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1

Maximizing expected utility over a knapsack constraint  

E-print Network

variables so as to maximize the expected utility of the total value of the items picked ..... Following the set S0, let the items added into the solution by the greedy .... constant relative risk aversion (CRRA) utility function in the economics literature.

2014-08-11

2

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization  

E-print Network

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization made a brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification algorithm that uses a twostage applied to a set of normal brain MR images for further testing. We accomplished a working

Chen, Tsuhan

3

Expected utility with lower probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory to characterize uncertainty neutrality and different degrees of uncertainty aversion.

Hans JØrgen Jacobsen; Birgitte Sloth; TORBEN TRANAES

1994-01-01

4

Expected utility theory without the completeness axiom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of obtaining an expected utility representation for a potentially incomplete preference relation over lotteries by means of a set of von Neumann–Morgenstern utility functions. It is shown that, when the prize space is a compact metric space, a preference relation admits such a multi-utility representation provided that it satisfies the standard axioms of expected utility theory.

Juan Dubra; Fabio Maccheroni; Efe A. Ok

2004-01-01

5

Hierarchical Classification by Expected Utility Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical classification refers to an extension of the standard classification problem, in which labels must be chosen from a class hierarchy. In this paper, we look at hi- erarchical classification from an information retrieval point of view. More specifically, we consider a scenario in which a user searches a document in a topic hierarchy. This sce- nario gives rise to

Korinna Bade; Eyke Hüllermeier; Andreas Nürnberger

2006-01-01

6

Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

2013-01-01

7

Blobworld: Image Segmentation Using Expectation-Maximization and  

E-print Network

Blobworld: Image Segmentation Using Expectation-Maximization and Its Application to Image Querying, we present ªBlobworld,º a new framework for image retrieval based on segmentation into regions representations. Image segmentation is a difficult problem. Segmentation algorithms inevitably make mistakes

Malik, Jitendra

8

Globally Optimal Distributed Power Control for Nonconcave Utility Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future wireless networks are expected to operate in dense environments where\\u000athe system capacity is fundamentally limited by severe co-channel interference\\u000aamong neighboring links. Transmit-power control has been recently explored as\\u000aan important interference-mitigation technique that aims to maximize a system\\u000aefficiency metric, which is often measured by a system utility function.\\u000aOptimal power control is known to be difficult

Li Ping Qian; Ying Jun Zhang; Mung Chiang

2010-01-01

9

UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Option price without expected utility  

E-print Network

UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Option price without expected utility 2 Paan Jindapon a, , W. Douglass Shaw b 3 of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2124, United States 5 a r t i c l e i n

Shaw, W. Douglass

10

Evolutionary tree reconstruction using structural expectation maximization and homotopy.  

PubMed

The evolutionary tree reconstruction algorithm called SEMPHY using structural expectation maximization (SEM) is an efficient approach but has local optimality problem. To improve SEMPHY, a new algorithm named HSEMPHY based on the homotopy continuation principle is proposed in the present study for reconstructing evolutionary trees. The HSEMPHY algorithm computes the condition probability of hidden variables in the structural through maximum entropy principle. It can reduce the influence of the initial value of the final resolution by simulating the process of the homotopy principle and by introducing the homotopy parameter beta. HSEMPHY is tested on real datasets and simulated dataset to compare with SEMPHY and the two most popular reconstruction approaches PHYML and RAXML. Experimental results show that HSEMPHY is at least as good as PHYML and RAXML and is very robust to poor starting trees. PMID:17985305

Li, J; Guo, M

2007-01-01

11

Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets with Random Endowment  

E-print Network

Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets with Random Endowment Jak#20;sa Cvitani#19;c #3 utility from terminal wealth of an agent with a random endowment process, in the general, semimartingale maximization, incomplete markets, random endow- ment, duality. JEL classi#12;cation: G11, G12; C61 AMS 1991

Schachermayer, Walter

12

What utilities should expect from competitive intelligence  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities are informationally dysfunctional. In a survey of electric utility managers, we found that while employees may possess the necessary information for decision-making, they may not understand how the information is used, why it is important, or who needs to know it. Utility managers feel that their organizations suffer from intelligence deficits in the following areas: (1) Customer Retention-Customer (rather than competitor) intelligence is desparately needed, (2) Competitor Costs-As prices drive markets, utilities must learn how competitors use the technology to gain a cost advantage, and (3) Market Savvy-Recognizing threats means more that just crunching the numbers. It means converting raw data into a strategy that will expose a competitor`s weakness. The complex economics will require companies to apply all types of intelligence to solve competitive problems. This coherent approach requires changes in the way both management and the organization handle vital intelligence.

Fuld, L.M.; Borska, D.L. [Fuld & Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-03-01

13

Optimizing Expected Time Utility in Cyber-Physical Systems Schedulers  

E-print Network

Optimizing Expected Time Utility in Cyber-Physical Systems Schedulers Terry Tidwell, Robert- mantics found in many real-time cyber-physical systems. Time utility functions provide a necessarily expected utility accrual for cyber-physical systems with periodic, non-preemptable tasks that run

14

Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets with Random Endowment  

E-print Network

Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets with Random Endowment Jaksa Cvitani´c Department terminal wealth of an agent with a random endowment process, in the general, semimartingale model markets, random endow- ment, duality. JEL classification: G11, G12; C61 AMS 1991 subject classifications

Schachermayer, Walter

15

Multivariate utility maximization with proportional transaction costs and random endowment  

E-print Network

Multivariate utility maximization with proportional transaction costs and random endowment Giuseppe the results in [CO10] to the situation where the agent is initially endowed with a random and possibly of a solution to the dual and (under an additional boundedness assumption on the endowment) to the primal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets with Random Endowment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper solves a long-standing open problem in mathematical nance: to nd a solution to the problem of maximizing utility from terminal wealth of an agent with a random endowment process, in the general, semimartingale model for incomplete markets, and to charac- terize it via the associated dual problem. We show that this is indeed possible if the dual problem

Walter Schachermayer; Hui Wang

2000-01-01

17

An Expectation Maximization Approach for Integrated Registration, Segmentation, and Intensity Correction  

E-print Network

This paper presents a statistical framework which combines the registration of an atlas with the segmentation of MR images. We use an Expectation Maximization-based algorithm to find a solution within the model, which ...

Pohl, Kilian M.

2005-04-01

18

AREM: Aligning Short Reads from ChIP-Sequencing by Expectation Maximization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-throughput sequencing coupled to chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-Seq) is widely used in characterizing genome-wide binding patterns of transcription factors, cofactors, chromatin modifiers, and other DNA binding proteins. A key step in ChIP-Seq data analysis is to map short reads from high-throughput sequencing to a reference genome and identify peak regions enriched with short reads. Although several methods have been proposed for ChIP-Seq analysis, most existing methods only consider reads that can be uniquely placed in the reference genome, and therefore have low power for detecting peaks located within repeat sequences. Here we introduce a probabilistic approach for ChIP-Seq data analysis which utilizes all reads, providing a truly genome-wide view of binding patterns. Reads are modeled using a mixture model corresponding to K enriched regions and a null genomic background. We use maximum likelihood to estimate the locations of the enriched regions, and implement an expectation-maximization (E-M) algorithm, called AREM (aligning reads by expectation maximization), to update the alignment probabilities of each read to different genomic locations. We apply the algorithm to identify genome-wide binding events of two proteins: Rad21, a component of cohesin and a key factor involved in chromatid cohesion, and Srebp-1, a transcription factor important for lipid/cholesterol homeostasis. Using AREM, we were able to identify 19,935 Rad21 peaks and 1,748 Srebp-1 peaks in the mouse genome with high confidence, including 1,517 (7.6%) Rad21 peaks and 227 (13%) Srebp-1 peaks that were missed using only uniquely mapped reads. The open source implementation of our algorithm is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/arem

Newkirk, Daniel; Biesinger, Jacob; Chon, Alvin; Yokomori, Kyoko; Xie, Xiaohui

19

Utility maximization in incomplete markets with random endowment  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This paper solves the following problem of mathematical finance: to find a solution to the problem of maximizing utility\\u000a from terminal wealth of an agent with a random endowment process, in the general, semimartingale model for incomplete markets,\\u000a and to characterize it via the associated dual problem. We show that this is possible if the dual problem and its

Jakša Cvitani?; Walter Schachermayer; Hui Wang

2001-01-01

20

Optimizing Expected Time Utility in Cyber-Physical Systems Schedulers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical scheduling abstractions such as deadlines and priorities do not readily capture the complex timing semantics found in many real-time cyber-physical systems. Time utility functions provide a necessarily richer description of timing semantics, but designing utility-aware scheduling policies using them is an open research problem. In particular, scheduling design that optimizes expected utility accrual is needed for real-time cyber-physical domains.

Terry Tidwell; Robert Glaubius; Christopher D. Gill; William D. Smart

2010-01-01

21

A robust Expectation-Maximization algorithm for Multiple Sclerosis lesion segmentation  

E-print Network

A robust Expectation-Maximization algorithm for Multiple Sclerosis lesion segmentation Daniel Garc, Rennes, France Abstract A fully automatic workflow for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation. 1 Introduction Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been used as a biomarker for Multiple Sclerosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Combining Robust Expectation Maximization and Mean Shift algorithms for Multiple Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Combining Robust Expectation Maximization and Mean Shift algorithms for Multiple Sclerosis Brain of white matter lesions and normal appearing brain tissues in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is pre- sented. Two and local information to improve image segmentation. 1 Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Testing for linkage disequilibrium in genotypic data using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize an approach suggested by Hill (Heredity, 33, 229–239, 1974) for testing for significant association among alleles at two loci when only genotype and not haplotype frequencies are available. The principle is to use the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to resolve double heterozygotes into haplotypes and then apply a likelihood ratio test in order to determine whether the resolutions of

Montgomery Slatkin; Laurent Excoffier

1996-01-01

24

Prediction on Travel-Time Distribution for Freeways Using Online Expectation Maximization Algorithm  

E-print Network

Prediction on Travel-Time Distribution for Freeways Using Online Expectation Maximization Algorithm to freeway travel-time prediction. The approach uses the Link-Node Cell Transmission Model (LN-CTM) to model traffic and provides a probability distribution for travel time. On-ramp and mainline flow profiles

Horowitz, Roberto

25

Identification and restoration of noisy blurred images using the expectation-maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum-likelihood approach to the blur identification problem is presented. The expectation-maximization algorithm is proposed to optimize the nonlinear likelihood function in an efficient way. In order to improve the performance of the identification algorithm, low-order parametric image and blur models are incorporated into the identification method. The resulting iterative technique simultaneously identifies and restores noisy blurred images

REGINALD L. LAGENDIJK; JAN BIEMOND; DICK E. BOEKEE

1990-01-01

26

Optimal Insurance Design under Rank-Dependent Expected Utility  

E-print Network

Optimal Insurance Design under Rank-Dependent Expected Utility Carole Bernard , Xue Dong He , Jia-An Yan§ and Xun Yu Zhou¶ October 8, 2012 Abstract We consider an optimal insurance design problem of quantile formulation, we solve the problem explicitly. We show that the optimal contract not only insures

27

Subjective expected utility: A review of normative theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews theories of subjective expected utility for decision making under uncertainty. It focuses on normative interpretations and discusses the primitives, axioms and representation-uniqueness theorems for a number of theories. Similarities and differences among the various theories are highlighted. The interplay between realistic decision structures and structural axioms that facilitate mathematical derivations is also emphasized.

Peter C. Fishburn

1981-01-01

28

DNA Motif Detection Using Particle Swarm Optimization and Expectation-Maximization  

PubMed Central

Motif discovery, the process of discovering a meaningful pattern of nucleotides or amino acids that is shared by two or more molecules, is an important part of the study of gene function. In this paper, we propose a hybrid motif discovery approach based upon a combination of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, we use PSO to generate a seed for the EM algorithm. PMID:20436786

Hardin, C.T.; Rouchka, Eric C.

2010-01-01

29

A simple test of expected utility theory using professional traders  

PubMed Central

We compare behavior across students and professional traders from the Chicago Board of Trade in a classic Allais paradox experiment. Our experiment tests whether independence, a necessary condition in expected utility theory, is systematically violated. We find that both students and professionals exhibit some behavior consistent with the Allais paradox, but the data pattern does suggest that the trader population falls prey to the Allais paradox less frequently than the student population. PMID:15634739

List, John A.; Haigh, Michael S.

2005-01-01

30

Maximum-entropy expectation-maximization algorithm for image reconstruction and sensor field estimation.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a maximum-entropy expectation-maximization (MEEM) algorithm. We use the proposed algorithm for density estimation. The maximum-entropy constraint is imposed for smoothness of the estimated density function. The derivation of the MEEM algorithm requires determination of the covariance matrix in the framework of the maximum-entropy likelihood function, which is difficult to solve analytically. We, therefore, derive the MEEM algorithm by optimizing a lower-bound of the maximum-entropy likelihood function. We note that the classical expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been employed previously for 2-D density estimation. We propose to extend the use of the classical EM algorithm for image recovery from randomly sampled data and sensor field estimation from randomly scattered sensor networks. We further propose to use our approach in density estimation, image recovery and sensor field estimation. Computer simulation experiments are used to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed MEEM algorithm in comparison to existing methods. PMID:18482885

Hong, Hunsop; Schonfeld, Dan

2008-06-01

31

Social Group Utility Maximization in Mobile Networks: From Altruistic to Malicious Behavior  

E-print Network

Social Group Utility Maximization in Mobile Networks: From Altruistic to Malicious Behavior Xiaowen State University {xgong9, xchen179, junshan.zhang}@asu.edu Abstract--We develop a social group utility maximization (SGUM) game framework that takes into account both social relationships and physical coupling

Reisslein, Martin

32

Implementation and evaluation of an expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm for gamma emission breast tomosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We are developing a dual modality tomosynthesis breast scanner in which x-ray transmission tomosynthesis and gamma emission tomosynthesis are performed sequentially with the breast in a common configuration. In both modalities projection data are obtained over an angular range of less than 180° from one side of the mildly compressed breast resulting in incomplete and asymmetrical sampling. The objective of this work is to implement and evaluate a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) reconstruction algorithm for gamma emission breast tomosynthesis (GEBT). Methods: A combination of Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments was used to test the MLEM algorithm for GEBT. The algorithm utilizes prior information obtained from the x-ray breast tomosynthesis scan to partially compensate for the incomplete angular sampling and to perform attenuation correction (AC) and resolution recovery (RR). System spatial resolution, image artifacts, lesion contrast, and signal to noise ratio (SNR) were measured as image quality figures of merit. To test the robustness of the reconstruction algorithm and to assess the relative impacts of correction techniques with changing angular range, simulations and experiments were both performed using acquisition angular ranges of 45°, 90° and 135°. For comparison, a single projection containing the same total number of counts as the full GEBT scan was also obtained to simulate planar breast scintigraphy. Results: The in-plane spatial resolution of the reconstructed GEBT images is independent of source position within the reconstructed volume and independent of acquisition angular range. For 45° acquisitions, spatial resolution in the depth dimension (the direction of breast compression) is degraded with increasing source depth (increasing distance from the collimator surface). Increasing the acquisition angular range from 45° to 135° both greatly reduces this depth dependence and improves the average depth dimension resolution from 10.8 to 4.8 mm. The 135° acquisition results in a near-isotropic, spatially uniform 3D resolution of approximately 4.3 mm full width at half maximum. Background nonuniformity (cupping) artifacts arise primarily from angular incompleteness for small angular range acquisition but primarily from gamma ray attenuation at larger angular range. However, background artifacts can be largely eliminated if both prior information regularization and AC are applied. An artificial decrease in lesion voxel value with increasing lesion depth can also be substantially reduced through a combination of AC and RR. In experiments using compressible gelatin breast phantoms, lesion contrast and SNR are about 2.6–8.8 times and 2.3–5.6 times higher, respectively, in GEBT than in planar breast scintigraphy depending on the acquisition angle, the gamma camera trajectory, and the lesion location. In addition, the strong reduction in lesion contrast and SNR with increasing lesion depth that is observed in planar breast scintigraphy can be largely overcome in GEBT. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated a promising EM-based reconstruction scheme for use in GEBT. Compared to planar breast scintigraphy GEBT provides superior and less position-dependent lesion contrast, lesion SNR, and spatial resolution as well as more accurate quantification of lesion-to-background activity concentration ratio. PMID:23231306

Gong, Zongyi; Klanian, Kelly; Patel, Tushita; Sullivan, Olivia; Williams, Mark B.

2012-01-01

33

Outlier Detection for the Nonlinear Gauss Helmert Model With Variance Components by the Expectation Maximization Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Best invariant quadratic unbiased estimates (BIQUE) of the variance and covariance components for a nonlinear Gauss Helmert (GH) model are derived. To detect outliers, the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm based on the variance-inflation model and the mean-shift model is applied, which results in an iterative reweighting least squares. Each step of the iterations for the EM algorithm therefore includes first the iterations for linearizing the GH model and then the iterations for estimating the variance components. The method is applied to fit a surface in three-dimensional space to the three coordinates of points measured, for instance, by a laser scanner. The surface is represented by a polynomial of second degree and the variance components of the three coordinates are estimated. Outliers are detected by the EM algorithm based on the variance-inflation model and identified by the EM algorithm for the mean-shift model.

Koch, Karl-Rudolf

2014-09-01

34

Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture.  

PubMed

Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management. PMID:25538868

Kreitler, Jason; Stoms, David M; Davis, Frank W

2014-01-01

35

Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture  

PubMed Central

Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.

2014-01-01

36

An homomorphic filtering and expectation maximization approach for the point spread function estimation in ultrasound imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern ultrasound imaging systems, the spatial resolution is severely limited due to the effects of both the finite aperture and overall bandwidth of ultrasound transducers and the non-negligible width of the transmitted ultrasound beams. This low spatial resolution remains the major limiting factor in the clinical usefulness of medical ultrasound images. In order to recover clinically important image details, which are often masked due to this resolution limitation, an image restoration procedure should be applied. To this end, an estimation of the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the ultrasound imaging system is required. This paper introduces a novel, original, reliable, and fast Maximum Likelihood (ML) approach for recovering the PSF of an ultrasound imaging system. This new PSF estimation method assumes as a constraint that the PSF is of known parametric form. Under this constraint, the parameter values of its associated Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) are then efficiently estimated using a homomorphic filter, a denoising step, and an expectation-maximization (EM) based clustering algorithm. Given this PSF estimate, a deconvolution can then be efficiently used in order to improve the spatial resolution of an ultrasound image and to obtain an estimate (independent of the properties of the imaging system) of the true tissue reflectivity function. The experiments reported in this paper demonstrate the efficiency and illustrate all the potential of this new estimation and blind deconvolution approach.

Benameur, S.; Mignotte, M.; Lavoie, F.

2012-03-01

37

An approach to operational modal analysis using the expectation maximization algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the Expectation Maximization algorithm (EM) applied to operational modal analysis of structures. The EM algorithm is a general-purpose method for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) that in this work is used to estimate state space models. As it is well known, the MLE enjoys some optimal properties from a statistical point of view, which make it very attractive in practice. However, the EM algorithm has two main drawbacks: its slow convergence and the dependence of the solution on the initial values used. This paper proposes two different strategies to choose initial values for the EM algorithm when used for operational modal analysis: to begin with the parameters estimated by Stochastic Subspace Identification method (SSI) and to start using random points. The effectiveness of the proposed identification method has been evaluated through numerical simulation and measured vibration data in the context of a benchmark problem. Modal parameters (natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of the benchmark structure have been estimated using SSI and the EM algorithm. On the whole, the results show that the application of the EM algorithm starting from the solution given by SSI is very useful to identify the vibration modes of a structure, discarding the spurious modes that appear in high order models and discovering other hidden modes. Similar results are obtained using random starting values, although this strategy allows us to analyze the solution of several starting points what overcome the dependence on the initial values used.

Cara, F. Javier; Carpio, Jaime; Juan, Jesús; Alarcón, Enrique

2012-08-01

38

Modelling Transcriptional Regulation with a Mixture of Factor Analyzers and Variational Bayesian Expectation Maximization  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms of gene transcriptional regulation through analysis of high-throughput postgenomic data is one of the central problems of computational systems biology. Various approaches have been proposed, but most of them fail to address at least one of the following objectives: (1) allow for the fact that transcription factors are potentially subject to posttranscriptional regulation; (2) allow for the fact that transcription factors cooperate as a functional complex in regulating gene expression, and (3) provide a model and a learning algorithm with manageable computational complexity. The objective of the present study is to propose and test a method that addresses these three issues. The model we employ is a mixture of factor analyzers, in which the latent variables correspond to different transcription factors, grouped into complexes or modules. We pursue inference in a Bayesian framework, using the Variational Bayesian Expectation Maximization (VBEM) algorithm for approximate inference of the posterior distributions of the model parameters, and estimation of a lower bound on the marginal likelihood for model selection. We have evaluated the performance of the proposed method on three criteria: activity profile reconstruction, gene clustering, and network inference. PMID:19572011

2009-01-01

39

Expecting the unexpected: applying the Develop-Distort Dilemma to maximize positive market impacts in health.  

PubMed

Although health interventions start with good intentions to develop services for disadvantaged populations, they often distort the health market, making the delivery or financing of services difficult once the intervention is over: a condition called the 'Develop-Distort Dilemma' (DDD). In this paper, we describe how to examine whether a proposed intervention may develop or distort the health market. Our goal is to produce a tool that facilitates meaningful and systematic dialogue for practitioners and researchers to ensure that well-intentioned health interventions lead to productive health systems while reducing the undesirable distortions of such efforts. We apply the DDD tool to plan for development rather than distortions in health markets, using intervention research being conducted under the Future Health Systems consortium in Bangladesh, China and Uganda. Through a review of research proposals and interviews with principal investigators, we use the DDD tool to systematically understand how a project fits within the broader health market system, and to identify gaps in planning for sustainability. We found that while current stakeholders and funding sources for activities were easily identified, future ones were not. The implication is that the projects could raise community expectations that future services will be available and paid for, despite this actually being uncertain. Each project addressed the 'rules' of the health market system differently. The China research assesses changes in the formal financing rules, whereas Bangladesh and Uganda's projects involve influencing community level providers, where informal rules are more important. In each case, we recognize the importance of building trust between providers, communities and government officials. Each project could both develop and distort local health markets. Anyone intervening in the health market must recognize the main market perturbations, whether positive or negative, and manage them so as to maximize the benefits to the health system and population health. PMID:23014153

Peters, David H; Paina, Ligia; Bennett, Sara

2012-10-01

40

What Does Industry Expect From An Electrical Utility  

E-print Network

The electric utility industry is an important supplier to Union Carbide and as such must become a proactive participant in our quality programs which are aimed at continuous improvement in everything we do. The essential ingredients in the supplier...

Jensen, C. V.

41

Bandwidth utilization maximization of scientific RF communication systems  

SciTech Connect

A method for more efficiently utilizing the frequency bandwidth allocated for data transmission is presented. Current space and range communication systems use modulation and coding schemes that transmit 0.5 to 1.0 bits per second per Hertz of radio frequency bandwidth. The goal in this LDRD project is to increase the bandwidth utilization by employing advanced digital communications techniques. This is done with little or no increase in the transmit power which is usually very limited on airborne systems. Teaming with New Mexico State University, an implementation of trellis coded modulation (TCM), a coding and modulation scheme pioneered by Ungerboeck, was developed for this application and simulated on a computer. TCM provides a means for reliably transmitting data while simultaneously increasing bandwidth efficiency. The penalty is increased receiver complexity. In particular, the trellis decoder requires high-speed, application-specific digital signal processing (DSP) chips. A system solution based on the QualComm Viterbi decoder and the Graychip DSP receiver chips is presented.

Rey, D. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryan, W. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ross, M.

1997-01-01

42

Measurement and utilization of healthy life expectancy: conceptual issues.  

PubMed Central

The periodic calculation of healthy life expectancies permits the evaluation of the impact of new health policies at a given moment, as well as the assessment of trends under changing health conditions. In spite of their apparent simplicity, the results obtained will have to be interpreted by experts. Useful reference values can be provided by international comparisons. However, several choices remain to be made, such as (i) the types of morbidity and disability data to be associated with mortality data; (ii) the multiple indicators available; (iii) the type of observations to be recorded, i.e., "abilities" or "performances"; (iv) whether or not the recovery of lost functions should be considered; (v) the mode of computation, i.e., life expectancy before the first morbid event or global healthy life expectancy; and (vi) the determination of thresholds based on either relative or absolute criteria. PMID:1486677

Robine, J. M.; Michel, J. P.; Branch, L. G.

1992-01-01

43

Recursive expectation-maximization clustering: A method for identifying buffering mechanisms composed of phenomic modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between genetic and/or environmental factors are ubiquitous, affecting the phenotypes of organisms in complex ways. Knowledge about such interactions is becoming rate-limiting for our understanding of human disease and other biological phenomena. Phenomics refers to the integrative analysis of how all genes contribute to phenotype variation, entailing genome and organism level information. A systems biology view of gene interactions is critical for phenomics. Unfortunately the problem is intractable in humans; however, it can be addressed in simpler genetic model systems. Our research group has focused on the concept of genetic buffering of phenotypic variation, in studies employing the single-cell eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We have developed a methodology, quantitative high throughput cellular phenotyping (Q-HTCP), for high-resolution measurements of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on a genome-wide scale. Q-HTCP is being applied to the complete set of S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains, a unique resource for systematically mapping gene interactions. Genetic buffering is the idea that comprehensive and quantitative knowledge about how genes interact with respect to phenotypes will lead to an appreciation of how genes and pathways are functionally connected at a systems level to maintain homeostasis. However, extracting biologically useful information from Q-HTCP data is challenging, due to the multidimensional and nonlinear nature of gene interactions, together with a relative lack of prior biological information. Here we describe a new approach for mining quantitative genetic interaction data called recursive expectation-maximization clustering (REMc). We developed REMc to help discover phenomic modules, defined as sets of genes with similar patterns of interaction across a series of genetic or environmental perturbations. Such modules are reflective of buffering mechanisms, i.e., genes that play a related role in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. To develop the method, 297 gene deletion strains were selected based on gene-drug interactions with hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase enzyme activity, which is critical for DNA synthesis. To partition the gene functions, these 297 deletion strains were challenged with growth inhibitory drugs known to target different genes and cellular pathways. Q-HTCP-derived growth curves were used to quantify all gene interactions, and the data were used to test the performance of REMc. Fundamental advantages of REMc include objective assessment of total number of clusters and assignment to each cluster a log-likelihood value, which can be considered an indicator of statistical quality of clusters. To assess the biological quality of clusters, we developed a method called gene ontology information divergence z-score (GOid_z). GOid_z summarizes total enrichment of GO attributes within individual clusters. Using these and other criteria, we compared the performance of REMc to hierarchical and K-means clustering. The main conclusion is that REMc provides distinct efficiencies for mining Q-HTCP data. It facilitates identification of phenomic modules, which contribute to buffering mechanisms that underlie cellular homeostasis and the regulation of phenotypic expression.

Guo, Jingyu; Tian, Dehua; McKinney, Brett A.; Hartman, John L.

2010-06-01

44

Expected Utility Illustrated: A Graphical Analysis of Gambles with More than Two Possible Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a simple geometric method to graphically illustrate the expected utility from a gamble with more than two possible outcomes. This geometric result gives economics students a simple visual aid for studying expected utility theory and enables them to analyze a richer set of decision problems under uncertainty compared to what…

Chen, Frederick H.

2010-01-01

45

Utility Maximization with Addictive Consumption Habit Formation in Incomplete Semimartingale Markets  

E-print Network

This paper studies the problem of continuous time utility maximization of consumption together with addictive habit formation in general incomplete semimartingale financial markets. By introducing the auxiliary state processes and the modified dual space, we embed our original problem into an auxiliary time separable utility maximization problem with the shadow random endowment. We establish existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution using convex duality approach on the product space by defining the primal value function both on the initial wealth and initial habit. We also provide market independent sufficient conditions both on stochastic discounting processes for the habit formation process and on the utility function for the validity of several key assertions of our main results to hold true.

Yu, Xiang

2011-01-01

46

OPTUM : Optimum Portfolio Tool for Utility Maximization documentation and user's guide.  

SciTech Connect

The Optimum Portfolio Tool for Utility Maximization (OPTUM) is a versatile and powerful tool for selecting, optimizing, and analyzing portfolios. The software introduces a compact interface that facilitates problem definition, complex constraint specification, and portfolio analysis. The tool allows simple comparisons between user-preferred choices and optimized selections. OPTUM uses a portable, efficient, mixed-integer optimization engine (lp-solve) to derive the optimal mix of projects that satisfies the constraints and maximizes the total portfolio utility. OPTUM provides advanced features, such as convenient menus for specifying conditional constraints and specialized graphical displays of the optimal frontier and alternative solutions to assist in sensitivity visualization. OPTUM can be readily applied to other nonportfolio, resource-constrained optimization problems.

VanKuiken, J. C.; Jusko, M. J.; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

2008-09-30

47

Application of an expectation maximization method to the reconstruction of X-ray-tube spectra from transmission data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expectation maximization method is applied to the reconstruction of X-ray tube spectra from transmission measurements in the energy range 7-40 keV. A semiconductor single-photon counting detector, ionization chambers and a scintillator-based detector are used for the experimental measurement of the transmission. The number of iterations required to reach an approximate solution is estimated on the basis of the measurement error, according to the discrepancy principle. The effectiveness of the stopping rule is studied on simulated data and validated with experiments. The quality of the reconstruction depends on the information available on the source itself and the possibility to add this knowledge to the solution process is investigated. The method can produce good approximations provided that the amount of noise in the data can be estimated.

Endrizzi, M.; Delogu, P.; Oliva, P.

2014-12-01

48

Financial Markets with Memory II: Innovation Processes and Expected Utility Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a prediction theory for a class of processes with stationary increments. In particular, we prove a prediction for- mula for these processes from a finite segment of the past. Using the formula, we prove an explicit representation of the innovation pro- cesses associated with the stationary increments processes. We apply the representation to obtain a closed-form solution to

V. Anh; A. Inoue; Y. Kasahara

2005-01-01

49

A Study on the Utility of Using Expected Quality Level as a Design for Testability Metric  

E-print Network

of shipped circuits that are fault­ free. Traditional approaches to improving quality level have focused testability. Be­ cause the improvement of quality level is the goal of any testing effort, quality levelA Study on the Utility of Using Expected Quality Level as a Design for Testability Metric Douglas

Larrabee, Tracy

50

95Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain 2009, Elsevier Inc. The Expected Utility of Movement  

E-print Network

95Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain © 2009, Elsevier Inc. The Expected Utility Decisions 106 Movement Under Risk, Decision Making Under Risk 106 Neural Correlates of Motor and Cognitive is a form of decision making as we choose one of many possible movement strategies to accomplish any given

Maloney, Laurence T.

51

[Characterization of the difference between filtered back projection and ordered subsets expectation maximization in spect images using the Wavelet Transform].  

PubMed

Efficiency of reconstruction algorithms is important to guarantee quality of Nuclear Medicine tomographic images. The algorithms belong to one of two types: analytical or statistical. The Filtered Back Projection (BP) algorithm belongs to the first group and the Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) algorithm belongs to the second group. The aim of the present paper was to compare both algorithms by means of the Wavelet Transform (WT). This tool was selected because of its capability to divide the image into different frequency levels without losing information about their spatial position. The WT was applied on the Haar basis without decimation in order to compare matrixes of the same size. Attention was drawn to the relative presence of three typical perturbations: Poisson noise, annular artifacts that express a deficient correction to the planar uniformity and attenuation phenomenon. With these purposes, we studied homologue transversal slices of images of homogeneous distribution of activity. The OSEM algorithm not only greatly improves the filtering of the Poisson noise, but also diminishes the annular artifacts, mainly at the image zone that coincides with the rotation center. The intensity of the attenuation phenomenon was the same with both algorithms, except in the peripheral zone where OSEM showed a slightly higher activity than BP. These observations encourage our interest to continue applying the WT not only to identify the artifacts, but also to try to decrease their deleterious influence on Nuclear Medicine images. PMID:14718146

Pérez, A; Piotrkowski, R; Galli, R; La Mura, G; Peña, F J

2004-01-01

52

The Smoking Consequences Questionnaire: The Subjective Expected Utility of Smoking in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility (SEU) of smoking was developed by giving an 80-item questionnaire to 382 undergraduate smokers and exsmokers. A principal-components analysis yielded 4 interpretable factors: Negative Consequences, Positive Reinforcement–Sensory Satisfaction, Negative Reinforcement–Negative Affect Reduction, and Appetite–Weight Control. Fifty items with high loadings on these factors were kept to create the 4 scales of the

Thomas H. Brandon; Timothy B. Baker

1991-01-01

53

Expectation-maximization algorithms for learning a finite mixture of univariate survival time distributions from partially specified class values  

SciTech Connect

Heterogeneity exists on a data set when samples from di#11;erent classes are merged into the data set. Finite mixture models can be used to represent a survival time distribution on heterogeneous patient group by the proportions of each class and by the survival time distribution within each class as well. The heterogeneous data set cannot be explicitly decomposed to homogeneous subgroups unless all the samples are precisely labeled by their origin classes; such impossibility of decomposition is a barrier to overcome for estimating #12;nite mixture models. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of #12;nite mixture models by soft-decomposition of heterogeneous samples without labels for a subset or the entire set of data. In medical surveillance databases we can find partially labeled data, that is, while not completely unlabeled there is only imprecise information about class values. In this study we propose new EM algorithms that take advantages of using such partial labels, and thus incorporate more information than traditional EM algorithms. We particularly propose four variants of the EM algorithm named EM-OCML, EM-PCML, EM-HCML and EM-CPCML, each of which assumes a specific mechanism of missing class values. We conducted a simulation study on exponential survival trees with five classes and showed that the advantages of incorporating substantial amount of partially labeled data can be highly signi#12;cant. We also showed model selection based on AIC values fairly works to select the best proposed algorithm on each specific data set. A case study on a real-world data set of gastric cancer provided by Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program showed a superiority of EM-CPCML to not only the other proposed EM algorithms but also conventional supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning algorithms.

Lee, Youngrok [Ames Laboratory

2013-05-15

54

Hybrid metaheuristic approaches to the expectation maximization for estimation of the hidden Markov model for signal modeling.  

