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Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization  

E-print Network

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization made a brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification algorithm that uses a twostage applied to a set of normal brain MR images for further testing. We accomplished a working

Chen, Tsuhan


An Expectation Maximization Approach for Integrated  

E-print Network

with ambiguous intensity patterns [1]. On the other hand, aligning an atlas to these anatomical structures aids the regis- tration of an atlas with the segmentation of MR images. We use an Expectation Maximization, anatomical labelmap, and a mapping from the atlas to the image space. An example of the approach is given

Fisher III, John



Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduction. In this paper we study the existence of optimal port- folios for maximizing expected utility at the end of a trading period in a financial market. Preferences of the agent in consideration are described by a nondecreasing concave function U : R ? R, trading dates occur at discrete time instants. The same problem has been treated in

Miklos Rasonyi; Lukasz Stettner



Inexact Matching of Ontology Graphs Using Expectation-Maximization  

PubMed Central

We present a new method for mapping ontology schemas that address similar domains. The problem of ontology matching is crucial since we are witnessing a decentralized development and publication of ontological data. We formulate the problem of inferring a match between two ontologies as a maximum likelihood problem, and solve it using the technique of expectation-maximization (EM). Specifically, we adopt directed graphs as our model for ontology schemas and use a generalized version of EM to arrive at a map between the nodes of the graphs. We exploit the structural, lexical and instance similarity between the graphs, and differ from the previous approaches in the way we utilize them to arrive at, a possibly inexact, match. Inexact matching is the process of finding a best possible match between the two graphs when exact matching is not possible or is computationally difficult. In order to scale the method to large ontologies, we identify the computational bottlenecks and adapt the generalized EM by using a memory bounded partitioning scheme. We provide comparative experimental results in support of our method on two well-known ontology alignment benchmarks and discuss their implications. PMID:20160892

Doshi, Prashant; Kolli, Ravikanth; Thomas, Christopher



Blood detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using expectation maximization clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. Other endoscopies such as colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and intraoperative enteroscopy could be used to visualize up to the stomach, duodenum, colon, and terminal ileum, but there existed no method to view most of the small intestine without surgery. With the miniaturization of wireless and camera technologies came the ability to view the entire gestational track with little effort. A tiny disposable video capsule is swallowed, transmitting two images per second to a small data receiver worn by the patient on a belt. During an approximately 8-hour course, over 55,000 images are recorded to a worn device and then downloaded to a computer for later examination. Typically, a medical clinician spends more than two hours to analyze a WCE video. Research has been attempted to automatically find abnormal regions (especially bleeding) to reduce the time needed to analyze the videos. The manufacturers also provide the software tool to detect the bleeding called Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), but its accuracy is not high enough to replace human examination. It was reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of SBI were about 72% and 85%, respectively. To address this problem, we propose a technique to detect the bleeding regions automatically utilizing the Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed bleeding detection method achieves 92% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Cox, Jay; Tang, Shou Jiang; Tibbals, Harry F.



Brain MRI Segmentation Using an Expectation-Maximization  

E-print Network

A probabilistic brain atlas Modeling MR bias fields Multiple Sclerosis lesion segmentation Partial volumeBrain MRI Segmentation Using an Expectation-Maximization Algorithm Koen Van Leemput koen-dimensional (3-D) High soft tissue contrast High spatial resolution Possibly multi-spectral Non


Maximum Lq-Likelihood Estimation via the Expectation Maximization Algorithm  

E-print Network

, where the true model of interest is a mixture of two normal distributions, and the contam- ination of Mixture Models Yichen Qin and Carey E. Priebe Abstract We introduce a maximum Lq-likelihood estimation (MLqE) of mixture models us- ing our proposed expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, namely the EM

Priebe, Carey E.


Named Entity Learning and Verification: Expectation Maximization in Large Corpora  

E-print Network

Named Entity Learning and Verification: Expectation Maximization in Large Corpora Uwe QUASTHOFF, 04109 Abstract The regularity of named entities is used to learn names and to extract named entities, named entities form regular patterns. Usually, a surname has a preceding first name, which in turn might



E-print Network

of maximizing total ex- pected utility from consumption net of the standard of living, a weighted-average of living z(·; c); i.e., a habit-index defined as an average of past consumption, given by z(t; c) z e- t 0 the initial wealth x and initial standard of living z. The quantity w stands for the cost, per unit

Karatzas, Ioannis


Expected antenna utilization and overload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The trade-offs between the number of antennas at Deep Space Network (DSN) Deep-Space Communications Complex and the fraction of continuous coverage provided to a set of hypothetical spacecraft, assuming random placement of the space craft passes during the day. The trade-offs are fairly robust with respect to the randomness assumption. A sample result is that a three-antenna complex provides an average of 82.6 percent utilization of facilities and coverage of nine spacecraft that each have 8-hour passes, whereas perfect phasing of the passes would yield 100 percent utilization and coverage. One key point is that sometimes fewer than three spacecraft are visible, so an antenna is idle, while at other times, there aren't enough antennas, and some spacecraft do without service. This point of view may be useful in helping to size the network or to develop a normalization for a figure of merit of DSN coverage.

Posner, Edward C.



Expectation-maximization approach to target model generation from multiple synthetic aperture  

E-print Network

Expectation-maximization approach to target model generation from multiple synthetic aperture radar-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. [DOI: 10.1117/1.1417493] Subject terms: synthetic aperture radar; model-based automatic with synthetic aperture radar SAR imaging systems. The broad utility of SAR as an imaging methodology is well

Willsky, Alan S.


Expectation Maximization for Joint Deconvolution and Statistics Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomedical ultrasound image quality is limited due to the blurring of tissue reflectivity introduced by the transducer Point Spread Function (PSF). Deconvolution techniques can be used to obtain the pure tissue response, otherwise called reflectivity function. Typically deconvolution methods are developed in the only purpose of image visual quality improvement. In this work we present an Expectation Maximization (EM) framework for US images deconvolution in which local statistical description of the tissue reflectivity is restored as well, so that features extracted from the deconvolved frame can theoretically be used for classification purposes.

Alessandrini, M.; Palladini, A.; De Marchi, L.; Speciale, N.


Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard



An Expectation-Maximization Method for Calibrating Synchronous Machine Models  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of a power system dynamic model is essential to its secure and efficient operation. Lower confidence in model accuracy usually leads to conservative operation and lowers asset usage. To improve model accuracy, this paper proposes an expectation-maximization (EM) method to calibrate the synchronous machine model using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. First, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied to estimate the dynamic states using measurement data. Then, the parameters are calculated based on the estimated states using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. The EM method iterates over the preceding two steps to improve estimation accuracy. The proposed EM method’s performance is evaluated using a single-machine infinite bus system and compared with a method where both state and parameters are estimated using an EKF method. Sensitivity studies of the parameter calibration using EM method are also presented to show the robustness of the proposed method for different levels of measurement noise and initial parameter uncertainty.

Meng, Da; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang



PEM-PCA: A Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA Face Recognition Architecture  

PubMed Central

Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages' complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA. PMID:24955405

Rujirakul, Kanokmon; Arnonkijpanich, Banchar



Parallel expectation-maximization algorithms for PET image reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image reconstruction using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) involves estimating an unknown number of photon pairs emitted from the radiopharmaceuticals within the tissues of the patient's body. The generation of the photons can be described as a Poisson process, and the difficulty of image reconstruction involves approximating the parameter of the tissue density distribution function. A significant amount of artifactual noise exists in the reconstructed image with the convolution back projection method. Using the Maximum Likelihood (ML) formulation, a better estimate can be made for the unknown image information. Despite the better quality of images, the Expectation Maximization (EM) iterative algorithm is not being used in practice due to the tremendous processing time. This research proposes new techniques in designing parallel algorithms in order to speed the reconstruction process. Using the EM algorithm as an example, several general parallel techniques were studied for both distributed-memory architecture and message-passing programming paradigm. Both intra- and inter-iteration latency-hiding schemes were designed to effectively reduce the communication time. Dependencies that exist in and between iterations were rearranged by overlap communication and computation with MPI's non-blocking collective reduction operation. A performance model was established to estimate the processing time of the algorithms and was found to agree with the experimental results. A second strategy, the sparse matrix compaction technique, was developed to reduce the computational time of the computation-bound EM algorithm with better use of PET system geometry. The proposed techniques are generally applicable to many scientific computation problems that involve sparse matrix operations as well as iterative types, of algorithms.

Jeng, Wei-Min



Where does subjective expected utility fail descriptively?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective expected utility (SEU) rests on and implies four tenets of rational preferences; transitivity, monotonicity of consequences, independence of a common consequence, and accounting equivalences. Empirical evidence against transitivity and monotonicity is reevaluated and the opposite conclusion drawn using more recent data. The more complex accounting equivalences are descriptively implausible. The three simplest—idempotence, complementarity, and event commutativity—seem to be the

R. Duncan Luce



Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets with Random Endowment  

E-print Network

Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets with Random Endowment Jak#20;sa Cvitani#19;c #3 utility from terminal wealth of an agent with a random endowment process, in the general, semimartingale maximization, incomplete markets, random endow- ment, duality. JEL classi#12;cation: G11, G12; C61 AMS 1991

Schachermayer, Walter


A distributed Newton method for Network Utility Maximization  

E-print Network

Most existing work uses dual decomposition and subgradient methods to solve Network Utility Maximization (NUM) problems in a distributed manner, which suffer from slow rate of convergence properties. This work develops an ...

Wei, Ermin


Treatment options in Alzheimer's disease: maximizing benefit, managing expectations.  


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming an increasingly heavy burden on the society of developed countries, and physicians now face the challenge of providing efficient treatment regimens to an ever-higher number of individuals affected by the disease. Currently approved anti-AD therapies - the cholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine - offer modest symptomatic relief, which can be enhanced using combination therapy with both classes of drugs. Additionally, alternative therapies such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin E, selegiline, Ginkgo biloba extracts, estrogens, and statins, as well as behavioral and lifestyle changes, have been explored as therapeutic options. Until a therapy is developed that can prevent or reverse the disease, the optimal goal for effective AD management is to develop a treatment regimen that will yield maximum benefits for individual patients across multiple domains, including cognition, daily functioning, and behavior, and to provide realistic expectations for patients and caregivers throughout the course of the disease. This review provides a basic overview of approved AD therapies, discusses some pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment strategies that are currently being investigated, and offers suggestions for optimizing treatment to fit the needs of individual patients. PMID:18391487

Farlow, Martin R; Miller, Michael L; Pejovic, Vojislav



The expectation-maximization Viterbi algorithm for blind adaptive channel equalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blind maximum-likelihood equalization algorithm is described and its convergence behavior is analyzed. Since the algorithm employs the Viterbi algorithm (VA) to execute the expectation step of the expectation-maximization (EM) iteration, we call it the expectation-maximization Viterbi algorithm (EMVA). An EMVA-based blind channel-acquisition technique which achieves a high global convergence probability is developed. The performance of the method is evaluated

Hoang Nguyen; Bernard C. Levy



A comparison of alternating minimization and expectation maximization algorithms for single source gamma ray tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lange and Carson (1984 J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 8 306–16) defined image reconstruction for transmission tomography as a maximum likelihood estimation problem and derived an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain the maximum likelihood image estimate. However, in the maximization step or M-step of the EM algorithm, an approximation is made in the solution which can affect the image quality,

R Varma; S Bhusarapu; J A O'Sullivan; M H Al-Dahhan



A comparison of alternating minimization and expectation maximization algorithms for single source gamma ray tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lange and Carson (1984 J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 8 306-16) defined image reconstruction for transmission tomography as a maximum likelihood estimation problem and derived an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain the maximum likelihood image estimate. However, in the maximization step or M-step of the EM algorithm, an approximation is made in the solution which can affect the image quality,

R. Varma; S. Bhusarapu; J. A. O'Sullivan; M. H. Al-Dahhan



Sequence estimation in the presence of interference via the expectation-maximization algorithm  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we developed a method for obtaining near-optimal sequence estimates in the presence of interference for direct sequence spread spectrum communication using the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. We assume binary phase shift...

Zhang, Quan G



Numerical estimation of adsorption energy distributions from adsorption isotherm data with the expectation-maximization method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The expectation-maximization (EM) method of parameter estimation is used to calculate adsorption energy distributions of molecular probes from their adsorption isotherms. EM does not require prior knowledge of the distribution function or the isotherm, re...

B. J. Stanley, G. Guiochon



A Tutorial on Decomposition Methods for Network Utility Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic understanding of the decomposability structures in network utility maximization is key to both resource allocation and functionality allocation. It helps us obtain the most appropriate distributed algorithm for a given network resource allocation problem, and quantifies the comparison across architectural alternatives of modularized network design. Decomposition theory naturally provides the mathematical language to build an analytic foundation for

Daniel Pérez Palomar; Mung Chiang



Multivariate utility maximization with proportional transaction costs and random endowment  

E-print Network

Multivariate utility maximization with proportional transaction costs and random endowment Giuseppe the results in [CO10] to the situation where the agent is initially endowed with a random and possibly of a solution to the dual and (under an additional boundedness assumption on the endowment) to the primal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets with Random Endowment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper solves a long-standing open problem in mathematical nance: to nd a solution to the problem of maximizing utility from terminal wealth of an agent with a random endowment process, in the general, semimartingale model for incomplete markets, and to charac- terize it via the associated dual problem. We show that this is indeed possible if the dual problem

Walter Schachermayer; Hui Wang



Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets with Random Endowment  

E-print Network

Utility Maximization in Incomplete Markets with Random Endowment Jaksa Cvitani´c Department terminal wealth of an agent with a random endowment process, in the general, semimartingale model markets, random endow- ment, duality. JEL classification: G11, G12; C61 AMS 1991 subject classifications

Schachermayer, Walter


Price of oil and OPEC behavior: a utility maximization model  

SciTech Connect

There is growing evidence that OPEC has neither behaved as a cartel, at least in the last decade, nor maximized the discounted value of its profits as would be suggested by the theory of exhaustible resources. This dissertation attempts to find a way out of this dead end by proposing a utility maximization model. According to the utility maximization model, the decisions of how much crude oil each country produces is determined by a country's budgetary needs. The objective of each country is to choose present consumption and future consumption (which must be financed by its future income which can, in turn, be generated either by its investment out of current income or the proceeds of its oil reserves) at time t to maximize its utility function subject to its budget and absorptive capacity constraints. The model predicted that whenever the amount of savings is greater than the country's absorptive capacity as a result of higher prices of oil, it would respond by cutting back its production of oil. This prediction is supported by the following empirical findings: (1) that the marginal propensity to save (MPS) exceeded the marginal propensity to invest (MPI) during the period of study (1967-1981), implying that OPEC countries were facing an absorptive capacity constraint and (2) the quantity of oil production responded negatively to the permanent income in all three countries, the response being highly significant for those countries with the greatest budget surpluses.

Adeinat, M.K.



Stochastic Dominance and the Maximization of Expected Utility Leigh Tesfatsion  

E-print Network

of Economic Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2. (Jun., 1976), pp. 301-315. Stable URL: http://links.jstor published by The Review of Economic Studies Ltd.. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at JSTOR's Terms

Tesfatsion, Leigh


An expected utility maximizer walks into a bar…  

PubMed Central

We conducted field experiments at a bar to test whether blood alcohol concentration (BAC) correlates with violations of the generalized axiom of revealed preference (GARP) and the independence axiom. We found that individuals with BACs well above the legal limit for driving adhere to GARP and independence at rates similar to those who are sober. This finding led to the fielding of a third experiment to explore how risk preferences might vary as a function of BAC. We found gender-specific effects: Men did not exhibit variations in risk preferences across BACs. In contrast, women were more risk averse than men at low BACs but exhibited increasing tolerance towards risks as BAC increased. Based on our estimates, men and women’s risk preferences are predicted to be identical at BACs nearly twice the legal limit for driving. We discuss the implications for policy-makers. PMID:24244072

Glimcher, Paul W.; Lazzaro, Stephanie C.



Planning Routes Across Economic Terrains: Maximizing Utility, Following Heuristics  

PubMed Central

We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value). We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics) for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes. PMID:21833269

Zhang, Hang; Maddula, Soumya V.; Maloney, Laurence T.



Utility maximization in incomplete markets with random endowment  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This paper solves the following problem of mathematical finance: to find a solution to the problem of maximizing utility\\u000a from terminal wealth of an agent with a random endowment process, in the general, semimartingale model for incomplete markets,\\u000a and to characterize it via the associated dual problem. We show that this is possible if the dual problem and its

Jakša Cvitani?; Walter Schachermayer; Hui Wang



Dynamic Choice and NonExpected Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how some widely studied classes of nonexpected utility models could be used in dynamic choice situations. A new 'sequential consistency' condition is introduced for single-stage and multi-stage decision problems. Sequential consistency requires that if a decision maker has committed to a family of models (e.g., the multiple priors family, the rank-dependent family, or the betweenness family) then

Rakesh Sarin; Peter P Wakker



Portfolio sire selection to maximize the utility of individual management and breeding goals  

E-print Network

selection can model the goals of producers while minimizing risk. Average expected returns per unit of semen was $70. 36 with a variance of $ 9. 65. The advantage of a utility maximization versus a risk neutral selection strategy is an average $ . 67... in an increase of $1 expected profit per unit of semen for each 1~ increase in heifer calf survival to calving. Opportunity cost associated with selection for PDT was non-linear, no change in expected returns until an average PDT of . 2, where the opportunity...

Bloom, Andrew Scott



Expectation maximization and total variation-based model for computed tomography reconstruction from undersampled data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerized tomography (CT) plays an important role in medical imaging, especially for diagnosis and therapy. However, higher radiation dose from CT will result in increasing of radiation exposure in the population. Therefore, the reduction of radiation from CT is an essential issue. Expectation maximization (EM) is an iterative method used for CT image reconstruction that maximizes the likelihood function under Poisson noise assumption. Total variation regularization is a technique used frequently in image restoration to preserve edges, given the assumption that most images are piecewise constant. Here, we propose a method combining expectation maximization and total variation regularization, called EM+TV. This method can reconstruct a better image using fewer views in the computed tomography setting, thus reducing the overall dose of radiation. The numerical results in two and three dimensions show the efficiency of the proposed EM+TV method by comparison with those obtained by filtered back projection (FBP) or by EM only.

Yan, Ming; Vese, Luminita A.



Semi-blind channel identification and equalization in OFDM: an expectation-maximization approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes an expectation-maximization approach to channel identification and equalization in OFDM. The algorithm exploits the natural constraints imposed by the channel (sparsity, maximum delay spread, and a priori statistical information) and those imposed by the transmitter (pilots, cyclic prefix, and the finite alphabet constraint). These constraints are used to reduce the number of pilots needed for channel and

Tareq Y. Al-Naffouri; Ahmad Bahai; Arogyaswami Paulraj



Image Fusion Using the Expectation-Maximization Algorithm and a Hidden Markov Model  

E-print Network

Image Fusion Using the Expectation-Maximization Algorithm and a Hidden Markov Model Jinzhong Yang image fusion is presented. This approach is based on an image formation model in which the sensor images in concealed weapon detection (CWD) cases and night vision applications. Keywords-image fusion; wavelet

Blum, Rick


Multi-frame Image Fusion Using the Expectation-Maximization Jinzhong Yang Rick S. Blum  

E-print Network

Multi-frame Image Fusion Using the Expectation-Maximization Algorithm Jinzhong Yang Rick S. Abstract ­ A multi-frame image fusion scheme is proposed to fuse visual and thermal images for night vision applications. While many previous image fusion approaches perform the fusion on a frame-by-frame basis

Blum, Rick


Expectation Maximization Strategies for Multi-atlas Multi-label Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-known in the pattern recognition community that the accuracy of classifications obtained by combining decisions made by independent classifiers can be substantially higher that the accuracy of the individual classifiers. In order to combine multiple segmentations we introduce two extensions to an expectation maximization (EM) algo- rithm for ground truth estimation based on multiple experts (Warfield et al.,

Torsten Rohlfing; Daniel B. Russakoff; Calvin R. Maurer Jr.



Expectation Maximization Strategies for Multi-atlas Multi-label Segmentation  

E-print Network

Expectation Maximization Strategies for Multi-atlas Multi-label Segmentation Torsten Rohlfing1 to the unknown ground truth than the individual segmentations. In atlas-based image segmentation, multiple the success of classifier combination methods in atlas-based segmentation. By applying random deformations

Pratt, Vaughan


Expectation Maximization Strategies for Multi-Atlas Multi-Label Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-known in the pattern recognition community that the accuracy of classifications obtained by combining decisions made by independent classifiers can be substantially higher that the accuracy of the individual classifiers. In order to combine multiple segmentations we introduce two extensions to an expectation maximization (EM) algo- rithm for ground truth estimation based on multiple experts (Warfield et al.,

Torsten Rohlfing; Daniel B. Russako; Calvin R. Maurer


Combining Robust Expectation Maximization and Mean Shift algorithms for Multiple Sclerosis  

E-print Network

into these methods by using Markov Random Fields [4] or probabilistic atlas [5]. On the other hand, local methods use. On the one hand, a local segmentation approach, the Mean Shift, is used to generate local regions in our images. On the other hand, a variant of the Expectation Maximization is employed to classify

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Incorporating Non-rigid Registration into Expectation Maximization Algorithm to Segment MR Images  

E-print Network

Incorporating Non-rigid Registration into Expectation Maximization Algorithm to Segment MR Images., Boston, MA 02115 USA, {sw,kikinis,warfield} 3Center for Neurological Imaging, Harvard neurological diseases, cannot be identified with such an approach. As an alternative, some algorithms have been

Pohl, Kilian M.


Atlanta World: An Expectation Maximization Framework for Simultaneous Low-level Edge  

E-print Network

Atlanta World: An Expectation Maximization Framework for Simultaneous Low-level Edge Grouping on images of "Atlanta worlds," complex ur- ban scenes with multiple orthogonal edge-groups, that val- idate model of the city of Atlanta, based on historical imagery. The historical nature of the project pre

Dellaert, Frank


An Homomorphic Filtering And Expectation Maximization Approach For The Point Spread Function Estimation In  

E-print Network

a homomorphic filter, a denoising step, and an expectation-maximization (EM) based clustering algorithm. Given signal-to-noise ratio, low resolution and contrast), and also the presence of artifacts due to the speckle noise effect that drastically deteriorates image quality and sometimes makes imperceptible

Mignotte, Max


Expected Utility as a Policy Making Tool: An Environmental Health Example  

E-print Network

into the framework of making a decision that is optimal in some sense, the problem of accounting for the evaluation parties (under certain conditions) to negotiate an optimal compromise in the context of maximizing expected utility, without requiring explicit evaluation of intangibles. This method thus allows


DNA Motif Detection Using Particle Swarm Optimization and Expectation-Maximization.  


Motif discovery, the process of discovering a meaningful pattern of nucleotides or amino acids that is shared by two or more molecules, is an important part of the study of gene function. In this paper, we propose a hybrid motif discovery approach based upon a combination of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, we use PSO to generate a seed for the EM algorithm. PMID:20436786

Hardin, C T; Rouchka, Eric C



Disconfirmation of Expectations of Utility in e-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using pre-training and post-training paired surveys in e-learning based training courses, we have compared the "expectations of utility," measured at the beginning of an e-learning course, with the "perceptions of utility," measured at the end of the course, and related it with the trainees' motivation. We have concluded…

Cacao, Rosario



Spatially aware expectation maximization (SpAEM): application to prostate TRUS segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce Spatially Aware Expectation Maximization (SpAEM), a new parameter estimation method which incorporates information pertaining to spatial prior probability into the traditional expectation- maximization framework. For estimating the parameters of a given class, the spatial prior probability allows us to weight the contribution of any pixel based on the probability of that pixel belonging to the class of interest. In this paper we evaluate SpAEM for the problem of prostate capsule segmentation in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images. In cohort of 6 patients, SpAEM qualitatively and quantitatively outperforms traditional EM in distinguishing the foreground (prostate) from background (non-prostate) regions by around 45% in terms of the Sorensen Dice overlap measure, when compared against expert annotations. The variance of the estimated parameters measured via Cramer-Rao Lower Bound suggests that SpAEM yields unbiased estimates. Finally, on a synthetic TRUS image, the Cramer-Von Mises (CVM) criteria shows that SpAEM improves the estimation accuracy by around 51% and 88% for prostate and background, respectively, as compared to traditional EM.

Orooji, Mahdi; Sparks, Rachel; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Feleppa, Ernest; Barratt, Dean; Madabhushi, Anant



Is expected utility theory normative for medical decision making?  


Expected utility theory is felt by its proponents to be a normative theory of decision making under uncertainty. The theory starts with some simple axioms that are held to be rules that any rational person would follow. It can be shown that if one adheres to these axioms, a numerical quantity, generally referred to as utility, can be assigned to each possible outcome, with the preferred course of action being that which has the highest expected utility. One of these axioms, the independence principle, is controversial, and is frequently violated in experimental situations. Proponents of the theory hold that these violations are irrational. The independence principle is simply an axiom dictating consistency among preferences, in that it dictates that a rational agent should hold a specified preference given another stated preference. When applied to preferences between lotteries, the independence principle can be demonstrated to be a rule that is followed only when preferences are formed in a particular way. The logic of expected utility theory is that this demonstration proves that preferences should be formed in this way. An alternative interpretation is that this demonstrates that the independence principle is not a valid general rule of consistency, but in particular, is a rule that must be followed if one is to consistently apply the decision rule "choose the lottery that has the highest expected utility." This decision rule must be justified on its own terms as a valid rule of rationality by demonstration that violation would lead to decisions that conflict with the decision maker's goals. This rule does not appear to be suitable for medical decisions because often these are one-time decisions in which expectation, a long-run property of a random variable, would not seem to be applicable. This is particularly true for those decisions involving a non-trivial risk of death. PMID:8717589

Cohen, B J



Automatic image segmentation for concealed object detection using the expectation-maximization algorithm.  


We address an image segmentation method to detect concealed objects captured by passive millimeter wave (MMW) imaging. Passive MMW imaging can create interpretable imagery on the objects concealed under clothing, which gives the great advantage to the security system. In this paper, we propose the multi-level expectation maximization (EM) method to separate the concealed objects from the other area in the image. We apply the EM method to obtain a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) of the acquired image. In the experiments, we evaluate the performance by the average probability of error. We will show that the consecutive EM processes separates the object area more accurately than the conventional EM method. PMID:20588918

Lee, Dong-Su; Yeom, Seokwon; Son, Jung-Young; Kim, Shin-Hwan



Uncovering gene regulatory networks from time-series microarray data with variational Bayesian structural expectation maximization.  


We investigate in this paper reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks from time-series microarray data. We apply dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs) for modeling cell cycle regulations. In developing a network inference algorithm, we focus on soft solutions that can provide a posteriori probability (APP) of network topology. In particular, we propose a variational Bayesian structural expectation maximization algorithm that can learn the posterior distribution of the network model parameters and topology jointly. We also show how the obtained APPs of the network topology can be used in a Bayesian data integration strategy to integrate two different microarray data sets. The proposed VBSEM algorithm has been tested on yeast cell cycle data sets. To evaluate the confidence of the inferred networks, we apply a moving block bootstrap method. The inferred network is validated by comparing it to the KEGG pathway map. PMID:18309364

Luna, Isabel Tienda; Huang, Yufei; Yin, Yufang; Padillo, Diego P Ruiz; Perez, M Carmen Carrion



String-Averaging Expectation-Maximization for Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Emission Tomography  

E-print Network

We study the maximum likelihood model in emission tomography and propose a new family of algorithms for its solution, called String-Averaging Expectation-Maximization (SAEM). In the String-Averaging algorithmic regime, the index set of all underlying equations is split into subsets, called "strings," and the algorithm separately proceeds along each string, possibly in parallel. Then, the end-points of all strings are averaged to form the next iterate. SAEM algorithms with several strings presents better practical merits than the classical Row-Action Maximum-Likelihood Algorithm (RAMLA). We present numerical experiments showing the effectiveness of the algorithmic scheme in realistic situations. Performance is evaluated from the computational cost and reconstruction quality viewpoints. A complete convergence theory is also provided.

Helou, E S; Chen, T -B; Chern, I-L; De Pierro, Á R; Jiang, M; Lu, H H -S



An Adaptive Expectation-Maximization Algorithm with GPU Implementation for Electron Cryomicroscopy  

PubMed Central

Maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation has very desirable properties for reconstructing 3D volumes from noisy cryo-EM images of single macromolecular particles. Current implementations of ML estimation make use of the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm or its variants. However, the EM algorithm is notoriously computation-intensive, as it involves integrals over all orientations and positions for each particle image. We present a strategy to speed up the EM algorithm using domain reduction. Domain reduction uses a coarse grid to evaluate regions in the integration domain that contribute most to the integral. The integral is evaluated with a fine grid in these regions. In the simulations reported in this paper, domain reduction gives speedups which exceed a factor of 10 in early iterations and which exceed a factor of 60 in terminal iterations. PMID:20538058

Tagare, Hemant D.; Barthel, Andrew; Sigworth, Fred J.



Social Group Utility Maximization Game with Applications in Mobile Social Networks  

E-print Network

Social Group Utility Maximization Game with Applications in Mobile Social Networks Xiaowen Gong and Xu Chen and Junshan Zhang1 Abstract-- In this paper, we develop a social group utility maximization game model that takes into account both social relationships and physical coupling among users

Reisslein, Martin


New multivariate noise model and data detection using the expectation maximization algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A signal sequence detector in a high areal density recording channel is required to provide robust compensation against unexpected error events. Primarily, a number of error events are caused by media noise and nonlinear distortion. The same problem of signal sequence detection remains to be solved in a future magnetic recording system that comes in predisposed to trend for recording by large-sector size instead of existing single-sector one that consists of 512 information 8-bits bytes. For the above problem, this paper shows the signal estimation method based on statistical inference for such a finite mixture model with known number of degraded noise components. Our signal detection scheme with multivariate autoregressive models for total noise and the expectation maximization algorithm is applied to maximum a posteriori estimation for multivariate mixtures of noise. Furthermore, a non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) code is used for an error-correcting code that satisfies the specific run-length limited condition in the proposed system. It shows that the proposed error-correcting and signal detection methods are effective in estimating signal sequences degraded by media noise and in improving the error rate performances with respect to the conventional system using the binary LDPC code and univariate autoregressive model.

Saito, Hidetoshi; Oshimi, Akira; Hayashi, Masayuki; Kohno, Ryuji


A Local Scalable Distributed Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper offers a local distributed algorithm for expectation maximization in large peer-to-peer environments. The algorithm can be used for a variety of well-known data mining tasks in a distributed environment such as clustering, anomaly detection, target tracking to name a few. This technology is crucial for many emerging peer-to-peer applications for bioinformatics, astronomy, social networking, sensor networks and web mining. Centralizing all or some of the data for building global models is impractical in such peer-to-peer environments because of the large number of data sources, the asynchronous nature of the peer-to-peer networks, and dynamic nature of the data/network. The distributed algorithm we have developed in this paper is provably-correct i.e. it converges to the same result compared to a similar centralized algorithm and can automatically adapt to changes to the data and the network. We show that the communication overhead of the algorithm is very low due to its local nature. This monitoring algorithm is then used as a feedback loop to sample data from the network and rebuild the model when it is outdated. We present thorough experimental results to verify our theoretical claims.

Bhaduri, Kanishka; Srivastava, Ashok N.



