth, within the sensor's range, and furthermore, the dielectric changes could be such that they induce a 180 degree phase shift in the received signal relative to the emitted GPR pulse. As a result of these time-of-arrival and phase variations, extracting robust features from target responses in GPR is not straightforward. In this work, a method to mitigate polarity and alignment variations based on an expectation-maximization (EM) principal-component analysis (PCA) approach is proposed. This work demonstrates how model-based target alignment can significantly improve detection performance. Performance is measured according to the improvement in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for classification before and after the data is properly aligned and phase-corrected.

Reichman, Daniel; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.



Spline based inhomogeneity correction for 11C-PIB PET segmentation using expectation maximization.  


With the advent of biomarkers such as 11C-PIB and the increase in use of PET, automated methods are required for processing and analyzing datasets from research studies and in clinical settings. A common preprocessing step is the calculation of standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) for inter-subject normalization. This requires segmented grey matter (GM) for VOI refinement. However 11C-PIB uptake is proportional to amyloid build up leading to inhomogeneities in intensities, especially within GM. Inhomogeneities present a challenge for clustering and pattern classification based approaches to PET segmentation as proposed in current literature. In this paper we modify a MR image segmentation technique based on expectation maximization for 11C-PIB PET segmentation. A priori probability maps of the tissue types are used to initialize and enforce anatomical constraints. We developed a Bézier spline based inhomogeneity correction techniques that is embedded in the segmentation algorithm and minimizes inhomogeneity resulting in better segmentations of 11C-PIB PET images. We compare our inhomogeneity with a global polynomial correction technique and validate our approach using co-registered MRI segmentations. PMID:18051063

Raniga, Parnesh; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Villemagne, Victor; O'Keefe, Graeme; Rowe, Christopher; Ourselin, Sébastien



Reliability modeling and life estimation using an expectation maximization based wiener degradation model for momentum wheels.  


The momentum wheel (MW) plays a significant role in ensuring the success of satellite missions, the reliability information of MW can be provided by collecting degradation data when there exists certain performance characteristics that degrade over time. In this paper, we develop a reliability modeling and life estimation approach for MW used in satellites based on the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm from a Wiener degradation model. The degradation model corresponding to a Wiener process with the random effect is first established using failure modes, mechanisms, and effects analysis. Afterwards, the first hitting time is employed to describe the failure time, and the explicit result of the reliability function is derived in terms of the Wiener degradation model. As the likelihood function for such a model contains unobserved latent variables, an EM algorithm is adopted to obtain the maximum likelihood estimators of model parameters efficiently. Finally, the effectiveness of the developed approach is validated using the degradation data from a specific type of MW. PMID:25148676

Li, Hong; Pan, Donghui; Chen, C L Philip



The indexing ambiguity in serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) resolved using an expectation maximization algorithm  

PubMed Central

Crystallographic auto-indexing algorithms provide crystal orientations and unit-cell parameters and assign Miller indices based on the geometric relations between the Bragg peaks observed in diffraction patterns. However, if the Bravais symmetry is higher than the space-group symmetry, there will be multiple indexing options that are geometrically equivalent, and hence many ways to merge diffraction intensities from protein nanocrystals. Structure factor magnitudes from full reflections are required to resolve this ambiguity but only partial reflections are available from each XFEL shot, which must be merged to obtain full reflections from these ‘stills’. To resolve this chicken-and-egg problem, an expectation maximization algorithm is described that iteratively constructs a model from the intensities recorded in the diffraction patterns as the indexing ambiguity is being resolved. The reconstructed model is then used to guide the resolution of the indexing ambiguity as feedback for the next iteration. Using both simulated and experimental data collected at an X-ray laser for photosystem I in the P63 space group (which supports a merohedral twinning indexing ambiguity), the method is validated. PMID:25485120

Liu, Haiguang; Spence, John C.H.



Statistical models of synaptic transmission evaluated using the expectation-maximization algorithm.  

PubMed Central

Amplitude fluctuations of evoked synaptic responses can be used to extract information on the probabilities of release at the active sites, and on the amplitudes of the synaptic responses generated by transmission at each active site. The parameters that describe this process must be obtained from an incomplete data set represented by the probability density of the evoked synaptic response. In this paper, the equations required to calculate these parameters using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm and the maximum likelihood criterion have been derived for a variety of statistical models of synaptic transmission. These models are ones where the probabilities associated with the different discrete amplitudes in the evoked responses are a) unconstrained, b) binomial, and c) compound binomial. The discrete amplitudes may be separated by equal (quantal) or unequal amounts, with or without quantal variance. Alternative models have been considered where the variance associated with the discrete amplitudes is sufficiently large such that no quantal amplitudes can be detected. These models involve the sum of a normal distribution (to represent failures) and a unimodal distribution (to represent the evoked responses). The implementation of the algorithm is described in each case, and its accuracy and convergence have been demonstrated. PMID:7948679

Stricker, C; Redman, S



A Local Scalable Distributed Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper offers a local distributed algorithm for expectation maximization in large peer-to-peer environments. The algorithm can be used for a variety of well-known data mining tasks in a distributed environment such as clustering, anomaly detection, target tracking to name a few. This technology is crucial for many emerging peer-to-peer applications for bioinformatics, astronomy, social networking, sensor networks and web mining. Centralizing all or some of the data for building global models is impractical in such peer-to-peer environments because of the large number of data sources, the asynchronous nature of the peer-to-peer networks, and dynamic nature of the data/network. The distributed algorithm we have developed in this paper is provably-correct i.e. it converges to the same result compared to a similar centralized algorithm and can automatically adapt to changes to the data and the network. We show that the communication overhead of the algorithm is very low due to its local nature. This monitoring algorithm is then used as a feedback loop to sample data from the network and rebuild the model when it is outdated. We present thorough experimental results to verify our theoretical claims.

Bhaduri, Kanishka; Srivastava, Ashok N.



The indexing ambiguity in serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) resolved using an expectation maximization algorithm.  


Crystallographic auto-indexing algorithms provide crystal orientations and unit-cell parameters and assign Miller indices based on the geometric relations between the Bragg peaks observed in diffraction patterns. However, if the Bravais symmetry is higher than the space-group symmetry, there will be multiple indexing options that are geometrically equivalent, and hence many ways to merge diffraction intensities from protein nanocrystals. Structure factor magnitudes from full reflections are required to resolve this ambiguity but only partial reflections are available from each XFEL shot, which must be merged to obtain full reflections from these 'stills'. To resolve this chicken-and-egg problem, an expectation maximization algorithm is described that iteratively constructs a model from the intensities recorded in the diffraction patterns as the indexing ambiguity is being resolved. The reconstructed model is then used to guide the resolution of the indexing ambiguity as feedback for the next iteration. Using both simulated and experimental data collected at an X-ray laser for photosystem I in the P63 space group (which supports a merohedral twinning indexing ambiguity), the method is validated. PMID:25485120

Liu, Haiguang; Spence, John C H



Blind iterative decoding of side-informed data hiding using the expectation-maximization algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distortion-Compensated Dither Modulation (DC-DM), also known as Scalar Costa Scheme (SCS), has been theoretically shown to be near-capacity achieving thanks to its use of side information at the encoder. In practice, channel coding is needed in conjunction with this quantization-based scheme in order to approach the achievable rate limit. The most powerful coding methods use iterative decoding (turbo codes, LDPC), but they require knowledge of the channel model. Previous works on the subject have assumed the latter to be known by the decoder. We investigate here the possibility of undertaking blind iterative decoding of DC-DM, using maximum likelihood estimation of the channel model within the decoding procedure. The unknown attack is assumed to be i.i.d. and additive. Before each iterative decoding step, a new optimal estimation of the attack model is made using the reliability information provided by the previous step. This new model is used for the next iterative decoding stage, and the procedure is repeated until convergence. We show that the iterative Expectation-Maximization algorithm is suitable for solving the problem posed by model estimation, as it can be conveniently intertwined with iterative decoding.

Balado, Felix; Perez-Gonzalez, Fernando; Comesana, Pedro



Power Utility Maximization in Constrained Exponential Lvy Models  

E-print Network

utility is obtained from consumption and/or terminal wealth. For convex constraints, an explicit solution use a novel transformation of the model to avoid technical conditions. The consequences for -optimal and/or from terminal wealth for an investor. We consider the special case when the asset prices follow

Nutz, Marcel


Expecting the unexpected: applying the Develop-Distort Dilemma to maximize positive market impacts in health.  


Although health interventions start with good intentions to develop services for disadvantaged populations, they often distort the health market, making the delivery or financing of services difficult once the intervention is over: a condition called the 'Develop-Distort Dilemma' (DDD). In this paper, we describe how to examine whether a proposed intervention may develop or distort the health market. Our goal is to produce a tool that facilitates meaningful and systematic dialogue for practitioners and researchers to ensure that well-intentioned health interventions lead to productive health systems while reducing the undesirable distortions of such efforts. We apply the DDD tool to plan for development rather than distortions in health markets, using intervention research being conducted under the Future Health Systems consortium in Bangladesh, China and Uganda. Through a review of research proposals and interviews with principal investigators, we use the DDD tool to systematically understand how a project fits within the broader health market system, and to identify gaps in planning for sustainability. We found that while current stakeholders and funding sources for activities were easily identified, future ones were not. The implication is that the projects could raise community expectations that future services will be available and paid for, despite this actually being uncertain. Each project addressed the 'rules' of the health market system differently. The China research assesses changes in the formal financing rules, whereas Bangladesh and Uganda's projects involve influencing community level providers, where informal rules are more important. In each case, we recognize the importance of building trust between providers, communities and government officials. Each project could both develop and distort local health markets. Anyone intervening in the health market must recognize the main market perturbations, whether positive or negative, and manage them so as to maximize the benefits to the health system and population health. PMID:23014153

Peters, David H; Paina, Ligia; Bennett, Sara



Association Studies with Imputed Variants Using Expectation-Maximization Likelihood-Ratio Tests  

PubMed Central

Genotype imputation has become standard practice in modern genetic studies. As sequencing-based reference panels continue to grow, increasingly more markers are being well or better imputed but at the same time, even more markers with relatively low minor allele frequency are being imputed with low imputation quality. Here, we propose new methods that incorporate imputation uncertainty for downstream association analysis, with improved power and/or computational efficiency. We consider two scenarios: I) when posterior probabilities of all potential genotypes are estimated; and II) when only the one-dimensional summary statistic, imputed dosage, is available. For scenario I, we have developed an expectation-maximization likelihood-ratio test for association based on posterior probabilities. When only imputed dosages are available (scenario II), we first sample the genotype probabilities from its posterior distribution given the dosages, and then apply the EM-LRT on the sampled probabilities. Our simulations show that type I error of the proposed EM-LRT methods under both scenarios are protected. Compared with existing methods, EM-LRT-Prob (for scenario I) offers optimal statistical power across a wide spectrum of MAF and imputation quality. EM-LRT-Dose (for scenario II) achieves a similar level of statistical power as EM-LRT-Prob and, outperforms the standard Dosage method, especially for markers with relatively low MAF or imputation quality. Applications to two real data sets, the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey study and the Women’s Health Initiative Study, provide further support to the validity and efficiency of our proposed methods. PMID:25383782

Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Sun, Wei; Wu, Ying; Chen, Mengjie; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Li, Yun



Bandwidth utilization maximization of scientific RF communication systems  

SciTech Connect

A method for more efficiently utilizing the frequency bandwidth allocated for data transmission is presented. Current space and range communication systems use modulation and coding schemes that transmit 0.5 to 1.0 bits per second per Hertz of radio frequency bandwidth. The goal in this LDRD project is to increase the bandwidth utilization by employing advanced digital communications techniques. This is done with little or no increase in the transmit power which is usually very limited on airborne systems. Teaming with New Mexico State University, an implementation of trellis coded modulation (TCM), a coding and modulation scheme pioneered by Ungerboeck, was developed for this application and simulated on a computer. TCM provides a means for reliably transmitting data while simultaneously increasing bandwidth efficiency. The penalty is increased receiver complexity. In particular, the trellis decoder requires high-speed, application-specific digital signal processing (DSP) chips. A system solution based on the QualComm Viterbi decoder and the Graychip DSP receiver chips is presented.

Rey, D. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryan, W. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ross, M.



What Does Industry Expect From An Electrical Utility  

E-print Network

The electric utility industry is an important supplier to Union Carbide and as such must become a proactive participant in our quality programs which are aimed at continuous improvement in everything we do. The essential ingredients in the supplier...

Jensen, C. V.



Microsoft Academic Search

Aspiration levels are a relevant aspect of decision making. We develop a model that includes the overall probabilities of success and failure relative to the aspiration level into an expected utility representation. This turns out to be equivalent to expected utility with a discontinuous utility function. We give a behavioral foundation to the proposed model and provide conditions to determine

Enrico Diecidue; Jeroen van de Ven



Occupational Expectations--Nature, Correlates, and Utilization in Occupational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gain greatest meaning and satisfaction from their work activities, persons should be able to more accurately identify and define their feelings, attitudes, and values related to the world of work. An expanded and enhanced understanding of occupational expectations on the part of career counselors would help in working with youth and adults who…

Hofstrand, Richard K.; Phipps, Lloyd J.


Recursive expectation-maximization clustering: A method for identifying buffering mechanisms composed of phenomic modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between genetic and/or environmental factors are ubiquitous, affecting the phenotypes of organisms in complex ways. Knowledge about such interactions is becoming rate-limiting for our understanding of human disease and other biological phenomena. Phenomics refers to the integrative analysis of how all genes contribute to phenotype variation, entailing genome and organism level information. A systems biology view of gene interactions is critical for phenomics. Unfortunately the problem is intractable in humans; however, it can be addressed in simpler genetic model systems. Our research group has focused on the concept of genetic buffering of phenotypic variation, in studies employing the single-cell eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We have developed a methodology, quantitative high throughput cellular phenotyping (Q-HTCP), for high-resolution measurements of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on a genome-wide scale. Q-HTCP is being applied to the complete set of S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains, a unique resource for systematically mapping gene interactions. Genetic buffering is the idea that comprehensive and quantitative knowledge about how genes interact with respect to phenotypes will lead to an appreciation of how genes and pathways are functionally connected at a systems level to maintain homeostasis. However, extracting biologically useful information from Q-HTCP data is challenging, due to the multidimensional and nonlinear nature of gene interactions, together with a relative lack of prior biological information. Here we describe a new approach for mining quantitative genetic interaction data called recursive expectation-maximization clustering (REMc). We developed REMc to help discover phenomic modules, defined as sets of genes with similar patterns of interaction across a series of genetic or environmental perturbations. Such modules are reflective of buffering mechanisms, i.e., genes that play a related role in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. To develop the method, 297 gene deletion strains were selected based on gene-drug interactions with hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase enzyme activity, which is critical for DNA synthesis. To partition the gene functions, these 297 deletion strains were challenged with growth inhibitory drugs known to target different genes and cellular pathways. Q-HTCP-derived growth curves were used to quantify all gene interactions, and the data were used to test the performance of REMc. Fundamental advantages of REMc include objective assessment of total number of clusters and assignment to each cluster a log-likelihood value, which can be considered an indicator of statistical quality of clusters. To assess the biological quality of clusters, we developed a method called gene ontology information divergence z-score (GOid_z). GOid_z summarizes total enrichment of GO attributes within individual clusters. Using these and other criteria, we compared the performance of REMc to hierarchical and K-means clustering. The main conclusion is that REMc provides distinct efficiencies for mining Q-HTCP data. It facilitates identification of phenomic modules, which contribute to buffering mechanisms that underlie cellular homeostasis and the regulation of phenotypic expression.

Guo, Jingyu; Tian, Dehua; McKinney, Brett A.; Hartman, John L.



Very Slow Search and Reach: Failure to Maximize Expected Gain in an Eye-Hand Coordination Task  

PubMed Central

We examined an eye-hand coordination task where optimal visual search and hand movement strategies were inter-related. Observers were asked to find and touch a target among five distractors on a touch screen. Their reward for touching the target was reduced by an amount proportional to how long they took to locate and reach to it. Coordinating the eye and the hand appropriately would markedly reduce the search-reach time. Using statistical decision theory we derived the sequence of interrelated eye and hand movements that would maximize expected gain and we predicted how hand movements should change as the eye gathered further information about target location. We recorded human observers' eye movements and hand movements and compared them with the optimal strategy that would have maximized expected gain. We found that most observers failed to adopt the optimal search-reach strategy. We analyze and describe the strategies they did adopt. PMID:23071430

Zhang, Hang; Morvan, Camille; Etezad-Heydari, Louis-Alexandre; Maloney, Laurence T.



Expected Utility Illustrated: A Graphical Analysis of Gambles with More than Two Possible Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a simple geometric method to graphically illustrate the expected utility from a gamble with more than two possible outcomes. This geometric result gives economics students a simple visual aid for studying expected utility theory and enables them to analyze a richer set of decision problems under uncertainty compared to what…

Chen, Frederick H.



Optimum Charging Profile for Lithium-ion Batteries to Maximize Energy Storage and Utilization  

E-print Network

Optimum Charging Profile for Lithium-ion Batteries to Maximize Energy Storage and Utilization Ravi The optimal profile of charging current for a lithium-ion battery is estimated using dynamic optimization sources such as lithium-ion batteries have had significant improvements in design, modeling, and operating

Subramanian, Venkat


Resolving the Latent Structure of Schizophrenia Endophenotypes Using Expectation-Maximization-Based Finite Mixture Modeling  

E-print Network

Resolving the Latent Structure of Schizophrenia Endophenotypes Using Expectation structure of endophenotypic markers of schizophrenia liability, or schizotypy. The work supports schizophrenia in their 1st-degree biological relatives compared with subjects in the other component

McLachlan, Geoff


Utility Maximization with Addictive Consumption Habit Formation in Incomplete Semimartingale Markets  

E-print Network

This paper studies the problem of continuous time utility maximization of consumption together with addictive habit formation in general incomplete semimartingale financial markets. By introducing the auxiliary state processes and the modified dual space, we embed our original problem into an auxiliary time separable utility maximization problem with the shadow random endowment. We establish existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution using convex duality approach on the product space by defining the primal value function both on the initial wealth and initial habit. We also provide market independent sufficient conditions both on stochastic discounting processes for the habit formation process and on the utility function for the validity of several key assertions of our main results to hold true.

Yu, Xiang



Portfolio sire selection to maximize the utility of individual management and breeding goals  

E-print Network

selection, a software program was developed. The program has rapid access to data of service sires and cows within a given herd. Management and breeding goal parameters are entered and individual cow matings are performed according to producer selected... Introduction Materials and Methods Model Formulation Results and Discussion Conclusions 44 47 48 50 63 CHAPTER IV INDIVIDUAL COW MATING INCORPORATING PORTFOLIO BASED SIRE SELECTION TO MAXIMIZE EXPECTED PROFIT AND MINIMIZE RISK FOR INDIVIDUAL HERD...

Bloom, Andrew Scott



OPTUM : Optimum Portfolio Tool for Utility Maximization documentation and user's guide.  

SciTech Connect

The Optimum Portfolio Tool for Utility Maximization (OPTUM) is a versatile and powerful tool for selecting, optimizing, and analyzing portfolios. The software introduces a compact interface that facilitates problem definition, complex constraint specification, and portfolio analysis. The tool allows simple comparisons between user-preferred choices and optimized selections. OPTUM uses a portable, efficient, mixed-integer optimization engine (lp-solve) to derive the optimal mix of projects that satisfies the constraints and maximizes the total portfolio utility. OPTUM provides advanced features, such as convenient menus for specifying conditional constraints and specialized graphical displays of the optimal frontier and alternative solutions to assist in sensitivity visualization. OPTUM can be readily applied to other nonportfolio, resource-constrained optimization problems.

VanKuiken, J. C.; Jusko, M. J.; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences



Fitting Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation Models with Random Effects and Unknown Initial Conditions Using the Stochastic Approximation Expectation-Maximization (SAEM) Algorithm.  


The past decade has evidenced the increased prevalence of irregularly spaced longitudinal data in social sciences. Clearly lacking, however, are modeling tools that allow researchers to fit dynamic models to irregularly spaced data, particularly data that show nonlinearity and heterogeneity in dynamical structures. We consider the issue of fitting multivariate nonlinear differential equation models with random effects and unknown initial conditions to irregularly spaced data. A stochastic approximation expectation-maximization algorithm is proposed and its performance is evaluated using a benchmark nonlinear dynamical systems model, namely, the Van der Pol oscillator equations. The empirical utility of the proposed technique is illustrated using a set of 24-h ambulatory cardiovascular data from 168 men and women. Pertinent methodological challenges and unresolved issues are discussed. PMID:25416456

Chow, Sy-Miin; Lu, Zhaohua; Sherwood, Andrew; Zhu, Hongtu



Robust Utility Maximization in Non-dominated Models with 2BSDEs  

E-print Network

In this article, we study the problem of robust utility maximization in an incomplete market with volatility uncertainty. The set of all possible models (probability measures) considered here is non-dominated. We propose to study this problem in the framework of second order backward stochastic differential equations introduced in Soner, Touzi and Zhang (2010) for Lipschitz continuous generator, then generalized by Possamai and Zhou (2011) in the quadratic growth case. We solve the problem for exponential, power and logarithmic utility functions and prove existence of an optimal strategy and of an optimal probability measure. Finally we provide several examples which shed more light and intuitions on the problem and its links with the classical utility maximisation one.

Anis, Matoussi; Chao, Zhou



Application of an expectation maximization method to the reconstruction of X-ray-tube spectra from transmission data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expectation maximization method is applied to the reconstruction of X-ray tube spectra from transmission measurements in the energy range 7-40 keV. A semiconductor single-photon counting detector, ionization chambers and a scintillator-based detector are used for the experimental measurement of the transmission. The number of iterations required to reach an approximate solution is estimated on the basis of the measurement error, according to the discrepancy principle. The effectiveness of the stopping rule is studied on simulated data and validated with experiments. The quality of the reconstruction depends on the information available on the source itself and the possibility to add this knowledge to the solution process is investigated. The method can produce good approximations provided that the amount of noise in the data can be estimated.

Endrizzi, M.; Delogu, P.; Oliva, P.



Financial Markets with Memory II: Innovation Processes and Expected Utility Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a prediction theory for a class of processes with stationary increments. In particular, we prove a prediction for- mula for these processes from a finite segment of the past. Using the formula, we prove an explicit representation of the innovation pro- cesses associated with the stationary increments processes. We apply the representation to obtain a closed-form solution to

V. Anh; A. Inoue; Y. Kasahara



Reconsideration of the Best Batting Order in Baseball: Is the Order to Maximize the Expected Number of Runs Really the Best?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies for analyzing the batting order of baseball games, the order is evaluated by its expected number of runs scored in a game, under the Markov chain model on the D’Esopo and Lefkowitz runner advancement model. However, the order to maximize the expected number of runs may not be the best order in the sense that it may

Nobuyoshi Hirotsu



One-reason decision-making: Modeling violations of expected utility theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

People violate expected utility theory and this has been traditionally modeled by augmenting its weight-and-add framework\\u000a by nonlinear transformations of values and probabilities. Yet individuals often use one-reason decision-making when making\\u000a court decisions or choosing cellular phones, and institutions do the same when creating rules for traffic safety or fair play\\u000a in sports. We analyze a model of one-reason decision-making,

Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos; Gerd Gigerenzer



Expectation-maximization algorithms for learning a finite mixture of univariate survival time distributions from partially specified class values  

SciTech Connect

Heterogeneity exists on a data set when samples from di#11;erent classes are merged into the data set. Finite mixture models can be used to represent a survival time distribution on heterogeneous patient group by the proportions of each class and by the survival time distribution within each class as well. The heterogeneous data set cannot be explicitly decomposed to homogeneous subgroups unless all the samples are precisely labeled by their origin classes; such impossibility of decomposition is a barrier to overcome for estimating #12;nite mixture models. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of #12;nite mixture models by soft-decomposition of heterogeneous samples without labels for a subset or the entire set of data. In medical surveillance databases we can find partially labeled data, that is, while not completely unlabeled there is only imprecise information about class values. In this study we propose new EM algorithms that take advantages of using such partial labels, and thus incorporate more information than traditional EM algorithms. We particularly propose four variants of the EM algorithm named EM-OCML, EM-PCML, EM-HCML and EM-CPCML, each of which assumes a specific mechanism of missing class values. We conducted a simulation study on exponential survival trees with five classes and showed that the advantages of incorporating substantial amount of partially labeled data can be highly signi#12;cant. We also showed model selection based on AIC values fairly works to select the best proposed algorithm on each specific data set. A case study on a real-world data set of gastric cancer provided by Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program showed a superiority of EM-CPCML to not only the other proposed EM algorithms but also conventional supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning algorithms.

Lee, Youngrok [Ames Laboratory



MaxBin: an automated binning method to recover individual genomes from metagenomes using an expectation-maximization algorithm  

PubMed Central

Background Recovering individual genomes from metagenomic datasets allows access to uncultivated microbial populations that may have important roles in natural and engineered ecosystems. Understanding the roles of these uncultivated populations has broad application in ecology, evolution, biotechnology and medicine. Accurate binning of assembled metagenomic sequences is an essential step in recovering the genomes and understanding microbial functions. Results We have developed a binning algorithm, MaxBin, which automates the binning of assembled metagenomic scaffolds using an expectation-maximization algorithm after the assembly of metagenomic sequencing reads. Binning of simulated metagenomic datasets demonstrated that MaxBin had high levels of accuracy in binning microbial genomes. MaxBin was used to recover genomes from metagenomic data obtained through the Human Microbiome Project, which demonstrated its ability to recover genomes from real metagenomic datasets with variable sequencing coverages. Application of MaxBin to metagenomes obtained from microbial consortia adapted to grow on cellulose allowed genomic analysis of new, uncultivated, cellulolytic bacterial populations, including an abundant myxobacterial population distantly related to Sorangium cellulosum that possessed a much smaller genome (5 MB versus 13 to 14 MB) but has a more extensive set of genes for biomass deconstruction. For the cellulolytic consortia, the MaxBin results were compared to binning using emergent self-organizing maps (ESOMs) and differential coverage binning, demonstrating that it performed comparably to these methods but had distinct advantages in automation, resolution of related genomes and sensitivity. Conclusions The automatic binning software that we developed successfully classifies assembled sequences in metagenomic datasets into recovered individual genomes. The isolation of dozens of species in cellulolytic microbial consortia, including a novel species of myxobacteria that has the smallest genome among all sequenced aerobic myxobacteria, was easily achieved using the binning software. This work demonstrates that the processes required for recovering genomes from assembled metagenomic datasets can be readily automated, an important advance in understanding the metabolic potential of microbes in natural environments. MaxBin is available at PMID:25136443



The role of data assimilation in maximizing the utility of geospace observations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation can facilitate maximizing the utility of existing geospace observations by offering an ultimate marriage of inductive (data-driven) and deductive (first-principles based) approaches to addressing critical questions in space weather. Assimilative approaches that incorporate dynamical models are, in particular, capable of making a diverse set of observations consistent with physical processes included in a first-principles model, and allowing unobserved physical states to be inferred from observations. These points will be demonstrated in the context of the application of an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to a thermosphere and ionosphere general circulation model. An important attribute of this approach is that the feedback between plasma and neutral variables is self-consistently treated both in the forecast model as well as in the assimilation scheme. This takes advantage of the intimate coupling between the thermosphere and ionosphere described in general circulation models to enable the inference of unobserved thermospheric states from the relatively plentiful observations of the ionosphere. Given the ever-growing infrastructure for the global navigation satellite system, this is indeed a promising prospect for geospace data assimilation. In principle, similar approaches can be applied to any geospace observing systems to extract more geophysical information from a given set of observations than would otherwise be possible.

Matsuo, T.



Developments in Non-expected Utility Theory: The Hunt for a Descriptive Theory of Choice under Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent developments in the economic theory of individual decision making under risk. Since the 1950s it has been known that individual choices violate the standard model of expected utility in predictable ways. Considerable research effort has now been devoted to the project of developing a superior descriptive model. Following an overview of non-expected utility theories which distinguishes

Chris Starmer



Optimal Decision-Making of Countermeasures by Estimating Their Expected Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the autonomous decision-making process of the selection of alternative countermeasures against threats in electronic warfare settings. We introduce a threat model, which represents a specific threat pattern, and a methodology that decides the best countermeasure against real-time threats using the decision theory. To determine the optimal countermeasure, we model the probabilities of the effects of countermeasures, if executed, and combine the probabilities with their utilities. This methodology based upon the inductive threat model calculates the expected utilities of countermeasures which are applicable given a situation, and provide an intelligent command and control agent with the best countermeasure to threats. We present empirical results that demonstrate the agent's capabilities of choosing countermeasures to threats in simulated electronic warfare settings.