PubMed

The expectation maximization (EM) is the standard training algorithm for hidden Markov model (HMM). However, EM faces a local convergence problem in HMM estimation. This paper attempts to overcome this problem of EM and proposes hybrid metaheuristic approaches to EM for HMM. In our earlier research, a hybrid of a constraint-based evolutionary learning approach to EM (CEL-EM) improved HMM estimation. In this paper, we propose a hybrid simulated annealing stochastic version of EM (SASEM) that combines simulated annealing (SA) with EM. The novelty of our approach is that we develop a mathematical reformulation of HMM estimation by introducing a stochastic step between the EM steps and combine SA with EM to provide better control over the acceptance of stochastic and EM steps for better HMM estimation. We also extend our earlier work and propose a second hybrid which is a combination of an EA and the proposed SASEM, (EA-SASEM). The proposed EA-SASEM uses the best constraint-based EA strategies from CEL-EM and stochastic reformulation of HMM. The complementary properties of EA and SA and stochastic reformulation of HMM of SASEM provide EA-SASEM with sufficient potential to find better estimation for HMM. To the best of our knowledge, this type of hybridization and mathematical reformulation have not been explored in the context of EM and HMM training. The proposed approaches have been evaluated through comprehensive experiments to justify their effectiveness in signal modeling using the speech corpus: TIMIT. Experimental results show that proposed approaches obtain higher recognition accuracies than the EM algorithm and CEL-EM as well. PMID:24686310

Huda, Shamsul; Yearwood, John; Togneri, Roberto

2014-10-01

55

Partial volume correction of PET-imaged tumor heterogeneity using expectation maximization with a spatially varying point spread function  

PubMed Central

Tumor heterogeneities observed in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are frequently compromised of partial volume effects which may affect treatment prognosis, assessment, or future implementations such as biologically optimized treatment planning (dose painting). This paper presents a method for partial volume correction of PET-imaged heterogeneous tumors. A point source was scanned on a GE Discover LS at positions of increasing radii from the scanner’s center to obtain the spatially varying point spread function (PSF). PSF images were fit in three dimensions to Gaussian distributions using least squares optimization. Continuous expressions were devised for each Gaussian width as a function of radial distance, allowing for generation of the system PSF at any position in space. A spatially varying partial volume correction (SV-PVC) technique was developed using expectation maximization (EM) and a stopping criterion based on the method’s correction matrix generated for each iteration. The SV-PVC was validated using a standard tumor phantom and a tumor heterogeneity phantom, and was applied to a heterogeneous patient tumor. SV-PVC results were compared to results obtained from spatially invariant partial volume correction (SINV-PVC), which used directionally uniform three dimensional kernels. SV-PVC of the standard tumor phantom increased the maximum observed sphere activity by 55 and 40% for 10 and 13 mm diameter spheres, respectively. Tumor heterogeneity phantom results demonstrated that as net changes in the EM correction matrix decreased below 35%, further iterations improved overall quantitative accuracy by less than 1%. SV-PVC of clinically observed tumors frequently exhibited changes of ±30% in regions of heterogeneity. The SV-PVC method implemented spatially varying kernel widths and automatically determined the number of iterations for optimal restoration, parameters which are arbitrarily chosen in SINV-PVC. Comparing SV-PVC to SINV-PVC demonstrated that similar results could be reached using both methods, but large differences result for the arbitrary selection of SINV-PVC parameters. The presented SV-PVC method was performed without user intervention, requiring only a tumor mask as input. Research involving PET-imaged tumor heterogeneity should include correcting for partial volume effects to improve the quantitative accuracy of results. PMID:20009194

Barbee, David L; Flynn, Ryan T; Holden, James E; Nickles, Robert J; Jeraj, Robert

2010-01-01

56

MaxBin: an automated binning method to recover individual genomes from metagenomes using an expectation-maximization algorithm  

PubMed Central

Background Recovering individual genomes from metagenomic datasets allows access to uncultivated microbial populations that may have important roles in natural and engineered ecosystems. Understanding the roles of these uncultivated populations has broad application in ecology, evolution, biotechnology and medicine. Accurate binning of assembled metagenomic sequences is an essential step in recovering the genomes and understanding microbial functions. Results We have developed a binning algorithm, MaxBin, which automates the binning of assembled metagenomic scaffolds using an expectation-maximization algorithm after the assembly of metagenomic sequencing reads. Binning of simulated metagenomic datasets demonstrated that MaxBin had high levels of accuracy in binning microbial genomes. MaxBin was used to recover genomes from metagenomic data obtained through the Human Microbiome Project, which demonstrated its ability to recover genomes from real metagenomic datasets with variable sequencing coverages. Application of MaxBin to metagenomes obtained from microbial consortia adapted to grow on cellulose allowed genomic analysis of new, uncultivated, cellulolytic bacterial populations, including an abundant myxobacterial population distantly related to Sorangium cellulosum that possessed a much smaller genome (5 MB versus 13 to 14 MB) but has a more extensive set of genes for biomass deconstruction. For the cellulolytic consortia, the MaxBin results were compared to binning using emergent self-organizing maps (ESOMs) and differential coverage binning, demonstrating that it performed comparably to these methods but had distinct advantages in automation, resolution of related genomes and sensitivity. Conclusions The automatic binning software that we developed successfully classifies assembled sequences in metagenomic datasets into recovered individual genomes. The isolation of dozens of species in cellulolytic microbial consortia, including a novel species of myxobacteria that has the smallest genome among all sequenced aerobic myxobacteria, was easily achieved using the binning software. This work demonstrates that the processes required for recovering genomes from assembled metagenomic datasets can be readily automated, an important advance in understanding the metabolic potential of microbes in natural environments. MaxBin is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/maxbin/. PMID:25136443

2014-01-01

57

The role of data assimilation in maximizing the utility of geospace observations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation can facilitate maximizing the utility of existing geospace observations by offering an ultimate marriage of inductive (data-driven) and deductive (first-principles based) approaches to addressing critical questions in space weather. Assimilative approaches that incorporate dynamical models are, in particular, capable of making a diverse set of observations consistent with physical processes included in a first-principles model, and allowing unobserved physical states to be inferred from observations. These points will be demonstrated in the context of the application of an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to a thermosphere and ionosphere general circulation model. An important attribute of this approach is that the feedback between plasma and neutral variables is self-consistently treated both in the forecast model as well as in the assimilation scheme. This takes advantage of the intimate coupling between the thermosphere and ionosphere described in general circulation models to enable the inference of unobserved thermospheric states from the relatively plentiful observations of the ionosphere. Given the ever-growing infrastructure for the global navigation satellite system, this is indeed a promising prospect for geospace data assimilation. In principle, similar approaches can be applied to any geospace observing systems to extract more geophysical information from a given set of observations than would otherwise be possible.

Matsuo, T.

2013-12-01

58

A Quantum-Conceptual Explanation of Violations of Expected Utility in Economics  

E-print Network

The expected utility hypothesis is one of the building blocks of classical economic theory and founded on Savage's Sure-Thing Principle. It has been put forward, e.g. by situations such as the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes, that real-life situations can violate Savage's Sure-Thing Principle and hence also expected utility. We analyze how this violation is connected to the presence of the 'disjunction effect' of decision theory and use our earlier study of this effect in concept theory to put forward an explanation of the violation of Savage's Sure-Thing Principle, namely the presence of 'quantum conceptual thought' next to 'classical logical thought' within a double layer structure of human thought during the decision process. Quantum conceptual thought can be modeled mathematically by the quantum mechanical formalism, which we illustrate by modeling the Hawaii problem situation, a well-known example of the disjunction effect, and we show how the dynamics in the Hawaii problem situation is generated by the whole conceptual landscape surrounding the decision situation.

Diederik Aerts; Jan Broekaert; Marek Czachor; Bart D'Hooghe

2011-04-07

59

Probabilistic Planning with Non-Linear Utility Functions and Worst-Case Guarantees  

E-print Network

these two approaches by consid- ering problems where we maximize the expected utility of the total reward the course of actions that maximizes the expected utility of the total reward [16], where the specific form is to maximize the expected utility of the total reward sub- ject to worst-case, linear constraints. For example

Vladimirsky, Alexander

60

Illustrating Caffeine's Pharmacological and Expectancy Effects Utilizing a Balanced Placebo Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypothesizes that pharmacological and expectancy effects may be two principles that govern caffeine consumption in the same way they affect other drug use. Tests this theory through a balanced placebo design on 100 male undergraduate students. Expectancy set and caffeine content appeared equally powerful, and worked additionally, to affect…

Lotshaw, Sandra C.; And Others

1996-01-01

61

Control-theoretic Utility Maximization in Multi-hop Wireless Networks under Mission Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both bandwidth and energy become important resource constraints when multi-hop wireless networks are used to transport high data rate traffic for a moderately long duration. In such networks, it is important to control the traffic rates to not only conform to the link capacity bounds but also to ensure that the energy of battery-powered forwarding nodes is utilized judiciously to

Sharanya Eswaran; Archan MISRA; Thomas La Porta

2012-01-01

62

Single-atom catalysis in mesoporous photovoltaics: the principle of utility maximization.  

PubMed

FeOx -supported single Pt atoms are used for the first time as counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which are mesoporous photovoltaic devices. This system enables the investigation of the electrocatalytic behavior of a single-atom catalyst (SAC). Compared with conventional Pt CEs, the SAC-based CEs exhibit better reversibility as indicated by the peak-to-peak separation (Epp ). A high degree of atom utilization is demonstrated. PMID:25312028

Shi, Yantao; Zhao, Chunyu; Wei, Haisheng; Guo, Jiahao; Liang, Suxia; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jingyue; Ma, Tingli

2014-12-01

63

The expectation-maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common task in signal processing is the estimation of the parameters of a probability distribution function. Perhaps the most frequently encountered estimation problem is the estimation of the mean of a signal in noise. In many parameter estimation problems the situation is more complicated because direct access to the data necessary to estimate the parameters is impossible, or some

T. K. Moon

1996-01-01

64

Restoration of lost frequency in OpenPET imaging: comparison between the method of convex projections and the maximum likelihood expectation maximization method.  

PubMed

We are developing a new PET scanner based on the "OpenPET" geometry, which consists of two detector rings separated by a gap. One item to which attention must be paid is that OpenPET image reconstruction is classified into an incomplete inverse problem, where low-frequency components are truncated. In our previous simulations and experiments, however, the OpenPET imaging was made feasible by application of iterative image reconstruction methods. Therefore, we expect that iterative methods have a restorative effect to compensate for the lost frequency. There are two types of reconstruction methods for improving image quality when data truncation exists: one is the iterative methods such as the maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) and the other is an analytical image reconstruction method followed by the method of convex projections, which has not been employed for the OpenPET. In this study, therefore, we propose a method for applying the latter approach to the OpenPET image reconstruction and compare it with the ML-EM. We found that the proposed analytical method could reduce the occurrence of image artifacts caused by the lost frequency. A similar tendency for this restoration effect was observed in ML-EM image reconstruction where no additional restoration method was applied. Therefore, we concluded that the method of convex projections and the ML-EM had a similar restoration effect to compensate for the lost frequency. PMID:24879065

Tashima, Hideaki; Katsunuma, Takayuki; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Hideo; Obi, Takashi; Suga, Mikio; Yamaya, Taiga

2014-07-01

65

In vitro estimation of fast and slow wave parameters of thin trabecular bone using space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization algorithm.  

PubMed

In testing cancellous bone using ultrasound, two types of longitudinal Biot's waves are observed in the received signal. These are known as fast and slow waves and their appearance depend on the alignment of bone trabeculae in the propagation path and the thickness of the specimen under test (SUT). They can be used as an effective tool for the diagnosis of osteoporosis because wave propagation behavior depends on the bone structure. However, the identification of these waves in the received signal can be difficult to achieve. In this study, ultrasonic wave propagation in a 4mm thick bovine cancellous bone in the direction parallel to the trabecular alignment is considered. The observed Biot's fast and slow longitudinal waves are superimposed; which makes it difficult to extract any information from the received signal. These two waves can be separated using the space alternating generalized expectation maximization (SAGE) algorithm. The latter has been used mainly in speech processing. In this new approach, parameters such as, arrival time, center frequency, bandwidth, amplitude, phase and velocity of each wave are estimated. The B-Scan images and its associated A-scans obtained through simulations using Biot's finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method are validated experimentally using a thin bone sample obtained from the femoral-head of a 30 months old bovine. PMID:22284937

Grimes, Morad; Bouhadjera, Abdelmalek; Haddad, Sofiane; Benkedidah, Toufik

2012-07-01

66

Non-linear spatio-temporal filtering of dynamic PET data using a 4-dimensional Gaussian filter and expectation-maximization deconvolution  

PubMed Central

We introduce a method for denoising dynamic PET data, spatio-temporal expectation-maximization (STEM) filtering, that combines 4-dimensional Gaussian filtering with EM deconvolution. The initial Gaussian filter suppresses noise at a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies and EM deconvolution quickly restores the frequencies most important to the signal. We aim to demonstrate that STEM filtering can improve variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images without introducing significant bias. We evaluate STEM filtering with a dynamic phantom study, and with simulated and human dynamic PET studies of a tracer with reversible binding behaviour, [C-11]raclopride, and a tracer with irreversible binding behaviour, [F-18]FDOPA. STEM filtering is compared to a number of established 3 and 4-dimensional denoising methods. STEM filtering provides substantial improvements in variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images generated with a number of kinetic analysis techniques while introducing little bias. STEM filtering does bias early frames, but this does not affect quantitative parameter estimates. STEM filtering is shown to be superior to the other simple denoising methods studied. STEM filtering is a simple and effective denoising method that could be valuable for a wide range of dynamic PET applications. PMID:23370699

Holden, J E

2013-01-01

67

Evaluation of list-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction for pixelated solid-state compton gamma camera with large number of channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated solid-state technology for nuclear medicine applications. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). For Compton camera, especially with a large number of readout channels, image reconstruction presents a big challenge. In this work, results are presented for the List-Mode Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (LM-OSEM) image reconstruction algorithm on simulated data with the VIP Compton camera design. For the simulation, all realistic contributions to the spatial resolution are taken into account, including the Doppler broadening effect. The results show that even with a straightforward implementation of LM-OSEM, good images can be obtained for the proposed Compton camera design. Results are shown for various phantoms, including extended sources and with a distance between the field of view and the first detector plane equal to 100 mm which corresponds to a realistic nuclear medicine environment.

Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.

2014-04-01

68

Nonlinear spatio-temporal filtering of dynamic PET data using a four-dimensional Gaussian filter and expectation-maximization deconvolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method for denoising dynamic PET data, spatio-temporal expectation-maximization (STEM) filtering, that combines four-dimensional Gaussian filtering with EM deconvolution. The initial Gaussian filter suppresses noise at a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies and EM deconvolution quickly restores the frequencies most important to the signal. We aim to demonstrate that STEM filtering can improve variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images without introducing significant bias. We evaluate STEM filtering with a dynamic phantom study, and with simulated and human dynamic PET studies of a tracer with reversible binding behaviour, [C-11]raclopride, and a tracer with irreversible binding behaviour, [F-18]FDOPA. STEM filtering is compared to a number of established three and four-dimensional denoising methods. STEM filtering provides substantial improvements in variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images generated with a number of kinetic analysis techniques while introducing little bias. STEM filtering does bias early frames, but this does not affect quantitative parameter estimates. STEM filtering is shown to be superior to the other simple denoising methods studied. STEM filtering is a simple and effective denoising method that could be valuable for a wide range of dynamic PET applications.

Floberg, J. M.; Holden, J. E.

2013-02-01

69

Expectation-maximization of the potential of mean force and diffusion coefficient in Langevin dynamics from single molecule FRET data photon by photon.  

PubMed

The dynamics of a protein along a well-defined coordinate can be formally projected onto the form of an overdamped Lagevin equation. Here, we present a comprehensive statistical-learning framework for simultaneously quantifying the deterministic force (the potential of mean force, PMF) and the stochastic force (characterized by the diffusion coefficient, D) from single-molecule Förster-type resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments. The likelihood functional of the Langevin parameters, PMF and D, is expressed by a path integral of the latent smFRET distance that follows Langevin dynamics and realized by the donor and the acceptor photon emissions. The solution is made possible by an eigen decomposition of the time-symmetrized form of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation coupled with photon statistics. To extract the Langevin parameters from photon arrival time data, we advance the expectation-maximization algorithm in statistical learning, originally developed for and mostly used in discrete-state systems, to a general form in the continuous space that allows for a variational calculus on the continuous PMF function. We also introduce the regularization of the solution space in this Bayesian inference based on a maximum trajectory-entropy principle. We use a highly nontrivial example with realistically simulated smFRET data to illustrate the application of this new method. PMID:23937300

Haas, Kevin R; Yang, Haw; Chu, Jhih-Wei

2013-12-12

70

Maximizing the utility of radio spectrum: Broadband spectrum measurements and occupancy model for use by cognitive radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio spectrum is a vital national asset; proper management of this finite resource is essential to the operation and development of telecommunications, radio-navigation, radio astronomy, and passive remote sensing services. To maximize the utility of the radio spectrum, knowledge of its current usage is beneficial. As a result, several spectrum studies have been conducted in urban Atlanta, suburban Atlanta, and rural North Carolina. These studies improve upon past spectrum studies by resolving spectrum usage by nearly all its possible parameters: frequency, time, polarization, azimuth, and location type. The continuous frequency range from 400MHz to 7.2 GHz was measured with a custom-designed system. More than 8 billion spectrum measurements were taken over several months of observation. A multi-parameter spectrum usage detection method was developed and analyzed with data from the spectrum studies. This method was designed to exploit all the characteristics of spectral information that was available from the spectrum studies. Analysis of the spectrum studies showed significant levels of underuse. The level of spectrum usage in time and azimuthal space was determined to be only 6.5 % for the urban Atlanta, 5.3 % for suburban Atlanta, and 0.8 % for the rural North Carolina spectrum studies. Most of the frequencies measured never experienced usage. Interference was detected in several protected radio astronomy and sensitive radio navigation bands. A cognitive radio network architecture to share spectrum with fixed microwave systems was developed. The architecture uses a broker-based sharing method to control spectrum access and investigate interference issues.

Petrin, Allen J.

71

Probabilistic Planning with Nonlinear Utility Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers often express probabilistic planning problems as Markov decision process models and then maximize the ex- pected total reward. However, it is often rational to maximize the expected utility of the total reward for a given nonlinea r utility function, for example, to model attitudes towards r isk in high-stake decision situations. In this paper, we give an overview of

Yaxin Liu; Sven Koenig

2006-01-01

72

Survey Expectations  

E-print Network

would be sufficient in the case of linear-quadratic decision problems where the utility (or cost) functions are quadratic and the constraints linear. For more general decision problems density expectations might be required. From an empirical viewpoint... Expectations formation is an integral part of the decision making process by households, firms, as well as the private and public institutions. At the theoretical level the rational expectations hypothesis as advanced by Muth (1961) has gained general...

Pesaran, M Hashem; Weale, Martin

2006-03-14

73

Training Parents To Utilize Support Strategies To Maximize Their Children's School Experiences and Foster Successful School Completion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One very active approach that school personnel can employ to help at-risk students to successfully complete school is to maximize the natural parent support system as early as possible. Parent training programs generally adhere to one of the following models: (1) the parent-as-teacher model, which trains parents to use behavior management…

Polirstok, Susan Rovet

74

Home nursing and home help for dementia patients: Predictors for utilization and expected quality from a family caregiver's point of view.  

PubMed

Little is known about the factors that influence utilization of home nursing and home help or about quality expectations of family caregivers of a dementia patient. These questions are addressed in the following paper. The cross-sectional study was carried out as an anonymous written survey of family caregivers of dementia patients in four regions of Germany. Quantitative and qualitative data from 404 family caregivers were analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis and content analysis. We found that subjective need of home nursing respectively of home help and the age of the dementia patient are significant predictors for utilization. Utilization of home nursing is also predicted by the age of the family caregiver. Punctuality of the staff is the dominant quality criterion. Hence, in order to reduce the number of those Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers who think they don't need home nursing or home help compared with the number who really don't need it, caregivers should be transparently informed of the relevant advantages and quality principles of using home nursing respectively home help. PMID:20447701

Graessel, Elmar; Luttenberger, Katharina; Bleich, Stefan; Adabbo, Raffaela; Donath, Carolin

2011-01-01

75

Reduced maximal inhibition in phenotypic susceptibility assays indicates that viral strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc utilize inhibitor-bound receptor for entry.  

PubMed

Maraviroc is a CCR5 antagonist in clinical development as one of a new class of antiretrovirals targeting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor binding. We investigated the mechanism of HIV resistance to maraviroc by using in vitro sequential passage and site-directed mutagenesis. Serial passage through increasing maraviroc concentrations failed to select maraviroc-resistant variants from some laboratory-adapted and clinical isolates of HIV-1. However, high-level resistance to maraviroc was selected from three of six primary isolates passaged in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The SF162 strain acquired resistance to maraviroc in both treated and control cultures; all resistant variants were able to use CXCR4 as a coreceptor. In contrast, maraviroc-resistant virus derived from isolates CC1/85 and RU570 remained CCR5 tropic, as evidenced by susceptibility to the CCR5 antagonist SCH-C, resistance to the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, and an inability to replicate in CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 PBL. Strain-specific mutations were identified in the V3 loop of maraviroc-resistant CC1/85 and RU570. The envelope-encoding region of maraviroc-resistant CC1/85 was inserted into an NL4-3 background. This recombinant virus was completely resistant to maraviroc but retained susceptibility to aplaviroc. Reverse mutation of gp120 residues 316 and 323 in the V3 loop (numbering from HXB2) to their original sequence restored wild-type susceptibility to maraviroc, while reversion of either mutation resulted in a partially sensitive virus with reduced maximal inhibition (plateau). The plateaus are consistent with the virus having acquired the ability to utilize maraviroc-bound receptor for entry. This hypothesis was further corroborated by the observation that a high concentration of maraviroc blocks the activity of aplaviroc against maraviroc-resistant virus. PMID:17182681

Westby, Mike; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Mori, Julie; Lewis, Marilyn; Mosley, Michael; Stockdale, Mark; Dorr, Patrick; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Perros, Manos

2007-03-01

76

Reduced Maximal Inhibition in Phenotypic Susceptibility Assays Indicates that Viral Strains Resistant to the CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc Utilize Inhibitor-Bound Receptor for Entry?  

PubMed Central

Maraviroc is a CCR5 antagonist in clinical development as one of a new class of antiretrovirals targeting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor binding. We investigated the mechanism of HIV resistance to maraviroc by using in vitro sequential passage and site-directed mutagenesis. Serial passage through increasing maraviroc concentrations failed to select maraviroc-resistant variants from some laboratory-adapted and clinical isolates of HIV-1. However, high-level resistance to maraviroc was selected from three of six primary isolates passaged in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The SF162 strain acquired resistance to maraviroc in both treated and control cultures; all resistant variants were able to use CXCR4 as a coreceptor. In contrast, maraviroc-resistant virus derived from isolates CC1/85 and RU570 remained CCR5 tropic, as evidenced by susceptibility to the CCR5 antagonist SCH-C, resistance to the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, and an inability to replicate in CCR5 ?32/?32 PBL. Strain-specific mutations were identified in the V3 loop of maraviroc-resistant CC1/85 and RU570. The envelope-encoding region of maraviroc-resistant CC1/85 was inserted into an NL4-3 background. This recombinant virus was completely resistant to maraviroc but retained susceptibility to aplaviroc. Reverse mutation of gp120 residues 316 and 323 in the V3 loop (numbering from HXB2) to their original sequence restored wild-type susceptibility to maraviroc, while reversion of either mutation resulted in a partially sensitive virus with reduced maximal inhibition (plateau). The plateaus are consistent with the virus having acquired the ability to utilize maraviroc-bound receptor for entry. This hypothesis was further corroborated by the observation that a high concentration of maraviroc blocks the activity of aplaviroc against maraviroc-resistant virus. PMID:17182681

Westby, Mike; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Mori, Julie; Lewis, Marilyn; Mosley, Michael; Stockdale, Mark; Dorr, Patrick; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Perros, Manos

2007-01-01

77

What do foraging hummingbirds maximize?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hainsworth and Wolf (1976) reported that under certain conditions hummingbirds made food choices which did not maximize their net rate of energy intake while foraging. They concluded that the birds were not foraging optimally. We show here that their birds probably maximized a different utility function, the net energy per unit volume consumed (NEVC), which appears to be an optimal

Robert D. Montgomerie; John Mc A. Eadie; Lawrence D. Harder

1984-01-01

78

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

Siegrist, Kyle

79

GUIDELINES FOR NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. PROCEDURES FOR REDUCTION OF NOX EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZATION OF BOILER EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, which has been reviewed by industry experts, reflects the experience developed in successfully applying combustion modifications to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Although the report emphasizes coal-fired equipment, the same principles can be ap...

80

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

This is the ninth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. The pilot-scale testing phase of the project has been completed. Calculations are essentially completed for implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The REI Configurable Fireside Simulator (CFS) has proven to be an essential component to provide input for these calculations. Niksa Energy Associates expects to deliver their final report in February 2003. Work has continued on the project final report.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2003-01-29

81

Rational Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rational Expectations was set up by Ralph Lazar, former strategist and economist for Goldman Sachs, Barings & Credit Suisse First Boston, as a "resource for anyone interested in [emerging markets] economics -- students, teachers, lecturers, journalists, professionals, or just the curious." A fully comprehensive guide to the people, places, and events of the economics world, Rational Expectations includes an searchable database of over 1,000 organizations and institutions in OECD countries and emerging markets, a conference calendar, and job listings. The site also links to academic, professional, and government organizations, as well as a huge suggested publication list and macroeconomic and financial market data. Rational Expectations will be a welcome resource for anyone interested in emerging markets economics.

Lazar, Ralph.

82

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect

In full-scale boilers, the effect of biomass cofiring on NO{sub x} and unburned carbon (UBC) emissions has been found to be site-specific. Few sets of field data are comparable and no consistent database of information exists upon which cofiring fuel choice or injection system design can be based to assure that NOX emissions will be minimized and UBC be reduced. This report presents the results of a comprehensive project that generated an extensive set of pilot-scale test data that were used to validate a new predictive model for the cofiring of biomass and coal. All testing was performed at the 3.6 MMBtu/hr (1.75 MW{sub t}) Southern Company Services/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility where a variety of burner configurations, coals, biomasses, and biomass injection schemes were utilized to generate a database of consistent, scalable, experimental results (422 separate test conditions). This database was then used to validate a new model for predicting NO{sub x} and UBC emissions from the cofiring of biomass and coal. This model is based on an Advanced Post-Processing (APP) technique that generates an equivalent network of idealized reactor elements from a conventional CFD simulation. The APP reactor network is a computational environment that allows for the incorporation of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and provides a new tool to quantify NOx and UBC emissions for any cofired combination of coal and biomass.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa

2003-04-30

83

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2012-08-30

84

A utility-theory analysis of automobile speed under uncertainty of enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highway automobile speed and uncertain enforcement of the speed limit are introduced into a standard household utility model having time and income constraints. Due to uncertainty, expected utility is maximized to obtain the optimal speed (in excess of the speed limit). The optimal amounts of all other commodities and travel are also obtained. The key feature of the model is

James P. Gander

1985-01-01

85

Profit Maximization over Social Networks  

E-print Network

Influence maximization is the problem of finding a set of influential users in a social network such that the expected spread of influence under a certain propagation model is maximized. Much of the previous work has neglected the important distinction between social influence and actual product adoption. However, as recognized in the management science literature, an individual who gets influenced by social acquaintances may not necessarily adopt a product (or technology), due, e.g., to monetary concerns. In this work, we distinguish between influence and adoption by explicitly modeling the states of being influenced and of adopting a product. We extend the classical Linear Threshold (LT) model to incorporate prices and valuations, and factor them into users' decision-making process of adopting a product. We show that the expected profit function under our proposed model maintains submodularity under certain conditions, but no longer exhibits monotonicity, unlike the expected influence spread function. To ma...

Lu, Wei

2012-01-01

86

Maximally natural supersymmetry.  

PubMed

We consider 4D weak scale theories arising from 5D supersymmetric (SUSY) theories with maximal Scherk-Schwarz breaking at a Kaluza-Klein scale of several TeV. Many of the problems of conventional SUSY are avoided. Apart from 3rd family sfermions the SUSY spectrum is heavy, with only ?50% tuning at a gluino mass of ?2??TeV and a stop mass of ?650??GeV. A single Higgs doublet acquires a vacuum expectation value, so the physical Higgs boson is automatically standard-model-like. A new U(1)^{'} interaction raises m_{h} to 126 GeV. For minimal tuning the associated Z^{'}, as well as the 3rd family sfermions, must be accessible to LHC13. A gravitational wave signal consistent with hints from BICEP2 is possible if inflation occurs when the extra dimensions are small. PMID:25259967

Dimopoulos, Savas; Howe, Kiel; March-Russell, John

2014-09-12

87

Maximally Expressive Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling systems organize tasks into a timeline or schedule. Tasks are logically grouped into containers called models. Models are a collection of related tasks, along with their dependencies and requirements, that when met will produce the desired result. One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiments for the International Space Station. In these experiments, the equipment used is among the most complex hardware ever developed; the information sought is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor; and the procedures are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling International Space Station experiment operations calls for a maximally expressive modeling schema.

Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Richardson, Lea

2004-01-01

88

Do Juries Meet Our Expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony,

Hal R. Arkes; Barbara A. Mellers

2002-01-01

89

On the Expected Rate of Slowly Fading Channels With Quantized Side Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple-layer variable-rate system employing quantized feedback to maximize the expected rate over slowly fading channels is studied. The transmitter utilizes partial channel-state information, obtained via an optimized resolution- constrained feedback link, to adapt the power and to assign code layer rates, under different power constraints. We develop an iterative algorithm to optimize the system parameters, which successfully exploits results

Thanh Tùng Kim; Mikael Skoglund

2007-01-01

90

Maximally Expressive Task Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

91

Maximization, learning, and economic behavior  

PubMed Central

The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design. PMID:25024182

Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E.

2014-01-01

92

Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.  

PubMed

The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design. PMID:25024182

Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E

2014-07-22

93

Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.  

PubMed

Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual?s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. PMID:24530825

Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

2014-06-01

94

Functional Value Iteration for Decision-Theoretic Planning with General Utility Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how to find plans that maximize the expected total utility for a given MDP, a planning objective that is important for decision making in high-stakes domains. The optimal ac- tions can now depend on the total reward that has been accu- mulated so far in addition to the current state. We extend our previous work on functional value

Yaxin Liu; Sven Koenig

2006-01-01

95

Measuring Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has suggested the utility of studying individual differences in the regulation of negative mood states. Generalized response expectancies for negative mood regulation were defined as expectancies that some overt behavior or cognition would alleviate negative mood states as they occur across situations. The Generalized Expectancy for…

Catanzaro, Salvatore J.; Mearns, Jack

96

How To: Maximize Google  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Google is shaking out to be the leading Web search engine, with recent research from Nielsen NetRatings reporting about 40 percent of all U.S. households using the tool at least once in January 2004. This brief article discusses how teachers and students can maximize their use of Google.

Branzburg, Jeffrey

2004-01-01

97

Maximal Marcinkiewicz multipliers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let be a family of Marcinkiewicz multipliers of sufficient uniform smoothness in . We show that the L p norm, 1< pmaximal operator is at most C(log( N+2)) n/2. We show that this bound is sharp.

Honzík, Petr

2014-04-01

98

Changing expectancies: cognitive mechanisms and context effects.  

PubMed

This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, organized by Reinout W. Wiers and Mark D. Wood. The symposium combined two topics of recent interest in studies of alcohol expectancies: cognitive mechanisms in expectancy challenge studies, and context-related changes of expectancies. With increasing recognition of the substantial role played by alcohol expectancies in drinking, investigators have begun to develop and evaluate expectancy challenge procedures as a potentially promising new prevention strategy. The two major issues addressed in the symposium were whether expectancy challenges result in changes in expectancies that mediate intervention (outcome relations), and the influence of simulated bar environments ("bar labs," in which challenges are usually done) on expectancies. The presentations were (1) An introduction, by Jack Darkes; (2) Investigating the utility of alcohol expectancy challenge with heavy drinking college students, by Mark D. Wood; (3) Effects of an expectancy challenge on implicit and explicit expectancies and drinking, by Reinout W. Wiers; (4) Effects of graphic feedback and simulated bar assessments on alcohol expectancies and consumption, by William R. Corbin; (5) Implicit alcohol associations and context, by Barry T Jones; and (6) A discussion by Kenneth J. Sher, who pointed out that it is important not only to study changes of expectancies in the paradigm of an expectancy challenge but also to consider the role of changing expectancies in natural development and in treatments not explicitly aimed at changing expectancies. PMID:12605068

Wiers, Reinout W; Wood, Mark D; Darkes, Jack; Corbin, William R; Jones, Barry T; Sher, Kenneth J

2003-02-01

99

Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.  

PubMed

Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2009-01-01

100

Seamless Kernel Updates Maxim Siniavine  

E-print Network

Seamless Kernel Updates by Maxim Siniavine A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements of Toronto Copyright ©2012 by Maxim Siniavine #12;Abstract Seamless Kernel Updates Maxim Siniavine Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.1.4.2 TCP Sockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.1.5 Pipes

Goel, Ashvin

101

A Superintendent's High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

Pascopella, Angela

2009-01-01

102

In situ growth of NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays on Ni foam for supercapacitors: Maximizing utilization efficiency at high mass loading to achieve ultrahigh areal pseudocapacitance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-standing NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays have been in situ grown on Ni foam by the anion-exchange reaction and directly used as the electrode for supercapacitors. The NiCo2S4 nanotube in the arrays effectively reduces the inactive material and increases the electroactive surface area because of the ultrathin wall, which is quite competent to achieve high utilization efficiency at high electroactive materials mass loading. The NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays hybrid electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 14.39 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 with excellent rate performance (67.7% retention for current increases 30 times) and cycling stability (92% retention after 5000 cycles) at a high mass loading of 6 mg cm-2. High areal capacitance (4.68 F cm-2 at 10 mA cm-2), high energy density (31.5 Wh kg-1 at 156.6 W kg-1) and high power density (2348.5 W kg-1 at 16.6 Wh kg-1) can be achieved by assembling asymmetric supercapacitor with reduced graphene oxide at a total active material mass loading as high as 49.5 mg. This work demonstrates that NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays structure is a superior electroactive material for high-performance supercapacitors even at a mass loading of potential application-specific scale.

Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Xia, Dandan; Zhao, Yuandong; Guo, Danqing; Qi, Tong; Wan, Houzhao

2014-05-01

103

Expectations across entertainment media  

E-print Network

An audience's satisfaction with an entertainment product is dependent on how well their expectations are fulfilled. This study delves into the implicit contract that is formed between the purveyor of an entertainment ...

Austin, Alexander Chance

2007-01-01

104

Willingness and Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores intergenerational differences in attitudes toward willingness to and expectations for parent care based on survey data collected during 1997-1999 with 777 one-child generation students and 110 current familial caregivers. Findings suggest that current caregivers have very low expectations for their children's provision of elder care in the future. Children from one-child families experienced high levels of obligation

Heying Jenny Zhan

2004-01-01

105

Maximal acyclic agreement forests.  

PubMed

Finding the hybridization number of a pair or set of trees, [Formula: see text], is a well-studied problem in phylogenetics and is equivalent to finding a maximum acyclic agreement forest (MAAF) for [Formula: see text]. This article defines a new type of acyclic agreement forest called a maximal acyclic agreement forest (mAAF). The property for which mAAFs are "simplest" is more general and could be considered more biologically relevant than the corresponding property for MAAFs, and the set of MAAFs for any [Formula: see text] is a subset of the set of mAAFs for [Formula: see text]. This article also presents two new algorithms; one finds a mAAF for any [Formula: see text] in polynomial time and the other is an exhaustive search that finds all mAAFs for some [Formula: see text], which is also a new approach to finding the hybridization number when applied to a pair of trees. The exhaustive search algorithm is applied to a real world data set, and the findings are compared to previous results. PMID:25101528

Voorkamp, Josh

2014-10-01

106

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

107

Maximizing Brightness in Photoinjectors  

SciTech Connect

If the laser pulse driving photoinjectors could be arbitrarily shaped, the emittance growth induced by space charge effects could be totally compensated for. In particular, for RF guns the photo-electron distribution leaving the cathode should have a 3D-ellipsoidal shape. The emittance at the end of the injector could be as small as the cathode emittance. We explore how the emittance and the brightness can be optimized for photoinjector based on RF gun depending on the peak current requirements. Techniques available to produce those ideal laser pulse shapes are also discussed. If the laser pulse driving photoinjectors could be arbitrarily shaped, the emittance growth induced by space charge effects could be totally compensated for. In particular, for RF guns, the photo-electron distribution leaving the cathode should be close to a uniform distribution contained in a 3D-ellipsoid contour. For photo-cathodes which have very fast emission times, and assuming a perfectly uniform emitting surface, this could be achieved by shaping the laser in a pulse of constant fluence and limited in space by a 3D-ellipsoid contour. Simulations show that in such conditions, with the standard linear emittance compensation, the emittance at the end of the photo-injector beamline approaches the minimum value imposed by the cathode emittance. Brightness, which is expressed as the ratio of peak current over the product of the two transverse emittance, seems to be maximized for small charges. Numerical simulations also show that for very high charge per bunch (10nC), emittances as small as 2 mm-mrad could be reached by using 3D-ellipsoidal laser pulses in an S-Band gun. The production of 3D-ellipsoidal pulses is very challenging, but seems worthwhile the effort. We briefly discuss some of the present ideas and difficulties of achieving such pulses.

Limborg-Deprey, C.; /SLAC; Tomizawa, H.; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo

2011-11-30

108

External Expectations of Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the many external expectations confronting persons with disabilities and the skills required to survive and prosper in school, at home, on the job, and in the community. Data were obtained from 155 regular teachers, 110 special educators, 150 parents, and 55 employers through the use of the School Survival Skills Questionnaire.…

Nickles, James L.