Target localization and signature extraction in GPR data using expectation-maximization and principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very promising technology for subsurface threat detection. A successful algorithm employing GPR should achieve high detection rates at a low false-alarm rate and do so at operationally relevant speeds. GPRs measure reflections at dielectric boundaries that occur at the interfaces between different materials. These boundaries may occur at any depth, within the sensor's range, and furthermore, the dielectric changes could be such that they induce a 180 degree phase shift in the received signal relative to the emitted GPR pulse. As a result of these time-of-arrival and phase variations, extracting robust features from target responses in GPR is not straightforward. In this work, a method to mitigate polarity and alignment variations based on an expectation-maximization (EM) principal-component analysis (PCA) approach is proposed. This work demonstrates how model-based target alignment can significantly improve detection performance. Performance is measured according to the improvement in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for classification before and after the data is properly aligned and phase-corrected.

Reichman, Daniel; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.



Cerebrospinal fluid image segmentation using spatial fuzzy clustering method with improved evolutionary Expectation Maximization.  


Visualization of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that flow in the brain and spinal cord, plays an important role to detect neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This is performed by measuring the substantial changes in the CSF flow dynamics, volume and/or pressure gradient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique has become a prominent tool to quantitatively measure these changes and image segmentation method has been widely used to distinguish the CSF flows from the brain tissues. However, this is often hampered by the presence of partial volume effect in the images. In this paper, a new hybrid evolutionary spatial fuzzy clustering method is introduced to overcome the partial volume effect in the MRI images. The proposed method incorporates Expectation Maximization (EM) method, which is improved by the evolutionary operations of the Genetic Algorithm (GA) to differentiate the CSF from the brain tissues. The proposed improvement is incorporated into a spatial-based fuzzy clustering (SFCM) method to improve segmentation of the boundary curve of the CSF and the brain tissues. The proposed method was validated using MRI images of Alzheimer's disease patient. The results presented that the proposed method is capable to filter the CSF regions from the brain tissues more effectively compared to the standard EM, FCM, and SFCM methods. PMID:24110448

Abdullah, Afnizanfaizal; Hirayama, Akihiro; Yatsushiro, Satoshi; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Kuroda, Kagayaki



Estimation of spatial-temporal point process models using the (stochastic) Expectation Maximization algorithm and its application to California earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the use of the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm as well as its stochastic version for estimating the parameters of spatial-temporal point process models, in particular the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata 1988, 1998). We present situations in which this algorithm performs better than directly maximizing the log-likelihood function and show an application to earthquake occurrence data from

Alejandro Veen; Frederic Paik Schoenberg


Association Studies with Imputed Variants Using Expectation-Maximization Likelihood-Ratio Tests  

PubMed Central

Genotype imputation has become standard practice in modern genetic studies. As sequencing-based reference panels continue to grow, increasingly more markers are being well or better imputed but at the same time, even more markers with relatively low minor allele frequency are being imputed with low imputation quality. Here, we propose new methods that incorporate imputation uncertainty for downstream association analysis, with improved power and/or computational efficiency. We consider two scenarios: I) when posterior probabilities of all potential genotypes are estimated; and II) when only the one-dimensional summary statistic, imputed dosage, is available. For scenario I, we have developed an expectation-maximization likelihood-ratio test for association based on posterior probabilities. When only imputed dosages are available (scenario II), we first sample the genotype probabilities from its posterior distribution given the dosages, and then apply the EM-LRT on the sampled probabilities. Our simulations show that type I error of the proposed EM-LRT methods under both scenarios are protected. Compared with existing methods, EM-LRT-Prob (for scenario I) offers optimal statistical power across a wide spectrum of MAF and imputation quality. EM-LRT-Dose (for scenario II) achieves a similar level of statistical power as EM-LRT-Prob and, outperforms the standard Dosage method, especially for markers with relatively low MAF or imputation quality. Applications to two real data sets, the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey study and the Women’s Health Initiative Study, provide further support to the validity and efficiency of our proposed methods. PMID:25383782

Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Sun, Wei; Wu, Ying; Chen, Mengjie; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Li, Yun



Expecting the unexpected: applying the Develop-Distort Dilemma to maximize positive market impacts in health.  


Although health interventions start with good intentions to develop services for disadvantaged populations, they often distort the health market, making the delivery or financing of services difficult once the intervention is over: a condition called the 'Develop-Distort Dilemma' (DDD). In this paper, we describe how to examine whether a proposed intervention may develop or distort the health market. Our goal is to produce a tool that facilitates meaningful and systematic dialogue for practitioners and researchers to ensure that well-intentioned health interventions lead to productive health systems while reducing the undesirable distortions of such efforts. We apply the DDD tool to plan for development rather than distortions in health markets, using intervention research being conducted under the Future Health Systems consortium in Bangladesh, China and Uganda. Through a review of research proposals and interviews with principal investigators, we use the DDD tool to systematically understand how a project fits within the broader health market system, and to identify gaps in planning for sustainability. We found that while current stakeholders and funding sources for activities were easily identified, future ones were not. The implication is that the projects could raise community expectations that future services will be available and paid for, despite this actually being uncertain. Each project addressed the 'rules' of the health market system differently. The China research assesses changes in the formal financing rules, whereas Bangladesh and Uganda's projects involve influencing community level providers, where informal rules are more important. In each case, we recognize the importance of building trust between providers, communities and government officials. Each project could both develop and distort local health markets. Anyone intervening in the health market must recognize the main market perturbations, whether positive or negative, and manage them so as to maximize the benefits to the health system and population health. PMID:23014153

Peters, David H; Paina, Ligia; Bennett, Sara



Competitive Balance and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues with Utility-Maximizing Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a contest model of a professional sports league in which clubs maximize a weighted sum of profits and wins (utility maximization). The model analyzes how more win-oriented behavior of certain clubs affects talent investments, competitive balance and club profits. Moreover, in contrast to traditional models, we show that revenue sharing does not always reduce investment incentives due

Helmut Dietl; Martin Grossmann; Markus Lang



Competitive Balance and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues With Utility-Maximizing Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a contest model of a professional sports league in which clubs maximize a weighted sum of profits and wins (utility maximization). The model analyzes how more win-oriented behavior of certain clubs affects talent investments, competitive balance, and club profits. Moreover, in contrast to traditional models, the authors show that revenue sharing does not always reduce investment incentives

Helmut M. Dietl; Martin Grossmann; Markus Lang



Competitive Balance and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues with Utility-Maximizing Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a contest model of a professional sports league in which clubs maximize a weighted sum of profits and wins (utility maximization). The model analyzes how more win-orientated behavior of certain clubs affects talent investments, competitive balance and club profits. Moreover, in contrast to traditional models, we show that revenue sharing does not always reduce investment incentives due

Helmut Dietl; Martin Grossmann; Markus Lang



Aerial fiber optic cables maximize profitability of utility rights of way  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing deregulation of the electric utility industry, combined with the opening of telecommunications markets with the Telecommunications Act of 1996, have presented tremendous opportunities for electric utilities to maximize profitability of their rights of way. The addition of fiber optic cable to utility transmission and distribution lines for telecommunications purposes is creating additional and, historically, unexpected short and long

J. K. Cooper



A distributed newton method for dynamic Network Utility Maximization with delivery contracts  

E-print Network

The standard Network Utility Maximization (NUM) problem has a static formulation, which fails to capture the temporal dynamics in modern networks. This work considers a dynamic version of the NUM problem by introducing ...

Wei, Ermin



E-print Network

ONLINE EXPECTATION-MAXIMIZATION ALGORITHM TO SOLVE THE SLAM PROBLEM S. Le Corff, G. Fort, E, a new algorithm - namely the onlineEM-SLAM - is proposed to solve the simultaneous localization and map- ping problem (SLAM). The mapping problem is seen as an instance of inference in latent models

Fort, Gersende


Beating the odds in the aerial lottery: passive dispersers select conditions at takeoff that maximize their expected fitness on landing.  


Passive airborne dispersal, in which the direction and distance of travel are determined by air movement, affects propagules and pollens, as well as mites, spiders, and small insect larvae. The takeoff or launch phase is, however, largely controlled, and many organisms become airborne only under particular weather conditions at takeoff, when the distribution of distances traveled will have a -3/2 power-law tail, a hallmark of Lévy flights. Here these movement patterns are shown to maximize the likelihood of dispersing to the nearest unoccupied site, thereby maximizing expected fitness on landing. PMID:23535619

Reynolds, Andy M



Recursive expectation-maximization clustering: A method for identifying buffering mechanisms composed of phenomic modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between genetic and/or environmental factors are ubiquitous, affecting the phenotypes of organisms in complex ways. Knowledge about such interactions is becoming rate-limiting for our understanding of human disease and other biological phenomena. Phenomics refers to the integrative analysis of how all genes contribute to phenotype variation, entailing genome and organism level information. A systems biology view of gene interactions is critical for phenomics. Unfortunately the problem is intractable in humans; however, it can be addressed in simpler genetic model systems. Our research group has focused on the concept of genetic buffering of phenotypic variation, in studies employing the single-cell eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We have developed a methodology, quantitative high throughput cellular phenotyping (Q-HTCP), for high-resolution measurements of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on a genome-wide scale. Q-HTCP is being applied to the complete set of S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains, a unique resource for systematically mapping gene interactions. Genetic buffering is the idea that comprehensive and quantitative knowledge about how genes interact with respect to phenotypes will lead to an appreciation of how genes and pathways are functionally connected at a systems level to maintain homeostasis. However, extracting biologically useful information from Q-HTCP data is challenging, due to the multidimensional and nonlinear nature of gene interactions, together with a relative lack of prior biological information. Here we describe a new approach for mining quantitative genetic interaction data called recursive expectation-maximization clustering (REMc). We developed REMc to help discover phenomic modules, defined as sets of genes with similar patterns of interaction across a series of genetic or environmental perturbations. Such modules are reflective of buffering mechanisms, i.e., genes that play a related role in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. To develop the method, 297 gene deletion strains were selected based on gene-drug interactions with hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase enzyme activity, which is critical for DNA synthesis. To partition the gene functions, these 297 deletion strains were challenged with growth inhibitory drugs known to target different genes and cellular pathways. Q-HTCP-derived growth curves were used to quantify all gene interactions, and the data were used to test the performance of REMc. Fundamental advantages of REMc include objective assessment of total number of clusters and assignment to each cluster a log-likelihood value, which can be considered an indicator of statistical quality of clusters. To assess the biological quality of clusters, we developed a method called gene ontology information divergence z-score (GOid_z). GOid_z summarizes total enrichment of GO attributes within individual clusters. Using these and other criteria, we compared the performance of REMc to hierarchical and K-means clustering. The main conclusion is that REMc provides distinct efficiencies for mining Q-HTCP data. It facilitates identification of phenomic modules, which contribute to buffering mechanisms that underlie cellular homeostasis and the regulation of phenotypic expression.

Guo, Jingyu; Tian, Dehua; McKinney, Brett A.; Hartman, John L.



The Cocaine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ): Construction and Predictive Utility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument to measure cocaine-related expectancies across a continuum of use, the Cocaine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ), was developed and tested with 765 college students and 87 cocaine abusers. Expectancy factors identified by the CEQ were found to be powerful predictors of cocaine use. (SLD)

Jaffe, Adam J.; Kilbey, M. Marlyne



Expectation Maximization Algorithm Based Haplotype Relative Risk (EM-HRR): Test of Linkage Disequilibrium Using Incomplete Case-Parents Trios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Haplotype Relative Risk (HRR) was first proposed [Falk et al., Ann Hum Genet 1987] to test for Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) between a marker and a putative disease locus using case-parent trios. Spurious association does not appear in such family-based studies under population admixture. In this paper, we extend the HRR to accommodate incomplete trios via the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm

Chao-Yu Guo; Anita L. DeStefano; Kathryn L. Lunetta; Josée Dupuis; L. Adrienne Cupples



Resolving the Latent Structure of Schizophrenia Endophenotypes Using Expectation-Maximization-Based Finite Mixture Modeling  

E-print Network

Resolving the Latent Structure of Schizophrenia Endophenotypes Using Expectation structure of endophenotypic markers of schizophrenia liability, or schizotypy. The work supports schizophrenia in their 1st-degree biological relatives compared with subjects in the other component

McLachlan, Geoff



E-print Network

good performance required that hand and eye move independently of each other in order to rapidly find the relationship between eye and hand is simple: The hand always waits for the eye to fixate the next target alternative (e.g. watching your favorite television show), we might expect very different eye and hand

Maloney, Laurence T.


Monte Carlo Expectation Maximization with Hidden Markov Models to Detect Functional  

E-print Network

into sets of spatially coherent regions. We introduce a new data-driven method to partition the brain prior. The normalized time-series data, which lie on a high-dimensional sphere, are modeled- lutions on synthetic data are superior to those computed using a mode ap- proximation of the expectation

Utah, University of


The Cocaine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ): Construction and Predictive Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved the construction of a Cocaine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) designed to explore the domain of cocaine-related expectancies across a continuum of non-cocaine-using to cocaine-abusing individuals. The questionnaire was based on extensive interviews with adult cocaine abusers, experimental users, and nonusers, and on a review of the relevant literature. The items were then administered to a group of 852

Adam J. Jaffe; M. Marlyne Kilbey



The Effect of Placebo-Induced Changes in Expectancies on Maximal Force Production in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used false information about a placebo (milk-sugar tablet) to induce expectancies regarding force production. Forty-two college students were assigned to a placebo\\/placebo (PP), placebo\\/no-placebo (PN), or control group, and underwent baseline testing and two trials assessing one-repetition maximum (1 RM) strength on a bench press and seated leg press. The PP and PN groups improved significantly compared to

Vasandreas Kalasountas; Justy Reed; John Fitzpatrick



An expectation-maximization method for spatio-temporal blind source separation using an AR-MOG source model.  


In this paper, we develop a maximum-likelihood (ML) spatio-temporal blind source separation (BSS) algorithm, where the temporal dependencies are explained by assuming that each source is an autoregressive (AR) process and the distribution of the associated independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) innovations process is described using a mixture of Gaussians. Unlike most ML methods, the proposed algorithm takes into account both spatial and temporal information, optimization is performed using the expectation-maximization (EM) method, the source model is adapted to maximize the likelihood, and the update equations have a simple, analytical form. The proposed method, which we refer to as autoregressive mixture of Gaussians (AR-MOG), outperforms nine other methods for artificial mixtures of real audio. We also show results for using AR-MOG to extract the fetal cardiac signal from real magnetocardiographic (MCG) data. PMID:18334368

Hild, Kenneth E; Attias, Hagai T; Nagarajan, Srikantan S



What Does Industry Expect From An Electrical Utility  

E-print Network

The electric utility industry is an important supplier to Union Carbide and as such must become a proactive participant in our quality programs which are aimed at continuous improvement in everything we do. The essential ingredients in the supplier...

Jensen, C. V.


Utility Maximization with Addictive Consumption Habit Formation in Incomplete Semimartingale Markets  

E-print Network

This paper studies the problem of continuous time utility maximization of consumption together with addictive habit formation in general incomplete semimartingale financial markets. By introducing the auxiliary state processes and the modified dual space, we embed our original problem into an auxiliary time separable utility maximization problem with the shadow random endowment. We establish existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution using convex duality approach on the product space by defining the primal value function both on the initial wealth and initial habit. We also provide market independent sufficient conditions both on stochastic discounting processes for the habit formation process and on the utility function for the validity of several key assertions of our main results to hold true.

Yu, Xiang



OPTUM : Optimum Portfolio Tool for Utility Maximization documentation and user's guide.  

SciTech Connect

The Optimum Portfolio Tool for Utility Maximization (OPTUM) is a versatile and powerful tool for selecting, optimizing, and analyzing portfolios. The software introduces a compact interface that facilitates problem definition, complex constraint specification, and portfolio analysis. The tool allows simple comparisons between user-preferred choices and optimized selections. OPTUM uses a portable, efficient, mixed-integer optimization engine (lp-solve) to derive the optimal mix of projects that satisfies the constraints and maximizes the total portfolio utility. OPTUM provides advanced features, such as convenient menus for specifying conditional constraints and specialized graphical displays of the optimal frontier and alternative solutions to assist in sensitivity visualization. OPTUM can be readily applied to other nonportfolio, resource-constrained optimization problems.

VanKuiken, J. C.; Jusko, M. J.; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences



Reputation-Assisted Utility Maximization Algorithmsfor Peer-to-Peer Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Peer-to-peer networks are voluntary resource sharing systems among,rational agents that are resource providers and consumers. While altruistic resource sharing is necessary for efficient operation, this can only be imposed by incentive mechanisms, otherwise peers tend to behave selfishly. Selfishness in general terms means only consuming resources in order to absorb maximal utility from them and not providing resources to other

George Iosifidis; Iordanis Koutsopoulos




Microsoft Academic Search

Ramsey's model is extended to three possible scenarios of conflicts in dual?population lands: partition, federation and civil war. The federally utility?maximizing consumption?growth rate in a strictly political federation might be lower than that under partition for the wealthier and more slowly multiplying group. This group may benefit from joining a federation that facilitates technological transfer and from obeying the federal

Amnon Levy; João Ricardo Faria



Novel hybrid GPU-CPU implementation of parallelized Monte Carlo parametric expectation maximization estimation method for population pharmacokinetic data analysis.  


The development of a population PK/PD model, an essential component for model-based drug development, is both time- and labor-intensive. A graphical-processing unit (GPU) computing technology has been proposed and used to accelerate many scientific computations. The objective of this study was to develop a hybrid GPU-CPU implementation of parallelized Monte Carlo parametric expectation maximization (MCPEM) estimation algorithm for population PK data analysis. A hybrid GPU-CPU implementation of the MCPEM algorithm (MCPEMGPU) and identical algorithm that is designed for the single CPU (MCPEMCPU) were developed using MATLAB in a single computer equipped with dual Xeon 6-Core E5690 CPU and a NVIDIA Tesla C2070 GPU parallel computing card that contained 448 stream processors. Two different PK models with rich/sparse sampling design schemes were used to simulate population data in assessing the performance of MCPEMCPU and MCPEMGPU. Results were analyzed by comparing the parameter estimation and model computation times. Speedup factor was used to assess the relative benefit of parallelized MCPEMGPU over MCPEMCPU in shortening model computation time. The MCPEMGPU consistently achieved shorter computation time than the MCPEMCPU and can offer more than 48-fold speedup using a single GPU card. The novel hybrid GPU-CPU implementation of parallelized MCPEM algorithm developed in this study holds a great promise in serving as the core for the next-generation of modeling software for population PK/PD analysis. PMID:24002801

Ng, C M



Expectation-maximization algorithms for learning a finite mixture of univariate survival time distributions from partially specified class values  

SciTech Connect

Heterogeneity exists on a data set when samples from di#11;erent classes are merged into the data set. Finite mixture models can be used to represent a survival time distribution on heterogeneous patient group by the proportions of each class and by the survival time distribution within each class as well. The heterogeneous data set cannot be explicitly decomposed to homogeneous subgroups unless all the samples are precisely labeled by their origin classes; such impossibility of decomposition is a barrier to overcome for estimating #12;nite mixture models. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of #12;nite mixture models by soft-decomposition of heterogeneous samples without labels for a subset or the entire set of data. In medical surveillance databases we can find partially labeled data, that is, while not completely unlabeled there is only imprecise information about class values. In this study we propose new EM algorithms that take advantages of using such partial labels, and thus incorporate more information than traditional EM algorithms. We particularly propose four variants of the EM algorithm named EM-OCML, EM-PCML, EM-HCML and EM-CPCML, each of which assumes a specific mechanism of missing class values. We conducted a simulation study on exponential survival trees with five classes and showed that the advantages of incorporating substantial amount of partially labeled data can be highly signi#12;cant. We also showed model selection based on AIC values fairly works to select the best proposed algorithm on each specific data set. A case study on a real-world data set of gastric cancer provided by Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program showed a superiority of EM-CPCML to not only the other proposed EM algorithms but also conventional supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning algorithms.

Lee, Youngrok [Ames Laboratory



Utilization of Extended Donor Criteria Liver Allografts Maximizes Donor Use and Patient Access to Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of systematic utilization of extended donor criteria liver allografts (EDC), including living donor allografts (LDLT), on patient access to liver transplantation (LTX). Summary Background Data: Utilization of liver allografts that do not meet traditional donor criteria (EDC) offer immediate expansion of the donor pool. EDC are typically allocated by transplant center rather than regional wait-list priority (RA). This single-institution series compares outcomes of EDC and RA allocation to determine the impact of EDC utilization on donor use and patient access to LTX. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 99 EDC recipients (49 deceased donor, 50 LDLT) and 116 RA recipients from April 2001 through April 2004. Deceased-donor EDC included: age >65 years, donation after cardiac death, positive viral serology (hepatitis C, hepatitis B core antibody, human T-cell lymphotrophic), split-liver, hypernatremia, prior carcinoma, steatosis, and behavioral high-risk donors. Outcome variables included patient and graft survival, hospitalization, initial graft function, and complication categorized as: biliary, vascular, wound, and other. Results: EDC recipients were more frequently diagnosed with hepatitis C virus or hepatocellular carcinoma and had a lower model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at LTX (P < 0.01). Wait-time, technical complications, and hospitalization were comparable. Log-rank analysis of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates demonstrated no difference in patient or graft survival; however, deaths among deceased-donor EDC recipients were frequently the result of patient comorbidities, whereas LDLT and RA deaths resulted from graft failure (P < 0.01). EDC increased patient access to LTX by 77% and reduced pre-LTX mortality by over 50% compared with regional data (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Systematic EDC utilization maximizes donor use, increases access to LTX, and significantly reduces wait-list mortality by providing satisfactory outcomes to select recipients. PMID:16192816

Renz, John F.; Kin, Cindy; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Jan, Dominique; Varadarajan, Rhaghu; Goldstein, Michael; Brown, Robert; Emond, Jean C.



ATP and phosphocreatine utilization in single human muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output at elevated muscle temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the effect of muscle temperature (Tm) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine utilization in single muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output in humans. Six male participants performed a 6-s maximal sprint on a friction-braked cycle ergometer under both normal (Tm = 34.3°C, s = 0.6) and elevated (Tm = 37.3°C, s = 0.2) muscle temperature conditions. During the elevated condition,

Stuart R. Gray; Karin Söderlund; Richard A. Ferguson



Climate change and the irreversibility effect: combining expected utility and MaxiMin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes decisions on emissions of a stock pollutant under uncertainty in a two period model. Decisions are based on a weighted average of expected utility (EU) and the MaxiMin criterion. I first show that more weight on the worst case (less weight on EU) may lead to increased first period emissions. The effect of learning possibilities on emissions

Andreas Lange; Climate Change




E-print Network

surface contract, the Raw EMG Signal i~i~~i;~j;~~~i-~" '>. ·1I·'--·1i"--'1i'---Y--·"l!~11RESOLVING EMG PULSE SUPERPOSITIONS VIA UTILITY MAXIMIZATION S. Hamid Nawab', Robert Wotiz-channel Electromyographic (EMG) signals into their uni-source pulse train (UPT) components is to resolve pulse

De Luca, Carlo J.


Putting Teens at the Center: Maximizing Public Utility of Urban Space through Youth Involvement in Planning and Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Including teens' needs in the planning and maintenance of urban space suggests new methods of layering utility and maximizing benefit to teens and community. Discusses the Berkeley Youth Alternatives (BYA) Youth Employment Landscape Program and BYA Community Garden Patch. Program descriptions and evaluation provide future direction. (LZ)

Lawson, Laura; McNally, Marcia



The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization.  


Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize. PMID:15157975

Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C



People believe each other to be selfish hedonic maximizers.  


Current computational models of theory of mind typically assume that humans believe each other to selfishly maximize utility, for a conception of utility that makes it indistinguishable from personal gains. We argue that this conception is at odds with established facts about human altruism, as well as the altruism that humans expect from each other. We report two experiments showing that people expect other agents to selfishly maximize their pleasure, even when these other agents behave altruistically. Accordingly, defining utility as pleasure permits us to reconcile the assumption that humans expect each other to selfishly maximize utility with the fact that humans expect each other to behave altruistically. PMID:24519484

De Vito, Stefania; Bonnefon, Jean-François



Developments in Non-expected Utility Theory: The Hunt for a Descriptive Theory of Choice under Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent developments in the economic theory of individual decision making under risk. Since the 1950s it has been known that individual choices violate the standard model of expected utility in predictable ways. Considerable research effort has now been devoted to the project of developing a superior descriptive model. Following an overview of non-expected utility theories which distinguishes

Chris Starmer



A breakthrough in utilization maximization via real-time tool performance feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

In semi-conductor manufacturing, it is a well-known fact that capital equipment depreciation is the largest Fab cost Pareto item. Therefore, it is critical to keep these expensive machines (or tools) highly utilized. Nevertheless, a level of idleness of 10% and even 20% on machines, in many High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) facilities, is still not uncommon. There are two approaches to

Tomer Segal; Adar A. Kalir



New method for tuning hyperparameter for the total variation norm in the maximum a posteriori ordered subsets expectation maximization reconstruction in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the tradeoff between noise and bias, and to improve uniformity of the reconstructed myocardium while preserving spatial resolution in parallel-beam collimator SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) we investigated the most advantageous approach to provide reliable estimate of the optimal value of hyperparameter for the Total Variation (TV) norm in the iterative Bayesian Maximum A Posteriori Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (MAP-OSEM) one step late tomographic reconstruction with Gibbs prior. Our aim was to find the optimal value of hyperparameter corresponding to the lowest bias at the lowest noise while maximizing uniformity and spatial resolution for the reconstructed myocardium in SPECT MPI. We found that the L-curve method that is by definition a global technique provides good guidance for selection of the optimal value of the hyperparameter. However, for a heterogeneous object such as human thorax the fine-tuning of the hyperparameter's value can be only accomplished by means of a local method such as the proposed bias-noise distance (BND) curve. We established that our BND-curve method provides accurate optimized hyperparameter's value estimation as long as the region of interest volume for which it is defined is sufficiently large and is located sufficiently close to the myocardium.

Yang, Zhaoxia; Krol, Andrzej; Xu, Yuesheng; Feiglin, David H.



The expectation-maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common task in signal processing is the estimation of the parameters of a probability distribution function. Perhaps the most frequently encountered estimation problem is the estimation of the mean of a signal in noise. In many parameter estimation problems the situation is more complicated because direct access to the data necessary to estimate the parameters is impossible, or some

T. K. Moon



Maximizing the clinical utility of antim?llerian hormone testing in women's health  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To provide an update on the latest clinical applications of serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) testing with practical approaches to mitigate the impact of significant variability in AMH results. Recent findings Recent studies continue to demonstrate that AMH is the best single serum test for ovarian response management with, at most, a weak-to-moderate age-independent association with live-birth rate and time to conception. Data confirm serum AMH levels improve menopause prediction, monitoring of ovarian damage, and identification of women at risk for several ovary-related disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome and premature or primary ovarian insufficiency. However, it is now recognized that serum AMH results can have dramatic variability due to common, biologic fluctuations within some individuals, use of hormonal contraceptives or other medications, certain surgical procedures, specimen treatment, assay changes, and laboratory calibration differences. Practical guidelines are provided to minimize the impact of variability in AMH results and maximize the accuracy of clinical decision-making. Summary AMH is an ovarian biomarker of central importance which improves the clinical management of women's health. However, with the simultaneous rapid expansion of AMH clinical applications and recognition of variability in AMH results, consensus regarding the clinical cutpoints is increasingly difficult. Therefore, a careful approach to AMH measurement and interpretation in clinical care is essential. PMID:24978853

Leader, Benjamin; Baker, Valerie L.



Modified Dempster-Shafer approach using an expected utility interval decision rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination operation of the conventional Dempster- Shafer algorithm has a tendency to increase exponentially the number of propositions involved in bodies of evidence by creating new ones. The aim of this paper is to explore a 'modified Dempster-Shafer' approach of fusing identity declarations emanating form different sources which include a number of radars, IFF and ESM systems in order to limit the explosion of the number of propositions. We use a non-ad hoc decision rule based on the expected utility interval to select the most probable object in a comprehensive Platform Data Base containing all the possible identity values that a potential target may take. We study the effect of the redistribution of the confidence levels of the eliminated propositions which otherwise overload the real-time data fusion system; these eliminated confidence levels can in particular be assigned to ignorance, or uniformly added to the remaining propositions and to ignorance. A scenario has been selected to demonstrate the performance of our modified Dempster-Shafer method of evidential reasoning.

Cheaito, Ali; Lecours, Michael; Bosse, Eloi



Non-linear spatio-temporal filtering of dynamic PET data using a 4-dimensional Gaussian filter and expectation-maximization deconvolution  

PubMed Central

We introduce a method for denoising dynamic PET data, spatio-temporal expectation-maximization (STEM) filtering, that combines 4-dimensional Gaussian filtering with EM deconvolution. The initial Gaussian filter suppresses noise at a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies and EM deconvolution quickly restores the frequencies most important to the signal. We aim to demonstrate that STEM filtering can improve variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images without introducing significant bias. We evaluate STEM filtering with a dynamic phantom study, and with simulated and human dynamic PET studies of a tracer with reversible binding behaviour, [C-11]raclopride, and a tracer with irreversible binding behaviour, [F-18]FDOPA. STEM filtering is compared to a number of established 3 and 4-dimensional denoising methods. STEM filtering provides substantial improvements in variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images generated with a number of kinetic analysis techniques while introducing little bias. STEM filtering does bias early frames, but this does not affect quantitative parameter estimates. STEM filtering is shown to be superior to the other simple denoising methods studied. STEM filtering is a simple and effective denoising method that could be valuable for a wide range of dynamic PET applications. PMID:23370699

Holden, J E



Expectation-maximization of the potential of mean force and diffusion coefficient in Langevin dynamics from single molecule FRET data photon by photon.  


The dynamics of a protein along a well-defined coordinate can be formally projected onto the form of an overdamped Lagevin equation. Here, we present a comprehensive statistical-learning framework for simultaneously quantifying the deterministic force (the potential of mean force, PMF) and the stochastic force (characterized by the diffusion coefficient, D) from single-molecule Förster-type resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments. The likelihood functional of the Langevin parameters, PMF and D, is expressed by a path integral of the latent smFRET distance that follows Langevin dynamics and realized by the donor and the acceptor photon emissions. The solution is made possible by an eigen decomposition of the time-symmetrized form of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation coupled with photon statistics. To extract the Langevin parameters from photon arrival time data, we advance the expectation-maximization algorithm in statistical learning, originally developed for and mostly used in discrete-state systems, to a general form in the continuous space that allows for a variational calculus on the continuous PMF function. We also introduce the regularization of the solution space in this Bayesian inference based on a maximum trajectory-entropy principle. We use a highly nontrivial example with realistically simulated smFRET data to illustrate the application of this new method. PMID:23937300

Haas, Kevin R; Yang, Haw; Chu, Jhih-Wei



Illustrating Caffeine's Pharmacological and Expectancy Effects Utilizing a Balanced Placebo Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypothesizes that pharmacological and expectancy effects may be two principles that govern caffeine consumption in the same way they affect other drug use. Tests this theory through a balanced placebo design on 100 male undergraduate students. Expectancy set and caffeine content appeared equally powerful, and worked additionally, to affect…

Lotshaw, Sandra C.; And Others



Utilizing expectations to measure economic depreciation and capital gains of farm machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rather than relying on ex post market data, this study derives theoretically more appropriate measures of economic depreciation and capital gains based on the expectations of farmers. In this context, values of depreciable assets are highly sensitive to the pattern of expected future earnings and unexpected windfall gains. Experimental survey data obtained from a panel of Illinois cash grain farmers

Cole R. Gustafson; Peter J. Barry; Steven T. Sonka



Aspects concerning entropy and utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expected utility maximization problem is one of the most useful tools in mathematical finance, decision analysis and economics.\\u000a Motivated by statistical model selection, via the principle of expected utility maximization, Friedman and Sandow (J Mach\\u000a Learn Res 4:257–291, 2003a) considered the model performance question from the point of view of an investor who evaluates\\u000a models based on the performance of

A. R. Hoseinzadeh; G. R. Mohtashami Borzadaran; G. H. Yari



Maximizing the utilization and impact of medical educational software by designing for local area network (LAN) implementation.  