Park, So Ryoung; Noh, Sanguk


Putting Teens at the Center: Maximizing Public Utility of Urban Space through Youth Involvement in Planning and Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Including teens' needs in the planning and maintenance of urban space suggests new methods of layering utility and maximizing benefit to teens and community. Discusses the Berkeley Youth Alternatives (BYA) Youth Employment Landscape Program and BYA Community Garden Patch. Program descriptions and evaluation provide future direction. (LZ)

Lawson, Laura; McNally, Marcia



Alternative medicine utilization by African Americans and improving life expectancy: is there a correlation?  


The life expectancy of African Americans and Caucasians has been increasing in the United States and in many other countries around the world since the late 1800s. However, as long as statistics have been accrued on race and ethnicity, the life expectancy of African Americans and Blacks in general has been significantly lower than that of Caucasians. Basic public health and medical preventive education is needed because higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates is one of the primary reasons for the differences between life expectancy between African Americans and Caucasians. It is also of an apparent separate but perhaps related interest that several recent preliminary studies suggest that African Americans, more than any other race, may have some of the lowest uses of alternative medicine due to skepticism, as well as educational efforts and trust in their health care professional. Despite a common belief that African Americans harbor profound distrust of specific areas of the medical profession, it is of interest that this finding has not held validity in the area of alternative medicine. Therefore, since lifestyle changes are considered alternatives in most of these studies, this would suggest that a greater educational emphasis on behavioral modification could establish a foundation or a model of preventive medical education that can be utilized for underserved populations around the world. PMID:17990625

Moyad, Mark A; Lusk, William; Schwartz, Lawrence R



2208 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 15, NO. 8, AUGUST 2006 A Multiscale Expectation-Maximization  

E-print Network

-scale contextual SEM (CSEM) classifier, besides against well-known standard classifiers in two RS image classifiers based on the iterative expecta- tion maximization Gaussian mixture model solution can be very powerful in practice when: 1) there is a lack of reference samples with respect to the problem/model

Bruzzone, Lorenzo


The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization.  


Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize. PMID:15157975

Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C



Automatic seed initialization for the expectation-maximization algorithm and its application in 3D medical imaging  

E-print Network

. The need for more automated methods of segmentation is evident. Medical scanners, such as MRI, utilize the metaphysical response of the body's organs to create an image. This response is tissue-dependent and therefore or fluids in the body. Region-based methods [2] are used to segment the image, normally using no a priori

Whelan, Paul F.


Social and Professional Participation of Individuals Who Are Deaf: Utilizing the Psychosocial Potential Maximization Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents a strength-based understanding of how individuals who are deaf maximize their social and professional potential. This exploratory study was conducted with 49 adult participants who are deaf (n = 30) and who have typical hearing (n = 19) residing in America, Australia, England, and South Africa. The findings support a…

Jacobs, Paul G.; Brown, P. Margaret; Paatsch, Louise



Converters for grid-connected DC energy sources: a simulation tool to meet expected utility specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local power generation equipment connected to the public utility grid based on DC-AC power conversion equipment are becoming progressively more widely used. The presence of local sources may produce operational and safety problems, of which the utility companies are responsible. For this reason, many utility companies are working to produce rules and constraints for perspective local producers, that could eventually

F. Castelli Dezza; E. Chiesa; A. Monti



A breakthrough in utilization maximization via real-time tool performance feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

In semi-conductor manufacturing, it is a well-known fact that capital equipment depreciation is the largest Fab cost Pareto item. Therefore, it is critical to keep these expensive machines (or tools) highly utilized. Nevertheless, a level of idleness of 10% and even 20% on machines, in many High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) facilities, is still not uncommon. There are two approaches to

Tomer Segal; Adar A. Kalir



Power Utility Maximization for Multiple-Supply Systems by a Load-Matching Switch  

E-print Network

such as solar panels and wind generators, be- cause it directly affects the utility of the available power systems General Terms Design, experimentation Keywords Solar energy, photovoltaics, power model, solarIntensity(Lux) 716151413121110198 )ruoH(emiT 40026.beFderusaemytisnetnIthgilnuS AB C Figure 1: A typical solar power profile

Shinozuka, Masanobu


Illustrating Caffeine's Pharmacological and Expectancy Effects Utilizing a Balanced Placebo Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypothesizes that pharmacological and expectancy effects may be two principles that govern caffeine consumption in the same way they affect other drug use. Tests this theory through a balanced placebo design on 100 male undergraduate students. Expectancy set and caffeine content appeared equally powerful, and worked additionally, to affect…

Lotshaw, Sandra C.; And Others



Single-atom catalysis in mesoporous photovoltaics: the principle of utility maximization.  


FeOx -supported single Pt atoms are used for the first time as counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which are mesoporous photovoltaic devices. This system enables the investigation of the electrocatalytic behavior of a single-atom catalyst (SAC). Compared with conventional Pt CEs, the SAC-based CEs exhibit better reversibility as indicated by the peak-to-peak separation (Epp ). A high degree of atom utilization is demonstrated. PMID:25312028

Shi, Yantao; Zhao, Chunyu; Wei, Haisheng; Guo, Jiahao; Liang, Suxia; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jingyue; Ma, Tingli



Maximizing the clinical utility of antimüllerian hormone testing in women's health  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To provide an update on the latest clinical applications of serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) testing with practical approaches to mitigate the impact of significant variability in AMH results. Recent findings Recent studies continue to demonstrate that AMH is the best single serum test for ovarian response management with, at most, a weak-to-moderate age-independent association with live-birth rate and time to conception. Data confirm serum AMH levels improve menopause prediction, monitoring of ovarian damage, and identification of women at risk for several ovary-related disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome and premature or primary ovarian insufficiency. However, it is now recognized that serum AMH results can have dramatic variability due to common, biologic fluctuations within some individuals, use of hormonal contraceptives or other medications, certain surgical procedures, specimen treatment, assay changes, and laboratory calibration differences. Practical guidelines are provided to minimize the impact of variability in AMH results and maximize the accuracy of clinical decision-making. Summary AMH is an ovarian biomarker of central importance which improves the clinical management of women's health. However, with the simultaneous rapid expansion of AMH clinical applications and recognition of variability in AMH results, consensus regarding the clinical cutpoints is increasingly difficult. Therefore, a careful approach to AMH measurement and interpretation in clinical care is essential. PMID:24978853

Leader, Benjamin; Baker, Valerie L.



Econometrica, Vol. 82, No. 1 (January, 2014), 139 EXPECTED UNCERTAIN UTILITY THEORY  

E-print Network

- terval utility characterize an EUU decision maker. The decision maker transforms each uncertain prospect the decision maker cannot quantify all aspects of the relevant uncertainty. 1 The paper was presented


On the Economic Interpretation and Measurement of Optimal Capacity Utilization with Anticipatory Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study builds on recent research giving the notion of capacity utilization clearer economic foundations. In this research optimal output Y* is defined as the minimum point on the firm's short-run average total cost curve, and capacity utilization is then computed as CU=Y\\/Y*, where Y is actual output. Here I extend these concepts to include adjustment costs due to changes

Catherine J. Morrison



The expectation-maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common task in signal processing is the estimation of the parameters of a probability distribution function. Perhaps the most frequently encountered estimation problem is the estimation of the mean of a signal in noise. In many parameter estimation problems the situation is more complicated because direct access to the data necessary to estimate the parameters is impossible, or some

T. K. Moon



Restoration of lost frequency in OpenPET imaging: comparison between the method of convex projections and the maximum likelihood expectation maximization method.  


We are developing a new PET scanner based on the "OpenPET" geometry, which consists of two detector rings separated by a gap. One item to which attention must be paid is that OpenPET image reconstruction is classified into an incomplete inverse problem, where low-frequency components are truncated. In our previous simulations and experiments, however, the OpenPET imaging was made feasible by application of iterative image reconstruction methods. Therefore, we expect that iterative methods have a restorative effect to compensate for the lost frequency. There are two types of reconstruction methods for improving image quality when data truncation exists: one is the iterative methods such as the maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) and the other is an analytical image reconstruction method followed by the method of convex projections, which has not been employed for the OpenPET. In this study, therefore, we propose a method for applying the latter approach to the OpenPET image reconstruction and compare it with the ML-EM. We found that the proposed analytical method could reduce the occurrence of image artifacts caused by the lost frequency. A similar tendency for this restoration effect was observed in ML-EM image reconstruction where no additional restoration method was applied. Therefore, we concluded that the method of convex projections and the ML-EM had a similar restoration effect to compensate for the lost frequency. PMID:24879065

Tashima, Hideaki; Katsunuma, Takayuki; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Hideo; Obi, Takashi; Suga, Mikio; Yamaya, Taiga



Notes and Comments: Measures of risk attitude: correspondences between mean-variance and expected-utility approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The expected-utility (EU) approach brings great richness to the study of decision making in a large variety of stochastic\\u000a environments. Research in the EU paradigm often starts from plausible assumptions on risk preferences or optimal responses\\u000a to changes in the risk structure, and then investigates how such assumptions are reflected by properties of the von-Neumann-Morgenstern\\u000a (vNM) utility functions underlying

Thomas Eichner; Andreas Wagener



Privatization of state-owned electric utility in Thailand: Expected effects on economic efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation analyzes the prospects of improving the economic efficiency of electricity generation in Thailand by privatization. It examines the monopoly state-owned electric utility, its cost minimizing behavior, and the induced distortion in input prices. This study employs the generalized cost function to investigate the economic efficiency. The basic model follows the relative price efficiency analysis developed by Atkinson and




Nonlinear spatio-temporal filtering of dynamic PET data using a four-dimensional Gaussian filter and expectation-maximization deconvolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method for denoising dynamic PET data, spatio-temporal expectation-maximization (STEM) filtering, that combines four-dimensional Gaussian filtering with EM deconvolution. The initial Gaussian filter suppresses noise at a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies and EM deconvolution quickly restores the frequencies most important to the signal. We aim to demonstrate that STEM filtering can improve variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images without introducing significant bias. We evaluate STEM filtering with a dynamic phantom study, and with simulated and human dynamic PET studies of a tracer with reversible binding behaviour, [C-11]raclopride, and a tracer with irreversible binding behaviour, [F-18]FDOPA. STEM filtering is compared to a number of established three and four-dimensional denoising methods. STEM filtering provides substantial improvements in variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images generated with a number of kinetic analysis techniques while introducing little bias. STEM filtering does bias early frames, but this does not affect quantitative parameter estimates. STEM filtering is shown to be superior to the other simple denoising methods studied. STEM filtering is a simple and effective denoising method that could be valuable for a wide range of dynamic PET applications.

Floberg, J. M.; Holden, J. E.



In vitro estimation of fast and slow wave parameters of thin trabecular bone using space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization algorithm.  


In testing cancellous bone using ultrasound, two types of longitudinal Biot's waves are observed in the received signal. These are known as fast and slow waves and their appearance depend on the alignment of bone trabeculae in the propagation path and the thickness of the specimen under test (SUT). They can be used as an effective tool for the diagnosis of osteoporosis because wave propagation behavior depends on the bone structure. However, the identification of these waves in the received signal can be difficult to achieve. In this study, ultrasonic wave propagation in a 4mm thick bovine cancellous bone in the direction parallel to the trabecular alignment is considered. The observed Biot's fast and slow longitudinal waves are superimposed; which makes it difficult to extract any information from the received signal. These two waves can be separated using the space alternating generalized expectation maximization (SAGE) algorithm. The latter has been used mainly in speech processing. In this new approach, parameters such as, arrival time, center frequency, bandwidth, amplitude, phase and velocity of each wave are estimated. The B-Scan images and its associated A-scans obtained through simulations using Biot's finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method are validated experimentally using a thin bone sample obtained from the femoral-head of a 30 months old bovine. PMID:22284937

Grimes, Morad; Bouhadjera, Abdelmalek; Haddad, Sofiane; Benkedidah, Toufik



Perception of Utility in Autonomic VoIP Systems Edward Stehle, Maxim Shevertalov, Paul deGrandis, Spiros Mancoridis, Moshe Kam  

E-print Network

Perception of Utility in Autonomic VoIP Systems Edward Stehle, Maxim Shevertalov, Paul de of voice-over-Internet protocol (VoIP) network traffic is used in an increasing variety of applications and settings. Many of these applications involve communications where VoIP systems are deployed under

Mancoridis, Spiros


Task Dependency of User Perceived Utility in Autonomic VoIP Systems Edward Stehle, Maxim Shevertalov, Paul deGrandis, Spiros Mancoridis, Moshe Kam  

E-print Network

Task Dependency of User Perceived Utility in Autonomic VoIP Systems Edward Stehle, Maxim Philadelphia, PA 19104 Abstract The transmission of voice-over-Internet protocol (VoIP) net- work traffic- nications where VoIP systems are deployed under unpre- dictable conditions with poor network support

Mancoridis, Spiros


Resource utilization by children with developmental disabilities in Kenya: discrepancy analysis of parents' expectation-to-importance appraisals.  


The purpose of this study was to describe parental perceptions of eight physical and human resources available to meet the needs of children with developmental disabilities in Kenya. Specifically, the study assessed the discrepancy between the importance parents attached to specified resources and the expected use of those resources by their children with developmental disabilities. Discrepancy analysis was conducted on parents' expectation-to-importance appraisals of eight resources identified in previous research including, health, education, friendships, husband/wife, religious organization, community membership/acceptance, employment/work, and home. Overall, parental appraisal of likely access-to-importance was significantly related across all eight physical and human resource areas. Discrepancy scores ranged from negative, through zero, to positive, categorized underutilized, congruent, and over-utilized, respectively. Chi-square analyses were non-significant for gender across all resources with only slight gender differences noted on three resources. Most parents reported a match between expected use and importance in five of the eight community resources, health (57.4%), friends (54.6%), religious affiliation (59.8%), acceptance in the community (60.3%), and having one's own home (62.6%). However, "husband/wife" fell outside the congruent range (50.4%), with slight gender differences noted. Finally, two resource areas where the majority of parents reported noncongruence were educational programs and employment/career service. PMID:12102587

Mutua, N Kagendo; Miller, Janice Williams; Mwavita, Mwarumba



Maximizing the utility of radio spectrum: Broadband spectrum measurements and occupancy model for use by cognitive radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio spectrum is a vital national asset; proper management of this finite resource is essential to the operation and development of telecommunications, radio-navigation, radio astronomy, and passive remote sensing services. To maximize the utility of the radio spectrum, knowledge of its current usage is beneficial. As a result, several spectrum studies have been conducted in urban Atlanta, suburban Atlanta, and rural North Carolina. These studies improve upon past spectrum studies by resolving spectrum usage by nearly all its possible parameters: frequency, time, polarization, azimuth, and location type. The continuous frequency range from 400MHz to 7.2 GHz was measured with a custom-designed system. More than 8 billion spectrum measurements were taken over several months of observation. A multi-parameter spectrum usage detection method was developed and analyzed with data from the spectrum studies. This method was designed to exploit all the characteristics of spectral information that was available from the spectrum studies. Analysis of the spectrum studies showed significant levels of underuse. The level of spectrum usage in time and azimuthal space was determined to be only 6.5 % for the urban Atlanta, 5.3 % for suburban Atlanta, and 0.8 % for the rural North Carolina spectrum studies. Most of the frequencies measured never experienced usage. Interference was detected in several protected radio astronomy and sensitive radio navigation bands. A cognitive radio network architecture to share spectrum with fixed microwave systems was developed. The architecture uses a broker-based sharing method to control spectrum access and investigate interference issues.

Petrin, Allen J.



EPA Science Inventory

Developed in response to guidelines issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)1 under Section 515(a) of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law 106-554; H.R. 5658), the Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Ob...


Asset Prices and Risk Aversion The standard asset pricing models (the CCAPM and the Epstein-Zin non-expected utility  

E-print Network

and the Epstein-Zin non-expected utility model) counterintuitively predict that equilibrium asset prices can rise) exceeds unity. This result, which was first proved par Epstein (1988) in a stationary economy setting-separable form, assesses an a priori unacceptable prediction, whereas the asset pricing model, derived by Epstein

Boyer, Edmond


Expected utility of voluntary vaccination in the middle of an emergent Bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic: a decision analysis parameterized for Dutch circumstances.  


In order to put a halt to the Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) epidemic in 2008, the European Commission promoted vaccination at a transnational level as a new measure to combat BTV-8. Most European member states opted for a mandatory vaccination campaign, whereas the Netherlands, amongst others, opted for a voluntary campaign. For the latter to be effective, the farmer's willingness to vaccinate should be high enough to reach satisfactory vaccination coverage to stop the spread of the disease. This study looked at a farmer's expected utility of vaccination, which is expected to have a positive impact on the willingness to vaccinate. Decision analysis was used to structure the vaccination decision problem into decisions, events and payoffs, and to define the relationships among these elements. Two scenarios were formulated to distinguish farmers' mindsets, based on differences in dairy heifer management. For each of the scenarios, a decision tree was run for two years to study vaccination behaviour over time. The analysis was done based on the expected utility criterion. This allows to account for the effect of a farmer's risk preference on the vaccination decision. Probabilities were estimated by experts, payoffs were based on an earlier published study. According to the results of the simulation, the farmer decided initially to vaccinate against BTV-8 as the net expected utility of vaccination was positive. Re-vaccination was uncertain due to less expected costs of a continued outbreak. A risk averse farmer in this respect is more likely to re-vaccinate. When heifers were retained for export on the farm, the net expected utility of vaccination was found to be generally larger and thus was re-vaccination more likely to happen. For future animal health programmes that rely on a voluntary approach, results show that the provision of financial incentives can be adjusted to the farmers' willingness to vaccinate over time. Important in this respect are the decision moment and the characteristics of the disease. Farmers' perceptions of the disease risk and about the efficacy of available control options cannot be neglected. PMID:24768508

Sok, J; Hogeveen, H; Elbers, A R W; Velthuis, A G J; Oude Lansink, A G J M



Multifactor Expectation Maximization for Factor Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Factor graphs allow large probability distributions to be stored efficiently and facilitate fast computation of marginal probabilities,\\u000a but the difficulty of training them has limited their use. Given a large set of data points, the training process should yield\\u000a factors for which the observed data has a high likelihood. We present a factor graph learning algorithm which on each iteration

Jason T. Rolfe; Matthew Cook



Consequentialist foundations for expected utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviour norms are considered for decision trees which allow both objective probabilities and uncertain states of the world with unknown probabilities. Terminal nodes have consequences in a given domain. Behaviour is required to be consistent in subtrees. Consequentialist behaviour, by definition, reveals a consequence choice function independent of the structure of the decision tree. It implies that behaviour reveals a

Peter J. Hammond



A Rational Decision Maker with Ordinal Utility under Uncertainty: Optimism and Pessimism  

E-print Network

In game theory and artificial intelligence, decision making models often involve maximizing expected utility, which does not respect ordinal invariance. In this paper, the author discusses the possibility of preserving ordinal invariance and still making a rational decision under uncertainty.

Han, Ji



Prognostic utility of predischarge dipyridamole-thallium imaging compared to predischarge submaximal exercise electrocardiography and maximal exercise thallium imaging after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

The prognostic value of predischarge dipyridamole-thallium scanning after uncomplicated myocardial infarction was determined by comparison with submaximal exercise electrocardiography and 6-week maximal exercise thallium imaging and by correlation with clinical events. Two endpoints were defined: cardiac events and severe ischemic potential. Of the 40 patients studied, 8 had cardiac events within 6 months (1 died, 3 had myocardial infarction and 4 had unstable angina requiring hospitalization). The finding of any redistribution on dipyridamole-thallium scanning was common (77%) in these patients and had poor specificity (29%). Redistribution outside of the infarct zone, however, had equivalent sensitivity (63%) and better specificity (75%) for events (p less than 0.05). Both predischarge dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise electrocardiography identified 5 of the 8 events (p = 0.04 and 0.07, respectively). The negative predictive accuracy for events for both dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise electrocardiography was 88%. In addition to the 8 patients with events, 16 other patients had severe ischemic potential (6 had coronary bypass surgery, 1 had inoperable 3-vessel disease and 9 had markedly abnormal 6-week maximal exercise tests). Predischarge dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise testing also identified 8 and 7 of these 16 patients with severe ischemic potential, respectively. Six of the 8 cardiac events occurred before 6-week follow-up. A maximal exercise thallium test at 6 weeks identified 1 of the 2 additional events within 6 months correctly. Thallium redistribution after dipyridamole in coronary territories outside the infarct zone is a sensitive and specific predictor of subsequent cardiac events and identifies patients with severe ischemic potential.

Gimple, L.W.; Hutter, A.M. Jr.; Guiney, T.E.; Boucher, C.A. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))



Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

Siegrist, Kyle


Exceeding Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Awareness of expectations is so important in the facilities business. The author's experiences has taught him that it is essential to understand how expectations impact people's lives as well as those for whom they provide services for every day. This article presents examples and ideas that will provide insight and ideas to help educators…

Cannon, John



Rational Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rational Expectations was set up by Ralph Lazar, former strategist and economist for Goldman Sachs, Barings & Credit Suisse First Boston, as a "resource for anyone interested in [emerging markets] economics -- students, teachers, lecturers, journalists, professionals, or just the curious." A fully comprehensive guide to the people, places, and events of the economics world, Rational Expectations includes an searchable database of over 1,000 organizations and institutions in OECD countries and emerging markets, a conference calendar, and job listings. The site also links to academic, professional, and government organizations, as well as a huge suggested publication list and macroeconomic and financial market data. Rational Expectations will be a welcome resource for anyone interested in emerging markets economics.

Lazar, Ralph.



SciTech Connect

In full-scale boilers, the effect of biomass cofiring on NO{sub x} and unburned carbon (UBC) emissions has been found to be site-specific. Few sets of field data are comparable and no consistent database of information exists upon which cofiring fuel choice or injection system design can be based to assure that NOX emissions will be minimized and UBC be reduced. This report presents the results of a comprehensive project that generated an extensive set of pilot-scale test data that were used to validate a new predictive model for the cofiring of biomass and coal. All testing was performed at the 3.6 MMBtu/hr (1.75 MW{sub t}) Southern Company Services/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility where a variety of burner configurations, coals, biomasses, and biomass injection schemes were utilized to generate a database of consistent, scalable, experimental results (422 separate test conditions). This database was then used to validate a new model for predicting NO{sub x} and UBC emissions from the cofiring of biomass and coal. This model is based on an Advanced Post-Processing (APP) technique that generates an equivalent network of idealized reactor elements from a conventional CFD simulation. The APP reactor network is a computational environment that allows for the incorporation of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and provides a new tool to quantify NOx and UBC emissions for any cofired combination of coal and biomass.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa



Great Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…

Natale, Jo Anna



Optimal pension asset allocation strategy for defined-contribution plans with exponential utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the asset allocation strategies for members of defined-contribution pension plans with exponential utility when there are three types of asset, cash, bonds and stocks. The portfolio problem is to maximize the expected utility of terminal wealth that uses the plan member's final wage as a numeraire, in the presence of three risk sources, interest risk, asset risk

Qing-Ping Ma


Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.



Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to…

Ridley, Cheryl


Maximally natural supersymmetry.  


We consider 4D weak scale theories arising from 5D supersymmetric (SUSY) theories with maximal Scherk-Schwarz breaking at a Kaluza-Klein scale of several TeV. Many of the problems of conventional SUSY are avoided. Apart from 3rd family sfermions the SUSY spectrum is heavy, with only ?50% tuning at a gluino mass of ?2??TeV and a stop mass of ?650??GeV. A single Higgs doublet acquires a vacuum expectation value, so the physical Higgs boson is automatically standard-model-like. A new U(1)^{'} interaction raises m_{h} to 126 GeV. For minimal tuning the associated Z^{'}, as well as the 3rd family sfermions, must be accessible to LHC13. A gravitational wave signal consistent with hints from BICEP2 is possible if inflation occurs when the extra dimensions are small. PMID:25259967

Dimopoulos, Savas; Howe, Kiel; March-Russell, John



Maximally Natural Supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider 4D weak scale theories arising from 5D supersymmetric (SUSY) theories with maximal Scherk-Schwarz breaking at a Kaluza-Klein scale of several TeV. Many of the problems of conventional SUSY are avoided. Apart from 3rd family sfermions the SUSY spectrum is heavy, with only ˜50% tuning at a gluino mass of ˜2 TeV and a stop mass of ˜650 GeV. A single Higgs doublet acquires a vacuum expectation value, so the physical Higgs boson is automatically standard-model-like. A new U(1)' interaction raises mh to 126 GeV. For minimal tuning the associated Z', as well as the 3rd family sfermions, must be accessible to LHC13. A gravitational wave signal consistent with hints from BICEP2 is possible if inflation occurs when the extra dimensions are small.

Dimopoulos, Savas; Howe, Kiel; March-Russell, John



Maximally Expressive Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling systems organize tasks into a timeline or schedule. Tasks are logically grouped into containers called models. Models are a collection of related tasks, along with their dependencies and requirements, that when met will produce the desired result. One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiments for the International Space Station. In these experiments, the equipment used is among the most complex hardware ever developed; the information sought is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor; and the procedures are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling International Space Station experiment operations calls for a maximally expressive modeling schema.

Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Richardson, Lea



Brain MRI Segmentation Using an Expectation-Maximization  

E-print Network

-dimensional (3-D) High soft tissue contrast High spatial resolution Possibly multi-spectral Non-rater variability multi-spectral input is hard to interpret Routine analysis is impractical Need for automated Modeling MR bias fields Multiple Sclerosis lesion segmentation Partial volume segmentation Discussion


Radar Imaging with Variations of an ExpectationMaximization Algorithm  

E-print Network

multiplied by sinusoids associated with doppler shifts; for tomographic imaging, \\Gamma may also represent; where d = indicates that only the elements along the diagonal are assigned; the remainder are set to generate the right panel of Fig. 1. We now illustrate some exper

Lanterman, Aaron



E-print Network

segmentation. (a) Inner boundaries. (b) Osteophytes. (c) Bone degenerative disease. (d) Double boundary bone). Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by a reduc- tion in bone mass, resulting. The proposed method is compared with other known alternatives. Index Terms-- Spine bone, vertebral body (VB

Louisville, University of


Maximally Expressive Task Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)



Subjective Probability and Expected Utility without Additivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An act maps states of nature to outcomes: deterministic outcomes, as well as random outcomes, are included. Two acts f and g are comonotonic, by definition, if it never happens that f(s) > f(t) and g(t) > g(s) for some states of nature s and t. An axiom of comonotonic independence is introduced here. It weakens the von Neumann-Morgenstern axiom

David Schmeidler



UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Option price without expected utility  

E-print Network

49 ante) from mortality risks tied to shipping nuclear wastes to the 50national high level nuclear for human 52health changes that are linked to deteriorations or improvements in 53air or water pollution

Shaw, W. Douglass


Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.  


The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design. PMID:25024182

Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E



Maximization, learning, and economic behavior  

PubMed Central

The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design. PMID:25024182

Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E.



Branching to maximal compact  

E-print Network

's thm and alg geometry Zuckerman's thm From K to G and back again Summary Branching to maximal compact classically Helgason's thm and alg geometry Zuckerman's thm From K to G and back again Summary Outline the branching law: Zuckerman's theorem Relating representations of K and G #12;Branching to maximal compact

Vogan, David


Is CP violation maximal  

SciTech Connect

Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references.

Gronau, M.



Optimal asset allocation strategy for defined-contribution pension plans with power utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal asset allocation strategies of defined-contribution pension plans for members whose terminal utility is a power function of wealth-to-wage ratio is investigated in this paper. The portfolio problem is to maximize the expected terminal utility in the presence of three risk sources, interest risk, asset risk and wage risk. A closed form solution is found for the asset allocation problem

Qing-Ping Ma



EPA Science Inventory

The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...


Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics: expectations and practical benefits.  


Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pharmacogenomics is the study of genetic determinants of interindividual variation in drug response and aims to facilitate personalized medicine, through genotype-informed drug and dose selection, to maximize drug efficacy and/or minimize adverse drug reactions. Despite high expectations, no cardiovascular pharmacogenomic association is currently in widespread clinical practice; evidential, logistical, financial, and knowledge implementation barriers exist. Nevertheless, VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 variants have been associated with warfarin dose requirements, and CYP2C19 variants have been associated with perturbed antiplatelet response to clopidogrel. However, at present, controversy exists over the clinical utility of these genetic associations. There is an increased risk of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity in SLCO1B1*5 carriers, ADRB1 and ADRA2C polymorphisms are associated with differential response to bucindolol, and rare congenital arrhythmia gene variants have been identified in drug-induced torsade de pointes. Practical benefits are still anticipated, but much work remains. PMID:24322971

Turner, R M; Pirmohamed, M



Maximizing Revenue with Dynamic Cloud Pricing: The Infinite Horizon Case  

E-print Network

profit from current customers. On the other hand, doing so increases the risk of negatively affecting perishable resources, such as airline seats and hotel reservations, in order to maximize the expected revenue

Li, Baochun


Guidelines for NOx control by combustion modification for coal-fired utility boilers. procedures for reduction of NOx emissions and maximization of boiler efficiency. Special report Jun 74Dec 79  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report, which has been reviewed by industry experts, reflects the experience developed in successfully applying combustion modifications to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Although the report emphasizes coal-fired equipment, the same principles can be applied to gas- and oil-fired systems. Techniques, methods, and step-by-step procedures are detailed by example to guide utility personnel who may desire to




Maximally Entangled States  

E-print Network

Every Maximally Entangled State (MES) of two d-dimensional particles is shown to be a product state of suitably chosen collective coordinates. The state may be viewed as de?fining a "point" in a "phase space" like d^2 array representing d^2 orthonormal Maximally Entangled States basis for the Hilbert space. A ?finite geometry view of MES is presented and its relation with the afore mentioned "phase space" is outlined: "straight lines" in the space depict product of single particle mutually unbiased basis (MUB) states, inverting thereby Schmidt's diagonalization scheme in giving a product single particle states as a d-terms sum of maximally entangled states. To assure self su?fficiency the essential mathematical results are summarized in the appendices.

M. Revzen



Fully Achieves Expectations Sometimes Achieves Expectations  

E-print Network

.) Employee Name: Appropriate corrective action has been discussed with employee? Performance Review Summary Expectations Accomplishments - the extent to which the employee meets expectations in performing the job functions of his/her position as defined in the PDQ. Review Period: The University of Tennessee Employee

Tennessee, University of


Human Resources Maximization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses human resources maximization as a means for expanding employee selection criteria to include applicants' strengths and potential for growth, not just their history, then working to develop employees potential. Testing learning style as a means for recognizing potential and the relationship between testing and training are discussed. (KRN)

Grabb, Larry E.



The Theoryof Maximally Flat  

E-print Network

200 The Theoryof Maximally Flat Loudspeaker Systems SUSAN M. LEAand MICHAEL L. LAMPTON IEEE, for a given loudspeakerQ. In addition,it is shown that for Q=O.383 the system can he madeflatthrough of an electrodynamic direct radi- ator loudspeaker mountedin an enclosurehas been discussed by many authors [I]-[5

California at Berkeley, University of


How To: Maximize Google  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Google is shaking out to be the leading Web search engine, with recent research from Nielsen NetRatings reporting about 40 percent of all U.S. households using the tool at least once in January 2004. This brief article discusses how teachers and students can maximize their use of Google.

Branzburg, Jeffrey



Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.  


Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch



Do juries meet our expectations?  


Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony, and weather forecasting, we argue that the frequency of mistakes probably far exceeds these "tolerable" levels. We are not arguing against the use of juries. Rather, we point out that a closer look at jury decisions reveals a serious gap between what we expect from juries and what probably occurs. When deciding issues of guilt and/or punishing convicted criminals, we as a society should recognize and acknowledge the abundance of error. PMID:12508698

Arkes, Hal R; Mellers, Barbara A



Quantum-Inspired Maximizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

Zak, Michail



Client expectation from doctors: Expectation - reality gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims and objectives: To determine client expectation from doctors, a descriptive survey was conducted amongst people above 18 years of age and doctors of Faridpur District. Methodology: For this purpose a total of 400 patients and 30 doctors were involved. Both rural and urban population were included. A sample of 30 doctors was selected from the outdoor department of Faridpur

Rahman MM; Rahman S; Begum N; Asaduzzaman AKM


Expect No Surprises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mary Jo Maydew articulates her priorities as 2002-2003 board chair of the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO): helping business officers maximize their expanding roles on campus and guiding the association in better serving member needs. (EV)

Shields, Jeffrey N.



Glutathione is required for maximal transcription of the cobalamin biosynthetic and 1,2-propanediol utilization (cob/pdu) regulon and for the catabolism of ethanolamine, 1,2-propanediol, and propionate in Salmonella typhimurium LT2.  

PubMed Central

Transcription of the cob/pdu regulon of Salmonella typhimurium is activated by the PocR regulatory protein in response to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDL) in the environment. Nutritional analysis and DNA sequencing confirmed that a strain defective in expression of the cob/pdu regulon in response to 1,2-PDL lacked a functional gshA gene. gshA encodes gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (L-glutamate:L-cysteine gamma-ligase [ADP forming]; EC, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH). The DNA sequence of gshA was partially determined, and the location of gshA in the chromosome was established by two-factor crosses. P22 cotransduction of gshA with nearby markers showed 21% linkage to srl and 1% linkage to hyd; srl was 9% cotransducible with hyd. In light of these data, the gene order gshA srl hyd is suggested. The level of reduced thiols in the gshA strain was 87% lower than the levels measured in the wild-type strain in both aerobically and anaerobically grown cells. 1,2-PDL-dependent transcription of cob/pdu was studied by using M. Casadaban's Mu-lacZ fusions. In aerobically grown cells, transcription of a cbi-lacZ fusion (the cbi genes are the subset of cob genes that encode functions needed for the synthesis of the corrin ring) was 4-fold lower and transcription of a pdu-lacZ fusion was 10-fold lower in a gshA mutant than in the wild-type strain. Expression of the cob/pdu regulon in response to 1,2-PDL was restored when GSH was included in the medium. In anaerobically grown cells, cbi-lacZ transcription was only 0.4-fold lower than in the gshA+ strain; pdu-lacZ transcription was reduced only by 0.34-fold, despite the lower thiol levels in the mutant. cobA-lacZ transcription was used as negative control of gene whose transcription is not controlled by the PocR/1,2-PDL system; under both conditions, cobA transcription remained unaffected. The gshA mutant strain was unable to utilize 1,2-PDL, ethanolamine, or propionate as a carbon and energy source. The defect in ethanolamine utilization appears to be at the level of ethanolamine ammonia-lyase activity, not at the transcriptional level. Possible roles for GSH in ethanolamine, 1,2-PDL, and propionate catabolism are proposed and discussed. PMID:7559326

Rondon, M R; Kazmierczak, R; Escalante-Semerena, J C



Maximizing relationship possibilities: relational maximization in romantic relationships.  


Using Rusbult's (1980) investment model and Schwartz's (2000) conceptualization of decision maximization, we sought to understand how an individual's propensity to maximize his or her decisions factored into investment, satisfaction, and awareness of alternatives in romantic relationships. In study one, 275 participants currently involved in romantic relationships completed measures of maximization, satisfaction, investment size, quality of alternatives, and commitment. In study two, 343 participants were surveyed as part of the creation of a scale of relational maximization. Results from both studies revealed that the tendency to maximize (in general and in relationships specifically) was negatively correlated with satisfaction, investment, and commitment, and positively correlated with quality of alternatives. Furthermore, we found that satisfaction and investments mediated the relationship between maximization and relationship commitment. PMID:23951952

Mikkelson, Alan C; Pauley, Perry M



Reflections on Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

Santini, Joseph



A Superintendent's High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

Pascopella, Angela



An Unexpected Expected Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

Schwartzman, Steven



FE2707 Expected value/mathematical expectation 1 FE2707 Expected value/mathematical expectation  

E-print Network

expectation of f , E [f(X)], is de#12;ned by E [f(X)] = P ! i 2 p(! i )f(! i ) E [f(X)] = R ! i 2 d! p of the stock. The expected stock price is given E [f(X)] = 1 6 (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6) = 3:5. (ii) Life-out) is given by f(t). Then, the expected pro#12;t is given by E [f(t)] = R 1 0 dt p(t)f(t), which

Magdon-Ismail, Malik


Information for Expectant Parents  


... Parents Families About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Information for Expectant Parents Language: English Español (Spanish) ... Defects, Blood Disorders & Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How ...


Calculating Expectation Shift  

E-print Network

This paper concerns the problem of calculating expectation shift due to variability which tends to occur whenever the function of a random variable is nonlinear and especially tends to occur in the neighborhood of a local ...

Frey, Daniel



Maximizing Brightness in Photoinjectors  

SciTech Connect

If the laser pulse driving photoinjectors could be arbitrarily shaped, the emittance growth induced by space charge effects could be totally compensated for. In particular, for RF guns the photo-electron distribution leaving the cathode should have a 3D-ellipsoidal shape. The emittance at the end of the injector could be as small as the cathode emittance. We explore how the emittance and the brightness can be optimized for photoinjector based on RF gun depending on the peak current requirements. Techniques available to produce those ideal laser pulse shapes are also discussed. If the laser pulse driving photoinjectors could be arbitrarily shaped, the emittance growth induced by space charge effects could be totally compensated for. In particular, for RF guns, the photo-electron distribution leaving the cathode should be close to a uniform distribution contained in a 3D-ellipsoid contour. For photo-cathodes which have very fast emission times, and assuming a perfectly uniform emitting surface, this could be achieved by shaping the laser in a pulse of constant fluence and limited in space by a 3D-ellipsoid contour. Simulations show that in such conditions, with the standard linear emittance compensation, the emittance at the end of the photo-injector beamline approaches the minimum value imposed by the cathode emittance. Brightness, which is expressed as the ratio of peak current over the product of the two transverse emittance, seems to be maximized for small charges. Numerical simulations also show that for very high charge per bunch (10nC), emittances as small as 2 mm-mrad could be reached by using 3D-ellipsoidal laser pulses in an S-Band gun. The production of 3D-ellipsoidal pulses is very challenging, but seems worthwhile the effort. We briefly discuss some of the present ideas and difficulties of achieving such pulses.

Limborg-Deprey, C.; /SLAC; Tomizawa, H.; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo



COPD: maximization of bronchodilation.  


The most recent guidelines define COPD in a multidimensional way, nevertheless the diagnosis is still linked to the limitation of airflow, usually measured by the reduction in the FEV1/FVC ratio below 70%. However, the severity of obstruction is not directly correlated to symptoms or to invalidity determined by COPD. Thus, besides respiratory function, COPD should be evaluated based on symptoms, frequency and severity of exacerbations, patient's functional status and health related quality of life (HRQoL). Therapy is mainly aimed at increasing exercise tolerance and reducing dyspnea, with improvement of daily activities and HRQoL. This can be accomplished by a drug-induced reduction of pulmonary hyperinflation and exacerbations frequency and severity. All guidelines recommend bronchodilators as baseline therapy for all stages of COPD, and long-acting inhaled bronchodilators, both beta-2 agonist (LABA) and antimuscarinic (LAMA) drugs, are the most effective in regular treatment in the clinically stable phase. The effectiveness of bronchodilators should be evaluated in terms of functional (relief of bronchial obstruction and pulmonary hyperinflation), symptomatic (exercise tolerance and HRQoL), and clinical improvement (reduction in number or severity of exacerbations), while the absence of a spirometric response is not a reason for interrupting treatment, if there is subjective improvement in symptoms. Because LABA and LAMA act via different mechanisms of action, when administered in combination they can exert additional effects, thus optimizing (i.e. maximizing) sustained bronchodilation in COPD patients with severe airflow limitation, who cannot benefit (or can get only partial benefit) by therapy with a single bronchodilator. Recently, a fixed combination of ultra LABA/LAMA (indacaterol/glycopyrronium) has shown that it is possible to get a stable and persistent bronchodilation, which can help in avoiding undesirable fluctuations of bronchial calibre. PMID:25364503

Nardini, Stefano; Camiciottoli, Gianna; Locicero, Salvatore; Maselli, Rosario; Pasqua, Franco; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Pela, Riccardo; Pesci, Alberto; Sebastiani, Alfredo; Vatrella, Alessandro



Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.



Decentralized Utility Maximization for Adaptive Management of Shared Resource Pools  

E-print Network

Scholarships example on average or worst-case scenarios, are not suitable [5]. It is likely that resources this kind of behaviour [6], since they do not distinguish between desirable and undesirable allocations to be not very scalable and suffer from fault-tolerance issues, i.e., crash of the centralizer. Some distributed

Dobson, Simon


Unified Utility Maximization Framework for Resource Selection Language Technology Inst.  

E-print Network

. School of Compute Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Jamie Callan Language Technology Inst. School of Compute Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 callan

Callan, Jamie


A collision detection approach for maximizing the material utilization  

E-print Network

Sep 16, 2014 ... Two-dimensional cutting and packing problems frequently occur in ... Concerning the efficiency of the evaluation of s? we want to apply methods from .... For studying continuity of s?(x) we need some mathematical tools for ...



Heterogeneity in expected longevities.  


We develop a new methodology to compute differences in the expected longevity of individuals of a given cohort who are in different socioeconomic groups at a certain age. We address the two main problems associated with the standard use of life expectancy: (1) that people's socioeconomic characteristics change, and (2) that mortality has decreased over time. Our methodology uncovers substantial heterogeneity in expected longevities, yet much less heterogeneity than what arises from the naive application of life expectancy formulae. We decompose the longevity differences into differences in health at age 50, differences in the evolution of health with age, and differences in mortality conditional on health. Remarkably, education, wealth, and income are health-protecting but have very little impact on two-year mortality rates conditional on health. Married people and nonsmokers, however, benefit directly in their immediate mortality. Finally, we document an increasing time trend of the socioeconomic gradient of longevity in the period 1992-2008, and we predict an increase in the socioeconomic gradient of mortality rates for the coming years. PMID:25391225

Pijoan-Mas, Josep; Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor



It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.



Parenting with High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake



Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

Devine, Kelley


Maintaining High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry



Longevity and life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in life expectancy at all ages during the last two centuries is in need of a quantitative model capable of resuming the whole process under a single concept and simple mathematics. The basic hypothesis was that through improved hygiene, medicine, and life-style, the stumbling blocks to the full expression of longevity were progressively removed. The mathematics of learning

Cesare Marchetti



Constrained expectation-maximization (EM), dynamic analysis, linear quadratic tracking, and nonlinear constrained expectation-maximation (EM) for the analysis of genetic regulatory networks and signal transduction networks  

E-print Network

Despite the immense progress made by molecular biology in cataloging andcharacterizing molecular elements of life and the success in genome sequencing, therehave not been comparable advances in the functional study of complex phenotypes...

Xiong, Hao



When Does Reward Maximization Lead to Matching Law?  

PubMed Central

What kind of strategies subjects follow in various behavioral circumstances has been a central issue in decision making. In particular, which behavioral strategy, maximizing or matching, is more fundamental to animal's decision behavior has been a matter of debate. Here, we prove that any algorithm to achieve the stationary condition for maximizing the average reward should lead to matching when it ignores the dependence of the expected outcome on subject's past choices. We may term this strategy of partial reward maximization “matching strategy”. Then, this strategy is applied to the case where the subject's decision system updates the information for making a decision. Such information includes subject's past actions or sensory stimuli, and the internal storage of this information is often called “state variables”. We demonstrate that the matching strategy provides an easy way to maximize reward when combined with the exploration of the state variables that correctly represent the crucial information for reward maximization. Our results reveal for the first time how a strategy to achieve matching behavior is beneficial to reward maximization, achieving a novel insight into the relationship between maximizing and matching. PMID:19030101

Sakai, Yutaka; Fukai, Tomoki



Can Monkeys Make Investments Based on Maximized Pay-off?  

PubMed Central

Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana) in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible. PMID:21423777

Steelandt, Sophie; Dufour, Valérie; Broihanne, Marie-Hélène; Thierry, Bernard



Dynamic Revenue Maximization with Heterogeneous Objects: A Mechanism Design Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the revenue maximizing allocation of several heterogeneous, commonly ranked objects to impatient agents with privately known characteristics who arrive se- quentially according to a Poisson process. There is a deadline after which no more objects can be allocated. We first characterize implementable allocation schemes, and compute the expected revenue for any implementable, deterministic and Markovian allocation pol- icy.

Alex Gershkov; Benny Moldovanu



Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes  

PubMed Central

When animals have to make a number of decisions during a limited time interval, they face a fundamental problem: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible “conditions.” A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each “condition” being a “state” and the value of decision thresholds being the “actions” taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values. PMID:24904252

Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R.



Second use of transportation batteries: Maximizing the value of batteries for transportation and grid services  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to gain significant market share over the next decade. The economic viability for such vehicles is contingent upon the availability of cost-effective batteries with high power and energy density. For initial commercial success, government subsidies will be highly instrumental in allowing PHEVs to gain a foothold. However, in the long-term, for electric vehicles to be commercially viable, the economics have to be self-sustaining. Towards the end of battery life in the vehicle, the energy capacity left in the battery is not sufficient to provide the designed range for the vehicle. Typically, the automotive manufacturers indicated the need for battery replacement when the remaining energy capacity reaches 70-80%. There is still sufficient power (kW) and energy capacity (kWh) left in the battery to support various grid ancillary services such as balancing, spinning reserve, load following services. As renewable energy penetration increases, the need for such balancing services is expected to increase. This work explores optimality for the replacement of transportation batteries to be subsequently used for grid services. This analysis maximizes the value of an electric vehicle battery to be used as a transportation battery (in its first life) and then as a resource for providing grid services (in its second life). The results are presented across a range of key parameters, such as depth of discharge (DOD), number of batteries used over the life of the vehicle, battery life in vehicle, battery state of health (SOH) at end of life in vehicle and ancillary services rate. The results provide valuable insights for the automotive industry into maximizing the utility and the value of the vehicle batteries in an effort to either reduce the selling price of EVs and PHEVs or maximize the profitability of the emerging electrification of transportation.

Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW




Microsoft Academic Search

When choosing a contraception method, women base their decisions on their subjective expectations about the realizations of method-related outcomes. Examples of outcomes include getting pregnant and contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). I combine innovative data on probabilistic expectations with observed contraceptive choices to estimate a random utility model of birth control choice. The availability of expectations data is essential

Adeline Delavande



Maximize x(a - x)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

Lange, L. H.




Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in unproductive government spending trigger substitution effects—both inter- and intra-temporal—and a wealth effect. The ultimate impacts on the economy hinge on current and expected monetary and fiscal policy behavior. Studies that impose active monetary policy and passive fiscal policy typically find that government consumption crowds out private consumption: higher future taxes create a strong negative wealth effect, while the




Maximizing efficiency of solar-powered systems by load matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar power is an important source of renewable energy for many low-power systems. Matching the power consumption level with the supply level can make a great difference in the efficiency of power utilization. This paper proposes a source-tracking power management strategy that maximizes the panel's total energy output under a given solar profile by load matching. The power efficiency was

Dexin Li; Pai H. Chou



Using Debate to Maximize Learning Potential: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a review of the literature, an educational case study is provided for the benefit of faculty preparing college courses. In particular, we provide a transcribed debate utilized in a General Psychology course as a best practice example of how to craft a debate which maximizes student learning. The work is presented as a model for the…

Firmin, Michael W.; Vaughn, Aaron; Dye, Amanda



Maximizing TDRS Command Load Lifetime  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GNC software onboard ISS utilizes TORS command loads, and a simplistic model of TORS orbital motion to generate onboard TORS state vectors. Each TORS command load contains five "invariant" orbital elements which serve as inputs to the onboard propagation algorithm. These elements include semi-major axis, inclination, time of last ascending node crossing, right ascension of ascending node, and mean motion. Running parallel to the onboard software is the TORS Command Builder Tool application, located in the JSC Mission Control Center. The TORS Command Builder Tool is responsible for building the TORS command loads using a ground TORS state vector, mirroring the onboard propagation algorithm, and assessing the fidelity of current TORS command loads onboard ISS. The tool works by extracting a ground state vector at a given time from a current TORS ephemeris, and then calculating the corresponding "onboard" TORS state vector at the same time using the current onboard TORS command load. The tool then performs a comparison between these two vectors and displays the relative differences in the command builder tool GUI. If the RSS position difference between these two vectors exceeds the tolerable lim its, a new command load is built using the ground state vector and uplinked to ISS. A command load's lifetime is therefore defined as the time from when a command load is built to the time the RSS position difference exceeds the tolerable limit. From the outset of TORS command load operations (STS-98), command load lifetime was limited to approximately one week due to the simplicity of both the onboard propagation algorithm, and the algorithm used by the command builder tool to generate the invariant orbital elements. It was soon desired to extend command load lifetime in order to minimize potential risk due to frequent ISS commanding. Initial studies indicated that command load lifetime was most sensitive to changes in mean motion. Finding a suitable value for mean motion was therefore the key to achieving this goal. This goal was eventually realized through development of an Excel spreadsheet tool called EMMIE (Excel Mean Motion Interactive Estimation). EMMIE utilizes ground ephemeris nodal data to perform a least-squares fit to inferred mean anomaly as a function of time, thus generating an initial estimate for mean motion. This mean motion in turn drives a plot of estimated downtrack position difference versus time. The user can then manually iterate the mean motion, and determine an optimal value that will maximize command load lifetime. Once this optimal value is determined, the mean motion initially calculated by the command builder tool is overwritten with the new optimal value, and the command load is built for uplink to ISS. EMMIE also provides the capability for command load lifetime to be tracked through multiple TORS ephemeris updates. Using EMMIE, TORS command load lifetimes of approximately 30 days have been achieved.

Brown, Aaron J.



Sequential Decisions A Basic Theorem of (Bayesian) Expected Utility Theory  

E-print Network

O 21 O 22 O 2j O 2n O m1 O m2 O mj O mn di(sj) = outcome oij. What are "outcomes"? That depends upon preference j P(sj)U(o1j) j P(sj)U(o2j), for one subjective) Dominance: d1 j) j) (j = 1, ..., n). Note well that if P(sj) P(sj | di

Ghahramani, Zoubin


A pricing scheme to maximize social welfare in communication networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we analyze switching from the current flat-rate Internet pricing to adopt usage-based pricing schemes. Even if flat rate pricing is one of the main reasons for the success of the Internet, the only way to prevent network congestion, differentiate services and maximizes social welfare is to adopt usage-based pricing schemes. Our scheme is highly related to an optimal congestion and cost-sharing pricing scheme for multiclass services applied to communication networks developed by Yezekael Hayel, Bruno Tuffin and design a pricing scheme that maximizes the social welfare which is the total gross value minus the total expected delay cost.

Estévez, J.; Xiong, H. G.; Gao, Q.; Guerrero, E.



Profit Maximization of a Power Plant Martin Kragelund, John Leth, Rafal Wisniewski, and Ulf Jonsson  

E-print Network

]. In this work, two types of power plants are considered: a hydroelectric and a thermal power plant. The mainProfit Maximization of a Power Plant Martin Kragelund, John Leth, Rafal Wisniewski, and Ulf J¨onsson Abstract-- This paper addresses the problem of profit maximization of a power plant by utilizing three

Hansen, René Rydhof


New standard exceeds expectations  

SciTech Connect

The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

Bennett, M.J. (Environmental Data Resources Inc., Southport, CT (United States))



On learning statistical mixtures maximizing the complete likelihood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical mixtures are semi-parametric models ubiquitously met in data science since they can universally model smooth densities arbitrarily closely. Finite mixtures are usually inferred from data using the celebrated Expectation-Maximization framework that locally iteratively maximizes the incomplete likelihood by assigning softly data to mixture components. In this paper, we present a novel methodology to infer mixtures by transforming the learning problem into a sequence of geometric center-based hard clustering problems that provably maximizes monotonically the complete likelihood. Our versatile method is fast and uses low memory footprint: The core inner steps can be implemented using various generalized k-means type heuristics. Thus we can leverage recent results on clustering to mixture learning. In particular, for mixtures of singly-parametric distributions including for example the Rayleigh, Weibull, or Poisson distributions, we show how to use dynamic programming to solve exactly the inner geometric clustering problems. We discuss on several extensions of the methodology.

Nielsen, Frank



Maximizing algebraic connectivity in air transportation networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In air transportation networks the robustness of a network regarding node and link failures is a key factor for its design. An experiment based on the real air transportation network is performed to show that the algebraic connectivity is a good measure for network robustness. Three optimization problems of algebraic connectivity maximization are then formulated in order to find the most robust network design under different constraints. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem with flight routes addition or deletion is first formulated. Three methods to optimize and analyze the network algebraic connectivity are proposed. The Modified Greedy Perturbation Algorithm (MGP) provides a sub-optimal solution in a fast iterative manner. The Weighted Tabu Search (WTS) is designed to offer a near optimal solution with longer running time. The relaxed semi-definite programming (SDP) is used to set a performance upper bound and three rounding techniques are discussed to find the feasible solution. The simulation results present the trade-off among the three methods. The case study on two air transportation networks of Virgin America and Southwest Airlines show that the developed methods can be applied in real world large scale networks. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem is extended by adding the leg number constraint, which considers the traveler's tolerance for the total connecting stops. The Binary Semi-Definite Programming (BSDP) with cutting plane method provides the optimal solution. The tabu search and 2-opt search heuristics can find the optimal solution in small scale networks and the near optimal solution in large scale networks. The third algebraic connectivity maximization problem with operating cost constraint is formulated. When the total operating cost budget is given, the number of the edges to be added is not fixed. Each edge weight needs to be calculated instead of being pre-determined. It is illustrated that the edge addition and the weight assignment can not be studied separately for the problem with operating cost constraint. Therefore a relaxed SDP method with golden section search is developed to solve both at the same time. The cluster decomposition is utilized to solve large scale networks.

Wei, Peng



E-print Network


Sekhon, Jasjeet S.


Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus



Time-based reward maximization  

PubMed Central

Humans and animals time intervals from seconds to minutes with high accuracy but limited precision. Consequently, time-based decisions are inevitably subjected to our endogenous timing uncertainty, and thus require temporal risk assessment. In this study, we tested temporal risk assessment ability of humans when participants had to withhold each subsequent response for a minimum duration to earn reward and each response reset the trial time. Premature responses were not penalized in Experiment 1 but were penalized in Experiment 2. Participants tried to maximize reward within a fixed session time (over eight sessions) by pressing a key. No instructions were provided regarding the task rules/parameters. We evaluated empirical performance within the framework of optimality that was based on the level of endogenous timing uncertainty and the payoff structure. Participants nearly tracked the optimal target inter-response times (IRTs) that changed as a function of the level of timing uncertainty and maximized the reward rate in both experiments. Acquisition of optimal target IRT was rapid and abrupt without any further improvement or worsening. These results constitute an example of optimal temporal risk assessment performance in a task that required finding the optimal trade-off between the ‘speed’ (timing) and ‘accuracy’ (reward probability) of timed responses for reward maximization. PMID:24446495

Çavdaro?lu, Bilgehan; Zeki, Mustafa; Balc?, Fuat



Kidney Failure: What to Expect  


... Topics and Titles : Kidney Failure: What to Expect Kidney Failure: What to Expect On this page: How ... through Research For More Information Acknowledgments How does kidney failure affect a person’s health? Kidney failure can ...


FastStats: Life Expectancy  


... data Deaths and mortality How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010? Life expectancy at age 25, by sex and education level, Health, United States, 2011, figure ...


Educational Expectations and Attainment. NBER Working Paper No. 15683  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the role of educational expectations in the educational attainment process. We utilize data from a variety of datasets to document and analyze the trends in educational expectations between the mid-1970s and the early 2000s. We focus on differences across racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups and examine how young people…

Jacob, Brian A.; Wilder, Tamara



AREM: aligning short reads from ChIP-Sequencing by expectation maximization  

E-print Network

is to map short reads from high-throughput sequencing to a reference genome and identify peak regions Introduction In recent years, high-throughput sequencing coupled to chromatin immunopre- cipitation (Ch to a reference genome [6­9] and provide many or all of the potential mappings for a given sequence read. Once

Xie, Xiaohui Sunney


On the expected performance of a parallel algorithm for finding maximal independent  

E-print Network

is the LFMIS. Cook [C] showed that the problem of computing the LFMIS of a graph is complete for P and so 4 log log n T(n, p) for 1 n p 1 n where 0 hidden(n, p) = (log n) for p 1 n , where the hidden constant in (b) depends on . Proof: (a) Let G = G1 G2

Calkin, Neil J.


DNA Sequence Classification via an Expectation Maximization Algorithm and Neural Networks  

E-print Network

presents new techniques for biosequence classification, with a focus on recognizing E. Coli promoters sites in an E. Coli promoter sequence. The EM algorithm differs from previously published EM algorithms on the located binding sites, we select features in each E. Coli promoter sequence according to their information

Wang, Jason T. L.