109

Maintaining High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

2014-01-01

110

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

111

Expectation, Performance, and Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author distinguishes between social worker accountability, a product of intent, and effectiveness, the level of performance that derives from being accountable. It should be sufficient, he feels, to demonstrate that the profession is acting accountably. Client expectations, social worker-supervisor interaction, and social work education are…

Tropp, Emanuel

1974-01-01

112

Parenting with High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

2014-01-01

113

Heterogeneity in expected longevities.  

PubMed

We develop a new methodology to compute differences in the expected longevity of individuals of a given cohort who are in different socioeconomic groups at a certain age. We address the two main problems associated with the standard use of life expectancy: (1) that people's socioeconomic characteristics change, and (2) that mortality has decreased over time. Our methodology uncovers substantial heterogeneity in expected longevities, yet much less heterogeneity than what arises from the naive application of life expectancy formulae. We decompose the longevity differences into differences in health at age 50, differences in the evolution of health with age, and differences in mortality conditional on health. Remarkably, education, wealth, and income are health-protecting but have very little impact on two-year mortality rates conditional on health. Married people and nonsmokers, however, benefit directly in their immediate mortality. Finally, we document an increasing time trend of the socioeconomic gradient of longevity in the period 1992-2008, and we predict an increase in the socioeconomic gradient of mortality rates for the coming years. PMID:25391225

Pijoan-Mas, Josep; Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor

2014-12-01

114

Maximal subgroups of finite groups  

E-print Network

What ingredients are necessary to describe all maximal subgroups of the general analysis. finite group G? This paper is concerned with providing such an A good first reduction is to take into account the first isomorphism theorem, which tells us that the maximal subgroups containing a given normal subgroup N of G correspond, under the natural projection, to the maximal subgroups of the quotient group G/N. Let PZ = PQ denote the collection of maximal subgroups of G, and let e * be the subset of those ME?)z with Ker,(M) = 1, where Ker,(M) denotes the largest normal subgroup of G contained in M. Then the first isomorphism theorem allows us to identify +Z with the disjoint union UN,, ms,N. Actually, what we really want to parameterize are the conjugacy classes of maximal subgroups, but this too works well: If

M. Aschbacher; L. Scott

1985-01-01

115

The expected prospects for peace in northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negotiations over implementation of the Northern Ireland Good Friday Agreements are used to compare predictions made by prospect theory and an expected utility model. The ex ante predictions were made in May 1999 and are evaluated against developments through August 2000. The study shows that prospect theory is capable of more limited predictions than expected utility models because the latter

Bruce Bueno de Mesquita; Rose McDermott; Emily Cope

2001-01-01

116

Unified Utility Maximization Framework for Resource Selection Language Technology Inst.  

E-print Network

.3 [Information Search and Retrieval]: General Terms Algorithms Keywords distributed information retrieval, resource selection 1. INTRODUCTION Conventional search engines such as Google or AltaVista use ad centralized database for the purpose of indexing. Distributed information retrieval, also known as federated

Callan, Jamie

117

Dynamic Network Utility Maximization Nikolaos Trichakis Stephen Boyd Argyrios Zymnis  

E-print Network

0 2 4 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 2 4 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 2 4 f1f2f3 t shortfalls: 0 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 2 4 f1f2f3 t shortfalls: 0, 6.8, 0; total penalty: 6.8 IFAC 7/7/08 11 #12 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 2 4 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 2 4 f1f2f3 t 0 block shortfalls (out

118

Expectation States Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation states theory is, in many ways, a textbook example of a theoretical research program. It is deductive, programmatic,\\u000a formalized mathematically, cumulative, precise, and predictive; and its propositions have been subjected to rigorous evaluation.\\u000a More importantly, however, it is a theory that illuminates core issues in social psychology and sociology more broadly. It\\u000a is fundamentally a “macro-micro-macro” explanation about one

Shelley J. Correll; Cecilia L. Ridgeway

119

Post-Secondary Expectations and Educational Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilized student, teacher, and parent expectations during high school to analyze their predictive effect on post-secondary education status two years after scheduled graduation. The sample included 5,353 students, parents and teachers who participated in the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS; 2002-2006). The researchers analyzed data…

Sciarra, Daniel T.; Ambrosino, Katherine E.

2011-01-01

120

Can Differences in Breast Cancer Utilities Explain Disparities in Breast Cancer Care?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Black, older, and less affluent women are less likely to receive adjuvant breast cancer therapy than their counterparts. Whereas preference contributes to disparities in other health care scenarios, it is unclear if preference explains differential rates of breast cancer care. OBJECTIVE To ascertain utilities from women of diverse backgrounds for the different stages of, and treatments for, breast cancer and to determine whether a treatment decision modeled from utilities is associated with socio-demographic characteristics. PARTICIPANTS A stratified sample (by age and race) of 156 English-speaking women over 25 years old not currently undergoing breast cancer treatment. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS We assessed utilities using standard gamble for 5 breast cancer stages, and time-tradeoff for 3 therapeutic modalities. We incorporated each subject's utilities into a Markov model to determine whether her quality-adjusted life expectancy would be maximized with chemotherapy for a hypothetical, current diagnosis of stage II breast cancer. We used logistic regression to determine whether socio-demographic variables were associated with this optimal strategy. RESULTS Median utilities for the 8 health states were: stage I disease, 0.91 (interquartile range 0.50 to 1.00); stage II, 0.75 (0.26 to 0.99); stage III, 0.51 (0.25 to 0.94); stage IV (estrogen receptor positive), 0.36 (0 to 0.75); stage IV (estrogen receptor negative), 0.40 (0 to 0.79); chemotherapy 0.50 (0 to 0.92); hormonal therapy 0.58 (0 to 1); and radiation therapy 0.83 (0.10 to 1). Utilities for early stage disease and treatment modalities, but not metastatic disease, varied with socio-demographic characteristics. One hundred and twenty-two of 156 subjects had utilities that maximized quality-adjusted life expectancy given stage II breast cancer with chemotherapy. Age over 50, black race, and low household income were associated with at least 5-fold lower odds of maximizing quality-adjusted life expectancy with chemotherapy, whereas women who were married or had a significant other were 4-fold more likely to maximize quality-adjusted life expectancy with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS Differences in utility for breast cancer health states may partially explain the lower rate of adjuvant therapy for black, older, and less affluent women. Further work must clarify whether these differences result from health preference alone or reflect women's perceptions of sources of disparity, such as access to care, poor communication with providers, limitations in health knowledge or in obtaining social and workplace support during therapy. PMID:16961753

Schleinitz, Mark D; DePalo, Dina; Blume, Jeffrey; Stein, Michael

2006-01-01

121

Can Monkeys Make Investments Based on Maximized Pay-off?  

PubMed Central

Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana) in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible. PMID:21423777

Steelandt, Sophie; Dufour, Valérie; Broihanne, Marie-Hélène; Thierry, Bernard

2011-01-01

122

PILL, PATCH, OR SHOT? SUBJECTIVE EXPECTATIONS AND BIRTH CONTROL CHOICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

When choosing a contraception method, women base their decisions on their subjective expectations about the realizations of method-related outcomes. Examples of outcomes include getting pregnant and contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). I combine innovative data on probabilistic expectations with observed contraceptive choices to estimate a random utility model of birth control choice. The availability of expectations data is essential

Adeline Delavande

2008-01-01

123

Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes  

PubMed Central

When animals have to make a number of decisions during a limited time interval, they face a fundamental problem: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible “conditions.” A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each “condition” being a “state” and the value of decision thresholds being the “actions” taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values. PMID:24904252

Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

2014-01-01

124

The futility of utility: how market dynamics marginalize Adam Smith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic theorizing is based on the postulated, nonempiric notion of utility. Economists assume that prices, dynamics, and market equilibria are supposed to be derived from utility. The results are supposed to represent mathematically the stabilizing action of Adam Smith's invisible hand. In deterministic excess demand dynamics I show the following. A utility function generally does not exist mathematically due to nonintegrable dynamics when production/investment are accounted for, resolving Mirowski's thesis. Price as a function of demand does not exist mathematically either. All equilibria are unstable. I then explain how deterministic chaos can be distinguished from random noise at short times. In the generalization to liquid markets and finance theory described by stochastic excess demand dynamics, I also show the following. Market price distributions cannot be rescaled to describe price movements as ‘equilibrium’ fluctuations about a systematic drift in price. Utility maximization does not describe equilibrium. Maximization of the Gibbs entropy of the observed price distribution of an asset would describe equilibrium, if equilibrium could be achieved, but equilibrium does not describe real, liquid markets (stocks, bonds, foreign exchange). There are three inconsistent definitions of equilibrium used in economics and finance, only one of which is correct. Prices in unregulated free markets are unstable against both noise and rising or falling expectations: Adam Smith's stabilizing invisible hand does not exist, either in mathematical models of liquid market data, or in real market data.

McCauley, Joseph L.

2000-10-01

125

Maximize x(a - x)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

Lange, L. H.

1974-01-01

126

Maximizing efficiency of solar-powered systems by load matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar power is an important source of renewable energy for many low-power systems. Matching the power consumption level with the supply level can make a great difference in the efficiency of power utilization. This paper proposes a source-tracking power management strategy that maximizes the panel's total energy output under a given solar profile by load matching. The power efficiency was

Dexin Li; Pai H. Chou

2004-01-01

127

Using Debate to Maximize Learning Potential: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a review of the literature, an educational case study is provided for the benefit of faculty preparing college courses. In particular, we provide a transcribed debate utilized in a General Psychology course as a best practice example of how to craft a debate which maximizes student learning. The work is presented as a model for the…

Firmin, Michael W.; Vaughn, Aaron; Dye, Amanda

2007-01-01

128

Expected Uncertain Utility and Subjective Sources Wolfgang Pesendorfer  

E-print Network

;1. Introduction An agent considers bets on the Democratic vote share in the next election, on the year-end value of the S&P500 or on the roll of a die. Each bet yields 1$ if some specified event occurs and 0 otherwise. The election outcomes are a source if the agent's betting preference is coherent when comparing only election

129

Common Mathematical Foundations of Expected Utility and Dual ...  

E-print Network

... Department of Management Science and Information Systems and RUTCOR, 94 Rockefeller Rd, Piscataway, ...... ?(p) d. ?. µ, ? ? B((0,1],?),. (10) is a numerical representation of ?. Proof. ...... John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 2nd edition,.

2012-11-24

130

Utilizing Alcohol Expectancies in the Treatment of Alcoholism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The heterogeneity of alcoholic populations may be one reason that few specific therapeutic approaches to the treatment of alcoholism have been consistently demonstrated to improve treatment outome across studies. To individualize alcoholism treatment, dimensions which are linked to drinking or relapse and along which alcoholics display significant…

Brown, Sandra A.

131

Maximizing TDRS Command Load Lifetime  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GNC software onboard ISS utilizes TORS command loads, and a simplistic model of TORS orbital motion to generate onboard TORS state vectors. Each TORS command load contains five "invariant" orbital elements which serve as inputs to the onboard propagation algorithm. These elements include semi-major axis, inclination, time of last ascending node crossing, right ascension of ascending node, and mean motion. Running parallel to the onboard software is the TORS Command Builder Tool application, located in the JSC Mission Control Center. The TORS Command Builder Tool is responsible for building the TORS command loads using a ground TORS state vector, mirroring the onboard propagation algorithm, and assessing the fidelity of current TORS command loads onboard ISS. The tool works by extracting a ground state vector at a given time from a current TORS ephemeris, and then calculating the corresponding "onboard" TORS state vector at the same time using the current onboard TORS command load. The tool then performs a comparison between these two vectors and displays the relative differences in the command builder tool GUI. If the RSS position difference between these two vectors exceeds the tolerable lim its, a new command load is built using the ground state vector and uplinked to ISS. A command load's lifetime is therefore defined as the time from when a command load is built to the time the RSS position difference exceeds the tolerable limit. From the outset of TORS command load operations (STS-98), command load lifetime was limited to approximately one week due to the simplicity of both the onboard propagation algorithm, and the algorithm used by the command builder tool to generate the invariant orbital elements. It was soon desired to extend command load lifetime in order to minimize potential risk due to frequent ISS commanding. Initial studies indicated that command load lifetime was most sensitive to changes in mean motion. Finding a suitable value for mean motion was therefore the key to achieving this goal. This goal was eventually realized through development of an Excel spreadsheet tool called EMMIE (Excel Mean Motion Interactive Estimation). EMMIE utilizes ground ephemeris nodal data to perform a least-squares fit to inferred mean anomaly as a function of time, thus generating an initial estimate for mean motion. This mean motion in turn drives a plot of estimated downtrack position difference versus time. The user can then manually iterate the mean motion, and determine an optimal value that will maximize command load lifetime. Once this optimal value is determined, the mean motion initially calculated by the command builder tool is overwritten with the new optimal value, and the command load is built for uplink to ISS. EMMIE also provides the capability for command load lifetime to be tracked through multiple TORS ephemeris updates. Using EMMIE, TORS command load lifetimes of approximately 30 days have been achieved.

Brown, Aaron J.

2002-01-01

132

An expectancy-value analysis of viewer interest in television prevention news stories.  

PubMed

Understanding what drives viewer interest in television news stories about prevention topics is vital to maximizing the effectiveness of interventions that utilize this medium. Guided by expectancy-value theory, this experiment used regression analysis to identify the salient beliefs associated with viewer attitudes towards these types of news stories. The 458 study participants were recruited over 30 days from a municipal jury pool in an eastern U.S. city. Out of the 22 beliefs included in the experiment, 6 demonstrated salience. Personal relevance, novelty, shock value, and the absence of exaggeration were the core values reflected in the identified salient beliefs. This study highlights the importance of explaining the relevance of prevention stories to viewers and framing these stories with a new spin or a surprising twist. However, such manipulations should be applied with savvy and restraint, as hyping prevention news was found to be counterproductive to educating the public. PMID:11550849

Cooper, C P; Burgoon, M; Roter, D L

2001-01-01

133

Optimal Maximal Encoding Different from Huffman Encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel maximal encoding, encoding, and maximal prefix encoding different from Huffman encoding are introduced. It is proven that for finite source alphabets all Huffman codes are optimal maximal codes, codes, and maximal prefix codes. Conversely, the above three types optimal codes need not to be the Huffman codes. Completely similar to Huffman codes, we prove that for every random variable

Dongyang Long; Weijia Jia

2001-01-01

134

Maximizing Pharmacy's Contribution to Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that the role of colleges in the effort to maximize pharmacy's contribution to society requires an emphasis on research in the pharmaceutical sciences, in the clinical use of drugs, and in the socioeconomic aspects of drug therapy. This will produce more qualified pharmacists and greater credibility for the profession. (JMD)

Marston, Robert Q.

1978-01-01

135

Shadows of a maximal acceleration  

E-print Network

A quantum mechanical upper limit on the value of particle accelerations, or maximal acceleration (MA), is applied to compact stars. A few MA fermions are at most present in canonical white dwarfs and neutron stars. They drastically alter a star's stability conditions.

G. Papini

2002-11-04

136

Minimal Scenes, Maximal Irving Biederman  

E-print Network

Minimal Scenes, Maximal Challenges Irving Biederman University of Southern California NSF 04 additional item in the display (100 msec exposure). From Biederman et al., (1988) It is possible that when this picture. #12;#12;#12;Role of Familiarity of Relationships in Complex Scenes Biederman, Mezzonotte, Klatsky

Li, Fei-Fei

137

On learning statistical mixtures maximizing the complete likelihood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical mixtures are semi-parametric models ubiquitously met in data science since they can universally model smooth densities arbitrarily closely. Finite mixtures are usually inferred from data using the celebrated Expectation-Maximization framework that locally iteratively maximizes the incomplete likelihood by assigning softly data to mixture components. In this paper, we present a novel methodology to infer mixtures by transforming the learning problem into a sequence of geometric center-based hard clustering problems that provably maximizes monotonically the complete likelihood. Our versatile method is fast and uses low memory footprint: The core inner steps can be implemented using various generalized k-means type heuristics. Thus we can leverage recent results on clustering to mixture learning. In particular, for mixtures of singly-parametric distributions including for example the Rayleigh, Weibull, or Poisson distributions, we show how to use dynamic programming to solve exactly the inner geometric clustering problems. We discuss on several extensions of the methodology.

Nielsen, Frank

2015-01-01

138

Expecting the Best for Students: Teacher Expectations and Academic Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research into teacher expectations has shown that these have an effect on student achievement. Some researchers have explored the impact of various student characteristics on teachers' expectations. One attribute of interest is ethnicity. Aims: This study aimed to explore differences in teachers' expectations and judgments of student…

Rubie-Davies, Christine; Hattie, John; Hamilton, Richard

2006-01-01

139

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations Week 1 Report: 1. Write product 3 or 6. · see the section in the manual on NMR and GC-MS to give you some help in what to look Report Expectations for students who did Scheme 4: Do as much as you can from the instructions above

Jasperse, Craig P.

140

Reward expectation influences audiovisual spatial integration.  

PubMed

In order to determine the spatial location of an object that is simultaneously seen and heard, the brain assigns higher weights to the sensory inputs that provide the most reliable information. For example, in the well-known ventriloquism effect, the perceived location of a sound is shifted toward the location of a concurrent but spatially misaligned visual stimulus. This perceptual illusion can be explained by the usually much higher spatial resolution of the visual system as compared to the auditory system. Recently, it has been demonstrated that this cross-modal binding process is not fully automatic, but can be modulated by emotional learning. Here we tested whether cross-modal binding is similarly affected by motivational factors, as exemplified by reward expectancy. Participants received a monetary reward for precise and accurate localization of brief auditory stimuli. Auditory stimuli were accompanied by task-irrelevant, spatially misaligned visual stimuli. Thus, the participants' motivational goal of maximizing their reward was put in conflict with the spatial bias of auditory localization induced by the ventriloquist situation. Crucially, the amounts of expected reward differed between the two hemifields. As compared to the hemifield associated with a low reward, the ventriloquism effect was reduced in the high-reward hemifield. This finding suggests that reward expectations modulate cross-modal binding processes, possibly mediated via cognitive control mechanisms. The motivational significance of the stimulus material, thus, constitutes an important factor that needs to be considered in the study of top-down influences on multisensory integration. PMID:24874263

Bruns, Patrick; Maiworm, Mario; Röder, Brigitte

2014-08-01

141

FastStats: Life Expectancy  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Life Expectancy Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. ... Preliminary Data for 2011 [PDF - 1.7 MB] Life expectancy: 78.7 years Source: Deaths: Final Data ...

142

Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

2006-01-01

143

Sequence estimation in the presence of interference via the expectation-maximization algorithm  

E-print Network

B. The processing gain is 31. 17 Comparison of error probability between different demodulation sequence lengths. The interference to signal ratio is -3 dB. The BER when no EM is used and J/S = -3 dB is provided as a reference. The processing gain is 31. 18 10... Comparison of error probability between difi'erent demodulation sequence lengths, Thc interference to signal ratio is 0 dB. The BER when no EM is used and J/S = 0 dB is provided as a reference. The processing gain is 31. 19 FIGURE Page Comparison...

Zhang, Quan G

1996-01-01

144

Registration of digital retinal images using landmark correspondence by expectation maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for registering pairs of digital images of the retina is presented, using a small set of intrinsic control points whose matching is not known. Control point matching is then achieved by calculating similarity transformation (ST) coefficients for all possible combinations of control point pairs. The cluster of coefficients associated with the matched control point pairs is identified by

Neil Ryan; Conor Heneghan; Philip De Chazal

2004-01-01

145

FEMA: A Fast Expectation Maximization Algorithm based on Grid and PCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

EM algorithm is an important unsupervised clustering algo- rithm, but the algorithm has several limitations. In this paper, we propose a fast EM algorithm (FEMA) to address the limitations of EM and enhance its efficiency. FEMA achieves low running time by combining principal component analysis(PCA), a grid cell ex- pansion algorithm(GCEA) and a hierarchical cluster tree. PCA and multi-dimensional grid

Zhiwen Yu; Hau-san Wong

2006-01-01

146

Treatment Options in Alzheimer’s Disease: Maximizing Benefit, Managing Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is becoming an increasingly heavy burden on the society of developed countries, and physicians now face the challenge of providing efficient treatment regimens to an ever-higher number of individuals affected by the disease. Currently approved anti-AD therapies – the cholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine – offer modest symptomatic relief, which can be enhanced using

Martin R. Farlow; Michael L. Miller; Vojislav Pejovic

2008-01-01

147

Blobworld: Image Segmentation Using Expectation-Maximization and Its Application to Image Querying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrieving images from large and varied collections us- ing image content as a key is a challenging and important problem. We present a new image representation which pro- vides a transformation from the raw pixel data to a small set of image regions which are coherent in color and tex- ture. This \\

Chad Carson; Serge Belongie; Hayit Greenspan; Jitendra Malik

2002-01-01

148

Blobworld: Image segmentation using Expectation-Maximization and its application to image querying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrieving images from large and varied collections usingimage content as a key is a challenging and importantproblem. We present a new image representation which providesa transformation from the raw pixel data to a smallset of image regions which are coherent in color and texture.This "Blobworld" representation is created by clusteringpixels in a joint color-texture-position feature space. Thesegmentation algorithm is fully

Chad Carson; Serge Belongie; Hayit Greenspan

1999-01-01

149

SEMI-BLIND CHANNEL IDENTIFICATION AND EQUALIZATION IN OFDM: AN EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION APPROACH  

E-print Network

of many standards including digital audio and video broadcasting in Europe and high speed transmission] and [3] to perform channel esti- mation. The redundancy due to the presence of the cyclic prefix (CP and covariance · Redundancy of the input in the form of cyclic pre- fix (redundancy due to the presence of a real

Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

150

Statistical radar imaging of diffuse and specular targets using an expectation-maximization algorithm  

E-print Network

waveforms, passive radar applications12 which employ commercial television or FM radio signals have garnered 61801 ABSTRACT Radar imaging is often posed as a problem of estimating deterministic reflectances (Ref. 10, Sec. 10.4.2), and random signal radar (RSR) waveforms.11 In addition to these active

Lanterman, Aaron

151

DNA Motif Detection Using Particle Swarm Optimization and Expectation-Maximization C. T. Hardin  

E-print Network

Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering University of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 cthard01@louisville.edu Eric C. Rouchka Department of Computer Engineering and Computer Science University of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 ecrouc01@louisville.edu ABSTRACT Motif discovery, the process of discovering

Rouchka, Eric

152

Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was designed (1) to discover the effect of teacher expectation on student performance in the cognitive and in the psychomotor skills, and (2) to analyze students' attitudes toward teachers because of teacher expectations. The study utilized two different instructional units. The quality milk production unit was used to teach cognitive…

Pandya, Himanshu S.

153

Trust Maximization in Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trust is a human-related phenomenon in social networks. Trust research on social networks has gained much attention on its usefulness, and on modeling propagations. There is little focus on finding maximum trust in social networks which is particularly important when a social network is oriented by certain tasks. In this paper, we propose a trust maximization algorithm based on the task-oriented social networks.

Zhan, Justin; Fang, Xing

154

Natural selection maximizes Fisher information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In biology, information flows from the environment to the genome by the\\u000aprocess of natural selection. But it has not been clear precisely what sort of\\u000ainformation metric properly describes natural selection. Here, I show that\\u000aFisher information arises as the intrinsic metric of natural selection and\\u000aevolutionary dynamics. Maximizing the amount of Fisher information about the\\u000aenvironment captured by

Steven A. Frank

2009-01-01

155

Time-based reward maximization.  

PubMed

Humans and animals time intervals from seconds to minutes with high accuracy but limited precision. Consequently, time-based decisions are inevitably subjected to our endogenous timing uncertainty, and thus require temporal risk assessment. In this study, we tested temporal risk assessment ability of humans when participants had to withhold each subsequent response for a minimum duration to earn reward and each response reset the trial time. Premature responses were not penalized in Experiment 1 but were penalized in Experiment 2. Participants tried to maximize reward within a fixed session time (over eight sessions) by pressing a key. No instructions were provided regarding the task rules/parameters. We evaluated empirical performance within the framework of optimality that was based on the level of endogenous timing uncertainty and the payoff structure. Participants nearly tracked the optimal target inter-response times (IRTs) that changed as a function of the level of timing uncertainty and maximized the reward rate in both experiments. Acquisition of optimal target IRT was rapid and abrupt without any further improvement or worsening. These results constitute an example of optimal temporal risk assessment performance in a task that required finding the optimal trade-off between the 'speed' (timing) and 'accuracy' (reward probability) of timed responses for reward maximization. PMID:24446495

Çavdaro?lu, Bilgehan; Zeki, Mustafa; Balci, Fuat

2014-03-01

156

Maximal violation of Bell inequalities for mixed states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that mixed states can produce maximal violations in the Bell inequality due to Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH). This follows from the degeneracy of the operator which is naturally associated with the Bell inequality (here called the Bell operator). We have calculated the form of all the eigenvalues for the generic CHSH Bell operator. Finally, we consider several examples which demonstrate the utility of studying the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Bell operator.

Braunstein, Samuel L.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.

1992-06-01

157

MAXIMIZING PREDICTABILITY IN THE STOCK AND BOND MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct portfolios of stocks and bonds that are maximallypredictable with respect to a set of ex-ante observable economicvariables, and show that these levels of predictability arestatistically significant, even after controlling for data-snoopingbiases. We disaggregate the sources of predictability by usingseveral asset groups sector portfolios, market-capitalizationportfolios, and stock bond utility portfolios and find that thesources of maximal predictability shift considerably

ANDREW W. LO; A. CRAIG MACKINLAY

1997-01-01

158

Expected Returns and Habit Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a consumption-based asset pricing model with infinite-horizon nonlinear habit formation, Campbell and Cochrane (1999) show that low consumption in surplus of habit should forecast high expected returns. This article argues that the finite-horizon linear habit model also implies an inverse relation between expected returns and surplus consumption. This article also presents empirical evidence, which indicates that expected returns on

Yuming Li

2001-01-01

159

Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known whether it assesses similar constructs (i.e., measurement invariance) between boys

Karen A. Randolph; Mary A. Gerend; Brenda A. Miller

2006-01-01

160

Maximal Vector Computation in Large Data Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding the maximals in a collection of vectors is relevant to many applications. The maximal set is related to the convex hull---and hence, linear optimization---and nearest neighbors. The maximal vector problem has resurfaced with the advent of skyline queries for relational databases and skyline algorithms that are external and relationally well behaved.The initial algorithms proposed for maximals are based on

Parke Godfrey; Ryan Shipley; Jarek Gryz

2005-01-01

161

What surface maximizes entanglement entropy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a given quantum field theory, provided the area of the entangling surface is fixed, what surface maximizes entanglement entropy? We analyze the answer to this question in four and higher dimensions. Surprisingly, in four dimensions the answer is related to a mathematical problem of finding surfaces that minimize the Willmore (bending) energy and eventually to the Willmore conjecture. We propose a generalization of the Willmore energy in higher dimensions and analyze its minimizers in a general class of topologies Sm×Sn and make certain observations and conjectures that may have some mathematical significance.

Faraji Astaneh, Amin; Gibbons, Gary; Solodukhin, Sergey N.

2014-10-01

162

Multiqubit symmetric states with maximally mixed one-qubit reductions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive study of maximally entangled symmetric states of arbitrary numbers of qubits in the sense of the maximal mixedness of the one-qubit reduced density operator. A general criterion is provided to easily identify whether given symmetric states are maximally entangled in that respect or not. We show that these maximally entangled symmetric (MES) states are the only symmetric states for which the expectation value of the associated collective spin of the system vanishes, as well as in corollary the dipole moment of the Husimi function. We establish the link between this kind of maximal entanglement, the anticoherence properties of spin states, and the degree of polarization of light fields. We analyze the relationship between the MES states and the classes of states equivalent through stochastic local operations with classical communication (SLOCC). We provide a nonexistence criterion of MES states within SLOCC classes of qubit states and show in particular that the symmetric Dicke state SLOCC classes never contain such MES states, with the only exception of the balanced Dicke state class for even numbers of qubits. The 4-qubit system is analyzed exhaustively and all MES states of this system are identified and characterized. Finally the entanglement content of MES states is analyzed with respect to the geometric and barycentric measures of entanglement, as well as to the generalized N-tangle. We show that the geometric entanglement of MES states is ensured to be larger than or equal to 1/2, but also that MES states are not in general the symmetric states that maximize the investigated entanglement measures.

Baguette, D.; Bastin, T.; Martin, J.

2014-09-01

163

Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization  

PubMed Central

Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold’s topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan’s presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821

Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo

2014-01-01

164

Expectation-based intelligent control  

Microsoft Academic Search

New dynamics paradigms—negative diffusion and terminal attractors—are introduced to control noise and chaos. The applied control forces are composed of expectations governed by the associated Fokker–Planck and Liouville equations. The approach is expanded to a general concept of intelligent control via expectations. Relevance to control in livings is emphasized and illustrated by neural nets with mirror neurons.

Michail Zak

2006-01-01

165

Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is any one really ready for the Spanish Inquisition? Assign studnets to participate in reading the play, The Spanish Inquisition by Monty Python. While readiang the play, display the following pictures at appropiate times. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion Confess!!! Get the Cushions!!!! Get the comfy Chair! Now you'll confess! Confess women, CONFESS!!! Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!!! ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2005-04-08

166

Measuring Instructor Expectations and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because there are few instruments designed to measure the specific behaviors and characteristics instructors expect of college students and how well the majority of their students meet those expectations, an original survey instrument has been created to address that need. Focus group interviews were held, and as a result of those interviews, an…

Ginley, Kristine J.; Giraud, Gerald; Weglarz, Donna

2006-01-01

167

Maximally entangled states and fully entangled fraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study maximally entangled states and fully entangled fraction in general d'?d (d'?d ) systems. Necessary and sufficient conditions for maximally entangled pure and mixed states are presented. As a natural generalization of the usual fully entangled fraction for d ?d systems, we define the maximal overlap between a given quantum state and the maximally entangled states as the fully entangled fraction in d'?d systems. The properties of this fully entangled fraction and its relations to quantum teleportation have been analyzed. The witness for detecting maximally entangled states and quantum states that are useful for quantum teleportation is provided.

Zhao, Ming-Jing

2015-01-01

168

Maximal Oxygen Intake and Maximal Work Performance of Active College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximal oxygen intake and associated physiological variables were measured during strenuous exercise on women subjects (N=20 physical education majors). Following assessment of maximal oxygen intake, all subjects underwent a performance test at the work level which had elicited their maximal oxygen intake. Mean maximal oxygen intake was 41.32…

Higgs, Susanne L.

169

Caffeinated Alcohol Use and Expectancies for Caffeine Versus Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Background Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) use is related to alcohol-related risk. Limited research has examined outcome expectancies and CAB consumption. Objectives This study tested the predictive utility of caffeine and alcohol expectancies in CAB use outcomes (i.e. quantity, frequency, and alcohol-related harms). Methods Participants were 419 (302 women) alcohol and caffeine users from a mid-sized urban university. Data collection occurred between August 2010 and December 2011. Participants completed measures of caffeine and alcohol expectancies, alcohol problems, alcohol use, and CAB use. Results Caffeine and alcohol expectancies contributed uniquely to approximately 12% of the variability in quantity, 8% in frequency, and 16% in problems. When examined separately, alcohol expectancies explained approximately 10% to 11% of the variance, whereas caffeine expectancies accounted for 6% of the variance in CAB use quantity. For CAB use frequency, alcohol and caffeine expectancies accounted for about 8% and 4%, respectively. Alcohol expectancies accounted for 12% to 14% of variance, whereas caffeine expectancies accounted for 4% to 6% in alcohol-related harms. Conclusions/Importance The present study sought to address a gap in the literature regarding the contributions of expectancies in the prediction of CAB use. Our findings provide support for the predictive utility of both caffeine and alcohol expectancies in accounting for individual variability in CAB use but alcohol expectancies may exert greater impact on use patterns. Inclusion of both types of expectancies in larger theoretical frameworks may be beneficial in gaining a more complete and deeper conceptualization of this risky behavior. PMID:24708428

Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden, Ashley N.

2014-01-01

170

Maximally Expressive Modeling of Operations Tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiments for the International Space Station. In these experiments, the equipment used is among the most complex hardware ever developed, the information sought is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling International Space Station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema.

Jaap, John; Richardson, Lea; Davis, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

171

QM Momentum Expectation Value Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Momentum Expectation Value program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function and the associated momentum expectation value. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the qm_expectation_p.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default wave function is a Gaussian wave packet in a harmonic oscillator. Additional states and other potential energy functions can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. QM Momentum Expectation Value is one of 18 Open Source Physics programs that model time-dependent quantum mechanics using an energy eigenstate expansion. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Superposition.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-04-17

172

Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?  

PubMed Central

Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404

Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald

2014-01-01

173

Maximal quantum randomness in Bell tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlocal correlations exhibited when measuring entangled particles can be used to certify the presence of genuine randomness in Bell experiments. While nonlocality is necessary for randomness certification, it is unclear when and why nonlocality certifies maximal randomness. We provide a simple argument to certify the presence of maximal local and global randomness based on symmetries of a Bell inequality and the existence of a unique quantum probability distribution that maximally violates it. We prove the existence of N-party Bell tests attaining maximal global randomness by identifying those combinations of two-outcome measurements by each party providing N perfect random bits.

Dhara, Chirag; Prettico, Giuseppe; Acín, Antonio

2013-11-01

174

Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2012-01-01

175

A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model  

SciTech Connect

We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.

Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2012-02-17

176

Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities  

E-print Network

We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of ${\\rm SO}(4,4)$ and ${\\rm SO}(5,3)$ dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter vacuum. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the {\\bf 36} and {\\bf 36'} representations of ${\\rm SL}(8)$, we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the ${\\rm SO}(3)\\times {\\rm SO}(3)$-invariant subsectors of ${\\rm SO}(4,4)$ and ${\\rm SO}(5,3)$ gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the ${\\rm SO}(4,4)$ gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in thi...

Kodama, Hideo

2015-01-01

177

Tourism motivation and expectation formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study introduces a model of tourism motivation and expectation formation. It is based on a discussion and operationalization of both the behaviorist notion of drive reduction and the cognitivist constructs of attitudes and values. While the satisfaction of inner-directed values and motivations depends on classes of objects, outer-directed values target specific objects. In the case of trying to

Juergen Gnoth

1997-01-01

178

Just What Do You Expect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boards should clearly establish what is expected of the university president, including the six elements of good leadership: tolerance of freedom, tolerance of uncertainty, the ability to integrate motives and efforts into a meaningful aggregate, the ability to persuade, the ability to represent the institution, and influence with superiors. (MSE)

Mason, Philip R.

1990-01-01

179

Unconscious Detection of Implicit Expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of unexpected events is a fundamental process of learning. Theories of cognitive control and previous imaging results indicate a prominent role of the prefrontal cortex in the evaluation of the congruency between expected and actual outcome. In most cases, this attributed function is based on results where the person is consciously aware of the discrepancy. In this functional

Michael Rose; Hilde Haider; Christian Büchel

2005-01-01

180

The Confusing Expectations for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently, the expectations placed on education can lead to confusion over its mission. How one college president, at career end, views the purpose of education is presented in this address. The paper details how educators have tried to meet myriad demands in the face of eroding social support systems, claiming that educators must limit their…

Farquhar, Robin H.

181

Training Focuses on Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a training program that aims to raise teachers' awareness of how they treat their students. The Teacher Expectations & Student Achievement, or TESA, program--which delves into whether teachers deal with their lower-achieving and higher-achieving students equitably--has been used nationally for more than 30 years. But its…

Gewertz, Catherine

2005-01-01

182

Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

1996-01-01

183

Musical Works are Maximal Memory Stores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book A Generative Theory of Shape (Michael Leyton, Springer-Verlag, 2001) develops new foundations to geometry in which shape is equivalent to mem- ory storage. With respect to this, the argument is given that art-works are maximal memory stores. The present paper reviews some of the basic principles concerning our claim that, in particular, musical works are maximal memory stores.