PubMed Central

The design, development and implementation of medical education software often occurs without sufficient consideration of the potential benefits that can be realized by making the software network aware. These benefits can be considerable and can greatly enhance the utilization and potential impact of the software. This article details how multiple aspects of the IMMEX problem solving project have benefited from taking maximum advantage of LAN resources. PMID:8130583

Stevens, R.; Reber, E.



The Expectation Maximization Algorithm A short tutorial  

E-print Network

be arrived at, namely, f is convex iff [f(y) - f(z)] (1 - ) [f(z) - f(x)] (1) By the mean value theorem, s, x s z s.t. f(z) - f(x) = f (s)(z - x) (2) Similarly, applying the mean value theorem to f(y) - f convex). Theorem 1 If f(x) is twice differentiable on [a, b] and f (x) 0 on [a, b] then f(x) is convex

Duckett, Tom


Resource utilization by children with developmental disabilities in Kenya: discrepancy analysis of parents’ expectation-to-importance appraisals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe parental perceptions of eight physical and human resources available to meet the needs of children with developmental disabilities in Kenya. Specifically, the study assessed the discrepancy between the importance parents attached to specified resources and the expected use of those resources by their children with developmental disabilities. Discrepancy analysis was conducted on

N. Kagendo Mutua; Janice Williams Miller; Mwarumba Mwavita



What do foraging hummingbirds maximize?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hainsworth and Wolf (1976) reported that under certain conditions hummingbirds made food choices which did not maximize their net rate of energy intake while foraging. They concluded that the birds were not foraging optimally. We show here that their birds probably maximized a different utility function, the net energy per unit volume consumed (NEVC), which appears to be an optimal

Robert D. Montgomerie; John Mc A. Eadie; Lawrence D. Harder



An agent-based macroeconomic model with interacting firms, socio-economic opinion formation and optimistic/pessimistic sales expectations *  

E-print Network

and optimistic/pessimistic sales expectations * Frank Westerhoff ** University of Bamberg, Department sales expectations. A firm may either optimistically expect an increase in its sales or pessimistically and (exclusively) utility maximizing agent. Fortunately, modern computers are able to keep track of the decisions

Tesfatsion, Leigh


Prognostic utility of predischarge dipyridamole-thallium imaging compared to predischarge submaximal exercise electrocardiography and maximal exercise thallium imaging after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

The prognostic value of predischarge dipyridamole-thallium scanning after uncomplicated myocardial infarction was determined by comparison with submaximal exercise electrocardiography and 6-week maximal exercise thallium imaging and by correlation with clinical events. Two endpoints were defined: cardiac events and severe ischemic potential. Of the 40 patients studied, 8 had cardiac events within 6 months (1 died, 3 had myocardial infarction and 4 had unstable angina requiring hospitalization). The finding of any redistribution on dipyridamole-thallium scanning was common (77%) in these patients and had poor specificity (29%). Redistribution outside of the infarct zone, however, had equivalent sensitivity (63%) and better specificity (75%) for events (p less than 0.05). Both predischarge dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise electrocardiography identified 5 of the 8 events (p = 0.04 and 0.07, respectively). The negative predictive accuracy for events for both dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise electrocardiography was 88%. In addition to the 8 patients with events, 16 other patients had severe ischemic potential (6 had coronary bypass surgery, 1 had inoperable 3-vessel disease and 9 had markedly abnormal 6-week maximal exercise tests). Predischarge dipyridamole-thallium and submaximal exercise testing also identified 8 and 7 of these 16 patients with severe ischemic potential, respectively. Six of the 8 cardiac events occurred before 6-week follow-up. A maximal exercise thallium test at 6 weeks identified 1 of the 2 additional events within 6 months correctly. Thallium redistribution after dipyridamole in coronary territories outside the infarct zone is a sensitive and specific predictor of subsequent cardiac events and identifies patients with severe ischemic potential.

Gimple, L.W.; Hutter, A.M. Jr.; Guiney, T.E.; Boucher, C.A. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))



On Asymptotic Power Utility-Based Pricing and Hedging  

E-print Network

and Hedging Utility-based pricing and hedging Use increasing utility function, maximize expected utility. But: computed under marginal pricing measure, and relative to numeraire given by the optimal wealth (VT ()) = p Hence: mean-variance hedging under Minimal Entropy Martingale Measure, w.r.

Grübel, Rudolf


Epistemic Utility Theory and the Aim of Belief It's widely accepted that rational belief aims at truth.1 Objectively correct be-  

E-print Network

believers pursue the aim of truth? Epistemic utility theorists have argued that the framework of decision choose between old and new versions of rules like Dominance and expected utility maximization. Call

Fitelson, Branden


Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

Siegrist, Kyle




SciTech Connect

This is the ninth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. The pilot-scale testing phase of the project has been completed. Calculations are essentially completed for implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The REI Configurable Fireside Simulator (CFS) has proven to be an essential component to provide input for these calculations. Niksa Energy Associates expects to deliver their final report in February 2003. Work has continued on the project final report.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush



Maximally Natural Supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider 4D weak scale theories arising from 5D supersymmetric (SUSY) theories with maximal Scherk-Schwarz breaking at a Kaluza-Klein scale of several TeV. Many of the problems of conventional SUSY are avoided. Apart from 3rd family sfermions the SUSY spectrum is heavy, with only ˜50% tuning at a gluino mass of ˜2 TeV and a stop mass of ˜650 GeV. A single Higgs doublet acquires a vacuum expectation value, so the physical Higgs boson is automatically standard-model-like. A new U(1)' interaction raises mh to 126 GeV. For minimal tuning the associated Z', as well as the 3rd family sfermions, must be accessible to LHC13. A gravitational wave signal consistent with hints from BICEP2 is possible if inflation occurs when the extra dimensions are small.

Dimopoulos, Savas; Howe, Kiel; March-Russell, John



Maximally natural supersymmetry.  


We consider 4D weak scale theories arising from 5D supersymmetric (SUSY) theories with maximal Scherk-Schwarz breaking at a Kaluza-Klein scale of several TeV. Many of the problems of conventional SUSY are avoided. Apart from 3rd family sfermions the SUSY spectrum is heavy, with only ?50% tuning at a gluino mass of ?2??TeV and a stop mass of ?650??GeV. A single Higgs doublet acquires a vacuum expectation value, so the physical Higgs boson is automatically standard-model-like. A new U(1)^{'} interaction raises m_{h} to 126 GeV. For minimal tuning the associated Z^{'}, as well as the 3rd family sfermions, must be accessible to LHC13. A gravitational wave signal consistent with hints from BICEP2 is possible if inflation occurs when the extra dimensions are small. PMID:25259967

Dimopoulos, Savas; Howe, Kiel; March-Russell, John




SciTech Connect

In full-scale boilers, the effect of biomass cofiring on NO{sub x} and unburned carbon (UBC) emissions has been found to be site-specific. Few sets of field data are comparable and no consistent database of information exists upon which cofiring fuel choice or injection system design can be based to assure that NOX emissions will be minimized and UBC be reduced. This report presents the results of a comprehensive project that generated an extensive set of pilot-scale test data that were used to validate a new predictive model for the cofiring of biomass and coal. All testing was performed at the 3.6 MMBtu/hr (1.75 MW{sub t}) Southern Company Services/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility where a variety of burner configurations, coals, biomasses, and biomass injection schemes were utilized to generate a database of consistent, scalable, experimental results (422 separate test conditions). This database was then used to validate a new model for predicting NO{sub x} and UBC emissions from the cofiring of biomass and coal. This model is based on an Advanced Post-Processing (APP) technique that generates an equivalent network of idealized reactor elements from a conventional CFD simulation. The APP reactor network is a computational environment that allows for the incorporation of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and provides a new tool to quantify NOx and UBC emissions for any cofired combination of coal and biomass.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa



Maximally Expressive Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling systems organize tasks into a timeline or schedule. Tasks are logically grouped into containers called models. Models are a collection of related tasks, along with their dependencies and requirements, that when met will produce the desired result. One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiments for the International Space Station. In these experiments, the equipment used is among the most complex hardware ever developed; the information sought is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor; and the procedures are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling International Space Station experiment operations calls for a maximally expressive modeling schema.

Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Richardson, Lea



Rational Inattention and Choice Under Risk: Explaining Violations of Expected Utility Through a Shannon Entropy Formulation of the Costs of Rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a model of stochastic choice in which the error term is derived from a maximizing framework in which it is costly\\u000a for agents to make decisions optimally. We argue that the model has testable implications, and is closely related to other\\u000a models used in the literature on choice under risk. We test this model over experimental data, replicate

Maxim L. Pinkovskiy



A Method for Estimating the Financial Impact of Cyber Information Security Breaches Utilizing the Common Vulnerability Scoring System and Annual Loss Expectancy  

E-print Network

calculate the likelihood of a successful cyber security attack and the resulting financial impacts. The method incorporates annual loss expectancy and cost-benefit, which are tools familiar to most mid-level managers responsible for budget creation....

Lindsey, Michael B.



Survey Expectations  

E-print Network

that are quadratic in forecast errors and does not hold in more general settings where the loss function is non-quadratic or asymmetric. Properties of optimal forecasts under general loss functions are discussed in Patton & Timmermann (2004) where new testable... Expectations formation is an integral part of the decision making process by households, firms, as well as the private and public institutions. At the theoretical level the rational expectations hypothesis as advanced by Muth (1961) has gained general...

Pesaran, M Hashem; Weale, Martin




Microsoft Academic Search

A major task in the decomposition of multi-channel Electromyographic (EMG) signals into their uni-source pulse train (UPT) components is to resolve pulse superpositions. Even optimal segmental analysis that fits linear combinations of temporally aligned UPT pulses to short data segments gives rise to errors because of pulse evolution and the presence of non-stationary noise. To address such shortcomings, we use

S. Hamid Nawab; Robert Wotiz; Carlo J De Luca


Entrepreneurship as a utility maximizing response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on entrepreneurship has investigated what entrepreneurs do, what happens when they act as entrepreneurs, and why they act as entrepreneurs. This paper contributes to the latter investigation, and specifically asks why some people choose to be entrepreneurs, while others choose to be employees. Responding to prior literature recognizing the lack of a coherent theory of entrepreneurship and calling for

Evan J. Douglas; Dean A. Shepherd



Rational Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rational Expectations was set up by Ralph Lazar, former strategist and economist for Goldman Sachs, Barings & Credit Suisse First Boston, as a "resource for anyone interested in [emerging markets] economics -- students, teachers, lecturers, journalists, professionals, or just the curious." A fully comprehensive guide to the people, places, and events of the economics world, Rational Expectations includes an searchable database of over 1,000 organizations and institutions in OECD countries and emerging markets, a conference calendar, and job listings. The site also links to academic, professional, and government organizations, as well as a huge suggested publication list and macroeconomic and financial market data. Rational Expectations will be a welcome resource for anyone interested in emerging markets economics.

Lazar, Ralph.


Improving Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Using Expectation Maximization to Learn Student  

E-print Network

only on pre-test problems, a learned network was able to evaluate a students mastery of twelve geometry problem mainly because knowledge is measured in terms of skill mastery, which are unobservable. For example, the cognitive mastery approach performs Bayesian estimations of mastery given some observed

Mahadevan, Sridhar


Branch and Bound Algorithms for Maximizing Expected Improvement Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deterministic computer simulations are often used as a replacement for complex physical experiments. Although less expensive than physical experimentation, computer codes can still be time-consuming to run. An effective strategy for exploring the response surface of the deterministic simulator is the use of an approximation to the computer code, such as a Gaussian process (GP) model, coupled with a sequential

Mark Franey; Pritam Ranjan; Hugh Chipman



Branch and bound algorithms for maximizing expected improvement functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deterministic computer simulations are often used as replacement for complex physical experiments. Although less expensive than physical experimentation, computer codes can still be time-consuming to run. An effective strategy for exploring the response surface of the deterministic simulator is the use of an approximation to the computer code, such as a Gaussian process (GP) model, coupled with a sequential sampling

Mark Franey; Pritam Ranjan; Hugh Chipman



String-Averaging Expectation-Maximization for Maximum Likelihood ...  

E-print Network

String-Averaging algorithmic regime, the index set of all underlying ... both allowing to process in each iteration a “block” (i.e., a subset) of the m underlying ...... Convergence speed of several SAEM variations under different noise condition.



Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to…

Ridley, Cheryl



Microsoft Academic Search

at Wien The paper studies the problem of maximizing the expected utility of terminal wealth in the framework of a general incomplete semimartingale model of a financial market. We show that the necessary and sufficient condition on a utility function for the validity of several key assertions of the theory to hold true is the requirement that the asymptotic elasticity

D. Kramkov; W. Schachermayer



Maximally Entangled States  

E-print Network

Every Maximally Entangled State (MES) of two d-dimensional particles is shown to be a product state of suitably chosen collective coordinates. The state may be viewed as de?fining a "point" in a "phase space" like d^2 array representing d^2 orthonormal Maximally Entangled States basis for the Hilbert space. A ?finite geometry view of MES is presented and its relation with the afore mentioned "phase space" is outlined: "straight lines" in the space depict product of single particle mutually unbiased basis (MUB) states, inverting thereby Schmidt's diagonalization scheme in giving a product single particle states as a d-terms sum of maximally entangled states. To assure self su?fficiency the essential mathematical results are summarized in the appendices.

M. Revzen



Do Juries Meet Our Expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony,

Hal R. Arkes; Barbara A. Mellers



Maximal Outboxes of Quadrilaterals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An outbox of a quadrilateral is a rectangle such that each vertex of the given quadrilateral lies on one side of the rectangle and different vertices lie on different sides. We first investigate those quadrilaterals whose every outbox is a square. Next, we consider the maximal outboxes of rectangles and those quadrilaterals with perpendicular…

Zhao, Dongsheng



Infrared Maximally Abelian Gauge  

SciTech Connect

The confinement scenario in Maximally Abelian gauge (MAG) is based on the concepts of Abelian dominance and of dual superconductivity. Recently, several groups pointed out the possible existence in MAG of ghost and gluon condensates with mass dimension 2, which in turn should influence the infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators. We present preliminary results for the first lattice numerical study of the ghost propagator and of ghost condensation for pure SU(2) theory in the MAG.

Mendes, Tereza; Cucchieri, Attilio; Mihara, Antonio [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)



Quantum-Inspired Maximizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

Zak, Michail



Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.  


This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human. PMID:21142282

Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U



Colors of maximal saturation.  


The spectrum locus on the CIE Chromaticity Diagram represents monochromatic stimuli which have been exposed to a dark adapted fovea. Some of these colors can be made to appear more saturated by chromatic adaptation. The colors both inside the spectrum locus and the supersaturated colors outside are bounded by a four-sided boundary line which constitutes the locus of colors of maximal saturation. An attempt has been made to show how this quadrilateral is related to the fundamental colors and to a zone theory of color vision. PMID:8539020

Fry, G A



Lottery Dependent Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a model for decision making under risk that is capable of predicting empirically observed preference patterns that have been found to be incompatible with the expected utility model. The model departs from the classical expected utility model by allowing utilities to depend on the lottery. The dependence of utilities on the lottery being evaluated is

Joao L. Becker; Rakesh K. Sarin



Maximal acyclic agreement forests.  


Abstract Finding the hybridization number of a pair or set of trees, [Formula: see text], is a well-studied problem in phylogenetics and is equivalent to finding a maximum acyclic agreement forest (MAAF) for [Formula: see text]. This article defines a new type of acyclic agreement forest called a maximal acyclic agreement forest (mAAF). The property for which mAAFs are "simplest" is more general and could be considered more biologically relevant than the corresponding property for MAAFs, and the set of MAAFs for any [Formula: see text] is a subset of the set of mAAFs for [Formula: see text]. This article also presents two new algorithms; one finds a mAAF for any [Formula: see text] in polynomial time and the other is an exhaustive search that finds all mAAFs for some [Formula: see text], which is also a new approach to finding the hybridization number when applied to a pair of trees. The exhaustive search algorithm is applied to a real world data set, and the findings are compared to previous results. PMID:25101528

Voorkamp, Josh



Measuring Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has suggested the utility of studying individual differences in the regulation of negative mood states. Generalized response expectancies for negative mood regulation were defined as expectancies that some overt behavior or cognition would alleviate negative mood states as they occur across situations. The Generalized Expectancy for…

Catanzaro, Salvatore J.; Mearns, Jack


Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics: expectations and practical benefits.  


Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pharmacogenomics is the study of genetic determinants of interindividual variation in drug response and aims to facilitate personalized medicine, through genotype-informed drug and dose selection, to maximize drug efficacy and/or minimize adverse drug reactions. Despite high expectations, no cardiovascular pharmacogenomic association is currently in widespread clinical practice; evidential, logistical, financial, and knowledge implementation barriers exist. Nevertheless, VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 variants have been associated with warfarin dose requirements, and CYP2C19 variants have been associated with perturbed antiplatelet response to clopidogrel. However, at present, controversy exists over the clinical utility of these genetic associations. There is an increased risk of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity in SLCO1B1*5 carriers, ADRB1 and ADRA2C polymorphisms are associated with differential response to bucindolol, and rare congenital arrhythmia gene variants have been identified in drug-induced torsade de pointes. Practical benefits are still anticipated, but much work remains. PMID:24322971

Turner, R M; Pirmohamed, M



No Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect in Maximal Mixing  

E-print Network

We investigate the possible influence of the MSW effect on the expectations for the solar neutrino experiments in the maximal mixing scenario suggested by the atmospheric neutrino data. A direct numerical calculation of matter induced effects in the Sun shows that the naive vacuum predictions are left completely undisturbed in the particular case of maximal mixing, so that the MSW effect turns out to be unobservable. We give a qualitative explanation of this result.

P. F. Harrison; D. H. Perkins; W. G. Scott



In situ growth of NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays on Ni foam for supercapacitors: Maximizing utilization efficiency at high mass loading to achieve ultrahigh areal pseudocapacitance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-standing NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays have been in situ grown on Ni foam by the anion-exchange reaction and directly used as the electrode for supercapacitors. The NiCo2S4 nanotube in the arrays effectively reduces the inactive material and increases the electroactive surface area because of the ultrathin wall, which is quite competent to achieve high utilization efficiency at high electroactive materials mass loading. The NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays hybrid electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 14.39 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 with excellent rate performance (67.7% retention for current increases 30 times) and cycling stability (92% retention after 5000 cycles) at a high mass loading of 6 mg cm-2. High areal capacitance (4.68 F cm-2 at 10 mA cm-2), high energy density (31.5 Wh kg-1 at 156.6 W kg-1) and high power density (2348.5 W kg-1 at 16.6 Wh kg-1) can be achieved by assembling asymmetric supercapacitor with reduced graphene oxide at a total active material mass loading as high as 49.5 mg. This work demonstrates that NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays structure is a superior electroactive material for high-performance supercapacitors even at a mass loading of potential application-specific scale.

Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Xia, Dandan; Zhao, Yuandong; Guo, Danqing; Qi, Tong; Wan, Houzhao



Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.

Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.




EPA Science Inventory

The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...


Shadow price in the power utility case  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of maximizing expected power util- ity from consumption over an infinite horizon in the Black-Scholes model with proportional transaction costs, as studied in the paper Shreve and Soner (1994). Similarly to Kallsen and Muhle-Karbe (2010), we derive a shadow price, that is, a frictionless price process with values in the bid-ask spread which leads to the same optimal policy. In doing so we explore and exploit the strong relationship between the shadow price and the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman-equation.

Herczegh, Attila



Random -Expectations Marcel Nutz  

E-print Network

Random -Expectations Marcel Nutz First version: September 11, 2010. This version: June 28, 2012. Abstract We construct a time-consistent sublinear expectation in the setting of volatility uncertainty. This mapping extends Peng's -expectation by allowing the range of the volatility uncertainty to be stochastic

Nutz, Marcel


First Impressions and Expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that (a) impressions of a stranger as bad and potent would result in greater expectation of harm and less expectation of benefits than good and impotent impressions, and (b) disconfirmation of these expectations would result in changes in level of expressed attractiveness. Forty female introductory psychology students participated in an initial investigation, and 20 male introductory psychology

Robert C. Brown Jr; R. Bob Smith III; James T. Tedeschi



Complex ICA by Negentropy Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—In this paper, we use complex analytic functions to achieveindependentcomponentanalysis(ICA)bymaximizationof non-Gaussianity and introduce the complex maximization of non- Gaussianity (CMN) algorithm. We derive both a gradient?descent andaquasi-Newtonalgorithmthatusethefullsecond-orderstatis- tics providing superior performance with circular and noncircular sources as compared to existing methods. We show the connection among ICA methods through maximization of non-Gaussianity, mutual information, and maximum likelihood (ML) for the

Michael Novey; Tülay Adali



Constrained expectation-maximization (EM), dynamic analysis, linear quadratic tracking, and nonlinear constrained expectation-maximation (EM) for the analysis of genetic regulatory networks and signal transduction networks  

E-print Network

of matrix A of the state-space model for the TGF pathway for the original SSc broblasts and in in nite time-horizon LQT. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 104 xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 This is a diagram of eight... Root locus plots of RAF1 to MKNK2 SISO system : : : : : : : : : : 78 17 Scheme of TGF pathway : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 98 18 Various trajectories of TGF pathway in nite time-horizon LQT : : 100 19 Inputs for TFG pathway in nite...

Xiong, Hao



Maximizing TDRS Command Load Lifetime  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GNC software onboard ISS utilizes TORS command loads, and a simplistic model of TORS orbital motion to generate onboard TORS state vectors. Each TORS command load contains five "invariant" orbital elements which serve as inputs to the onboard propagation algorithm. These elements include semi-major axis, inclination, time of last ascending node crossing, right ascension of ascending node, and mean motion. Running parallel to the onboard software is the TORS Command Builder Tool application, located in the JSC Mission Control Center. The TORS Command Builder Tool is responsible for building the TORS command loads using a ground TORS state vector, mirroring the onboard propagation algorithm, and assessing the fidelity of current TORS command loads onboard ISS. The tool works by extracting a ground state vector at a given time from a current TORS ephemeris, and then calculating the corresponding "onboard" TORS state vector at the same time using the current onboard TORS command load. The tool then performs a comparison between these two vectors and displays the relative differences in the command builder tool GUI. If the RSS position difference between these two vectors exceeds the tolerable lim its, a new command load is built using the ground state vector and uplinked to ISS. A command load's lifetime is therefore defined as the time from when a command load is built to the time the RSS position difference exceeds the tolerable limit. From the outset of TORS command load operations (STS-98), command load lifetime was limited to approximately one week due to the simplicity of both the onboard propagation algorithm, and the algorithm used by the command builder tool to generate the invariant orbital elements. It was soon desired to extend command load lifetime in order to minimize potential risk due to frequent ISS commanding. Initial studies indicated that command load lifetime was most sensitive to changes in mean motion. Finding a suitable value for mean motion was therefore the key to achieving this goal. This goal was eventually realized through development of an Excel spreadsheet tool called EMMIE (Excel Mean Motion Interactive Estimation). EMMIE utilizes ground ephemeris nodal data to perform a least-squares fit to inferred mean anomaly as a function of time, thus generating an initial estimate for mean motion. This mean motion in turn drives a plot of estimated downtrack position difference versus time. The user can then manually iterate the mean motion, and determine an optimal value that will maximize command load lifetime. Once this optimal value is determined, the mean motion initially calculated by the command builder tool is overwritten with the new optimal value, and the command load is built for uplink to ISS. EMMIE also provides the capability for command load lifetime to be tracked through multiple TORS ephemeris updates. Using EMMIE, TORS command load lifetimes of approximately 30 days have been achieved.

Brown, Aaron J.



Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda




E-print Network

by the National Science Foundation under grant NSF-DMS-97-32810. by reduction to a family of related pure optimal stopping problems. Sufficient conditions for the existence manager who tries to invest/consume as skillfully as possible before "retiring" from the stock market

Wang, Hui


Marginal-utility-cost concept helps maximize plant efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation conditions often subject industrial powerplants to off-design cyclic and permanent changes, making continual high-efficiency operation a challenge to even the most experienced engineer-especially when he considers the complex interconnections among boiler, turbines and headers at different pressures. In such cases, application of the marginal-cost concept can help in maintaining optimum performance level. It is also useful in evaluating retrofit

S. M. Ranade; W. Robert



Maximizing the Utilization of Fish Catch for Human Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale fish trawlers operating in the Southeast Asian region normally catch substantial amounts of fishes that are sorted onboard the vessels into high economic-value species and other species. The latter comprise a significant portion of small demersal fishes also known as \\

Goh Kian Heng; Tan-Low Lai Kim


On the existence of shadow price processes in utility maximization.  

E-print Network

??Im Bereich der Nutzenmaximierung mit Transaktionskosten bezeichnet ein Schattenpreis einen Prozess, der Werte innerhalb des Bid-Ask Spreads annimmt und zum selben maximalen Erwartungsnutzen wie der… (more)

Seitinger, Emanuel



A collision detection approach for maximizing the material utilization  

E-print Network

Sep 16, 2014 ... Wasting as few material as possible is a common challenge in industrial pro- duction. .... (MPCC). It has the shape of a standard nonlinear problem, yet, it needs some ...... runtime is still smaller on the four core computer.



Unified Utility Maximization Framework for Resource Selection Language Technology Inst.  

E-print Network

centralized database for the purpose of indexing. Distributed information retrieval, also known as federated search [1,4,7,11,14,22] is different from ad-hoc information retrieval as it addresses the cases when

Callan, Jamie


A Rational Expectations Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a simple classroom simulation of the Lucas supply curve mechanism with rational expectations. Concludes that the exercise has proved very useful as an introduction to the concepts of rational and adaptive expectations, the Lucas supply curve, the natural rate hypothesis, and random supply shocks. (DB)

Peterson, Norris A.



Outside the Expected.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In examining the findings of "Pygmalion in the Classroom," an experimental study of the positive effects of favorable teacher expectations on the intellectual development of disadvantaged elementary school students, this review speculates about why the experimental students, whom the teachers expected to improve, and the control students, who were…

Dienstfrey, Harris



Orthogonal Procrustes Rotation Maximizing Congruence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures for assessing the invariance of factors across data sets often use the least squares criterion, which appears to be too restrictive. Tucker's coefficient of congruence is proposed as an alternative. A method that maximizes the sum of the coefficients of congruence between two matrices of loadings is presented. (Author/JKS)

Brokken, Frank B.



GK Batchelor Maximal mixing efficiency  

E-print Network

GK Batchelor Laboratory Maximal mixing efficiency How much can be explained by Rayleigh-Taylor instability? CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY OF Stuart Dalziel 0 d - = #12;GK Batchelor Laboratory credits · Andrew · David Youngs · Jeff Jacobs · Colm Caulfield · Summer School participants #12;GK Batchelor Laboratory

Dalziel, Stuart


GK Batchelor Maximal mixing efficiency  

E-print Network

GK Batchelor Laboratory Maximal mixing efficiency How much can be explained by Rayleigh-Taylor instability? CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY OF Stuart Dalziel #12;GK Batchelor Laboratory credits · Andrew Lawrie · Colm Caulfield · Summer School participants #12;GK Batchelor Laboratory KE KE D KE D time energetics

Dalziel, Stuart


GK Batchelor Maximal mixing efficiency  

E-print Network

GK Batchelor Laboratory Maximal mixing efficiency How much can be explained by Rayleigh-Taylor instability? CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY OF Stuart Dalziel #12;GK Batchelor Laboratory credits · Andrew Lawrie · Colm Caulfield · Summer School participants #12;GK Batchelor Laboratory Rayleigh-Taylor, the movie #12

Dalziel, Stuart


Information maximization in face processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This perspective paper explores principles of unsupervised learning and how they relate to face recognition. Dependency coding and information maximization appear to be central principles in neural coding early in the visual system. These principles may be relevant to how we think about higher visual processes such as face recognition as well. The paper first reviews examples of dependency learning

Marian Stewart Bartlett



Maximizing Pharmacy's Contribution to Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that the role of colleges in the effort to maximize pharmacy's contribution to society requires an emphasis on research in the pharmaceutical sciences, in the clinical use of drugs, and in the socioeconomic aspects of drug therapy. This will produce more qualified pharmacists and greater credibility for the profession. (JMD)

Marston, Robert Q.



Using Debate to Maximize Learning Potential: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a review of the literature, an educational case study is provided for the benefit of faculty preparing college courses. In particular, we provide a transcribed debate utilized in a General Psychology course as a best practice example of how to craft a debate which maximizes student learning. The work is presented as a model for the…

Firmin, Michael W.; Vaughn, Aaron; Dye, Amanda



Maximizing efficiency of solar-powered systems by load matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar power is an important source of renewable energy for many low-power systems. Matching the power consumption level with the supply level can make a great difference in the efficiency of power utilization. This paper proposes a source-tracking power management strategy that maximizes the panel's total energy output under a given solar profile by load matching. The power efficiency was

Dexin Li; Pai H. Chou



Reserve selection as a maximal covering location problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many alternative approaches have been proposed for setting conservation priorities from a database of species (or communities) by site. We present a model based on the premise that reserve selection or site prioritization can be structured as a classic covering problem commonly used in many location problems. Specifically, we utilize a form of the maximal covering location model to identify

Richard L. Church; David M. Stoms; Frank W. Davis



Expectations across entertainment media  

E-print Network

An audience's satisfaction with an entertainment product is dependent on how well their expectations are fulfilled. This study delves into the implicit contract that is formed between the purveyor of an entertainment ...

Austin, Alexander Chance



Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes  

PubMed Central

When animals have to make a number of decisions during a limited time interval, they face a fundamental problem: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible “conditions.” A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each “condition” being a “state” and the value of decision thresholds being the “actions” taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values. PMID:24904252

Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R.



Second use of transportation batteries: Maximizing the value of batteries for transportation and grid services  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to gain significant market share over the next decade. The economic viability for such vehicles is contingent upon the availability of cost-effective batteries with high power and energy density. For initial commercial success, government subsidies will be highly instrumental in allowing PHEVs to gain a foothold. However, in the long-term, for electric vehicles to be commercially viable, the economics have to be self-sustaining. Towards the end of battery life in the vehicle, the energy capacity left in the battery is not sufficient to provide the designed range for the vehicle. Typically, the automotive manufacturers indicated the need for battery replacement when the remaining energy capacity reaches 70-80%. There is still sufficient power (kW) and energy capacity (kWh) left in the battery to support various grid ancillary services such as balancing, spinning reserve, load following services. As renewable energy penetration increases, the need for such balancing services is expected to increase. This work explores optimality for the replacement of transportation batteries to be subsequently used for grid services. This analysis maximizes the value of an electric vehicle battery to be used as a transportation battery (in its first life) and then as a resource for providing grid services (in its second life). The results are presented across a range of key parameters, such as depth of discharge (DOD), number of batteries used over the life of the vehicle, battery life in vehicle, battery state of health (SOH) at end of life in vehicle and ancillary services rate. The results provide valuable insights for the automotive industry into maximizing the utility and the value of the vehicle batteries in an effort to either reduce the selling price of EVs and PHEVs or maximize the profitability of the emerging electrification of transportation.

Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW



A Data-Based Approach to Social Influence Maximization  

E-print Network

Influence maximization is the problem of finding a set of users in a social network, such that by targeting this set, one maximizes the expected spread of influence in the network. Most of the literature on this topic has focused exclusively on the social graph, overlooking historical data, i.e., traces of past action propagations. In this paper, we study influence maximization from a novel data-based perspective. In particular, we introduce a new model, which we call credit distribution, that directly leverages available propagation traces to learn how influence flows in the network and uses this to estimate expected influence spread. Our approach also learns the different levels of influenceability of users, and it is time-aware in the sense that it takes the temporal nature of influence into account. We show that influence maximization under the credit distribution model is NP-hard and that the function that defines expected spread under our model is submodular. Based on these, we develop an approximation ...

Goyal, Amit; Lakshmanan, Laks V S



Maximal hypersurfaces in asymptotically stationary spacetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the work is to extend the results on the existence of maximal hypersurfaces to encompass some situations considered by other authors. The existence of maximal hypersurface in asymptotically stationary spacetimes is proven. Existence of maximal surface and of foliations by maximal hypersurfaces is proven in two classes of asymptotically flat spacetimes which possess a one parameter group

Piotr T. Chrusciel; Robert M. Wald



Maximize Student Time On Task  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student time on task is the most influential factor in student achievement. To maximize time on task, teachers need to make decisions about the systems they install in their classroom well before any students enter the room. Beginning the school year by explicitly teaching process skills and having classroom operating systems that reinforce process skills are two strategies that lay the foundation for logical thinking throughout the year, which are discussed in this article.

Peters, Erin



Ageing and maximal physical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elite master athletes with long-term devotion to physical training offer an economical means of investigating the effects\\u000a of ageing and habitual exercise on maximal physical performance. Ideally, individuals with optimised living habits throughout\\u000a their lives could serve as a human model of ‘primary’ or ‘inherent’ ageing, where age-related changes are not confounded by\\u000a sedentary life-style and associated chronic diseases. A

Harri Suominen



Trust Maximization in Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Trust is a human-related phenomenon in social networks. Trust research on social networks has gained much attention on its\\u000a usefulness, and on modeling propagations. There is little focus on finding maximum trust in social networks which is particularly\\u000a important when a social network is oriented by certain tasks. In this paper, we propose a trust maximization algorithm based\\u000a on the

Justin Zhan; Xing Fang



A row-action alternative to the EM algorithm for maximizing likelihood in emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum likelihood (ML) approach to estimating the radioactive distribution in the body cross section has become very popular among researchers in emission computed tomography (ECT) since it has been shown to provide very good images compared to those produced with the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is an often-used iterative approach for maximizing the

Jolyon Browne; Alvaro R. De Pierro



Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.



Conditional Expectations and Renormalization  

E-print Network

In optimal prediction methods one estimates the future behavior of underresolved systems by solving reduced systems of equations for expectations conditioned by partial data; renormalization group methods reduce the number of variables in complex systems through integration of unwanted scales. We establish the relation between these methods for systems in thermal equilibrium, and use this relation to find renormalization parameter flows and the coefficients in reduced systems by expanding conditional expectations in series and evaluating the coefficients by Monte-Carlo. We illustrate the construction by finding parameter flows for simple spin systems and then using the renormalized (=reduced) systems to calculate the critical temperature and the magnetization.

Alexandre J. Chorin



Maximizing algebraic connectivity in air transportation networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In air transportation networks the robustness of a network regarding node and link failures is a key factor for its design. An experiment based on the real air transportation network is performed to show that the algebraic connectivity is a good measure for network robustness. Three optimization problems of algebraic connectivity maximization are then formulated in order to find the most robust network design under different constraints. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem with flight routes addition or deletion is first formulated. Three methods to optimize and analyze the network algebraic connectivity are proposed. The Modified Greedy Perturbation Algorithm (MGP) provides a sub-optimal solution in a fast iterative manner. The Weighted Tabu Search (WTS) is designed to offer a near optimal solution with longer running time. The relaxed semi-definite programming (SDP) is used to set a performance upper bound and three rounding techniques are discussed to find the feasible solution. The simulation results present the trade-off among the three methods. The case study on two air transportation networks of Virgin America and Southwest Airlines show that the developed methods can be applied in real world large scale networks. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem is extended by adding the leg number constraint, which considers the traveler's tolerance for the total connecting stops. The Binary Semi-Definite Programming (BSDP) with cutting plane method provides the optimal solution. The tabu search and 2-opt search heuristics can find the optimal solution in small scale networks and the near optimal solution in large scale networks. The third algebraic connectivity maximization problem with operating cost constraint is formulated. When the total operating cost budget is given, the number of the edges to be added is not fixed. Each edge weight needs to be calculated instead of being pre-determined. It is illustrated that the edge addition and the weight assignment can not be studied separately for the problem with operating cost constraint. Therefore a relaxed SDP method with golden section search is developed to solve both at the same time. The cluster decomposition is utilized to solve large scale networks.

Wei, Peng


It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.



Parenting with High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake



Maintaining High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry



Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

Devine, Kelley


What surface maximizes entanglement entropy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a given quantum field theory, provided the area of the entangling surface is fixed, what surface maximizes entanglement entropy? We analyze the answer to this question in four and higher dimensions. Surprisingly, in four dimensions the answer is related to a mathematical problem of finding surfaces that minimize the Willmore (bending) energy and eventually to the Willmore conjecture. We propose a generalization of the Willmore energy in higher dimensions and analyze its minimizers in a general class of topologies Sm×Sn and make certain observations and conjectures that may have some mathematical significance.

Faraji Astaneh, Amin; Gibbons, Gary; Solodukhin, Sergey N.



Multivariate residues and maximal unitarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the maximal unitarity method to amplitude contributions whose cuts define multidimensional algebraic varieties. The technique is valid to all orders and is explicitly demonstrated at three loops in gauge theories with any number of fermions and scalars in the adjoint representation. Deca-cuts realized by replacement of real slice integration contours by higher-dimensional tori encircling the global poles are used to factorize the planar triple box onto a product of trees. We apply computational algebraic geometry and multivariate complex analysis to derive unique projectors for all master integral coefficients and obtain compact analytic formulae in terms of tree-level data.

Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang



The Queueing Maximal availability location problem: A model for the siting of emergency vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maximal Availability Location Problem (MALP) has been recently formulated as a probabilistic version of the maximal covering location problem. The added feature in MALP is that randomness into the availability of servers is considered. In MALP, though, it is assumed that the probabilities of different servers being busy are independent. In this paper, we utilize results from queuing theory

Vladimir Marianov; Charles ReVelle



Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization  

PubMed Central

Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold’s topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan’s presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821

Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo



Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.  


Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821

Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo




E-print Network

44 EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition) An expected learning outcome is a formal statement of what students are expected to learn in a course. Expected learning outcome statements refer to specific knowledge, practical skills, areas of professional

Rock, Chris


An expectation maximization framework for an improved ultrasound-based tissue characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic tissue characterization has been gaining increasing attention. This procedure is generally based on the analysis of the echo signal. As the ultrasound echo is degraded by the system Point Spread Function, deconvolution could be employed to provide a tissue response estimate, exploitable for a better characterization. In this context, we present a deconvolution framework expressively designed to improve tissue characterization. Thanks to a new model for tissue reflectivity the proposed framework overcomes limitations associated with standard ones. The performance was evaluated from several tissue-mimicking phantoms. Obtained results show relevant improvements in classification accuracy. From a comparison with standard schemes the superiority of the proposed algorithm was attested.

Alessandrini, Martino; Maggio, Simona; Porée, Jonathan; De Marchi, Luca; Speciale, Nicolò; Franceschini, Emilie; Bernard, Olivier; Basset, Olivier



Evaluation of Expectation Maximization for the Segmentation of Cervical Cell Nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, screening programs have been established. For that task stained\\u000a slides of cervical cells are visually assessed under a microscope for dysplastic or malignant cells. To support this challenge,\\u000a image processing methods offer advantages for objective classification. As the cell nuclei carry a high extent visual information,\\u000a all depicted cell

Alexander Ihlow; Christian Held; Christoph Rothaug; Claudia Dach; Thomas Wittenberg; Dirk Steckhan


Expectation-maximization approach to target model generation from multiple synthetic aperture radar images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue in the development and deployment of model- based automatic target recognition (ATR) systems is the generation of target models to populate the ATR database. Model generation is typi- cally a formidable task, often requiring detailed descriptions of targets in the form of blueprints or CAD models. We propose a method for gener- ating a 3-D target model

John A. Richards; Alan S. Willsky; John W. Fisher III



Expectation-maximization apprach to target model generation from multiple synthetic aperture radar images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue in the development and deployment of model-based automatic target recognition (ATR) systems is the generation of target models to populate the ATR database. Model generation is typically a formidable task, often requiring detailed descriptions of targets in the form of blueprints or CAD models. We propose a method for generating a 3-D target model directly from multiple

John A. Richards; Alan S. Willsky; John W. Fisher



Bayesian K-Means as a "Maximization-Expectation" October 18, 2007  

E-print Network

-up agglomerative clustering algorithm. In experiments we compare these algorithms against a number of alternative of the workhorses of machine learning. Faced with the exponential growth of data researchers have recently started complex models. We also derive an alternative agglomerative clustering algorithm. Both algorithms can

Welling, Max


Bayesian K-Means as a "Maximization-Expectation" Kenichi Kurihara  

E-print Network

-up agglomerative clustering algorithm. In experiments we compare these algorithms against a number of alternative of the workhorses of machine learning. Faced with the exponential growth of data researchers have recently started complex models. We also derive an alternative agglomerative clustering algorithm. Both algorithms can

Welling, Max


Bayesian K-Means as a "Maximization-Expectation" Algorithm Max Welling  

E-print Network

agglomerative clustering algorithm. In experiments we compare this algorithm against a number of alternative of the workhorses of ma- chine learning. Faced with the exponential growth of data, researchers have recently complex models. We also de- rive an alternative agglomerative clustering algorithm. Both algorithms can

Welling, Max


Treatment Options in Alzheimer’s Disease: Maximizing Benefit, Managing Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is becoming an increasingly heavy burden on the society of developed countries, and physicians now face the challenge of providing efficient treatment regimens to an ever-higher number of individuals affected by the disease. Currently approved anti-AD therapies – the cholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine – offer modest symptomatic relief, which can be enhanced using

Martin R. Farlow; Michael L. Miller; Vojislav Pejovic



Maximal independent sets for sparse graphs D. Eppstein, UC Irvine, SODA 2005 All Maximal Independent Sets  

E-print Network

Maximal independent sets for sparse graphs D. Eppstein, UC Irvine, SODA 2005 All Maximal Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences #12;Maximal independent sets for sparse graphs D. Eppstein, UC Irvine, SODA 2005 Problem: list all maximal independent sets of an undirected graph

Eppstein, David


Maximal Oxygen Intake and Maximal Work Performance of Active College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximal oxygen intake and associated physiological variables were measured during strenuous exercise on women subjects (N=20 physical education majors). Following assessment of maximal oxygen intake, all subjects underwent a performance test at the work level which had elicited their maximal oxygen intake. Mean maximal oxygen intake was 41.32…

Higgs, Susanne L.


Multiqubit symmetric states with maximally mixed one-qubit reductions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive study of maximally entangled symmetric states of arbitrary numbers of qubits in the sense of the maximal mixedness of the one-qubit reduced density operator. A general criterion is provided to easily identify whether given symmetric states are maximally entangled in that respect or not. We show that these maximally entangled symmetric (MES) states are the only symmetric states for which the expectation value of the associated collective spin of the system vanishes, as well as in corollary the dipole moment of the Husimi function. We establish the link between this kind of maximal entanglement, the anticoherence properties of spin states, and the degree of polarization of light fields. We analyze the relationship between the MES states and the classes of states equivalent through stochastic local operations with classical communication (SLOCC). We provide a nonexistence criterion of MES states within SLOCC classes of qubit states and show in particular that the symmetric Dicke state SLOCC classes never contain such MES states, with the only exception of the balanced Dicke state class for even numbers of qubits. The 4-qubit system is analyzed exhaustively and all MES states of this system are identified and characterized. Finally the entanglement content of MES states is analyzed with respect to the geometric and barycentric measures of entanglement, as well as to the generalized N-tangle. We show that the geometric entanglement of MES states is ensured to be larger than or equal to 1/2, but also that MES states are not in general the symmetric states that maximize the investigated entanglement measures.

Baguette, D.; Bastin, T.; Martin, J.



Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations Week 1 Report: 1. Write at and what kind of formatting expections apply. 9. Note: Keep copies of your reports and NMR's and GC Report Expectations for students who did Scheme 4: Do as much as you can from the instructions above

Jasperse, Craig P.


Is Expected Utility Theory Normative for Medical Decision Making?  

Microsoft Academic Search

these axioms, the independence principle, is controversial, and is frequently violated in experimental situations. Proponents of the theory hold that these violations are irrational. The independence principle is simply an axiom dictating consistency among preferences, in that it dictates that a rational agent should hold a specified preference given another stated preference. When applied to preferences between lotteries, the independence




Subjective Expected Utility Theory without States of Johns Hopkins University  

E-print Network

of the world. Department of Economics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA. Tel. (410) 516 under uncertainty is that the choice of a course of action, by itself, does not always determine description of the world so complete that, if true and known, the consequences of every action would be known

Niebur, Ernst


Great Expectations. Part II: Generalized Expected Utility as a Universal Decision Rule  

E-print Network

that EU often does not describe how people actually behave when they make decisions [Resnik 1987]; thus EU Regret [Resnik 1987], do not require a representation of beliefs at all. Work supported in part by NSF

Halpern, Joseph Y.


A maximally supersymmetric Kondo model  

E-print Network

We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N=4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial three-sphere in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.

Sarah Harrison; Shamit Kachru; Gonzalo Torroba



The futility of utility: how market dynamics marginalize Adam Smith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic theorizing is based on the postulated, nonempiric notion of utility. Economists assume that prices, dynamics, and market equilibria are supposed to be derived from utility. The results are supposed to represent mathematically the stabilizing action of Adam Smith's invisible hand. In deterministic excess demand dynamics I show the following. A utility function generally does not exist mathematically due to nonintegrable dynamics when production/investment are accounted for, resolving Mirowski's thesis. Price as a function of demand does not exist mathematically either. All equilibria are unstable. I then explain how deterministic chaos can be distinguished from random noise at short times. In the generalization to liquid markets and finance theory described by stochastic excess demand dynamics, I also show the following. Market price distributions cannot be rescaled to describe price movements as ‘equilibrium’ fluctuations about a systematic drift in price. Utility maximization does not describe equilibrium. Maximization of the Gibbs entropy of the observed price distribution of an asset would describe equilibrium, if equilibrium could be achieved, but equilibrium does not describe real, liquid markets (stocks, bonds, foreign exchange). There are three inconsistent definitions of equilibrium used in economics and finance, only one of which is correct. Prices in unregulated free markets are unstable against both noise and rising or falling expectations: Adam Smith's stabilizing invisible hand does not exist, either in mathematical models of liquid market data, or in real market data.

McCauley, Joseph L.



Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?  

PubMed Central

Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404

Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald



On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of \\AdS_4\\times S^7 and find that it is isomorphic to \\mathfrak{osp}(1|32) . We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to \\AdS_4 \\times S^7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simón, Joan



Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus



Efficient influence maximization in social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence maximization is the problem of finding a small subset of nodes (seed nodes) in a social network that could maximize the spread of influence. In this paper, we study the influence maxi- mization problem from two angles in order to significantly reduce the running time of existing algorithms. One is to improve the orig- inal greedy algorithm of (6)

Wei Chen; Yajun Wang; Siyu Yang



Efficiently Mining Maximal Frequent Itemsets Karam Gouda  

E-print Network

Efficiently Mining Maximal Frequent Itemsets Karam Gouda and Mohammed J. Zaki ¡ ComputerMax, a backtrack search based algorithm for mining maximal frequent itemsets. GenMax uses a num- ber of optimizations to prune the search space. It uses a novel technique called progressive focusing to perform

Fiat, Amos


Info-margin maximization for feature extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel method of linear feature extraction with info-margin maximization (InfoMargin) from information theoretic viewpoint. It aims to achieve a low generalization error by maximizing the information divergence between the distributions of different classes while minimizing the entropy of the distribution in each single class. We estimate the density of data in each class with Gaussian kernel Parzen

Xipeng Qiu; Lide Wu



Face recognition with info-margin maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose face recognition method with info-margin maximization (InfoMargin) from information theoretic viewpoint. It aims to achieve a low generalization error by maximizing the information divergence between the distributions of different classes while minimizing the entropy of the distribution in each single class. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the traditional face recognition methods.

Xipeng Qiu; Youdong Miao; Lide Wu



Maximizing submodular functions using probabilistic graphical models  

E-print Network

, the entropy of the joint distribution decomposes as a sum of marginal entropies of subsets of variables inference scheme for maximizing submodular functions, based on outer approximations of the marginal polytopeMaximizing submodular functions using probabilistic graphical models K. S. Sesh Kumar INRIA

Boyer, Edmond


Auxiliary Variational Information Maximization for Dimensionality Reduction  

E-print Network

H(x) - log p(x) p(x) and H(x|y) - log p(x|y) p(x,y) are marginal and conditional entropiesAuxiliary Variational Information Maximization for Dimensionality Reduction Felix Agakov1 and David for a specific task, it is sensible to maximize the amount of information which y contains about all the coordi

Agakov, Felix


Variational Information Maximization for Neural Coding  

E-print Network

(x) and H(x|y) - log p(x|y) p(x,y) are marginal and conditional entropies respectively, and the angledVariational Information Maximization for Neural Coding Felix Agakov1 and David Barber2 1 University with other techniques maximizing approximations of MI, focusing on a comparison with the Fisher Information

Agakov, Felix


Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…

Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.



Diurnal Variations in Maximal Oxygen Uptake.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study attempted to determine if diurnal (daily cyclical) variations were present during maximal exercise. The subjects' (30 female undergraduate physical education majors) oxygen consumption and heart rates were monitored while they walked on a treadmill on which the grade was raised every minute. Each subject was tested for maximal oxygen…

McClellan, Powell D.



Microsoft Academic Search

Some studies have examined the impact of consumers' expectations on consumption expenditure. However, none of these studies concludes a clear positive relationship between these variables. It has been argued that consumers' expectations about the economy's future should have an impact on consumers' decisions about how much to consume and how much to save. While consumers' expectations seem to be a

Shokoofeh Fazel



Reflexive Expectation Formation Timo Ehrig  

E-print Network

Reflexive Expectation Formation Timo Ehrig J¨urgen Jost Abstract How do economic agents form expectations regarding asset prices and the development of macroeconomic quantities, when of expectations fold back to the realized economic process, and in particular, to the selection of one of multiple

Jost, Jürgen


The Art of Expectations Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most valuable skills a software professional can develop, expectations management is something surprisingly few people know or practice. The author has witnessed more than 100 stakeholder software requirements negotiations in which inflated expectations about the simplicity of the problem or ease of providing a solution have caused the most difficulty. Expectations management holds the key to providing

Barry W. Boehm



Gender Role Expectations of Juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of two five-item Likert scales that classify juveniles' gender role expectations as highly traditional to nontraditional. One is composed of behavioral expectations that juveniles define as traditionally feminine and the other is composed of expectations they define as traditionally masculine. With a sample of junior and senior high school students, correlational and factor analyses of

Neal Shover; Stephen Norland; Jennifer James



Effect algebras with the maximality property  

E-print Network

The maximality property was introduced in in orthomodular posets as a common generalization of orthomodular lattices and orthocomplete orthomodular posets. We show that various conditions used in the theory of effect algebras are stronger than the maximality property, clear up the connections between them and show some consequences of these conditions. In particular, we prove that a Jauch--Piron effect algebra with a countable unital set of states is an orthomodular lattice and that a unital set of Jauch--Piron states on an effect algebra with the maximality property is strongly order determining.

Josef Tkadlec



Moduli space metric for maximally-charged dilaton black holes  

E-print Network

The system consisting of slowly-moving, maximally charged, nonrotating dilaton black holes is investigated. We obtain the metric on the moduli space of the system in the low-velocity limit. We find that: (1) only two-body interactions exist between the extreme black holes in string theory; (2) the mutual interaction between the black holes vanishes if the dilaton can be interpreted as a Kaluza-Klein scalar; and (3) for general dilaton couplings, there exist many-body interactions among the extreme black holes. We analyze the low-energy classical scattering of the two extreme black holes in string theory by utilizing the moduli space metric.

Kiyoshi Shiraishi



Supply Chain Network Design Under Profit Maximization  

E-print Network

Supply Chain Network Design Under Profit Maximization and Oligopolistic Competition Anna Nagurney, Massachusetts 01003 Anna Nagurney Supply Chain Network Design Under Competition #12;Outline Background and Motivation The Supply Chain Network Design Oligopoly Model Special Cases The Algorithm Numerical Examples

Nagurney, Anna


Maximizing Reliability in Multiple Choice Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Serlin-Kaiser procedure is used to complete a principal components solution for scoring weights for all options of a given item. Coefficient alpha is maximized for a given multiple choice test. (Author/GK)

Willson, Victor L.



Genuine Multipartite Maximally Nonlocal Mixed States  

E-print Network

Quatum nonlocality as a useful resource is of great interest and high importance in quantum information science. It can be witnessed by violations of Bell-type inequalities and is arguably among various fundamental features of quantum mechanics. In analogy to maximally entangled mixed state, here we introduce the notion of genuine multipartite maximally nonlocal mixed state, which is defined as one that maximally violates Svetlichny's inequality among other states for a given linear entropy. Thus this state is the most noise-resistant quantum resource. To show its power, we also construct a quantum nonlocal game with multiple players based on Svetlichny's inequality. The probability of winning the game has an upper bound of $3/4$ when the state shared by players is biseparable, while, with the genuine multipartite maximally nonlocal mixed state, there is a quantum strategy for them that succeeds with probability up to $(2+\\sqrt{1+\\gamma^2})/4$, beating the bound with nonvanishing $\\gamma$.

Hong-Yi Su; Jing-Ling Chen; Fu-Lin Zhang; Chunfeng Wu; Zhen-Peng Xu; Mile Gu; Sai Vinjanampathy; L. C. Kwek



Music Cognition: Learning, Perception, Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in music cognition domain has shown that non musician listeners have implicit knowledge about the Western tonal musical\\u000a system. This knowledge, acquired by mere exposure to music in everyday life, influences perception of musical structures and\\u000a allows developing expectations for future incoming events. Musical expectations play a role for musical expressivity and influence\\u000a event processing: Expected events are processed

Barbara Tillmann



DAU StatRefresher: Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tutorial on expectations helps students understand the concept of expectations, recognize and use variance and standard deviation, understand the method of moments, recognize and use co-variance, and solve exercise problems using expectations. Each component has its own explanation, demonstration and quiz questions. At the end, there is a series of questions to test the students full understanding of the concepts covered.



Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe sought to determine a generalized equation for predicting maximal heart rate (HRmax) in healthy adults.BACKGROUNDThe age-predicted HRmax equation (i.e., 220 ? age) is commonly used as a basis for prescribing exercise programs, as a criterion for achieving maximal exertion and as a clinical guide during diagnostic exercise testing. Despite its importance and widespread use, the validity of the HRmax

Hirofumi Tanaka; Kevin D Monahan; Douglas R Seals



Why Firms Should Not Always Maximize Profits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the agenda of most major corporations, corporate executives still largely\\u000a support the view that corporations should maximize the returns to their owners. There are two lines of defence for this position.\\u000a One is the Friedmanian view that maximizing owner returns is the social responsibility of corporations. The other is a position voiced by

Ivar Kolstad



Maximal hypercubes in Fibonacci and Lucas cubes  

E-print Network

The Fibonacci cube $\\Gamma_n$ is the subgraph of the hypercube induced by the binary strings that contain no two consecutive 1's. The Lucas cube $\\Lambda_n$ is obtained from $\\Gamma_n$ by removing vertices that start and end with 1. We characterize maximal induced hypercubes in $\\Gamma_n$ and $\\Lambda_n$ and deduce for any $p\\leq n$ the number of maximal $p$-dimensional hypercubes in these graphs.

Mollard, Michel



Labelwise Margin Maximization for Sequence Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In sequence labeling problems, the objective functions of most learning algorithms are usually inconsistent with evaluation\\u000a measures, such as Hamming loss. In this paper, we propose an online learning algorithm that addresses the problem of labelwise\\u000a margin maximization for sequence labeling. We decompose the sequence margin to per-label margins and maximize these per-label\\u000a margins individually, which can result to minimize

Wenjun Gao; Xipeng Qiu; Xuanjing Huang



Computing Maximal Islands C. Bautista-Santiago  

E-print Network

Computing Maximal Islands C. Bautista-Santiago J.M. D´iaz-B´a~nez D. Lara P. P´erez-Lantero § J, an island I(S, C) S is the inter- section of S and a convex region C. We study the problem of finding a maximal island according to cer- tain criterium. For instance, a largest monochromatic island I(S, C

Urrutia, Jorge


Some properties of maximally entangled ELW game  

E-print Network

The Eisert et al. maximally entangled quantum game is studied within the framework of (elementary) group theory. It is shown that the game can be described in terms of real Hilbert space of states. It is also shown that the crucial properties of the maximally entangled case, like quaternionic structure and the existence, to any given strategy, the corresponding counterstrategy, result from the existence of large stability subgroup of initial state of the game.

Katarzyna Bolonek-Lason; Piotr Kosinski



Expectation Value in Bell's Theorem  

E-print Network

We will demonstrate in this paper that Bell's theorem (Bell's inequality) does not really conflict with quantum mechanics, the controversy between them originates from the different definitions for the expectation value using the probability distribution in Bell's inequality and the expectation value in quantum mechanics. We can not use quantum mechanical expectation value measured in experiments to show the violation of Bell's inequality and then further deny the local hidden-variables theory. Considering the difference of their expectation values, a generalized Bell's inequality is presented, which is coincided with the prediction of quantum mechanics.

Zheng-Chuan Wang



Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Micro-Arcsecond Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imaging mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 microarcsecond imaging. To achieve mission requirements, MAXIM will have to improve on pointing by orders of magnitude. This pointing requirement impacts the control and design of the formation. Currently the architecture is comprised of 25 spacecraft, which will form the sparse apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This configuration will deploy 24 spacecraft as optics modules and one as the detector. The formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis and trades of several control efforts that are dependent upon the pointing requirements and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions that minimize the control efforts and we address both continuous and discrete control via LQR and feedback linearization. Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda



Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda



Expected stock returns and volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relation between stock returns and stock market volatility. We find evidence that the expected market risk premium (the expected return on a stock portfolio minus the Treasury bill yield) is positively related to the predictable volatility of stock returns. There is also evidence that unexpected stock market returns are negatively related to the unexpected change in

Kenneth R. French; G. William Schwert; Robert F. Stambaugh



Expectancy Climate and School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questionnaire surveys of 89 Kansas public elementary and secondary schools examined, first, the relationship between school expectancy climate--teachers' expectations that their efforts would lead to positive student results--and school effectiveness, and, second, the change in that relationship through the school year. School effectiveness…

Miskel, Cecil; Bloom, Susan


The Ethics of Life Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive — our expectation of further life — and the other negative — the loss

Robin Small



FastStats: Life Expectancy  


... in 2010? Life expectancy at age 25, by sex and education level, Health, United States, 2011, figure 32 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Life expectancy at birth, at 65 and 75 years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2013, ...


Resources and energetics determined dinosaur maximal size  

PubMed Central

Some dinosaurs reached masses that were ?8 times those of the largest, ecologically equivalent terrestrial mammals. The factors most responsible for setting the maximal body size of vertebrates are resource quality and quantity, as modified by the mobility of the consumer, and the vertebrate's rate of energy expenditure. If the food intake of the largest herbivorous mammals defines the maximal rate at which plant resources can be consumed in terrestrial environments and if that limit applied to dinosaurs, then the large size of sauropods occurred because they expended energy in the field at rates extrapolated from those of varanid lizards, which are ?22% of the rates in mammals and 3.6 times the rates of other lizards of equal size. Of 2 species having the same energy income, the species that uses the most energy for mass-independent maintenance of necessity has a smaller size. The larger mass found in some marine mammals reflects a greater resource abundance in marine environments. The presumptively low energy expenditures of dinosaurs potentially permitted Mesozoic communities to support dinosaur biomasses that were up to 5 times those found in mammalian herbivores in Africa today. The maximal size of predatory theropods was ?8 tons, which if it reflected the maximal capacity to consume vertebrates in terrestrial environments, corresponds in predatory mammals to a maximal mass less than a ton, which is what is observed. Some coelurosaurs may have evolved endothermy in association with the evolution of feathered insulation and a small mass. PMID:19581600

McNab, Brian K.



Revenue Maximization in Reservation-based Online Advertising Through Dynamic Inventory  

E-print Network

Revenue Maximization in Reservation-based Online Advertising Through Dynamic Inventory Management in the online advertising industry is one where advertisers pre-purchase a reservation package of online.) while trying to meet advertisers' expectations. The current process of sales is usually ad hoc

Tomkins, Andrew


Massive Nonplanar Two-Loop Maximal Unitarity  

E-print Network

We explore maximal unitarity for nonplanar two-loop integrals with up to four massive external legs. In this framework, the amplitude is reduced to a basis of master integrals whose coefficients are extracted from maximal cuts. The hepta-cut of the nonplanar double box defines a nodal algebraic curve associated with a multiply pinched genus-3 Riemann surface. All possible configurations of external masses are covered by two distinct topological pictures in which the curve decomposes into either six or eight Riemann spheres. The procedure relies on consistency equations based on vanishing of integrals of total derivatives and Levi-Civita contractions. Our analysis indicates that these constraints are governed by the global structure of the maximal cut. Lastly, we present an algorithm for computing generalized cuts of massive integrals with higher powers of propagators based on the Bezoutian matrix method.

Mads Sogaard; Yang Zhang



Massive Nonplanar Two-Loop Maximal Unitarity  

E-print Network

We explore maximal unitarity for nonplanar two-loop integrals with up to four massive external legs. In this framework, the amplitude is reduced to a basis of master integrals whose coefficients are extracted from maximal cuts. The hepta-cut of the nonplanar double box defines a nodal algebraic curve associated with a multiply pinched genus-3 Riemann surface. All possible configurations of external masses are covered by two distinct topological pictures in which the curve decomposes into either six or eight Riemann spheres. The procedure relies on consistency equations based on vanishing of integrals of total derivatives and Levi-Civita contractions. Our analysis indicates that these constraints are governed by the global structure of the maximal cut. Lastly, we present an algorithm for computing generalized cuts of massive integrals with higher powers of propagators based on the Bezoutian matrix method.

Sogaard, Mads



Geometrically Underpinned Maximally Entangled States Bases  

E-print Network

Finite geometry is used to underpin ?nite, two d-dimensional particles Hilbert space, d=prime 6= 2. A central role is allotted to states with mutual unbiased bases (MUB) labeling. Dual a?ne plane geometry (DAPG) points underpin single particle, MUB labeled, product states. The DAPG lines are shown to underpin maximally entangled states which form an orthonormal basis spanning the space. The relevance of mutually unbiased collective coordinates bases (MUCB) for dealing with maximally entangled states is discussed and shown to provide an economic alternative mode of study. These maximally entangled, geometrically reasoned states, provide the resource to a transparent solution to what may be termed tracking of the Mean King Problem (MKP): here Alice prepares a state measured by King along some orientation which Alice succeed in identifying with a subsequent measurement. Brief expositions of the topics considered: MUB, DAPG, MUCB and the MKP are included, rendering the paper self contained.