To appear in Fluctuation and Noise Letters The Noisy Expectation-Maximization Algorithm  

E-print Network

clustering [4], [5], automated speech recognition [6], [7], medical imaging [8], [9], genome-sequencing [10 these noise benefits on EM algorithms for three data models: the Gaussian mixture model (GMM), the Cauchy to a quadratic inequality in the GMM and CMM cases. A final theorem shows that the noise benefit for independent

Kosko, Bart


Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.




Microsoft Academic Search

Some studies have examined the impact of consumers' expectations on consumption expenditure. However, none of these studies concludes a clear positive relationship between these variables. It has been argued that consumers' expectations about the economy's future should have an impact on consumers' decisions about how much to consume and how much to save. While consumers' expectations seem to be a

Shokoofeh Fazel



Multiqubit symmetric states with maximally mixed one-qubit reductions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive study of maximally entangled symmetric states of arbitrary numbers of qubits in the sense of the maximal mixedness of the one-qubit reduced density operator. A general criterion is provided to easily identify whether given symmetric states are maximally entangled in that respect or not. We show that these maximally entangled symmetric (MES) states are the only symmetric states for which the expectation value of the associated collective spin of the system vanishes, as well as in corollary the dipole moment of the Husimi function. We establish the link between this kind of maximal entanglement, the anticoherence properties of spin states, and the degree of polarization of light fields. We analyze the relationship between the MES states and the classes of states equivalent through stochastic local operations with classical communication (SLOCC). We provide a nonexistence criterion of MES states within SLOCC classes of qubit states and show in particular that the symmetric Dicke state SLOCC classes never contain such MES states, with the only exception of the balanced Dicke state class for even numbers of qubits. The 4-qubit system is analyzed exhaustively and all MES states of this system are identified and characterized. Finally the entanglement content of MES states is analyzed with respect to the geometric and barycentric measures of entanglement, as well as to the generalized N-tangle. We show that the geometric entanglement of MES states is ensured to be larger than or equal to 1/2, but also that MES states are not in general the symmetric states that maximize the investigated entanglement measures.

Baguette, D.; Bastin, T.; Martin, J.



Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization  

PubMed Central

Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold’s topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan’s presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821

Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo



Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.  


Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821

Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo



Vacuum Expectation Values of Twisted Mass Fermion Operators  

E-print Network

Using noise methods on a quenched $20^3 \\times 32$ lattice at $\\beta=6.0$, we have investigated vacuum expectation values and relative linear correlations among the various Wilson and twisted mass scalar and pseudoscalar disconnected loop operators. We show results near the maximal twist lines in $\\kappa$, $\\mu$ parameter space, either defined as the absence of parity mixing or the vanishing of the PCAC quark mass.

Abdou Abdel-Rehim; Randy Lewis; Walter Wilcox



Student Expectations of Grade Inflation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students completed evaluation-of-teaching surveys in five different courses to develop an evaluation instrument that would provide results concerning faculty performance. Two questions examined students' expectations regarding grades. Results indicated a significant degree of expected grade inflation. Large proportions of students doing…

Landrum, R. Eric



Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is any one really ready for the Spanish Inquisition? Assign studnets to participate in reading the play, The Spanish Inquisition by Monty Python. While readiang the play, display the following pictures at appropiate times. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion Confess!!! Get the Cushions!!!! Get the comfy Chair! Now you'll confess! Confess women, CONFESS!!! Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!!! ...

Mrs. Hirschi



Lighting spectrum to maximize colorfulness.  


The spectrum of modern illumination can be computationally tailored considering the visual effects of lighting. We investigated the spectral profiles of the white illumination maximizing the theoretical limits of the perceivable object colors. A large number of metamers with various degrees of smoothness were generated on and around the Planckian locus, and the volume in the CIELAB space of the optimal colors for each metamer was calculated. The optimal spectrum was found at the color temperature of around 5.7×10(3) K, had three peaks at both ends of the visible band and at around 510 nm, and was 25% better than daylight and 35% better than Thornton's prime color lamp. PMID:22297368

Masuda, Osamu; Nascimento, Sérgio M C



Network channel allocation and revenue maximization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a model that can be used to share link capacity among customers under different kind of traffic conditions. This model is suitable for different kind of networks like the 4G networks (fast wireless access to wired network) to support connections of given duration that requires a certain quality of service. We study different types of network traffic mixed in a same communication link. A single link is considered as a bottleneck and the goal is to find customer traffic profiles that maximizes the revenue of the link. Presented allocation system accepts every calls and there is not absolute blocking, but the offered data rate/user depends on the network load. Data arrival rate depends on the current link utilization, user's payment (selected CoS class) and delay. The arrival rate is (i) increasing with respect to the offered data rate, (ii) decreasing with respect to the price, (iii) decreasing with respect to the network load, and (iv) decreasing with respect to the delay. As an example, explicit formula obeying these conditions is given and analyzed.

Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki



Maximally Expressive Modeling of Operations Tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiments for the International Space Station. In these experiments, the equipment used is among the most complex hardware ever developed, the information sought is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling International Space Station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema.

Jaap, John; Richardson, Lea; Davis, Elizabeth



Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

. There is extensive solvent visible, as well as benzyl alcohol...".) 7. Include your GC-MS-3, and print and attach at and what kind of formatting expections apply. 9. Note: Keep copies of your reports and NMR's and GC

Jasperse, Craig P.


Externalities, expectations, and Pigouvian taxes  

SciTech Connect

This article derives Pigouvian-type corrective measures for reciprocal externalities when non-Nash behavior characterizes the participants. These reciprocal externalities may involve various kinds of environmental pollutants, such as acid rain. A comparison between corrective measures for Nash and non-Nash behavior demonstrates that positive conjectures, regarding the other agent's externality-generating activity, have an expectation-internalizing influence that usually reduces the required corrective measures. Negative conjectures (e.g., free-riding expectations), however, have an expectation-externalizing effect that increases the required corrective measures. The article analyzes both two-person and n-person externalities. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Cornes, R.; Sandler, T.



Expectations, Validity, and Reality in Pharmacogenetics  

PubMed Central

In this review we discuss the potential expectations, validity, predictive ability, and reality of pharmacogenetics in (i) titration of medication dose; (ii) prediction of intended (efficacy) drug response; and (iii) dose prediction of unintended (adverse) drug response. We expound on what these potential genetic predictors tell us and more importantly what they cannot tell us. Although pharmacogenetic markers have been hailed as promising tools; these proclamations are based mainly on associations rather than their evaluation as predictors. To put the expectations of the promise of pharmacogenetics in a realistic perspective we review three examples. First warfarin pharmacogenetics, wherein although the validity of the genetic variant-dose is established and there is a validity of genetic variant-hemorrhage association, the clinical utility of testing is not clear. Second, the strong and clinically relevant HLA-Stevens Johnson syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis association highlights the role of ethnicity. Third, the influence of CYP2D6 on tamoxifen efficacy, a model candidate with potential clinical utility, but unclear validity. These examples highlight both the challenges and opportunities of pharmacogenomics. First, establishing a valid association between a genetic variation and drug response; second, doing so for a clinically meaningful outcome and third, providing solid evidence or rationale for improvement in patient outcomes compared to current standard of care PMID:19995676

Limdi, NA; Veenstra, DL



Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?  

PubMed Central

Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404

Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald



Enumerating Maximal Frequent Sets Using Irredundant Dualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we give a new algorithm for enumerating all maximal frequent sets using dualization. Frequent sets in transaction\\u000a data has been used for computing association rules. Maximal frequent sets are important in representing frequent sets in a\\u000a compact form, thus many researchers have proposed algorithms for enumerating maximal frequent sets. Among these algorithms,\\u000a some researchers proposed algorithms for

Ken Satoh; Takeaki Uno



Regularity of the local fractional maximal function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies smoothing properties of the local fractional maximal operator, which is defined in a proper subdomain of the Euclidean space. We prove new pointwise estimates for the weak gradient of the maximal function, which imply norm estimates in Sobolev spaces. An unexpected feature is that these estimates contain extra terms involving spherical and fractional maximal functions. Moreover, we construct several explicit examples, which show that our results are essentially optimal. Extensions to metric measure spaces are also discussed.

Heikkinen, Toni; Kinnunen, Juha; Korvenpää, Janne; Tuominen, Heli



A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model  

SciTech Connect

We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.

Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC



Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities  

E-print Network

We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of ${\\rm SO}(4,4)$ and ${\\rm SO}(5,3)$ dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter vacuum. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the {\\bf 36} and {\\bf 36'} representations of ${\\rm SL}(8)$, we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the ${\\rm SO}(3)\\times {\\rm SO}(3)$-invariant subsectors of ${\\rm SO}(4,4)$ and ${\\rm SO}(5,3)$ gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the ${\\rm SO}(4,4)$ gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in thi...

Kodama, Hideo



Uncovering the expectancy effect: the validation of Acupuncture Expectancy Scale  

PubMed Central

Purpose Research suggests that expectancy may modulate the response to medical interventions, including acupuncture. However, the paucity of validated tools to measure expectancy limits rigorous evaluation. We sought to validate a previously developed Acupuncture Expectancy Scale (AES) as an instrument to measure patients’ expected responses to acupuncture. Methods Participants were patients with stage I to III cancers seen in outpatient medical and radiation oncology clinics. They were drawn from three study cohorts that included 404 participants. We examined the reliability, validity and responsiveness of AES. Results The scores of AES had internal consistency (Cronbach’s ? coefficient) of 0.95 and test-retest reliability of 0.62 over four weeks without acupuncture treatment. Those who had previously used acupuncture had higher AES compared to those who were acupuncture naïve (12.4 vs. 9.5, p=0.002). AES was higher in those who reported willingness to participate in an acupuncture trial compared to those who did not want to participate in an acupuncture trial (11.5 vs. 8.1, p<0.001). Those patients who enrolled in a pilot trial of acupuncture had higher AES score than the general outpatient population (13.0 vs. 9.8, p=0.02), and expectancy increased during the course of acupuncture treatment (13.0 to 16.5, p<0.017). Conclusion The AES is reliable and valid, and scores appear to increase during or after prior therapy. Incorporation of AES in clinical trials and outcome studies can evaluate the role of expectancy on acupuncture outcomes. PMID:21280459

Mao, Jun J.; Xie, Sharon X.; Bowman, Marjorie A.



[Expectations of hospital administrators about administrative functions of nurses].  


The objective of the present study was to investigate hospital administrator's expectations about the administrative role played by nurses, utilizing functions proposed by the Neoclassical Theory of Administration: planning, organization, direction, and control as theoretical references. An instrument established in TREVIZAN (1989) was applied to 11 hospital administrators. The results showed they expect the four functions to be done by nurses. Therefore, the interaction between nurses and hospital administrators is critical to improve the patient's assistance. PMID:8807979

Melo, M R; Fávero, N; Trevizan, M A; Hayashida, M



A Neuroeconomics Approach to Inferring Utility Functions in Sensorimotor Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making choices is a fundamental aspect of human life. For over a century experimental economists have characterized the decisions people make based on the concept of a utility function. This function increases with increasing desirability of the outcome, and people are assumed to make decisions so as to maximize utility. When utility depends on several variables, indifference curves arise that

Konrad P. Körding; Izumi Fukunaga; Ian S. Howard; James N. Ingram; Daniel M. Wolpert



Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 85 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

. There is extensive solvent visible, as well as benzyl alcohol...".) 7. Include your GC-MS-3, and print and attach of formatting expections apply. 9. Note: Keep three extra copies of your NMR and your GC-MS's. Pyrazolidinone 3

Jasperse, Craig P.


Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.



Moduli space metric for maximally-charged dilaton black holes  

E-print Network

The system consisting of slowly-moving, maximally charged, nonrotating dilaton black holes is investigated. We obtain the metric on the moduli space of the system in the low-velocity limit. We find that: (1) only two-body interactions exist between the extreme black holes in string theory; (2) the mutual interaction between the black holes vanishes if the dilaton can be interpreted as a Kaluza-Klein scalar; and (3) for general dilaton couplings, there exist many-body interactions among the extreme black holes. We analyze the low-energy classical scattering of the two extreme black holes in string theory by utilizing the moduli space metric.

Kiyoshi Shiraishi



Strategies to Maximize Income with Limited Water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The best economic strategy for water limited agricultural production will often be maximizing income per unit of water available. This requires information about the crop response (yield) to water applied, ways to maximize the effectiveness of rainfall and efficiency of irrigation, forecasts of fut...


Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…

Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.



Mining Maximal Frequent Itemsets in Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining streaming data brings not only unique opportunities but also new difficult challenges of online algorithm design, such as one streaming data scan, bounded memory requirement, fast processing time, and short response time. In this paper, we propose a single-pass algorithm, called DSM-MFI (Data Stream Mining for Maximal Frequent Itemsets), to mine the set of all maximal frequent itemsets (MFI)

Hua-Fu Li; Suh-Yin Lee; Man-Kwan Shan




Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of maximizing the determinant of a matrix subject to linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) arises in many fields, including computational geometry, statistics, system iden- tification, experiment design, and information and communication theory. It can also be considered as a generalization of the semidefinite programming problem. We give an overview of the applications of the determinant maximization problem, pointing out




Statistical mechanics of maximal independent sets.  


The graph theoretic concept of maximal independent set arises in several practical problems in computer science as well as in game theory. A maximal independent set is defined by the set of occupied nodes that satisfy some packing and covering constraints. It is known that finding minimum and maximum-density maximal independent sets are hard optimization problems. In this paper, we use cavity method of statistical physics and Monte Carlo simulations to study the corresponding constraint satisfaction problem on random graphs. We obtain the entropy of maximal independent sets within the replica symmetric and one-step replica symmetry breaking frameworks, shedding light on the metric structure of the landscape of solutions and suggesting a class of possible algorithms. This is of particular relevance for the application to the study of strategic interactions in social and economic networks, where maximal independent sets correspond to pure Nash equilibria of a graphical game of public goods allocation. PMID:20365147

Dall'Asta, Luca; Pin, Paolo; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl



Are One Man's Rags Another Man's Riches? Identifying Adaptive Expectations Using Panel Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the motivations frequently cited by Sen and Nussbaum for moving away from a utility metric towards a capabilities framework is a concern about adaptive preferences or conditioned expectations. If utility is related to the satisfaction of aspirations or expectations, and if these are affected by the individual's previous experience of…

Burchardt, Tania



Children's Judgments of Expected Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.



Great Expectations and New Beginnings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

Davis, Frances A.



Argumentative Men: Expectations of Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argumentativeness, an assertive style of communication, has been conceptualized as both constructive and desirable; it is linked with several managerial qualities, such as group leadership, better decision-making, and enhanced credibility. A rea sonable expectation is that supervisors would exhibit a higher level of argumenta tiveness. However, most efforts to show a direct link between argumentativeness and workplace success have led

Nancy M. Schullery



Generalized expectancies for interpersonal trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes results of a program of research on interpersonal trust, defined as belief in social communications. Construction of a scale for measuring individual differences, construct validity studies, and investigations of antecedents of trust, correlates of trust, and changes of college student trust are included. The evidence supports the hypothesis of (a) stable individual differences in a generalized expectancy for interpersonal

Julian B. Rotter



Life expectancy under random censorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with estimation of life expectancy used in survival analysis and competing risk study under the condition that the data are randomly censored by K independent censoring variables. The estimator constructed is based on a theorem due to Berman [2], and it involves an empirical distribution function which is related to the Kaplan-Meier estimate used in biometry. It

Grace Yang



Life Expectancy following Psychogeriatric Reactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To estimate life expectancy of psychogeriatric patients having participated in a reactivation program. To identify prognostic characteristics – on admission – for survival after discharge. Design: A prospective, clinical-empirical observational study. Setting: A Dutch psychiatric-skilled nursing home. Participants: Psychogeriatric patients (n = 75) suffering from very mild to moderate cognitive function disorders in conjunction with psychiatric function disorders. Intervention:

T. J. E. M. Bakker; H. J. Duivenvoorden; J. van der Lee; W. J. Schudel



Expectancy theory analysis of migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Expectancy Theory analysis was used to explain patterns of migration in Iran. Fifty-four Iranian males and females were interviewed about their perception of the probability of attaining certain life outcomes in an urban or rural environment, and the importance of each outcome. The subjects were divided into three samples: migrants to the capital city, villagers, and migrants who had

Martin M. Chemers; Roya Ayman; Carol Werner



Expectation Grammars: Leveraging High-Level Expectations for Activity Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-based recognition and prediction of a temporally ex- tended activity can benefit from a detailed description of high-level expectations about the activity. Stochastic gr am- mars allow for an efficient representation of such expecta- tions and are well-suited for the specification of temporall y well-ordered activities. In this paper, we extend stochast ic grammars by adding event parameters, state checks,

David Minnen; Irfan A. Essa; Thad Starner



Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda



Utility solar water heating workshops  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

Barrett, L.B. [Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)



Rehabilitation Professionals' Participation Intensity and Expectations of Transition Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this mixed-methods study, an on-line survey and interviews were utilized to gather data regarding the level of participation and expectations rehabilitation professionals have of teachers, youth with disabilities, parents, and themselves during the transition process. The survey response rate was 73.0% (N = 46). Six were selected for interviews…

Oertle, Kathleen Marie




Microsoft Academic Search

When choosing a contraception method, women base their decisions on their subjective expectations about the realizations of method-related outcomes. Examples of outcomes include getting pregnant and contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). I combine innovative data on probabilistic expectations with observed contraceptive choices to estimate a random utility model of birth control choice. The availability of expectations data is essential

Adeline Delavande



A Note on Maximizing the Spread of Influence in Social Networks  

E-print Network

"influential" individuals that by introducing them with a new technology, we maximize the expected number of individuals in the network, later in time, that adopt the new technology. This problem has applications can spread, or "diffuse", the new technology in the most effective way. Diffusion processes in social

Tomkins, Andrew


Sum Rate Maximization in the Noisy MIMO Interfering Broadcast Channel with Partial CSIT via  

E-print Network

channel state information is available at the transmit side (CSIT) while assuming perfect CSI and the covariance of the channel. The expected WSR is then maximized exploiting the relationship between WSR, interference alignment, deterministic annealing, Partial CSIT I. INTRODUCTION In modern wireless systems

Gesbert, David


Expectation to hydrologists on groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water demands are increasing globally since the latter half of 20th century. Especially, underground water demands have been increasing rapidly everywhere in the world. As a result, various kinds of environmental destruction were also occurred world-widely. Climate change is accelerating to increase the severe disasters and water crisis including the underground water critical situation. Thus, underground hydrologist's duty is very important, and it is expected to research and solve the above-mentioned matters for them.

Takahasi, Yutaka


Televisions, Physicians, and Life Expectancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Allan Rossman of Dickinson College, describes a dataset on life expectancies, densities of people per television set, and densities of people per physician in various countries of the world. The example addresses correlation versus causation and data transformations. The author states that "the example has proven very useful for helping students to discover the fundamental principle that correlation does not imply causation."

Rossman, Allan


Maximal rank of extremal marginal tracial states  

E-print Network

States on coupled quantum system whose restrictions to each subsystems are normalized traces are called marginal tracial states. We investigate extremal marginal tracial states and maximal rank of such states. Diagonal marginal tracial states are also considered.

Hiromichi Ohno



Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation  

E-print Network

We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively.

Ming Li; Shao-Ming Fei; Xianqing Li-Jost



Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe sought to determine a generalized equation for predicting maximal heart rate (HRmax) in healthy adults.BACKGROUNDThe age-predicted HRmax equation (i.e., 220 ? age) is commonly used as a basis for prescribing exercise programs, as a criterion for achieving maximal exertion and as a clinical guide during diagnostic exercise testing. Despite its importance and widespread use, the validity of the HRmax

Hirofumi Tanaka; Kevin D Monahan; Douglas R Seals



Maximally Supersymmetric String Theories in D<10  

E-print Network

The existence of maximally supersymmetric solutions to heterotic string theory that are not toroidal compactifications of the ten-dimensional superstring is established. We construct an exact fermionic realization of an N=1 supersymmetric string theory in D=8 with non-simply-laced gauge group Sp(20). Toroidal compactification to six and four dimensions gives maximally extended supersymmetric theories with reduced rank (4,12) and (6,14) respectively.

Shyamoli Chaudhuri; G. Hockney; Joseph D. Lykken



Some properties of maximally entangled ELW game  

E-print Network

The Eisert et al. maximally entangled quantum game is studied within the framework of (elementary) group theory. It is shown that the game can be described in terms of real Hilbert space of states. It is also shown that the crucial properties of the maximally entangled case, like quaternionic structure and the existence, to any given strategy, the corresponding counterstrategy, result from the existence of large stability subgroup of initial state of the game.

Katarzyna Bolonek-Lason; Piotr Kosinski



Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states  

SciTech Connect

We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n<=7.

Facchi, Paolo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy, EU (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Lupo, Cosmo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)



Utility-Based Power Control (UBPC) in Cellular Wireless Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed power control algorithms for systems with hardSIR constraints may diverge when infeasibility arises. In this paper, wepresent a power control framework called utility-based power control(UBPC) by reformulating the problem using a softened SIR requirement(utility) and adding a penalty on power consumption (cost). Under thisframework, the goal is to maximize the net utility, defined as utility minuscost. Although UBPC is

Mingbo Xiao; Ness B. Shroff; Edwin K. P. Chong




E-print Network

SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR MAXIMIZING LIFETIME PER UNIT COST IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Yunxia Chen in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Analyzing the lifetime per unit cost of a linear WSN, we find that deploying of sensors deployed in the network, can be used to measure the utilization efficiency of sensors

Chuah, Chen-Nee


A Prior-Free Revenue Maximizing Auction For Secondary Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

A Prior-Free Revenue Maximizing Auction For Secondary Spectrum Access Ajay Gopinathan, Zongpeng Li--Dynamic spectrum allocation has proven promising for mitigating the spectrum scarcity problem. In this model, primary users lease chunks of under-utilized spectrum to sec- ondary users, on a short-term basis. Primary

Li, Zongpeng


Maximal frequent itemset generation using segmentation approach  

E-print Network

Finding frequent itemsets in a data source is a fundamental operation behind Association Rule Mining. Generally, many algorithms use either the bottom-up or top-down approaches for finding these frequent itemsets. When the length of frequent itemsets to be found is large, the traditional algorithms find all the frequent itemsets from 1-length to n-length, which is a difficult process. This problem can be solved by mining only the Maximal Frequent Itemsets (MFS). Maximal Frequent Itemsets are frequent itemsets which have no proper frequent superset. Thus, the generation of only maximal frequent itemsets reduces the number of itemsets and also time needed for the generation of all frequent itemsets as each maximal itemset of length m implies the presence of 2m-2 frequent itemsets. Furthermore, mining only maximal frequent itemset is sufficient in many data mining applications like minimal key discovery and theory extraction. In this paper, we suggest a novel method for finding the maximal frequent itemset from ...

Rajalakshmi, M; Nedunchezhian, Dr R



Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.



Maximizing Versus Satisficing: Happiness Is a Matter of Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can people feel worse off as the options they face increase? The present studies suggest that some people—maximizers—can. Study 1 reported a Maximization Scale, which measures individual differences in desire to maximize. Seven samples revealed negative correlations between maximization and happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and positive correlations between maximization and depression, perfectionism, and regret. Study 2 found maximizers

Barry Schwartz; Andrew Ward; John Monterosso; Sonja Lyubomirsky; Katherine White; Darrin R. Lehman



Life expectancy following orbital exenteration.  


Orbital exenteration is a physically debilitating procedure that may be a necessity in the management of orbital malignancy. It requires a sensitive multidisciplinary approach, both preoperatively and postoperatively. Providing life expectancy information for patients during preoperative counselling is pertinent to informed consent and in addressing patients' expectations. A retrospective review from one tertiary care centre was undertaken for a cohort of patients who were exenterated for orbital malignancy between 1998 and 2010. The cases were identified using an International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10)-derived database and were analysed using Prism statistical software (V.5.04). Cause of death was ascertained by liaising with the general practitioner and the National Registrar Office for Births, Deaths, and Marriages, Southport, UK. In total, 41 men and 32 women were identified. Mean age was 72?years with 47 cases living and 26 deceased at the time of review. The overall 5-year survival rate in this study was 64%. Kaplan-Meier analysis for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) against non-BCC returned a p value of 0.0199, with an HR of 0.3927 (CI 0.1788 to 0.8626). Kaplan-Meier analysis for cleared against non-cleared margins returned a p value of 0.2890, with an HR of 0.6571(CI 0.3024 to 1.428). Our results represent the highest 5-year survival data to date. However, the overall prognosis for patients who undergo orbital exenteration for malignancy remains poor. We hypothesise that the causes are multi-factorial. We recommend a multidisciplinary approach to the care of these patients, involving head and neck teams, oncology and other appropriate specialties, to optimise outcomes for this vulnerable patient group. PMID:24879806

Wong, James Chiun Lon; Thampy, Reshma; Cook, Anne



Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy  

PubMed Central

Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth



Resources and energetics determined dinosaur maximal size  

PubMed Central

Some dinosaurs reached masses that were ?8 times those of the largest, ecologically equivalent terrestrial mammals. The factors most responsible for setting the maximal body size of vertebrates are resource quality and quantity, as modified by the mobility of the consumer, and the vertebrate's rate of energy expenditure. If the food intake of the largest herbivorous mammals defines the maximal rate at which plant resources can be consumed in terrestrial environments and if that limit applied to dinosaurs, then the large size of sauropods occurred because they expended energy in the field at rates extrapolated from those of varanid lizards, which are ?22% of the rates in mammals and 3.6 times the rates of other lizards of equal size. Of 2 species having the same energy income, the species that uses the most energy for mass-independent maintenance of necessity has a smaller size. The larger mass found in some marine mammals reflects a greater resource abundance in marine environments. The presumptively low energy expenditures of dinosaurs potentially permitted Mesozoic communities to support dinosaur biomasses that were up to 5 times those found in mammalian herbivores in Africa today. The maximal size of predatory theropods was ?8 tons, which if it reflected the maximal capacity to consume vertebrates in terrestrial environments, corresponds in predatory mammals to a maximal mass less than a ton, which is what is observed. Some coelurosaurs may have evolved endothermy in association with the evolution of feathered insulation and a small mass. PMID:19581600

McNab, Brian K.



Using return on investment to maximize conservation effectiveness in Argentine grasslands  

PubMed Central

The rapid global loss of natural habitats and biodiversity, and limited resources, place a premium on maximizing the expected benefits of conservation actions. The scarcity of information on the fine-grained distribution of species of conservation concern, on risks of loss, and on costs of conservation actions, especially in developing countries, makes efficient conservation difficult. The distribution of ecosystem types (unique ecological communities) is typically better known than species and arguably better represents the entirety of biodiversity than do well-known taxa, so we use conserving the diversity of ecosystem types as our conservation goal. We define conservation benefit to include risk of conversion, spatial effects that reward clumping of habitat, and diminishing returns to investment in any one ecosystem type. Using Argentine grasslands as an example, we compare three strategies: protecting the cheapest land (“minimize cost”), maximizing conservation benefit regardless of cost (“maximize benefit”), and maximizing conservation benefit per dollar (“return on investment”). We first show that the widely endorsed goal of saving some percentage (typically 10%) of a country or habitat type, although it may inspire conservation, is a poor operational goal. It either leads to the accumulation of areas with low conservation benefit or requires infeasibly large sums of money, and it distracts from the real problem: maximizing conservation benefit given limited resources. Second, given realistic budgets, return on investment is superior to the other conservation strategies. Surprisingly, however, over a wide range of budgets, minimizing cost provides more conservation benefit than does the maximize-benefit strategy. PMID:21098281

Murdoch, William; Ranganathan, Jai; Polasky, Stephen; Regetz, James



Geometrically Underpinned Maximally Entangled States Bases  

E-print Network

Finite geometry is used to underpin ?nite, two d-dimensional particles Hilbert space, d=prime 6= 2. A central role is allotted to states with mutual unbiased bases (MUB) labeling. Dual a?ne plane geometry (DAPG) points underpin single particle, MUB labeled, product states. The DAPG lines are shown to underpin maximally entangled states which form an orthonormal basis spanning the space. The relevance of mutually unbiased collective coordinates bases (MUCB) for dealing with maximally entangled states is discussed and shown to provide an economic alternative mode of study. These maximally entangled, geometrically reasoned states, provide the resource to a transparent solution to what may be termed tracking of the Mean King Problem (MKP): here Alice prepares a state measured by King along some orientation which Alice succeed in identifying with a subsequent measurement. Brief expositions of the topics considered: MUB, DAPG, MUCB and the MKP are included, rendering the paper self contained.