Michael Leyton

184

Moduli space metric for maximally-charged dilaton black holes  

E-print Network

The system consisting of slowly-moving, maximally charged, nonrotating dilaton black holes is investigated. We obtain the metric on the moduli space of the system in the low-velocity limit. We find that: (1) only two-body interactions exist between the extreme black holes in string theory; (2) the mutual interaction between the black holes vanishes if the dilaton can be interpreted as a Kaluza-Klein scalar; and (3) for general dilaton couplings, there exist many-body interactions among the extreme black holes. We analyze the low-energy classical scattering of the two extreme black holes in string theory by utilizing the moduli space metric.

Kiyoshi Shiraishi

2014-07-21

185

Maximal independent sets for sparse graphs D. Eppstein, UC Irvine, SODA 2005 All Maximal Independent Sets  

E-print Network

Maximal independent sets for sparse graphs D. Eppstein, UC Irvine, SODA 2005 All Maximal. Eppstein, UC Irvine, SODA 2005 Problem: list all maximal independent sets of an undirected graph. Eppstein, UC Irvine, SODA 2005 Previously known results O(3n/3) matches lower bound on max possible output

Eppstein, David

186

Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility  

E-print Network

Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui

2011-01-01

187

Rehabilitation Professionals' Participation Intensity and Expectations of Transition Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this mixed-methods study, an on-line survey and interviews were utilized to gather data regarding the level of participation and expectations rehabilitation professionals have of teachers, youth with disabilities, parents, and themselves during the transition process. The survey response rate was 73.0% (N = 46). Six were selected for interviews…

Oertle, Kathleen Marie

2009-01-01

188

Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

2004-01-01

189

Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Micro-Arcsecond Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imaging mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 microarcsecond imaging. To achieve mission requirements, MAXIM will have to improve on pointing by orders of magnitude. This pointing requirement impacts the control and design of the formation. Currently the architecture is comprised of 25 spacecraft, which will form the sparse apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This configuration will deploy 24 spacecraft as optics modules and one as the detector. The formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis and trades of several control efforts that are dependent upon the pointing requirements and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions that minimize the control efforts and we address both continuous and discrete control via LQR and feedback linearization. Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

2004-01-01

190

Biomass utilization  

SciTech Connect

Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources (Cunia, T.); Aerial photo biomass equation (Kasile, J.); Forest biomass utilization in Greece (Tsoumis, C.); Mass propagation of selected trees for biomass by tissue culture (Venketeswaran, S. et al.); The anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of wood (Coete, W.A.); Some structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis lignins (Papadopoulos, J.); Thermochemical routes to chemicals, fuels and energy from forestry and agricultural residues (Soltes, E.J.); Pyrolysis of wood wastes (Figueiredo, J.L. et al.); Efficient utilization of woody biomass: a cellulose-particleboard-synfuels model (Young, R.A.; Achmadi, S.); and Methanol from wood, a state of the art review (Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van).

Coute, W.A. (ed.)

1983-01-01

191

Glary Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glary Utilities offers this free application to help users improve their system's performance and also protect their privacy. After installing the application, users can remove and back up faculty registry entries, along with offering a secure file deletion feature. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer.

2008-01-01

192

An expectation-based memory deficit in aging.  

PubMed

Memory performance can be enhanced by expectations regarding the appearance of ensuing stimuli. Here, we investigated the influence of stimulus-category expectation on memory performance in aging, and used fMRI to explore age-related alterations in associated neural mechanisms. Unlike younger adults, who demonstrated both working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance benefits for face stimuli when this stimulus category was expected, older adults did not exhibit these memory benefits. Concordantly, older adults did not exhibit expectation-period activity modulation in visual association cortex (i.e., fusiform face area (FFA)), unlike younger adults. However, within the older population, individuals who demonstrated face-expectation memory benefits also exhibited expectation-period FFA activity modulation equivalent to younger adults. The older cohort also displayed diminished expectation-related functional connectivity between regions of the prefrontal cortex and the FFA, relative to younger adults, suggesting that network alterations underlie the absence of expectation-mediated cortical modulation and memory benefits. This deficit may have broader consequences for the effective utilization of predictive cues to guide attention and engender optimal cognitive performance in older individuals. PMID:21272595

Bollinger, Jacob; Rubens, Michael T; Masangkay, Edrick; Kalkstein, Jonathan; Gazzaley, Adam

2011-05-01

193

Exchange rate expectations of chartists and fundamentalists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides novel evidence on exchange rate expectations of both chartists and fundamentalists separately. These groups indeed form expectations differently. Chartists change their expectations more often; however, all professionals' expectations vary considerably as they generally follow strong exchange rate trends. In line with non-linear exchange rate-modeling, professionals expect mean reversion only if exchange rates deviate much from PPP. Chartists

Christian D. Dick; Lukas Menkhoff

2012-01-01

194

TOWARDS THE GLOBAL SOLUTION OF THE MAXIMAL ...  

E-print Network

of applications, among which are cluster analysis, data classification, pattern recognition, ..... for the Horst-Jacobi algorithm as the replacement of the exhaustive search, ..... properties of the global maximizer of the MCP and the core engine in ...

2009-01-13

195

Managing Milk Composition: Maximizing Rumen Function  

E-print Network

Feeding strategies that optimize rumen function also maximize milk production and milk component percentages and yield. This publication offers guidelines for feeding forage, grain protein and ration fiber to enhance rumen function....

Stokes, Sandra R.; Jordan, Ellen R.; Looper, Mike; Waldner, Dan

2000-12-11

196

Maximally informative foraging by Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Animals have evolved intricate search strategies to find new sources of food. Here, we analyze a complex food seeking behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to derive a general theory describing different searches. We show that C. elegans, like many other animals, uses a multi-stage search for food, where they initially explore a small area intensively ('local search') before switching to explore a much larger area ('global search'). We demonstrate that these search strategies as well as the transition between them can be quantitatively explained by a maximally informative search strategy, where the searcher seeks to continuously maximize information about the target. Although performing maximally informative search is computationally demanding, we show that a drift-diffusion model can approximate it successfully with just three neurons. Our study reveals how the maximally informative search strategy can be implemented and adopted to different search conditions. PMID:25490069

Calhoun, Adam J; Chalasani, Sreekanth H; Sharpee, Tatyana O

2014-01-01

197

Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation  

E-print Network

We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively.

Ming Li; Shao-Ming Fei; Xianqing Li-Jost

2011-02-25

198

Some properties of maximally entangled ELW game  

E-print Network

The Eisert et al. maximally entangled quantum game is studied within the framework of (elementary) group theory. It is shown that the game can be described in terms of real Hilbert space of states. It is also shown that the crucial properties of the maximally entangled case, like quaternionic structure and the existence, to any given strategy, the corresponding counterstrategy, result from the existence of large stability subgroup of initial state of the game.

Katarzyna Bolonek-Lason; Piotr Kosinski

2012-09-12

199

Maximal hypercubes in Fibonacci and Lucas cubes  

E-print Network

The Fibonacci cube $\\Gamma_n$ is the subgraph of the hypercube induced by the binary strings that contain no two consecutive 1's. The Lucas cube $\\Lambda_n$ is obtained from $\\Gamma_n$ by removing vertices that start and end with 1. We characterize maximal induced hypercubes in $\\Gamma_n$ and $\\Lambda_n$ and deduce for any $p\\leq n$ the number of maximal $p$-dimensional hypercubes in these graphs.

Mollard, Michel

2012-01-01

200

SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR MAXIMIZING LIFETIME PER UNIT COST IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR MAXIMIZING LIFETIME PER UNIT COST IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Yunxia Chen of sensors deployed in the network, can be used to measure the utilization efficiency of sensors in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Analyzing the lifetime per unit cost of a linear WSN, we find that deploying

Chuah, Chen-Nee

201

Racial differences in patient expectations prior to resective epilepsy surgery  

PubMed Central

We assessed the nature and frequency of preoperative expectations among patients with refractory epilepsy who were enrolled in a seven-center observational study of epilepsy surgery outcomes. At enrollment, patients responded to open-ended questions about expectations for surgical outcome. Using an iterative cutting and sorting technique, expectation themes were identified and rank-ordered. Associations of expectations with race/ethnicity were evaluated. Among 391 respondents, the two most frequently endorsed expectations (any rank order) were driving (62%) and job/school (43%). When only the most important (first-ranked order) expectation was analyzed, driving (53%) and cognition (17%) were most frequently offered. Non-whites endorsed job/school and cognition more frequently and driving less frequently than whites (all p?0.05), whether we included expectations of any order or only the first ranked ones. Elucidating the reason for these differences can aid in the clinical decision-making process for resective surgery and potentially address disparities in its utilization. PMID:19541545

Baca, Christine Bower; Cheng, Eric M.; Spencer, Susan S.; Vassar, Stefanie; Vickrey, Barbara G.

2009-01-01

202

Optimal power flow with expected security costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research introduces the expected security-cost optimal power flow (ESCOPF) model. The ESCOPF problem is the standard optimal power flow (OPF) problem, but also includes the costs of the system operating within operational limits in post-contingency states as part of the total cost to minimize. Redispatch of the power system in the post-contingency state, given that the system has been operating at a given pre-contingency state prior to the contingency, yields a new total cost of system operation, which is considered the security cost of the particular contingency as a function of the pre-contingency state. The security cost is then included in the objective function. In other words, the ESCOPF problem is the OPF problem that handles system security as an economic cost instead of as a constraint, which is what has been done in previous studies of security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF). In addition, after the contingency, we allow post-contingency rescheduling of generators and the ability to interrupt customer loads if necessary. However, the cost of post-contingency rescheduling, such as the interruption cost the utility must pay to the interrupted customers, must be included in the post-contingency security cost. The proposed ESCOPF problem can be solved using either a decomposition method or an integrated solution method. The proposed model has been successfully tested on 3-bus, 5-bus and IEEE 14-bus cases. The numerical results of the proposed model are used to study the values of spinning reserve and interruptible load in power systems considering system security. The marginal value of spinning reserve and the marginal value of interruptible load tell us how much the expected security cost will be reduced by the availability of another MW of spinning reserve or interruptible load.

Damrongkulkamjorn, Parnjit

203

Sex Differences in Occupational Performance Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effects of occupational sex-dominance on sex differences in occupational performance expectations. College students indicated their self-expectations and comparison person expectations (those of a "typical" male or female) regarding job performance for six occupations. Women reported lower expectations for themselves except for…

Bridges, Judith S.

1988-01-01

204

What to Expect Before Pulmonary Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

... Rehabilitation » What To Expect Before Pulmonary Rehabilitation Explore Pulmonary Rehabilitation What Is... Who Needs What To Expect Before What to Expect During What to Expect After Benefits & Risks Links Related Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a ...

205

Using return on investment to maximize conservation effectiveness in Argentine grasslands  

PubMed Central

The rapid global loss of natural habitats and biodiversity, and limited resources, place a premium on maximizing the expected benefits of conservation actions. The scarcity of information on the fine-grained distribution of species of conservation concern, on risks of loss, and on costs of conservation actions, especially in developing countries, makes efficient conservation difficult. The distribution of ecosystem types (unique ecological communities) is typically better known than species and arguably better represents the entirety of biodiversity than do well-known taxa, so we use conserving the diversity of ecosystem types as our conservation goal. We define conservation benefit to include risk of conversion, spatial effects that reward clumping of habitat, and diminishing returns to investment in any one ecosystem type. Using Argentine grasslands as an example, we compare three strategies: protecting the cheapest land (“minimize cost”), maximizing conservation benefit regardless of cost (“maximize benefit”), and maximizing conservation benefit per dollar (“return on investment”). We first show that the widely endorsed goal of saving some percentage (typically 10%) of a country or habitat type, although it may inspire conservation, is a poor operational goal. It either leads to the accumulation of areas with low conservation benefit or requires infeasibly large sums of money, and it distracts from the real problem: maximizing conservation benefit given limited resources. Second, given realistic budgets, return on investment is superior to the other conservation strategies. Surprisingly, however, over a wide range of budgets, minimizing cost provides more conservation benefit than does the maximize-benefit strategy. PMID:21098281

Murdoch, William; Ranganathan, Jai; Polasky, Stephen; Regetz, James

2010-01-01

206

Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation  

E-print Network

Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation The Effects of Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation On Teachers Autonomy and Exercise Psychology 4 (2006) 283-301" #12;Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 2 Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

207

Massive Nonplanar Two-Loop Maximal Unitarity  

E-print Network

We explore maximal unitarity for nonplanar two-loop integrals with up to four massive external legs. In this framework, the amplitude is reduced to a basis of master integrals whose coefficients are extracted from maximal cuts. The hepta-cut of the nonplanar double box defines a nodal algebraic curve associated with a multiply pinched genus-3 Riemann surface. All possible configurations of external masses are covered by two distinct topological pictures in which the curve decomposes into either six or eight Riemann spheres. The procedure relies on consistency equations based on vanishing of integrals of total derivatives and Levi-Civita contractions. Our analysis indicates that these constraints are governed by the global structure of the maximal cut. Lastly, we present an algorithm for computing generalized cuts of massive integrals with higher powers of propagators based on the Bezoutian matrix method.

Mads Sogaard; Yang Zhang

2014-06-19

208

An information maximization model of eye movements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

2005-01-01

209

Massive nonplanar two-loop maximal unitarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore maximal unitarity for nonplanar two-loop integrals with up to four massive external legs. In this framework, the amplitude is reduced to a basis of master integrals whose coefficients are extracted from maximal cuts. The hepta-cut of the nonplanar double box defines a nodal algebraic curve associated with a multiply pinched genus-3 Riemann surface. All possible configurations of external masses are covered by two distinct topological pictures in which the curve decomposes into either six or eight Riemann spheres. The procedure relies on consistency equations based on vanishing of integrals of total derivatives and Levi-Civita contractions. Our analysis indicates that these constraints are governed by the global structure of the maximal cut. Lastly, we present an algorithm for computing generalized cuts of massive integrals with higher powers of propagators based on the Bezoutian matrix method.

Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang

2014-12-01

210

Maximally discordant separable two-qubit states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent article, Gharibian (Phys Rev A 86:042106 2012) has conjectured that no two-qubit separable state of rank greater than two could be maximally non-classical (defined to be those which have normalized geometric discord 1/4) and asked for an analytic proof. In this work, we prove analytically that among the subclass of states, there is a unique (up to local unitary equivalence) maximal separable state of rank two. For the general case, we derive some necessary conditions.

Rana, Swapan; Parashar, Preeti

2014-12-01

211

Effect of short-term maximal voluntary co-contraction training on neuromuscular function.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to examine the effect of short-term training utilizing voluntary co-contraction with maximal efforts. 23 healthy young men (training group: TG, n = 13; control group: CG, n = 10) participated in this study. TG conducted a 4-week training program (3 days/week), which consisted of 4 s simultaneous maximal voluntary contractions of elbow flexors and extensors at 90° of the elbow joint, followed by 4 s muscle relaxation (10 repetitions/set, 5 sets/day). Before and after the intervention, maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic torques and the muscle thicknesses of the elbow flexors and extensors were determined. The electromyograms (EMGs) of the 2 muscle groups during isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were also recorded. After the intervention, CG did not show any significant changes in all measured variables. In TG, significant increases were found in the agonist EMG activities during MVC, and maximal isometric and isokinetic torques of the elbow flexors and extensors, without significant changes in the muscle thicknesses and involuntary coactivation levels during MVC. The current results indicate that the training mode with maximal voluntary co-contraction is effective for improving the force-generating capabilities of the exercising muscles, without any increases in the level of involuntary coactivation during MVC. PMID:23868685

Maeo, S; Yoshitake, Y; Takai, Y; Fukunaga, T; Kanehisa, H

2014-02-01

212

How to maximize the HL-LHC performance  

E-print Network

This contribution presents an overview of the parameter space for the HL-LHC [1] upgrade options that would maximize the LHC performance after LS3. The analysis is assuming the baseline HL-LHC upgrade options including among others, 25ns spacing, LIU [2] parameters, large aperture triplet and matching-section magnets, as well as crab cavities. The analysis then focuses on illustrations of the transmission efficiency of the LIU beam parameters from the injection process to stable conditions for physics, the minimization of the luminous region volume while preserving at the same time the separation of multiple vertices, the luminosity control mechanisms to extend the duration of the most efficient data taking conditions together with the associated concerns (machine efficiency, beam instabilities, halo population, cryogenic load, and beam dump frequency) and risks (failure scenarios, and radiation damage). In conclusion the expected integrated luminosity per fill and year is presented.

Arduini, G; Barranco, J; Bartosik, H; Bruce, R; Brüning, O; Calaga, R; Cerutti, F; Damerau, H; De Maria, R; Esposito, L; Fartoukh, S; Fitterer, M; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gorini, B; Lamont, M; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Pieloni, T; Redaelli, S; Rossi, L; Rumolo, G; Todesco, E; Tomas, R; Zimmermann, F; Valishev, A

2014-01-01

213

Uplink Array Calibration via Far-Field Power Maximization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uplink antenna arrays have the potential to greatly increase the Deep Space Network s high-data-rate uplink capabilities as well as useful range, and to provide additional uplink signal power during critical spacecraft emergencies. While techniques for calibrating an array of receive antennas have been addressed previously, proven concepts for uplink array calibration have yet to be demonstrated. This article describes a method of utilizing the Moon as a natural far-field reflector for calibrating a phased array of uplink antennas. Using this calibration technique, the radio frequency carriers transmitted by each antenna of the array are optimally phased to ensure that the uplink power received by the spacecraft is maximized.

Vilnrotter, V.; Mukai, R.; Lee, D.

2006-01-01

214

Maximizing the Spectacle of Water Fountains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a given initial speed of water from a spigot or jet, what angle of the jet will maximize the visual impact of the water spray in the fountain? This paper focuses on fountains whose spigots are arranged in circular fashion, and couches the measurement of the visual impact in terms of the surface area and the volume under the fountain's natural…

Simoson, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

215

Supervised Classification of Baboon Vocalizations Maxime Janvier  

E-print Network

Supervised Classification of Baboon Vocalizations Maxime Janvier , Radu Horaud INRIA Grenoble Rh classification of baboon vocalizations. We consid- ered six classes of sounds emitted by Papio papio baboons supervised analyses for the classification of baboon vocalizations, which, to our knowledge, is the first

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

216

Globally Optimal Surfaces by Continuous Maximal Flows  

E-print Network

Globally Optimal Surfaces by Continuous Maximal Flows Ben Appleton1 and Hugues Talbot2 1 according to a measure dic- tated by the application domain. They have the distinct advantage over many such as snakes [1], level sets [2, 3] and geodesic active contours [4, 5]; and on the other hand graph

Tomkins, Andrew

217

Supply Chain Network Design Under Profit Maximization  

E-print Network

Chain Anna Nagurney Supply Chain Network Design Under Competition #12;Examples of Supply Chains food;Food Supply Chains Anna Nagurney Supply Chain Network Design Under Competition #12;High Tech ProductsSupply Chain Network Design Under Profit Maximization and Oligopolistic Competition Anna Nagurney

Nagurney, Anna

218

Grice's Maxims: \\\\Do the Right Thing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grice's maxims are hopelessly vague, and in fact harm- ful, because they form a misleading taxonomy. While his cooperative principle may be useful at a high level of theoretical analysis, it too is vague, and should not be directly implemented in computational natural lan- guage systems. Answers are suggested to a number of this symposium's topics based on this position.

Robert E. Frederking

1996-01-01

219

Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

Ashbaugh, Henry S.

2010-01-01

220

Maximizing Charging Throughput in Rechargeable Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Maximizing Charging Throughput in Rechargeable Sensor Networks Xiaojiang Ren Weifa Liang Wenzheng reliable energy supplies for sensors in wireless rechargeable sensor net- works. The adoption of wireless. The lifetime of traditional battery-powered sensor networks is limited by the capacities of batteries. Even

Liang, Weifa

221

Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict “normal” MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for

Ke Li; David J. Hewson; Jacques Duchêne; Jean-Yves Hogrel

2010-01-01

222

Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strength training has become an accepted method of con- ditioning in children. However, there is concern among some observers that maximal strength testing may be inappropri- ate or potentially injurious to children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children. Thirty- two girls and 64 boys

AVERY D. FAIGENBAUM; LAURIE A. MILLIKEN; WAYNE L. WESTCOTT

2003-01-01

223

Active substation design to maximize DG integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive integration of distributed generation (DG) can cause voltage disturbances at the connection points. In order to maximize the penetration of DG power, the actual topology of distribution grids should change introducing active devices to control the voltage, especially in weak networks. In this paper it is analyzed the integration of DG in a weak network connected to a

A. Goikoetxea; J. A. Barrena; M. A. Rodriguez; G. Abad

2009-01-01

224

Maximizing Technology for Children with Hearing Loss  

E-print Network

2/7/2012 1 Maximizing Technology for Children with Hearing Loss: Verification of Hearing Aids, FM Receivers FM Demos Helpful to demonstrate for teachers, parents and administrators Can access on the web available NOW in cell phones, computers, and electronic calendars. FM RECEIVERS STYLE...STYLE...STYLE

O'Toole, Alice J.

225

Protein Function Prediction Using Dependence Maximization  

E-print Network

Protein Function Prediction Using Dependence Maximization Guoxian Yu1 , Carlotta Domeniconi2@scut.edu.cn Abstract. Protein function prediction is one of the fundamental tasks in the post genomic era. The vast amount of available proteomic data makes it possible to computationally annotate proteins. Most computa

Domeniconi, Carlotta

226

Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar-  

E-print Network

Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar- beet yields while minimizing disease, water costs, fertilizer leaching, and soil erosion. Crop yields can suffer from either under- or overirriga- tion. Underirrigation limits water flow into the plant, which reduces movement of water, nutri

O'Laughlin, Jay

227

How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…

Davis, Lewis

2014-01-01

228

Revenue maximization when bidders have budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of maximizing revenue for auctions with multiple units of a good where bidders have hard budget constraints, first considered in (2). The revenue obtained by an auction is compared with the optimal omniscient auction had the auctioneer known the private information of all the bidders, as in competitive analysis (7). We show that the revenue of

Zoë Abrams

2006-01-01

229

Amoebas of maximal area. Grigory Mikhalkin  

E-print Network

Amoebas of maximal area. Grigory Mikhalkin #3; Department of Mathematics University of Utah Salt A in (C #3; ) 2 one may associate a closed in#12;nite region A in R 2 called the amoeba of A. The amoebas of di#11;erent curves of the same degree come in di#11;erent shapes and sizes. All amoebas in (R #3; ) 2

Mikhalkin, Grigory

230

Global Life Expectancy Continues to Climb  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Global Life Expectancy Continues to Climb Women have slightly greater ... few decades ago, a new study indicates. Worldwide life expectancy rose from 65.3 years in 1990 ...

231

Community Expectations of College Completion and Attendance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities relay expectations of behavior that influence residents' decision making processes. The study's purpose was to define and identify social, cultural, and human capital variables relevant to understanding community expectations of postsecondary attainment. The study sought an operational model of community expectancy that would allow…

Derden, Michael Wade

2011-01-01

232

Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter? Laetitia-14Dec2010 #12;Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter of remittances on financial expectations in Albania using longitudinal data covering the period 2002

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

233

Expectancy Effects in Memory for Melodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments explored the relation between melodic expectancy and melodic memory. In Experiment 1, listeners rated the degree to which different endings confirmed their expectations for a set of melodies. After providing these expectancy ratings, listeners received a recognition memory test in which they discriminated previously heard melodies from new melodies. Recognition memory in this task positively correlated with perceived

MARK A. SCHMUCKLER

1997-01-01

234

Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen

Robert Schoen; Vladimir Canudas-Romo

2005-01-01

235

Teacher expectations and underachieving gifted children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how teacher expectations can contribute to gifted underachievement. Self?fulfilling prophecy, perceptual bias, and accuracy are reviewed as three ways in which teacher expectations relate to classroom performance. The evidence suggests that a teacher's low expectations for a child can create a climate that encourages underachievement. Underachievement may also occur when teachers inappropriately assign lower grades to gifted

Kathryn J. Kolb; Lee Jussim

1994-01-01

236

EXPECTATIONS AND DROPOUTS IN SCHOOLS OF NURSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXPECTATIONS AND EXPERIENCES OF STRESS AND SATISFACTION OF 1852 1ST-YR STUDENTS IN 43 NURSING SCHOOLS WERE ASSESSED BY QUESTIONNAIRE. LOW BUT SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE CORRELATIONS WERE OBTAINED BETWEEN WITHDRAWAL AND (1) EXPERIENCED SATISFACTIONS, AND (2) CONFIRMATION OF EXPECTATIONS, ESPECIALLY WITH RESPECT TO SATISFACTIONS. WITHDRAWAL WAS UNRELATED TO EXPERIENCED STRESS, WHETHER EXPECTED OR UNEXPECTED.

MILDRED E. KATZELL

1968-01-01

237

Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure…

Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

2015-01-01

238

Genetic interaction motif finding by expectation maximization - a novel statistical model for inferring gene modules from synthetic lethality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Synthetic lethality experiments identify pairs of genes with complementary function. More direct functional associations (for example greater probability of membership in a single protein complex) may be inferred between genes that share synthetic lethal interaction partners than genes that are directly synthetic lethal. Probabilistic algorithms that identify gene modules based on motif discovery are highly appropriate for the analysis

Yan Qi; Ping Ye; Joel S. Bader

2005-01-01

239

Segmentation of Brain MR Images through a Hidden Markov Random Field Model and the Expectation Maximization Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite mixture (FM) model is the most commonly used model for statistical segmentation of brain magnetic reso- nance (MR) images because of its simple mathematical form and the piecewise constant nature of ideal brain MR images. However, being a histogram-based model, the FM has an intrinsic limita- tion—no spatial information is taken into account. This causes the FM model

Yongyue Zhang; Michael Brady; Stephen M. Smith

2001-01-01

240

Insufficient ct data reconstruction based on directional total variation (dtv) regularized maximum likelihood expectation maximization (mlem) method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sparse tomography is an efficient technique which saves time as well as minimizes cost. However, due to few angular data it implies the image reconstruction problem as ill-posed. In the ill posed problem, even with exact data constraints, the inversion cannot be uniquely performed. Therefore, selection of suitable method to optimize the reconstruction problems plays an important role in sparse data CT. Use of regularization function is a well-known method to control the artifacts in limited angle data acquisition. In this work, we propose directional total variation regularized ordered subset (OS) type image reconstruction method for neutron limited data CT. Total variation (TV) regularization works as edge preserving regularization which not only preserves the sharp edge but also reduces many of the artifacts that are very common in limited data CT. However TV itself is not direction dependent. Therefore, TV is not very suitable for images with a dominant direction. The images with dominant direction it is important to know the total variation at certain direction. Hence, here a directional TV is used as prior term. TV regularization assumes the constraint of piecewise smoothness. As the original image is not piece wise constant image, sparsifying transform is used to convert the image in to sparse image or piecewise constant image. Along with this regularized function (D TV) the likelihood function which is adapted as objective function. To optimize this objective function a OS type algorithm is used. Generally there are two methods available to make OS method convergent. This work proposes OS type directional TV regularized likelihood reconstruction method which yields fast convergence as well as good quality image. Initial iteration starts with the filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructed image. The indication of convergence is determined by the convergence index between two successive reconstructed images. The quality of the image is assessed by showing the line profile of the reconstructed image. The proposed method is compared with the commonly used FBP, MLEM, and MLEM-TV algorithm. In order to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm a Shep-Logan head phantom is simulated as well as a real neutron CT image is tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithm for the practical sparse CT reconstruction applications.

Islam, Fahima Fahmida

241

STOCK MARKET CRASH AND EXPECTATIONS OF AMERICAN HOUSEHOLDS*  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This paper utilizes data on subjective probabilities to study the impact of the stock market crash of 2008 on households’ expectations about the returns on the stock market index. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study that was fielded in February 2008 through February 2009. The effect of the crash is identified from the date of the interview, which is shown to be exogenous to previous stock market expectations. We estimate the effect of the crash on the population average of expected returns, the population average of the uncertainty about returns (subjective standard deviation), and the cross-sectional heterogeneity in expected returns (disagreement). We show estimates from simple reduced-form regressions on probability answers as well as from a more structural model that focuses on the parameters of interest and separates survey noise from relevant heterogeneity. We find a temporary increase in the population average of expectations and uncertainty right after the crash. The effect on cross-sectional heterogeneity is more significant and longer lasting, which implies substantial long-term increase in disagreement. The increase in disagreement is larger among the stockholders, the more informed, and those with higher cognitive capacity, and disagreement co-moves with trading volume and volatility in the market. PMID:21547244

HUDOMIET, PÉTER; KÉZDI, GÁBOR; WILLIS, ROBERT J.

2011-01-01

242

Maximally entangled states of four nonbinary particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems of four nonbinary particles, with each particle having d ?3 internal states, exhibit maximally entangled states that are inaccessible to four qubits. This breaks the pattern of two- and three-particle systems, in which the existing graph states are equally accessible to binary and nonbinary systems alike. We compare the entanglement properties of these special states (called P states) with those of the more familiar Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and cluster states accessible to qubits. The comparison includes familiar entanglement measures, the "steering" of states by projective measurements, and the probability that two such measurements, chosen at random, leave the remaining particles in a Bell state. These comparisons demonstrate not only that P -state entanglement is stronger than the other types but also that it is maximal in a well-defined sense. We prove that GHZ, cluster, and P states represent all possible entanglement classes of four-particle graph states with prime d ?3 .

Gaeta, Mario; Klimov, Andrei; Lawrence, Jay

2015-01-01

243

Nondecoupling of maximal supergravity from the superstring.  

PubMed

We consider the conditions necessary for obtaining perturbative maximal supergravity in d dimensions as a decoupling limit of type II superstring theory compactified on a (10-d) torus. For dimensions d=2 and d=3, it is possible to define a limit in which the only finite-mass states are the 256 massless states of maximal supergravity. However, in dimensions d>or=4, there are infinite towers of additional massless and finite-mass states. These correspond to Kaluza-Klein charges, wound strings, Kaluza-Klein monopoles, or branes wrapping around cycles of the toroidal extra dimensions. We conclude that perturbative supergravity cannot be decoupled from string theory in dimensions>or=4. In particular, we conjecture that pure N=8 supergravity in four dimensions is in the Swampland. PMID:17678349

Green, Michael B; Ooguri, Hirosi; Schwarz, John H

2007-07-27

244

Slowly moving maximally charged black holes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors study interactions of slowly moving, non-rotating maximally charged ("Reissner-Nordstrøm") black holes. The slow motion approximation allows to neglect both gravitational and electromagnetic radiation in the spacetime. Maximally charged black holes induce only small, velocity dependent, forces on one another, so the analysis is valid even when the black holes approach each other closely. In the approximating spacetime used here, the field degrees of freedom, which would be associated with radiation, are not present. The motion of the black holes is found from an effective action which is the usual action for the coupled gravitational-electromagnetic system, but with the fields "integrated out". It is found that there are both scattering orbits and orbits which result in coalescence of the two black holes. There are no stable periodic orbits, but there is one unstable circular orbit.

Ferrell, R. C.; Eardley, D. M.

245

Extensions with Almost Maximal Depth of Ramification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is devoted to classification of finite abelian extensions L\\/K which satisfy the condition [L:K]|DL\\/K. Here K is a complete discretely valued field of characteristic 0 with an arbitrary residue field of prime characteristic p, DL\\/K is the different of L\\/K. This condition means that the depth of ramification in L\\/K has its “almost maximal” value. The condition appeared

S. V. Vostokov; I. B. Zhukov; G. K. Pak

2002-01-01

246

On maximizing service-level-agreement profits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a methodology for maximizing profits in a general class of e-commerce environments. The cost model is based on revenues that are generated when Quality-of-Service (QoS) guarantees are satisfied and on penalties that are incurred otherwise. The corresponding QoS criteria are derived from multiclass Service-Level-Agreements (SLAs) between service providers and their clients, which include the tail distributions of the

Zhen Liu; Mark S. Squillante; Joel L. Wolf

2001-01-01

247

Performance of modularity maximization in practical contexts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although widely used in practice, the behavior and accuracy of the popular module identification technique called modularity maximization is not well understood in practical contexts. Here, we present a broad characterization of its performance in such situations. First, we revisit and clarify the resolution limit phenomenon for modularity maximization. Second, we show that the modularity function Q exhibits extreme degeneracies: it typically admits an exponential number of distinct high-scoring solutions and typically lacks a clear global maximum. Third, we derive the limiting behavior of the maximum modularity Qmax for one model of infinitely modular networks, showing that it depends strongly both on the size of the network and on the number of modules it contains. Finally, using three real-world metabolic networks as examples, we show that the degenerate solutions can fundamentally disagree on many, but not all, partition properties such as the composition of the largest modules and the distribution of module sizes. These results imply that the output of any modularity maximization procedure should be interpreted cautiously in scientific contexts. They also explain why many heuristics are often successful at finding high-scoring partitions in practice and why different heuristics can disagree on the modular structure of the same network. We conclude by discussing avenues for mitigating some of these behaviors, such as combining information from many degenerate solutions or using generative models.

Good, Benjamin H.; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Clauset, Aaron

2010-04-01

248

Basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity.  

PubMed

To maximize office productivity, dentists should focus on performing tasks that only they can perform and not spend office hours performing tasks that can be delegated to non-dentist personnel. An important element of maximizing productivity is to arrange the schedule so that multiple patients are seated simultaneously in different operatories. Doing so allows the dentist to work on one patient in one operatory without needing to wait for local anesthetic to take effect on another patient in another operatory, or for assistants to perform tasks (such as cleaning up, taking radiographs, performing prophylaxis, or transporting and preparing equipment and supplies) in other operatories. Another way to improve productivity is to structure procedures so that fewer steps are needed to set up and implement them. In addition, during procedures, four-handed dental passing methods can be used to provide the dentist with supplies or equipment when needed. This article reviews basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity, based on the author's observations of business logistics used by various dental offices. PMID:22414506

Mamoun, John

2012-01-01

249

Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension  

PubMed Central

When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

2013-01-01

250

Integrated life sciences technology utilization development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the TU program was to maximize the development of operable hardware and systems which will be of substantial benefit to the public. Five working prototypes were developed, and a meal system for the elderly is now undergoing evaluation. Manpower utilization is shown relative to the volume of requests in work for each month. The ASTP mobile laboratories and post Skylab bedrest study are also described.

1975-01-01

251

Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancy–value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy–value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2000-01-01

252

6.1 Maximizing Efficiency of Solar-Powered Systems by Load Matching  

E-print Network

Solar power is an important source of renewable energy for many low-power systems. Matching the power consumption level with the supply level can make a great difference in the efficiency of power utilization. This paper proposes a source-tracking power management strategy that maximizes the panel’s total energy output under a given solar profile by load matching. The power efficiency was validated by extensive measurement. Compared to a conventional solar powered system, our load matching strategy improves the power utilization by 132 % for a portable system performing image processing and wireless communication tasks.

Dexin Li; Pai H. Chou

253

Information and Transformation at Swiss Re: Maximizing Economic Value  

E-print Network

In 2007 Swiss Re was striving to maximize economic value, a metric that would allow the company to assess its performance over time despite the volatility of the reinsurance industry. Maximizing economic value required ...

Beath, Cynthia M.

2007-12-01

254

Protocol for Maximizing Energy Savings and Indoor Environmental Quality Improvements  

E-print Network

1 Protocol for Maximizing Energy Savings and Indoor Environmental Quality Improvements when FOR MAXIMIZING ENERGY SAVINGS AND INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS WHEN RETROFITTING APARTMENTS Energy Research Program, Energy Related Environmental Research Program, through contract 50009022

255

On maximally entangled Eisert-Lewenstein-Wilkens quantum games  

E-print Network

Maximally entangled Eisert-Lewenstein-Wilkens games are analyzed. The general conditions are derived which allow to determine the form of gate operators leading to maximally entangled games. Some examples are presented.

Katarzyna Bolonek-Laso?; Piotr Kosi?ski

2014-10-28

256

Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: expanding expectancy-value theory.  