M. Revzen



Caffeine, maximal power output and fatigue.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on maximal power output and fatigue during short term, high intensity exercise. Nine adult males performed 15 s maximal exercise bouts 60 min after ingestion of caffeine (7 or placebo. Exercise bouts were carried out on a modified cycle ergometer which allowed power output to be computed for each one-half pedal stroke via microcomputer. Peak power output under caffeine conditions was not significantly different from that obtained following placebo ingestion. Similarly, time to peak power, total work, power fatigue index and power fatigue rate did not differ significantly between caffeine and placebo conditions. These results suggest that caffeine ingestion does not increase one's maximal ability to generate power. Further, caffeine does not alter the rate or magnitude of fatigue during high intensity, dynamic exercise. PMID:3228680

Williams, J H; Signorile, J F; Barnes, W S; Henrich, T W



An information maximization model of eye movements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra



QM Momentum Expectation Value Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Momentum Expectation Value program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function and the associated momentum expectation value. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the qm_expectation_p.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default wave function is a Gaussian wave packet in a harmonic oscillator. Additional states and other potential energy functions can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. QM Momentum Expectation Value is one of 18 Open Source Physics programs that model time-dependent quantum mechanics using an energy eigenstate expansion. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Superposition.

Christian, Wolfgang



Expectancy theory and nascent entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation is an important factor that distinguishes those nascent entrepreneurs who make progress towards an operating venture\\u000a from those who do not. Based on Vroom’s (Work and motivation, 1964) expectancy theory, we predict that startup-specific instrumentality, valence and expectancy are key components of entrepreneurial\\u000a motivation and closely related to those intentions, efforts, and behaviors that will eventually lead to operating

Maija RenkoK; K. Galen Kroeck; Amanda Bullough


Caffeinated Alcohol Use and Expectancies for Caffeine Versus Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Background Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) use is related to alcohol-related risk. Limited research has examined outcome expectancies and CAB consumption. Objectives This study tested the predictive utility of caffeine and alcohol expectancies in CAB use outcomes (i.e. quantity, frequency, and alcohol-related harms). Methods Participants were 419 (302 women) alcohol and caffeine users from a mid-sized urban university. Data collection occurred between August 2010 and December 2011. Participants completed measures of caffeine and alcohol expectancies, alcohol problems, alcohol use, and CAB use. Results Caffeine and alcohol expectancies contributed uniquely to approximately 12% of the variability in quantity, 8% in frequency, and 16% in problems. When examined separately, alcohol expectancies explained approximately 10% to 11% of the variance, whereas caffeine expectancies accounted for 6% of the variance in CAB use quantity. For CAB use frequency, alcohol and caffeine expectancies accounted for about 8% and 4%, respectively. Alcohol expectancies accounted for 12% to 14% of variance, whereas caffeine expectancies accounted for 4% to 6% in alcohol-related harms. Conclusions/Importance The present study sought to address a gap in the literature regarding the contributions of expectancies in the prediction of CAB use. Our findings provide support for the predictive utility of both caffeine and alcohol expectancies in accounting for individual variability in CAB use but alcohol expectancies may exert greater impact on use patterns. Inclusion of both types of expectancies in larger theoretical frameworks may be beneficial in gaining a more complete and deeper conceptualization of this risky behavior. PMID:24708428

Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden, Ashley N.



Elections with Contribution-Maximizing Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the analysis of campaign contributions, in accordance with the Downsian model, has supposed that candidates seek contributions for electoral purposes. This paper takes the opposite approach, by assuming that each candidate aims to maximize the contributions he collects. We let a citizen contribute to a candidate with the aim of increasing that candidate's chances of winning. These assumptions

Mark Gradstein



Symplectic geometry of homological algebra Maxim Kontsevich  

E-print Network

-commutative algebraic geometry With any scheme X over ground field k we can associate a k-linear trian- gulated category shemes (of finite type) is encoded in the following notion of dg algebra of finite type due to B. ToSymplectic geometry of homological algebra Maxim Kontsevich June 10, 2009 Derived non

Kontsevich, Maxim


How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…

Davis, Lewis



Maximally smooth image recovery in transform coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider the reconstruction of images from partial coefficients in block transform coders and its application to packet loss recovery in image transmission over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks. The proposed algorithm uses the smoothness property of common image signals and produces a maximally smooth image among all those with the same coefficients and boundary conditions. It recovers each

Yao Wang; Qin-Fan Zhu; Leonard Shaw



A Note on Maximized Posttest Contrasts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hollingsworth recently showed a posttest contrast for analysis of variance situations that, for equal sample sizes, had several favorable qualities. However, for unequal sample sizes, the contrast fails to achieve status as a maximized contrast; thus, separate testing of the contrast is required. (Author/GSK)

Williams, John D.



Maximal rank of extremal marginal tracial states  

SciTech Connect

States on the coupled quantum system M{sub n}(C) x M{sub n}(C) whose restrictions to each subsystem are the normalized traces are called marginal tracial states. We investigate extremal marginal tracial states and compute their maximal rank. Diagonal marginal tracial states are also considered.

Ohno, Hiromichi [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan)



Instructional Theories: Maximizing Their Strengths for Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly explores the philosophical underpinnings and point of view of several instructional theories/positions (behavioral, cognitive information processing, cognitive inquiry, and humanism) by examining goals, instructional procedures and strategies, and assessment and evaluation methods. A way to maximize the strengths of these theories for…

Martin, Barbara L.; Driscoll, Marcy P.



Maximizing the Spectacle of Water Fountains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a given initial speed of water from a spigot or jet, what angle of the jet will maximize the visual impact of the water spray in the fountain? This paper focuses on fountains whose spigots are arranged in circular fashion, and couches the measurement of the visual impact in terms of the surface area and the volume under the fountain's natural…

Simoson, Andrew J.



Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar-  

E-print Network

Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar- beet yields while minimizing disease- cially with furrow irrigation. Root diseases such as rhizomania and rhizoctonia root and crown rots will be reduced. Unnecessary irrigations can be reduced if grow- ers use information on water status at deeper

O'Laughlin, Jay


Maximal Controllability for Boundary Control Problems  

SciTech Connect

We develop a semigroup approach to abstract boundary control problems which allows to characterize the space of all approximately reachable states. We then introduce the 'maximal reachability space' giving an upper bound for this space. The abstract results are applied to the flow in a network controlled in a single vertex.

Engel, Klaus-Jochen, E-mail: engel@ing.univaq.i [University of L'Aquila, Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics (Italy); Kramar Fijavz, Marjeta, E-mail: marjeta.kramar@fgg.uni-lj.s [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering (Slovenia); Kloess, Bernd, E-mail:; Nagel, Rainer, E-mail: rana@fa.uni-tuebingen.d [University of Tuebingen, Mathematics Institute (Germany); Sikolya, Eszter, E-mail: seszter@cs.elte.h [Eoetvoes Lorand University Budapest, Department of Applied Analysis (Hungary)



Likelihood maximization approach to image registration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A likelihood maximization approach to image registration is developed in this paper. It is assumed that the voxel values in two images in registration are probabilistically related. The principle of maximum likelihood is then exploited to find the optimal registration: the likelihood that given image f, one has image g and given image g, one has image f is optimized

Yang-Ming Zhu; Steven M. Cochoff



Maximizing the Motivated Mind for Emergent Giftedness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explains how the theory of the motivated mind conceptualizes the productive interaction of intelligence, creativity, and achievement motivation and how this theory can help educators to maximize students' emergent potential for giftedness. It discusses the integration of cold-order thinking and hot-chaotic thinking into fluid-adaptive…

Rea, Dan



Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

Ashbaugh, Henry S.



Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.



Impact of startup scheme on Francis runner life expectancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Francis runners are subject to complex dynamic forces which might lead to eventual blade cracking and the need for corrective measure. Damage due to cracks in runner blades are usually not a safety issues but might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. Avoiding the main damaging operating conditions is often the only option left to plant operators to maximize the life expectancy of their runner. The startup scheme is one of the available parameter which is controlled by the end user and could be used to minimize the damage induced to the runner. In this study, two startup schemes have been used to investigate life expectancy of Francis runner using in situ measurements. The results obtained show that the induced damage during the startup event could be significantly reduced with change to the startup scheme. In our opinion, an optimization of the startup scheme with regard to fatigue damage could extend significantly the life expectancy and the reliability of Francis runner.

Gagnon, M.; Tahan, S. A.; Bocher, P.; Thibault, D.




E-print Network

SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR MAXIMIZING LIFETIME PER UNIT COST IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Yunxia Chen of sensors deployed in the network, can be used to measure the utilization efficiency of sensors in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Analyzing the lifetime per unit cost of a linear WSN, we find that deploying

Chuah, Chen-Nee


An MDP-based Dynamic Pricing Scheme for Revenue Maximizing in Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

- learning; service provider I. INTRODUCTION Network heterogeneity is a common feature of 4G where multiple is sponsored by "Higher Education Commission (HEC), Govt. Of Pakistan" under the scholarship program titled: MS a service provider to maximize their utilities. Pricing schemes adopted by service providers will impact

Bahk, Saewoong


Maximizing System Throughput by Cooperative Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-print Network

Cognitive Radio Networks allow unlicensed users to opportunistically access the licensed spectrum without causing disruptive interference to the primary users (PUs). One of the main challenges in CRNs is the ability to detect PU transmissions. Recent works have suggested the use of secondary user (SU) cooperation over individual sensing to improve sensing accuracy. In this paper, we consider a CRN consisting of a single PU and multiple SUs to study the problem of maximizing the total expected system throughput. We propose a Bayesian decision rule based algorithm to solve the problem optimally with a constant time complexity. To prioritize PU transmissions, we re-formulate the throughput maximization problem by adding a constraint on the PU throughput. The constrained optimization problem is shown to be NP-hard and solved via a greedy algorithm with pseudo-polynomial time complexity that achieves strictly greater than 1/2 of the optimal solution. We also investigate the case for which a constraint is put on th...

Li, Shuang; Ekici, Eylem; Shroff, Ness



M-Theory and Maximally Supersymmetric Gauge Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this informal review for nonspecialists, we discuss the construction of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories that arise on the world-volume branes in string theory and M-theory. We focus on the relatively recent construction of M2-brane world-volume theories. In a formal sense, the existence of these quantum field theories can be viewed as predictions of M-theory. Their construction is therefore a reinforcement of the ideas underlying string theory and M-theory. We also briefly discuss the six-dimensional conformal field theory that is expected to arise on M5-branes. The construction of this theory is not only an important open problem for M-theory but also a significant challenge to our current understanding of quantum field theory more generally.

Lambert, Neil



Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

STKREN, K., J. HELGERUD, E. M. STKA, and J. HOFF. Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 40, No. 6, pp. 1089-1094, 2008. Purpose: The present study investigated the effect of maximal strength training on running economy (RE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic speed




WHO expectation and industry goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is expected the world's vaccine market will show a robust growth over the next few years, yet this growth will predominantly come from introduction of new vaccines in industrialised countries. Economic market forces will increasingly direct vaccine sales and vaccine development towards the needs of markets with effective purchasing power. Yet the scientific and technological progress that drives the

Walter Vandersmissen



Student expectations of computing majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research into student motivation and satisfaction with various computing majors on campus. A survey was administered to 422 computing majors and a different survey was administered to approximately 800 non-computing majors at Brigham Young University. The objective was to discover student understanding and expectations of the Computer Science, Information Systems and Information Technology programs on campus. Students

C. Richard G. Helps; Robert B. Jackson; Marshall B. Romney



Expectancy theory analysis of migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Expectancy Theory analysis was used to explain patterns of migration in Iran. Fifty-four Iranian males and females were interviewed about their perception of the probability of attaining certain life outcomes in an urban or rural environment, and the importance of each outcome. The subjects were divided into three samples: migrants to the capital city, villagers, and migrants who had

Martin M. Chemers; Roya Ayman; Carol Werner



Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross



Tourism motivation and expectation formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study introduces a model of tourism motivation and expectation formation. It is based on a discussion and operationalization of both the behaviorist notion of drive reduction and the cognitivist constructs of attitudes and values. While the satisfaction of inner-directed values and motivations depends on classes of objects, outer-directed values target specific objects. In the case of trying to

Juergen Gnoth



Great Expectations and New Beginnings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

Davis, Frances A.



Double-Entry Expectancy Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Double-entry expectancy tables are used to make admissions, guidance, or employment decisions based on two predictors. Examples of their use in showing relationships between high school and college performance are explained. The advantages of double-entry expectacy tables given are: (1) relative simplicity of preparation requiring no formal…

Wesman, Alexander G.



Maximally discordant mixed states of two qubits  

SciTech Connect

We study the relative strength of classical and quantum correlations, as measured by discord, for two-qubit states. Quantum correlations appear only in the presence of classical correlations, while the reverse is not always true. We identify the family of states that maximize the discord for a given value of the classical correlations and show that the largest attainable discord for mixed states is greater than for pure states. The difference between discord and entanglement is emphasized by the remarkable fact that these states do not maximize entanglement and are, in some cases, even separable. Finally, by random generation of density matrices uniformly distributed over the whole Hilbert space, we quantify the frequency of the appearance of quantum and classical correlations for different ranks.

Galve, Fernando; Giorgi, Gian Luca; Zambrini, Roberta [IFISC (UIB-CSIC), Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, UIB Campus, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)



Nonlinear Maximal Monotone Extensions of Symmetric Operators  

E-print Network

Given a linear semi-bounded symmetric operator $S\\ge -\\omega$, we explicitly define, and provide their nonlinear resolvents, nonlinear maximal monotone operators $A_\\Theta$ of type $\\lambda>\\omega$ (i.e. generators of one-parameter continuous nonlinear semi-groups of contractions of type $\\lambda$) which coincide with the Friedrichs extension of $S$ on a convex set $\\mathscr K$ containing ${\\mathscr D}(S)$. The extension parameter $\\Theta\\subset{\\mathfrak h}\\times{\\mathfrak h}$ ranges over the set of nonlinear maximal monotone relations on an auxiliary Hilbert space $\\mathfrak h$ isomorphic to the deficiency subspace of $S$. Moreover $A_\\Theta+\\lambda$ is a sub-potential operator (i.e. is the sub-differential of a lower semicontinuos convex function) whenever $\\Theta$ is sub-potential. Examples describing Laplacians with nonlinear singular perturbations supported on null sets and Laplacians with nonlinear boundary conditions on a bounded set are given.

Andrea Posilicano



Absolute Maximal Entanglement and Quantum Secret Sharing  

E-print Network

We study the existence of absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states in quantum mechanics and its applications to quantum information. AME states are characterized by being maximally entangled for all bipartitions of the system and exhibit genuine multipartite entanglement. With such states, we present a novel parallel teleportation protocol which teleports multiple quantum states between groups of senders and receivers. The notable features of this protocol are that (i) the partition into senders and receivers can be chosen after the state has been distributed, and (ii) one group has to perform joint quantum operations while the parties of the other group only have to act locally on their system. We also prove the equivalence between pure state quantum secret sharing schemes and AME states with an even number of parties. This equivalence implies the existence of AME states for an arbitrary number of parties based on known results about the existence of quantum secret sharing schemes.

Helwig, Wolfram; Riera, Arnau; Latorre, José I; Lo, Hoi-Kwong



Nondecoupling of maximal supergravity from the superstring.  


We consider the conditions necessary for obtaining perturbative maximal supergravity in d dimensions as a decoupling limit of type II superstring theory compactified on a (10-d) torus. For dimensions d=2 and d=3, it is possible to define a limit in which the only finite-mass states are the 256 massless states of maximal supergravity. However, in dimensions d>or=4, there are infinite towers of additional massless and finite-mass states. These correspond to Kaluza-Klein charges, wound strings, Kaluza-Klein monopoles, or branes wrapping around cycles of the toroidal extra dimensions. We conclude that perturbative supergravity cannot be decoupled from string theory in dimensions>or=4. In particular, we conjecture that pure N=8 supergravity in four dimensions is in the Swampland. PMID:17678349

Green, Michael B; Ooguri, Hirosi; Schwarz, John H



Uplink Array Calibration via Far-Field Power Maximization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uplink antenna arrays have the potential to greatly increase the Deep Space Network s high-data-rate uplink capabilities as well as useful range, and to provide additional uplink signal power during critical spacecraft emergencies. While techniques for calibrating an array of receive antennas have been addressed previously, proven concepts for uplink array calibration have yet to be demonstrated. This article describes a method of utilizing the Moon as a natural far-field reflector for calibrating a phased array of uplink antennas. Using this calibration technique, the radio frequency carriers transmitted by each antenna of the array are optimally phased to ensure that the uplink power received by the spacecraft is maximized.

Vilnrotter, V.; Mukai, R.; Lee, D.



Problems of Minimal and Maximal Aerodynamic Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of results recently obtained by the author, related to problems of the body of minimal and maximal resistance.\\u000a The cases of purely translational motion, as well as rotational and translational motions, are considered. The notions of\\u000a rough body and law of scattering on a body are discussed. Connections with the Monge–Kantorovich problem of optimal mass transportation

Alexander Plakhov


Managing Milk Composition: Maximizing Rumen Function  

E-print Network

Managing Milk Composition: Maximizing Rumen Function Sandra R. Stokes, Dan N. Waldner, Ellen R. Jordan, and Michael L. Looper* * Respectively, Extension Dairy Specialist, The Texas A&M University System; Extension Dairy Specialist, Oklahoma State... fermentable carbohydrate and over-processing of grains can result in severe milk fat depression, off- feed problems and reduced milk yield. It is important to match carbohydrate and protein sources and to carefully monitor nonfiber carbohydrate levels...

Stokes, Sandra R.; Jordan, Ellen R.; Looper, Mike; Waldner, Dan



Physiological responses to maximal intensity intermittent exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Physiological responses to repeated bouts of short duration maximal-intensity exercise were evaluated. Seven male subjects performed three exercise protocols, on separate days, with either 15 (S15), 30 (S30) or 40 (S40) m sprints repeated every 30 s. Plasma hypoxanthine (HX) and uric acid (UA), and blood lactate concentrations were evaluated pre- and postexercise. Oxygen uptake was measured immediately after the

P. D. Balsom; J. Y. Seger; B. Sjödin; B. Ekblom



Conjugate operators for finite maximal subdiagonal algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $\\\\M$ be a von Neumann algebra with a faithful normal trace $\\\\T$, and let $H^\\\\infty$ be a finite, maximal, subdiagonal algebra of $\\\\M$. Fundamental theorems on conjugate functions for weak$^*$\\\\!-Dirichlet algebras are shown to be valid for non-commutative $H^\\\\infty$. In particular the conjugation operator is shown to be a bounded linear map from $L^p(\\\\M, \\\\T)$ into $L^p(\\\\M, \\\\T)$ for

Narcisse Randrianantoanina



Postactivation Potentiation Biases Maximal Isometric Strength Assessment  

PubMed Central

Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6?±?55.7?N·m versus 248.9?±?55.1?N·m), RTD (746?±?152?N·m·s?1versus 727?±?158?N·m·s?1), and RMS (59.1?±?12.2% RMSMAX??versus 54.8?±?9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373?±?1200?ms versus 2784?±?1226?ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables. PMID:25133157

Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpcao, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sergio



Forecasting Spanish natural life expectancy.  


Knowledge of trends in life expectancy is of major importance for policy planning. It is also a key indicator for assessing future development of life insurance products, substantiality of existing retirement schemes, and long-term care for the elderly. This article examines the feasibility of decomposing age-gender-specific accidental and natural mortality rates. We study this decomposition by using the Lee and Carter model. In particular, we fit the Poisson log-bilinear version of this model proposed by Wilmoth and Brouhns et al. to historical (1975-1998) Spanish mortality rates. In addition, by using the model introduced by Wilmoth and Valkonen we analyze mortality-gender differentials for accidental and natural rates. We present aggregated life expectancy forecasts compared with those constructed using nondecomposed mortality rates. PMID:16297222

Guillen, Montserrat; Vidiella-i-Anguera, Antoni



Anisotropic flow: Achievements, Difficulties, Expectations  

E-print Network

Anisotropic flow measurements play a crucial role in understanding the physics and bulk properties of the system created in heavy ion collisions. In this talk I briefly review the most important results obtained so far, recent developments in the analysis techniques and the interpretation of the results, and what should we expect next, both at RHIC and LHC. I also discuss event anisotropies sensitive to the strong parity violation effects.

Sergei A. Voloshin



Menopause: Social expectations, women's realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a The experience of menopause, and the ramifications of that experience for psychiatric treatment, is significantly shaped by\\u000a social and historical context and by the implicit and explicit expectations they arouse in women. American society is heavily\\u000a youth-oriented. Although in fact many women experience this time as one of liberation and self-actualization, society views\\u000a them as bereft of their families

N. L. Stotland



Are One Man's Rags Another Man's Riches? Identifying Adaptive Expectations Using Panel Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the motivations frequently cited by Sen and Nussbaum for moving away from a utility metric towards a capabilities framework is a concern about adaptive preferences or conditioned expectations. If utility is related to the satisfaction of aspirations or expectations, and if these are affected by the individual's previous experience of…

Burchardt, Tania



Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.  


This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and/or weightlifting exercises performed with loads ranging from 50% to 90% of 1RM appears to be the most potent loading stimulus for improving maximal power in complex movements. Furthermore, plyometric exercises should involve stretch rates as well as stretch loads that are similar to those encountered in each specific sport and involve little to no external resistance. These loading conditions allow for superior transfer to performance because they require similar movement velocities to those typically encountered in sport. Third, it is vital to consider the individual athlete's window of adaptation (i.e. the magnitude of potential for improvement) for each neuromuscular factor contributing to maximal power production when developing an effective and efficient power training programme. A training programme that focuses on the least developed factor contributing to maximal power will prompt the greatest neuromuscular adaptations and therefore result in superior performance improvements for that individual. Finally, a key consideration for the long-term development of an athlete's maximal power production capacity is the need for an integration of numerous power training techniques. This integration allows for variation within power meso-/micro-cycles while still maintaining specificity, which is theorized to lead to the greatest long-term improvement in maximal power. PMID:21244105

Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U



Religious Commitment and Expectations About Psychotherapy Among Christian Clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assist psychotherapists in understanding client religiousness, Richards and Bergin (2005) have suggested assessing clients' religiousness at a broad level initially, using ecumenical measures, followed by a more detailed assessment that uses measures particular to the client's religious affiliation. In this study, the utility of this approach was tested in predicting expectations about psychotherapy of Christian clients (N = 176).

Donald F. Walker; Everett L. Worthington; Aubrey L. Gartner; Richard L. Gorsuch; Evalin Rhodes Hanshew



Rehabilitation Professionals' Participation Intensity and Expectations of Transition Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this mixed-methods study, an on-line survey and interviews were utilized to gather data regarding the level of participation and expectations rehabilitation professionals have of teachers, youth with disabilities, parents, and themselves during the transition process. The survey response rate was 73.0% (N = 46). Six were selected for interviews…

Oertle, Kathleen Marie



Instantons in the Maximally Abelian Gauge  

E-print Network

We investigate the Maximally Abelian (MA) Projection for a single $SU(2)$ instanton in continuum gauge theory. We find that there is a class of solutions to the differential MA gauge condition with circular monopole loops of radius $R$ centered on the instanton of width $\\rho$. However, the MA gauge fixing functional $G$ decreases monotonically as $R/\\rho \\rightarrow 0$. Its global minimum is the instanton in the singular gauge. We point out that interactions with nearby anti-instantons are likely to excite these monopole loops.

R. C. Brower; K. N. Orginos; C-I Tan



What Currency Do Bumble Bees Maximize?  

PubMed Central

In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency. PMID:20808437

Charlton, Nicholas L.; Houston, Alasdair I.



Using molecular biology to maximize concurrent training.  


Very few sports use only endurance or strength. Outside of running long distances on a flat surface and power-lifting, practically all sports require some combination of endurance and strength. Endurance and strength can be developed simultaneously to some degree. However, the development of a high level of endurance seems to prohibit the development or maintenance of muscle mass and strength. This interaction between endurance and strength is called the concurrent training effect. This review specifically defines the concurrent training effect, discusses the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, and proposes strategies to maximize strength and endurance in the high-level athlete. PMID:25355186

Baar, Keith



Electromagnetically induced grating with maximal atomic coherence  

SciTech Connect

We describe theoretically an atomic diffraction grating that combines an electromagnetically induced grating with a coherence grating in a double-{Lambda} atomic system. With the atom in a condition of maximal coherence between its lower levels, the combined gratings simultaneously diffract both the incident probe beam as well as the signal beam generated through four-wave mixing. A special feature of the atomic grating is that it will diffract any beam resonantly tuned to any excited state of the atom accessible by a dipole transition from its ground state.

Carvalho, Silvania A.; Araujo, Luis E. E. de [Instituto de Fisica ''Gleb Wataghin'', Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP, 13083-859 Sao Paulo (Brazil)



Excap: Maximization of Haplotypic Diversity of Linked Markers  

PubMed Central

Genetic markers, defined as variable regions of DNA, can be utilized for distinguishing individuals or populations. As long as markers are independent, it is easy to combine the information they provide. For nonrecombinant sequences like mtDNA, choosing the right set of markers for forensic applications can be difficult and requires careful consideration. In particular, one wants to maximize the utility of the markers. Until now, this has mainly been done by hand. We propose an algorithm that finds the most informative subset of a set of markers. The algorithm uses a depth first search combined with a branch-and-bound approach. Since the worst case complexity is exponential, we also propose some data-reduction techniques and a heuristic. We implemented the algorithm and applied it to two forensic caseworks using mitochondrial DNA, which resulted in marker sets with significantly improved haplotypic diversity compared to previous suggestions. Additionally, we evaluated the quality of the estimation with an artificial dataset of mtDNA. The heuristic is shown to provide extensive speedup at little cost in accuracy. PMID:24244403

Kahles, Andre; Sarqume, Fahad; Savolainen, Peter; Arvestad, Lars



Vision Utilities  

E-print Network

This paper documents a collection of Lisp utilities which I have written while doing vision programming on a Symbolics Lisp machine. Many of these functions are useful both as interactive commands invoked from the Lisp ...

Voorhees, Harry


Maximal lactate steady state in kayaking.  


A fixed blood lactate value of 4?mM was commonly used to calculate workload at maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in kayaking. Our purpose was to measure the actual blood lactate value at MLSS and workload at MLSS in kayaking and assess the validity of using a fixed blood lactate value to calculate the workload at MLSS. 8 junior kayakers (15.1±1.2 years; 179.9±7.3?cm; 72.3±4.9?kg) participated in an incremental workload test and 4-6 sub-maximal constant workload tests (duration of 30?min) on a kayaking ergometer. Blood lactate was measured to calculate the blood lactate value and workload at MLSS. The blood lactate value at MLSS in kayaking was 5.4±0.7?mM. The measured workload at MLSS (112±22 watts) was significantly greater than the calculated workload using a lactate value of 4?mM (104±18 watts, p=0.016). The measured MLSS workload was not significantly different from the calculated workload using a fixed lactate value of 5.4?mM (115±19 watts, p=0.16) or 5.0?mM (113±19 watts, p=0.78) in the incremental tests. A fixed blood lactate value of 5?mM instead of 4?mM might be a better estimate in kayaking given the incremental workload test used in this study. PMID:24886924

Li, Y; Niessen, M; Chen, X; Hartmann, U



Maximal lactate steady state in Judo  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: the purpose of this study was to verify the validity of respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) measured during a new single judo specific incremental test (JSIT) for aerobic demand evaluation. Methods: to test the validity of the new test, the JSIT was compared with Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS), which is the gold standard procedure for aerobic demand measuring. Eight well-trained male competitive judo players (24.3 ± 7.9 years; height of 169.3 ± 6.7cm; fat mass of 12.7 ± 3.9%) performed a maximal incremental specific test for judo to assess the RCT and performed on 30-minute MLSS test, where both tests were performed mimicking the UchiKomi drills. Results: the intensity at RCT measured on JSIT was not significantly different compared to MLSS (p=0.40). In addition, it was observed high and significant correlation between MLSS and RCT (r=0.90, p=0.002), as well as a high agreement. Conclusions: RCT measured during JSIT is a valid procedure to measure the aerobic demand, respecting the ecological validity of Judo. PMID:25332923

de Azevedo, Paulo Henrique Silva Marques; Pithon-Curi, Tania; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Oliveira, Joao; Perez, Sergio



Upgrading controls will maximize power plant operations  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how, in order to remain competitive, electric utilities are optimizing power plant operations by upgrading and/or installing state-of-the-art control systems. With deregulation moving at a full pace, the US`s electric utility industry no longer has a monopoly on the generation of electricity. Because of competition from non-utility electric generators, and the need to meet new and ever tighter emission standards, electric utilities are trying to improve the reliability and availability of their existing power plants. As a power plant ages maintenance tends to increase while breakdowns become more frequent. This is also true for instrument and controls systems. However, one of the most cost effective solutions for improving the reliability, availability, and operation of older electric power generation plants is to upgrade and modernize a plant`s instruments and controls.

Smith, D.J.



On maximally entangled Eisert-Lewenstein-Wilkens quantum games  

E-print Network

Maximally entangled Eisert-Lewenstein-Wilkens games are analyzed. The general conditions are derived which allow to determine the form of gate operators leading to maximally entangled games. Some examples are presented.

Katarzyna Bolonek-Laso?; Piotr Kosi?ski



Information and Transformation at Swiss Re: Maximizing Economic Value  

E-print Network

In 2007 Swiss Re was striving to maximize economic value, a metric that would allow the company to assess its performance over time despite the volatility of the reinsurance industry. Maximizing economic value required ...

Beath, Cynthia M.



Maximal oxygen uptake, maximal voluntary isometric contraction and physical activity in young Danish adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a randomly selected sample of 88 men and 115 women, aged 23–27 years from Denmark, maximal oxygen uptake (\\u000a$$\\\\dot V$$\\u000aO2max), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) in four muscle groups and physical activity were studied. The \\u000a$$\\\\dot V$$\\u000aO2max was 48.0 ml · min–1 kg–1 and 39.6 ml · min–1 · kg–1 for the men and the women,

Lars Bo Andersen; Jóhanna Haraldsdóttir




E-print Network

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL PMP EMPLOYEE FORM Name: Period Covered: Job Title: Department: Division: Supervisor: EXPECTATION SETTING MEETING HELD AND JOB and excellent work are widely recognized. Performance consistently exceeds all defined expectations, producing

Adali, Tulay


Automatic seed initialization for the expectation-maximization algorithm and its application in 3D medical imaging  

E-print Network

field of medical imaging [1,2]. With the introduction of faster and more powerful imaging devices medical imaging M. LYNCH*, D. ILEA, K. ROBINSON, O. GHITA and P. F. WHELAN Vision Systems Group, Dublin to partition the data in medical MRI images. We present analysis and illustrate results against manual

Whelan, Paul F.


Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility  

E-print Network

Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui



Determinants of time trial performance and maximal incremental exercise in highly trained endurance athletes.  