M. Revzen



An information maximization model of eye movements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra



On the Relationship between Maximal Reliability and Maximal Validity of Linear Composites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A linear combination of a set of measures is often sought as an overall score summarizing subject performance. The weights in this composite can be selected to maximize its reliability or to maximize its validity, and the optimal choice of weights is in general not the same for these two optimality criteria. We explore several relationships…

Penev, Spiridon; Raykov, Tenko



Maximally discordant separable two-qubit states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent article, Gharibian (Phys Rev A 86:042106 2012) has conjectured that no two-qubit separable state of rank greater than two could be maximally non-classical (defined to be those which have normalized geometric discord 1/4) and asked for an analytic proof. In this work, we prove analytically that among the subclass of states, there is a unique (up to local unitary equivalence) maximal separable state of rank two. For the general case, we derive some necessary conditions.

Rana, Swapan; Parashar, Preeti



Maximizing System Throughput by Cooperative Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-print Network

Cognitive Radio Networks allow unlicensed users to opportunistically access the licensed spectrum without causing disruptive interference to the primary users (PUs). One of the main challenges in CRNs is the ability to detect PU transmissions. Recent works have suggested the use of secondary user (SU) cooperation over individual sensing to improve sensing accuracy. In this paper, we consider a CRN consisting of a single PU and multiple SUs to study the problem of maximizing the total expected system throughput. We propose a Bayesian decision rule based algorithm to solve the problem optimally with a constant time complexity. To prioritize PU transmissions, we re-formulate the throughput maximization problem by adding a constraint on the PU throughput. The constrained optimization problem is shown to be NP-hard and solved via a greedy algorithm with pseudo-polynomial time complexity that achieves strictly greater than 1/2 of the optimal solution. We also investigate the case for which a constraint is put on th...

Li, Shuang; Ekici, Eylem; Shroff, Ness



M-Theory and Maximally Supersymmetric Gauge Theories  

E-print Network

In this informal review for non-specalists we discuss the construction of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories that arise on the worldvolumes branes in String Theory and M-Theory. Particular focus is made on the relatively recent construction of M2-brane worldvolume theories. In a formal sense, the existence of these quantum field theories can be viewed as predictions of M-Theory. Their construction is therefore a reinforcement of the ideas underlying String Theory and M-Theory. We also briefly discuss the six-dimensional conformal field theory that is expected to arise on M5-branes. The construction of this theory is not only an important open problem for M-Theory but also a significant challenge to our current understanding of quantum field theory more generally.

Neil Lambert



Low-energy restoration of parity and maximal symmetry  

SciTech Connect

The maximal symmetry of fermions of one generation, SU(16), which includes the left-right-symmetric Pati-Salam group, SU(4)/sub c/ x SU(2) /sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/, as a subgroup, allows the possibility of a low-energy (M/sub R/approx.100 GeV) breaking of the left-right symmetry. It is known that such a low-energy restoration of parity can be consistent with weak-interaction phenomenology. We examine different chains of descent of SU(16) that admit a low value of M/sub R/ and determine the other intermediate symmetry-breaking mass scales associated with each of these chains. These additional mass scales provide an alternative to the ''great desert'' expected in some grand unifying models. The contributions of the Higgs fields in the renormalization-group equations are retained and are found to be important.

Raychaudhuri, A.; Sarkar, U.



PRODCOST: an electric utility generation simulation code  

SciTech Connect

The PRODCOST computer code simulates the operation of an electric utility generation system. Through a probabilistic simulation the expected energy production, fuel consumption, and cost of operation for each plant are determined. Total system fuel consumption, energy generation by type, total generation costs, as well as system loss of load probability and expected unserved energy are also calculated.

Hudson, II, C. R.; Reynolds, T. M.; Smolen, G. R.



Maximize crude unit No. 2 oil yield design and operation  

SciTech Connect

Recent refinery industry trends are to optimize crude unit operation with advanced control technology such as real-time-optimization. One potential crude unit optimization objective could be maximizing diesel product yields and minimizing the quantity of diesel boiling range material in the FCC feed. Appropriately designed advanced process control technology for a crude unit can be used to fully utilize existing equipment performance. The advanced process control scheme (or operator) can adjust the appropriate process variables to optimize the diesel yields against the current unit limitations. Process and equipment design changes may nevertheless be required to fully implement the diesel product optimization, depending on the crude unit equipment limitations. Therefore, crude unit process variable optimization and potential equipment design issues should be carefully addressed. While each refinery crude unit`s design, operation and equipment constraints are different, the fundamental operating variables and the process and equipment design issues are common to all crude units.

Sloley, A.W. [Process Consulting Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)




E-print Network

Submodular function maximization is a central problem in combinatorial optimization, ..... the lemma, we state a useful exchange property of matroids (see [44]). .... The above procedure is well-defined and terminates in a finite number of steps. ...... The enumeration algorithm for heavy elements produces a solution of value.



Maximizing the Spectacle of Water Fountains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a given initial speed of water from a spigot or jet, what angle of the jet will maximize the visual impact of the water spray in the fountain? This paper focuses on fountains whose spigots are arranged in circular fashion, and couches the measurement of the visual impact in terms of the surface area and the volume under the fountain's natural…

Simoson, Andrew J.



Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

Ashbaugh, Henry S.



Maximal Controllability for Boundary Control Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a semigroup approach to abstract boundary control problems which allows to characterize the space of all approximately\\u000a reachable states. We then introduce the “maximal reachability space” giving an upper bound for this space. The abstract results\\u000a are applied to the flow in a network controlled in a single vertex.

Klaus-Jochen Engel; Bernd Klöss; Rainer Nagel; Eszter Sikolya



Faculty Salaries and the Maximization of Prestige  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the lens of the emerging economic theory of higher education, we look at the relationship between salary and prestige. Starting from the premise that academic institutions seek to maximize prestige, we hypothesize that monetary rewards are higher for faculty activities that confer prestige. We use data from the 1999 National Study of…

Melguizo, Tatiana; Strober, Myra H.



Maximally entangled mixed states made easy  

E-print Network

We show that it is possible to achieve maximally entangled mixed states of two qubits from the singlet state via the action of local non-trace-preserving quantum channels. Moreover, we present a simple, feasible linear optical implementation of one of such channels.

A. Aiello; G. Puentes; D. Voigt; J. P. Woerdman



How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…

Davis, Lewis



Maximal Controllability for Boundary Control Problems  

SciTech Connect

We develop a semigroup approach to abstract boundary control problems which allows to characterize the space of all approximately reachable states. We then introduce the 'maximal reachability space' giving an upper bound for this space. The abstract results are applied to the flow in a network controlled in a single vertex.

Engel, Klaus-Jochen, E-mail: engel@ing.univaq.i [University of L'Aquila, Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics (Italy); Kramar Fijavz, Marjeta, E-mail: marjeta.kramar@fgg.uni-lj.s [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering (Slovenia); Kloess, Bernd, E-mail:; Nagel, Rainer, E-mail: rana@fa.uni-tuebingen.d [University of Tuebingen, Mathematics Institute (Germany); Sikolya, Eszter, E-mail: seszter@cs.elte.h [Eoetvoes Lorand University Budapest, Department of Applied Analysis (Hungary)



Maximizing Throughput for Optical Burst Switching Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract - A key problem in Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is optical circuit switching and optical packet switching was pro to schedule as many bursts as possible on wavelength channels so posed in [1] [2], and has received increasing amount of attention that the throughput is maximized and the burst loss is minimized from both academia and industry worldwide [3

Jikai Li; Chunming Qiao; Jinhui Xu; Dahai Xu



The Winning Edge: Maximizing Success in College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers college students ideas on how to maximize their success in college by examining the personal management techniques a student needs to succeed. Chapters are as follows: "Getting and Staying Motivated"; "Setting Goals and Tapping Your Resources"; "Conquering Time"; "Think Yourself to College Success"; "Understanding and Remembering…

Schmitt, David E.


Maximizing Retention in Engineering/Engineering Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To maximize retention and learning, the disconnect students experience among key academic disciplines must be bridged. To minimize the dropout rate, this bridge must be built as soon as possible after a student chooses an engineering or engineering technology major. Target Audience: 2-4 year College Faculty/Administrators

Craft, Elaine L.



E-print Network

THE MAXIMAL COVERING LOCATION PROBLEM RICHARD CHURCH CHARLES ReVELLE The Johns Hopkins University, "Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the U.S. with Reference to their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions," New York, 1956. 3 H. Huntley, "Emergency Health Services for the Nation," Public

California at Santa Barbara, University of


Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar-  

E-print Network

Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar- beet yields while minimizing disease- cially with furrow irrigation. Root diseases such as rhizomania and rhizoctonia root and crown rots will be reduced. Unnecessary irrigations can be reduced if grow- ers use information on water status at deeper

O'Laughlin, Jay


Supervised Classification of Baboon Vocalizations Maxime Janvier  

E-print Network

Supervised Classification of Baboon Vocalizations Maxime Janvier , Radu Horaud INRIA Grenoble Rh classification of baboon vocalizations. We consid- ered six classes of sounds emitted by Papio papio baboons supervised analyses for the classification of baboon vocalizations, which, to our knowledge, is the first

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


On a Profit Maximizing Location Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss a locational model with a profit-maximizing objective. The model can be illustrated by the following situation. There is a set of potential customers in a given region. A firm enters the market and wants to sell a certain product to this set of customers. The location and demand of each potential customer are assumed to

Shuzhong Zhang



Maximally informative foraging by Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Animals have evolved intricate search strategies to find new sources of food. Here, we analyze a complex food seeking behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to derive a general theory describing different searches. We show that C. elegans, like many other animals, uses a multi-stage search for food, where they initially explore a small area intensively (‘local search’) before switching to explore a much larger area (‘global search’). We demonstrate that these search strategies as well as the transition between them can be quantitatively explained by a maximally informative search strategy, where the searcher seeks to continuously maximize information about the target. Although performing maximally informative search is computationally demanding, we show that a drift-diffusion model can approximate it successfully with just three neurons. Our study reveals how the maximally informative search strategy can be implemented and adopted to different search conditions. DOI: PMID:25490069

Calhoun, Adam J; Chalasani, Sreekanth H; Sharpee, Tatyana O



Maximally smooth image recovery in transform coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider the reconstruction of images from partial coefficients in block transform coders and its application to packet loss recovery in image transmission over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks. The proposed algorithm uses the smoothness property of common image signals and produces a maximally smooth image among all those with the same coefficients and boundary conditions. It recovers each

Yao Wang; Qin-Fan Zhu; Leonard Shaw



The Wave Function with Maximal Backo w  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a 1D free wave packet, with its momentum distribution being localized on the positive half line, position probability may move to the left during some intermediate stage of its time evolution. Bracken and Melloy have observed that the maximal amount, by which the left half space position probability can increase, is a dimensionless number. This number is independent from

M. Penz; G. Gr; P. Wagner


The expectations and preferences for counseling in groups underutilizing mental health services  

E-print Network

for counseling. Additionally, some differences were noted regarding expectations for counseling and participants' socioeconomic level. Results are interpreted in terms of literature demonstrating the patterns of utilization of mental health services of each...

Jacobs, Robert Raymond



Combustion Research Aboard the ISS Utilizing the Combustion Integrated Rack and Microgravity Science Glovebox  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Physical Sciences Research Program of NASA sponsors a broad suite of peer-reviewed research investigating fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics. This research is performed through both ground-based and on-orbit research capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) and two facilities, the Combustion Integrated Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox, are key elements in the execution of microgravity combustion flight research planned for the foreseeable future. This paper reviews the Microgravity Combustion Science research planned for the International Space Station implemented from 2003 through 2012. Examples of selected research topics, expected outcomes, and potential benefits will be provided. This paper also summarizes a multi-user hardware development approach, recapping the progress made in preparing these research hardware systems. Within the description of this approach, an operational strategy is presented that illustrates how utilization of constrained ISS resources may be maximized dynamically to increase science through design decisions made during hardware development.

Sutliff, Thomas J.; Otero, Angel M.; Urban, David L.



Maximal violation of tight Bell inequalities for maximal high-dimensional entanglement  

SciTech Connect

We propose a Bell inequality for high-dimensional bipartite systems obtained by binning local measurement outcomes and show that it is tight. We find a binning method for even d-dimensional measurement outcomes for which this Bell inequality is maximally violated by maximally entangled states. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Bell inequality is applicable to continuous variable systems and yields strong violations for two-mode squeezed states.

Lee, Seung-Woo [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Jaksch, Dieter [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Keble College, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PG (United Kingdom)



Nonlinear trading models through Sharpe Ratio maximization.  


While many trading strategies are based on price prediction, traders in financial markets are typically interested in optimizing risk-adjusted performance such as the Sharpe Ratio, rather than the price predictions themselves. This paper introduces an approach which generates a nonlinear strategy that explicitly maximizes the Sharpe Ratio. It is expressed as a neural network model whose output is the position size between a risky and a risk-free asset. The iterative parameter update rules are derived and compared to alternative approaches. The resulting trading strategy is evaluated and analyzed on both computer-generated data and real world data (DAX, the daily German equity index). Trading based on Sharpe Ratio maximization compares favorably to both profit optimization and probability matching (through cross-entropy optimization). The results show that the goal of optimizing out-of-sample risk-adjusted profit can indeed be achieved with this nonlinear approach. PMID:9730018

Choey, M; Weigend, A S



Maximally discordant mixed states of two qubits  

SciTech Connect

We study the relative strength of classical and quantum correlations, as measured by discord, for two-qubit states. Quantum correlations appear only in the presence of classical correlations, while the reverse is not always true. We identify the family of states that maximize the discord for a given value of the classical correlations and show that the largest attainable discord for mixed states is greater than for pure states. The difference between discord and entanglement is emphasized by the remarkable fact that these states do not maximize entanglement and are, in some cases, even separable. Finally, by random generation of density matrices uniformly distributed over the whole Hilbert space, we quantify the frequency of the appearance of quantum and classical correlations for different ranks.

Galve, Fernando; Giorgi, Gian Luca; Zambrini, Roberta [IFISC (UIB-CSIC), Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, UIB Campus, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)



Maximally entangled states of four nonbinary particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems of four nonbinary particles, with each particle having d ?3 internal states, exhibit maximally entangled states that are inaccessible to four qubits. This breaks the pattern of two- and three-particle systems, in which the existing graph states are equally accessible to binary and nonbinary systems alike. We compare the entanglement properties of these special states (called P states) with those of the more familiar Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and cluster states accessible to qubits. The comparison includes familiar entanglement measures, the "steering" of states by projective measurements, and the probability that two such measurements, chosen at random, leave the remaining particles in a Bell state. These comparisons demonstrate not only that P -state entanglement is stronger than the other types but also that it is maximal in a well-defined sense. We prove that GHZ, cluster, and P states represent all possible entanglement classes of four-particle graph states with prime d ?3 .

Gaeta, Mario; Klimov, Andrei; Lawrence, Jay



Nondecoupling of maximal supergravity from the superstring.  


We consider the conditions necessary for obtaining perturbative maximal supergravity in d dimensions as a decoupling limit of type II superstring theory compactified on a (10-d) torus. For dimensions d=2 and d=3, it is possible to define a limit in which the only finite-mass states are the 256 massless states of maximal supergravity. However, in dimensions d>or=4, there are infinite towers of additional massless and finite-mass states. These correspond to Kaluza-Klein charges, wound strings, Kaluza-Klein monopoles, or branes wrapping around cycles of the toroidal extra dimensions. We conclude that perturbative supergravity cannot be decoupled from string theory in dimensions>or=4. In particular, we conjecture that pure N=8 supergravity in four dimensions is in the Swampland. PMID:17678349

Green, Michael B; Ooguri, Hirosi; Schwarz, John H



Some criteria for maximal abstract monotonicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a theory of monotone operators in the framework of abstract convexity. First, we provide a surjectivity\\u000a result for a broad class of abstract monotone operators. Then, by using an additivity constraint qualification, we prove a\\u000a generalization of Fenchel’s duality theorem in the framework of abstract convexity and give some criteria for maximal abstract\\u000a monotonicity. Finally,

H. Mohebi; J.-E. Martínez-Legaz; M. Rocco



Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: A Forty Year Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpersonal expectancy effects--the unintentional expectations that experimenters, teachers, and authority figures bring to experiments, classrooms, and other situations--can wield significant influence on individuals. Some of the issues surrounding expectancy effects are detailed in this paper. The effect itself has been recreated in…

Rosenthal, Robert


Expectancy Induces Dynamic Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral studies using motor preparation paradigms have revealed that increased expectancy of a response signal shortens reaction times (RTs). Neurophysiological data suggest that in such paradigms, not only RT but also neuronal activity in the motor structures involved is modulated by expectancy of behaviorally relevant events. Here, we directly tested whether expectancy of a response signal modulates excitability of the

Gijs Van Elswijk; Bert U. Kleine; Sebastiaan Overeem; Dick F. Stegeman




Microsoft Academic Search





Postactivation Potentiation Biases Maximal Isometric Strength Assessment  

PubMed Central

Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6?±?55.7?N·m versus 248.9?±?55.1?N·m), RTD (746?±?152?N·m·s?1versus 727?±?158?N·m·s?1), and RMS (59.1?±?12.2% RMSMAX??versus 54.8?±?9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373?±?1200?ms versus 2784?±?1226?ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables. PMID:25133157

Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio



Segmentation of Brain MR Images through a Hidden Markov Random Field Model and the Expectation Maximization Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite mixture (FM) model is the most commonly used model for statistical segmentation of brain magnetic reso- nance (MR) images because of its simple mathematical form and the piecewise constant nature of ideal brain MR images. However, being a histogram-based model, the FM has an intrinsic limita- tion—no spatial information is taken into account. This causes the FM model

Yongyue Zhang; Michael Brady; Stephen M. Smith



Trend analysis of the power law process using Expectation–Maximization algorithm for data censored by inspection intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trend analysis is a common statistical method used to investigate the operation and changes of a repairable system over time. This method takes historical failure data of a system or a group of similar systems and determines whether the recurrent failures exhibit an increasing or decreasing trend. Most trend analysis methods proposed in the literature assume that the failure times

Sharareh Taghipour; Dragan Banjevic



Siting samplers to minimize expected time to detection.  


We present a probabilistic approach to designing an indoor sampler network for detecting an accidental or intentional chemical or biological release, and demonstrate it for a real building. In an earlier article, Sohn and Lorenzetti developed a proof of concept algorithm that assumed samplers could return measurements only slowly (on the order of hours). This led to optimal "detect to treat" architectures that maximize the probability of detecting a release. This article develops a more general approach and applies it to samplers that can return measurements relatively quickly (in minutes). This leads to optimal "detect to warn" architectures that minimize the expected time to detection. Using a model of a real, large, commercial building, we demonstrate the approach by optimizing networks against uncertain release locations, source terms, and sampler characteristics. Finally, we speculate on rules of thumb for general sampler placement. PMID:22551059

Walter, Travis; Lorenzetti, David M; Sohn, Michael D



Siting Samplers to Minimize Expected Time to Detection  

SciTech Connect

We present a probabilistic approach to designing an indoor sampler network for detecting an accidental or intentional chemical or biological release, and demonstrate it for a real building. In an earlier paper, Sohn and Lorenzetti(1) developed a proof of concept algorithm that assumed samplers could return measurements only slowly (on the order of hours). This led to optimal detect to treat architectures, which maximize the probability of detecting a release. This paper develops a more general approach, and applies it to samplers that can return measurements relatively quickly (in minutes). This leads to optimal detect to warn architectures, which minimize the expected time to detection. Using a model of a real, large, commercial building, we demonstrate the approach by optimizing networks against uncertain release locations, source terms, and sampler characteristics. Finally, we speculate on rules of thumb for general sampler placement.

Walter, Travis; Lorenzetti, David M.; Sohn, Michael D.




PubMed Central

SUMMARY This paper utilizes data on subjective probabilities to study the impact of the stock market crash of 2008 on households’ expectations about the returns on the stock market index. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study that was fielded in February 2008 through February 2009. The effect of the crash is identified from the date of the interview, which is shown to be exogenous to previous stock market expectations. We estimate the effect of the crash on the population average of expected returns, the population average of the uncertainty about returns (subjective standard deviation), and the cross-sectional heterogeneity in expected returns (disagreement). We show estimates from simple reduced-form regressions on probability answers as well as from a more structural model that focuses on the parameters of interest and separates survey noise from relevant heterogeneity. We find a temporary increase in the population average of expectations and uncertainty right after the crash. The effect on cross-sectional heterogeneity is more significant and longer lasting, which implies substantial long-term increase in disagreement. The increase in disagreement is larger among the stockholders, the more informed, and those with higher cognitive capacity, and disagreement co-moves with trading volume and volatility in the market. PMID:21547244




Splitting an Arbitrary Two-ubit State Via a Seven-qubit Maximally Entangled State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the usefulness of a recently introduced seven-qubit maximally entangled state by Zha et al. (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45:255-302, [10]) for quantum information splitting. It is shown that such a seven-qubit entangled state can be utilized for quantum information splitting of an arbitrary two-qubit state by performing only the Bell-state measurements.

Chen, Yan



Use of a Best Estimate Power Monitoring Tool to Maximize Power Plant Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Best Estimate Power Monitor (BEPM) is a tool that was developed to maximize nuclear power plant generation, while ensuring regulatory compliance in the face of venturi fouling, industry ultra-sonic flowmeter issues and other technical challenges. The BEPM uses ASME approved 'best estimate' methodology described in PTC 19.1-1985, 'Measurement Uncertainty', Section 3.8, 'Weighting Method'. The BEPM method utilizes many different

Dziuba; Lindsey L



Analytical Properties of Credibilistic Expectation Functions  

PubMed Central

The expectation function of fuzzy variable is an important and widely used criterion in fuzzy optimization, and sound properties on the expectation function may help in model analysis and solution algorithm design for the fuzzy optimization problems. The present paper deals with some analytical properties of credibilistic expectation functions of fuzzy variables that lie in three aspects. First, some continuity theorems on the continuity and semicontinuity conditions are proved for the expectation functions. Second, a differentiation formula of the expectation function is derived which tells that, under certain conditions, the derivative of the fuzzy expectation function with respect to the parameter equals the expectation of the derivative of the fuzzy function with respect to the parameter. Finally, a law of large numbers for fuzzy variable sequences is obtained leveraging on the Chebyshev Inequality of fuzzy variables. Some examples are provided to verify the results obtained. PMID:24723800

Wang, Bo; Watada, Junzo



A nonlinear bilevel model for analysis of electric utility demand-side planning issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of bilevel programming in the electric utility industry is presented. The model is nonlinear and is used to analyze various economic issues that affect electric utility planning. The electric utility at the upper level of the model seeks to minimize costs or maximize benefits while controlling electric rates and subsidizing energy conservation programs. Customers at the lower level

Benjamin F. Hobbs; Sushil K. Nelson



Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension  

PubMed Central

When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting



Information and Transformation at Swiss Re: Maximizing Economic Value  

E-print Network

In 2007 Swiss Re was striving to maximize economic value, a metric that would allow the company to assess its performance over time despite the volatility of the reinsurance industry. Maximizing economic value required ...

Beath, Cynthia M.



Unextendible maximally entangled bases and mutually unbiased bases  

E-print Network

We study unextendible maximally entangled basis in arbitrary bipartite spaces. A systematic way of constructing a set of $d^{2}$ orthonormal maximally entangled states in $\\mathbb{C}^{d}\\bigotimes\\mathbb{C}^{d'}(\\frac{d'}{2}bases in which all the bases are unextendible maximally entangled ones. We present two unextendible maximally entangled bases in $\\mathbb{C}^{2}\\bigotimes\\mathbb{C}^{3}$ which are mutually unbiased.

Bin Chen; Shao-Ming Fei



Simultaneous analysis and design for eigenvalue maximization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simultaneous analysis and design approach to the maximization of buckling or vibration eigenvalues is presented. Both unimodal and bimodal optimum solutions are considered. A discretization of the structure and response is used to obtain sets of nonlinear algebraic equations which are solved numerically. The formulation is applied to the solution of the optimum design of a beam-column supported by an elastic foundation for maximum buckling load. Two cases are considered: the optimum design of the column for a given foundation and the optimum design of the foundation for a given column. Results are compared to published solutions when possible.

Plaut, Raymond H.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Shin, Yung S.



Bohm's interpretation and maximally entangled states  

E-print Network

Several no-go theorems showed the incompatibility between the locality assumption and quantum correlations obtained from maximally entangled spin states. We analyze these no-go theorems in the framework of Bohm's interpretation. The mechanism by which non-local correlations appear during the results of measurements performed on distant parts of entangled systems is explicitly put into evidence in terms of Bohmian trajectories. It is shown that a GHZ like contradiction of the type+1=-1 occurs for well-chosen initial positions of the Bohmian trajectories and that it is this essential non-classical feature that makes it possible to violate the locality condition.

Thomas Durt; Yves Pierseaux



Electromagnetically induced grating with maximal atomic coherence  

SciTech Connect

We describe theoretically an atomic diffraction grating that combines an electromagnetically induced grating with a coherence grating in a double-{Lambda} atomic system. With the atom in a condition of maximal coherence between its lower levels, the combined gratings simultaneously diffract both the incident probe beam as well as the signal beam generated through four-wave mixing. A special feature of the atomic grating is that it will diffract any beam resonantly tuned to any excited state of the atom accessible by a dipole transition from its ground state.

Carvalho, Silvania A.; Araujo, Luis E. E. de [Instituto de Fisica ''Gleb Wataghin'', Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP, 13083-859 Sao Paulo (Brazil)



What Currency Do Bumble Bees Maximize?  

PubMed Central

In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency. PMID:20808437

Charlton, Nicholas L.; Houston, Alasdair I.



Maximally entangled mixed states: creation and concentration.  


Using correlated photons from parametric down-conversion, we extend the boundaries of experimentally accessible two-qubit Hilbert space. Specifically, we have created and characterized maximally entangled mixed states that lie above the Werner boundary in the linear entropy-tangle plane. In addition, we demonstrate that such states can be efficiently concentrated, simultaneously increasing both the purity and the degree of entanglement. We investigate a previously unsuspected sensitivity imbalance in common state measures, i.e., the tangle, linear entropy, and fidelity. PMID:15089612

Peters, Nicholas A; Altepeter, Joseph B; Branning, David; Jeffrey, Evan R; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Kwiat, Paul G



Coloring random graphs and maximizing local diversity.  


We study a variation of the graph coloring problem on random graphs of finite average connectivity. Given the number of colors, we aim to maximize the number of different colors at neighboring vertices (i.e., one edge distance) of any vertex. Two efficient algorithms, belief propagation and Walksat, are adapted to carry out this task. We present experimental results based on two types of random graphs for different system sizes and identify the critical value of the connectivity for the algorithms to find a perfect solution. The problem and the suggested algorithms have practical relevance since various applications, such as distributed storage, can be mapped onto this problem. PMID:17280022

Bounkong, S; van Mourik, J; Saad, D



Maximizing foodservice in an inpatient hospice setting.  


The philosophy of maximizing patient comfort and enhancing quality of life impacts on all aspects of foodservice in an inpatient hospice setting. The foodservice department's focus in the palliative care environment is to meet patients' physical, psychological, and social needs. The menu incorporates variety and comfort foods to meet the special requests of hospice patients. Food production and delivery provides for flexibility in meal preferences and meal serving times. Finally, sanitation standards and inservice training extend beyond the main foodservice operation to include the hospice "family" kitchen to protect the hospice patient from food-borne infections. PMID:7806183

Kidd, K D; Lane, M P



Documenting and explaining the common AAB pattern in music and humor: establishing and breaking expectations.  