PubMed

Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this study, we expanded expectancy-value theory to evaluate the contributions of two competing expectancies to adolescent behavior problems. One hundred twenty-one high school students completed measures of behavior problems, expectancies for both acting out and academic effort, and perceived academic competence. Students' self-reported behavior problems covaried mostly with perceived competence and academic expectancies and only nominally with problem behavior expectancies. We suggest that behavior problems may result from students perceiving a lack of valued or feasible alternative behaviors, such as studying. We discuss implications for interventions and suggest that future research continue to investigate the contribution of alternative expectancies to behavioral decisions. PMID:15673229

Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J

2004-01-01

257

Maximizing performance for higher K gate dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Further scaling of complementary metal oxide semiconductor gate stacks will require gate dielectrics with a higher dielectric constant (K) than HfO2. We point out that this will require strategies to minimize the overall effective oxide thickness of the gate stack, and not just maximizing the dielectric constant, so that the channel mobility is not impaired and there is still control of the flatband voltages. This may require retention of a SiO2-based interfacial layer, and attention should be paid to the flatband voltages of lanthanide oxides. Phase control of HfO2 and ZrO2 by addition of group IV elements offers simpler advances.

Robertson, John

2008-12-01

258

Maximal Acceleration Effects in Kerr Space  

E-print Network

We consider a model in which accelerated particles experience line--elements with maximal acceleration corrections that are introduced by means of successive approximations. It is shown that approximations higher than the first need not be considered. The method is then applied to the Kerr metric. The effective field experienced by accelerated test particles contains corrections that vanish in the limit $\\hbar\\to 0$, but otherwise affect the behaviour of matter greatly. The corrections generate potential barriers that are external to the horizon and are impervious to classical particles.

V. Bozza; A. Feoli; G. Lambiase; G. Papini; G. Scarpetta

2001-04-18

259

Electromagnetically induced grating with maximal atomic coherence  

SciTech Connect

We describe theoretically an atomic diffraction grating that combines an electromagnetically induced grating with a coherence grating in a double-{Lambda} atomic system. With the atom in a condition of maximal coherence between its lower levels, the combined gratings simultaneously diffract both the incident probe beam as well as the signal beam generated through four-wave mixing. A special feature of the atomic grating is that it will diffract any beam resonantly tuned to any excited state of the atom accessible by a dipole transition from its ground state.

Carvalho, Silvania A.; Araujo, Luis E. E. de [Instituto de Fisica ''Gleb Wataghin'', Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP, 13083-859 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2011-10-15

260

Multipartite maximally entangled states in symmetric scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the class of (N+1)-partite states suitable for protocols where there is a powerful party, the authority, and the other N parties play the same role, namely, the state of their system lies in the symmetric Hilbert space. We show that, within this scenario, there is a “maximally entangled state” that can be transform by a local operations and classical communication protocol into any other state. In addition, we show how to use the protocol efficiently, including the construction of the state, and discuss security issues for possible applications to cryptographic protocols. As an immediate consequence we recover a sequential protocol that implements the 1-to-N symmetric cloning.

González-Guillén, Carlos E.

2012-08-01

261

arXiv:physics/001003915Oct2000 Maximally Informative Statistics  

E-print Network

arXiv:physics/001003915Oct2000 Maximally Informative Statistics Maximally Informative Statistics: egeorge@mail.utexas.edu Revision history: April 1996. Presented Bayesian Statistics 6, Valencia, 1998 of sufficiency, relevance, and representation. Maximally informative statistics are shown to minimize a Kullback

George, Edward I.

262

Efficient Buffer Design Algorithms for Production Line Profit Maximization  

E-print Network

Efficient Buffer Design Algorithms for Production Line Profit Maximization by Chuan Shi B;6 #12;Efficient Buffer Design Algorithms for Production Line Profit Maximization by Chuan Shi Submitted contributions to production system profit maximization. The profit of a production line is the revenue

Gershwin, Stanley B.

263

Teacher Expectations and the Able Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two middle school teachers and two students in each of the teacher's classes were assessed for field dependence-independence (FDI). The teachers were interviewed about their students. Found that one teacher had higher expectations and one had lower expectations for the student who had the same FDI orientation as the teacher than for the student…

Lee-Corbin, Hilary

1994-01-01

264

Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2010-01-01

265

Sexually deviant behavior in expectant fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 91 expectant fathers examined in a court psychiatric clinic is compared with a group of 91 nonexpectant married males equated for age, race, and yr. of arrest. The hypothesis that sexually deviant reactions are more frequent in expectant fathers is statistically substantiated. Other findings are reported and discussed including the frequent occurrence of sexual offenses during the

A. Arthur Hartman; Robert C. Nicolay

1966-01-01

266

Framing expectations in early HIV cure research  

PubMed Central

Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term ‘experiment’. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dubé, Karine; Henderson, Gail E.; Margolis, David M.

2014-01-01

267

Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

2012-01-01

268

Course Expectations and Career Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

2008-01-01

269

Expectations and the Black Market Premium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of the black market premium--the percentage differential between the black market and the official exchange rate. Tests are used to see whether the black market premium responds to variations in expectations about the official exchange rate in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. Expectations of devaluation do cause movements in

Susan Pozo; Mark Wheeler

1999-01-01

270

EXPECT: Intelligent Support for Knowledge Base Refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective knowledge acquisition amounts to having good sources of expectations that can provide guidance about what knowledge needs to be acquired from users. Current approaches to knowledge acquisition often rely on strong models of the problem-solving method used in the task domain to form expectations. These methods are often implicit in the tool, which is a strong limitation for their

Cécile Paris; Yolanda Gil

1993-01-01

271

Framing expectations in early HIV cure research.  

PubMed

Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term 'experiment'. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dubé, Karine; Henderson, Gail E; Margolis, David M

2014-10-01

272

Expectations of Vocational Teachers for Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined three components of the initial expectations of 66 secondary vocational teachers toward mainstreamed educable mentally retarded and learning disabled children. Among findings was that presence of the labels lowered the initial academic and behavioral expectations of teachers in the sample. (SB)

Minner, Sam

1982-01-01

273

Effects of naturally induced teacher expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined a natural quasi experiment as a test of the teacher expectancy hypothesis. 1st-grade achievement scores were obtained for 79 younger siblings who had been preceded in school by bright or dull older siblings. It was hypothesized that pupils taught by the same teacher as their older siblings (expectancy condition) would perform better than those taught by a different teacher

W. Burleigh Seaver

1973-01-01

274

Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation.  

PubMed

We discuss the expectancy-value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy-value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest. Research is reviewed dealing with two issues: (1) change in children's and adolescents' ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and subjective values, and (2) relations of children's and adolescents' ability-expectancy beliefs and subjective task values to their performance and choice of activities. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10620382

Wigfield; Eccles

2000-01-01

275

Can Aerobic and Anaerobic Power be Measured in a 60-Second Maximal Test?  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of measuring both aerobic and anaerobic power in a 60-second, maximal effort test. It was hypothesized that oxygen consumption increases rapidly during maximal effort and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) may be reached in one minute. Fifteen United States Cycling Federation competitive cyclists performed the following tests: 1) practice 60-second maximal exertion test; 2) standard incremental workload VO2 max test; 3) Wingate anaerobic power test (WAT); 4) VO2 measured during 60-second maximal exertion test (60-SEC); and 5) VO2 measured during 75-second maximal exertion test (75-SEC). All tests were performed on an electrically-braked cycle ergometer. Hydrostatic weighing was performed to determine percent body fat. Peak oxygen consumption values for the 60-SEC (53.4 ml·kg-1·min-1, 92% VO2 max), and 75-SEC (52.6 ml·kg-1·min-1, 91% VO2 max) tests were significantly lower than VO2 max (58.1 ml·kg-1·min-1). During the 75-SEC test, there was no significant difference in percentage VO2max from 30 seconds to 75 seconds, demonstrating a plateau effect. There were no significant differences in peak power or relative peak power between the Wingate, 60-SEC, and 75 SEC tests while, as expected, mean power, relative mean power, and fatigue index were significantly different between these tests. Power measures were highly correlated among all three tests. It was concluded that VO2 max was not attained during either the 60-SEC nor 75-SEC tests. Furthermore, high correlations in power output for WAT, 60-SEC, and 75-SEC precludes the necessity for anaerobic tests longer than the 30-second WAT. PMID:24688276

Carey, Daniel G.; Richardson, Mark T.

2003-01-01

276

Maximal lactate steady state in Judo  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: the purpose of this study was to verify the validity of respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) measured during a new single judo specific incremental test (JSIT) for aerobic demand evaluation. Methods: to test the validity of the new test, the JSIT was compared with Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS), which is the gold standard procedure for aerobic demand measuring. Eight well-trained male competitive judo players (24.3 ± 7.9 years; height of 169.3 ± 6.7cm; fat mass of 12.7 ± 3.9%) performed a maximal incremental specific test for judo to assess the RCT and performed on 30-minute MLSS test, where both tests were performed mimicking the UchiKomi drills. Results: the intensity at RCT measured on JSIT was not significantly different compared to MLSS (p=0.40). In addition, it was observed high and significant correlation between MLSS and RCT (r=0.90, p=0.002), as well as a high agreement. Conclusions: RCT measured during JSIT is a valid procedure to measure the aerobic demand, respecting the ecological validity of Judo. PMID:25332923

de Azevedo, Paulo Henrique Silva Marques; Pithon-Curi, Tania; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Oliveira, João; Perez, Sérgio

2014-01-01

277

Improving Simulated Annealing by Replacing Its Variables with Game-Theoretic Utility Maximizers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The game-theory field of Collective INtelligence (COIN) concerns the design of computer-based players engaged in a non-cooperative game so that as those players pursue their self-interests, a pre-specified global goal for the collective computational system is achieved as a side-effect. Previous implementations of COIN algorithms have outperformed conventional techniques by up to several orders of magnitude, on domains ranging from telecommunications control to optimization in congestion problems. Recent mathematical developments have revealed that these previously developed algorithms were based on only two of the three factors determining performance. Consideration of only the third factor would instead lead to conventional optimization techniques like simulated annealing that have little to do with non-cooperative games. In this paper we present an algorithm based on all three terms at once. This algorithm can be viewed as a way to modify simulated annealing by recasting it as a non-cooperative game, with each variable replaced by a player. This recasting allows us to leverage the intelligent behavior of the individual players to substantially improve the exploration step of the simulated annealing. Experiments are presented demonstrating that this recasting significantly improves simulated annealing for a model of an economic process run over an underlying small-worlds topology. Furthermore, these experiments reveal novel small-worlds phenomena, and highlight the shortcomings of conventional mechanism design in bounded rationality domains.

Wolpert, David H.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Tumer, Kagan

2001-01-01

278

Marketing as a Tool for Maximizing the Utilization of Findings from Outcome Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decreased resources, increased accountability demands, and the need for economic survival have made the evaluation of the outcomes of continuing education efforts in nursing a salient need. Economic survival, in particular, is largely dependent upon the skill of the continuing educator in achieving the desirable balance between organizational and…

Bond, Susan B.; Waltz, Carolyn F.

279

Optimal Real-time Pricing Algorithm Based on Utility Maximization for Smart Grid  

E-print Network

electric vehicles (PHEVs), which can potentially double the average household load, have further increased of Electrical and Computer Engineering The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada E with an energy consumption controller (ECC) unit as part of its smart meter. Each smart meter is connected

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

280

Ground truth spectrometry and imagery of eruption clouds to maximize utility of satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field experiments with thermal imaging infrared radiometers were performed and a laboratory system was designed for controlled study of simulated ash clouds. Using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) thermal infrared bands 4 and 5, a radiative transfer method was developed to retrieve particle sizes, optical depth and particle mass involcanic clouds. A model was developed for measuring the same parameters using TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). Related publications are attached.

Rose, William I.

1993-01-01

281

77 FR 46069 - Proposed Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...availability of the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau...Courier: Monica Jackson, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau...Washington, DC 20552, on official business days between the hours of 10...Chief Information Officer, Consumer Financial Protection...

2012-08-02

282

A sampling plan for conduit-flow karst springs: Minimizing sampling cost and maximizing statistical utility  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations should be sampled. Either the geometric mean or the flow-weighted average of the suspended constituents should be used. If automatic samplers are used, then they may be programmed to collect storm samples as frequently as every few minutes to provide details on the arrival time of constituents of interest. However, only samples collected bihourly should be used to calculate averages. By adopting a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with high-flow samples, the need to continuously monitor discharge, or to search for and analyze existing data to develop a statistically valid monitoring plan, is lessened.Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations should be sampled. Either the geometric mean or the flow-weighted average of the suspended constituents should be used. If automatic samplers are used, then they may be programmed to collect storm samples as frequently as every few minutes to provide details on the arrival time of constituents of interest. However, only samples collected bihourly should be used to calculate averages. By adopting a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with high-flow samples, the need to continuously monitor discharge, or to search for and analyze existing data to develop a statistically valid monitoring plan, is lessened.

Currens, J.C.

1999-01-01

283

Optimum Charging Profile for Lithium-ion Batteries to Maximize Energy Storage and Utilization  

E-print Network

the system behavior of the Li-ion battery. Dynamic optimization is made possible due to the computationally of the battery. An attempt has been made to understand the dynamics of Li-ion batteries with competing transport. In a Li-ion battery, during charging, the lithium ions first diffuse out of the lithium-metal oxide

Subramanian, Venkat

284

New Irrigation System Design for Maximizing Irrigation Efficiency and Increasing Rainfall Utilization  

E-print Network

-precision application (LEPA) system, which rather than spraying water into the air at moderate to high pressures, distributes it directly to the furrow at very low pressure through drop tubes and orifice controlled emitters. This occurs as the system continuously moves...

Lyle, W. M.; Bordovsky, J. P.

285

Maximal Oxygen Uptake, Sweating and Tolerance to Exercise in the Heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physiological mechanisms that facilitate acute acclimation to heat have not been fully elucidated, but the result is the establishment of a more efficient cardiovascular system to increase heat dissipation via increased sweating that allows the acclimated man to function with a cooler internal environment and to extend his performance. Men in good physical condition with high maximal oxygen uptakes generally acclimate to heat more rapidly and retain it longer than men in poorer condition. Also, upon first exposure trained men tolerate exercise in the heat better than untrained men. Both resting in heat and physical training in a cool environment confer only partial acclimation when first exposed to work in the heat. These observations suggest separate additive stimuli of metabolic heat from exercise and environmental heat to increase sweating during the acclimation process. However, the necessity of utilizing physical exercise during acclimation has been questioned. Bradbury et al. (1964) have concluded exercise has no effect on the course of heat acclimation since increased sweating can be induced by merely heating resting subjects. Preliminary evidence suggests there is a direct relationship between the maximal oxygen uptake and the capacity to maintain thermal regulation, particularly through the control of sweating. Since increased sweating is an important mechanism for the development of heat acclimation, and fit men have high sweat rates, it follows that upon initial exposure to exercise in the heat, men with high maximal oxygen uptakes should exhibit less strain than men with lower maximal oxygen uptakes. The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine if men with higher maximal oxygen uptakes exhibit greater tolerance than men with lower oxygen uptakes during early exposure to exercise in the heat, and (2) to investigate further the mechanism of the relationship between sweating and maximal work capacity.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Castle, B. L.; Ruff, W. K.

1972-01-01

286

Expected degree for RNA secondary structure networks.  

PubMed

Consider the network of all secondary structures of a given RNA sequence, where nodes are connected when the corresponding structures have base pair distance one. The expected degree of the network is the average number of neighbors, where average may be computed with respect to the either the uniform or Boltzmann probability. Here, we describe the first algorithm, RNAexpNumNbors, that can compute the expected number of neighbors, or expected network degree, of an input sequence. For RNA sequences from the Rfam database, the expected degree is significantly less than the constrained minimum free energy structure, defined to have minimum free energy (MFE) over all structures consistent with the Rfam consensus structure. The expected degree of structural RNAs, such as purine riboswitches, paradoxically appears to be smaller than that of random RNA, yet the difference between the degree of the MFE structure and the expected degree is larger than that of random RNA. Expected degree does not seem to correlate with standard structural diversity measures of RNA, such as positional entropy and ensemble defect. The program RNAexpNumNbors is written in C, runs in cubic time and quadratic space, and is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAexpNumNbors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25382310

Clote, Peter

2015-01-15

287

Parental expectations of their adolescents' teachers.  

PubMed

In spite of increasing parental participation in their children's education, and the growing research interest in this trend, the study of one of the central components of parental involvement, namely, parental expectations of teachers, has been scarce. The present research focuses on this important, albeit neglected, topic. We examined the effects of the sex of the parent and the sex and grade level of the specific child on parental expectations of teachers. Seven hundred and sixty-five Israeli parents of students attending 31 educational institutions participated in the study. They completed the Expectations of Teachers questionnaire, consisting of 12 items describing behavioural characteristics of teachers subsumed under three broad categories: Help and Assistance, Teaching Competence, and Fairness. Greater expectations for Help and Assistance were reported by the parents, followed by Teaching Competence and Fairness on the part of the teacher. Mothers hold higher Fairness and Help and Assistance expectations as compared with fathers. Help and competence expectations were higher for parents of female students as compared with parents of boys. Conclusions from our study call for increasing efforts geared toward the building of a sustainable and beneficial partnership between teachers and parents for the best interest of the students and for the further elucidation of teachers' expectations of parents. PMID:10936019

Tatar, M; Horenczyk, G

2000-08-01

288

Margin Maximizing Discriminant Analysis Andras Kocsor1  

E-print Network

dimensional subspace such that the expected squared reconstruction error is minimized. By its very nature PCA was perfectly classifiable. We shall call this phenomenon a filtering disaster. PCA can still be very useful e. If these assumptions are violated LDA becomes suboptimal and a filtering disaster may occur. Recently, LDA has been

Szepesvari, Csaba

289

A utility oriented radio resource management algorithm for heterogenous network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A utility oriented radio resource management algorithm is proposed for broadband nongeostationary satellite network which works in the heterogeneous network environment and provides access services for various customers on the ground. Based on the game theory, the problem for optimizing the network's performance is turned into the problem for maximizing the network's long term utility in the proposed algorithm. With evaluation to the traffic condition and dimensions of Qos for the network at the moment while the access service requirements changing, the influence of this service requirement to the long term utility of the satellite network is audited and then the resource assignment decision can be made according to the rule for maximizing the satellite network's long term utility. The process directed by game theory guaranteed both that the benefit of the network and the requirements of the customers could be considered synthetically. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Wang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Yan; Huang, Zailu

2007-11-01

290

Identifying Energy Systems that Maximize Cogeneration Savings  

E-print Network

IDENTIFYING ENERGY SYSTEMS THAT MAXIMIZE COGENERATION SAVINGS DAVID J. AHNER Manager Systems Eng1neer1ng Schenectady. New York ABSTRACT Th1s paper d1scusses the max1m1z1ng of Reg10nal cogenerat10n Energy Sav1ngs ut1l1z1ng var10us... technolog1es and fuels w1th1n a g1ven serv1ce reg10n. A methodology 1s developed to estab11sh the allocat10n of power to the 1nd1v1dual cogenerators such that overall energy econom1c benef1ts are max1m1zed wh1le process steam needs are s1multaneously...

Ahner, D. J.

291

Maximally Sparse Polynomials have Solid Amoebas  

E-print Network

Let $f$ be an ordinary polynomial in $\\mathbb{C}[z_1,..., z_n]$ with no negative exponents and with no factor of the form $z_1^{\\alpha_1}... z_n^{\\alpha_n}$ where $\\alpha_i$ are non zero natural integer. If we assume in addicting that $f$ is maximally sparse polynomial (that its support is equal to the set of vertices of its Newton polytope), then a complement component of the amoeba $\\mathscr{A}_f$ in $\\mathbb{R}^n$ of the algebraic hypersurface $V_f\\subset (\\mathbb{C}^*)^n$ defined by $f$, has order lying in the support of $f$, which means that $\\mathscr{A}_f$ is solid. This gives an affirmative answer to Passare and Rullg\\aa rd question in [PR2-01].

Nisse, Mounir

2007-01-01

292

What to Expect Before a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Heart Transplant The Heart Transplant Waiting List Patients who are eligible for a ... cardiac rehab after the transplant. Contact With the Transplant Center During the Wait Patients on the waiting ...

293

What to Expect during a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect During a Heart Transplant Just before heart transplant surgery, the patient will ... not replaced as part of the surgery. Heart Transplant Figure A shows where the diseased heart is ...

294

What to Expect During a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect During a Lung Transplant Just before lung transplant surgery, you will get ... and its blood vessels to your heart. Lung Transplant The illustration shows the process of a lung ...

295

What to Expect After a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect After a Heart Transplant Staying in the Hospital The amount of time ... if you have too many side effects. Managing Transplant Medicines and Their Side Effects You'll have ...

296

Anesthesia: What to Expect (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... by the anesthesiologist, using your input. Back Continue In the Operating Room If general anesthesia is used, the anesthesiologist will ... for Surgery Word! Surgery Word! Anesthesia What Happens in the Operating Room? Types of Anesthesia Anesthesia - What to Expect What's ...

297

Expectant Dads May Also Have Hormonal Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... Dec. 15 in the American Journal of Human Biology . Edelstein and her team followed 29 expectant heterosexual ... Dec. 15, 2014, online, American Journal of Human Biology HealthDay Copyright (c) 2014 HealthDay . All rights reserved. ...

298

Leverage Expectations and Bond Credit Spreads  

E-print Network

In an efficient market, spreads will reflect both the issuer’s current risk and investors’ expectations about how that risk might change over time. Collin-Dufresne and Goldstein (2001) show analytically that a firm’s ...

Flannery, Mark J.; Nikolova, Stanislava; Ö ztekin, Ö zde

2012-08-04

299

Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints  

PubMed Central

Signal to noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the output of a system is highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generation is a necessary feature appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multi-step cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multi-state system with no memory (i.e. a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, there is an energy cost associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e. the number of states). Thus an infinite length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system. PMID:19292647

Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam

2011-01-01

300

Maximizing the liquid fuel yield in a biorefining process.  

PubMed

Biorefining strives to recover the maximum value from each fraction, at minimum energy cost. In order to seek an unbiased and thorough assessment of the alleged opportunity offered by biomass fuels, the direct conversion of various lignocellulosic biomass was studied: aspen pulp wood (Populus tremuloides), aspen wood pretreated with dilute acid, aspen lignin, aspen logging residues, corn stalk, corn spathe, corn cob, corn stover, corn stover pellet, corn stover pretreated with dilute acid, and lignin extracted from corn stover. Besides the heating rate, the yield of liquid products was found to be dependent on the final liquefaction temperature and the length of liquefaction time. The major compounds of the liquid products from various origins were identified by GC-MS. The lignin was found to be a good candidate for the liquefaction process, and biomass fractionation was necessary to maximize the yield of the liquid bio-fuel. The results suggest a biorefinery process accompanying pretreatment, fermentation to ethanol, liquefaction to bio-crude oil, and other thermo-conversion technologies, such as gasification. Other biorefinery options, including supercritical water gasification and the effectual utilization of the bio-crude oil, are also addressed. PMID:18781691

Zhang, Bo; von Keitz, Marc; Valentas, Kenneth

2008-12-01

301

Overt Expression of Experimenter Expectancies, Interaction with Subject Expectancies, and Performance on a Psychomotor Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjects (N=48) attempted 24 trials of a psychomotor task to avoid aversive stimulus. Subject-experimenters, with solution expectancies instilled, offered information to subjects. Found that subject-experimenter expectancies were communicated to subjects via periodic comments. Expectancies affected subjects' task performance. Previous similar task…

Callaway, John W.; And Others

1980-01-01

302

Measuring Student Expectations and Their Effects on Satisfaction: The Importance of Managing Student Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigate the relationship between student expectations and student satisfaction. Can students' satisfaction with a course be accurately predicted by comparing their perceptions to their expectations (as suggested by the expectancy/disconfirmation paradigm)? The results of these studies suggest that the answer to this question is…

Appleton-Knapp, Sara L.; Krentler, Kathleen A.

2006-01-01

303

LIFO-Backpressure achieves near optimal utility-delay tradeoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable recent work developing a new stochastic network utility maximization framework using Backpressure algorithms, also known as MaxWeight. A key open problem has been the development of utility-optimal algorithms that are also delay efficient. In this paper, we show that the Backpressure algorithm, when combined with the LIFO queueing discipline (called LIFO-Backpressure), is able to achieve a

Longbo Huang; Scott Moeller; Michael J. Neely; Bhaskar Krishnamachari

2011-01-01

304

LIFO-Backpressure Achieves Near Optimal Utility-Delay Tradeoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable recent work developing a new stochastic network utility maximization framework using Backpressure algorithms, also known as MaxWeight. A key open problem has been the development of utility-optimal algorithms that are also delay efficient. In this paper, we show that the Backpressure algorithm, when combined with the LIFO queueing discipline (called LIFO-Backpressure), is able to achieve a

Longbo Huang; Scott Moeller; Michael J. Neely; Bhaskar Krishnamachari

2010-01-01

305

CONCORDANCE OF THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK WITH THE ENVIRONMENT IS NECESSARY TO MAXIMIZE FITNESS IN NATURAL POPULATIONS  

PubMed Central

The ubiquity of endogenous, circadian (daily) clocks among eukaryotes has long been held as evidence that they serve an adaptive function, usually cited as the ability to properly time biological events in concordance with the daily cycling of the environment. Herein we test directly whether fitness is a function of the matching of the period of an organism’s circadian clock with that of its environment. We find that fitness, measured as the per capita expectation of future offspring, a composite measure of fitness incorporating both survivorship and reproduction, is maximized in environments that are integral multiples of the period of the organism’s circadian clock. Hence, we show that organisms require temporal concordance between their internal circadian clocks and their external environment to maximize fitness and thus the long-held assumption is true that, having evolved in a 24-h world, circadian clocks are adaptive. PMID:18194469

Emerson, Kevin J.; Bradshaw, William E.; Holzapfel, Christina M.

2014-01-01

306

Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

Cherry, W. R.

1974-01-01

307

Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

1980-01-01

308

Expected utility theory and prospect theory: one wedding and a decent funeral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choice behavior is typically evaluated by assuming that the data is generated by one latent decision-making process or another.\\u000a What if there are two (or more) latent decision-making processes generating the observed choices? Some choices might then\\u000a be better characterized as being generated by one process, and other choices by the other process. A finite mixture model\\u000a can be used

Glenn W. Harrison; E. Elisabet Rutström

2009-01-01

309

Beyond Just a Job: Expectations of Computer Science Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of job expectations among computer science students was conducted. The purpose of the study was to examine relationships between computer science education, gender, and job expectations. A factor analysis revealed that students have four types of expectations, including: intrinsic expectations (nonmaterialistic expectations involving job satisfaction and personal achievement), extrinsic expectations (materialistic expectations involving monetary compensation, status, and prestige),

Laura Marie Leventhal; David Warner Chilson

1989-01-01

310

Competition and utility financial risks  

SciTech Connect

While competition for electric utilities has grown steadily for over a decade, the inroads have been small. Utilities have lost load by being forced to buy power from cogenerators. They have foregone some of their normal growth by choosing to buy power from independent power producers instead of building generating facilities themselves. They have absorbed earnings erosion by giving discounts to large industrial customers to avoid having them move production outside their service areas. Yet although competition in these areas can be expected to intensity, the real financial risk for utilities lies on other fronts, principally direct price competition. The type of competition experienced thus far will constrain utility financial progress, but utilities will no doubt find ways to mitigate its impact, an example being investment in demand-side management (DSM) programs. Direct price competition, on the other hand, offers few if any avenues of escape, and it is only a matter of time before the barriers that prevent it are removed. One of the largest is the prohibition of retail wheeling, which is the principal source of price protection for utilities. Significantly, over the course of the last year the prohibition of retail wheeling has been transformed from an untouchable issue into the central issue in the struggle over competition. Price competition, when it develops, will be driven by the cost of producing electric power with new generating facilities and whatever excess generating capacity exists in the industry. How important price competition becomes will depend on what customers want. If low-cost power turns out to be a top priority, price competition will be a very important part of the competitive picture. The experience of industries that have been deregulated, such as the airlines, suggests that low prices will have a high priority.

Studness, C.M.

1993-07-01

311

Maximal and sub-maximal functional lifting performance at different platform heights.  

PubMed

Introducing valid physical employment tests requires identifying and developing a small number of practical tests that provide broad coverage of physical performance across the full range of job tasks. This study investigated discrete lifting performance across various platform heights reflective of common military lifting tasks. Sixteen Australian Army personnel performed a discrete lifting assessment to maximal lifting capacity (MLC) and maximal acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) at four platform heights between 1.30 and 1.70 m. There were strong correlations between platform height and normalised lifting performance for MLC (R(2) = 0.76 ± 0.18, p < 0.05) and MAWL (R(2) = 0.73 ± 0.21, p < 0.05). The developed relationship allowed prediction of lifting capacity at one platform height based on lifting capacity at any of the three other heights, with a standard error of < 4.5 kg and < 2.0 kg for MLC and MAWL, respectively. PMID:25420678

Savage, Robert J; Jaffrey, Mark A; Billing, Daniel C; Ham, Daniel J

2014-11-24

312

Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.  

PubMed

By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25068851

Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

2015-01-01

313

Expectations for melodic contours transcend pitch.  

PubMed

The question of what makes a good melody has interested composers, music theorists, and psychologists alike. Many of the observed principles of good "melodic continuation" involve melodic contour-the pattern of rising and falling pitch within a sequence. Previous work has shown that contour perception can extend beyond pitch to other auditory dimensions, such as brightness and loudness. Here, we show that the generalization of contour perception to nontraditional dimensions also extends to melodic expectations. In the first experiment, subjective ratings for 3-tone sequences that vary in brightness or loudness conformed to the same general contour-based expectations as pitch sequences. In the second experiment, we modified the sequence of melody presentation such that melodies with the same beginning were blocked together. This change produced substantively different results, but the patterns of ratings remained similar across the 3 auditory dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that (a) certain well-known principles of melodic expectation (such as the expectation for a reversal following a skip) are dependent on long-term context, and (b) these expectations are not unique to the dimension of pitch and may instead reflect more general principles of perceptual organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365571

Graves, Jackson E; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

2014-12-01

314

Learning To Minimize Efforts versus Maximizing Rewards: Computational Principles and Neural Correlates.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of reward maximization have been extensively studied at both the computational and neural levels. By contrast, little is known about how the brain learns to choose the options that minimize action cost. In principle, the brain could have evolved a general mechanism that applies the same learning rule to the different dimensions of choice options. To test this hypothesis, we scanned healthy human volunteers while they performed a probabilistic instrumental learning task that varied in both the physical effort and the monetary outcome associated with choice options. Behavioral data showed that the same computational rule, using prediction errors to update expectations, could account for both reward maximization and effort minimization. However, these learning-related variables were encoded in partially dissociable brain areas. In line with previous findings, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was found to positively represent expected and actual rewards, regardless of effort. A separate network, encompassing the anterior insula, the dorsal anterior cingulate, and the posterior parietal cortex, correlated positively with expected and actual efforts. These findings suggest that the same computational rule is applied by distinct brain systems, depending on the choice dimension-cost or benefit-that has to be learned. PMID:25411490

Skvortsova, Vasilisa; Palminteri, Stefano; Pessiglione, Mathias

2014-11-19

315

The Influence of Task Value, Expectancies for Success, and Identity on Athletes' Achievement Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extended and supported the use of Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value model to a competitive sport context. High school varsity basketball players (N = 189) were assessed on expectancies for success, interest value, attainment value, utility value, and basketball identity. Achievement behavior was measured as coaches't ratings of players' effort and persistence displayed throughout the season. Significant differences

ANNE E. COX; DIANE E. WHALEY

2004-01-01

316

Quantitative determination of maximal imaging depth in all-NIR multiphoton microscopy images of thick tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report two methods for quantitatively determining maximal imaging depth from thick tissue images captured using all-near-infrared (NIR) multiphoton microscopy (MPM). All-NIR MPM is performed using 1550 nm laser excitation with NIR detection. This method enables imaging more than five-fold deep in thick tissues in comparison with other NIR excitation microscopy methods. In this study, we show a correlation between the multiphoton signal along the depth of tissue samples and the shape of the corresponding empirical probability density function (pdf) of the photon counts. Histograms from this analysis become increasingly symmetric with the imaging depth. This distribution transitions toward the background distribution at higher imaging depths. Inspired by these observations, we propose two independent methods based on which one can automatically determine maximal imaging depth in the all-NIR MPM images of thick tissues. At this point, the signal strength is expected to be weak and similar to the background. The first method suggests the maximal imaging depth corresponds to the deepest image plane where the ratio between the mean and median of the empirical photon-count pdf is outside the vicinity of 1. The second method suggests the maximal imaging depth corresponds to the deepest image plane where the squared distance between the empirical photon-count mean obtained from the object and the mean obtained from the background is greater than a threshold. We demonstrate the application of these methods in all-NIR MPM images of mouse kidney tissues to study maximal depth penetration in such tissues.

Sarder, Pinaki; Akers, Walter J.; Sudlow, Gail P.; Yazdanfar, Siavash; Achilefu, Samuel

2014-02-01

317

SAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTSSAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTS The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from  

E-print Network

The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from selected courses. United States and individuals associated with the history of the United States. Introduction to Business At the end democratic principles · Outline the structure of the Constitution of the U.S. · Identity and define

Rock, Chris

318

Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension  

PubMed Central

In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution. PMID:18609404

Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

2009-01-01

319

Utilities goals determine the best AMR solution  

SciTech Connect

Deregulation in the electric power industry is forcing many utilities to demand flexible communications systems-capable of providing core utility services, while also readily extendible for revenue-enhancing opportunities. To be competitive, particularly now with deregulation formally debuting, utility decision-makers need to acknowledge choices. Automatic meter reading (AMR) committees everywhere are being challenged by the minute to decide on systems. Appropriate AMR systems will allow utilities to improve efficiency, enhance customer satisfaction and provide additional services in an increasingly competitive environment. Utilities need technology that meets day-to-day requirements now and in the future. They need to decide which AMR value-added services and benefits address customer expectations. They will need to educate their customers more fully and improve communication with them. AMR gives them opportunities to differentiate themselves with lower prices, more services and better customer support.

Kelly, R.

1998-01-01

320

Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Young Adult Socioeconomic Status  

PubMed Central

Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations; PSE), predictors of PSE, and associations between PSE and future socioeconomic status attainment. We utilized the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). At Wave I, 14% reported ? 50% chance of living to age 35 and older adolescents reported lower PSE than younger adolescents. At Wave III, PSE were similar across age. Changes in PSE from Wave I to III were moderate, with 89% of respondents reporting no change (56%), one level higher (22%) or one level lower (10%) in a 5-level PSE variable. Higher block group poverty rate, perceptions that the neighborhood is unsafe, and less time in the U.S. (among the foreign-born) were related to low PSE at Waves I and III. Low PSE at Waves I and III predicted lower education attainment and personal earnings at Wave IV in multinomial logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors such as previous family socioeconomic status, individual demographic characteristics, and depressive symptoms. Anticipation of an early death is prevalent among adolescents and predictive of lower future socioeconomic status. Low PSE reported early in life may be a marker for worse health trajectories. PMID:22405687

Nguyen, Quynh C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Poole, Charles

2013-01-01

321

Home care technology through an ability expectation lens.  

PubMed

Home care is on the rise, and its delivery is increasingly reliant on an expanding variety of health technologies ranging from computers to telephone "health apps" to social robots. These technologies are most often predicated on expectations that people in their homes (1) can actively interact with these technologies and (2) are willing to submit to the action of the technology in their home. Our purpose is to use an "ability expectations" lens to bring together, and provide some synthesis of, the types of utility and disadvantages that can arise for people with disabilities in relation to home care technology development and use. We searched the academic databases Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO ALL, IEEE Xplore, and Compendex to collect articles that had the term "home care technology" in the abstract or as a topic (in the case of Web of Science). We also used our background knowledge and related academic literature pertaining to self-diagnosis, health monitoring, companionship, health information gathering, and care. We examined background articles and articles collected through our home care technology search in terms of ability expectations assumed in the presentation of home care technologies, or discussed in relation to home care technologies. While advances in health care support are made possible through emerging technologies, we urge critical examination of such technologies in terms of implications for the rights and dignity of people with diverse abilities. Specifically, we see potential for technologies to result in new forms of exclusion and powerlessness. Ableism influences choices made by funders, policy makers, and the public in the development and use of home health technologies and impacts how people with disabilities are served and how useful health support technologies will be for them. We urge continued critical examination of technology development and use according to ability expectations, and we recommend increasing incorporation of participatory design processes to counteract potential for health support technology to render people with disabilities technologically excluded and powerless. PMID:24956581

Wolbring, Gregor; Lashewicz, Bonnie

2014-01-01

322

Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems  

SciTech Connect

We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |{psi}>{sub app} that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information.