Human endurance performance can be predicted from maximal oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)), lactate threshold, and exercise efficiency. These physiological parameters, however, are not wholly exclusive from one another, and their interplay is complex. Accordingly, we sought to identify more specific measurements explaining the range of performance among athletes. Out of 150 separate variables we identified 10 principal factors responsible for hematological, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, and neurological variation in 16 highly trained cyclists. These principal factors were then correlated with a 26-km time trial and test of maximal incremental power output. Average power output during the 26-km time trial was attributed to, in order of importance, oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the vastus lateralis muscle (P = 0.0005), steady-state submaximal blood lactate concentrations (P = 0.0017), and maximal leg oxygenation (sO(2LEG)) (P = 0.0295), accounting for 78% of the variation in time trial performance. Variability in maximal power output, on the other hand, was attributed to total body hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass); P = 0.0038), Vo(2max) (P = 0.0213), and sO(2LEG) (P = 0.0463). In conclusion, 1) skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is the primary predictor of time trial performance in highly trained cyclists; 2) the strongest predictor for maximal incremental power output is Hb(mass); and 3) overall exercise performance (time trial performance + maximal incremental power output) correlates most strongly to measures regarding the capability for oxygen transport, high Vo(2max) and Hb(mass), in addition to measures of oxygen utilization, maximal oxidative phosphorylation, and electron transport system capacities in the skeletal muscle. PMID:21885805

Jacobs, R A; Rasmussen, P; Siebenmann, C; Díaz, V; Gassmann, M; Pesta, D; Gnaiger, E; Nordsborg, N B; Robach, P; Lundby, C



From entropy-maximization to equality-maximization: Gauss, Laplace, Pareto, and Subbotin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entropy-maximization paradigm of statistical physics is well known to generate the omnipresent Gauss law. In this paper we establish an analogous socioeconomic model which maximizes social equality, rather than physical disorder, in the context of the distributions of income and wealth in human societies. We show that-on a logarithmic scale-the Laplace law is the socioeconomic equality-maximizing counterpart of the physical entropy-maximizing Gauss law, and that this law manifests an optimized balance between two opposing forces: (i) the rich and powerful, striving to amass ever more wealth, and thus to increase social inequality; and (ii) the masses, struggling to form more egalitarian societies, and thus to increase social equality. Our results lead from log-Gauss statistics to log-Laplace statistics, yield Paretian power-law tails of income and wealth distributions, and show how the emergence of a middle-class depends on the underlying levels of socioeconomic inequality and variability. Also, in the context of asset-prices with Laplace-distributed returns, our results imply that financial markets generate an optimized balance between risk and predictability.

Eliazar, Iddo



Health status and health dynamics in an empirical model of expected longevity.  


Expected longevity is an important factor influencing older individuals' decisions such as consumption, savings, purchase of life insurance and annuities, claiming of Social Security benefits, and labor supply. It has also been shown to be a good predictor of actual longevity, which in turn is highly correlated with health status. A relatively new literature on health investments under uncertainty, which builds upon the seminal work by Grossman [Grossman, M., 1972. On the concept of health capital and demand for health. Journal of Political Economy 80, 223-255] has directly linked longevity with characteristics, behaviors, and decisions by utility maximizing agents. Our empirical model can be understood within that theoretical framework as estimating a production function of longevity. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, we directly incorporate health dynamics in explaining the variation in expected longevities, and compare two alternative measures of health dynamics: the self-reported health change, and the computed health change based on self-reports of health status. In 38% of the reports in our sample, computed health changes are inconsistent with the direct report on health changes over time. And another 15% of the sample can suffer from information losses if computed changes are used to assess changes in actual health. These potentially serious problems raise doubts regarding the use and interpretation of the computed health changes and even the lagged measures of self-reported health as controls for health dynamics in a variety of empirical settings. Our empirical results, controlling for both subjective and objective measures of health status and unobserved heterogeneity in reporting, suggest that self-reported health changes are a preferred measure of health dynamics. PMID:18187217

Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Ni, Huan



Adaptable Careers: Maximizing Less and Exploring More  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, young adults are expected to decide between educational, vocational, and job options and to make the best choice possible. Career literatures emphasize the importance of young adults' career decision making but also acknowledge the problems related to making these decisions. The authors argue that career counselors could support clients'…

van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; De Pater, Irene E.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.



Identifying Energy Systems that Maximize Cogeneration Savings  

E-print Network

IDENTIFYING ENERGY SYSTEMS THAT MAXIMIZE COGENERATION SAVINGS DAVID J. AHNER Manager Systems Eng1neer1ng Schenectady. New York ABSTRACT Th1s paper d1scusses the max1m1z1ng of Reg10nal cogenerat10n Energy Sav1ngs ut1l1z1ng var10us... technolog1es and fuels w1th1n a g1ven serv1ce reg10n. A methodology 1s developed to estab11sh the allocat10n of power to the 1nd1v1dual cogenerators such that overall energy econom1c benef1ts are max1m1zed wh1le process steam needs are s1multaneously...

Ahner, D. J.


Maximizing fluorescence collection efficiency in multiphoton microscopy  

PubMed Central

Understanding fluorescence propagation through a multiphoton microscope is of critical importance in designing high performance systems capable of deep tissue imaging. Optical models of a scattering tissue sample and the Olympus 20X 0.95NA microscope objective were used to simulate fluorescence propagation as a function of imaging depth for physiologically relevant scattering parameters. The spatio-angular distribution of fluorescence at the objective back aperture derived from these simulations was used to design a simple, maximally efficient post-objective fluorescence collection system. Monte Carlo simulations corroborated by data from experimental tissue phantoms demonstrate collection efficiency improvements of 50% – 90% over conventional, non-optimized fluorescence collection geometries at large imaging depths. Imaging performance was verified by imaging layer V neurons in mouse cortex to a depth of 850 ?m. PMID:21934897

Zinter, Joseph P.; Levene, Michael J.



Fermi surfaces in maximal gauged supergravity.  


We obtain fermion fluctuation equations around extremal charged black hole geometries in maximal gauged supergravity in four and five dimensions, and we demonstrate that their solutions display Fermi surface singularities for the dual conformal field theories at finite chemical potential. The four-dimensional case is a massless charged fermion, while in five dimensions we find a massive charged fermion with a Pauli coupling. In both cases, the corresponding scaling exponent is less than one half, leading to non-Fermi liquid behavior with no stable quasiparticles, although some excitations have widths more than 10 times smaller than their excitation energy. In the five-dimensional case, both the Fermi momentum and the scaling exponent appear to have simple values, and a Luttinger calculation suggests that the gauginos may carry most of the charge of the black hole. PMID:23004583

DeWolfe, Oliver; Gubser, Steven S; Rosen, Christopher



How to Expect When You're Expecting It's widely accepted that rational belief aims at truth.1 Objectively correct belief is true belief. A  

E-print Network

Objectively correct belief is true belief. A more controversial question: how should rational believers pursue choose between old and new versions of rules like Dominance and expected utility maximiza- tion. Call

Fitelson, Branden


Pessimistic cost-sensitive active learning of decision trees for profit maximizing targeting campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In business applications such as direct marketing, decision-makers are required to choose the action which best maximizes a utility function. Cos t-sensitive learning methods can help them achieve this goal. In this paper, we introduce Pess imistic Active Learning (PAL). PAL employs a novel pessimistic measure, which relies on confiden ce intervals and is used to balance the exploration\\/exploitation trade-off.

Lior Rokach; Lihi Naamani; Armin Shmilovici



Use of a Best Estimate Power Monitoring Tool to Maximize Power Plant Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Best Estimate Power Monitor (BEPM) is a tool that was developed to maximize nuclear power plant generation, while ensuring regulatory compliance in the face of venturi fouling, industry ultra-sonic flowmeter issues and other technical challenges. The BEPM uses ASME approved 'best estimate' methodology described in PTC 19.1-1985, 'Measurement Uncertainty', Section 3.8, 'Weighting Method'. The BEPM method utilizes many different

Dziuba; Lindsey L



Utility solar water heating workshops  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

Barrett, L.B. (Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States))



REMAP: Recursive Estimation and Maximization of A Posteriori Probabilities - Application to Transition-Based Connectionist Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the theoretical formulation of REMAP, an approach for the training and estimation of posterior probabilities using a recursive algorithm that is reminiscent of the EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm (Dempster et al. 1977) for the estimation of data likelihoods. Although very general, the method is developed in the context of a statistical model for transition-based speech

Yochai Konig; Hervé Bourlard; Nelson Morgan



Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation  

E-print Network

Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation The Effects of Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation On Teachers Autonomy and Exercise Psychology 4 (2006) 283-301" #12;Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 2 Abstract

Boyer, Edmond


Glary Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glary Utilities offers this free application to help users improve their system's performance and also protect their privacy. After installing the application, users can remove and back up faculty registry entries, along with offering a secure file deletion feature. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer.



Expectation-Based Control of Noise and Chaos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed approach to control of noise and chaos in dynamic systems would supplement conventional methods. The approach is based on fictitious forces composed of expectations governed by Fokker-Planck or Liouville equations that describe the evolution of the probability densities of the controlled parameters. These forces would be utilized as feedback control forces that would suppress the undesired diffusion of the controlled parameters. Examples of dynamic systems in which the approach is expected to prove beneficial include spacecraft, electronic systems, and coupled lasers.

Zak, Michael



Skeletal muscle vasodilatation during maximal exercise in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Maximal exercise vasodilatation results from the balance between vasoconstricting and vasodilating signals combined with the vascular reactivity to these signals. During maximal exercise with a small muscle mass the skeletal muscle vascular bed is fully vasodilated. During maximal whole body exercise, however, vasodilatation is restrained by the sympathetic system. This is necessary to avoid hypotension since the maximal vascular conductance of the musculature exceeds the maximal pumping capacity of the heart. Endurance training and high-intensity intermittent knee extension training increase the capacity for maximal exercise vasodilatation by 20–30%, mainly due to an enhanced vasodilatory capacity, as maximal exercise perfusion pressure changes little with training. The increase in maximal exercise vascular conductance is to a large extent explained by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and vascular remodelling. The vasodilatory capacity during maximal exercise is reduced or blunted with ageing, as well as in chronic heart failure patients and chronically hypoxic humans; reduced vasodilatory responsiveness and increased sympathetic activity (and probably, altered sympatholysis) are potential mechanisms accounting for this effect. Pharmacological counteraction of the sympathetic restraint may result in lower perfusion pressure and reduced oxygen extraction by the exercising muscles. However, at the same time fast inhibition of the chemoreflex in maximally exercising humans may result in increased vasodilatation, further confirming a restraining role of the sympathetic nervous system on exercise-induced vasodilatation. This is likely to be critical for the maintenance of blood pressure in exercising patients with a limited heart pump capacity. PMID:23027820

Calbet, Jose A L; Lundby, Carsten



Viral Quasispecies Assembly via Maximal Clique Enumeration  

PubMed Central

Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5. PMID:24675810

Topfer, Armin; Marschall, Tobias; Bull, Rowena A.; Luciani, Fabio



Maximal Oxygen Uptake, Sweating and Tolerance to Exercise in the Heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physiological mechanisms that facilitate acute acclimation to heat have not been fully elucidated, but the result is the establishment of a more efficient cardiovascular system to increase heat dissipation via increased sweating that allows the acclimated man to function with a cooler internal environment and to extend his performance. Men in good physical condition with high maximal oxygen uptakes generally acclimate to heat more rapidly and retain it longer than men in poorer condition. Also, upon first exposure trained men tolerate exercise in the heat better than untrained men. Both resting in heat and physical training in a cool environment confer only partial acclimation when first exposed to work in the heat. These observations suggest separate additive stimuli of metabolic heat from exercise and environmental heat to increase sweating during the acclimation process. However, the necessity of utilizing physical exercise during acclimation has been questioned. Bradbury et al. (1964) have concluded exercise has no effect on the course of heat acclimation since increased sweating can be induced by merely heating resting subjects. Preliminary evidence suggests there is a direct relationship between the maximal oxygen uptake and the capacity to maintain thermal regulation, particularly through the control of sweating. Since increased sweating is an important mechanism for the development of heat acclimation, and fit men have high sweat rates, it follows that upon initial exposure to exercise in the heat, men with high maximal oxygen uptakes should exhibit less strain than men with lower maximal oxygen uptakes. The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine if men with higher maximal oxygen uptakes exhibit greater tolerance than men with lower oxygen uptakes during early exposure to exercise in the heat, and (2) to investigate further the mechanism of the relationship between sweating and maximal work capacity.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Castle, B. L.; Ruff, W. K.



Regularized F-Measure Maximization for Feature Selection and Classification  

PubMed Central

Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis is a common tool for assessing the performance of various classifications. It gained much popularity in medical and other fields including biological markers and, diagnostic test. This is particularly due to the fact that in real-world problems misclassification costs are not known, and thus, ROC curve and related utility functions such as F-measure can be more meaningful performance measures. F-measure combines recall and precision into a global measure. In this paper, we propose a novel method through regularized F-measure maximization. The proposed method assigns different costs to positive and negative samples and does simultaneous feature selection and prediction with L1 penalty. This method is useful especially when data set is highly unbalanced, or the labels for negative (positive) samples are missing. Our experiments with the benchmark, methylation, and high dimensional microarray data show that the performance of proposed algorithm is better or equivalent compared with the other popular classifiers in limited experiments. PMID:19421401

Liu, Zhenqiu; Tan, Ming; Jiang, Feng



Core Facilities: Maximizing the Return on Investment  

PubMed Central

To conduct high-quality state-of-the-art research, clinical and translational scientists need access to specialized core facilities and appropriately trained staff. In this time of economic constraints and increasing research costs, organized and efficient core facilities are essential for researchers who seek to investigate complex translational research questions. Here, we describe efforts at the U.S . National Institutes of Health and academic medical centers to enhance the utility of cores. PMID:21832235

Farber, Gregory K.; Weiss, Linda



Increasing inspection equipment productivity by utilizing factory automation SW on TeraScan 5XX systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Especially for advanced masks the reticle inspection operation is a very significant cost factor, since it is a time consuming process and inspection tools are becoming disproportionately expensive. Analyzing and categorizing historical equipment utilization times of the reticle inspection tools however showed a significant amount of time which can be classified as non productive. In order to reduce the inspection costs the equipment utilization needed to be improved. The main contributors to non productive time were analyzed and several use cases identified, where automation utilizing a SECS1 equipment interface was expected to help to reduce these non productive times. The paper demonstrates how real time access to equipment utilization data can be applied to better control manufacturing resources. Scenarios are presented where remote monitoring and control of the inspection equipment can be used to avoid setup errors or save inspection time by faster response to problem situations. Additionally a solution to the second important need, the maximization of tool utilization in cases where not all of the intended functions are available, is explained. Both the models and the software implementation are briefly explained. For automation of the so called inspection strategy a new approach which allows separation of the business rules from the automation infrastructure was chosen. Initial results of inspection equipment performance data tracked through the SECS interface are shown. Furthermore a system integration overview is presented and examples of how the inspection strategy rules are implemented and managed are given.

Jakubski, Thomas; Piechoncinski, Michal; Moses, Raphael; Bugata, Bharathi; Schmalfuss, Heiko; Köhler, Ines; Lisowski, Jan; Klobes, Jens; Fenske, Robert



Institutional barriers to increased utilization of power plant ash in Maryland: analysis and recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is directed at the problems of disposal and utilization of coal fired power plant solid wastes in Maryland. Each year, Maryland and D.C. power plants produce over 0.8 million tons of fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag (collectively, 'ash') and this quantity is expected to increase to 1.5 million tons by 1990. While only a small fraction of these wastes is presently used as a resource, increased utilization is possible, thus decreasing the quantities landfilled. Given the potential for increased use, a question is whether the state can aid utilities in finding markets for their solid wastes, so that use can be maximized and disposal minimized. For example, if existing state and local regulations present unreasonable barriers which delay use, or make use impractical or expensive, such barriers should be removed. Positive actions might also be taken to increase utilization of the ash resource. Based on surveys of eight states and detailed analysis of the Maryland situation, this report presents the existing institutional barriers to increased ash use in Maryland. 'Institutional barriers' as used in this report refer to legal, regulatory, and administrative activities of government agents which impact utilization efforts. Along with the list of barriers, this report includes a detailed survey of the regulatory treatment of ash and standards for highway construction use of ash. The report also provides comparisons with other states and presents a set of potential remedies for consideration.

Hudson, J.F.; Stoler, M.; Demeter, C.; Farrell, S.O.



Teacher Race and Expectations for Student Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether the race of elementary school teachers in black schools was associated with teachers' expectations for student achievement and perceptions of effort was investigated. Evidence suggested that teacher race was associated only with expectations for college success. (Author/GK)

Beady, Charles H., Jr.; Hansell, Stephen



EpidemiologyQJE.tex Macroeconomic Expectations of  

E-print Network

, with important macroeconomic consequences. Keywords: inflation, expectations, unemployment, monetary policy JEL of macroeconomics by John Maynard Keynes [1936], economists have understood that macroeconomic outcomes depend upon expectations. Keynes himself believed that economies could experience fluc- tuations that reflected movements

Niebur, Ernst


Constrained Utility Maximization for Generating Visual Hari Sundaram Shih-Fu Chang  

E-print Network

. This helps us determine individual shot durations as well as the shots to drop. Our user studies show good) on demand summaries of the data stored in set-top boxes (b) in interactive television (c) browsing areas that were not investigated in earlier work: (a) the relationship between the length of a shot

Chang, Shih-Fu


Supplementing Corn-Soybean Meal Diets with Microbial Phytase Maximizes Phytate Phosphorus Utilization by Weanling Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted mately 1,200 PU\\/g of BD. Estimated maximum with crossbred weanling pigs to determine the optimal responses of these measures in pigs fed phytase were 2 dietary supplement of AspergiZZus niger phytase ac- 90% compared with MDCaP. Pigs fed 1,250 PUlg of tivity to a low-P, corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD).

X. G. Lei; P. K. Ku; E. R. Millel; M. T. Yokoyama; D. E. Ullrey



Optimum Charging Profile for Lithium-ion Batteries to Maximize Energy Storage and Utilization  

E-print Network

the system behavior of the Li-ion battery. Dynamic optimization is made possible due to the computationally of the battery. An attempt has been made to understand the dynamics of Li-ion batteries with competing transport sources such as lithium-ion batteries have had significant improvements in design, modeling, and operating

Subramanian, Venkat


Marketing as a Tool for Maximizing the Utilization of Findings from Outcome Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decreased resources, increased accountability demands, and the need for economic survival have made the evaluation of the outcomes of continuing education efforts in nursing a salient need. Economic survival, in particular, is largely dependent upon the skill of the continuing educator in achieving the desirable balance between organizational and…

Bond, Susan B.; Waltz, Carolyn F.


New Irrigation System Design for Maximizing Irrigation Efficiency and Increasing Rainfall Utilization  

E-print Network

-precision application (LEPA) system, which rather than spraying water into the air at moderate to high pressures, distributes it directly to the furrow at very low pressure through drop tubes and orifice controlled emitters. This occurs as the system continuously moves...

Lyle, W. M.; Bordovsky, J. P.


76 FR 37376 - Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 records under the Freedom of Information Act, the...individuals or persons, press releases, archival records under the Freedom of Information Act, the...individuals or persons. Press releases, fact...



76 FR 49473 - Petition to Maximize Practical Utility of List 1 Chemicals Screened Through EPA's Endocrine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...substances for potential endocrine effects. Potentially...Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes, may...chemical substances for endocrine effects. This listing...Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes...



Maximizing Queueing Network Utility Subject to Stability: Greedy Primal-Dual Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a model of controlled queueing network, which operates and makes control decisions in discrete time. An underlying random network mode determines the set of available controls in each time slot. Each control decision \\

Alexander L. Stolyar



Ground truth spectrometry and imagery of eruption clouds to maximize utility of satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field experiments with thermal imaging infrared radiometers were performed and a laboratory system was designed for controlled study of simulated ash clouds. Using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) thermal infrared bands 4 and 5, a radiative transfer method was developed to retrieve particle sizes, optical depth and particle mass involcanic clouds. A model was developed for measuring the same parameters using TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). Related publications are attached.

Rose, William I.



Using materials prognosis to maximize the utilization potential of complex mechanical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance and life limits for structural materials in complex mechanical systems are often established based heavily on a fear of failure. Conventional approaches for avoiding structural failure often involve extensive periodic in spections, lengthy maintenance processes, and highly conservative “go, no-go” operational decisions, all of which may significantly impair system readiness. This article summarizes a typical present-day life-management process for an advanced system and then presents the key elements of an alternative life-management approach known as materials damage prognosis.

Christodoulou, Leo; Larsen, James M.



A sampling plan for conduit-flow karst springs: Minimizing sampling cost and maximizing statistical utility  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations should be sampled. Either the geometric mean or the flow-weighted average of the suspended constituents should be used. If automatic samplers are used, then they may be programmed to collect storm samples as frequently as every few minutes to provide details on the arrival time of constituents of interest. However, only samples collected bihourly should be used to calculate averages. By adopting a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with high-flow samples, the need to continuously monitor discharge, or to search for and analyze existing data to develop a statistically valid monitoring plan, is lessened.Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations should be sampled. Either the geometric mean or the flow-weighted average of the suspended constituents should be used. If automatic samplers are used, then they may be programmed to collect storm samples as frequently as every few minutes to provide details on the arrival time of constituents of interest. However, only samples collected bihourly should be used to calculate averages. By adopting a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with high-flow samples, the need to continuously monitor discharge, or to search for and analyze existing data to develop a statistically valid monitoring plan, is lessened.

Currens, J. C.



Learning, Adaptive Expectations and Technology Shocks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the macroeconomic implications of adaptive expectations in a standard growth model. We show that the self-confirming equilibrium under adaptive expectations is the same as the steady state rational expectations equilibrium for all admissible parameter values, but that dynamics around the steady state are substantially different between the two equilibria. The differences are driven mainly by the dampened

Kevin X. D. Huang; Zheng Liu; Tao Zha



UTSC Undergraduate Degree Level Expectations March, 2008  

E-print Network

UTSC Undergraduate Degree Level Expectations March, 2008 Introduction is document sets out the goals and expectations that UTSC has for its undergraduate degrees and programs of study. ese degree expectations will be used to assess existing and new programs. ey also provide a standard by which students can

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto


Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter? Laetitia-14Dec2010 #12;Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter of remittances on financial expectations in Albania using longitudinal data covering the period 2002

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Maximizing a psychological uplift in love dynamics  

E-print Network

In this paper, we investigate the dynamical properties of a psychological uplift in lovers. We first evaluate extensively the dynamical equations which were recently given by Rinaldi et. al., Physica A 392, pp.3231-3239 (2013). Then, the dependences of the equations on several parameters are numerically examined. From the view point of lasting partnership for lovers, especially, for married couples, one should optimize the parameters appearing in the dynamical equations to maintain the love for their respective partners. To achieve this optimization, we propose a new idea where the parameters are stochastic variables and the parameters in the next time step are given as expectations over a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution at a finite temperature. This idea is very general and might be applicable to other models dealing with human relationships.

Banerjee, Malay; Inoue, Jun-ichi



Maximizing industrial infrastructure efficiency in Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a consequence of the increasing aluminum production in Iceland, local processing of aluminum skimmings has become a feasible business opportunity. A recycling plant for this purpose was built in Helguvik on the Reykjanes peninsula in 2003. The case of the recycling plant reflects increased concern regarding environmental aspects of the industry. An interesting characteristic of this plant is the fact that it is run in the same facilities as a large fishmeal production installation. It is operated by the same personnel and uses—partly—the same equipment and infrastructure. This paper reviews the grounds for these decisions and the experience of this merger of a traditional fish melting industry and a more recent aluminum melting industry after 6 years of operation. The paper is written by the original entrepreneurs behind the company, who provide observations on how the aluminum industry in Iceland has evolved since the starting of Alur’s operation and what might be expected in the near future.

Ingason, Helgi Thor; Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I.



Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise.  


The anion nitrate-abundant in our diet-has recently emerged as a major pool of nitric oxide (NO) synthase-independent NO production. Nitrate is reduced stepwise in vivo to nitrite and then NO and possibly other bioactive nitrogen oxides. This reductive pathway is enhanced during low oxygen tension and acidosis. A recent study shows a reduction in oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise attributable to dietary nitrate. We went on to study the effects of dietary nitrate on various physiological and biochemical parameters during maximal exercise. Nine healthy, nonsmoking volunteers (age 30+/-2.3 years, VO(2max) 3.72+/-0.33 L/min) participated in this study, which had a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Subjects received dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (0.1 mmol/kg/day) or placebo (NaCl) for 2 days before the test. This dose corresponds to the amount found in 100-300 g of a nitrate-rich vegetable such as spinach or beetroot. The maximal exercise tests consisted of an incremental exercise to exhaustion with combined arm and leg cranking on two separate ergometers. Dietary nitrate reduced VO(2max) from 3.72+/-0.33 to 3.62+/-0.31 L/min, P<0.05. Despite the reduction in VO(2max) the time to exhaustion trended to an increase after nitrate supplementation (524+/-31 vs 563+/-30 s, P=0.13). There was a correlation between the change in time to exhaustion and the change in VO(2max) (R(2)=0.47, P=0.04). A moderate dietary dose of nitrate significantly reduces VO(2max) during maximal exercise using a large active muscle mass. This reduction occurred with a trend toward increased time to exhaustion implying that two separate mechanisms are involved: one that reduces VO(2max) and another that improves the energetic function of the working muscles. PMID:19913611

Larsen, Filip J; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O; Ekblom, Björn



Middleware for Pervasive Spaces: Balancing Privacy and Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Middleware for pervasive spaces has to meet conflicting re- quirements. It has to both maximize the utility of the information ex- posed and ensure that this information does not violate users' privacy. In order to resolve these conflicts, we propose a framework grounded in utility theory where users dynamically control the level of disclosure about their information. We begin by

Daniel Massaguer; Bijit Hore; Mamadou H. Diallo; Sharad Mehrotra; Nalini Venkatasubramanian



Different types of compression clothing do not increase sub-maximal and maximal endurance performance in well-trained athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three textiles with increasing compressive surface were compared with non-compressive conventional clothing on physiological and perceptual variables during sub-maximal and maximal running. Fifteen well-trained endurance athletes (mean ± s: age 27.1 ± 4.8 years, [Vdot]O2max 63.7 ± 4.9 ml · min · kg) performed four sub-maximal (?70%[Vdot]O2max) and maximal tests with and without different compression stockings, tights, and whole-body compression suits. Arterial lactate concentration, oxygen saturation and partial pressure, pH, oxygen

Billy Sperlich; Matthias Haegele; Silvia Achtzehn; John Linville; Hans-Christer Holmberg; Joachim Mester



Analytical Properties of Credibilistic Expectation Functions  

PubMed Central

The expectation function of fuzzy variable is an important and widely used criterion in fuzzy optimization, and sound properties on the expectation function may help in model analysis and solution algorithm design for the fuzzy optimization problems. The present paper deals with some analytical properties of credibilistic expectation functions of fuzzy variables that lie in three aspects. First, some continuity theorems on the continuity and semicontinuity conditions are proved for the expectation functions. Second, a differentiation formula of the expectation function is derived which tells that, under certain conditions, the derivative of the fuzzy expectation function with respect to the parameter equals the expectation of the derivative of the fuzzy function with respect to the parameter. Finally, a law of large numbers for fuzzy variable sequences is obtained leveraging on the Chebyshev Inequality of fuzzy variables. Some examples are provided to verify the results obtained. PMID:24723800

Wang, Bo; Watada, Junzo



Quantitative determination of maximal imaging depth in all-NIR multiphoton microscopy images of thick tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report two methods for quantitatively determining maximal imaging depth from thick tissue images captured using all-near-infrared (NIR) multiphoton microscopy (MPM). All-NIR MPM is performed using 1550 nm laser excitation with NIR detection. This method enables imaging more than five-fold deep in thick tissues in comparison with other NIR excitation microscopy methods. In this study, we show a correlation between the multiphoton signal along the depth of tissue samples and the shape of the corresponding empirical probability density function (pdf) of the photon counts. Histograms from this analysis become increasingly symmetric with the imaging depth. This distribution transitions toward the background distribution at higher imaging depths. Inspired by these observations, we propose two independent methods based on which one can automatically determine maximal imaging depth in the all-NIR MPM images of thick tissues. At this point, the signal strength is expected to be weak and similar to the background. The first method suggests the maximal imaging depth corresponds to the deepest image plane where the ratio between the mean and median of the empirical photon-count pdf is outside the vicinity of 1. The second method suggests the maximal imaging depth corresponds to the deepest image plane where the squared distance between the empirical photon-count mean obtained from the object and the mean obtained from the background is greater than a threshold. We demonstrate the application of these methods in all-NIR MPM images of mouse kidney tissues to study maximal depth penetration in such tissues.

Sarder, Pinaki; Akers, Walter J.; Sudlow, Gail P.; Yazdanfar, Siavash; Achilefu, Samuel



Learning To Minimize Efforts versus Maximizing Rewards: Computational Principles and Neural Correlates.  


The mechanisms of reward maximization have been extensively studied at both the computational and neural levels. By contrast, little is known about how the brain learns to choose the options that minimize action cost. In principle, the brain could have evolved a general mechanism that applies the same learning rule to the different dimensions of choice options. To test this hypothesis, we scanned healthy human volunteers while they performed a probabilistic instrumental learning task that varied in both the physical effort and the monetary outcome associated with choice options. Behavioral data showed that the same computational rule, using prediction errors to update expectations, could account for both reward maximization and effort minimization. However, these learning-related variables were encoded in partially dissociable brain areas. In line with previous findings, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was found to positively represent expected and actual rewards, regardless of effort. A separate network, encompassing the anterior insula, the dorsal anterior cingulate, and the posterior parietal cortex, correlated positively with expected and actual efforts. These findings suggest that the same computational rule is applied by distinct brain systems, depending on the choice dimension-cost or benefit-that has to be learned. PMID:25411490

Skvortsova, Vasilisa; Palminteri, Stefano; Pessiglione, Mathias



On profit-maximizing envy-free pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of pricing items for sale to consumers so as to maximize the seller's revenue. We assume that for each consumer, we know the maximum amount he would be willing to pay for each bundle of items, and want to find pricings of the items with corresponding allocations that maximize seller profit and at the same time

Venkatesan Guruswami; Jason D. Hartline; Anna R. Karlin; David Kempe; Claire Kenyon; Frank McSherry



Acceptance Strategies for Maximizing Agent Profits in Online Scheduling  

E-print Network

- fore study the online decision problem of acceptance of unit length jobs with time constraints. We is to maximize its profit through selecting (and executing) jobs. This is an online decision problemAcceptance Strategies for Maximizing Agent Profits in Online Scheduling Mengxiao Wu1 , Mathijs de

de Weerdt, Mathijs


IIB solutions with N>28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that all IIB supergravity backgrounds which admit more than 28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric. In particular, we find that for all N>28 backgrounds the supercovariant curvature vanishes, and that the quotients of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds either preserve all 32 or N<29 supersymmetries.

U. Gran; J. Gutowski; G. Papadopoulos; D. Roest



AT raditional Profit Maximizing Producer and CSR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the behaviour of a profit maximizing monopolist in a product differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social respon- sibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corpo- rate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behaviour.