The AAB pattern consists of two similar events followed by a third dissimilar event. The prevalence of this pattern in the aesthetic domain may be explained as violation of expectation: A minimum of two iterations is required to establish a repetitive pattern; once established, it is most efficient to promptly violate the expected continuance of the pattern to produce the maximal aesthetic effect. We demonstrate the prevalence of this pattern (in comparison to AB or AAAB) in a representative sample of a variety of musical genres and in a representative sample of repetitive genre of jokes. We also provide experimental evidence that the AAB pattern in jokes is maximally effective in producing a humor response in participants. PMID:16938077

Rozin, Paul; Rozin, Alexander; Appel, Brian; Wachtel, Charles



Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households  

PubMed Central

Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households’ expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households’ stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses. PMID:23997423

Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim



Utility power requirements for electronic data processing equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the effects of nonlinear loads on utility power along with the power quality needs of modern electronic data processing (EDP) equipment. Topics covered include the quality of utility power, power line disturbances (PLDs) and their types and frequencies of occurrence, and expectations for the future. Also discussed are the utility power needs of modern EDP

William J. Hazen



Generating all maximal efficient faces for multiple objective linear programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for generating the entire efficient set for a multiple objective linear program is developed. The method is based on two characterizations of maximal efficient faces. The first characterization is used to determine the set of maximal efficient faces incident to a given efficient vertex, and the second characterization ensures that previously generated maximal efficient faces are easily recognized

J. G. Ecker; N. S. Hegner; I. A. Kouada



Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancy–value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy–value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles



expect: Curing Those Uncontrollable Fits of Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNIX programs used to be designed so that they could be connected with pipes createdby a shell. This paradigm is insufficient when dealing with many modern programsthat demand to be used interactively.expect is a program designed to control interactive programs. expect reads a scriptthat resembles the dialogue itself but which may include multiple paths through it.Scripts include:. send\\/expect sequences -

Don Libes



Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)



Assessing Patients’ Expectations in Ambulatory Medical Practice  

PubMed Central

To compare three different approaches to the measurement of patients’ expectations for care, we conducted a randomized controlled trial. Medical outpatients (n= 318) of a small (six-physician), single-specialty (internal medicine), academically affiliated private practice in Sacramento, California, were contacted by telephone the night before a scheduled office visit and enrolled over a 5-month period in early 1994. Patients were randomly assigned to receive: (1) a self-administered, structured, previsit questionnaire combined with a postvisit questionnaire; (2) an interviewer-administered, semistructured, previsit interview combined with a postvisit questionnaire; or (3) a postvisit questionnaire only. We assessed the number and content of patients’ expectations by previsit questionnaire versus interview; the interaction between sociodemographic characteristics and survey method in predicting number of reported expectations; the effect of unfulfilled expectations elicited by questionnaire and interview on visit satisfaction; and the effect of unfulfilled expectations elicited directly and indirectly on visit satisfaction. Patients reported more expectations by structured questionnaire than semistructured interview (median 12 vs 3, p= .0001). Although there was no main effect of sociodemographic characteristics on expectations, nonwhite patients reported more expectations than white patients by questionnaire and fewer by interview. The number of interventions desired before the visit but not received (indirectly reported unfulfilled expectations) was associated with lower visit satisfaction regardless of whether a questionnaire or interview was used to elicit previsit expectations (p value for the interaction between number of expectations and survey method, > .20). Having more indirectly reported unfulfilled expectations was significantly associated with lower visit satisfaction even after controlling for the number of directly reported unfulfilled expectations (p= .021), but the incremental change in classification accuracy was small (increase in receiver-operating characteristic curve area, 3%). In conclusion, studies of patients’ expectations for care must contend with a substantial “method effect.” In this study from a single group practice, patients checked off more expectations using a structured questionnaire than they disclosed in a semistructured interview, but both formats predicted visit satisfaction. Asking patients about interventions received in relation to their previsit expectations added little to simply asking them directly about omitted care. The interaction of survey method with ethnicity and other sociodemographic characteristics requires further study. PMID:9034949

Kravitz, Richard L; Callahan, Edward J; Azari, Rahman; Antonius, Deirdre; Lewis, Charles E



Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this…

Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.



Maximal lactate steady state in Judo  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: the purpose of this study was to verify the validity of respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) measured during a new single judo specific incremental test (JSIT) for aerobic demand evaluation. Methods: to test the validity of the new test, the JSIT was compared with Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS), which is the gold standard procedure for aerobic demand measuring. Eight well-trained male competitive judo players (24.3 ± 7.9 years; height of 169.3 ± 6.7cm; fat mass of 12.7 ± 3.9%) performed a maximal incremental specific test for judo to assess the RCT and performed on 30-minute MLSS test, where both tests were performed mimicking the UchiKomi drills. Results: the intensity at RCT measured on JSIT was not significantly different compared to MLSS (p=0.40). In addition, it was observed high and significant correlation between MLSS and RCT (r=0.90, p=0.002), as well as a high agreement. Conclusions: RCT measured during JSIT is a valid procedure to measure the aerobic demand, respecting the ecological validity of Judo. PMID:25332923

de Azevedo, Paulo Henrique Silva Marques; Pithon-Curi, Tania; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Oliveira, João; Perez, Sérgio



Electric Utility Rate Design Study: estimating the benefits of peak-load pricing for electric utilities, Topic 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research on the benefits electric utilities may expect from the implementation of peak-load pricing. Benefits examined are possible reductions in operating and capital expenditures for generation. The report covers three major topics: (1) a preliminary analysis of utility peaking characteristics, from which a given utility's potential for the beneficial implementation of peak-load pricing can be determined; (2)



Optimization of sire selection based on maximization of guaranteed income and risk associated with sire merit.  


A method based on discounted income and risk assessment was developed to aid in the selection of dairy sires. The discounted profit generated from milk production of daughters was proposed as the suitable composite selection criterion to combine estimates of predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for yields of milk, fat, and protein and estimates of sire evaluations for dystocia or expected progeny difference. Steps are described to derive discounted profit (defined as expected income) for a sire with known PTA and evaluation for dystocia. The derivation of profit considered costs for semen, dystocia, heifer raising, production and maintenance of the daughter, and income from milk. Variance of income from a sire depended on the reliability of his PTA and evaluation for dystocia. Total variance from a selected set of sires was defined as the risk. A quadratic programming procedure was developed to identify the best set of sires from a given pool of sires that met a desired expected income goal with minimum risk. Combinations of sires with minimum risk for all possible levels of expected income were defined by the expected income variance frontier. The set of sires at the maximum lower boundary for 95% confidence of the expected income variance frontier was defined as the optimum set of sires to be selected; the optimum set maximized the 95% guaranteed expected income. The quadratic programming procedure provided the optimum percentage of cows to be mated to each sire in the selected set. PMID:9565885

Dematawewa, C M; Berger, P J; Melton, B E



An investigation of the effect of online consumer trust on expectation, satisfaction, and post-expectation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a framework regarding the relationship between consumer trust, satisfaction, expectation, and post-expectation\\u000a in the context of electronic commerce. In particular, the framework draws together from three theories: social exchange theory,\\u000a expectation-confirmation theory, and post-acceptance model of IS continuance. Following the longitudinal pre-purchase and\\u000a post-purchase stages, this study provides a theoretical framework combining trust, expectation, satisfaction, and post-expectation

Dan J. Kim


Maximal Oxygen Uptake, Sweating and Tolerance to Exercise in the Heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physiological mechanisms that facilitate acute acclimation to heat have not been fully elucidated, but the result is the establishment of a more efficient cardiovascular system to increase heat dissipation via increased sweating that allows the acclimated man to function with a cooler internal environment and to extend his performance. Men in good physical condition with high maximal oxygen uptakes generally acclimate to heat more rapidly and retain it longer than men in poorer condition. Also, upon first exposure trained men tolerate exercise in the heat better than untrained men. Both resting in heat and physical training in a cool environment confer only partial acclimation when first exposed to work in the heat. These observations suggest separate additive stimuli of metabolic heat from exercise and environmental heat to increase sweating during the acclimation process. However, the necessity of utilizing physical exercise during acclimation has been questioned. Bradbury et al. (1964) have concluded exercise has no effect on the course of heat acclimation since increased sweating can be induced by merely heating resting subjects. Preliminary evidence suggests there is a direct relationship between the maximal oxygen uptake and the capacity to maintain thermal regulation, particularly through the control of sweating. Since increased sweating is an important mechanism for the development of heat acclimation, and fit men have high sweat rates, it follows that upon initial exposure to exercise in the heat, men with high maximal oxygen uptakes should exhibit less strain than men with lower maximal oxygen uptakes. The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine if men with higher maximal oxygen uptakes exhibit greater tolerance than men with lower oxygen uptakes during early exposure to exercise in the heat, and (2) to investigate further the mechanism of the relationship between sweating and maximal work capacity.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Castle, B. L.; Ruff, W. K.



Teacher Expectations and the Able Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two middle school teachers and two students in each of the teacher's classes were assessed for field dependence-independence (FDI). The teachers were interviewed about their students. Found that one teacher had higher expectations and one had lower expectations for the student who had the same FDI orientation as the teacher than for the student…

Lee-Corbin, Hilary



Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.



Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos



Adjusted expectations, satisfaction and loyalty development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary contribution of this article is an analysis of the influence of the use of individual's expectations about a service consumption on the behavior models, that examine the process according to which loyalty and satisfaction are generated. More specifically, the research examines the implications of considering adjusted expectations, namely those that tourists have after having visited a destination, rather

Ramón Rufín; Cayetano Medina; Manuel Rey



Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.



Course Expectations and Career Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben



Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…

Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik



Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark



EpidemiologyQJE.tex Macroeconomic Expectations of  

E-print Network

. Remarkably, however, there has been almost no work testing alternative models of expectations usin eponymous conference volume. That companion paper examines a variety of alternative epidemiological models in `animal spirits,' but the basis for most of today's macro models was laid in the rational expectations

Niebur, Ernst


College students' dining expectations in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of the study is to investigate college students' dining expectations and define the factors that shape their dining choices. In addition, the study investigates whether gender, ethnic origin, prior food and beverage working experience, spending habits and dining frequency influence students' dining expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A quantitative questionnaire was developed and randomly administered to college

Anastasios Zopiatis; Jovana Pribic



Reverse Engineering TCP\\/IP-Like Networks Using Delay-Sensitive Utility Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

TCP\\/IP can be interpreted as a distributed primal- dual algorithm to maximize aggregate utility over source rates. It has recently been shown that an equilibrium of TCP\\/IP, if exists, maximizes the same delay-insensitive utility over both source rates and routes, provided pure congestion prices are used as link costs in the shortest-path calculation of IP. In practice, h owever, pure

John Pongsajapan; Steven H. Low



Grouped Prefetching: Maximizing Resource Utilization Weston Harper, Justin Mintzer, Adrian Valenzuela  

E-print Network

be serviced, including the hit latency of structures in the memory hierarchy, memory bus speed, memory bus contention, and contention in the memory hierarchy with other memory requests that require servicing use of the memory hierarchy buses could improve the impact prefetches have on performance. Motivation

Rixner, Scott


Maximizing utilization of alfalfa protein: The example of the lactating dairy cow  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Forages help meet the absorbed protein requirements of ruminants by providing degraded CP for microbial protein synthesis plus protein that escapes rumen degradation. Evidence from numerous feeding studies with lactating dairy cows indicates that excessive rumen protein degradation makes absorbed protein the most limiting nutritional factor in higher quality temperate legume forages, especially alfalfa. Extensive NPN formation in

G. A. Broderick


Supplementing Corn-Soybean Meal Diets with Microbial Phytase Maximizes Phytate Phosphorus Utilization by Weanling Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted mately 1,200 PU\\/g of BD. Estimated maximum with crossbred weanling pigs to determine the optimal responses of these measures in pigs fed phytase were 2 dietary supplement of AspergiZZus niger phytase ac- 90% compared with MDCaP. Pigs fed 1,250 PUlg of tivity to a low-P, corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD).

X. G. Lei; P. K. Ku; E. R. Millel; M. T. Yokoyama; D. E. Ullrey



Marketing as a Tool for Maximizing the Utilization of Findings from Outcome Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decreased resources, increased accountability demands, and the need for economic survival have made the evaluation of the outcomes of continuing education efforts in nursing a salient need. Economic survival, in particular, is largely dependent upon the skill of the continuing educator in achieving the desirable balance between organizational and…

Bond, Susan B.; Waltz, Carolyn F.


76 FR 51060 - Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 of information from unauthorized access or revision--to ensure that the information is not compromised through corruption or falsification. 6. ``Objectivity'' is a measure of whether disseminated information is accurate, reliable, and...



Utilizing Astroinformatics to Maximize the Science Return of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey is a 104-square-degree survey of the Virgo Cluster, carried out using the MegaPrime camera of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, from semesters 2009A-2012A. The survey will provide coverage of this nearby dense environment in the universe to unprecedented depth, providing profound insights into Galaxy formation and evolution, including definitive measurements of the properties of galaxies in a dense environment in the local universe, such as the luminosity function. The limiting magnitude of the survey is g AB = 25.7 (10? point source), and the 2? surface brightness limit is g AB ? 29 mag arcsec-2. The data volume of the survey (approximately 50 T of images), while large by contemporary astronomical standards, is not intractable. This renders the survey amenable to the methods of astroinformatics. The enormous dynamic range of objects, from the giant elliptical Galaxy M87 at M(B) = -21.6 to the faintest dwarf ellipticals at M(B)?-6, combined with photometry in five broad bands (u* g' r' i' z') and unprecedented depth revealing many previously unseen structures, creates new challenges in object detection and classification. We present results from ongoing work on the survey, including photometric redshifts, Virgo cluster membership, and the implementation of fast data mining algorithms on the infrastructure of the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, as part of the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research.

Ball, Nicholas M.


New Irrigation System Design for Maximizing Irrigation Efficiency and Increasing Rainfall Utilization  

E-print Network

A new concept in irrigation system design, which has the potential of significant savings in both water and energy requirements, has been developed and is under evaluation. The system is characterized by and has been labeled a low energy...

Lyle, W. M.; Bordovsky, J. P.


76 FR 49473 - Petition to Maximize Practical Utility of List 1 Chemicals Screened Through EPA's Endocrine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...substances for potential endocrine effects. Potentially...Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes, may...chemical substances for endocrine effects. This listing...Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes...



Ground truth spectrometry and imagery of eruption clouds to maximize utility of satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field experiments with thermal imaging infrared radiometers were performed and a laboratory system was designed for controlled study of simulated ash clouds. Using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) thermal infrared bands 4 and 5, a radiative transfer method was developed to retrieve particle sizes, optical depth and particle mass involcanic clouds. A model was developed for measuring the same parameters using TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). Related publications are attached.

Rose, William I.



A sampling plan for conduit-flow karst springs: Minimizing sampling cost and maximizing statistical utility  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations should be sampled. Either the geometric mean or the flow-weighted average of the suspended constituents should be used. If automatic samplers are used, then they may be programmed to collect storm samples as frequently as every few minutes to provide details on the arrival time of constituents of interest. However, only samples collected bihourly should be used to calculate averages. By adopting a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with high-flow samples, the need to continuously monitor discharge, or to search for and analyze existing data to develop a statistically valid monitoring plan, is lessened.Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations should be sampled. Either the geometric mean or the flow-weighted average of the suspended constituents should be used. If automatic samplers are used, then they may be programmed to collect storm samples as frequently as every few minutes to provide details on the arrival time of constituents of interest. However, only samples collected bihourly should be used to calculate averages. By adopting a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with high-flow samples, the need to continuously monitor discharge, or to search for and analyze existing data to develop a statistically valid monitoring plan, is lessened.

Currens, J.C.



Improving Simulated Annealing by Replacing Its Variables with Game-Theoretic Utility Maximizers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The game-theory field of Collective INtelligence (COIN) concerns the design of computer-based players engaged in a non-cooperative game so that as those players pursue their self-interests, a pre-specified global goal for the collective computational system is achieved as a side-effect. Previous implementations of COIN algorithms have outperformed conventional techniques by up to several orders of magnitude, on domains ranging from telecommunications control to optimization in congestion problems. Recent mathematical developments have revealed that these previously developed algorithms were based on only two of the three factors determining performance. Consideration of only the third factor would instead lead to conventional optimization techniques like simulated annealing that have little to do with non-cooperative games. In this paper we present an algorithm based on all three terms at once. This algorithm can be viewed as a way to modify simulated annealing by recasting it as a non-cooperative game, with each variable replaced by a player. This recasting allows us to leverage the intelligent behavior of the individual players to substantially improve the exploration step of the simulated annealing. Experiments are presented demonstrating that this recasting significantly improves simulated annealing for a model of an economic process run over an underlying small-worlds topology. Furthermore, these experiments reveal novel small-worlds phenomena, and highlight the shortcomings of conventional mechanism design in bounded rationality domains.

Wolpert, David H.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Tumer, Kagan




PubMed Central

In previous calculations of how the O2 transport system limits V?O2max, it was reasonably assumed that mitochondrial PO2 (PmO2) could be neglected (set to zero). However, in reality, PmO2 must exceed zero and the red cell to mitochondrion diffusion gradient may therefore be reduced, impairing diffusive transport of O2 and V?O2max. Accordingly, we investigated the influence of PmO2 on these calculations by coupling previously used equations for O2 transport to one for mitochondrial respiration relating mitochondrial V?O2 to PO2. This hyperbolic function, characterized by its P50 and V?MAX, allowed PmO2 to become a model output (rather than set to zero as previously). Simulations using data from exercising normal subjects showed that at V?O2max, PmO2was usually < 1 mm Hg, and that the effects on V?O2max were minimal. However, when O2 transport capacity exceeded mitochondrial V?MAX, or if P50 were elevated, PmO2 often reached double digit values, thereby reducing the diffusion gradient and significantly decreasing V?O2max. PMID:24012990

Cano, I; Mickael, M; Gomez-Cabrero, D.; Tegnér, J; Roca, J; Wagner, PD



Utilizing Astroinformatics to Maximize the Science Return of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey  

E-print Network

The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey is a 104 square degree survey of the Virgo Cluster, carried out using the MegaPrime camera of the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, from semesters 2009A-2012A. The survey will provide coverage of this nearby dense environment in the universe to unprecedented depth, providing profound insights into galaxy formation and evolution, including definitive measurements of the properties of galaxies in a dense environment in the local universe, such as the luminosity function. The limiting magnitude of the survey is g_AB = 25.7 (10 sigma point source), and the 2 sigma surface brightness limit is g_AB ~ 29 mag arcsec^-2. The data volume of the survey (approximately 50 terabytes of images), while large by contemporary astronomical standards, is not intractable. This renders the survey amenable to the methods of astroinformatics. The enormous dynamic range of objects, from the giant elliptical galaxy M87 at M(B) = -21.6, to the faintest dwarf ellipticals at M(B) ~ -6, combined with...

Ball, Nicholas M



Maximizing Network Utilization with Max-Min Fairness in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

University of Southern California Abstract The state of the art for optimal data-gathering in wireless sensor. The essence of the model is that it captures the interference observed by a receiver during reception of flows from its children. This model is identical to the one proposed by us in [1] and is similar to the one

Krishnamachari, Bhaskar


77 FR 46069 - Proposed Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Proposed Guidelines for Ensuring...Information Disseminated by the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of...



Value out of the Rear of the Gin - Utilizing Cottonseed and Gin Wastes to Maximize Profits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The best way to tell how good of job you are doing in the gin is to look at what is coming out the rear of the gin. The gin takes the harvested cotton modules, conditions and separates it into different product streams; the lint into a marketable UD bale, the seed into storage (short or long term), ...


By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

....................................................................................................................................................................4 2.2 - Elemental Analysis of MPU North and South Silo Ashes.......................................................................................................7 2.3 - Leachate Analysis of MPU North and South Silo Ashes DIRT")UTILIZING MANITOWOC PUBLIC UTILITIES ASH A Report submitted to Manitowoc Public Utilities

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of


Expectancy balance model for cash flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic agents try to find out the composition of different forms of assets, and the amount of each, that maximizes total\\u000a wealth. The money demanded by firms is a function of the benefits and costs of holding it considering other forms of assets.\\u000a The money held in cash can be remunerated by some earning asset. Even when the money is

Marcos A. S. Melo; Feruccio Bilich


A utility oriented radio resource management algorithm for heterogenous network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A utility oriented radio resource management algorithm is proposed for broadband nongeostationary satellite network which works in the heterogeneous network environment and provides access services for various customers on the ground. Based on the game theory, the problem for optimizing the network's performance is turned into the problem for maximizing the network's long term utility in the proposed algorithm. With evaluation to the traffic condition and dimensions of Qos for the network at the moment while the access service requirements changing, the influence of this service requirement to the long term utility of the satellite network is audited and then the resource assignment decision can be made according to the rule for maximizing the satellite network's long term utility. The process directed by game theory guaranteed both that the benefit of the network and the requirements of the customers could be considered synthetically. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Wang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Yan; Huang, Zailu



Maximizing fluorescence collection efficiency in multiphoton microscopy  

PubMed Central

Understanding fluorescence propagation through a multiphoton microscope is of critical importance in designing high performance systems capable of deep tissue imaging. Optical models of a scattering tissue sample and the Olympus 20X 0.95NA microscope objective were used to simulate fluorescence propagation as a function of imaging depth for physiologically relevant scattering parameters. The spatio-angular distribution of fluorescence at the objective back aperture derived from these simulations was used to design a simple, maximally efficient post-objective fluorescence collection system. Monte Carlo simulations corroborated by data from experimental tissue phantoms demonstrate collection efficiency improvements of 50% – 90% over conventional, non-optimized fluorescence collection geometries at large imaging depths. Imaging performance was verified by imaging layer V neurons in mouse cortex to a depth of 850 ?m. PMID:21934897

Zinter, Joseph P.; Levene, Michael J.



Evolution of maximal oxygen uptake in children.  


Evidence exists that physiologic aerobic fitness, defined by maximal oxygen uptake related to body mass (VO2 x kg-1), bears health implications for children as well as adults. Identifying secular trends in VO2max x kg-1 is important, then, in assessing the impact of socio-cultural influences on aerobic fitness in youth. At present, no data exist to provide a population-based indication of secular trends in VO2max in young persons. However, based on documented temporal changes in childhood obesity and physical activity levels, it can be anticipated that a decline of VO2max x kg-1 is occurring over time. This fall would be more likely due to increases in body fat in youth, inflating the size-normalizing factor ('per kg'), rather than a temporal deterioration in cardiovascular function per se. PMID:17387259

Rowland, Thomas W



Maximizing computational tools for successful drug discovery.  


Drug discovery is an iterative cycle of identifying promising hits followed by lead optimization via bioisosteric replacements. In the search for compounds affording good bioactivity, equal importance should also be placed on achieving those with favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Thus, the balance and realization of both key properties is an intricate problem that requires great caution. In this editorial, the authors explore the available computational tools in the context of the extant of big data that has borne out via advents of the Omics revolution. As such, the selection of appropriate computational tools for analyzing the vast number of chemical libraries, target proteins and interactomes is the first step toward maximizing the chance for success. However, in order to realize this, it is also necessary to have a solid foundation on the big concepts of drug discovery as well as knowing which tools are available in order to give drug discovery scientists the best opportunity. PMID:25693813

Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Virapong



Neurobiology of placebo effects: expectations or learning?  


Contemporary learning theories suggest that conditioning is heavily dependent on the processing of prediction errors, which signal a discrepancy between expected and observed outcomes. This line of research provides a framework through which classical theories of placebo effects, expectations and conditioning, can be reconciled. Brain regions related to prediction error processing [anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens] overlap with those involved in placebo effects. Here we examined the possibility that the magnitude of objective neurochemical responses to placebo administration would depend on individual expectation-effectiveness comparisons. We show that such comparisons and not expectations per se predict behavioral placebo responses and placebo-induced activation of µ-opioid receptor-mediated neurotransmission in regions relevant to error detection (e.g. ACC). Expectations on the other hand were associated with greater µ-opioid system activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex but not with greater behavioral placebo responses. The results presented aid the elucidation of molecular and neural mechanisms underlying the relationship between expectation-effectiveness associations and the formation of placebo responses, shedding light on the individual differences in learning and decision making. Expectation and outcome comparisons emerge as a cognitive mechanism that beyond reward associations appears to facilitate the formation and sustainability of placebo responses. PMID:23887819

Peciña, Marta; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar



The vortex-finding property of maximal center (and other) gauges  

SciTech Connect

The authors argue that the vortex-finding property of maximal center gauge, i.e. the ability of this gauge to locate center vortices inserted by hand on any given lattice, is the key to its success in extracting the vortex content of thermalized lattice configurations. The authors explain how this property comes about, and why it is expected not only in maximal center gauge, but also in an infinite class of gauge conditions based on adjoint-representation link variables. In principle, the vortex-finding property can be foiled by Gribov copies. This fact is relevant to a gauge-fixing procedure devised by Kovacs and Tomboulis, where they show that the loss of center dominance, found in their procedure, is explained by a corresponding loss of the vortex-finding property. The dependence of center dominance on the vortex-finding property is demonstrated numerically in a number of other gauges.

Faber, M.; Greensite, J.; Olejnik, S.; Yamada, D.



Preferences as expectation-driven inferences: effects of affective expectations on affective experience.  


Presents a model arguing that affect and emotion are often formed in an expectation-driven fashion. A pilot study and 2 experiments manipulated undergraduate Ss' affective expectations (e.g., how funny they expected a set of cartoons to be) and whether Ss' expectations were confirmed (e.g., whether the cartoons really were funny). When the value of a stimulus was consistent with an affective expectation, people formed evaluations relatively quickly. Even when the value of a stimulus was discrepant from an affective expectation, people sometimes assimilated the value of the stimulus to their expectations. Other times, such as when making a more fine-grained evaluation of the cartoons, people noticed that they were discrepant from their affective expectations. Under these conditions, people appeared to have more difficulty forming preferences. They took longer to evaluate and spent more time thinking about the cartoons. PMID:2709307

Wilson, T D; Lisle, D J; Kraft, D; Wetzel, C G



Perspective Great Expectations: Using Whole-Brain  

E-print Network

Neuron Perspective Great Expectations: Using Whole-Brain Computational Connectomics is on the disruption in neuropsychiatric disorders (patho- connectomics) and how whole-brain computational models can modeling and computational connectomics may provide an entry point for understanding brain disorders

Deco, Gustavo


Anesthesia: What to Expect (For Parents)  


KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Resources for Parents > Anesthesia - What to Expect Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? Before Surgery Questions to Ask In the Operating Room After ...


What to Expect During a Lung Transplant  


... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Lung Transplant Just before lung transplant surgery, you will ... airway and its blood vessels to your heart. Lung Transplant The illustration shows the process of a ...


What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant  


... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant If you get into a medical center's ... friends also can offer support. When a Donor Lung Becomes Available OPTN matches donor lungs to recipients ...


What to Expect during Heart Surgery  


... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Heart Surgery Heart surgery is done in a hospital, ... surgery, takes about 3–6 hours. Traditional Open-Heart Surgery For this type of surgery, you'll ...


An expectation model of referring expressions  

E-print Network

This thesis introduces EMRE, an expectation-based model of referring expressions. EMRE is proposed as a model of non-syntactic dependencies - in particular, discourse-level semantic dependencies that bridge sentence gaps. ...

Kræmer, John, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

Pearl, Shela



Teacher Expectations: Determinants of Pupils' Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study of teacher rankings of reading readiness suggested that teacher rankings are as reliable as reankings using the Metropolitan Readiness Tests; the results did not indicate that teacher expectations of student achievement can be altered. (FL)

Elijah, David



What to Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation  


... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation Most pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs last a few months. At the ... Rate This Content: Next >> August 1, 2010 Pulmonary Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...


What to Expect during Cardiac Rehabilitation  


... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Cardiac Rehabilitation During cardiac rehabilitation (rehab), you'll learn how to: Increase your ... Rate This Content: Next >> December 24, 2013 Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...


What to Expect During your Admission to  

E-print Network

What to Expect During your Admission to Packard Hospital Please leave all your medications at home at first, it ensures your safety. If you have CFRD and use insulin pens, bring these with you and ask

Kay, Mark A.


What to Expect during a Heart Transplant  


... on Twitter. What To Expect During a Heart Transplant Just before heart transplant surgery, the patient will ... not replaced as part of the surgery. Heart Transplant Figure A shows where the diseased heart is ...


Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION  

E-print Network

Reduce, reuse, recycle, and repair for sustainable developments. Minimize use of manufactured materials. Maximize environmental benefits: resource conservation, clean water, and clean air. #12;Center for By, now!! #12;Center for By-Products Utilization Basic Approach Recycle. Recycle as is. Recycle without

Saldin, Dilano


LINESIZE: Stata module: utility to interactively set display linesize  

Microsoft Academic Search

linesize is an utility command that facilitates setting the display linesize to a maximal value while output does not wrap. For those with Stata v6 on an internet-accessible machine, install by typing .net cd http:\\/\\/\\/soc\\/iscore\\/stata\\/ then .net install linesize

Jeroen Weesie



Expectation and Attention in Hierarchical Auditory Prediction  

PubMed Central

Hierarchical predictive coding suggests that attention in humans emerges from increased precision in probabilistic inference, whereas expectation biases attention in favor of contextually anticipated stimuli. We test these notions within auditory perception by independently manipulating top-down expectation and attentional precision alongside bottom-up stimulus predictability. Our findings support an integrative interpretation of commonly observed electrophysiological signatures of neurodynamics, namely mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV), as manifestations along successive levels of predictive complexity. Early first-level processing indexed by the MMN was sensitive to stimulus predictability: here, attentional precision enhanced early responses, but explicit top-down expectation diminished it. This pattern was in contrast to later, second-level processing indexed by the P300: although sensitive to the degree of predictability, responses at this level were contingent on attentional engagement and in fact sharpened by top-down expectation. At the highest level, the drift of the CNV was a fine-grained marker of top-down expectation itself. Source reconstruction of high-density EEG, supported by intracranial recordings, implicated temporal and frontal regions differentially active at early and late levels. The cortical generators of the CNV suggested that it might be involved in facilitating the consolidation of context-salient stimuli into conscious perception. These results provide convergent empirical support to promising recent accounts of attention and expectation in predictive coding. PMID:23825422

Noreika, Valdas; Gueorguiev, David; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Kochen, Silvia; Ibáñez, Agustín; Owen, Adrian M.; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.



Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki


Measurement errors in survey forecasts of expected inflation and the rationality of inflation expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies that use survey data to test the rationality of inflationary expectations usually test for unbiasedness by regressing actual inflation on expected inflation and testing the joint hypothesis that the intercept is zero and the slope coefficient is one. Such studies are fatally flawed because they incorrectly assume that expected inflation is measured without error. A procedure that allows for

David J. Smyth



Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.



Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

Cherry, W. R.



Core Facilities: Maximizing the Return on Investment  

PubMed Central

To conduct high-quality state-of-the-art research, clinical and translational scientists need access to specialized core facilities and appropriately trained staff. In this time of economic constraints and increasing research costs, organized and efficient core facilities are essential for researchers who seek to investigate complex translational research questions. Here, we describe efforts at the U.S . National Institutes of Health and academic medical centers to enhance the utility of cores. PMID:21832235

Farber, Gregory K.; Weiss, Linda



Metabolic Responses of Indians During Sub-Maximal and Maximal Work in Dry and Humid Heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have been conducted on 10 healthy, naturally heat-acclimated young Indians. Their exercise oxygen consumption (Voz) pulmonary ventilation (VE) and cardiac frequency (Ct) were measured during submaximal fixed work (600 kgm min), as well as graded maximal work on a bicycle ergometer in 5 different environmental conditions—comfortable, very hot with low humidity, very hot with high humidity, extremely hot with low




Quantitative determination of maximal imaging depth in all-NIR multiphoton microscopy images of thick tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report two methods for quantitatively determining maximal imaging depth from thick tissue images captured using all-near-infrared (NIR) multiphoton microscopy (MPM). All-NIR MPM is performed using 1550 nm laser excitation with NIR detection. This method enables imaging more than five-fold deep in thick tissues in comparison with other NIR excitation microscopy methods. In this study, we show a correlation between the multiphoton signal along the depth of tissue samples and the shape of the corresponding empirical probability density function (pdf) of the photon counts. Histograms from this analysis become increasingly symmetric with the imaging depth. This distribution transitions toward the background distribution at higher imaging depths. Inspired by these observations, we propose two independent methods based on which one can automatically determine maximal imaging depth in the all-NIR MPM images of thick tissues. At this point, the signal strength is expected to be weak and similar to the background. The first method suggests the maximal imaging depth corresponds to the deepest image plane where the ratio between the mean and median of the empirical photon-count pdf is outside the vicinity of 1. The second method suggests the maximal imaging depth corresponds to the deepest image plane where the squared distance between the empirical photon-count mean obtained from the object and the mean obtained from the background is greater than a threshold. We demonstrate the application of these methods in all-NIR MPM images of mouse kidney tissues to study maximal depth penetration in such tissues.

Sarder, Pinaki; Akers, Walter J.; Sudlow, Gail P.; Yazdanfar, Siavash; Achilefu, Samuel



The influence of body position on maximal performance in cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Six healthy male subjects performed a 3-min supramaximal test in four different cycling positions: two with different trunk angles and two with different saddle-tube angles. Maximal power output and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were measured. Maximal power output was significantly higher in a standard sitting (SS, 381 W, SD 49) upright position compared to all other positions: standard racing (SR,

E. Welbergen; L. P. V. M. Clijsen



Labeled Influence Maximization in Social Networks for Target Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence maximization problem is to find a set of seed nodes which maximize the spread of influence in a social network. The seed nodes are used for the viral marketing to gain the maximum profits through the effective word-of-mouth. However, in more real-world cases, marketers usually target certain products at particular groups of customers. While original influence maximization problem

Fa-Hsien Li; Cheng-Te Li; Man-Kwan Shan



Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by

Andrew M. Parker; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff



Time-of-day effects in maximal anaerobic leg exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time of day variations in maximal anaerobic leg exercise were studied in 23 men mean age 23 (SD 3) years. All the subjects\\u000a performed two anaerobic tests (force-velocity and multi-jump tests) and those familiar with sprinting ran an additional 50-m\\u000a dash (n=16). The maximal anaerobic powers for cycling and jumping (P\\u000a cycling and P\\u000a jump) and maximal anaerobic velocity (

T. Bernard; M. Giacomoni; O. Gavarry; M. Seymat; G. Falgairette



Risk and utility in portfolio optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern portfolio theory (MPT) addresses the problem of determining the optimum allocation of investment resources among a set of candidate assets. In the original mean-variance approach of Markowitz, volatility is taken as a proxy for risk, conflating uncertainty with risk. There have been many subsequent attempts to alleviate that weakness which, typically, combine utility and risk. We present here a modification of MPT based on the inclusion of separate risk and utility criteria. We define risk as the probability of failure to meet a pre-established investment goal. We define utility as the expectation of a utility function with positive and decreasing marginal value as a function of yield. The emphasis throughout is on long investment horizons for which risk-free assets do not exist. Analytic results are presented for a Gaussian probability distribution. Risk-utility relations are explored via empirical stock-price data, and an illustrative portfolio is optimized using the empirical data.

Cohen, Morrel H.; Natoli, Vincent D.



Expected Utility as a Policy Making Tool: An Environmental Health Example  

E-print Network

A Brief History of Optimal Decision Making The mathematical theory of probability arose as much from. Kadane, and Mitchell J. Small May 19, 1995 Abstract Statistical decision theory can be a valuable tool review briefly the history of decision theory in statistics, and introduce methods for eliciting loss


Reliability analysis of electric utility SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utility SCADA systems must be highly reliable given the potential for the SCADA system to directly contribute to load curtailment. This paper presents an analysis of SCADA system reliability in terms of its expected, aggregate contribution to load curtailment on the power system. Expressing this aggregate in system minutes and applying an appropriate damage cost function then provides an

A. G. Bruce



Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems  

SciTech Connect

We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |{psi}>{sub app} that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information.

Chen Jingling [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Center for Combinatorics and LPMC, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Kwek, L. C. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Nanyang Technological University, National Institute of Education, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Ge Molin [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Center for Combinatorics and LPMC, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)



Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.  


Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5. PMID:24675810

Töpfer, Armin; Marschall, Tobias; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Schönhuth, Alexander; Beerenwinkel, Niko



Maximally localized Wannier functions: Theory and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic ground state of a periodic system is usually described in terms of extended Bloch orbitals, but an alternative representation in terms of localized “Wannier functions” was introduced by Gregory Wannier in 1937. The connection between the Bloch and Wannier representations is realized by families of transformations in a continuous space of unitary matrices, carrying a large degree of arbitrariness. Since 1997, methods have been developed that allow one to iteratively transform the extended Bloch orbitals of a first-principles calculation into a unique set of maximally localized Wannier functions, accomplishing the solid-state equivalent of constructing localized molecular orbitals, or “Boys orbitals” as previously known from the chemistry literature. These developments are reviewed here, and a survey of the applications of these methods is presented. This latter includes a description of their use in analyzing the nature of chemical bonding, or as a local probe of phenomena related to electric polarization and orbital magnetization. Wannier interpolation schemes are also reviewed, by which quantities computed on a coarse reciprocal-space mesh can be used to interpolate onto much finer meshes at low cost, and applications in which Wannier functions are used as efficient basis functions are discussed. Finally the construction and use of Wannier functions outside the context of electronic-structure theory is presented, for cases that include phonon excitations, photonic crystals, and cold-atom optical lattices.

Marzari, Nicola; Mostofi, Arash A.; Yates, Jonathan R.; Souza, Ivo; Vanderbilt, David



Lens-mirror combinations with maximal concentration.  


By the addition of suitable reflectors the concentration of a lens can be increased to the thermodynamic limit, which is equivalent to an f-number of one half. Such lens-mirror combinations are useful whenever concentration rather than image formation is important, for example, in radiation detectors and solar energy collectors. The design of lens-mirror combinations with maximal concentration is described. To the approximation that the lens has sharp focal points at off-axis incidence, the solution for the reflector is readily found to be compound hyperbolic. With proper choice of the f-number of the lens the hyperbolic reflector reduces to a V-trough or cone, an arrangement which offers considerable advantages for fabrication. The 2-D case (line focus lens) suffers from aberrations due to focal length variation with nonplanar incidence. The optical performance of 2-D lens-mirror combinations at nonplanar incidence is analyzed and evaluated for its suitability in solar energy applications. A prototype Fresn l lens plus V-trough has been built, and test data are presented. PMID:20174212

Collares-Pereira, M; Rabl, A; Winston, R



Maximizing exosome colloidal stability following electroporation.  


Development of exosome-based semisynthetic nanovesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes requires novel approaches to load exosomes with cargo. Electroporation has previously been used to load exosomes with RNA. However, investigations into exosome colloidal stability following electroporation have not been considered. Herein, we report the development of a unique trehalose pulse media (TPM) that minimizes exosome aggregation following electroporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and RNA absorbance were employed to determine the extent of exosome aggregation and electroextraction post electroporation in TPM compared to common PBS pulse media or sucrose pulse media (SPM). Use of TPM to disaggregate melanoma exosomes post electroporation was dependent on both exosome concentration and electric field strength. TPM maximized exosome dispersal post electroporation for both homogenous B16 melanoma and heterogeneous human serum-derived populations of exosomes. Moreover, TPM enabled heavy cargo loading of melanoma exosomes with 5nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION5) while maintaining original exosome size and minimizing exosome aggregation as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Loading exosomes with SPION5 increased exosome density on sucrose gradients. This provides a simple, label-free means of enriching exogenously modified exosomes and introduces the potential for MRI-driven theranostic exosome investigations in vivo. PMID:24333249

Hood, Joshua L; Scott, Michael J; Wickline, Samuel A



Maximizing NGL recovery by refrigeration optimization  

SciTech Connect

PDVSA--Petroleo y Gas, S.A. has within its facilities in Lake Maracaibo two plants that extract liquids from natural gas (NGL), They use a combined mechanic refrigeration absorption with natural gasoline. Each of these plants processes 420 MMsccfd with a pressure of 535 psig and 95 F that comes from the compression plants PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3 respectively. About 40 MMscfd of additional rich gas comes from the high pressure system. Under the present conditions these plants produce in the order of 16,800 and 23,800 b/d of NGL respectively, with a propane recovery percentage of approximately 75%, limited by the capacity of the refrigeration system. To optimize the operation and the design of the refrigeration system and to maximize the NGL recovery, a conceptual study was developed in which the following aspects about the process were evaluated: capacity of the refrigeration system, refrigeration requirements, identification of limitations and evaluation of the system improvements. Based on the results obtained it was concluded that by relocating some condensers, refurbishing the main refrigeration system turbines and using HIGH FLUX piping in the auxiliary refrigeration system of the evaporators, there will be an increase of 85% on the propane recovery, with an additional production of 25,000 b/d of NGL and 15 MMscfd of ethane rich gas.

Baldonedo H., A.H.



Universal horizons in maximally symmetric spaces  

E-print Network

Universal horizons in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity and Einstein-{\\ae}ther theory are the equivalent of causal horizons in general relativity and appear to have many of the same properties, including a first law of horizon thermodynamics and thermal radiation. Since universal horizons are infrared solutions of a putative power counting renormalizable quantum gravitational theory, fully understanding their thermodynamics will shed light on the interplay between black hole thermodynamics and quantum gravity. In this paper, we provide a complete classification, including asymptotic charges, of all four dimensional static and spherically symmetric universal horizon solutions with maximally symmetric asymptotics -- the equivalents of the Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild de Sitter or Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter spacetimes. Additionally we derive the associated first laws for the universal horizon solutions. Finally we prove that independent of asymptotic boundary conditions, any spherically symmetric solution in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity with a universal horizon is also a solution of Einstein-{\\ae}ther theory, thereby broadening and complementing the known equivalence region of the solution spaces.

Jishnu Bhattacharyya; David Mattingly



Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.  


By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters. PMID:25068851

Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus



Expectations for melodic contours transcend pitch.  


The question of what makes a good melody has interested composers, music theorists, and psychologists alike. Many of the observed principles of good "melodic continuation" involve melodic contour-the pattern of rising and falling pitch within a sequence. Previous work has shown that contour perception can extend beyond pitch to other auditory dimensions, such as brightness and loudness. Here, we show that the generalization of contour perception to nontraditional dimensions also extends to melodic expectations. In the first experiment, subjective ratings for 3-tone sequences that vary in brightness or loudness conformed to the same general contour-based expectations as pitch sequences. In the second experiment, we modified the sequence of melody presentation such that melodies with the same beginning were blocked together. This change produced substantively different results, but the patterns of ratings remained similar across the 3 auditory dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that (a) certain well-known principles of melodic expectation (such as the expectation for a reversal following a skip) are dependent on long-term context, and (b) these expectations are not unique to the dimension of pitch and may instead reflect more general principles of perceptual organization. PMID:25365571

Graves, Jackson E; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J



Robust Decision Making using a Risk-Averse Utility Set  

E-print Network

Mar 17, 2012 ... usefulness of the proposed decision making framework. ... According to the expected utility theory in von Neumann and .... Section 5 further studies the robust investment decision making model and illustrates the usefulness.



SAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTSSAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTS The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from  

E-print Network

The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from selected courses. United States and individuals associated with the history of the United States. Introduction to Business At the end democratic principles · Outline the structure of the Constitution of the U.S. · Identity and define

Rock, Chris


Home Care Technology Through an Ability Expectation Lens  

PubMed Central

Home care is on the rise, and its delivery is increasingly reliant on an expanding variety of health technologies ranging from computers to telephone “health apps” to social robots. These technologies are most often predicated on expectations that people in their homes (1) can actively interact with these technologies and (2) are willing to submit to the action of the technology in their home. Our purpose is to use an “ability expectations” lens to bring together, and provide some synthesis of, the types of utility and disadvantages that can arise for people with disabilities in relation to home care technology development and use. We searched the academic databases Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO ALL, IEEE Xplore, and Compendex to collect articles that had the term “home care technology” in the abstract or as a topic (in the case of Web of Science). We also used our background knowledge and related academic literature pertaining to self-diagnosis, health monitoring, companionship, health information gathering, and care. We examined background articles and articles collected through our home care technology search in terms of ability expectations assumed in the presentation of home care technologies, or discussed in relation to home care technologies. While advances in health care support are made possible through emerging technologies, we urge critical examination of such technologies in terms of implications for the rights and dignity of people with diverse abilities. Specifically, we see potential for technologies to result in new forms of exclusion and powerlessness. Ableism influences choices made by funders, policy makers, and the public in the development and use of home health technologies and impacts how people with disabilities are served and how useful health support technologies will be for them. We urge continued critical examination of technology development and use according to ability expectations, and we recommend increasing incorporation of participatory design processes to counteract potential for health support technology to render people with disabilities technologically excluded and powerless. PMID:24956581



Anorexia nervosa: treatment expectations – a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Anorexia nervosa is a serious illness with a high mortality rate, a poor outcome, and no empirically supported treatment of choice for adults. Patients with anorexia nervosa strive for thinness in order to obtain self-control and are ambivalent toward change and toward treatment. In order to achieve a greater understanding of patients’ own understanding of their situation, the aim of this study was to examine the expectations of potential anorexic patients seeking treatment at a specialized eating-disorder unit. Methods A qualitative study design was used. It comprised 15 women between 18 and 25 years of age waiting to be assessed before treatment. The initial question was, “What do you expect, now that you are on the waiting list for a specialized eating-disorder unit?” A content analysis was used, and the text was coded, categorized according to its content, and further interpreted into a theme. Results From the results emerged three main categories of what participants expected: “treatment content,” “treatment professionals,” and “treatment focus.” The overall theme, “receiving adequate therapy in a collaborative therapeutic relationship and recovering,” described how the participants perceived that their expectations could be fulfilled. Discussion Patients’ expectations concerning distorted thoughts, eating behaviors, a normal, healthy life, and meeting with a professional with knowledge and experience of eating disorders should be discussed before treatment starts. In the process of the therapeutic relationship, it is essential to continually address patients’ motivations, in order to understand their personal motives behind what drives their expectations and their desire to recover. PMID:22888259

Paulson-Karlsson, Gunilla; Nevonen, Lauri



Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.  


Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. PMID:23932947

Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah



Rare Flavor Processes in Maximally Natural Supersymmetry  

E-print Network

We study CP-conserving rare flavor violating processes in the recently proposed theory of Maximally Natural Supersymmetry (MNSUSY). MNSUSY is an unusual supersymmetric (SUSY) extension of the Standard Model (SM) which, remarkably, is un-tuned at present LHC limits. It employs Scherk-Schwarz breaking of SUSY by boundary conditions upon compactifying an underlying 5-dimensional (5D) theory down to 4D, and is not well-described by softly-broken $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SUSY, with much different phenomenology than the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its variants. The usual CP-conserving SUSY-flavor problem is automatically solved in MNSUSY due to a residual almost exact $U(1)_R$ symmetry, naturally heavy and highly degenerate 1st- and 2nd-generation sfermions, and heavy gauginos and Higgsinos. Depending on the exact implementation of MNSUSY there exist important new sources of flavor violation involving gauge boson Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations. The spatial localization properties of the matter multiplets, in particular the brane localization of the 3rd generation states, imply KK-parity is broken and {\\it tree-level} contributions to flavor changing neutral currents are present in general. Nevertheless, we show that simple variants of the basic MNSUSY model are safe from present flavor constraints arising from kaon and $B$-meson oscillations, the rare decays $B_{s,d} \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$, $\\mu \\to {\\bar e}ee$ and $\\mu$-$e$ conversion in nuclei. We also briefly discuss some special features of the radiative decays $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ and ${\\bar B}\\to X_s \\gamma$. Future experiments, especially those concerned with lepton flavor violation, should see deviations from SM predictions unless one of the MNSUSY variants with enhanced flavor symmetries is realized.

Isabel García García; John March-Russell



Rare flavor processes in Maximally Natural Supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study CP-conserving rare flavor violating processes in the recently proposed theory of Maximally Natural Supersymmetry (MNSUSY). MNSUSY is an unusual supersymmetric (SUSY) extension of the Standard Model (SM) which, remarkably, is untuned at present LHC limits. It employs Scherk-Schwarz breaking of SUSY by boundary conditions upon compactifying an underlying 5-dimensional (5D) theory down to 4D, and is not well-described by softly-broken SUSY, with much different phenomenology than the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its variants. The usual CP-conserving SUSY-flavor problem is automatically solved in MNSUSY due to a residual almost exact U(1) R symmetry, naturally heavy and highly degenerate 1st- and 2nd-generation sfermions, and heavy gauginos and Higgsinos. Depending on the exact implementation of MNSUSY there exist important new sources of flavor violation involving gauge boson Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations. The spatial localization properties of the matter multiplets, in particular the brane localization of the 3rd generation states, imply KK-parity is broken and tree-level contributions to flavor changing neutral currents are present in general. Nevertheless, we show that simple variants of the basic MNSUSY model are safe from present flavor constraints arising from kaon and B-meson oscillations, the rare decays B s, d ? ? + ? -, ? ? ?ee and ?- e conversion in nuclei. We also briefly discuss some special features of the radiative decays ? ? e? and . Future experiments, especially those concerned with lepton flavor violation, should see deviations from SM predictions unless one of the MNSUSY variants with enhanced flavor symmetries is realized.

García, Isabel García; March-Russell, John



Healthcare reform and the hospital industry: what can we expect?  


Healthcare costs continue to increase dramatically, while quality remains a significant problem. Reform measures adopted by Congress will fuel expansion of these costs, further stressing taxpayers and employers and forcing hospitals to adopt transformational changes as they adjust to increased demands for services and shrinking reimbursement. Cost control and quality improvement can be achieved through increased competition or greater government intervention. Competition will require unpalatable changes to the healthcare system to decrease costs without further restricting access or decreasing quality. Increased government intervention will result in changes to reimbursement and hospital-physician relations and increased demands for improved care. To improve cost and quality while preserving increased access, we advocate for a universal standard coverage of Americans; accountable healthcare system leadership; leverage of information resources to make utilization decisions and evaluate performance; alignment of physician, hospital, and payer incentives to focus on care outcomes rather than profit maximization; and the use of quasicompetition to allow for consumer choice within this system. PMID:20812528

Kellis, Dana S



Maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster  

E-print Network

Maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster U. Meierfrankenfeld and S. Shpectorov September 6, 2002 Abstract The lists of the maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster simple groups in the Atlas are complete. 1 Introduction The Monster and the Baby Monster are the two largest

Meierfrankenfeld, Ulrich


Maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster  

E-print Network

Maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster Abstract The lists of the maximal 2-local subgroups of the Monster and Baby Monster simple groups in the Atlas are complete. 1 Introduction The Monster and the Baby Monster are the two

Meierfrankenfeld, Ulrich


Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…

Pace, Andrew K.



Ranking Instances by Maximizing the Area under ROC Curve  

E-print Network

Ranking Instances by Maximizing the Area under ROC Curve H. Altay Gu¨venir, Member, IEEE, and Murat Kurtcephe Abstract--In recent years, the problem of learning a real-valued function that induces a ranking a supervised algorithm that learns a ranking function, called ranking instances by maximizing the area under

Güvenir, H. Altay


Revenue Maximization in Spectrum Auctions for Dynamic Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

1 Revenue Maximization in Spectrum Auctions for Dynamic Spectrum Access Ali Kakhbod, Ashutosh maximization problems in auctions for dynamic spectrum access. We consider the frequency division and spread spectrum methods of dynamic spectrum shar- ing. In the frequency division method, a primary spectrum user

Teneketzis, Demosthenis


Visibility Maximization with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environments  

E-print Network

Visibility Maximization with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environments by Kenneth Lee #12;2 #12;Visibility Maximization with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environments by Kenneth Lee of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics Abstract Unmanned aerial

How, Jonathan P.


Trunk muscle activation during sub-maximal extension efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuromuscular fatigue of the trunk musculature, particularly lumbar paraspinal and abdominal muscles, is important in when evaluating motor control of the trunk. Activation of agonists and antagonists trunk muscles was hypothesized to change during sub-maximal isometric trunk extension efforts. Thirteen women were positioned in 30° of trunk flexion and performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in trunk extension against an isokinetic

Michael W. Olson



Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACHTEN, J., M. GLEESON, and A. E. JEUKENDRUP. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation.Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 1, 2002, pp. 92-97. Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a test protocol to determine the exercise intensity at which fat oxidation rate is maximal (Fat max). Method: Eighteen moderately trained cyclists performed




Local channels preserving maximal entanglement or Schmidt number  

E-print Network

Maximal entanglement and Schmidt number play an important role in various quantum information tasks. In this paper, it is shown that a local channel preserves maximal entanglement state(MES) or preserves pure states with Schmidt number $r$($r$ is a fixed integer) if and only if it is a local unitary operation.

Yu Guo; Zhaofang Bai; Shuanping Du



Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…

Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.



Maximally positive polynomial systems supported on Frederic Bihan  

E-print Network

Maximally positive polynomial systems supported on circuits Fr´ed´eric Bihan Laboratoire de Math polynomial system with support W Zn is called maximally pos- itive if all its complex solutions are positive of non-degenerate positive solutions of a system supported on a circuit W Zn is at most m(W) + 1, where

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



E-print Network

GENERATION AND RANDOM GENERATION: FROM SIMPLE GROUPS TO MAXIMAL SUBGROUPS TIMOTHY C. BURNESS of generators for G. It is well known that d(G) = 2 for all (non-abelian) finite simple groups. We prove that d investigate the random generation of maximal subgroups of simple and almost simple groups. By applying

Burness, Tim


Effect of Age and Other Factors on Maximal Heart Rate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To reduce confusion regarding reported effects of age on maximal exercise heart rate, a comprehensive review of the relevant English literature was conducted. Data on maximal heart rate after exercising with a bicycle, a treadmill, and after swimming were analyzed with regard to physical fitness and to age, sex, and racial differences. (Authors/PP)

Londeree, Ben R.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.



Supply Chain Network Design Profit Maximization and Oligopolistic Competition  

E-print Network

Supply Chain Network Design Under Profit Maximization and Oligopolistic Competition Anna Nagurney model the supply chain network design problem with oligopolis- tic firms who are involved. The profit-maximizing firms select both the capacities associated with the various supply chain network

Nagurney, Anna


Elliptical symmetric distribution based maximal margin classification for hyperspectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been verified that hyperspectral data is statistically characterized by elliptical symmetric distribution. Accordingly, we introduce the ellipsoidal discriminant boundaries and present an elliptical symmetric distribution based maximal margin (ESD-MM) classifier for hypespectral classification. In this method, the characteristic of elliptical symmetric distribution (ESD) of hyperspectral data is combined with the maximal margin rule. This strategy enables the ESD-MM

Lin He; Zhuliang Yu; Zhenghui Gu; Yuanqing Li



Joint Entropy Maximization in Kernel-Based Topographic Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new learning algorithm for kernel-based topographic map formation is introduced. The kernel parameters are adjusted individually so as to maximize the joint entropy of the kernel outputs. This is done by maximizing the differential entropies of the individual kernel outputs, given that the map's output redundancy, due to the kernel overlap, needs to be minimized. The latter is achieved

Marc M. Van Hulle



What do Candidates Maximize (and Why Should Anyone Care)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much empirical work on Congressional elections implicitly assumesthat candidates are vote-maximizers; this may be a fairassumption for challengers, but it is not a good description ofincumbent behavior. I present a general intertemporal utilitymaximizing model of candidate behavior, which includes vote-maximization as a special case. I then demonstrate that thesemodels have important consequences for both the design andinterpretation of empirical work.

Jeffrey Milyo



Note on maximally entangled Eisert-Lewenstein-Wilkens quantum games  

E-print Network

Maximally entangled Eisert-Lewenstein-Wilkens games are analyzed. For a general class of gate operators defined in the previous papers of the first author the general conditions are derived which allow to determine the form of gate operators leading to maximally entangled games. The construction becomes particularly simple provided one does distinguish between games differing by relabelling of strategies. Some examples are presented.

Katarzyna Bolonek-Laso?; Piotr Kosi?ski



Exercise Biology 124 Physiology of Maximal Human Performance  

E-print Network

Exercise Biology 124 Physiology of Maximal Human Performance Winter 2011 CRN 43696 Dr. Keith Baar 4 units Molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to training. Students learn how to exercise to maximize their own performance as well as learning how the frequency, intensity and timing of exercise and nutrition

Wainwright, Peter C.


Expected Outcomes of INTEGER These include  

E-print Network

Expected Outcomes of INTEGER These include: Increased awareness and cultural change: all key staff of the INTEGER institutions in the academic stakeholder community as role models for peer European institutions For more information about INTEGER Project Coordinator: Anne Pépin Director of the Mission for the Place

van Tiggelen, Bart


What to Expect After a Lung Transplant  


... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After a Lung Transplant Recovery in the Hospital After lung transplant surgery, you'll go to the hospital's ... take slow, deep breaths. You also may have lung function tests that use a regular spirometer. This ...


Expectations and voluntary attrition in nursing students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a series of findings generated during a larger study which aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the reasons why nursing students voluntarily leave pre-registration nursing programmes. In this study, significant incongruence was found to exist between student expectations of pre-registration nursing programmes and the reality of these programmes following entry. The resulting dissonance was identified as

Hugh O’Donnell



Culture and Caregiving: Goals, Expectations, & Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care services.…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.



Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for women have been studied extensively, but little research has focused on this topic with males. Using the two most popular men's fashion magazines (GQand Esquire), this study examined article and advertisement content as well as male models' body sizes to determine the extent to which men have received messages from the media on how to

Trent A. Petrie; Laura J. Austin; Barbara J. Crowley; Annette Helmcamp; Courtney E. Johnson; Regan Lester; Rebecca Rogers; Jeff Turner; Kevin Walbrick



Online Learners' Expectations and Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increase of educational programs and classes offered online, any people have taken advantage of the convenience of these offerings. Along with the rapid growth of distance learning, there has been a reported high attrition rate among online learners. Some research suggests that part of the attrition involved student expectations not being…

Hawkins, Gary W.