Chen Jingling [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Center for Combinatorics and LPMC, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Kwek, L. C. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Nanyang Technological University, National Institute of Education, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Ge Molin [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Center for Combinatorics and LPMC, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2006-09-15

323

Maximal Green Sequences of Exceptional Finite Mutation Type Quivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximal green sequences are particular sequences of mutations of quivers which were introduced by Keller in the context of quantum dilogarithm identities and independently by Cecotti-Córdova-Vafa in the context of supersymmetric gauge theory. The existence of maximal green sequences for exceptional finite mutation type quivers has been shown by Alim-Cecotti-Córdova-Espahbodi-Rastogi-Vafa except for the quiver X_7. In this paper we show that the quiver X_7 does not have any maximal green sequences. We also generalize the idea of the proof to give sufficient conditions for the non-existence of maximal green sequences for an arbitrary quiver.

Seven, Ahmet I.

2014-08-01

324

Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict "normal" MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for both dominant and non-dominant sides. Several anthropometric data were also measured: height; weight; hand, wrist and forearm circumference; hand and palm length. Among these data, hand circumference had the strongest correlation with MGS for all three dynamometers and for both hands (0.789 and 0.782 for Jamar; 0.829 and 0.824 for Myogrip; 0.663 and 0.730 for Vigorimeter). In addition, the only anthropometric variable systematically selected by a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also hand circumference. Based on this parameter alone, a predictive regression model presented good results (r(2) = 0.624 for Jamar; r(2) = 0.683 for Myogrip and r(2) = 0.473 for Vigorimeter; all adjusted r(2)). Moreover a single equation was predictive of MGS for both men and women and for both non-dominant and dominant hands. "Normal" MGS can be predicted using hand circumference alone. PMID:20708427

Li, Ke; Hewson, David J; Duchêne, Jacques; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

2010-12-01

325

Maximally localized Wannier functions: Theory and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic ground state of a periodic system is usually described in terms of extended Bloch orbitals, but an alternative representation in terms of localized “Wannier functions” was introduced by Gregory Wannier in 1937. The connection between the Bloch and Wannier representations is realized by families of transformations in a continuous space of unitary matrices, carrying a large degree of arbitrariness. Since 1997, methods have been developed that allow one to iteratively transform the extended Bloch orbitals of a first-principles calculation into a unique set of maximally localized Wannier functions, accomplishing the solid-state equivalent of constructing localized molecular orbitals, or “Boys orbitals” as previously known from the chemistry literature. These developments are reviewed here, and a survey of the applications of these methods is presented. This latter includes a description of their use in analyzing the nature of chemical bonding, or as a local probe of phenomena related to electric polarization and orbital magnetization. Wannier interpolation schemes are also reviewed, by which quantities computed on a coarse reciprocal-space mesh can be used to interpolate onto much finer meshes at low cost, and applications in which Wannier functions are used as efficient basis functions are discussed. Finally the construction and use of Wannier functions outside the context of electronic-structure theory is presented, for cases that include phonon excitations, photonic crystals, and cold-atom optical lattices.

Marzari, Nicola; Mostofi, Arash A.; Yates, Jonathan R.; Souza, Ivo; Vanderbilt, David

2012-10-01

326

Maximal width of the separatrix chaotic layer  

E-print Network

The main goal of the paper is to find the {\\it absolute maximum} of the width of the separatrix chaotic layer as function of the frequency of the time-periodic perturbation of a one-dimensional Hamiltonian system possessing a separatrix, which is one of the major unsolved problems in the theory of separatrix chaos. For a given small amplitude of the perturbation, the width is shown to possess sharp peaks in the range from logarithmically small to moderate frequencies. These peaks are universal, being the consequence of the involvement of the nonlinear resonance dynamics into the separatrix chaotic motion. Developing further the approach introduced in the recent paper by Soskin et al. ({\\it PRE} {\\bf 77}, 036221 (2008)), we derive leading-order asymptotic expressions for the shape of the low-frequency peaks. The maxima of the peaks, including in particular the {\\it absolute maximum} of the width, are proportional to the perturbation amplitude times either a logarithmically large factor or a numerical, still typically large, factor, depending on the type of system. Thus, our theory predicts that the maximal width of the chaotic layer may be much larger than that predicted by former theories. The theory is verified in simulations. An application to the facilitation of global chaos onset is discussed.

S. M. Soskin; R. Mannella

2009-08-04

327

Alcohol expectancies of women and men in relation to alcohol use and perceptions of the effects of alcohol on the opposite sex.  

PubMed

The present study was intended to identify specific alcohol expectancies of women and men that could be targeted in expectancy-based interventions to maximize their impact on alcohol use. The Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was revised to specifically refer to women, men, or the respondent, and was administered to 433 undergraduates with a measure of alcohol use. When asked about expectancies for themselves, females' and males' drinking correlated most highly with expectations of social facilitation. When asked about expectancies for the opposite sex, however, several other types of expectancies were related to respondents' alcohol use in addition to expectations of enhanced social experiences. Males' drinking corresponded to beliefs that women will be happier, more confident, and will sleep better if they have consumed alcohol. Females' drinking corresponded to beliefs that men will be less sexually inhibited and more romantic after drinking. These findings link past expectancy work with more recent attempts to model the mechanism by which expectancies influence alcohol use and may guide development of maximally effective expectancy-based interventions to reduce drinking. PMID:11676380

Borjesson, W I; Dunn, M E

2001-01-01

328

Confidentiality Expectations and Preferences of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confidentiality in psychotherapy has long been assumed. Recently, this confidentiality has been threatened by computer filing systems, the courts, and third party payers of client expenses. This study investigates client expectations of confidentiality and information subject to disclosure. Subjects (N=185) were undergraduate students who…

Tillinghast, Margo Amy; VandeCreek, Leon

329

New book expected soon! Innovating Minds  

E-print Network

New book ­ expected soon! Innovating Minds: A Thinking Framework for Creativity and Change Wilma goals, whether working on our own or together with others? Innovating Minds offers us a science interplay of our minds, brains, and environments. Drawing on research findings ranging from brain networks

Koutstaal, Wilma

330

Expectations Evaporate for Online MBA Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how, for online Master's of Business Administration programs, enrollments are low and business deals are falling through. Despite initial hype, expectations are now lower in the face of economic uncertainty; programs partnering with businesses and school-run programs both face challenges. (EV)

Mangan, Katherine S.

2001-01-01

331

What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant If you get into a medical center's transplant program, you'll be placed on the Organ ... and Transplantation Network's (OPTN's) national waiting list. Your transplant team will work with you to make sure ...

332

Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

2005-01-01

333

Unrealistic Expectations Businesses Have about Translators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased international business and technological advances that speed business communication are affecting the expectations that business has for translators. More companies are asking translation agencies to translate such items as English business letters, advertising campaigns, flyers, brochures, and technical manuals into other languages,…

Rodriguez, Cecilia M.

334

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

335

Opinions and Expectations. 1972 Freshmen Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 1,250 entering freshmen at the State University of New York, Buffalo completed a self-report form called the Inventory of Opinions and Expectations. It was found that 88% of the sample were public high school graduates, that they felt their high school courses had been interesting, that their parents strongly encouraged them to…

Ameele, Martha; Jones, Griffith

336

The Adult Mathematics Learner: Attitudes, Expectations, Attributions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to identify characteristics of college freshmen taking mathematics courses. Students enrolled in basic algebra courses at a regional campus of a large midwestern university participated in the study. Students were administered an instrument which included a "math autobiography," the Adult Mathematics Expectation Scale…

Lehmann, Christine H.

337

NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

Sander, Libby

2008-01-01

338

Destination Visual Image and Expectation of Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique experience is the essence of tourism sought by tourists. The most effective way to communicate the notion of a tourism experience at a destination is to provide visual cues that stimulate the imagination and connect with potential tourists in a personal way. This study aims at understanding how a visual image is relevant to the expectation of experiences

Helen Ye; Iis P. Tussyadiah

2011-01-01

339

Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the expectations of support for and the experiences of substitute teachers in an urban school division in Saskatchewan. Data were collected in semistructured interviews with seven substitute teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore how substitute teachers frame their professional experiences and construct their roles…

Duggleby, Patricia; Badali, Sal

2007-01-01

340

College Students' Instructional Expectations and Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical end-of-course faculty ratings were questioned for their inability to measure actual classroom interaction. Extending the concept of these evaluations to include the student instructional expectations dimension, the study proposed that the classroom experience be related to the process and systems approaches, more dependent upon monitoring…

Calista, Donald J.

341

Men's Alcohol Expectancies at Selected Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Men's alcohol expectancies are an important cognitive-behavioral component of their consumption; yet, sparse research details such behaviors for men in two-year colleges. Selected for inclusion with the current study were 563 men from seven Illinois community colleges. Logistic regression analysis indicated four significant, positive relationships…

Derby, Dustin C.

2011-01-01

342

Estimation of lifetime expectancies of motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for evaluating lifetime expectations are discussed. Factors that affect the life of bearings and brushes and of wire coil insulation are identified. Thermal life of insulation and methods for accelerated testing are discussed. Examples are included to assist in the calculation of such factors as motor temperature-rise conditions and the benefits to be realized through upgrading the thermal classification

Emanuel L. Brancato

1992-01-01

343

Harmonic and rhythmic influences on musical expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of harmony and rhythm on expectancy formation were studied in two experiments. In both studies, we generated musical passages consisting of a melodic line accompanied by four har- monic (chord) events. These sequences varied in their harmonic content, the rhythmic periodicity of the three context chords prior to the final chord, and the ending time of the final

MARK A. SCHMUCKLER; MARILYN G. BOLTZ

1994-01-01

344

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy  

E-print Network

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy J L Hutton, K Hemming and UKCP collaboration What is UKCP? Information about the physical effects of cerebral palsy on the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy which collect information about children within specific local areas. They are the Mersey

Hutton, Jane

345

Solving Rational Expectations Models Using Excel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simple problems of discrete-time optimal control can be solved using a standard spreadsheet software. The employed-solution method of backward iteration is intuitively understandable, does not require any programming skills, and is easy to implement so that it is suitable for classroom exercises with rational-expectations models. The author…

Strulik, Holger

2004-01-01

346

High Expectations and Differentiation Equal Academic Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consciously or unconsciously, teachers often act differently toward students based on the assumptions they have about the individual learner's capabilities. Studies show that the lack of high expectations tends to go hand-in-hand with low achieving classrooms. In these classrooms, teachers generally view their students as limited in their ability…

Tkatchov, Oran; Pollnow, Shelly

2008-01-01

347

Effects of Syntactic Expectations on Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the effect of acoustic cues on speech segmentation has been extensively investigated, the role of higher order information (e.g., syntax) has received less attention. Here, the authors examined whether syntactic expectations based on subject-verb agreement have an effect on segmentation and whether they do so despite conflicting acoustic…

Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.; White, Laurence

2007-01-01

348

Children's Physical Appearance and Adult Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregivers' expectancies and behaviors in relationship to young handicapped children were investigated in this paper. Two studies were conducted in an attempt to answer three questions: (1) How will caregivers respond to the young handicapped child? (2) Do the child's stimulus characteristics, such as physical appearance, create biases in…

Feeg, Veronica DeCarolis; Peters, Donald L.

349

Are Low Career Expectations Shortchanging Girls?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 40-year longitudinal study of creativity that began in 1958 in two schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota, found that girls identified as highly creative in elementary school have been fulfilling that potential as adults to a significantly higher degree those who were less creative. Sex role expectations are discussed. (Contains references.) (CR)

Millar, Garnet W.; Torrance, E. Paul

2002-01-01

350

Teacher expectation and West Indian underachievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Interim Report of the Rampton Committee (1981) claimed that unintentional racism is widespread within the teaching profession and contributes, via the self?fulfilling prophecy, to the relative academic failure of West Indian children. This paper examines both aspects of the claim, dealing with the latter in terms of the model of teacher expectations advanced by Brophy and Good (1970).The relevant

Geoffrey Short

1985-01-01

351

How Students Verify Conjectures: Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight teachers were interviewed concerning how students verify conjectures. The study is a sequel to a previous study, "How Students Verify Conjectures" [Bergqvist, T. (2000). "How students verify conjectures." "Research reports in Mathematics Education" 3]. Teachers' expectations of students' reasoning and performance are examined, and also how…

Bergqvist, Tomas

2005-01-01

352

Expanding Expectations for Students through Accelerated Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Accelerated Schools Project has proven accelerated learning is not just for the gifted. Data show teachers have gotten sustained results in student achievement through the project, which helps them change their expectations, focus on data, and commit to a process of professional learning.

Byrd, Sandra P.; Finnan, Christine

2003-01-01

353

Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

Hodges, Linda C.

2014-01-01

354

Children and Computers: Greek Parents' Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey investigated the expectations of Greek parents with regard to the potential impact of children's computer use on the fields of education, interpersonal relationships, and professional and social life. Considers socio-cultural environment; sex and age; and whether the parents had knowledge of computers, used computers at work, or had a…

Vryzas, Konstantinos; Tsitouridou, Melpomene

2002-01-01

355

Patient Expectations from Consultation with Family Physician  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess patient expectations from a consultation with a family physician and determine the level and area of patient involvement in the communication process. Method We videotaped 403 consecutive patient-physician consultations in the offices of 27 Estonian family physicians. All videotaped patients completed a questionnaire about their expectations before and after the consultation. Patient assessment of expected and obtained psychosocial support and biomedical information during the consultation with physician were compared. Two investigators independently assessed patient involvement in the consultation process on the basis of videotaped consultations, using a 5-point scale. Results Receiving an explanation of biomedical information and discussing psychosocial aspects was assessed as important by 57.4-66.8% and 17.8-36.1% patients, respectively. The physicians did not meet patient expectations in the case of three biomedical aspects of consultation: cause of symptoms, severity of symptoms, and test results. Younger patients evaluated the importance of discussing psychological problems higher than older patients. The involvement of the patients was high in the problem defining process, in the physicians' overall responsiveness to the patients, and in their picking up of the patient's cues. The patients were involved less in the decision making process. Conclusion Discussing biomedical issues was more important for the patients than discussing psychological issues. The patients wanted to hear more about the cause and seriousness of their symptoms and about test results. The family physicians provided more psychosocial care than the patients had expected. Considering high patient involvement in the consultation process and the overall responsiveness of the family physicians to the patients during the consultation, Estonian physicians provide patient-centered consultations. PMID:16489708

Tähep?ld, Heli; van den Brink-Muinen, Atie; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

2006-01-01

356

Rare Flavor Processes in Maximally Natural Supersymmetry  

E-print Network

We study CP-conserving rare flavor violating processes in the recently proposed theory of Maximally Natural Supersymmetry (MNSUSY). MNSUSY is an unusual supersymmetric (SUSY) extension of the Standard Model (SM) which, remarkably, is un-tuned at present LHC limits. It employs Scherk-Schwarz breaking of SUSY by boundary conditions upon compactifying an underlying 5-dimensional (5D) theory down to 4D, and is not well-described by softly-broken $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SUSY, with much different phenomenology than the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its variants. The usual CP-conserving SUSY-flavor problem is automatically solved in MNSUSY due to a residual almost exact $U(1)_R$ symmetry, naturally heavy and highly degenerate 1st- and 2nd-generation sfermions, and heavy gauginos and Higgsinos. Depending on the exact implementation of MNSUSY there exist important new sources of flavor violation involving gauge boson Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations. The spatial localization properties of the matter multiplets, in particular the brane localization of the 3rd generation states, imply KK-parity is broken and {\\it tree-level} contributions to flavor changing neutral currents are present in general. Nevertheless, we show that simple variants of the basic MNSUSY model are safe from present flavor constraints arising from kaon and $B$-meson oscillations, the rare decays $B_{s,d} \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$, $\\mu \\to {\\bar e}ee$ and $\\mu$-$e$ conversion in nuclei. We also briefly discuss some special features of the radiative decays $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ and ${\\bar B}\\to X_s \\gamma$. Future experiments, especially those concerned with lepton flavor violation, should see deviations from SM predictions unless one of the MNSUSY variants with enhanced flavor symmetries is realized.

Isabel García García; John March-Russell

2014-09-19

357

Rare flavor processes in Maximally Natural Supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study CP-conserving rare flavor violating processes in the recently proposed theory of Maximally Natural Supersymmetry (MNSUSY). MNSUSY is an unusual supersymmetric (SUSY) extension of the Standard Model (SM) which, remarkably, is untuned at present LHC limits. It employs Scherk-Schwarz breaking of SUSY by boundary conditions upon compactifying an underlying 5-dimensional (5D) theory down to 4D, and is not well-described by softly-broken SUSY, with much different phenomenology than the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its variants. The usual CP-conserving SUSY-flavor problem is automatically solved in MNSUSY due to a residual almost exact U(1) R symmetry, naturally heavy and highly degenerate 1st- and 2nd-generation sfermions, and heavy gauginos and Higgsinos. Depending on the exact implementation of MNSUSY there exist important new sources of flavor violation involving gauge boson Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations. The spatial localization properties of the matter multiplets, in particular the brane localization of the 3rd generation states, imply KK-parity is broken and tree-level contributions to flavor changing neutral currents are present in general. Nevertheless, we show that simple variants of the basic MNSUSY model are safe from present flavor constraints arising from kaon and B-meson oscillations, the rare decays B s, d ? ? + ? -, ? ? ?ee and ?- e conversion in nuclei. We also briefly discuss some special features of the radiative decays ? ? e? and . Future experiments, especially those concerned with lepton flavor violation, should see deviations from SM predictions unless one of the MNSUSY variants with enhanced flavor symmetries is realized.

García, Isabel García; March-Russell, John

2015-01-01

358

Controlled-Joint Remote Preparation of an Arbitrary Two-Qubit State via Non-maximally Entangled Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we make a study on how to efficiently transmit an arbitrary two-qubit pure state to remote receiver via non-maximal entangled quantum channel. As a special case, in the first section we present a controlled-joint remote state preparation scheme based on maximally entangled channel. By some local convertible projective measurement bases, two message carriers and one controller can help the receiver Charlie reconstruct the desired state with success probability p=100 %. Then, we extend it to the case of non-maximally entangled channel. Utilizing positive operator-valued measure (POVM) measurement instead of projective measurement, the controller can assist the two senders to fulfill the task. Compared with some previous schemes, our protocol will succeed with a higher probability. And success or failure will only depend on the controller's measurement outcome, but has nothing to do with two senders' measurement results.

Guan, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yang, Yi-Xian

2012-11-01

359

Maximal Arithmetic Progressions in Random Subsets Itai Benjamini  

E-print Network

Maximal Arithmetic Progressions in Random Subsets Itai Benjamini Ariel Yadin Ofer Zeitouni July 24, 2007 Abstract Let U(N) denote the maximal length of arithmetic progressions in a random uni- form W (N) of arithmetic progressions (mod N). When considered in the natural way on a common probability

Zeitouni, Ofer

360

CHANGES IN MOTONEURONE FIRING RATES DURING SUSTAINED MAXIMAL VOLUNTARY CONTRACTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Tungsten micro-electrodes have been used to record the electrical activity of single motor units in the human adductor pollicis during maximal voluntary contractions. The potentials were characteristic of those from single muscle fibres. 2. In brief maximal contractions, the firing rates of over 200 motor units were obtained from five normal subjects. Four subjects had a similar range

BRENDA BIGLAND-RITCHIE; R. JOHANSSON; C. J. LIPPOLDT; J. J. WOODS

361

Maximal oxygen consumption as related to magnesium, copper, and zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four healthy male university athletes and 20 untrained men underwent maximal treadmill exercise testing to determine the relationship between maximal oxygen con- sumption and various measurements of elemental nutriture. Hb and mean plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of magnesium, copper, and zinc were Within established norms for both groups after a 12-h fast. Mean plasma copper concentration was significantly (p <

Henry C Lukaski; William W Bolonchuk; David B Milne; Harold H Sandstead

1983-01-01

362

GENERATION AND RANDOM GENERATION: FROM SIMPLE GROUPS TO MAXIMAL SUBGROUPS  

E-print Network

GENERATION AND RANDOM GENERATION: FROM SIMPLE GROUPS TO MAXIMAL SUBGROUPS TIMOTHY C. BURNESS of generators for G. It is well known that d(G) = 2 for all (non-abelian) finite simple groups. We prove that d investigate the random generation of maximal subgroups of simple and almost simple groups. By applying

Burness, Tim

363

Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…

Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.

2013-01-01

364

arXiv:physics/0010039 Maximally Informative Statistics  

E-print Network

arXiv:physics/0010039 v1 15 Oct 2000 Maximally Informative Statistics Maximally Informative Statistics David R. Wolf PO 8308, Austin, TX 78713-8308, USA, E-mail: drwolf@realtime.net Dr. Wolf: egeorge@mail.utexas.edu Revision history: April 1996. Presented Bayesian Statistics 6, Valencia, 1998

Wolf, David R.

365

MAXIMAL ANALYTIC EXTENSIONS OF THE EMPARAN-REALL BLACK RING  

E-print Network

MAXIMAL ANALYTIC EXTENSIONS OF THE EMPARAN-REALL BLACK RING Piotr T. Chru´sciel & Julien Cortier Abstract We construct a Kruskal-Szekeres-type analytic extension of the Emparan- Reall black ring, and investigate its geometry. We prove that the extension is maximal, globally hyperbolic, and unique within

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

THE KAC JORDAN SUPERALGEBRA: AUTOMORPHISMS AND MAXIMAL SUBALGEBRAS  

E-print Network

THE KAC JORDAN SUPERALGEBRA: AUTOMORPHISMS AND MAXIMAL SUBALGEBRAS ALBERTO ELDUQUE, JES´US LALIENA, AND SARA SACRIST´AN Abstract. In this note the group of automorphisms of the Kac Jordan superalgebra is described, and used to classify the maximal subalgebras. 1. Introduction. Finite dimensional simple Jordan

367

MAXIMAL JORDAN ALGEBRAS OF MATRICES WITH BOUNDED NUMBER OF EIGENVALUES  

E-print Network

1 MAXIMAL JORDAN ALGEBRAS OF MATRICES WITH BOUNDED NUMBER OF EIGENVALUES L. Grunenfelder, T. Kosir, M. Omladic, and H. Radjavi Abstract. We consider maximal Jordan algebras of matrices with bounded, and we also give a list of some reducible such algebras. We also study automorphisms of Jordan algebras

KoÂ?ir, TomaÂ?

368

Maximal Slice in Anti-de Sitter Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we prove the existence of maximal slices in anti-de Sitter spaces (ADS spaces) with small boundary data at spatial infinity. The main arguments is implicit function theorem. We also get a necessary and sufficient condition for boundary behavior of totally geodesic slice in ADS space. Moreover, we show that any isometric and maximal embedding of hyperbolic spaces

ZhenYang Li; YuGuang shi

2006-01-01

369

Revenue Maximization When Bidders Have Budgets Zoe Abrams  

E-print Network

Revenue Maximization When Bidders Have Budgets Zo¨e Abrams Abstract We study the problem of maximizing revenue for auctions with multiple units of a good where bidders have hard budget constraints auction had the auctioneer known the private information of all the bidders, as in competitive analysis [7

Pratt, Vaughan

370

Maximizing sensitivity in medical diagnosis using biased minimax probability machine.  

PubMed

The challenging task of medical diagnosis based on machine learning techniques requires an inherent bias, i.e., the diagnosis should favor the "ill" class over the "healthy" class, since misdiagnosing a patient as a healthy person may delay the therapy and aggravate the illness. Therefore, the objective in this task is not to improve the overall accuracy of the classification, but to focus on improving the sensitivity (the accuracy of the "ill" class) while maintaining an acceptable specificity (the accuracy of the "healthy" class). Some current methods adopt roundabout ways to impose a certain bias toward the important class, i.e., they try to utilize some intermediate factors to influence the classification. However, it remains uncertain whether these methods can improve the classification performance systematically. In this paper, by engaging a novel learning tool, the biased minimax probability machine (BMPM), we deal with the issue in a more elegant way and directly achieve the objective of appropriate medical diagnosis. More specifically, the BMPM directly controls the worst case accuracies to incorporate a bias toward the "ill" class. Moreover, in a distribution-free way, the BMPM derives the decision rule in such a way as to maximize the worst case sensitivity while maintaining an acceptable worst case specificity. By directly controlling the accuracies, the BMPM provides a more rigorous way to handle medical diagnosis; by deriving a distribution-free decision rule, the BMPM distinguishes itself from a large family of classifiers, namely, the generative classifiers, where an assumption on the data distribution is necessary. We evaluate the performance of the model and compare it with three traditional classifiers: the k-nearest neighbor, the naive Bayesian, and the C4.5. The test results on two medical datasets, the breast-cancer dataset and the heart disease dataset, show that the BMPM outperforms the other three models. PMID:16686404

Huang, Kaizhu; Yang, Haiqin; King, Irwin; Lyu, Michael R

2006-05-01

371

Miscellaneous Mathematical Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several online mathematical utilities intended for college and university students (math, physics, engineering, etc. students). Numerical utilities to solve (among others): N Equations in N Unknowns, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Roots of Functions, and Numerical Integration. More utilities are constantly being added.

2007-08-09

372

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;COAL ASH GENERATIONANDUTILIZATION: A REVIEW International Conference onFly Ash Disposal and Utilization,onJanuary 20-22, 1998, New Delhi, India. COAL ASH and utilization of coal ash in many parts of the world. The utilization potential for coal ash generated from

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

373

Evacuation Expectations During an evacuation -department management and staff are expected to implement the  

E-print Network

with you: keys, wallet, eyeglasses, medications, etc. Shut down critical equipment in the areaEvacuation Expectations During an evacuation - department management and staff are expected, if possible, without placing yourself or your research at risk. Department Response Teams shall activate

Ford, James

374

Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…

Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.

2009-01-01

375

Teachers' Expectations of Teacher-Student Interaction: Complementary and Distinctive Expectancy Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study it is investigated what student responses teachers expect in particular teacher behaviour vignettes, and whether experience and gender produce differences in expectations. Teacher behaviour vignettes were presented to teachers (N = 46), who described the student responses they anticipated. Anticipated student responses were then…

de Jong, R. J.; van Tartwijk, J.; Verloop, N.; Veldman, I.; Wubbels, T.

2012-01-01

376

Geometry of Privacy and Utility Bing-Rong Lin and Daniel Kifer  

E-print Network

1 Geometry of Privacy and Utility Bing-Rong Lin and Daniel Kifer Abstract--One of the important challenges in statistical privacy is the design of algorithms that maximize a utility measure subject to restrictions imposed by privacy considerations. In this paper we examine large classes of privacy definitions

Kifer, Dan

377

Faculty Expectations and Development: The Tenure Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Professionals seeking careers in academia should understand the tenure process, and how to prepare successfully for the evaluations linked to the tenure decision. This chapter offers suggestions for persons pursuing tenure-track faculty positions in the discipline of food science. The first promotion process in academia (i.e., from assistant professor to associate professor) is typically linked to tenure consideration. The focus of this chapter is explaining tenure, tenure expectations, resources for guidance, how to manage the process, and how to prepare the tenure and promotion document. While most people are fearful of the promotion and tenure process, this fear and apprehension can be minimized by understanding the process and its expectations, and having good advice to follow to help ensure success.

Nielsen, S. Suzanne

378

Young infants have biological expectations about animals.  

PubMed

What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants' expectations about animals' insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134

Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

2013-10-01

379

Young infants have biological expectations about animals  

PubMed Central

What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants’ expectations about animals’ insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge. PMID:24003134

Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

2013-01-01

380

First Contact: Expectations of Beginning Astronomy Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three hundred seven undergraduate students enrolled in Introductory Astronomy were surveyed at the beginning of class to determine their expectations for course content. The course serves as a survey of astronomy for non-science majors and is a distribution course for general education core requirements. The course has no prerequisites, meets three times each week for 50 minutes, and represents three semester credit hours. The university catalog describes the course with the title "PHYSICS 101 - Mysteries of the Sky" and the official course description is: a survey of the struggle to understand the Universe and our place therein. The structure, growth, methods, and limitations of science will be illustrated using the development of astronomy as a vehicle. Present day views of the Universe are presented. Two questions were asked as open response items: What made you decide to take this course? and What do you expect to learn in this course? The reasons that students cited to take the course, in order of frequency, were: interested in astronomy, interesting or fun sounding course, required general education fulfillment, recommendation by peer. Secondary reasons cited were required for major or minor, general interest in science, and was available in the schedule. Tertiary reasons listed were recommendation by advisor or orientation leader, inflate grade point average, and heard good things about the teacher. The students' expectations about what they would learn in the course were numerous. The most common objects listed, in order of frequency, were: stars, constellations, planets, galaxies, black holes, solar system, comets, galaxies, asteroids, moon, and Sun. More interesting were the aspects not specifically related to astronomy. These were weather, atmosphere, UFOs and the unexplained, generally things in the sky. A mid-course survey suggests that students expected to learn more constellations and that the topics would be less in-depth.

Lacey, T. L.; Slater, T. F.

1999-05-01

381

Estimating Expected Shortfall with Stochastic Kriging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present an ecient,two-level simulation procedure which uses stochastic kriging, a meta- modeling technique, to estimate expected shortfall, a portfolio risk measure. The outer level simulates,nancial scenarios and the inner level of simulation estimates the portfolio value given a scenario. Spatial metamodeling enables inference about portfolio values in a scenario based on inner-level simulation of nearby scenarios, reducing the

Ming Liu

382

Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.  

PubMed

A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition. PMID:19557745

van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

2009-10-01

383

Learning what to expect (in visual perception)  

PubMed Central

Expectations are known to greatly affect our experience of the world. A growing theory in computational neuroscience is that perception can be successfully described using Bayesian inference models and that the brain is “Bayes-optimal” under some constraints. In this context, expectations are particularly interesting, because they can be viewed as prior beliefs in the statistical inference process. A number of questions remain unsolved, however, for example: How fast do priors change over time? Are there limits in the complexity of the priors that can be learned? How do an individual’s priors compare to the true scene statistics? Can we unlearn priors that are thought to correspond to natural scene statistics? Where and what are the neural substrate of priors? Focusing on the perception of visual motion, we here review recent studies from our laboratories and others addressing these issues. We discuss how these data on motion perception fit within the broader literature on perceptual Bayesian priors, perceptual expectations, and statistical and perceptual learning and review the possible neural basis of priors. PMID:24187536

Seriès, Peggy; Seitz, Aaron R.

2013-01-01

384

Expected performance of m-solution backtracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper derives upper bounds on the expected number of search tree nodes visited during an m-solution backtracking search, a search which terminates after some preselected number m problem solutions are found. The search behavior is assumed to have a general probabilistic structure. The results are stated in terms of node expansion and contraction. A visited search tree node is said to be expanding if the mean number of its children visited by the search exceeds 1 and is contracting otherwise. It is shown that if every node expands, or if every node contracts, then the number of search tree nodes visited by a search has an upper bound which is linear in the depth of the tree, in the mean number of children a node has, and in the number of solutions sought. Also derived are bounds linear in the depth of the tree in some situations where an upper portion of the tree contracts (expands), while the lower portion expands (contracts). While previous analyses of 1-solution backtracking have concluded that the expected performance is always linear in the tree depth, the model allows superlinear expected performance.

Nicol, D. M.

1986-01-01

385

Expectation values of the kinetic and potential energies for the Dunham oscillator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple expressions for the expectation values of the kinetic and potential energies are derived for a Dunham oscillator. For low vibrational levels, these differ only slightly from results derived utilizing the semiclassical quantization condition, and lead to improved numerical agreement with accurate results for H2.

R. H. Tipping

1974-01-01

386

The Futility of Utility: how market dynamics marginalize Adam Smith  

E-print Network

Econometrics is based on the nonempiric notion of utility. Prices, dynamics, and market equilibria are supposed to be derived from utility. Utility is usually treated by economists as a price potential, other times utility rates are treated as Lagrangians. Assumptions of integrability of Lagrangians and dynamics are implicitly and uncritically made. In particular, economists assume that price is the gradient of utility in equilibrium, but I show that price as the gradient of utility is an integrability condition for the Hamiltonian dynamics of an optimization problem in econometric control theory. One consequence is that, in a nonintegrable dynamical system, price cannot be expressed as a function of demand or supply variables. Another consequence is that utility maximization does not describe equiulibrium. I point out that the maximization of Gibbs entropy would describe equilibrium, if equilibrium could be achieved, but equilibrium does not describe real markets. To emphasize the inconsistency of the economists' notion of 'equilibrium', I discuss both deterministic and stochastic dynamics of excess demand and observe that Adam Smith's stabilizing hand is not to be found either in deterministic or stochastic dynamical models of markets, nor in the observed motions of asset prices. Evidence for stability of prices of assets in free markets simply has not been found.

Joseph L. McCauley

1999-11-18

387

Interference of expectancy and attention demanding tasks on alcohol intoxication.  

PubMed

Seventy-nine undergraduate social drinkers were the subjects in two studies. Both studies had two experimental sessions and followed a blind design. The subjects in experiment I (expectancy manipulation) were informed they would certainly receive an alcoholic beverage in one session, while in the other one they were told the beverage possibly contained alcohol. Thus, the different expectancy on the beverage content was evaluated. The volunteers in experiment II (attention demanding tasks) were submitted to attention tests in one session and in another one they were not. Thus, the assumption that tasks would motivate the subjects to stay more sober and rate themselves as less intoxicated was studied. Each subject received one of three alcohol doses (0.0; 0.4 or 0.6 g/kg): the same dose in both sessions of each experiment. Blood alcohol level (BAL), reaction time, and self-rating intoxication scores were recorded. The variables studied did not alter either BAL or reaction time values. The expectancy manipulation changed the self-rated intoxication with the lower alcohol dose (0.4 g/kg). So when doubt had been raised the subjects rated themselves as less intoxicated. However, this change was only found with a verbal scale. The attention demanding tasks manipulation did not change the self-rating evaluations. It is suggested that the tasks performed were not appropriate to motivate the subjects to stay sober. The differential sensitivity of the self-rating intoxication scales utilized, and the role of alcohol dose in the study of nonpharmacological variables are discussed. PMID:3177072

Silva-Filho, A R; Masur, J

1988-01-01

388

Maximizing Kolmogorov Complexity for accurate and robust bright field cell segmentation  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of cellular processes with microscopic bright field defocused imaging has the advantage of low phototoxicity and minimal sample preparation. However bright field images lack the contrast and nuclei reporting available with florescent approaches and therefore present a challenge to methods that segment and track the live cells. Moreover, such methods must be robust to systemic and random noise, variability in experimental configuration, and the multiple unknowns in the biological system under study. Results A new method called maximal-information is introduced that applies a non-parametric information theoretic approach to segment bright field defocused images. The method utilizes a combinatorial optimization strategy to select specific defocused images from each image stack such that set complexity, a Kolmogorov complexity measure, is maximized. Differences among these selected images are then applied to initialize and guide a level set based segmentation algorithm. The performance of the method is compared with a recent approach that uses a fixed defocused image selection strategy over an image data set of embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T) from multiple experiments. Results demonstrate that the adaptive maximal-information approach significantly improves precision and recall of segmentation over the diversity of data sets. Conclusions Integrating combinatorial optimization with non-parametric Kolmogorov complexity has been shown to be effective in extracting information from microscopic bright field defocused images. The approach is application independent and has the potential to be effective in processing a diversity of noisy and redundant high throughput biological data. PMID:24475950

2014-01-01

389

Dopamine Reward Prediction Error Responses Reflect Marginal Utility  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Optimal choices require an accurate neuronal representation of economic value. In economics, utility functions are mathematical representations of subjective value that can be constructed from choices under risk. Utility usually exhibits a nonlinear relationship to physical reward value that corresponds to risk attitudes and reflects the increasing or decreasing marginal utility obtained with each additional unit of reward. Accordingly, neuronal reward responses coding utility should robustly reflect this nonlinearity. Results In two monkeys, we measured utility as a function of physical reward value from meaningful choices under risk (that adhered to first- and second-order stochastic dominance). The resulting nonlinear utility functions predicted the certainty equivalents for new gambles, indicating that the functions’ shapes were meaningful. The monkeys were risk seeking (convex utility function) for low reward and risk avoiding (concave utility function) with higher amounts. Critically, the dopamine prediction error responses at the time of reward itself reflected the nonlinear utility functions measured at the time of choices. In particular, the reward response magnitude depended on the first derivative of the utility function and thus reflected the marginal utility. Furthermore, dopamine responses recorded outside of the task reflected the marginal utility of unpredicted reward. Accordingly, these responses were sufficient to train reinforcement learning models to predict the behaviorally defined expected utility of gambles. Conclusions These data suggest a neuronal manifestation of marginal utility in dopamine neurons and indicate a common neuronal basis for fundamental explanatory constructs in animal learning theory (prediction error) and economic decision theory (marginal utility). PMID:25283778

Stauffer, William R.; Lak, Armin; Schultz, Wolfram

2014-01-01

390

The Moderating Effect of Gender on the Relation Between Expectancies and Gambling Frequency Among College Students.  