Leonardo Becchetti; Luisa Giallonardo; Maria Elisabetta Tessitore



Constrained Nonlinear Predictive Control for Maximizing Production in Polymerization Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief, a new constrained nonlinear predictive control scheme is proposed for maximizing the production in polymerization processes. The key features of the proposed feedback strategy are its ability to rigorously handle the process constraints (input saturation, maximum allowed heat production, maximal temperature values, and rate of change) as well as its real time implementability due to the low

Mazen Alamir; Nida Sheibat-Othman; Sami Othman



Supply Chain Network Design Profit Maximization and Oligopolistic Competition  

E-print Network

Supply Chain Network Design Under Profit Maximization and Oligopolistic Competition Anna Nagurney model the supply chain network design problem with oligopolis- tic firms who are involved. The profit-maximizing firms select both the capacities associated with the various supply chain network

Nagurney, Anna


arXiv:physics/0010039 Maximally Informative Statistics  

E-print Network

arXiv:physics/0010039 v1 15 Oct 2000 Maximally Informative Statistics Maximally Informative Statistics David R. Wolf PO 8308, Austin, TX 78713-8308, USA, E-mail: Dr. Wolf: Revision history: April 1996. Presented Bayesian Statistics 6, Valencia, 1998

Wolf, David R.


Variational Information Maximization in Gaussian Channels Felix V. Agakov  

E-print Network

(y|x). Here H(y) # -#log p(y)# p(y) and H(y|x) # -#log p(y|x)# p(x,y) are marginal and conditional entropiesVariational Information Maximization in Gaussian Channels Felix V. Agakov School of Informatics that PCA may be viewed as the solution to maximizing information transmission between a high dimensional

Agakov, Felix


Variational Information Maximization in Gaussian Channels Felix V. Agakov  

E-print Network

(y|x). Here H(y) - log p(y) p(y) and H(y|x) - log p(y|x) p(x,y) are marginal and conditional entropiesVariational Information Maximization in Gaussian Channels Felix V. Agakov School of Informatics that PCA may be viewed as the solution to maximizing information transmission between a high dimensional

Agakov, Felix


Maximizing global entropy reduction for active learning in speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new active learning algorithm to address the problem of selecting a limited subset of utterances for tran- scribing from a large amount of unlabeled utterances so that the accuracy of the automatic speech recognition system can be maximized. Our algorithm differentiates itself from ear- lier work in that it uses a criterion that maximizes the lattice entropy

Balakrishnan Varadarajan; Dong Yu; Li Deng; Alex Acero



New copulas obtained by maximizing Tsallis or Renyi Entropies  

E-print Network

New copulas obtained by maximizing Tsallis or R´enyi Entropies Doriano-Boris Pougaza and Ali distribution function when the one dimensional marginal cumulative distributions are prescribed. The same to distributions with bounded support, we propose to study the solutions which maximize Shannon [3], Tsallis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Maximal Hypersurfaces in Asymptotically Stationary Space-Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existence of maximal hypersurfaces and of foliations by maximal hypersurfaces\\u000ais proven in two classes of asymptotically flat spacetimes which possess a one\\u000aparameter group of isometries whose orbits are timelike ``near infinity''. The\\u000afirst class consists of strongly causal asymptotically flat spacetimes which\\u000acontain no ``black hole or white hole\\

Piotr T. Chrusciel; R. Wald



Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…

Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.



Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…

Pace, Andrew K.



Functional Relationships Between Risky and Riskless Multiattribute Utility Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Expected utility theory and conjoint measurement theory form two major classes of models and assessment procedures to construct multi-attribute utility functions. In conjoint measurement theory a value function v is constructed which preserves preferences...

D. Von Winterfeldt



Documenting and explaining the common AAB pattern in music and humor: establishing and breaking expectations.  


The AAB pattern consists of two similar events followed by a third dissimilar event. The prevalence of this pattern in the aesthetic domain may be explained as violation of expectation: A minimum of two iterations is required to establish a repetitive pattern; once established, it is most efficient to promptly violate the expected continuance of the pattern to produce the maximal aesthetic effect. We demonstrate the prevalence of this pattern (in comparison to AB or AAAB) in a representative sample of a variety of musical genres and in a representative sample of repetitive genre of jokes. We also provide experimental evidence that the AAB pattern in jokes is maximally effective in producing a humor response in participants. PMID:16938077

Rozin, Paul; Rozin, Alexander; Appel, Brian; Wachtel, Charles



Time-Variation in Expected Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article characterizes the stochastic behavior of expected retu rns on common stocks. The authors assume market efficiency and postulate an autoregressive process for conditional expected returns. They use weekly returns of ten size-based portfolios over the 1962-8 5 period and find that (1) the variation through time in expected returns is well characterized by a stationary first-order autoregression process;

Jennifer Conrad; Gautam Kaul



Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancy–value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy–value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles



Chapter 5. Measurements of Expectations: The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) Survey  

E-print Network

138 Chapter 5. Measurements of Expectations: The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) Survey I. OVERVIEW A. What are Expectations? In chapter 2, several examples were used from the Physics Education or her own experiences, brings to the physics class a set of expectations about what sorts of things

Maryland at College Park, University of


A taxonomic approach to communicating maxims in interstellar messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous discussions of interstellar messages that could be sent to extraterrestrial intelligence have focused on descriptions of mathematics, science, and aspects of human culture and civilization. Although some of these depictions of humanity have implicitly referred to our aspirations, this has not clearly been separated from descriptions of our actions and attitudes as they are. In this paper, a methodology is developed for constructing interstellar messages that convey information about our aspirations by developing a taxonomy of maxims that provide guidance for living. Sixty-six maxims providing guidance for living were judged for degree of similarity to each of other. Quantitative measures of the degree of similarity between all pairs of maxims were derived by aggregating similarity judgments across individual participants. These composite similarity ratings were subjected to a cluster analysis, which yielded a taxonomy that highlights perceived interrelationships between individual maxims and that identifies major classes of maxims. Such maxims can be encoded in interstellar messages through three-dimensional animation sequences conveying narratives that highlight interactions between individuals. In addition, verbal descriptions of these interactions in Basic English can be combined with these pictorial sequences to increase intelligibility. Online projects to collect messages such as the SETI Institute's Earth Speaks and La Tierra Habla, can be used to solicit maxims from participants around the world.

Vakoch, Douglas A.



Combustion Research Aboard the ISS Utilizing the Combustion Integrated Rack and Microgravity Science Glovebox  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Physical Sciences Research Program of NASA sponsors a broad suite of peer-reviewed research investigating fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics. This research is performed through both ground-based and on-orbit research capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) and two facilities, the Combustion Integrated Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox, are key elements in the execution of microgravity combustion flight research planned for the foreseeable future. This paper reviews the Microgravity Combustion Science research planned for the International Space Station implemented from 2003 through 2012. Examples of selected research topics, expected outcomes, and potential benefits will be provided. This paper also summarizes a multi-user hardware development approach, recapping the progress made in preparing these research hardware systems. Within the description of this approach, an operational strategy is presented that illustrates how utilization of constrained ISS resources may be maximized dynamically to increase science through design decisions made during hardware development.

Sutliff, Thomas J.; Otero, Angel M.; Urban, David L.



Expectancy Violations of Instructor Communication as Predictors of Motivation and Learning: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing Burgoon's expectancy violations theory, this study compared traditional and nontraditional students' prescriptive expectations and experiences with instructor immediacy, clarity, and affinity-seeking to determine the effects on cognitive learning and state motivation. Results revealed that significantly higher levels of state motivation and cognitive learning existed for nontraditional students. Negative violations of instructor clarity expectations for traditional and nontraditional students had

Marian L. Houser



Teaching Rational Expectations at 'A' Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the economic concept of Rational Expectations (RE) and demonstrates how it can be introduced to British 'A' level students. Illustrates the implications of RE for the Cobweb and Augmented Phillips Curve market models. Outlines some attractions and limitations of rational expectations. (Author/DH)

Beachill, Bob



Expectations of Vocational Teachers for Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined three components of the initial expectations of 66 secondary vocational teachers toward mainstreamed educable mentally retarded and learning disabled children. Among findings was that presence of the labels lowered the initial academic and behavioral expectations of teachers in the sample. (SB)

Minner, Sam



Framing expectations in early HIV cure research  

PubMed Central

Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term ‘experiment’. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dube, Karine; Henderson, Gail E.; Margolis, David M.



Course Expectations and Career Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben



College students' dining expectations in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of the study is to investigate college students' dining expectations and define the factors that shape their dining choices. In addition, the study investigates whether gender, ethnic origin, prior food and beverage working experience, spending habits and dining frequency influence students' dining expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A quantitative questionnaire was developed and randomly administered to college

Anastasios Zopiatis; Jovana Pribic



Expectations of two-level telegraph noise  

E-print Network

We find expectation values of functions of time integrated two-level telegraph noise. Expectation values of this noise are evaluated under simple control pulses. Both the Gaussian limit and $1/f$ noise are considered. We apply the results to a specific superconducting quantum computing example, which illustrates the use of this technique for calculating error probabilities.

Jesse Fern




Microsoft Academic Search

Survival following a diagnosis of AD is important information for health planners, caregivers, patients, and their families. AD is associated with variable, but shortened life expectancy. Knowing the expected survival time may empower people with AD and their families, but clinicians currently have limited predictive information. A better knowledge about prognosis in patients affected by AD and related disorders should

O. Zanetti; S. B. Solerte; F. Cantoni



The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…

Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen



Marijuana Primes, Marijuana Expectancies, and Arithmetic Efficiency*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Previous research has shown that primes associated with alcohol influence behavior consistent with specific alcohol expectancies. The present study examined whether exposure to marijuana-related primes and marijuana expectancies interact to produce similar effects. Specifically, the present study examined whether marijuana primes and marijuana expectancies regarding cognitive and behavioral impairment interact to influence performance on an arithmetic task. Method: Two independent samples (N = 260) of undergraduate students (both marijuana users and nonusers) first completed measures of marijuana-outcome expectancies associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment and with general negative effects (Sample 2). Later in the semester, participants were exposed to marijuana-related (or neutral) primes and then completed an arithmetic task. Results: Results from Sample 1 indicated that participants who were exposed to marijuana-themed magazine covers performed more poorly on the arithmetic task if they expected that marijuana would lead to cognitive and behavioral impairment. Results from Sample 2 indicated that, for marijuana users, cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies, but not expectancies regarding general negative effects, similarly moderated arithmetic performance for participants exposed to marijuana-related words. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that the implicit activation of specific marijuana-outcome expectancies can influence cognitive processes. Implications for research on marijuana are discussed. PMID:19371490

Hicks, Joshua A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Friedman, Ronald S.



What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok



Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos



Vent conditions for expected eruptions at Vesuvius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining consistent sets of vent conditions for next expected eruptions at Vesuvius is crucial for the simulation of the sub-aerial processes originating the volcanic hazard and the eruption impact. Here we refer to the expected eruptive scales and conditions defined in the frame of the EC Exploris project, and simulate the dynamics of magma ascent along the volcanic conduit for

Paolo Papale; Antonella Longo



Framing expectations in early HIV cure research.  


Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term 'experiment'. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dubé, Karine; Henderson, Gail E; Margolis, David M



Expectancy in mediational models of cocaine use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theoretical explanations of how expectancies may influence cocaine use were studied. Hypotheses from these approaches use trait (sensation seeking and social conformity), cognitive (expectancy), and state-like (depression and loneliness) constructs to explain cocaine use and its problem consequences. Constructs from these different approaches were compared as predictors of cocaine use among a community sample of adults. Results revealed that

Alan W. Stacy; Michael D. Newcomb; Peter M. Bentler



Exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle exercise: no contralateral effects on muscle activity in maximal motor performances.  


Minor cross-over effects of unilateral muscle fatigue have been reported after isometric exercises. The present study re-examined this possibility after an exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC)-type exercise. Twenty-five subjects performed on a sledge apparatus a unilateral exhaustive rebound exercise involving mostly the triceps surae muscle group. Ipsilateral vs contralateral fatigue effects were compared in uni- and bilateral tests that included a maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) and a series of 10 maximal drop jumps (DJ). These tests were carried out just before and after (POST) the exhaustive SSC exercise, and were repeated 2 days later (D2), at the expected time of major inflammation and pain. The exercised (fatigued) leg analysis revealed significant declines in MVC and DJ performances at POST and D2, the latter ones being associated with significant decreases in voluntary muscle activity. In contrast, no significant change was found for the non-fatigued leg. These results do not support the existence of cross-over effects after exhaustive SSC exercise, at least when tested in maximal static and dynamic unilateral motor tasks. PMID:17316375

Regueme, S C; Barthèlemy, J; Nicol, C



The Complexity of Welfare Maximization in Congestion Games  

E-print Network

We investigate issues of complexity related to welfare maximization in congestion games. In particular, we provide a full classification of complexity results for the problem of finding a minimum cost solution to a congestion ...

Meyers, Carol A.


Long Local Searches for Maximal Bipartite Subgraphs Hemanshu Kaul  

E-print Network

Long Local Searches for Maximal Bipartite Subgraphs Hemanshu Kaul and Douglas B. West October 30] and proved Department of Applied Mathematics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616, kaul

West, Douglas B.


A throughput-maximizing facility planning and layout model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a throughput-maximizing algorithm for facility planning and layout of flexible manufacturing systems. It uses a computationally efficient mean-value analysis model to analyse system configurations, and extends the methodology of CRAFT in layout planning.




Quantitative genetics of maximal oxygen consumption in a garter snake  

E-print Network

presumed full-sibling offspring from each of 45 wild- caught gravid garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis; heritability; Thamnophis sirtalis MAXIMAL AEROBIC POWER is one of the most important factors influencing

Garland Jr., Theodore


Maximally Entangled States via Mutual Unbiased collective Bases  

E-print Network

Relative and center of mass cordinates are used to generalize mutually unbiased bases (MUB) and define mutually unbiased bases (MUCB). Maximal entangled states are given as product staes in the collective varibles

M. Revzen




E-print Network

COMMUTING NILPOTENT OPERATORS AND MAXIMAL RANK SEMRA ¨OZT¨URK KAPTANO GLU Abstract. Let X, X canonical form, commuting nilpotent matrices. 1 #12;2 SEMRA ¨OZT¨URK KAPTANO GLU Let k[G] denote the group

Kaptanoglu, Semra Ozturk



E-print Network


Demeter, Ciprian


Maximizing Your Investment in Building Automation System Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how organizational issues and system standardization can be important factors that determine an institution's ability to fully exploit contemporary building automation systems (BAS). Further presented is management strategy for maximizing BAS investments. (GR)

Darnell, Charles



Comparison of maximal unilateral versus bilateral voluntary contraction force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine whether the difference in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) forces between\\u000a unilateral (UL) and bilateral (BL) contractions could be due to a difference in the timing of MVC peak force production between\\u000a legs during BL MVC, or due to the maximal voluntary activation level (VAL) in each leg between UL and BL

Boris Matkowski; Alain Martin; Romuald Lepers


Eliciting vague but proper maximal entropy priors in Bayesian experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Priors elicited according to maximal entropy rules have been used for years in objective and subjective Bayesian analysis.\\u000a However, when the prior knowledge remains fuzzy or dubious, they often suffer from impropriety which can make them uncomfortable\\u000a to use. In this article we suggest the formal elicitation of an encompassing family for the standard maximal entropy (ME)\\u000a priors and the

Nicolas Bousquet



Maximal suppression of renin-angiotensin system in nonproliferative glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximal suppression of renin-angiotensin system in nonproliferative glomerulonephritis.BackgroundElimination of residual proteinuria is the novel target in renoprotrection; nevertheless, whether a greater suppression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) effectively improves the antiproteinuric response in patients with moderate proteinuria remains ill-defined.MethodsWe evaluated the effects of maximizing RAS suppression on quantitative and qualitative proteinuria in ten patients with stable nonnephrotic proteinuria (2.55 ± 0.94

Carmela Iodice; Mario M. Balletta; Roberto Minutolo; Paolo Giannattasio; Stefano Tuccillo; Vincenzo Bellizzi; Maurizio D'Amora; Giorgio Rinaldi; Giuseppe Signoriello; Giuseppe Conte; Luca De Nicola



Training does not increase maximal lumbar extension in healthy adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate if there is training reserve in the maximal lumbar extension.Design. Three-year longitudinal study.Background. Among adults there is variation in the normal range of sagittal motion of the lumbar spine, but reduced spinal flexibility does not predict future occupational back pain. In various sports and in ballet, maximal extension of lumbar spine is a common manoeuvre, and low-back

UM Kujala; A Oksanen; S Taimela; JJ Salminen



Evolution of Shanghai STOCK Market Based on Maximal Spanning Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, using a moving window to scan through every stock price time series over a period from 2 January 2001 to 11 March 2011 and mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between stock prices, we construct a corresponding weighted network for 501 Shanghai stocks in every given window. Next, we extract its maximal spanning tree and understand the structure variation of Shanghai stock market by analyzing the average path length, the influence of the center node and the p-value for every maximal spanning tree. A further analysis of the structure properties of maximal spanning trees over different periods of Shanghai stock market is carried out. All the obtained results indicate that the periods around 8 August 2005, 17 October 2007 and 25 December 2008 are turning points of Shanghai stock market, at turning points, the topology structure of the maximal spanning tree changes obviously: the degree of separation between nodes increases; the structure becomes looser; the influence of the center node gets smaller, and the degree distribution of the maximal spanning tree is no longer a power-law distribution. Lastly, we give an analysis of the variations of the single-step and multi-step survival ratios for all maximal spanning trees and find that two stocks are closely bonded and hard to be broken in a short term, on the contrary, no pair of stocks remains closely bonded for a long time.

Yang, Chunxia; Shen, Ying; Xia, Bingying



Maximizing Kolmogorov Complexity for accurate and robust bright field cell segmentation  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of cellular processes with microscopic bright field defocused imaging has the advantage of low phototoxicity and minimal sample preparation. However bright field images lack the contrast and nuclei reporting available with florescent approaches and therefore present a challenge to methods that segment and track the live cells. Moreover, such methods must be robust to systemic and random noise, variability in experimental configuration, and the multiple unknowns in the biological system under study. Results A new method called maximal-information is introduced that applies a non-parametric information theoretic approach to segment bright field defocused images. The method utilizes a combinatorial optimization strategy to select specific defocused images from each image stack such that set complexity, a Kolmogorov complexity measure, is maximized. Differences among these selected images are then applied to initialize and guide a level set based segmentation algorithm. The performance of the method is compared with a recent approach that uses a fixed defocused image selection strategy over an image data set of embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T) from multiple experiments. Results demonstrate that the adaptive maximal-information approach significantly improves precision and recall of segmentation over the diversity of data sets. Conclusions Integrating combinatorial optimization with non-parametric Kolmogorov complexity has been shown to be effective in extracting information from microscopic bright field defocused images. The approach is application independent and has the potential to be effective in processing a diversity of noisy and redundant high throughput biological data. PMID:24475950




E-print Network

comments, and other offensive language or behavior are not acceptable; d. Bullying, in any form or to any expect that the student will treat this experience as a an academic one in a school environment

Ellis, Randy


Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We develop a multiple asset rational expectations model of securities prices to explain the determinants of nancial market contagion. Our primary focus is on con- tagion through the cross-market hedging (rebalancing) of shared macroeconomic risks. Through...

L. E. Kodres, M. Pritsker



What to Expect during Heart Surgery  


... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Heart Surgery Heart surgery is done in a hospital, ... surgery, takes about 3–6 hours. Traditional Open-Heart Surgery For this type of surgery, you'll ...


Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.




E-print Network

arts and sciences education. For CAS faculty in their capacity as teachers education and the liberal arts should also inform research and scholarship 1 FACULTY EXPECTATIONS: COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES DRAFT

Goldberg, Bennett


What to Expect After Heart Surgery  


... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Heart Surgery Recovery in the Hospital You may spend a ... care unit (ICU), depending on the type of heart surgery you have. An intravenous (IV) needle might be ...


Expectations of Secondary Science: Realisation and Retrospect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a series of interviews with students at the end of their first year of studying science in secondary schools. Compares and contrasts students' perceptions of reality with their expectations. (DDR)

Hawkey, Roy; Clay, John



Women's attitudes and expectations regarding gynaecological examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectiveto describe women's expectations of doctors and nurses during gynaecological examination, to identify if women have a preference for the doctor's gender, to investigate women's feelings during examination, and to determine why women consult the gynaecological outpatient clinic.

Emre Yanikkerem; Meral Özdemir; Hilal Bingol; Ay?e Tatar; Gülten Karadeniz



What to Expect Before a Heart Transplant  


... on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Heart Transplant The Heart Transplant Waiting List Patients who are eligible for a ... cardiac rehab after the transplant. Contact With the Transplant Center During the Wait Patients on the waiting ...


An expectation model of referring expressions  

E-print Network

This thesis introduces EMRE, an expectation-based model of referring expressions. EMRE is proposed as a model of non-syntactic dependencies - in particular, discourse-level semantic dependencies that bridge sentence gaps. ...

Kræmer, John, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

Pearl, Shela



Manipulation of Expectancies about Counseling and Psychotherapy: Review and Analysis of Expectancy Manipulation Strategies and Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews investigations attempting to manipulate clients' expectations for counseling or psychotherapy. Describes and evaluates six strategies used in attempting expectancy manipulation, none with significant success. Audiotaped and videotaped interventions proved most effective, verbal interactions ineffective, and printed documents of dubious…

Tinsley, Howard E. A.; And Others



Converting customer expectations into achievable results.  


It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system. PMID:10623140

Landis, G A



Women's expectations and experiences of childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to explore, describe and understand the expectations during pregnancy and subsequent experiences of childbirth in primiparae.Design: a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. Data were collected using unstructured, tape-recorded interviews in late pregnancy and at two weeks post birth.Setting: the north of England.Participants: eight pregnant women, expecting their first baby.Findings: the women all wanted to take an active part

Jo Gibbins; Ann M. Thomson



Effect of Expected Rewards on Children's Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of expected rewards on children's creativity. Sixty-one female gymnasts (ages 4-17) were randomly assigned to a no-reward or expected reward condition. A11 partici- pants completed both a training task that required di- vergent thinking (generating themes for a gymnastics gala) and a transfer task (using circles to make pic- tures). The reward contingency was in

Mireille Joussemet; Richard Koestner



Incorporating life expectancy in glaucoma care  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo calculate for which combinations of age and perimetric disease stage glaucoma patients are unlikely to become visually impaired during their lifetime.MethodsWe used residual life expectancy data (life expectancy adjusted for the age already reached) as provided by Statistics Netherlands and rates of progression as derived from published studies. We calculated the baseline mean deviation (MD) for which an individual

C Wesselink; R Stoutenbeek; N M Jansonius



Muscle function in men and women during maximal eccentric exercise.  


This study assessed muscle fatigue patterns of the elbow flexors in untrained men and women to determine if sex differences exist during acute maximal eccentric exercise. High-intensity eccentric exercise is often used by athletes to elicit gains in muscle strength and size gains. Development of fatigue during this type of exercise can increase risk of injury; therefore, it is important to understand fatigue patterns during eccentric exercise to minimize injury risk exposure while still promoting training effects. While many isometric exercise studies have demonstrated that women show less fatigue, the patterns of fatigue during purely eccentric exercise have not been assessed in men and women. Based on the lack of sex differences in overall strength loss immediately post-eccentric exercise, it was hypothesized that women and men would have similar relative fatigue pattern responses (i.e., change from baseline) during a single bout of maximal eccentric exercise. Forty-six subjects (24 women and 22 men) completed 5 sets of 10 maximal eccentric contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength was assessed at baseline and immediately following each exercise set. Maximal eccentric torque and contractile properties (i.e., contraction time, work, half relaxation time, and maximal rate of torque development) were calculated for each contraction. Men and women demonstrated similar relative isometric (32% for men and 39% for women) and eccentric (32% for men and 39% for women) fatigue as well as similar deficits in work done and rates of torque development and relaxation during exercise (p > 0.05). Untrained men and women displayed similar relative responses in all measures of muscle function during a single bout of maximal eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Thus, there is no reason to suspect that women may be more vulnerable to fatigue-related injury. PMID:18545170

Hubal, Monica J; Rubinstein, Scott R; Clarkson, Priscilla M



Transient hovering performance of hummingbirds under conditions of maximal loading.  


Maximal load-lifting capacities of six ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) were determined under conditions of burst performance. Mechanical power output under maximal loading was then compared with maximal hovering performance in hypodense gas mixtures of normodense air and heliox. The maximal load lifted was similar at air temperatures of 5 and 25 degrees C, and averaged 80% of body mass. The duration of load-lifting was brief, of the order of 1 s, and was probably sustained via phosphagen substrates. Under maximal loading, estimates of muscle mass-specific mechanical power output assuming perfect elastic energy storage averaged 206 W kg-1, compared with 94 W kg-1 during free hovering without loading. Under conditions of limiting performance in hypodense mixtures, maximal mechanical power output was much lower (131 W kg-1, five birds) but was sustained for longer (4 s), demonstrating an inverse relationship between the magnitude and duration of maximum power output. In free hovering flight, stroke amplitude and wingbeat frequency varied in inverse proportion between 5 and 25 degrees C, suggesting thermoregulatory contributions by the flight muscles. Stroke amplitude under conditions of maximal loading reached a geometrical limit at slightly greater than 180 degrees. Previous studies of maximum performance in flying animals have estimated mechanical power output using a simplified actuator disk model without a detailed knowledge of wingbeat frequency and stroke amplitude. The present load-lifting results, together with actuator disc estimates of induced power derived from hypodense heliox experiments, are congruent with previous load-lifting studies of maximum flight performance. For ruby-throated hummingbirds, the inclusion of wingbeat frequency and stroke amplitude in a more detailed aerodynamic model of hovering yields values of mechanical power output 34% higher than previous estimates. More generally, the study of performance limits in flying animals necessitates careful specification of behavioral context as well as quantitative determination of wing and body kinematics. PMID:9100364

Chai, P; Chen, J S; Dudley, R



Assessment and mitigation of DNA loss utilizing centrifugal filtration devices.  


Maximizing DNA recovery during its isolation can be vital in forensic casework, particularly when DNA yields are expected to be low, such as from touch samples. Many forensic laboratories utilize centrifugal filtration devices to purify and concentrate the DNA; however, DNA loss has been reported when using them. In this study, all centrifugal filtration devices tested caused substantial DNA loss, affecting low molecular weight DNA (PCR product) somewhat more than high molecular weight DNA. Strategies for mitigating DNA loss were then examined, including pre-treatment with glucose, glycogen, silicone (RainX(®)), bovine serum albumin, yeast RNA, or high molecular weight DNA. The length of pre-treatment and UV irradiation of pre-treatment reagents were also investigated. Pre-treatments with glucose and glycogen resulted in little or no improvement in DNA recovery, and most or all DNA was lost after silicone pre-treatment. Devices pre-treated with BSA produced irregular and uninterpretable quantitative PCR amplification curves for the DNA and internal PCR control. On the other hand, nucleic acid pre-treatments greatly improved recovery of all DNAs. Pre-treatment time and its UV irradiation did not influence DNA recovery. Overall, the results show that centrifugal filtration devices trap DNA, yet their proper pre-treatment can circumvent that loss, which is critical in the case of low copy forensic DNA samples. PMID:25173492

Doran, Ashley E; Foran, David R



Assessing maximal sprinting speed in highly trained young soccer players.  


The aim of the present study was to locate the fastest 10-m split time (Splitbest) over a 40-m sprint in relation to age and maximal sprint speed in highly trained young soccer players. Analyses were performed on 967 independent player sprints collected in 223 highly trained young football players (Under 12 to Under 18). The maximal sprint speed was defined as the average running speed during Splitbest. The distribution of the distance associated with Splitbest was affected by age (X23 = 158.7, P < .001), with the older the players, the greater the proportion of 30-to-40-m Splitbest. There was, however, no between-group difference when data were adjusted for maximal sprint speed. Maximal sprint speed is the main determinant of the distance associated with Splitbest. Given the important disparity in Splitbest location within each age group, three (U12-U13) to two (U14-U18) 10-m intervals are still required to guarantee an accurate evaluation of maximal sprint speed in young players when using timing gates. PMID:22001861

Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Peltola, Esa; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto



Do Obese Children Perceive Submaximal and Maximal Exertion Differently?  

PubMed Central

We examined how obese children perceive a maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test compared with a submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test. Twenty-one obese children (body mass index ?95th percentile, ages 10–17 years) completed maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness tests on 2 separate occasions. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and overall perceived exertion (Borg 15-category scale) were measured in both fitness tests. At comparable workloads, perceived exertion was rated significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test compared with the maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test. The submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test was significantly longer than the maximal test (14:21 ± 04:04 seconds vs. 12:48 ± 03:27 seconds, P < 0.001). Our data indicate that at the same relative intensity, obese children report comparable or even higher perceived exertion during submaximal fitness testing than during maximal fitness testing. Perceived exertion in a sample of children and youth with obesity may be influenced by test duration and protocol design. PMID:24052695

Belanger, Kevin; Breithaupt, Peter; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Barrowman, Nick; Rutherford, Jane; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Colley, Rachel C.; Adamo, Kristi B.




Microsoft Academic Search

Most utilitarian theories assume that people are rational and tend to favor activities which maximize profits and minimize losses. Hence, when the gains associated with illegal behavior outweigh the costs, the volume of crime is expected to increase. Most macro-social research based on this perspective examines the effects of only one piece of information that informs the decision to violate

John K. Cochran; Mitchell B. Chamlin



Expectations for melodic contours transcend pitch.  


The question of what makes a good melody has interested composers, music theorists, and psychologists alike. Many of the observed principles of good "melodic continuation" involve melodic contour-the pattern of rising and falling pitch within a sequence. Previous work has shown that contour perception can extend beyond pitch to other auditory dimensions, such as brightness and loudness. Here, we show that the generalization of contour perception to nontraditional dimensions also extends to melodic expectations. In the first experiment, subjective ratings for 3-tone sequences that vary in brightness or loudness conformed to the same general contour-based expectations as pitch sequences. In the second experiment, we modified the sequence of melody presentation such that melodies with the same beginning were blocked together. This change produced substantively different results, but the patterns of ratings remained similar across the 3 auditory dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that (a) certain well-known principles of melodic expectation (such as the expectation for a reversal following a skip) are dependent on long-term context, and (b) these expectations are not unique to the dimension of pitch and may instead reflect more general principles of perceptual organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365571

Graves, Jackson E; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J



Beyond Just a Job: Expectations of Computer Science Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of job expectations among computer science students was conducted. The purpose of the study was to examine relationships between computer science education, gender, and job expectations. A factor analysis revealed that students have four types of expectations, including: intrinsic expectations (nonmaterialistic expectations involving job satisfaction and personal achievement), extrinsic expectations (materialistic expectations involving monetary compensation, status, and prestige),

Laura Marie Leventhal; David Warner Chilson



Caffeine expectancy: instrument development in the Rasch measurement framework.  


Although caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world, the mechanisms associated with consumption are not well understood. Nonetheless, outcome expectancies for caffeine use are thought to underlie caffeine's reinforcing properties. To date, however, there is no available, sufficient measure by which to assess caffeine expectancy. Therefore, the current study sought to develop such a measure employing Rasch measurement models. Unlike traditional measurement development techniques, Rasch analyses afford dynamic and interactive control of the analysis process and generate helpful information to guide instrument construction. A 5-stage developmental process is described, ultimately yielding a 37-item Caffeine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) comprised of 4 factors representing "withdrawal symptoms," "positive effects," "acute negative effects," and "mood effects." Initial evaluation of the CEQ yielded sufficient evidence for various aspects of validity. Although additional research with more heterogeneous samples is required to further assess the measure's reliability and validity, the CEQ demonstrates potential with regard to its utility in experimental laboratory research and clinical application. PMID:19769434

Heinz, Adrienne J; Kassel, Jon D; Smith, Everett V



Unequal Geographic Unequal Geographic Expectancy in Seoul.  