Shortest Expected Delay Routing for Erlang Servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The queueing problem with Poisson arrivals and two identical parallel Erlang servers is analyzed for the case of shortest expected delay routing. This problem may be represented as a random walk on the integer grid in the first quadrant of the plane. An important aspect of the random walk is that it is possible to make large jumps in the

Ivo J. B. F. Adan; Jaap Wessels




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We study the accuracy of the expected Euler characteristic approximation to thedistribution of the maximum of a smooth, centered, unit variance Gaussian processf . Using a point process representation of the error, valid for arbitrary smoothprocesses, we show that the error is in general exponentially smaller than any termsin the approximation. We also give a lower bound on this

Jonathan Taylor; Akimichi Takemura; Robert J. Adler



Young infants have biological expectations about animals  

E-print Network

Young infants have biological expectations about animals Peipei Setoha,1 , Di Wub , Renée, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological proper- ties. Here we demonstrate that 8 animals' insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge


Expanding Expectations for Students through Accelerated Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Accelerated Schools Project has proven accelerated learning is not just for the gifted. Data show teachers have gotten sustained results in student achievement through the project, which helps them change their expectations, focus on data, and commit to a process of professional learning.

Byrd, Sandra P.; Finnan, Christine



47 CFR 90.743 - Renewal expectancy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.743 Renewal expectancy...Substantial” service is defined in this rule as service that is sound, favorable, and substantially above a level of...



Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ratios of Expectations  

E-print Network

Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ratios of Expectations DENIS CHOQUET, PIERRE L'ECUYER, and CHRISTIAN L ' EGER Universit'e de Montr'eal We are concerned with computing a confidence interval for instance in regenerative simulation. As an alternative to confidence intervals based on asymptotic

L'Ecuyer, Pierre


Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy  

E-print Network

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy J L Hutton, K Hemming and UKCP collaboration What is UKCP? Information about the physical effects of cerebral palsy on the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy which collect information about children within specific local areas. They are the Mersey

Hutton, Jane


Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

Hodges, Linda C.




E-print Network

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL PMP EMPLOYEE FORM Name (PLEASE TYPE OR PRINT): Reviewer's Signature: Please check one: The employee and supervisor improvement plan should be in effect, or will be as a result of this review. Unsatisfactory Performance falls

Adali, Tulay


Probability gains expected for renewal process models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We usually use the Brownian distribution, lognormal distribution, Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution, and exponential distribution to calculate long-term probability for the distribution of time intervals between successive events. The values of two parameters of these distributions are determined by the maximum likelihood method. The difference in log likelihood between the proposed model and the stationary Poisson process model, which scores both the period of no events and instances of each event, is considered as the index for evaluating the effectiveness of the earthquake probability model. First, we show that the expected value of the log-likelihood difference becomes the expected value of the logarithm of the probability gain. Next, by converting the time unit into the expected value of the interval, the hazard is made to represent a probability gain. This conversion reduces the degrees of freedom of model parameters to 1. We then demonstrate that the expected value of the probability gain in observed parameter values ranges between 2 and 5. Therefore, we can conclude that the long-term probability calculated before an earthquake may become several times larger than that of the Poisson process model.

Imoto, M.



Inverse momentum expectation values for hydrogenic systems  

SciTech Connect

By using the Fourier transforms of the general hydrogenic bound state wave functions (as ultraspherical polynomials), one may find expectation values of arbitrary functions of momentum p. In this manner the effect of a reciprocity perturbation b/p can be evaluated for all hydrogenic states.

Delbourgo, R.; Elliott, D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, GPO, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)



Children's Physical Appearance and Adult Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregivers' expectancies and behaviors in relationship to young handicapped children were investigated in this paper. Two studies were conducted in an attempt to answer three questions: (1) How will caregivers respond to the young handicapped child? (2) Do the child's stimulus characteristics, such as physical appearance, create biases in…

Feeg, Veronica DeCarolis; Peters, Donald L.


NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

Sander, Libby



Patients' Expectations for Epilepsy Surgery - Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patients' preoperative expectations must be well understood because it influences the perceived success of the surgical treatment of epilepsies, and in turn, the perceptions of postoperative quality of life (QoL). This study addresses the importance of working with the patients' perceptions, beliefs and understandings about the preoperative investigation, surgery and postoperative follow-up, so it is possible to foresee the

Priscila Camile; Barioni Salgado; Paula Teixeira Fernandes; Elisabete Abib; Fernando Cendes


Effects of Syntactic Expectations on Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the effect of acoustic cues on speech segmentation has been extensively investigated, the role of higher order information (e.g., syntax) has received less attention. Here, the authors examined whether syntactic expectations based on subject-verb agreement have an effect on segmentation and whether they do so despite conflicting acoustic…

Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.; White, Laurence



Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the expectations of support for and the experiences of substitute teachers in an urban school division in Saskatchewan. Data were collected in semistructured interviews with seven substitute teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore how substitute teachers frame their professional experiences and construct their roles…

Duggleby, Patricia; Badali, Sal



Expectancy-Reality Descrepancy and Patient Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-four admissions to the psychiatric unit of a general hospital were asked to predict their length of hospitalization. The difference between their predicted and actual length of hospitalization was calculated (expectancy-reality discrepancy-ERD). Patient ERD scores were compared with self-report, ward, and therapist measures of patient…

Webb, Lynn E.; Lamb, Douglas H.


Caps and Robbers: What Can You Expect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "matching" hats problem is a classic exercise in probability: if "n" people throw their hats in a box, and then each person randomly draws one out again, what is the expected number of people who draw their own hat? This paper presents several extensions to this problem, with solutions that involve interesting tricks with iterated…

Zager, Laura A.; Verghese, George C.



Status Valued Goal Objects and Performance Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I designed an experiment to test predictions, derived from expectation states theories, that the unequal allocation of social rewards among collective task-focused actors will affect the actors' rates of power and prestige behavior. Past research shows that allocations of exchangeable resources can have these effects. The prediction, however, is…

Hysom, Stuart J.



Deriving Expectations to Guide Knowledge Base Creation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful approaches to developing knowledge acquisition tools use expectations of what the user has to add or may want to add, based on how new knowledge fits within a knowledge base that already exists. When a knowledge base is first cre- ated or undergoes significant extensions and changes, these tools cannot provide much support. This paper presents an approach to

Jihie Kim; Yolanda Gil



Simple relationships between statistical mechanics expectation values  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general procedure for obtaining exact equations between statistical mechanics expectation values is suggested. The procedure is illustrated for quantum and classical systems in a generalized ensemble. Detailed applications are given for the Stockmayer potential in classical statistical thermodynamics. Application to site–site interactions is also discussed. The resulting equations can be used to detect inconsistencies in approximate theories. This is

Esam Z. Hamad



Passengers' expectations of airport service quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the development of a conceptual model of service quality in airports by conducting an empirical investigation into passengers' expectations for this service industry. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a qualitative exploration of the airport experience from the passengers' perspective was combined with a review of relevant literature to identify

Dale Fodness; Brian Murray



Trends in velocity and policy expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. velocity of base money exhibits three distinct trends since 1950. After rising steadily for thirty years, it flattens out in the 1980s and falls substantially in the 1990s. This paper explores whether the observed secular movements in velocity can be accounted for exclusively by endogenous responses to changing expectations about monetary and fiscal policy. We use a model with

David B. Gordon; Eric M. Leeper; Tao Zha



Trends in velocity and policy expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. velocity of base money exhibits three distinct trends since 1950. After rising steadily for thirty years, it flattens out in the 1980s and falls substantially in the 1990s. This paper explores whether the observed secular movements in velocity can be accounted for exclusively by endogenous responses to changing expectations about monetary and fiscal policy. We use a model with

David B. Gordon; Eric M. Leeper; Tao A. Zha



Are Low Career Expectations Shortchanging Girls?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 40-year longitudinal study of creativity that began in 1958 in two schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota, found that girls identified as highly creative in elementary school have been fulfilling that potential as adults to a significantly higher degree those who were less creative. Sex role expectations are discussed. (Contains references.) (CR)

Millar, Garnet W.; Torrance, E. Paul



Solving Rational Expectations Models Using Excel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simple problems of discrete-time optimal control can be solved using a standard spreadsheet software. The employed-solution method of backward iteration is intuitively understandable, does not require any programming skills, and is easy to implement so that it is suitable for classroom exercises with rational-expectations models. The author…

Strulik, Holger



Characteristics Orientation, Needs and Expectations. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers from a symposium on characteristics orientation, needs, and expectations. "Characteristics Orientation of Emerging Professions: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice of Continuing Professional Education" (William H. Young, Margot B. Weinstein) reports on a qualitative study that examined emerging…



Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.



Electric utility conservation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unprecedented financial pressures facing today's electric utilities have encouraged the evolution of conservation as a planning strategy. Electric Utility Conservation Programs is a book to isolate the problems electric utilities encounter and document the solutions they are finding throughout the design, operation, marketing, and evaluation stages of their conservation programs. Including coverage of customer acceptance of their programs and

C. W. Gellings; D. R. Limaye



Miscellaneous Mathematical Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several online mathematical utilities intended for college and university students (math, physics, engineering, etc. students). Numerical utilities to solve (among others): N Equations in N Unknowns, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Roots of Functions, and Numerical Integration. More utilities are constantly being added.


Goal Expectations as Predictors of Retirement Intentions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explored the contribution of personal goals to retirement decisions. A SMARTER methodology (to assess multiattribute utility) and taxonomy of human goals were used to investigate the relationship between older workers' personal goals and their retirement intentions. Two hundred and fifty-one employees of a large university,…

Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.



The Futility of Utility: how market dynamics marginalize Adam Smith  

E-print Network

Econometrics is based on the nonempiric notion of utility. Prices, dynamics, and market equilibria are supposed to be derived from utility. Utility is usually treated by economists as a price potential, other times utility rates are treated as Lagrangians. Assumptions of integrability of Lagrangians and dynamics are implicitly and uncritically made. In particular, economists assume that price is the gradient of utility in equilibrium, but I show that price as the gradient of utility is an integrability condition for the Hamiltonian dynamics of an optimization problem in econometric control theory. One consequence is that, in a nonintegrable dynamical system, price cannot be expressed as a function of demand or supply variables. Another consequence is that utility maximization does not describe equiulibrium. I point out that the maximization of Gibbs entropy would describe equilibrium, if equilibrium could be achieved, but equilibrium does not describe real markets. To emphasize the inconsistency of the economists' notion of 'equilibrium', I discuss both deterministic and stochastic dynamics of excess demand and observe that Adam Smith's stabilizing hand is not to be found either in deterministic or stochastic dynamical models of markets, nor in the observed motions of asset prices. Evidence for stability of prices of assets in free markets simply has not been found.

Joseph L. McCauley



Expectancy?×?value effects: Regulatory focus as determinant of magnitude and direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose that a promotion focus involves construal of achievement goals as aspirations whose attainment brings accomplishment. Commitment to these accomplishment goals is character- ized by attempts to attain the highest expected utility. In contrast, a prevention focus involves construal of achievement goals as responsibilities whose attainment brings security. Commitment to these security goals is characterized by doing what

James Shah; E. Tory Higgins



Coercive Sexual Experiences, Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies and Consumption Among Male and Female College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female college students. We surveyed 370 college students regarding their past year

Rebekka S. Palmer; Thomas J. McMahon; Bruce J. Rounsaville; Samuel A. Ball



Coercive Sexual Experiences, Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies and Consumption among Male and Female College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female…

Palmer, Rebekka S.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.



Dopamine Reward Prediction Error Responses Reflect Marginal Utility  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Optimal choices require an accurate neuronal representation of economic value. In economics, utility functions are mathematical representations of subjective value that can be constructed from choices under risk. Utility usually exhibits a nonlinear relationship to physical reward value that corresponds to risk attitudes and reflects the increasing or decreasing marginal utility obtained with each additional unit of reward. Accordingly, neuronal reward responses coding utility should robustly reflect this nonlinearity. Results In two monkeys, we measured utility as a function of physical reward value from meaningful choices under risk (that adhered to first- and second-order stochastic dominance). The resulting nonlinear utility functions predicted the certainty equivalents for new gambles, indicating that the functions’ shapes were meaningful. The monkeys were risk seeking (convex utility function) for low reward and risk avoiding (concave utility function) with higher amounts. Critically, the dopamine prediction error responses at the time of reward itself reflected the nonlinear utility functions measured at the time of choices. In particular, the reward response magnitude depended on the first derivative of the utility function and thus reflected the marginal utility. Furthermore, dopamine responses recorded outside of the task reflected the marginal utility of unpredicted reward. Accordingly, these responses were sufficient to train reinforcement learning models to predict the behaviorally defined expected utility of gambles. Conclusions These data suggest a neuronal manifestation of marginal utility in dopamine neurons and indicate a common neuronal basis for fundamental explanatory constructs in animal learning theory (prediction error) and economic decision theory (marginal utility). PMID:25283778

Stauffer, William R.; Lak, Armin; Schultz, Wolfram



Service Level Agreement (SLA) in Utility Computing Systems  

E-print Network

Service Level Agreement (SLA) in Utility Computing Systems Linlin Wu and Rajkumar Buyya Cloud years, extensive research has been conducted in the area of Service Level Agreement (SLA) for utility computing systems. An SLA is a formal contract used to guarantee that consumers service quality expectation

Buyya, Rajkumar


Verification of automotive networks -what to expect (and not expect) from each  

E-print Network

Verification of automotive networks - what to expect (and not expect) from each technique Nicolas NAVET ­ "Automotive Bus systems + Ethernet" Stuttgart, Germany, December 9-11, 2013. December 09, 2013 #12;1 Outline - 212/11/2013Automotive Bus systems + Ethernet Early-stage timing

Navet, Nicolas


Attitudes and expectations: do attitudes towards education mediate the relationship between social networks and parental expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous international research has shown that educational goals are fundamental for explaining differences in the educational attainment between individuals. For a better understanding of educational inequality, it is therefore crucial to know more about the mechanisms leading to different expectations. Our paper contributes to this field of research by empirically testing how social networks affect educational expectations of mothers for

Tobias Roth; Zerrin Salikutluk



Chapter 5. Measurements of Expectations: The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) Survey  

E-print Network

138 Chapter 5. Measurements of Expectations: The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) Survey I successfully learned physics in addition to doing well on the exams. C. Why a Survey? The FCI and other concept as measured by multiple- choice concepts tests compared to traditional instruction (see chapter 4). However

Maryland at College Park, University of


Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…

Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.



Alcohol expectancies of Irish and Canadian alcoholics.  


Recent approaches in alcohol research have dealt with the positive and negative expectations of drinkers regarding alcohol consumption. In this study 61 White male alcoholics from a residential treatment program in Ireland were compared with 53 White male alcoholics from a similar program in Canada on their rank ordering of 13 positive and 12 negative expected consequences from drinking. The Irish seemed to drink for social reasons, striving for tranquilization, detachment, and self-absorption. Their greatest concern was that tranquilization would fail, and they also feared the physical consequences of drinking. Canadians drank for social/sexual enhancement and worried most about trouble with authorities over aggression and getting into debt. PMID:3235223

Teahan, J E



Candidate preferences and expectations of election outcomes.  


Analysis of data from the American Life Panel shows that in the presidential election of 2008 and in multiple statewide elections in 2010, citizens exhibited large differences in their expectations of election outcomes. Expectations were strongly positively associated with candidate preferences, persons tending to believe that their preferred candidate is more likely to win the election. Committed supporters of opposing candidates regularly differed by 20-30% in their assessments of the likelihood that each candidate would win. These findings contribute evidence on the false consensus effect, the empirical regularity that own preferences tend to be positively associated with perceptions of social preferences. We used unique measures of preferences and perceptions that enabled respondents to express uncertainty flexibly. We studied a setting that would a priori seem inhospitable to false consensus--one where persons have little private information on social preferences but substantial common knowledge provided by media reports of election polls. PMID:22355121

Delavande, Adeline; Manski, Charles F



Pharmacy student expectations for professional practice.  


The professional employment market for pharmacists has changed radically in recent years. Additionally, data regarding perception of future practice among pharmacy students are limited. The purpose of this study was to characterize expectations for professional practice among pharmacy students and to identify curriculum support at a college of pharmacy. A survey examining student educational experiences, career preferences, and demographic variables was distributed to 1,297 students enrolled in the first to sixth year. Six hundred thirty responses were evaluated. Doctor of Pharmacy students indicated that their education better prepared them for their expected career than did Bachelor of Science students (P < .03). The former also had a more positive outlook regarding future career opportunities than the latter (P < .01) and indicated to a greater extent that HMOs and pharmacy benefit management companies are growing sources of employment for pharmacists (P < .001). PMID:10182238

Baran, R W; Shaw, J; Crumlish, K



Scratch Collapse Test Localizes Osborne’s Band as the Point of Maximal Nerve Compression in Cubital Tunnel Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to demonstrate the utility of the scratch collapse test (SCT) in localizing the point of maximal\\u000a compression in cubital tunnel syndrome. From January 1, 2004 to December 1, 2005, 64 adult patients with cubital tunnel syndrome\\u000a were evaluated by a single surgeon. Cubital tunnel syndrome was diagnosed based upon symptoms of numbness, tingling, and\\/or

Justin M. Brown; David Mokhtee; Maristella S. Evangelista; Susan E. Mackinnon



Adaptive Statistical QoS: Learning Parameters to Maximize End-to-End Network Good-put  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an adaptive QoS system that seeks to maximize end-to-end success through learning algorithms that take queue depths as input to control weighted fair queue provision. Utilizing an analytical model we generate queue depth and E2E success data for various levels of load and WFQ provision and generate a WFQ provision surface for two classes of real time traffic

Scott C. Evans; P. Liu; A. Rothe; K. Goebel; W. Yan; I. Weerakoon; M. Egan



Assessing Patients' Expectations in Ambulatory Medical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare three different approaches to the measurement of patients' expectations for care, we conducted a randomized controlled\\u000a trial. Medical outpatients (n = 318) of a small (six-physician), single-specialty (internal medicine), academically affiliated\\u000a private practice in Sacramento, California, were contacted by telephone the night before a scheduled office visit and enrolled\\u000a over a 5-month period in early 1994. Patients were

Richard L. Kravitz; Edward J. Callahan; Rahman Azari; Deirdre Antonius; Charles E. Lewis



Water in stars: expected and unexpected  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have confirmed the presence of water in the early M giant alpha Cet (M1.5III) and supergiant KK Per (M2Iab) by the highest resolution grating mode of SWS, but this result is quite unexpected from present model atmospheres. In late M giant and supergiant stars, water observed originates partly in the photosphere as expected by the model atmospheres, but ISO

T. Tsuji; W. Aoki; K. Ohnaka



Leverage Expectations and Bond Credit Spreads  

E-print Network

Credit Spreads Mark J. Flannery, Stanislava (Stas) Nikolova, and Özde Öztekin? Abstract In an efficient market, spreads will reflect both the issuer’s current risk and investors’ expectations about how that risk might change over time. Collin... and ?Flannery,, Warrington College of Business Administration, University of Florida, PO Box 117168, Gainesville, FL 32611; Nikolova,, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F St NE, Washington, DC 20549; ¨Oztekin, ozde...

Flannery, Mark J.; Nikolova, Stanislava; Ö ztekin, Ö zde



First Contact: Expectations of Beginning Astronomy Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three hundred seven undergraduate students enrolled in Introductory Astronomy were surveyed at the beginning of class to determine their expectations for course content. The course serves as a survey of astronomy for non-science majors and is a distribution course for general education core requirements. The course has no prerequisites, meets three times each week for 50 minutes, and represents three semester credit hours. The university catalog describes the course with the title "PHYSICS 101 - Mysteries of the Sky" and the official course description is: a survey of the struggle to understand the Universe and our place therein. The structure, growth, methods, and limitations of science will be illustrated using the development of astronomy as a vehicle. Present day views of the Universe are presented. Two questions were asked as open response items: What made you decide to take this course? and What do you expect to learn in this course? The reasons that students cited to take the course, in order of frequency, were: interested in astronomy, interesting or fun sounding course, required general education fulfillment, recommendation by peer. Secondary reasons cited were required for major or minor, general interest in science, and was available in the schedule. Tertiary reasons listed were recommendation by advisor or orientation leader, inflate grade point average, and heard good things about the teacher. The students' expectations about what they would learn in the course were numerous. The most common objects listed, in order of frequency, were: stars, constellations, planets, galaxies, black holes, solar system, comets, galaxies, asteroids, moon, and Sun. More interesting were the aspects not specifically related to astronomy. These were weather, atmosphere, UFOs and the unexplained, generally things in the sky. A mid-course survey suggests that students expected to learn more constellations and that the topics would be less in-depth.

Lacey, T. L.; Slater, T. F.



Decreasing bullying behaviors in middle school: expect respect.  


A nonconcurrent multiple baseline across 3 middle schools was used to assess the impact that teaching all students to follow the Bullying and Harassment Prevention in Positive Behavior Support: Expect Respect intervention had on bullying behaviors. The 3 schools were using School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and as part of this effort all students in each school had been taught to discriminate "respectful" versus "nonrespectful" behavior. The Expect Respect intervention included, 3 1-hr lessons over a 6-month period to learn (a) how to signal "stop" when encountering nonrespectful behavior, (b) how to follow a "stopping routine" when asked to stop, (c) how to utilize the "bystander routine" when you are a witness to disrespectful behavior that does not stop even after the perpetrator has been asked to, and (d) how to recruit adult support if bullying behaviors endured. Before intervention implementation, 8 students from each school were engaged in focus groups to define the perceived need for bully prevention, and the bully prevention routines that best fit the social culture of their school. Data assessing the fidelity of intervention implementation indicate that the program was used with high fidelity and that in each of the 3 schools a reduction of verbal or physical aggression in the cafeteria was documented via direct observation. No consistent patterns were found with respect to the conditional probabilities that bystanders or recipients of bullying would use the bully prevention routines. No consistent changes were reported in student pre-post rating of school climate. PMID:24820010

Nese, Rhonda N T; Horner, Robert H; Dickey, Celeste Rossetto; Stiller, Brianna; Tomlanovich, Anne



Context-driven expectations about focus alternatives.  


What is conveyed by a sentence frequently depends not only on the descriptive content carried by its words, but also on implicit alternatives determined by the context of use. Four visual world eye-tracking experiments examined how alternatives are generated based on aspects of the discourse context and used in interpreting sentences containing the focus operators only and also. Experiment 1 builds on previous reading time studies showing that the interpretations of only sentences are constrained by alternatives explicitly mentioned in the preceding discourse, providing fine-grained time course information about the expectations triggered by only. Experiments 2 and 3 show that, in the absence of explicitly mentioned alternatives, lexical and situation-based categories evoked by the context are possible sources of alternatives. While Experiments 1-3 all demonstrate the discourse dependence of alternatives, only explicit mention triggered expectations about alternatives that were specific to sentences with only. By comparing only with also, Experiment 4 begins to disentangle expectations linked to the meanings of specific operators from those generalizable to the class of focus-sensitive operators. Together, these findings show that the interpretation of sentences with focus operators draws on both dedicated mechanisms for introducing alternatives into the discourse context and general mechanisms associated with discourse processing. PMID:25797456

Kim, Christina S; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Runner, Jeffrey T



Employee perceptions of 'profiled' customers' expectations.  


There has been an increasing interest in the issues of quality in service delivery. The SERVQUAL theory addresses these issues and identifies the causes of service quality problems. The practical, managerial implications of the SERVQUAL theory and model are currently being addressed (Reidenbach and Sandifer-Smallwood, 1990; Woodside, Frey and Daly, 1989; Mangold and Babakus, 1991; Webster, 1989; Day, 1992). A handful of these articles have specifically addressed the managerial implications of the SERVQUAL Gap 1 analysis: the identification of employee and management perceptions of consumer expectations (Mangold and Babakus, 1991; Headley and Choi, 1992; Bebko, 1994). Previously, none of the research had mentioned the potential problems inherent in Gap 1 analysis when the organization is faced with several "types" of customers, each with possibly different expectations. Consequently, the results of the GAP 1 analysis may not represent the true picture of employee perceptions of consumer expectations. This would have implications for the validity of the SERVQUAL instrument in assessing a service's ability to deliver quality to consumers. PMID:10186252

Bebko, C P



Couvade Syndrome among Polish expectant fathers  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the conducted study was to analyze the phenomenon of Couvade Syndrome amongst fathers expecting their children in Poland. The authors examined the frequency of couvade symptoms in male subjects as well as their associations with male empathy. Material/Methods The research involved 143 expectant fathers. All subjects attended antenatal classes, and their female partners were in their third trimester. Before the start of classes, participants were asked to fill in the following questionnaires: a survey for measurement of Couvade Syndrome (which includes a set of 16 symptoms identified by Lipkin and Lamb (19) and translated into Polish), and the Empathic Sensitiveness Scale (SWE). Although participants, on average, did not experience Couvade Syndrome, they did experience symptoms that are commonly linked with the syndrome, namely those related to weight (weight gain, changes in appetite and flatulence). Results The results indicate that expectant fathers experience couvade symptoms related to weight (weight gain, changes in appetite and flatulence). The only empathic component that positively correlates with Couvade Syndrome is personal distress, i.e. the tendency to take on the negative emotions of others. Demographic characteristics are not associated with Couvade Syndrome. Conclusions The frequency of couvade symptoms in male subjects is associated with male empathy. In other words, men who are emotionally sensitive or prone to distress may physiologically experience the pregnancy of their female partners, which can be interpreted as compathy. PMID:23425940

Kazmierczak, Maria; Kielbratowska, Bogumi?a; Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Preis, Krzysztof



Maximal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists.  


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of maximal strength training on cycling economy (CE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), work efficiency in cycling at 70% Vo2max, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power. Responses in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) in half-squats, Vo2max, CE, work efficiency, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power were examined. Sixteen competitive road cyclists (12 men and 4 women) were randomly assigned into either an intervention or a control group. Thirteen (10 men and 3 women) cyclists completed the study. The intervention group (7 men and 1 woman) performed half-squats, 4 sets of 4 repetitions maximum, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, as a supplement to their normal endurance training. The control group continued their normal endurance training during the same period. The intervention manifested significant (p < 0.05) improvements in 1RM (14.2%), RFD (16.7%), CE (4.8%), work efficiency (4.7%), and time to exhaustion at pre-intervention maximal aerobic power (17.2%). No changes were found in Vo2max or body weight. The control group exhibited an improvement in work efficiency (1.4%), but this improvement was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller than that in the intervention group. No changes from pre- to postvalues in any of the other parameters were apparent in the control group. In conclusion, maximal strength training for 8 weeks improved CE and efficiency and increased time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power among competitive road cyclists, without change in maximal oxygen uptake, cadence, or body weight. Based on the results from the present study, we advise cyclists to include maximal strength training in their training programs. PMID:19855311

Sunde, Arnstein; Støren, Oyvind; Bjerkaas, Marius; Larsen, Morten H; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan



A utility`s view of repowering  

SciTech Connect

Repowering existing fossil fired steam generation is an attractive alternative for utilities today. The repowered plant optimizes the re-use of the existing steam turbine generator and auxiliary assets along with the installation of clean, modern, efficient combustion turbine generators. The conversion results in a plant which compared favorably on a performance basis with a totally new ``greenfield`` plant, but is lower in capital cost. In addition, repowering makes prudent use of existing utility sites, infrastructure, and experience to provide the lowest cost energy for the end customer. The paper presents Public Service Electric and Gas Company`s views and describes an example of utility repowering at the Bergen Generating Station in New Jersey.

Dunn, R.W. [Public Service Electric and Gas Co., Ridgefield, NJ (United States)



Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required environment/organisms for the production of desired sugar and lipid end-products.

Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.



Bioengineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the Principal Investigator, F.R. Tabita has teemed up with J. C. Liao from UCLA. This project's main goal is to manipulate regulatory networks in phototrophic bacteria to affect and maximize the production of large amounts of hydrogen gas under conditions where wild-type organisms are constrained by inherent regulatory mechanisms from allowing this to occur. Unrestrained production of hydrogen has been achieved and this will allow for the potential utilization of waste materials as a feed stock to support hydrogen production. By further understanding the means by which regulatory networks interact, this study will seek to maximize the ability of currently available “unrestrained” organisms to produce hydrogen. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Moreover, due to their great metabolic versatility, such organisms highly regulate these processes in the cell and since virtually all such capabilities are dispensable, excellent experimental systems to study aspects of molecular control and biochemistry/physiology are available.

Tabita, F. Robert [The Ohio State University] [The Ohio State University



A utility-based power-control scheme in wireless cellular systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed power-control algorithms for systems with hard signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) constraints may diverge when infeasibility arises. In this paper, we present a power-control framework called utility-based power control (UBPC) by reformulating the problem using a softened SIR requirement (utility) and adding a penalty on power consumption (cost). Under this framework, the goal is to maximize the net utility, defined as

Mingbo Xiao; Ness B. Shroff; Edwin K. P. Chong