PubMed

Compared to college females, college males are more likely to report frequent gambling. Research on gambling outcome expectancies has shown that expectations about gambling influence gambling behavior and that endorsement of particular expectancies differs by gender. Knowledge regarding the differential predictive utility of specific gambling expectancies based on gender would help to determine how beliefs about gambling may be fundamentally different for men and women. The present study explored whether gender moderates the relation between gambling expectancy and gambling frequency in a college sample. 421 college students completed an online survey that included questions about their demographics, gambling frequency, and gambling expectancies. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that gender moderated the relations between the expectancies of social consequences, material gain, and gambling frequency. For females, greater endorsement of social consequences predicted less frequent gambling. For both males and females, greater endorsement of material gain predicted more frequent gambling. The current findings can help inform prevention and intervention efforts by identifying gambling expectations that are differentially related to college student gambling behavior choices. PMID:24065315

Teeters, Jenni B; Ginley, Meredith K; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W; Pearlson, Godfrey D

2013-09-25

391

Algorithms for some maximization scheduling problems on a single machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider two scheduling problems on a single machine, where a specific objective function has to be maximized\\u000a in contrast to usual minimization problems. We propose exact algorithms for the single machine problem of maximizing total\\u000a tardiness 1?max-?T\\u000a \\u000a j\\u000a and for the problem of maximizing the number of tardy jobs 1?max?U\\u000a \\u000a j\\u000a . In both cases, it

E. R. Gafarov; A. A. Lazarev; F. Werner

2010-01-01

392

The Overseas Doctors Training Scheme: failing expectations.  

PubMed Central

The Overseas Doctors Training Scheme needs appraisal. Set up 10 years ago to improve the quality of postgraduate training that overseas (non-European) doctors receive in Britain, the scheme has been popular, but it is questionable how far it has achieved its aims. If Britain is to continue to employ large numbers of overseas doctors in training grades, both through the scheme and through independent arrangements, the apparent mismatch between their expectations and the reality of what Britain offers must be tackled. Images p1629-a PMID:7993422

Richards, T.

1994-01-01

393

Relapsed perinatal neuroblastoma after expectant observation.  

PubMed

The Children's Oncology Group (COG) study ANBL00P2 showed that expectant observation of patients younger than six months of age with perinatal neuroblastoma presenting as a small adrenal mass yields excellent overall survival and spares surgical resection to the majority of patients. We report a 5-year-old female who was initially diagnosed with a perinatal neuroblastoma. The patient was observed on COG study ANBL00P2. By nine months of age she had no ultrasonographic or biochemical evidence of disease. She presented four years later with abdominal pain and was found to have high-risk stage 4 MYCN amplified neuroblastoma. PMID:25174838

Salloum, Ralph; Garrison, Aaron; von Allmen, Daniel; Sheridan, Rachel; Towbin, Alexander J; Adams, Denise; Weiss, Brian

2015-01-01

394

Helpful and harmful expectations of premarital interventions.  

PubMed

Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of premarital programs, estimates indicate that only 30% of couples use these services. This study examined the helpful and harmful aspects of premarital programs that may encourage or discourage participation. As expected, participants identified improved communication and problem solving skills as most beneficial. Disclosing secrets or past relationship issues that threaten the stability of the relationship was viewed as most harmful. Implications for the recruitment of couples and for the design and implementation of premarital programs are discussed. PMID:11928181

Valiente, Carlos E; Belanger, Catherine J; Estrada, Ana U

2002-01-01

395

Distributed computing environment monitoring and user expectations  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the growing needs for distributed system monitoring and compares it to current practices. It then goes on to identify the components of distributed system monitoring and shows how they are implemented and successfully used at one site today to address the Local Area Network (LAN), network services and applications, the Wide Area Network (WAN), and host monitoring. It shows how this monitoring can be used to develop realistic service level expectations and also identifies the costs. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the future challenges in network monitoring.

Cottrell, R.L.A.; Logg, C.A.

1995-11-01

396

Improving information technology to maximize fenestration energyefficiency  

SciTech Connect

Improving software for the analysis of fenestration product energy efficiency and developing related information technology products that aid in optimizing the use of fenestration products for energy efficiency are essential steps toward ensuring that more efficient products are developed and that existing and emerging products are utilized in the applications where they will produce the greatest energy savings. Given the diversity of building types and designs and the climates in the U.S., no one fenestration product or set of properties is optimal for all applications. Future tools and procedures to analyze fenestration product energy efficiency will need to both accurately analyze fenestration product performance under a specific set of conditions and to look at whole fenestration product energy performance over the course of a yearly cycle and in the context of whole buildings. Several steps have already been taken toward creating fenestration product software that will provide the information necessary to determine which details of a fenestration product's design can be improved to have the greatest impact on energy efficiency, what effects changes in fenestration product design will have on the comfort parameters that are important to consumers, and how specific fenestration product designs will perform in specific applications. Much work remains to be done, but the energy savings potential justifies the effort. Information is relatively cheap compared to manufacturing. Information technology has already been responsible for many improvements in the global economy--it can similarly facilitate many improvements in fenestration product energy efficiency.

Arasteh, Dariush; Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Huizenga,Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

2001-06-06

397

Maximizing a transport platform through computer technology.  

PubMed

One of the most recent innovations coalescing computer technology and medical care is the further development of integrated medical component technology coupled with a computer subsystem. One such example is the self-contained patient transport system known as the Life Support for Trauma and Transport (LSTAT(tm)). The LSTAT creates a new transport platform that integrates the most current medical monitoring and therapeutic capabilities with computer processing capacity, creating the first "smart litter". The LSTAT is built around a computer system that is network capable and acts as the data hub for multiple medical devices and utilities, including data, power, and oxygen systems. The system logs patient and device data in a simultaneous, time-synchronized, continuous format, allowing electronic transmission, storage, and electronic documentation. The third-generation LSTAT includes an oxygen system, ventilator, clinical point-of-care blood analyzer, suction, defibrillator, infusion pump, and physiologic monitor, as well as on-board power and oxygen systems. The developers of LSTAT and other developers have the ability to further expand integrative component technology by developing and integrating clinical decision support systems. PMID:12802947

Hudson, Timothy L

2003-01-01

398

The Long Arm of Expectancies: Adolescent Alcohol Expectancies Predict Adult Alcohol Use  

PubMed Central

Aims: Alcohol expectancies are strong concurrent predictors of alcohol use and problems, but the current study addressed their unique power to predict from adolescence to midlife. Method: Long-term longitudinal data from the national British Cohort Study 1970 (N = 2146, 59.8% female) were used to predict alcohol use and misuse in the mid-30s by alcohol expectancies reported in adolescence. Results: Cohort members with more positive alcohol expectancies at age 16 reported greater alcohol quantity concurrently, increases in alcohol quantity relative to their peers between ages 16 and 35, and a higher likelihood of lifetime and previous year alcohol misuse at age 35, independent of gender, social class in family of origin, age of alcohol use onset, adolescent delinquent behavior and age 16 exam scores. Conclusions: Alcohol expectancies were strong proximal predictors of alcohol use and predicted relative change in alcohol use and misuse across two decades into middle adulthood. PMID:19808940

Patrick, Megan E.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Finlay, Andrea K.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

399

Expectancy and Treatment Interactions: A Dissociation between Acupuncture Analgesia and Expectancy Evoked Placebo Analgesia  

E-print Network

Recent advances in placebo research have demonstrated the mind's power to alter physiology. In this study, we combined an expectancy manipulation model with both verum and sham acupuncture treatments to address: 1) how and ...

Kong, Jian

400

Reliability and Validity of the Self Efficacy Expectations and Outcome Expectations After ICD Implantation Scales  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity characteristics of two new scales that measure self-efficacy expectations (SE-ICD) and outcome expectations (OE-ICD) in survivors (n=168) of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), all of whom received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Cronbach's alpha reliability demonstrated good internal consistency (SE-ICD ? = 0.93 and OE-ICD ? = 0.81). Correlations with other self-efficacy instruments (general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy) were consistently high. The instruments were responsive to change across time with effect sizes of 0.46 for SE-ICD, and 0.26 for OE-ICD. These reliable, valid, and responsive instruments for measurement of self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations after an ICD can be used in research and clinical settings. PMID:17693214

Dougherty, Cynthia M.; Johnston, Sandra K.; Thompson, Elaine Adams

2009-01-01

401

When feeling bad is expected to be good: emotion regulation and outcome expectancies in social conflicts.  

PubMed

According to the instrumental approach to emotion regulation, people may want to experience even unpleasant emotions to attain instrumental benefits. Building on value-expectancy models of self-regulation, we tested whether people want to feel bad in certain contexts specifically because they expect such feelings to be useful to them. In two studies, participants were more likely to try to increase their anger before a negotiation when motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) a negotiation partner. Participants motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) their partner expected anger to be more useful to them, and this expectation in turn, led them to try to increase their anger before negotiating. The subsequent experience of anger, following random assignment to emotion inductions (Study 1) or engagement in self-selected emotion regulation activities (Study 2), led participants to be more successful at getting others to concede to their demands, demonstrating that emotional preferences have important pragmatic implications. PMID:21728413

Tamir, Maya; Ford, Brett Q

2012-08-01

402

Parameterization of rainfall-runoff models by using utility functions for the reproduction of low and average flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the majority of rainfall-runoff modelling applications, the objective function to be minimised in the parameterisation procedure is the mean square error or another quadratic function (such as the Nash-Sutcliff efficiency). Since the use of squares forces an arbitrarily greater influence of large errors, generally corresponding to large streamflow values, such choice may prevent the identification of an adequate input-output relationship for the reproduction of low and average flows. This contribution presents the results of a series of calibration/validation experiments with a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, applied over several case-study catchments, where the performance function is based on the expected utility of the rainfall-runoff model. The method is based on the evidence that the performances of a hydrological model closely depend on the purpose of the application. For instance, in a flood forecasting system, the model could be used to estimate peak flow conditions (e.g. peak time and peak flow rate), whereas in a water resources management system, it could be particularly appreciated the capability of the model to reproduce the discharges for the entire year, or, in particular, those of water scarcity periods. In the proposed method, at each time step, the comparison between simulated and observed data is carried out by using an 'ad-hoc' utility function. The calibration is performed by maximizing the overall estimated utility of the simulated data. Different utility functions are tested and the results are compared, over validation data, against those obtained with traditional squared functions. The results reveal that an adequate utility function allows an improvement of the model performances in the reproduction of low and average flows, with a moderate deterioration of the simulation of high flows. It is also pointed out as the traditional calibration procedures may be considered as a particular case of the presented approach.

Baratti, Emanuele; Montanari, Alberto; Toth, Elena

2014-05-01

403

Identifying, meeting, and assessing customer expectations  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining proficiency in carrying out mission goals is fundamental to the success of any organization. The definitive mission of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is {open_quotes}to conduct waste management activities in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient manner{close_quotes}. In order to effectively fulfill this mission, must meet or exceed several standards in respect to our customers. These include: (1) identifying current and future customer expectations; (2) managing our relationships with our customers; (3) ensuring our commitment to our customers; and (4) measuring our success m customer satisfaction. Our customers have a great variety of requirements and expectations. Many of these are in the form of local, state, and federal regulations and environmental standards. Others are brought to our attention through inquires made to the Department of Energy (DOE).Consumer surveys have proven to be effective tools which have been used to make improvements, enhance certain program elements, and identify beneficial areas in already existing programs. In addition, national working groups, technology transfer meetings, and manager/contractor`s meeting offer excellent opportunities to assess our activities.

Danner, T.A.

1995-02-01

404

Anticipatory looks reveal expectations about discourse relations.  

PubMed

Previous research provides evidence for expectation-driven processing within sentences at phonological, lexical, and syntactic levels of linguistic structure. Less well-established is whether comprehenders also anticipate pragmatic relationships between sentences. To address this, we evaluate a unit of discourse structure that comprehenders must infer to hold between sentences in order for a discourse to make sense-the intersentential coherence relation. In a novel eyetracking paradigm, we trained participants to associate particular spatial locations with particular coherence relations. Experiment 1 shows that the subset of listeners who successfully acquired the location?relation mappings during training subsequently looked to these locations during testing in response to a coherence-signaling intersentential connective. Experiment 2 finds that listeners' looks during sentences containing coherence-biasing verbs reveal expectations about upcoming sentence types. This work extends existing research on prediction beyond sentence-internal structure and provides a new methodology for examining the cues that comprehenders use to establish relationships at the discourse level. PMID:25247235

Rohde, Hannah; Horton, William S

2014-12-01

405

The expected anisotropy in solid inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid inflation is an effective field theory of inflation in which isotropy and homogeneity are accomplished via a specific combination of anisotropic sources (three scalar fields that individually break isotropy). This results in specific observational signatures that are not found in standard models of inflation: a non-trivial angular dependence for the squeezed bispectrum, and a possibly long period of anisotropic inflation (to drive inflation, the ``solid'' must be very insensitive to any deformation, and thus background anisotropies are very slowly erased). In this paper we compute the expected level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations of this model. To do so, we account for the classical background values of the three scalar fields that are generated on large (superhorizon) scales during inflation via a random walk sum, as the perturbation modes leave the horizon. Such an anisotropy is unavoidably generated, even starting from perfectly isotropic classical initial conditions. The expected level of anisotropy is related to the duration of inflation and to the amplitude of the squeezed bispectrum. If this amplitude is close to its current observational limit (so that one of the most interesting predictions of the model can be observed in the near future), we find that a level of statistical anisotropy F2 gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations on superhorizon scales.

Bartolo, Nicola; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo; Unal, Caner

2014-11-01

406

Bioengineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the Principal Investigator, F.R. Tabita has teemed up with J. C. Liao from UCLA. This project's main goal is to manipulate regulatory networks in phototrophic bacteria to affect and maximize the production of large amounts of hydrogen gas under conditions where wild-type organisms are constrained by inherent regulatory mechanisms from allowing this to occur. Unrestrained production of hydrogen has been achieved and this will allow for the potential utilization of waste materials as a feed stock to support hydrogen production. By further understanding the means by which regulatory networks interact, this study will seek to maximize the ability of currently available “unrestrained” organisms to produce hydrogen. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Moreover, due to their great metabolic versatility, such organisms highly regulate these processes in the cell and since virtually all such capabilities are dispensable, excellent experimental systems to study aspects of molecular control and biochemistry/physiology are available.

Tabita, F. Robert [The Ohio State University] [The Ohio State University

2013-07-30

407

Expected estimating equations via EM for proportional hazards regression with covariate misclassification.  

PubMed

In epidemiological and medical studies, covariate misclassification may occur when the observed categorical variables are not perfect measurements for an unobserved categorical latent predictor. It is well known that covariate measurement error in Cox regression may lead to biased estimation. Misclassification in covariates will cause bias, and adjustment for misclassification will be challenging when the gold standard variables are not available. In general, statistical modeling for misclassification is very different from that of the measurement error. In this paper, we investigate an approximate induced hazard estimator and propose an expected estimating equation estimator via an expectation-maximization algorithm to accommodate covariate misclassification when multiple surrogate variables are available. Finite sample performance is examined via simulation studies. The proposed method and other methods are applied to a human immunodeficiency virus clinical trial in which a few behavior variables from questionnaires are used as surrogates for a latent behavior variable. PMID:23178735

Wang, Ching-Yun; Song, Xiao

2013-04-01

408

The Complexity of Welfare Maximization in Congestion Games  

E-print Network

We investigate issues of complexity related to welfare maximization in congestion games. In particular, we provide a full classification of complexity results for the problem of finding a minimum cost solution to a congestion ...

Meyers, Carol A.

409

Obtaining Maximal Concatenated Phylogenetic Data Sets from Large Sequence Databases  

E-print Network

Obtaining Maximal Concatenated Phylogenetic Data Sets from Large Sequence Databases Michael J of tree reconstruction, phylogeneticists are extracting increasingly large multigene data sets from permits all such data sets to be obtained in reasonable computing times even for large numbers

Sanderson, Mike

410

Maximally Correlated Orthogonal Composites and Oblique Factor Analytic Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simpler and more complete version of Kaiser's method for finding a set of derived orthogonal variables which correlate maximally with a set of original variables is presented. The method is compared to related factor analytic transformations. (Author/JKS)

Price, James M.; Nicewander, W. Alan

1977-01-01

411

Carnot Cycle at Finite Power: Attainability of Maximal Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We want to understand whether and to what extent the maximal (Carnot) efficiency for heat engines can be reached at a finite power. To this end we generalize the Carnot cycle so that it is not restricted to slow processes. We show that for realistic (i.e., not purposefully designed) engine-bath interactions, the work-optimal engine performing the generalized cycle close to the maximal efficiency has a long cycle time and hence vanishing power. This aspect is shown to relate to the theory of computational complexity. A physical manifestation of the same effect is Levinthal’s paradox in the protein folding problem. The resolution of this paradox for realistic proteins allows to construct engines that can extract at a finite power 40% of the maximally possible work reaching 90% of the maximal efficiency. For purposefully designed engine-bath interactions, the Carnot efficiency is achievable at a large power.

Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.; Melkikh, Alexey V.; Gevorkian, Sasun G.

2013-08-01

412

FINITE MAXIMAL TORI GANG HAN AND DAVID A. VOGAN, JR.  

E-print Network

FINITE MAXIMAL TORI GANG HAN AND DAVID A. VOGAN, JR. To Nolan Wallach, with respect, admiration, and the second author in part by NSF grant DMS-0967272. 1 #12;2 GANG HAN AND DAVID A. VOGAN, JR. Unfortunately

Vogan, David

413

A Consistent Firm Objective When Markets are Incomplete: Profit Maximization  

E-print Network

In economies with private firm ownership, when markets are incomplete, and firm shareholders change over time, there is no broad agreement on what ought to be a firm's objective. It is shown that ex-post, profit maximization is consistent...

Sabarwal, Tarun

2004-08-11

414

The Maximization of Teacher Assignment: A Linear Programming Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to maximize the effectiveness of the teaching force through a successful assignment of teachers by considering the individual needs, competencies, and preferences of teachers and administrative staff, and selected student and curriculum factors. (Author)

Berrie, Phillip J.

1974-01-01

415

Quantitative genetics of maximal oxygen consumption in a garter snake  

E-print Network

presumed full-sibling offspring from each of 45 wild- caught gravid garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis; heritability; Thamnophis sirtalis MAXIMAL AEROBIC POWER is one of the most important factors influencing

Garland Jr., Theodore

416

Synfuels for utilities. [Conference paper  

SciTech Connect

The technology is available for conversion of coal to synthetic fuels; this technology is summarized in a table comparing coal-derived synthetic fuels in the areas of boiler retrofit, transportation, combustion characteristics, state of development, special considerations, environmental consideration, and heating value. Some processes, such as indirect liquefaction as at SASOL, produce multiple products - sustitute natural gas (SNG), methanol, and motor fuel, which may have significant benefits during the early life of the industry. The solid and direct-liquefaction conversion processes are in the demonstration stage of development. The authors expect the synfuels industry to develop at a rapid rate during the 1980's, producing motor transport fuels. After a significant synthetic-fuels industry is established, the utility industry will have a dedicated supply to draw from. 12 references.

Coons, J.S.; Scott, O.F.

1980-01-01

417

Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment explored the effect of teacher expectations on vocational students' cognitive and psychomotor skills and on attitudes. Although teachers' expectations changed student attitudes toward teachers and subjects, neither expectations nor attitude change had an effect on student achievement. (SK)

Curtis, Samuel M.; Pandya, Himanshu S.

1980-01-01

418

Nonadditive entropy maximization is inconsistent with Bayesian updating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum entropy method—used to infer probabilistic models from data—is a special case of Bayes's model inference prescription which, in turn, is grounded in basic propositional logic. By contrast to the maximum entropy method, the compatibility of nonadditive entropy maximization with Bayes's model inference prescription has never been established. Here we demonstrate that nonadditive entropy maximization is incompatible with Bayesian updating and discuss the immediate implications of this finding. We focus our attention on special cases as illustrations.

Pressé, Steve

2014-11-01

419

Maximal lactate steady state, respiratory compensation threshold and critical power  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a Critical power (CP) and the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) are presumed to indicate the power corresponding to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). The aim of this study was to investigate\\u000a the use of CP and VT2 as indicators of MLSS. Eleven male trained subjects [mean (SD) age 23 (2.9) years] performed an incremental test (25 W·min?1) to determine maximal oxygen uptake

J. Dekerle; B. Baron; L. Dupont; J. Vanvelcenaher; P. Pelayo

2003-01-01

420

Maximizing the value of education for university undergraduate research fellows  

E-print Network

MAXIMIZING THE VALUE OF EDUCATION FOR UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS A Senior Honors Thesis By AARON BENJAMIN TILLEY Submined to the Office of Honors Programs 8r. Academic Scholarships Texas ARM University In partial fulfillment... of the requirements For the Designation of UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOW April 2000 Group: Political Science MAXIMIZING THE VALUE OF EDUCATION FOR UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS A Senior Honors Thesis By AARON BENJAMIN TILLEY...

Tilley, Aaron Benjamin

2013-02-22

421

Maximal suppression of renin-angiotensin system in nonproliferative glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximal suppression of renin-angiotensin system in nonproliferative glomerulonephritis.BackgroundElimination of residual proteinuria is the novel target in renoprotrection; nevertheless, whether a greater suppression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) effectively improves the antiproteinuric response in patients with moderate proteinuria remains ill-defined.MethodsWe evaluated the effects of maximizing RAS suppression on quantitative and qualitative proteinuria in ten patients with stable nonnephrotic proteinuria (2.55 ± 0.94

Carmela Iodice; Mario M. Balletta; Roberto Minutolo; Paolo Giannattasio; Stefano Tuccillo; Vincenzo Bellizzi; Maurizio D'Amora; Giorgio Rinaldi; Giuseppe Signoriello; Giuseppe Conte; Luca De Nicola

2003-01-01

422

Evolution of Shanghai STOCK Market Based on Maximal Spanning Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, using a moving window to scan through every stock price time series over a period from 2 January 2001 to 11 March 2011 and mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between stock prices, we construct a corresponding weighted network for 501 Shanghai stocks in every given window. Next, we extract its maximal spanning tree and understand the structure variation of Shanghai stock market by analyzing the average path length, the influence of the center node and the p-value for every maximal spanning tree. A further analysis of the structure properties of maximal spanning trees over different periods of Shanghai stock market is carried out. All the obtained results indicate that the periods around 8 August 2005, 17 October 2007 and 25 December 2008 are turning points of Shanghai stock market, at turning points, the topology structure of the maximal spanning tree changes obviously: the degree of separation between nodes increases; the structure becomes looser; the influence of the center node gets smaller, and the degree distribution of the maximal spanning tree is no longer a power-law distribution. Lastly, we give an analysis of the variations of the single-step and multi-step survival ratios for all maximal spanning trees and find that two stocks are closely bonded and hard to be broken in a short term, on the contrary, no pair of stocks remains closely bonded for a long time.

Yang, Chunxia; Shen, Ying; Xia, Bingying

2013-01-01

423

Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees  

PubMed Central

Background A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. Results We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Conclusions Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees. PMID:25061474

2014-01-01

424

What To Expect Your First Year Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Teachers First website has been offering up high-quality lessons, teaching units, and web resources for teachers for almost ten years. Along with these resources, they have also created a number of papers and presentations that are designed to support the careers of teachers who are just entering the profession. One such resource is the helpful 48-page manual by Amy DePaul titled "What To Expect Your First Year of Teaching". The document was prepared under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement and it contains a cornucopia of insights and observations from both veteran and first-year teachers. Visitors can skip around the report at their leisure and they may also wish to forward it along to other fellow educators.

Depaul, Amy

1998-01-01

425

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

for use of wood ash generated by the forest products industry in concrete (structural-grade concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization DEMONSTRATION OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR CONCRETE AND CLSM Principal Investigator: Tarun R. Naik UWM Center for By-Products Utilization University of Wisconsin

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

426

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

generated by the Wisconsin forest products industry in concrete (structural-grade concrete) and flowableCenter for By-Products Utilization DEMONSTRATION OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR CONCRETE AND CLSM. Naik UWM Center for By-Products Utilization University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Other Project Personnel

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

427

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION V #12;#12;443USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Section Overview Wood Products and Utilization1 John R. Shelly2 Forests are obviously a very important asset to California, and their economic and social value to the state is well documented. Wood

Standiford, Richard B.

428

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, roadways, and airfield pavements. Three types of CCPs, two flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) by. Two processes typically used are flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to reduce SOx emissions and low standards, utilities are utilizing supplemental flue gas treatments to reduce emissions. These treatments

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

429

Instructional Facility Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data describing campus facility use for instructional and related purposes for one week of activity in Fall 1978 were collected and evaluated at Kalamazoo Valley Community College. Four measures of space utilization were used: (1) percent of available time used; (2) percent of available space used; (3) percent of scheduled space utilized; and (4)…

Kalamazoo Valley Community Coll., MI.

430

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Approximately 121 million tons of coal combustion products (71 million tons of fly ash, 19 million tons in the year 2001. The overall utilization rate in the USA for all coal ashes was approximately 34% in the year products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

431

Disutility of utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marginal utility theory, being the main framework of consumer economic behavior theory, has aroused and keeps arousing objections of many economists. The impossibility of a quantitative measurement and the doubtfulness of qualitative characteristics of utility continue generating attempts to create alternative theories of consumer behavior. One of possible alternatives is an attempt to consider consumer behavior in the same manner

Gennady Bilych

2011-01-01

432

Moving multiple sinks through wireless sensor networks for lifetime maximization.  

SciTech Connect

Unattended sensor networks typically watch for some phenomena such as volcanic events, forest fires, pollution, or movements in animal populations. Sensors report to a collection point periodically or when they observe reportable events. When sensors are too far from the collection point to communicate directly, other sensors relay messages for them. If the collection point location is static, sensor nodes that are closer to the collection point relay far more messages than those on the periphery. Assuming all sensor nodes have roughly the same capabilities, those with high relay burden experience battery failure much faster than the rest of the network. However, since their death disconnects the live nodes from the collection point, the whole network is then dead. We consider the problem of moving a set of collectors (sinks) through a wireless sensor network to balance the energy used for relaying messages, maximizing the lifetime of the network. We show how to compute an upper bound on the lifetime for any instance using linear and integer programming. We present a centralized heuristic that produces sink movement schedules that produce network lifetimes within 1.4% of the upper bound for realistic settings. We also present a distributed heuristic that produces lifetimes at most 25:3% below the upper bound. More specifically, we formulate a linear program (LP) that is a relaxation of the scheduling problem. The variables are naturally continuous, but the LP relaxes some constraints. The LP has an exponential number of constraints, but we can satisfy them all by enforcing only a polynomial number using a separation algorithm. This separation algorithm is a p-median facility location problem, which we can solve efficiently in practice for huge instances using integer programming technology. This LP selects a set of good sensor configurations. Given the solution to the LP, we can find a feasible schedule by selecting a subset of these configurations, ordering them via a traveling salesman heuristic, and computing feasible transitions using matching algorithms. This algorithm assumes sinks can get a schedule from a central server or a leader sink. If the network owner prefers the sinks make independent decisions, they can use our distributed heuristic. In this heuristic, sinks maintain estimates of the energy distribution in the network and move greedily (with some coordination) based on local search. This application uses the new SUCASA (Solver Utility for Customization with Automatic Symbol Access) facility within the PICO (Parallel Integer and Combinatorial Optimizer) integer programming solver system. SUCASA allows rapid development of customized math programming (search-based) solvers using a problem's natural multidimensional representation. In this case, SUCASA also significantly improves runtime compared to implementations in the ampl math programming language or in perl.

Petrioli, Chiara (Universita di Roma); Carosi, Alessio (Universita di Roma); Basagni, Stefano (Northeastern University); Phillips, Cynthia Ann

2008-01-01

433

Trends in electric utility load duration curves  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development and analysis of annual and quarterly load duration curves for each of the 10 Federal regions. The report describes analyses performed to test for changes in load duration curve shapes over time. These analyses are intended to aid the electric utility analyses and modeling activities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) by expanding the understanding of current and expected load duration curve shapes. 7 figs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1984-12-01

434

Contributions of leaf photosynthetic capacity, leaf angle and self-shading to the maximization of net photosynthesis in Acer saccharum: a modelling assessment  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plants are expected to maximize their net photosynthetic gains and efficiently use available resources, but the fundamental principles governing trade-offs in suites of traits related to resource-use optimization remain uncertain. This study investigated whether Acer saccharum (sugar maple) saplings could maximize their net photosynthetic gains through a combination of crown structure and foliar characteristics that let all leaves maximize their photosynthetic light-use efficiency (?). Methods A functional–structural model, LIGNUM, was used to simulate individuals of different leaf area index (LAIind) together with a genetic algorithm to find distributions of leaf angle (LA) and leaf photosynthetic capacity (Amax) that maximized net carbon gain at the whole-plant level. Saplings grown in either the open or in a forest gap were simulated with Amax either unconstrained or constrained to an upper value consistent with reported values for Amax in A. saccharum. Key Results It was found that total net photosynthetic gain was highest when whole-plant PPFD absorption and leaf ? were simultaneously maximized. Maximization of ? required simultaneous adjustments in LA and Amax along gradients of PPFD in the plants. When Amax was constrained to a maximum, plants growing in the open maximized their PPFD absorption but not ? because PPFD incident on leaves was higher than the PPFD at which ?max was attainable. Average leaf ? in constrained plants nonetheless improved with increasing LAIind because of an increase in self-shading. Conclusions It is concluded that there are selective pressures for plants to simultaneously maximize both PPFD absorption at the scale of the whole individual and ? at the scale of leaves, which requires a highly integrated response between LA, Amax and LAIind. The results also suggest that to maximize ? plants have evolved mechanisms that co-ordinate the LA and Amax of individual leaves with PPFD availability. PMID:22665700

Posada, Juan M.; Sievänen, Risto; Messier, Christian; Perttunen, Jari; Nikinmaa, Eero; Lechowicz, Martin J.

2012-01-01

435

Expectations Increase as VLT First Light Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two weeks before the moment of "First Light" of Unit Telescope no. 1 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , the ESO Team at the Paranal Observatory reports good progress of the preparatory work. The crucial optimization of the world's first, thin 8.2-metre mirror proceeds according to the established plan. It is thus expected that this important event will take place as foreseen, i.e. during the night of May 25-26, 1998 . If no unforeseen obstacles are encountered, the first scientific images will then be presented during a series of near-simultaneous Press Conferences in the ESO member countries on May 27 . The photos will be published on the WWW the same day, together with explanatory texts. In preliminary optical tests at the first VLT Unit Telescope (UT1), the initial adjustment of the active optics system that controls the telescope optics has demonstrated excellent results. In particular, the first tests have verified the fine optical performance of the 8.2-m primary mirror and of the complex control system that maintains the shape of this thin and flexible Zerodur mirror. In short test exposures with the guide probe (the technical device that is used to steer the telescope) - i.e., not yet with the scientific CCD-camera that will be used for the First Light images - the telescope has been following the external seeing provided by the Paranal site. Image quality of better than 0.5 arcsec has been achieved routinely. "We are pleased with the progress and confident that the telescope will live up to the expectations", says Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO. "The team at Paranal is doing a great job." For more details about the various media activities surrounding the VLT First Light event, please consult the First Light homepage. A list of locations, times and contact addresses for the Press Conferences is available on the web. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

1998-05-01

436

Transient hovering performance of hummingbirds under conditions of maximal loading.  

PubMed

Maximal load-lifting capacities of six ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) were determined under conditions of burst performance. Mechanical power output under maximal loading was then compared with maximal hovering performance in hypodense gas mixtures of normodense air and heliox. The maximal load lifted was similar at air temperatures of 5 and 25 degrees C, and averaged 80% of body mass. The duration of load-lifting was brief, of the order of 1 s, and was probably sustained via phosphagen substrates. Under maximal loading, estimates of muscle mass-specific mechanical power output assuming perfect elastic energy storage averaged 206 W kg-1, compared with 94 W kg-1 during free hovering without loading. Under conditions of limiting performance in hypodense mixtures, maximal mechanical power output was much lower (131 W kg-1, five birds) but was sustained for longer (4 s), demonstrating an inverse relationship between the magnitude and duration of maximum power output. In free hovering flight, stroke amplitude and wingbeat frequency varied in inverse proportion between 5 and 25 degrees C, suggesting thermoregulatory contributions by the flight muscles. Stroke amplitude under conditions of maximal loading reached a geometrical limit at slightly greater than 180 degrees. Previous studies of maximum performance in flying animals have estimated mechanical power output using a simplified actuator disk model without a detailed knowledge of wingbeat frequency and stroke amplitude. The present load-lifting results, together with actuator disc estimates of induced power derived from hypodense heliox experiments, are congruent with previous load-lifting studies of maximum flight performance. For ruby-throated hummingbirds, the inclusion of wingbeat frequency and stroke amplitude in a more detailed aerodynamic model of hovering yields values of mechanical power output 34% higher than previous estimates. More generally, the study of performance limits in flying animals necessitates careful specification of behavioral context as well as quantitative determination of wing and body kinematics. PMID:9100364

Chai, P; Chen, J S; Dudley, R

1997-03-01

437

Landsat Data Continuity Mission Expected Instrument Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is scheduled for a December 2012 launch date. LDCM is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In order to provide the necessary spectral coverage of the visible through shortwave-infrared (SWIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR), the satellite will carry two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine visible to shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will collect coincident image data for two TIR bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it's manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space F!ight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite instrument systems, present pre-launch performance data for OLI and TIRS, and present simulated images to highlight notable features and expected imaging performance.

Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.; Markham, Brian L.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Storey, James C.

2012-01-01

438

Expectancy Learning from Probabilistic Input by Infants  

PubMed Central

Across the first few years of life, infants readily extract many kinds of regularities from their environment, and this ability is thought to be central to development in a number of domains. Numerous studies have documented infants’ ability to recognize deterministic sequential patterns. However, little is known about the processes infants use to build and update representations of structure in time, and how infants represent patterns that are not completely predictable. The present study investigated how infants’ expectations fora simple structure develope over time, and how infants update their representations with new information. We measured 12-month-old infants’ anticipatory eye movements to targets that appeared in one of two possible locations. During the initial phase of the experiment, infants either saw targets that appeared consistently in the same location (Deterministic condition) or probabilistically in either location, with one side more frequent than the other (Probabilistic condition). After this initial divergent experience, both groups saw the same sequence of trials for the rest of the experiment. The results show that infants readily learn from both deterministic and probabilistic input, with infants in both conditions reliably predicting the most likely target location by the end of the experiment. Local context had a large influence on behavior: infants adjusted their predictions to reflect changes in the target location on the previous trial. This flexibility was particularly evident in infants with more variable prior experience (the Probabilistic condition). The results provide some of the first data showing how infants learn in real time. PMID:23439947

Romberg, Alexa R.; Saffran, Jenny R.