This study examined life expectancies in 25 gus, administrative districts of Seoul, the capital of Korea, by gender in 1995, 2002, and 2008 to explore trends in mortality inequality among areas. The authors constructed single-decrement life tables and employed between-group variance, the Theil index, and mean log deviation to measure absolute and relative disparities in life expectancy among areas during the periods 1995-2002 and 2002-2008. It was found that life expectancy gaps between gus have widened in absolute and relative terms in both genders over the decade, and that this pattern was particularly dramatic in females after 2002. This increasing gap could be attributable to the more negative health impact on females since the late 1990s stemming from the economic crisis, eventually reflected in their places of residence. Thus, a social buffer system to narrow the health gap between geographic areas and social classes must be established. PMID:22535557

Kim, Sangmi; Yi, Seonju; Kim, Meekyung; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwayoung; Jeon, Taekryeon; Cho, Youngtae



Reflections on meeting women's childbirth expectations.  


When care providers support their personal worth, use caring communication, facilitate consumer participation in decision making, seek optimal outcomes, and know the patient holistically, female patients feel that their dignity is respected. We compare women's expectations for dignified care in contemporary society with the expectations of women 40 years ago. Some progress has been made toward valuing women's voices and participation in decision making, the availability of interventions for optimal outcomes, and recognition of the importance of cultural competence. Continued work is needed to meet women's expectations for receiving individualized and tailored care, information about intervention effectiveness and risks, and support for the birth process that the family desires. A renewed focus on the recipient of care as a coparticipant in her birthing experiences may result in improved outcomes and resolution of tensions between childbearing women and sociopolitical forces and standards of care. PMID:21771068

Records, Kathie; Wilson, Barbara L



Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies*  

PubMed Central

Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.



Matching and maximizing with variable-time schedules.  

PubMed Central

Pigeons were offered choices between a variable-time schedule that arranged reinforcers throughout the session and a variable-time schedule that arranged reinforcers only when the pigeon was spending time on it. The subjects could maximize the overall rate of reinforcement in this situation by biasing their time allocation towards the latter schedule. This arrangement provides an alternative to concurrent variable-interval variable-ratio schedules for testing whether animals maximize overall rates or match relative rates, and has the advantage of being free of the asymmetrical response requirements present with those schedules. The results were contrary to those predicted by maximizing: The bias it predicts did not appear. PMID:3981085

DeCarlo, L T



Control of communication networks: welfare maximization and multipath transfers.  


We discuss control strategies for communication networks such as the Internet. We advocate the goal of welfare maximization as a paradigm for network resource allocation. We explore the application of this paradigm to the case of parallel network paths. We show that welfare maximization requires active balancing across paths by data sources, and potentially requires implementation of novel transport protocols. However, the only requirement from the underlying 'network layer' is to expose the marginal congestion cost of network paths to the 'transport layer'. We further illustrate the versatility of the corresponding layered architecture by describing transport protocols with the following properties: they welfare maximization, each communication may use an arbitrary collection of paths, where paths may be from an overlay, and paths may be combined in series and parallel. We conclude by commenting on incentives, pricing and open problems. PMID:18325871

Key, Peter B; Massoulié, Laurent



On the Maximal Sum of Exponents of Runsin a String  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A run is an inclusion maximal occurrence in a string (as a subinterval) of a repetition v with a period p such that 2p ? |v|. The exponent of a run is defined as |v|/p and is ? 2. We show new bounds on the maximal sum of exponents of runs in a string of length n. Our upper bound of 4.1 n is better than the best previously known proven bound of 5.6 n by Crochemore & Ilie (2008). The lower bound of 2.035 n, obtained using a family of binary words, contradicts the conjecture of Kolpakov & Kucherov (1999) that the maximal sum of exponents of runs in a string of length n is smaller than 2n.

Crochemore, Maxime; Kubica, Marcin; Radoszewski, Jakub; Rytter, Wojciech; Wale?, Tomasz


Coritivity-based influence maximization in social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence maximization problem is about finding a small set of nodes from the social network as seed set so as to maximize the range of information diffusion. In this paper, the theory of coritivity and method of finding core nodes in networks are introduced to deal with this problem. From the perspective of network structure, core nodes are the important ones to network connectivity and is a competitive measurement of node influence. By finding the core of the network through coritivity we can finally get the initial active nodes required in the influence maximization problem. We compare this method with other conventional node-selection approaches in USAir97 and HEPTH datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that: (a) the coritivity-based method achieves large influence spread in all the diffusion models we use, and (b) the proposed method converges fast in all cases we consider.

Wu, Yanlei; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Fei; Jin, Shuyuan; Xu, Jin



Maximizing the divergence from a hierarchical model of quantum states  

E-print Network

We quantify higher-order correlations in a composite quantum system in terms of the divergence from a family of Gibbs states with well-specified interaction patterns, known as hierarchical model. We begin with a review of factoring in a classical hierarchical model. This is just one aspect of our critical discussion of the divergence from a hierarchical model of quantum states. Then we turn to maximizers of the divergence from a Gibbs family. For example, we consider an upper bound on the support size of a local maximizer of higher-order correlation and we improve it to the square root, asymptotically for identical units. We compute the global maximizers of the mutual information of two separable qubits.

Stephan Weis; Andreas Knauf; Nihat Ay; Ming-Jing Zhao



Cardiovascular consequences of bed rest: effect on maximal oxygen uptake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced in healthy individuals confined to bed rest, suggesting it is independent of any disease state. The magnitude of reduction in VO2max is dependent on duration of bed rest and the initial level of aerobic fitness (VO2max), but it appears to be independent of age or gender. Bed rest induces an elevated maximal heart rate which, in turn, is associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, increased sympathetic catecholamine secretion, and greater cardiac beta-receptor sensitivity. Despite the elevation in heart rate, VO2max is reduced primarily from decreased maximal stroke volume and cardiac output. An elevated ejection fraction during exercise following bed rest suggests that the lower stroke volume is not caused by ventricular dysfunction but is primarily the result of decreased venous return associated with lower circulating blood volume, reduced central venous pressure, and higher venous compliance in the lower extremities. VO2max, stroke volume, and cardiac output are further compromised by exercise in the upright posture. The contribution of hypovolemia to reduced cardiac output during exercise following bed rest is supported by the close relationship between the relative magnitude (% delta) and time course of change in blood volume and VO2max during bed rest, and also by the fact that retention of plasma volume is associated with maintenance of VO2max after bed rest. Arteriovenous oxygen difference during maximal exercise is not altered by bed rest, suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may not contribute significantly to the decreased VO2max. However reduction in baseline and maximal muscle blood flow, red blood cell volume, and capillarization in working muscles represent peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to limited oxygen delivery and, subsequently, lowered VO2max. Thus, alterations in cardiac and vascular functions induced by prolonged confinement to bed rest contribute to diminution of maximal oxygen uptake and reserve capacity to perform physical work.

Convertino, V. A.



Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.  


Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. PMID:23932947

Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah



When Honesty is the Expected Policy: Utilizing Peer Relations in Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a teacher shares his experience at handling student cheating in his small business management class at a private Christian liberal arts university and recommends the steps he had taken to other teachers who encountered similar situations. Shocked by the failing scores from two students who had done well on previous quizzes, the…

Rudebock, Richard D.



Econometrica, Vol. 82, No. 1 (January, 2014), 139 EXPECTED UNCERTAIN UTILITY THEORY  

E-print Network

as the Fisher­Schultz Lecture at the 2009 Econometric Society Eu- ropean Meetings in Barcelona. This research The Econometric Society DOI: 10.3982/ECTA9188 #12;2 F. GUL AND W. PESENDORFER EUU theory is closely tied to Savage is flexible enough to accommodate Ellsberg-style and Allais-style evidence. The former identifies behavior


Anti-inflammatory activity of Gentiana striata Maxim.  


The anti-inflammatory activity and the mechanism of action of Gentiana striata Maxim. has been investigated. The most active phase, the ethyl acetate extract of Gentiana striata Maxim. (EGS), displayed potent inhibitory activity on feet oedema of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) inflicted rats. This anti-inflammatory activity might be partly based on the notable reduction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE?) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Six further compounds isolated from EGS have previously been reported as having anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:21985356

Cao, Feihua; Shao, Hao; Li, Qiang; Li, Jinrong; Li, Wenqun; Li, Chong



Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM  

E-print Network

A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

Felix Brümmer; Sabine Kraml; Suchita Kulkarni



Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM  

E-print Network

A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

Brümmer, Felix; Kulkarni, Suchita



Projection of Two Biphoton Qutrits onto a Maximally Entangled State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bell state measurements, in which two quantum bits are projected onto a maximally entangled state, are an essential component of quantum information science. We propose and experimentally demonstrate the projection of two quantum systems with three states (qutrits) onto a generalized maximally entangled state. Each qutrit is represented by the polarization of a pair of indistinguishable photons—a biphoton. The projection is a joint measurement on both biphotons using standard linear optics elements. This demonstration enables the realization of quantum information protocols with qutrits, such as teleportation and entanglement swapping.

Halevy, A.; Megidish, E.; Shacham, T.; Dovrat, L.; Eisenberg, H. S.



By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL IN CHINA #12;UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL IN CHINA Ljhua Wei, Dean M. Golden and Tarun R utilization of fly ash as construction materials. The technologies established for fly ash utilization

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of


Measuring the expectations of kidney donors: initial psychometric properties of the Living Donation Expectancies Questionnaire.  


We report on the initial development and validation of the Living Donation Expectancies Questionnaire (LDEQ), designed to measure the expectations of living kidney donor candidates. Potential living donors (n=443) at two transplant centers were administered the LDEQ and other questionnaires, and their medical records were reviewed. Factor analysis provides support for six LDEQ scales: Interpersonal Benefit, Personal Growth, Spiritual Growth, Quid Pro Quo, Health Consequences, and Miscellaneous Consequences. All but one scale showed good internal consistency. Expected benefits of donation were associated with higher optimism and lower mental health; expected consequences of donation were associated with lower optimism and lower physical and mental health. More potential donors with relative or absolute contraindications had high Interpersonal Benefit (P<0.0001), Personal Growth (P<0.01), Quid Pro Quo (P<0.0001), and Health Consequences (P<0.0001) expectations. The LDEQ has promise in evaluating donor candidates' expectations. PMID:18475176

Rodrigue, James R; Guenther, Robert; Kaplan, Bruce; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Pavlakis, Martha; Howard, Richard J



Expect Respect television advertising campaign: evaluation report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Expect Respect project was a social marketing campaign to increase young people’s knowledge of the dynamics of healthy and unhealthy relationships. It represented the latest stage in an ongoing campaign by the Kids Really Count interagency committee (a collaboration between the Ballina Byron Family Centre, the NSW Strategy to Reduce Violence Against Women, Lismore & District Women’s Health Centre,

Chris White; Sallie Newell; Anne Graham



Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

McCallum, Bennett T.



Planning and Expectations of the Retirement Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seminars on financial, estate, and leisure planning for retirement were attended by 34 adults. Measures of formal seminar participation and informal gathering of retirement information over time indicated that leisure planning had a stronger impact on expectations than financial planning. Informal, longer-term planning had a significant impact on…

Taylor-Carter, Mary Anne; And Others



Federal Intervention in Education: Expectations and Frustrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses instances of federal intervention in education that failed to live up to expectations (support of curriculum reform in the 1960s, civil rights legislation, and equity policy). Suggests that the success of such interventions depends on (1) understanding of the causes underlying the problem under consideration, and (2) relevance of…

Broudy, Harry S.



Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the expectations of support for and the experiences of substitute teachers in an urban school division in Saskatchewan. Data were collected in semistructured interviews with seven substitute teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore how substitute teachers frame their professional experiences and construct their roles…

Duggleby, Patricia; Badali, Sal



Athletes' expectations with regard to officiating competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to identify the cues upon which athletes rely when developing their expectations with regard to the competence of sports officials and to examine the sources of information, which are given priority in different kinds of sport (i.e. team, racquet and fighting sports). A questionnaire – the Athlete Perception of Sports Officials Questionnaire (APSO-Q) – was developed in

Fabrice Dosseville; Sylvain Laborde; Marjorie Bernier



NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

Sander, Libby



Parents Share Their Attitudes and Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the attitudes and expectations of parents of sixth-grade students concerning science education in the elementary school. Discusses parents' responses with regard to the role of science education, time allotted for science, comparisons with other subjects, helping children with science homework, important topics, and views of science.…

Smith, Leigh K.; Tolman, Marvin N.



Predictive Automatic Relevance Determination by Expectation Propagation  

E-print Network

Predictive Automatic Relevance Determination by Expectation Propagation Yuan (Alan) Qi yuanqi Neuroscience Unit, UCL, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, UK Abstract In many real-world classification Pre- dictive ARD based on estimating the predictive performance of the classifier. While the actual

Ghahramani, Zoubin


Inverse momentum expectation values for hydrogenic systems  

SciTech Connect

By using the Fourier transforms of the general hydrogenic bound state wave functions (as ultraspherical polynomials), one may find expectation values of arbitrary functions of momentum p. In this manner the effect of a reciprocity perturbation b/p can be evaluated for all hydrogenic states.

Delbourgo, R.; Elliott, D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, GPO, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)



Entrepreneurs' coping with challenging role expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to analyze entrepreneurs' coping strategies used to face stakeholders' expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws from the general management, role theory, and entrepreneurship literature to develop hypotheses that are tested by using hierarchical regression techniques on a sample of 183 Slovenian entrepreneurs. The paper develops and tests four coping strategies (structural role

Daniel Örtqvist; Mateja Drnovsek; Joakim Wincent



Standard Model Expectations for CP Violation  

E-print Network

I review the predictions and expectations of the CKM model for CP violation in both the $K^0-\\bar K^0$ and $B^0-\\bar B^0$ systems. A brief discussion of CP violation in charged $K$- and $B$-decays is also included, as well as some remarks on the electric dipole moments of the neutron and the electron.

R. D. Peccei; Ucla



The expectation value of the field operator  

E-print Network

Much of the mathematical development of quantum field theory has been in support of determining the S-matrix in order to calculate scattering cross sections. However there is also an interest in determining how expectation values of field operators evolve in time from an initial state. In this paper I will examine some aspects of this problem.

Dan Solomon



Increasing Teacher Expectations for Student Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes a study of a staff development program to reduce disparity in educational achievement across race and sex. Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA; Kerman, Kimball, & Martin, 1980) was implemented in an elementary school. Achievement test scores, attitudes toward school and self, perceptions of teacher practices, and grade retentions were compared for the 306 students of teachers

Denise C. Gottfredson; Elizabeth M. Marciniak; Ann T. Birdseye; Gary D. Gottfredson



Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy  

E-print Network

as premature.) · Just over a half of children with cerebral palsy are affected by bilateral spastic cerebral palsy. · A third of children with cerebral palsy are affected by hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsyLife expectancy of children with cerebral palsy J L Hutton, K Hemming and UKCP collaboration What

Hutton, Jane


How Students Verify Conjectures: Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight teachers were interviewed concerning how students verify conjectures. The study is a sequel to a previous study, "How Students Verify Conjectures" [Bergqvist, T. (2000). "How students verify conjectures." "Research reports in Mathematics Education" 3]. Teachers' expectations of students' reasoning and performance are examined, and also how…

Bergqvist, Tomas



Expectancy determinants of intrinsically motivated behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted an experiment to contrast and reconcile 2 cognitive theories of motivation and to investigate the expectancy determinants of intrinsically motivated behavior. 60 undergraduates were presented with 7 challenging tasks which varied in their level of difficulty. Ss were asked to select their most preferred task to work on and then to rank order the remaining tasks on their preferences

Zur Shapira



Solving Rational Expectations Models Using Excel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simple problems of discrete-time optimal control can be solved using a standard spreadsheet software. The employed-solution method of backward iteration is intuitively understandable, does not require any programming skills, and is easy to implement so that it is suitable for classroom exercises with rational-expectations models. The author…

Strulik, Holger



Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociocultural expectations of attractiveness for women have been studied extensively, but little research has focused on this topic with males. Using the two most popular men's fashion magazines (GQand Esquire), this study examined article and advertisement content as well as male models' body sizes to determine the extent to which men have received messages from the media on how to

Trent A. Petrie; Laura J. Austin; Barbara J. Crowley; Annette Helmcamp; Courtney E. Johnson; Regan Lester; Rebecca Rogers; Jeff Turner; Kevin Walbrick



Risk Acceptance and Expectations of Laryngeal Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Laryngeal allotransplantation (LA) is a technique involving transplantation of a deceased donor's larynx into a recipient, and it may be substituted for conventional laryngeal reconstruction. There are widely different views on LA, as the recipient is administered continuous, potentially life-threatening, immunosuppressive therapy for a functional or aesthetic result, which is not directly related to life extension. The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference in risk acceptance and expectations of LA between four population groups. Methods A survey was performed to examine patients' risk acceptance and expectations of LA. The survey included 287 subjects in total (general public, n=100; kidney transplant recipients, n=53; post-laryngectomy patients, n=34; doctors, n=100), using a Korean translated version of the louisville instrument for transplantation (LIFT) questionnaire. Results All four groups responded differently at various levels of their perception in risk acceptance and expectations. The kidney transplant recipients reported the highest risk acceptance and expectations, and the doctor group the lowest. Conclusions This study examined the disparate perception between specific population groups of the risks and benefits of using LA for the promotion of the quality of life. By addressing the information gaps about LA in the different populations that have been highlighted from this survey, we suggest that LA can become a more viable alternative to classical surgery with resultant improved quality of life for patients.

Jo, Hyun Kyo; Park, Jang Wan; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong; Shin, Jun Ho



Culture and Caregiving: Goals, Expectations, & Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care services.…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.



of Healthy Life Expectancy for Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. This paper focuses on patterns of healthy life expectancy for older women around the globe in the year 2000, and on the determinants of differences in disease and injury for older ages. Our study uses data from the World Health Organization for women and men in 191 countries. These data include a summary measure of population health, healthy life

Colin D. Mathers; Christopher J. L. Murray; Alan D. Lopez; Ritu Sadana; Joshua A. Salomon


Beyond Life Expectancy: Social Work with Centenarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the older population as a whole is increas- ing faster than any other age group, the most dramatic growth is in the oldest old. Centenarians, those individuals who have survived 100 or more years, have increased ten times in size over the past forty years. This population trajectory is expected to accelerate even more into the next century. Unfomately,

Nancy P. Kropf; Katherine L. Pugh



Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Australian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents across the five years of high school (169 females and 164 males) completed a survey that identified occupational status aspirations and expectations coded into six types-- realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional--according to the RIASEC model (Holland, 1997). As the focus of the study was to explore…

Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter



Grid Security: Expecting the Mingchao Ma  

E-print Network

of Ontario and 45 million people in eight U.S. states. #12;Slide 12 Expected � Technical failures � Loss � Hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, earthquake; � Terrorist Activities � Terrorist attack/bomb threat � Massive in the UK; � Damage or lose of user data � Damage to the project/sites reputation � A minor incident might

University College London


Burnout and Counselor Practitioner Expectations of Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed counselor expectations of supervision and counselor burnout in a sample of 120 members of the Oregon Personnel and Guidance Association who completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Counselor Supervision Inventory. Found dissatisfaction with supervision was positively related to frequency and intensity of Emotional Exhaustion and to…

Davis, Alan H.; And Others




E-print Network

makers, policy analysts, and the public. b. Achieve excellence in making oral presentations to differentEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES PUBLIC POLICY MPPProgram Purpose: 1. INTELLECTUALLY APPLY THE POLICY-FOCUSED ANALYSIS IN A REAL-WORLD, PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENT. THEY WILL BE ABLE TO: The Master of Public Policy (MPP

Olsen Jr., Dan R.


Remote Library Users: Needs and Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses remote library users in an academic environment. Highlights include user needs and expectations; user satisfaction; service to remote customers in nonlibrary environments, such as industry; the distance-learning context; student demographics; distance learning and library services; course design; and a case study at De Paul University.…

Cooper, Rosemarie; Dempsey, Paula R.; Menon, Vanaja; Millson-Martula, Christopher



Home care technology through an ability expectation lens.  


Home care is on the rise, and its delivery is increasingly reliant on an expanding variety of health technologies ranging from computers to telephone "health apps" to social robots. These technologies are most often predicated on expectations that people in their homes (1) can actively interact with these technologies and (2) are willing to submit to the action of the technology in their home. Our purpose is to use an "ability expectations" lens to bring together, and provide some synthesis of, the types of utility and disadvantages that can arise for people with disabilities in relation to home care technology development and use. We searched the academic databases Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO ALL, IEEE Xplore, and Compendex to collect articles that had the term "home care technology" in the abstract or as a topic (in the case of Web of Science). We also used our background knowledge and related academic literature pertaining to self-diagnosis, health monitoring, companionship, health information gathering, and care. We examined background articles and articles collected through our home care technology search in terms of ability expectations assumed in the presentation of home care technologies, or discussed in relation to home care technologies. While advances in health care support are made possible through emerging technologies, we urge critical examination of such technologies in terms of implications for the rights and dignity of people with diverse abilities. Specifically, we see potential for technologies to result in new forms of exclusion and powerlessness. Ableism influences choices made by funders, policy makers, and the public in the development and use of home health technologies and impacts how people with disabilities are served and how useful health support technologies will be for them. We urge continued critical examination of technology development and use according to ability expectations, and we recommend increasing incorporation of participatory design processes to counteract potential for health support technology to render people with disabilities technologically excluded and powerless. PMID:24956581

Wolbring, Gregor; Lashewicz, Bonnie



Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.  


Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ? a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth. PMID:22870260

Nguyen, Quynh C; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W; Hussey, Jon M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Poole, Charles



Contributions of leaf photosynthetic capacity, leaf angle and self-shading to the maximization of net photosynthesis in Acer saccharum: a modelling assessment  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plants are expected to maximize their net photosynthetic gains and efficiently use available resources, but the fundamental principles governing trade-offs in suites of traits related to resource-use optimization remain uncertain. This study investigated whether Acer saccharum (sugar maple) saplings could maximize their net photosynthetic gains through a combination of crown structure and foliar characteristics that let all leaves maximize their photosynthetic light-use efficiency (?). Methods A functional–structural model, LIGNUM, was used to simulate individuals of different leaf area index (LAIind) together with a genetic algorithm to find distributions of leaf angle (LA) and leaf photosynthetic capacity (Amax) that maximized net carbon gain at the whole-plant level. Saplings grown in either the open or in a forest gap were simulated with Amax either unconstrained or constrained to an upper value consistent with reported values for Amax in A. saccharum. Key Results It was found that total net photosynthetic gain was highest when whole-plant PPFD absorption and leaf ? were simultaneously maximized. Maximization of ? required simultaneous adjustments in LA and Amax along gradients of PPFD in the plants. When Amax was constrained to a maximum, plants growing in the open maximized their PPFD absorption but not ? because PPFD incident on leaves was higher than the PPFD at which ?max was attainable. Average leaf ? in constrained plants nonetheless improved with increasing LAIind because of an increase in self-shading. Conclusions It is concluded that there are selective pressures for plants to simultaneously maximize both PPFD absorption at the scale of the whole individual and ? at the scale of leaves, which requires a highly integrated response between LA, Amax and LAIind. The results also suggest that to maximize ? plants have evolved mechanisms that co-ordinate the LA and Amax of individual leaves with PPFD availability. PMID:22665700

Posada, Juan M.; Sievanen, Risto; Messier, Christian; Perttunen, Jari; Nikinmaa, Eero; Lechowicz, Martin J.



Expectations of Psychotherapy Duration by Disorder: A Comparison Between Professional and Young Adult Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using more precise methodology, the current study investigated expectations of psychotherapy duration for specific disorders.\\u000a Duration expectations were obtained for young adults and compared to those obtained from psychotherapists as reported by Lowry\\u000a and Ross (Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 34:272–277, 1997). Results revealed that expected duration for\\u000a young adults by disorder was quite similar to the psychotherapists, where less

Janet E. Constance; Michael J. Ross; Jenny L. Lowry; Jeffrey D. Gfeller; Paul J. Handal



Patient Expectations from Consultation with Family Physician  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess patient expectations from a consultation with a family physician and determine the level and area of patient involvement in the communication process. Method We videotaped 403 consecutive patient-physician consultations in the offices of 27 Estonian family physicians. All videotaped patients completed a questionnaire about their expectations before and after the consultation. Patient assessment of expected and obtained psychosocial support and biomedical information during the consultation with physician were compared. Two investigators independently assessed patient involvement in the consultation process on the basis of videotaped consultations, using a 5-point scale. Results Receiving an explanation of biomedical information and discussing psychosocial aspects was assessed as important by 57.4-66.8% and 17.8-36.1% patients, respectively. The physicians did not meet patient expectations in the case of three biomedical aspects of consultation: cause of symptoms, severity of symptoms, and test results. Younger patients evaluated the importance of discussing psychological problems higher than older patients. The involvement of the patients was high in the problem defining process, in the physicians' overall responsiveness to the patients, and in their picking up of the patient's cues. The patients were involved less in the decision making process. Conclusion Discussing biomedical issues was more important for the patients than discussing psychological issues. The patients wanted to hear more about the cause and seriousness of their symptoms and about test results. The family physicians provided more psychosocial care than the patients had expected. Considering high patient involvement in the consultation process and the overall responsiveness of the family physicians to the patients during the consultation, Estonian physicians provide patient-centered consultations. PMID:16489708

Tahepold, Heli; van den Brink-Muinen, Atie; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid



Different types of compression clothing do not increase sub-maximal and maximal endurance performance in well-trained athletes.  


Three textiles with increasing compressive surface were compared with non-compressive conventional clothing on physiological and perceptual variables during sub-maximal and maximal running. Fifteen well-trained endurance athletes (mean+/-s: age 27.1+/-4.8 years, VO(2max) 63.7+/-4.9 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)) performed four sub-maximal (approximately 70% VO(2max)) and maximal tests with and without different compression stockings, tights, and whole-body compression suits. Arterial lactate concentration, oxygen saturation and partial pressure, pH, oxygen uptake, and ratings of muscle soreness were recorded before, during, and after all tests. In addition, we assessed time to exhaustion. Sub-maximal (P=0.22) and maximal oxygen uptake (P=0.26), arterial lactate concentration (P=0.16; 0.20), pH (P=0.23; 0.46), oxygen saturation (P=0.13; 0.26), and oxygen partial pressure (P=0.09; 0.20) did not differ between the types of clothing (effect sizes=0.00-0.45). Ratings of perceived exertion (P=0.10; 0.15), muscle soreness (P=0.09; 0.10) and time to exhaustion (P=0.16) were also unaffected by the different clothing (effect sizes=0.28-0.85). This was the first study to evaluate the effect on endurance performance of different types of compression clothing with increasing amounts of compressive surface. Overall, there were no performance benefits when using the compression garments. PMID:20391083

Sperlich, Billy; Haegele, Matthias; Achtzehn, Silvia; Linville, John; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim



The Influence of Task Value, Expectancies for Success, and Identity on Athletes' Achievement Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extended and supported the use of Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value model to a competitive sport context. High school varsity basketball players (N = 189) were assessed on expectancies for success, interest value, attainment value, utility value, and basketball identity. Achievement behavior was measured as coaches't ratings of players' effort and persistence displayed throughout the season. Significant differences




Maximizing the Spread of Influence through a Social David Kempe  

E-print Network

Maximizing the Spread of Influence through a Social Network David Kempe Dept. of Computer Science Cornell University, Ithaca NY Jon Kleinberg Dept. of Computer Science Cornell University, Ithaca NY ´Eva Tardos Dept. of Computer Science Cornell University

Tardos, Ã?va


Maximizing the Spread of Influence through a Social David Kempe #  

E-print Network

Maximizing the Spread of Influence through a Social Network David Kempe # Dept. of Computer Science Cornell University, Ithaca NY Jon Kleinberg + Dept. of Computer Science Cornell University, Ithaca NY â?? Eva Tardos # Dept. of Computer Science Cornell University

Kempe, David


Maximal hypercubes in Fibonacci and Lucas cubes Michel Mollard  

E-print Network

Maximal hypercubes in Fibonacci and Lucas cubes Michel Mollard CNRS Universit´e Joseph Fourier no two consecutive 1's. The Lucas cube n is obtained5 from n by removing vertices that start and end; Lucas cubes; AMS subject classifications: 05C31, 05A15, 26C1010 1 Introduction An interconnection

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


An Empirical Study of Optimization for Maximizing Diffusion in Networks  

E-print Network

to "re-plan" for the second stage. We apply this to a Red Cockaded Woodpecker conservation problem. Our-world processes are diffusive in nature, giving rise to optimization problems where the goal is to maximize of infectious diseases in a human or animal network is a diffusion-based process. In ecology, so

Gomes, Carla P.


Online Competitive Algorithms for Maximizing Weighted Throughput of Unit  

E-print Network

Online Competitive Algorithms for Maximizing Weighted Throughput of Unit Jobs Francis Y. L. Chin a Praha 1, Czech Republic Abstract We study an online unit­job scheduling problem arising in bu present several competitive online algorithms for various versions of unit­job scheduling, as well as some

Sgall, Jiri


[Constituents of the leaves of Holodiscus discolor (Pursh) Maxim].  


The paper deals with the isolation of constituents from light petrol and methanol extracts of the leaves of Holodiscus discolor (PURSH) MAXIM., Rosaceae. beta-sitosterol and taraxasterol were isolated from the light petrol extract, luteolin-7-O-glucoside was isolated from the methanol extract. The isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic means and by comparison with authentic samples. PMID:11797197

Haladová, M; Eisenreichová, E; Bud?sínský, M; Ubik, K; Grancai, D



Dynamic Power Allocation For Maximizing Throughput in Energy Harvesting  

E-print Network

1 Dynamic Power Allocation For Maximizing Throughput in Energy Harvesting Communication System general case of arbitrarily varying energy arrivals is considered, where neither the future energy arrival strategy that invests available energy uniformly over all remaining slots until the next energy arrival

Vaze, Rahul


Maximal violation of Bell inequalities using continuous-variable measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a whole family of physical states that yield a maximal violation of Bell inequalities, when using quadrature-phase homodyne detection. This result is based on a binning process called root binning, that is used to transform the continuous-variable measurements into binary results needed for the tests of quantum mechanics versus local realistic theories. A physical process in order to

Jérôme Wenger; Mohammad Hafezi; Frédéric Grosshans; Rosa Tualle-Brouri; Philippe Grangier



Maximizing Rover Science Return Through Autonomous Onboard Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three recognized approaches to maximizing the amount of science data in future missions: 1) return more data to Earth by increasing the capability of the Deep Space Network (DSN) to receive higher volumes of data, 2) develop data compression techniques to transmit more information per bit and, 3) increase the quality of the data returned to Earth by

R. C. Anderson; R. Castano; M. Judd; T. Estlin; D. Gaines; D. Mazzoni; F. Fisher; B. Bornstein; A. Castano; L. Scharenbroich; L. Song; M. Gilmore



maps of the interval without maximal Sylvie Ruette  

E-print Network

admits a non zero finite number of maximal measures if its topological entropy is positive, and transitiv (Bowen [6], [7]). Specification is a strong property on periodic points, which must closely follow entropy of any transitive continuous interval map is positive (it is greater than or equal to log 2 2 [3

Ruette, Sylvie


Maximizing Static Network Lifetime of Wireless Broadcast Adhoc Networks  

E-print Network

Maximizing Static Network Lifetime of Wireless Broadcast Adhoc Networks Intae Kang and Radha- cast routing over wireless static adhoc network where host mobility is not involved. We define of the important applications of wireless static adhoc net- works includes wireless sensor networks. The technology

Poovendran, Radha