2013-01-01

439

Alcohol Expectancy Multiaxial Assessment: A Memory Network-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite several decades of activity, alcohol expectancy research has yet to merge measurement approaches with developing memory theory. This article offers an expectancy assessment approach built on a conceptualization of expectancy as an information processing network. The authors began with multidimensional scaling models of expectancy space,…

Goldman, Mark S.; Darkes, Jack

2004-01-01

440

"His" and "Her" Marriage Expectations: Determinants and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses couple-level data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N= 2,263) to investigate factors associated with unmarried parents expectations about marriage and the association between their expectations and subsequent union transitions. In most couples, both partners expect to marry, and their shared expectations are…

Waller, Maureen R.; McLanahan, Sara S.

2005-01-01

441

Expectations of Achievement: Student, Teacher and Parent Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' expectations of students have been extensively studied for forty years. However, students' self-expectations and the expectations of parents are less well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of student, teacher and parent expectations in relation to student achievement from the perspective of each group. Focus…

Rubie-Davies, Christine M.; Peterson, Elizabeth; Irving, Earl; Widdowson, Deborah; Dixon, Robyn

2010-01-01

442

Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the literature on self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations and concludes that a minority of teachers have major expectation effects on their students' achievement. However, such effects are minimal for most teachers because their expectations are generally accurate and open to corrective feedback. It is difficult to predict the effects of teachers' expectations, even with knowledge of their accuracy and

Jere E. Brophy

1983-01-01

443

A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is reviewed on the association between alcohol outcome expectancies and consumption which has led many to argue that manipulating expectancies might be a route to manipulating consumption for problem prevention and treatment. Studies indirectly and directly evaluating this latter position are reviewed. Expectancies predicting treatment outcome: two studies have shown that the more positive expectancies held at treatment, the

Barry T. Jones; Will Corbin; Kim Fromme

2001-01-01

444

Drug use expectancies among nonabstinent community cocaine users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that one's expectations about the effects of using a particular substance (i.e., substance use expectancies) are associated with the quantity and frequency of actual use. An extensive literature supports the importance of expectancies in predicting alcohol use, but less is known about the association between expectancies and use of other substances. The purpose of the present

Jumi Hayaki; Bradley J. Anderson; Michael D. Stein

2008-01-01

445

The Online Expectations of College-Bound Juniors and Seniors. E-Expectations Report, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of 2,000 college-bound juniors and seniors about their expectations for college Web sites, mobile usage, e-mail, and social media. Among the findings: (1) More than 50 percent of students said the Web played a…

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

446

Expectations Lead to Performance: The Transformative Power of High Expectations in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the preschool program at Missouri State University where deaf and hard of hearing children with all communication modalities and all styles of personal assistive listening devices are served. The job of the early intervention providers is to model for parents what high expectations look like and how to translate those…

Wang, Ye; Engler, Karen S.; Oetting, Tara L.

2014-01-01

447

It Is Not What You Expect: Dissociating Conflict Adaptation from Expectancies in a Stroop Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In conflict tasks, congruency effects are modulated by the sequence of preceding trials. This modulation effect has been interpreted as an influence of a proactive mechanism of adaptation to conflict (Botvinick, Nystrom, Fissell, Carter, & Cohen, 1999), but the possible contribution of explicit expectancies to this adaptation effect remains…

Jimenez, Luis; Mendez, Amavia

2013-01-01

448

ToolUse Expectations 1 Running Head: EXPECTATIONS OF TOOLUSE EVENTS  

E-print Network

activity (e.g., Langer, 1985; Piaget, 1954; Willats, 1984). It has also been sought in infants' causal) activity (Langer, 1980, 1986; Piaget, 1952; Werner, 1948). This proposal leads to the hypothesis action expectations (e.g., Butterworth, 1990; Langer, 1990; Piaget, 1969). This hypothesis is the subject

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

449

Teacher Expectations of Students' Classroom Behavior: Do Expectations Vary as a Function of School Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the social behaviors teachers believe is critical for school success and can contribute to the development of effective behavioral supports and assist teachers in better preparing students for successful school transitions across the K-12 grade span. We explored 1303 elementary, middle, and high school teachers' expectations of…

Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Pierson, Melinda R.; Stang, Kristin K.; Carter, Erik W.

2010-01-01

450

What To Expect When You're Expected To Teach: The Anxious Craft of Teaching Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays addresses the anxieties and problems of beginning writing teachers and provides a reality check for those who expect success from "day one." Following an Introduction: "Silences in Our Teaching Stories; What Do We Leave Out and Why?" (Thomas Newkirk), essays in the collection are: (1) "Forty-Eight Eyeballs" (Carrie…

Bramblett, Anne, Ed.; Knoblauch, Alison, Ed.

451

Electric utility preferred stock financing - twilight or new dawn  

SciTech Connect

The tax laws have greatly diminished the importance of utility preferred stock. But with utility construction programs expected to rise, it is an opportune time to see if preferreds can be an attractive option again. As recently as 1980, preferred stock financing by electric utilities comprised 55% of all U.S. corporate preferred stock issued. By 1989, this percentage had declined to under 12%. In dollar amounts, electric utility preferred stock financing had decreased by two-thirds over the same time period. The author analyzes just why this decline occurred and what it portends for the future.

Klein, R.

1991-10-01

452

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization PRELIMINARY DRAFT REPORT LIME KILN DUST (LKD) By Tarun R. Naik OF CONTENTS LIME KILN DUST (LKD) ...........................................................................1 ....................................................... 5 USES OF LIME KILN DUST.....................................................................5

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

453

Cogeneration - A Utility Perspective  

E-print Network

Cogeneration has become an extremely popular subject when discussing conservation and energy saving techniques. One of the key factors which effect conservation is the utility viewpoint on PURPA and cogeneration rule making. These topics...

Williams, M.

1983-01-01

454

Iraq and the utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the possible impact on the public utilities of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. The author feels the industry is in better shape to weather this than the energy crisis of 1973 and 1974. However regulatory policies that prohibit some utilities from recovering fuel costs through rate adjustments may cause distress for some. The author feels that a revision of regulatory policies is needed.

Studness, C.M.

1990-09-13

455

Wind energy utilization prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chief technical, economic, and environmental aspects of wind energy utilization are considered. One approach being studied is to allow the aeroturbine RPM to vary with wind velocity and employ variable-speed, constant-frequency generating systems to obtain constant-frequency power to be pumped into existing utility mains. Study of generation costs for wind energy systems indicates that wind energy has the potential

R. Ramakumar; W. L. Hughes; H. J. Allison

1975-01-01

456

Catching utility thieves  

SciTech Connect

Increasing theft of electric power has forced utilities like Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division to employ detectives to identify those who cheat by tampering with their meters or reconnecting disconnected power. Thieves also risk lethal shocks to themselves and the safety of their neighbors. Residential customers are the largest problem and the easiest to detect by watching for billing discrepancies, evidences of meter tampering, and the reports of informers. Both state and city statutes against utility theft impose fines. (DCK)

Tankersley, D.; Cooke, L.

1981-07-01

457

Health Services Utilization  

PubMed Central

Five different approaches that have been used to study the utilization of health services are reviewed: the sociocultural, sociodemographic, social-psychological, organizational, and social systems. Studies characterizing each approach are described and the limitations of each perspective are outlined. It is suggested that social system models that explicate causal structures and that incorporate features of all the other approaches may provide important new insights into utilization behavior. PMID:4593850

Anderson, James G.

1973-01-01

458

The expected metric principle for probabilistic information retrieval  

E-print Network

Traditionally, information retrieval systems aim to maximize the number of relevant documents returned to a user within some window of the top. For that goal, the Probability Ranking Principle, which ranks documents in ...

Chen, Harr

2007-01-01

459

SMAP Radar Processing and Expected Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe the processing algorithms being developed for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radar data and the expected characteristics of the measured backscattering cross sections. The SMAP radar combines some unique features such as a conically scanned antenna with SAR processing of the data. The rapidly varying squint angle gives the measurements variable resolution and noise characteristics and poses a challenge to the processor to maintain accuracy around the wide (1000 km) swath. Rapid variation of Doppler around the scan leads to a time domain azimuth correlation algorithm, and variation of the Doppler geometry will likely require varying the processing bandwidth to manage ambiguity contamination errors. The basic accuracy requirement is 1-dB (one-sigma) in the backscatter measurements at a resolution of 3 km. The main error contributions come from speckle noise, calibration uncertainty, and radio frequency interference (RFI). Speckle noise is determined by system design parameters and details of the processing algorithms. The calibration of the backscatter measurements will be based on pre-launch characterization of the radar components which allow corrections for short term (~1 month) variations in performance. Longer term variations and biases will be removed using measurements of stable reference targets such as parts of the Amazon rain forest, and possibly the oceans and ice sheets. RFI survey measurements will be included to measure the extent of RFI around the world. The SMAP radar is designed to be able to hop the operating frequency within the 80 MHz allocated band to avoid the worst RFI emitters. Data processing will detect and discard further RFI contaminated measurements. This work is supported by the SMAP project at JPL - CalTech. The SMAP mission has not been formally approved by NASA. The decision to proceed with the mission will not occur until the completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. Material in this document related to SMAP is for information purposes only.

West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.

2011-12-01

460

Utility requirements for fusion  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

Vondrasek, R.J.

1982-02-01

461

Utility requirements for fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options are described. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

Vondrasek, R. J.

1982-02-01

462

Predicting gambling problems from gambling outcome expectancies in college student-athletes.  

PubMed

While previous research has suggested the potential importance of gambling outcome expectancies in determining gambling behaviour among adolescents, the predictive ability of gambling outcome expectancies has not yet been clearly delineated for college-aged youth. The current study aims to explore the relationships between gender and outcome expectancies in the prediction of gambling severity among college student-athletes. Data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) study assessing gambling behaviours and problems among U.S. college student-athletes were utilized. Complete data was available for 7,517 student-athletes. As expected, male college student-athletes reported more gambling participation as well as greater gambling problems than their female counterparts. Findings showed positive relationships between the outcome expectancies of financial gain, and negative emotional impacts and gambling problems. That is, those who endorsed more items on the outcome expectancy scales for financial gain and negative emotional impacts also tended to endorse more gambling-related problems. Findings also showed a negative relationship between outcome expectancies of fun and enjoyment, and gambling problems over and above the variance accounted for by gender. Those with gambling problems were less likely to have the expectation that gambling would be fun than those without gambling problems. Despite NCAA efforts to curb gambling activity, the results suggest that college student-athletes are at risk for over-involvement in gambling. Therefore, it is important to explore gambling outcome expectancies within this group since the motivations and reasons for gambling might be able to inform treatment initiatives. PMID:23307022

St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Paskus, Thomas S

2014-03-01

463

Confidence intervals for expected moments algorithm flood quantile estimates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical and paleoflood information can substantially improve flood frequency estimates if appropriate statistical procedures are properly applied. However, the Federal guidelines for flood frequency analysis, set forth in Bulletin 17B, rely on an inefficient "weighting" procedure that fails to take advantage of historical and paleoflood information. This has led researchers to propose several more efficient alternatives including the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA), which is attractive because it retains Bulletin 17B's statistical structure (method of moments with the Log Pearson Type 3 distribution) and thus can be easily integrated into flood analyses employing the rest of the Bulletin 17B approach. The practical utility of EMA, however, has been limited because no closed-form method has been available for quantifying the uncertainty of EMA-based flood quantile estimates. This paper addresses that concern by providing analytical expressions for the asymptotic variance of EMA flood-quantile estimators and confidence intervals for flood quantile estimates. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the properties of such confidence intervals for sites where a 25- to 100-year streamgage record is augmented by 50 to 150 years of historical information. The experiments show that the confidence intervals, though not exact, should be acceptable for most purposes.

Cohn, T.A.; Lane, W.L.; Stedinger, J.R.

2001-01-01

464

Nursing students' expectations regarding effective clinical education: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to describe the expectations of Bachelor of Science nursing students regarding what constitutes an effective clinical education. In this study, a semistructured interview process was utilized with 17 nursing students studying in sophomore, junior and senior years in training units of hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Content analysis was employed to analyse the data. Data analysis led to identification of three main themes: (i) appropriate communication and interaction between instructors and students; (ii) incorporation of both theory and practice in clinical education, with two subthemes, one being the presence of the instructor as a factor for reducing the gap between theory and practice and the other being evaluation based on appropriate criteria; and (iii) having specialized instructors, with a specific emphasis on the instructor's knowledge and motivation as important factors in learning. The findings reveal the significant role of mentors in providing effective educational and clinical experiences. Therefore, mentors must strive to develop their knowledge and clinical behaviours according to students' needs in clinical settings. PMID:25289734

Esmaeili, Maryam; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Salsali, Mahvash; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

2014-10-01

465

Maintenance and the life expectancy of healthcare equipment in developing economies.  

PubMed

Measuring the economic viability of systematically maintaining physical assets (buildings, utilities, medical equipment) in healthcare is important in emerging economies with limited resources. This paper puts forward a way to estimate the benefit by comparing the input for maintenance with the savings achieved by extending the useful life of physical assets. For this purpose, life expectancies have been studied under conditions with and without systematic maintenance based on a planned and preventative approach for a selection of utilities and medical equipment. The result shows that the average prolongation of useful life for healthcare equipment in emerging economies is about two-fold. Specific figures on the life expectancy of 16 different items are presented. Finally, recommendations are given on how to employ the method locally. PMID:10915307

Halbwachs, H

2000-03-01

466

Maximal CP and Bounds on the Neutron Electric Dipole Moment from P and CP Breaking  

E-print Network

We find in theories with spontaneous P and CP violation that symmetries needed to set the tree level strong CP phase to zero can also set all non-zero tree level CP violating phases to the maximal value \\pi / 2 in the symmetry basis simultaneously explaining the smallness of \\bar{\\theta} and the largeness of the CKM CP violating phase. In these models we find the one loop lower bound \\bar{\\theta} > 10^{-11} relevant for early discovery of neutron edm d_n > 10^{-27} ecm. The lower bound relaxes to \\bar{\\theta} > 10^{-13} or d_n > 10^{-29} ecm for the case where the CP phases are non-maximal. Interestingly the spontaneous CP phase appears in the quark sector, not the Higgs sector, and is enabled by a heavy left-right symmetric vectorlike quark family with mass M. These results do not vanish in the decoupling limit of M_{H_2^+} > M \\rightarrow \\infty (where M_{H_2^+} is the mass of heavy Higgs at the parity breaking scale) and the age-old expectation that laws of nature (or its Lagrangian) are parity and matter-antimatter symmetric may be testable by the above predictions and EDM experiments, even if new physics occurs only at see-saw, GUT or Planck scales. There is also a region in parameter space with M_{H_2^+} < M where the above bounds are dampened by the factor (M_{H_2^+}/M)^2. By using flavour symmetries and texture arguments we also make predictions for the CKM phase that arises from the maximal phase on diagonalization to the physical basis. There are no axions predicted in this model.

Ravi Kuchimanchi

2012-08-09

467

Prospection and emotional memory: how expectation affects emotional memory formation following sleep and wake  

PubMed Central

Successful prospective memory is necessarily driven by an expectation that encoded information will be relevant in the future, leading to its preferential placement in memory storage. Like expectation, emotional salience is another type of cue that benefits human memory formation. Although separate lines of research suggest that both emotional information and information explicitly expected to be important in the future benefit memory consolidation, it is unknown how expectation affects the processing of emotional information and whether sleep, which is known to maximize memory consolidation, plays a critical role. The purpose of this study was to investigate how expectation would impact the consolidation of emotionally salient content, and whether this impact would differ across delays of sleep and wake. Participants encoded scenes containing an emotionally charged negative or neutral foreground object placed on a plausible neutral background. After encoding, half of the participants were informed they would later be tested on the scenes (expected condition), while the other half received no information about the test (unexpected condition). At recognition, following a 12-h delay of sleep or wakefulness, the scene components (objects and backgrounds) were presented separately and one at a time, and participants were asked to determine if each component was old or new. Results revealed a greater disparity for memory of negative objects over their paired neutral backgrounds for both the sleep and wake groups when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while neutral memory remained unchanged. Analyzing each group separately, the wake group showed a threefold increase in the magnitude of this object/background trade-off for emotional scenes when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while those who slept performed similarly across conditions. These results suggest that emotional salience and expectation cues interact to benefit emotional memory consolidation during a delay of wakefulness. The sleeping brain, however, may automatically tag emotionally salient information as important, such that explicit instruction of an upcoming memory test does not further improve memory performance. PMID:25136328

Cunningham, Tony J.; Chambers, Alexis M.; Payne, Jessica D.

2014-01-01

468

Cardiovascular consequences of bed rest: effect on maximal oxygen uptake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced in healthy individuals confined to bed rest, suggesting it is independent of any disease state. The magnitude of reduction in VO2max is dependent on duration of bed rest and the initial level of aerobic fitness (VO2max), but it appears to be independent of age or gender. Bed rest induces an elevated maximal heart rate which, in turn, is associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, increased sympathetic catecholamine secretion, and greater cardiac beta-receptor sensitivity. Despite the elevation in heart rate, VO2max is reduced primarily from decreased maximal stroke volume and cardiac output. An elevated ejection fraction during exercise following bed rest suggests that the lower stroke volume is not caused by ventricular dysfunction but is primarily the result of decreased venous return associated with lower circulating blood volume, reduced central venous pressure, and higher venous compliance in the lower extremities. VO2max, stroke volume, and cardiac output are further compromised by exercise in the upright posture. The contribution of hypovolemia to reduced cardiac output during exercise following bed rest is supported by the close relationship between the relative magnitude (% delta) and time course of change in blood volume and VO2max during bed rest, and also by the fact that retention of plasma volume is associated with maintenance of VO2max after bed rest. Arteriovenous oxygen difference during maximal exercise is not altered by bed rest, suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may not contribute significantly to the decreased VO2max. However reduction in baseline and maximal muscle blood flow, red blood cell volume, and capillarization in working muscles represent peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to limited oxygen delivery and, subsequently, lowered VO2max. Thus, alterations in cardiac and vascular functions induced by prolonged confinement to bed rest contribute to diminution of maximal oxygen uptake and reserve capacity to perform physical work.

Convertino, V. A.

1997-01-01

469

Patterns of Motivation Beliefs: Combining Achievement Goal and Expectancy-Value Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person-centered approach integrated achievement goal and expectancy-value perspectives and identified patterns of mastery and performance-achievement goals (developing vs. demonstrating competence), task values (beliefs about interest, utility, importance, or opportunity costs), and competence beliefs. Cluster analysis classified 1,870 students (primarily Vietnamese and Latino) taught by 40 teachers in 148 math classrooms in 7 urban middle schools. Seven patterns were identified.

AnneMarie M. Conley

2012-01-01

470

Projection of two biphoton qutrits onto a maximally entangled state.  

PubMed

Bell state measurements, in which two quantum bits are projected onto a maximally entangled state, are an essential component of quantum information science. We propose and experimentally demonstrate the projection of two quantum systems with three states (qutrits) onto a generalized maximally entangled state. Each qutrit is represented by the polarization of a pair of indistinguishable photons-a biphoton. The projection is a joint measurement on both biphotons using standard linear optics elements. This demonstration enables the realization of quantum information protocols with qutrits, such as teleportation and entanglement swapping. PMID:21517363

Halevy, A; Megidish, E; Shacham, T; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S

2011-04-01

471

Suprathreshold stochastic resonance and maximizing network for watermark detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel method that improves watermark detection performance, based on suprathreshold stochastic resonance (SSR) with a maximizing network. The detection performance is measured in terms of correlation. The proposed method has been tested on different gray-scale images, and we found that an original image is not required for watermark detection, so this method is blind. We improved the correlation between an original watermark and the SSR with maximizing network-based discrete wavelet transform coefficients of the watermarked image. Our experimental results have been compared with the different existing techniques and were found superior in terms of correlation and ratio of correlation to threshold.

Jha, Rajib Kumar; Biswas, Prabir Kumar; Gupta, Bhupendra; Mishra, Deepak

2012-01-01

472

Study of maximizing acoustic energy coupling to salt  

E-print Network

STUDY OF MAXIMIZING ACOUSTIC ENERGY COUPLING TO SALT A Thesis by YNG-JOV HNANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major... Subject: Geophysics STUDY OF &MAXIMIZING ACOUSTIC ENERGY COUPLING TO SALT A Thesis by YNG-JOU HWANG Approved as to style and content by: C arrman o ommit e em er em e er Hea o epartment December 1979 ABSTRACT Study of Haximizing Acoustic Energy...

Hwang, Yng-Jou

2012-06-07

473

Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM  

E-print Network

A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

Brümmer, Felix; Kulkarni, Suchita

2012-01-01

474

Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM  

E-print Network

A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

Felix Brümmer; Sabine Kraml; Suchita Kulkarni

2012-05-03

475

Nonadditive entropy maximization is inconsistent with Bayesian updating.  

PubMed

The maximum entropy method-used to infer probabilistic models from data-is a special case of Bayes's model inference prescription which, in turn, is grounded in basic propositional logic. By contrast to the maximum entropy method, the compatibility of nonadditive entropy maximization with Bayes's model inference prescription has never been established. Here we demonstrate that nonadditive entropy maximization is incompatible with Bayesian updating and discuss the immediate implications of this finding. We focus our attention on special cases as illustrations. PMID:25493781

Pressé, Steve

2014-11-01

476

On the Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes  

E-print Network

We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric $\\mathcal{N}=4$ Yang-Mills (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM has only logarithmic singularities and is free of any poles at infinity---properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV-finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal ($\\mathcal{N}=8$) supergravity.

Nima Arkani-Hamed; Jacob L. Bourjaily; Freddy Cachazo; Jaroslav Trnka

2014-10-01

477

What to Expect When You're Expecting: Femtoscopy at the LHC  

E-print Network

A huge systematics of femtoscopic measurements have been used over the past 20 years to characterize the system created in heavy ion collisions. These measurements cover two orders of magnitude in energy, and with LHC beams imminent, this range will be extended by more than another order of magnitude. Here, I discuss theoretical expectations of femtoscopy of $A+A$ and $p+p$ collisions at the LHC, based on Boltzmann and hydrodynamic calculations, as well as on naive extrapolation of existing systematics.

Mike Lisa

2007-01-20

478

Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues  

SciTech Connect

Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

Breece, G.A. [Southern Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, B.J. [Carolina Power and Light Company, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

479

The last recession was good for life expectancy.  

PubMed

Most people think that economic growth and a good economy are prerequisites for good health and high life expectancy. As such, a recession should decrease life expectancy or stop it from rising. In fact, recessions can boost life expectancy. This was the case during the Great Depression in the United States from 1929 to 1932 and during the recession in the European Union in 2009. In 2009, life expectancy increased most rapidly in European countries where the decrease in gross domestic product was greatest-Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Studies of life expectancy increasing during recessions can yield valuable information regarding extending average life expectancy without essential costs. PMID:22533416

Kristjuhan, Ulo; Taidre, Erika

2012-04-01

480

Expectation in perceptual decision making: neural and computational mechanisms.  

PubMed

Sensory signals are highly structured in both space and time. These structural regularities in visual information allow expectations to form about future stimulation, thereby facilitating decisions about visual features and objects. Here, we discuss how expectation modulates neural signals and behaviour in humans and other primates. We consider how expectations bias visual activity before a stimulus occurs, and how neural signals elicited by expected and unexpected stimuli differ. We discuss how expectations may influence decision signals at the computational level. Finally, we consider the relationship between visual expectation and related concepts, such as attention and adaptation. PMID:25315388

Summerfield, Christopher; de Lange, Floris P

2014-11-01

481

Operation of MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE): Maximizing Science Participation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science return from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) will be optimized by maximizing science participation in the experiment. MRO is expected to arrive at Mars in March 2006, and the primary science phase begins near the end of 2006 after aerobraking (6 months) and a transition phase. The primary science phase lasts for almost 2 Earth years, followed by a 2-year relay phase in which science observations by MRO are expected to continue. We expect to acquire approx. 10,000 images with HiRISE over the course of MRO's two earth-year mission. HiRISE can acquire images with a ground sampling dimension of as little as 30 cm (from a typical altitude of 300 km), in up to 3 colors, and many targets will be re-imaged for stereo. With such high spatial resolution, the percent coverage of Mars will be very limited in spite of the relatively high data rate of MRO (approx. 10x greater than MGS or Odyssey). We expect to cover approx. 1% of Mars at approx. 1m/pixel or better, approx. 0.1% at full resolution, and approx. 0.05% in color or in stereo. Therefore, the placement of each HiRISE image must be carefully considered in order to maximize the scientific return from MRO. We believe that every observation should be the result of a mini research project based on pre-existing datasets. During operations, we will need a large database of carefully researched 'suggested' observations to select from. The HiRISE team is dedicated to involving the broad Mars community in creating this database, to the fullest degree that is both practical and legal. The philosophy of the team and the design of the ground data system are geared to enabling community involvement. A key aspect of this is that image data will be made available to the planetary community for science analysis as quickly as possible to encourage feedback and new ideas for targets.

Eliason, E.; Hansen, C. J.; McEwen, A.; Delamere, W. A.; Bridges, N.; Grant, J.; Gulich, V.; Herkenhoff, K.; Keszthelyi, L.; Kirk, R.

2003-01-01

482

Spatiotemporal laser speckle contrast analysis for blood flow imaging with maximized speckle contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser speckle contrast imaging is a technique used for imaging blood flow without scanning. Though several studies have attempted to combine spatial and temporal statistics of laser speckle images for reducing image noise as well as preserving acceptable spatiotemporal resolution, the statistical accuracy of these spatiotemporal methods has not been thoroughly compared. Through numerical simulation and animal experiments, this study investigates the changes in the mean speckle contrast values and the relative noise of the speckle contrast images computed by these methods with various numbers of frames and spatial windows. The simulation results show that the maximum relative error of the mean speckle contrast computed by the spatiotemporal laser speckle contrast analysis (STLASCA) method, in which the speckle contrast images are computed by analyzing the 3-D spatiotemporal speckle image cube, is approximately 5%, while it is higher than 13% for other methods. Changes in the mean speckle contrast values and the relative noise computed by these methods for animal experiment data are consistent with the simulation results. Our results demonstrate that STLASCA achieves more accurate speckle contrast, and suggest that STLASCA most effectively utilizes the number of pixels, thus achieving maximized speckle contrast, and thereby maximizing the variation of the laser speckle contrast image.

Qiu, Jianjun; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Weihua; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Hongyan; Luo, Qingming

2010-01-01

483

Radiological Laboratory Utility Office Building The Radiological Laboratory Util-  

E-print Network

RLUOB Radiological Laboratory Utility Office Building The Radiological Laboratory Util- ity Office Research building. Capabilities RLUOB provides: · Nearly 20,000 square feet of radiological laboratory

484

Why utilities respect geomagnetically induced currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been well known for more than 50 years that electric utilities in northern latitudes can have geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) flowing in their transmission lines and transformer ground points, and that these are caused by geomagnetic storms. Initially, these GICs were considered harmless and very little attention was paid to them. However, in the last 40 years it was realized that large GICs can flow in power systems and become problematic and even severe enough to cause a complete system shutdown. Utilities susceptible to GIC do not expect to rely on luck that the geomagnetic storm will not affect them, or if it does, the loading conditions at the time will allow enough margin to ride through it. This is precisely why many utilities today are studying the cause, effect, and mitigation of GICs and why utilities respect GICs. This paper presents a detailed discussion on how electric utilities are affected by GICs and what can be accomplished to mitigate the harmful effects.

Molinski, Tom S.

2002-11-01

485

Photovoltaics and electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long term value of grid connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) systems is determined. The value of the PV electricity is defined as the full avoided cost in accordance with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The avoided cost is computed using a long range utility planning approach to measure revenue requirement changes in response to the time phased introduction of PV systems into the grid. A case study approach to three utility systems is used. The changing value of PV electricity over a twenty year period from 1985 is presented, and the fuel and capital savings due to FY are analyzed. These values are translated into measures of breakeven capital investment under several options of power interchange and pricing.

Bright, R.; Leigh, R.; Sills, T.

1981-12-01

486

Patient expectations of podiatric surgery in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Background Patient expectations can be difficult to conceptualise and are liable to change with time, health and environmental factors. Patient expectation is known to influence satisfaction, however little is known about the expectations of patients attending for podiatric surgery. This paper will explore the expectations of a large cohort of patients undergoing elective foot surgery. Methods The UK based podiatric audit of surgery and clinical outcome measurement (PASCOM) audit system was applied to a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing elective podiatric surgery in Doncaster, South Yorkshire between 2004 and 2010. Data was collected relating to the surgical episode and patient expectations. A patient questionnaire was administered at 6 months post intervention. Results A total of 2910 unique surgical admissions were completed and satisfaction questionnaires were returned by 1869 patients. A total of 1430 patients answered question 1 which relates to patient expectations. Pain relief was the most frequent expectation with 1191 counts (52.3%), while footwear and mobility accounted for 16.6% and 16.4% respectively. Cosmesis counts occurred less commonly; 12.2%. 709 patients (49.6%) stated only a single expectation, 599 patients (41.9%) stated two expectations, 114 patients (8%) stated three expectations and 7 patients (0.5%) stated 4 expectations. Pain relief was the dominant expectation accounting for 515 counts (72.6%) of patients who provided only one response. Conclusions This paper demonstrates the expectations of a large cohort of podiatric surgery patients. For the most part patients expect pain relief, improved mobility and improved shoe fitting, while a small number of patients also expect a cosmetic improvement. Further research is required to determine the relationship between patient expectation and health related quality of life, and to determine whether podiatric surgery is successful in addressing the expectations of patients. PMID:22145971

2011-01-01

487

Maximizing Total QoS-Provisioning of Image Streams with Limited Energy Budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To fully utilize the limited battery energy of mobile electronic devices, we propose an adaptive adjustment method of processing quality for multiple image stream tasks running with widely varying execution times. This adjustment method completes the worst-case executions of the tasks with a given budget of energy, and maximizes the total reward value of processing quality obtained during their executions by exploiting the probability distribution of task execution times. The proposed method derives the maximum reward value for the tasks being executable with arbitrary processing quality, and near maximum value for the tasks being executable with a finite number of processing qualities. Our evaluation on a prototype system shows that the proposed method achieves larger reward values, by up to 57%, than the previous method.

Lee, Wan Yeon; Kim, Kyong Hoon; Ko, Young Woong

488

Approximation Algorithms for Non-Single-minded Profit-Maximization Problems with Limited Supply  

E-print Network

Approximation Algorithms for Non-Single-minded Profit-Maximization Problems with Limited Supply; cswamy@math.uwaterloo.ca Abstract. We consider profit-maximization problems for combinatorial auctions the approximability of the profit-maximization prob- lem to that of the corresponding social-welfare-maximization (SWM

Elbassioni, Khaled

489

Maximizing output from oil reservoirs without water breakthrough  

E-print Network

Maximizing output from oil reservoirs without water breakthrough S.K. Lucas School of Mathematics breakthrough. A variety of models have been developed over the years, based upon Darcy's law, to model ­ the largest flow rate for an oil well without water breakthrough. While Lucas & Kucera [5] developed

Lucas, Stephen

490

What currency do scatter-hoarding gray jays maximize?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis) cache thousands of food items during each summer for use during the subsequent winter. Previous work on the economics of gray jay scatter-hoarding behavior was based on the assumption that the jays maximize the rate at which they store food energy; alternative currencies were not considered. Here we develop and test models based on two currencies,

T. A. Waite; R. C. Ydenberg

1994-01-01

491

Morning vs. Evening Maximal Cycle Power and Technical Swimming Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deschodt, Veronique J., and Arsac, Laurent M. Morning versus evening maximal cycle power and technical swimming ability. J. Strength Cond. Res. 18(1):149-154. 2004.— The aim of this study was to observe diurnal influences on max- imal power and technical swimming ability at three different times (8 AM ,1 PM, and 6 PM). Prior to each test, tympanic tem- perature was

Veronique J. Deschodt; Laurent M. Arsac

2004-01-01

492

Modifying Softball for Maximizing Learning Outcomes in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Softball is taught in many physical education programs throughout the United States. This article describes modifications that maximize learning outcomes and that address the National Standards and safety recommendations. The modifications focus on tasks and equipment, developmentally appropriate motor-skill acquisition, increasing number of…

Brian, Ali; Ward, Phillip; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Sutherland, Sue

2014-01-01

493

A simple parallel algorithm for the maximal independent set problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple parallel algorithms for the maximal independent set (MIS) problem are presented. The first algorithm is a Monte Carlo algorithm with a very local property. The local property of this algorithm may make it a useful protocol design tool in distributed computing environments and artificial intelligence. One of the main contributions of this paper is the development of powerful and

Michael Luby

1985-01-01

494

Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Marten Lohstroh  

E-print Network

Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II Marten Lohstroh Electrical Engineering Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II by Marten Lohstroh Committee in charge: Professor Edward A of Actors in Ptolemy II Copyright c 2013 by Marten Lohstroh Permission to make digital or hard copies of all

495

Comparing drag-and-drop implementations Maxime Collomb, Mountaz Hascoet  

E-print Network

Comparing drag-and-drop implementations Maxime Collomb, Mountaz Hasco¨et LIRMM, UMR 5506 du CNRS, mountaz}@lirmm.fr Abstract In this paper, we present the drag-and-drop as it is implemented in four of the interaction, drag, drop, and finalization. We also compare data structures used by each system. Key words

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

496

Ungulate foraging strategies: energy maximizing or time minimizing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Many classical models of ungulate foraging are premised on energy maximization, yet limited empirical evidence and untested currency assumptions make the choice of currency a non-trivial issue. The primary constraints on forage intake of ungulates are forage quality and availability. Using a model that incorporates these two constraints, we predicted the optimal biomass of forage patches for ungulate

Carita M. Bergman; John M. Fryxell; C. Cormack Gates; Daniel Fortin

2001-01-01

497

Multi-modal volume registration by maximization of mutual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new information-theoretic approach is presented for nding the registration of volumetric medical images of diering modalities. Registration is achieved by adjust- ment of the relative position and orientation until the mutual information between the images is maximized. In our derivation of the registration procedure, few as- sumptions are made about the nature of the imaging process. As a result

William M. Wells III; Paul A. Viola; Hideki Atsumi; Shin Nakajima; Ron Kikinis

1996-01-01

498

FAMCS: finding all maximal common substructures in proteins.  

PubMed

Finding the common substructures shared by two proteins is considered as one of the central issues in computational biology because of its usefulness in understanding the structure-function relationship and application in drug and vaccine design. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm called FAMCS (Finding All Maximal Common Substructures) for the common substructure identification problem. Our method works initially at the protein secondary structural element (SSE) level and starts with the identification of all structurally similar SSE pairs. These SSE pairs are then merged into sets using a modified Apriori algorithm, which will test the similarity of various sets of SSE pairs incrementally until all the maximal sets of SSE pairs that deemed to be similar are found. The maximal common substructures of the two proteins will be formed from these maximal sets. A refinement algorithm is also proposed to fine tune the alignment from the SSE level to the residue level. Comparison of FAMCS with other methods on various proteins shows that FAMCS can address all four requirements and infer interesting biological discoveries. PMID:16393147

Yao, Zhen; Xiao, Juan; Tung, Anthony K H; Sung, Wing Kin

2005-05-01

499

Maximizing Efficiency of Solar-Powered Systems by Load Matching  

E-print Network

Maximizing Efficiency of Solar-Powered Systems by Load Matching Pai H. Chou, Dexin Li and Sungjun's total en- ergy output under a given solar profile by load matching. The power efficiency was validated,dexinl,ksungjun}@uci.edu ABSTRACT Solar power is an important source of renewable energy for many low-power systems. Matching

Shinozuka, Masanobu

500

Online Scheduling of Parallel Jobs on Hypercubes: Maximizing the Throughput  

E-print Network

Online Scheduling of Parallel Jobs on Hypercubes: Maximizing the Throughput Ondrej Zaj´icek1 , Jir of scheduling unit-time parallel jobs on hypercubes. A parallel job has to be scheduled between its release time and deadline on a subcube of processors. The objective is to max- imize the number of early jobs. We provide

Sgall, Jiri