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Sample records for expedition investigates climate

  1. EarthLabs Climate Detectives: Using the Science, Data, and Technology of IODP Expedition 341 to Investigate the Earth's Past Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, A. S.; Lockwood, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Lynds, S. E.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    EarthLabs, an exemplary series of lab-based climate science learning modules, is a model for high school Earth Science lab courses. Each module includes a variety of learning activities that allow students to explore the Earth's complex and dynamic climate history. The most recent module, Climate Detectives, uses data from IODP Expedition 341, which traveled to the Gulf of Alaska during the summer of 2013 to study past climate, sedimentation, and tectonics along the continental margin. At the onset of Climate Detectives, students are presented with a challenge engaging them to investigate how the Earth's climate has changed since the Miocene in southern Alaska. To complete this challenge, students join Exp. 341 to collect and examine sediments collected from beneath the seafloor. The two-week module consists of six labs that provide students with the content and skills needed to solve this climate mystery. Students discover how an international team collaborates to examine a scientific problem with the IODP, compete in an engineering design challenge to learn about scientific ocean drilling, and learn about how different types of proxy data are used to detect changes in Earth's climate. The NGSS Science and Engineering Practices are woven into the culminating activity, giving students the opportunity to think and act like scientists as they investigate the following questions: 1) How have environmental conditions in in the Gulf of Alaska changed during the time when the sediments in core U1417 were deposited? (2) What does the occurrence of different types of diatoms and their abundance reveal about the timing of the cycles of glacial advance and retreat? (3) What timeline is represented by the section of core? (4) How do results from the Gulf of Alaska compare with the global record of glaciations during this period based on oxygen isotopes proxies? Developed by educators in collaboration with Expedition 341 scientists, Climate Detectives is a strong example of

  2. An Investigation of the Outward Bound Final Expedition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobilya, Andrew J.; Kalisch, Ken; Daniel, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Research of wilderness programs indicates a clear need for additional investigation of specific program components and their influence on participant outcomes. This study examines one component of the Outward Bound wilderness program--the Final Expedition. The Final Expedition is a student-led wilderness expedition and is also referred to as an…

  3. Predicting Weather Conditions and Climate for Mars Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, P. L.; Lewis, S. R.; Bingham, S. J.; Newman, C. E.

    Weather and climatic conditions are among the most important factors to be taken into account when planning expeditions to remote and challenging locations on Earth. This is likely to be equally the case for expedition planners on Mars, where conditions (in terms of extremes of temperature, etc.) can be at least as daunting as back on Earth. With the success of recent unmanned missions to Mars, such as NASA's Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey, there is now a great deal of information available on the range of environ- mental conditions on Mars, from the tropics to the CO2 ice-covered polar caps. This has been further supple- mented by the development of advanced numerical models of the Martian atmosphere, allowing detailed and accurate simulations and predictions of the weather and climate across the planet. This report discusses the main weather and climate variables which future Martian human expedition planners will need to take into account. The range of conditions likely to be encountered at a variety of typical locations on Mars is then considered, with reference to predictions from the ESA Mars Climate Database.

  4. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  5. Expedited site characterization for remedial investigations at federal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Expedited Side Characterization (ESC) methodology gives federal agencies a process for producing high-quality CERCLA and RCRA site characterizations and remedial investigations in a cost- and time-efficient manner. The ESC process has been successfully tested and applied at numerous federal facilities. Examples include expanded site investigations for the Department of Interior`s Bureau of Land Management and remedial investigations for the Commodity Credit Corporation/US Dept. of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). In particular, the CCC/USDA has been the major sponsor in the development of the ESC process at Argonne. The technical successes and the cost and time savings of the ESC process for these programs have been detailed in previous papers. The Argonne ESC is currently being implemented at a Department of Energy facility (Pantex) and is schedules for implementation in the Department of Defense base closure program in order to meet accelerated schedules for remedial actions by these agencies.

  6. The Majority of Expedited Investigational New Drug Safety Reports Are Uninformative.

    PubMed

    Jarow, Jonathan P; Casak, Sandra; Chuk, Meredith; Ehrlich, Lori A; Khozin, Sean

    2016-05-01

    Sponsors of human drug and biologic products subject to an investigational new drug (IND) application are required to distribute expedited safety reports of serious and unexpected suspected adverse reactions to participating investigators and the FDA to assure the protection of human subjects participating in clinical trials. On September 29, 2010, the FDA issued a final rule amending its regulations governing expedited IND safety reporting requirements that revised the definitions used for reporting and clarified when to submit relevant and useful information to reduce the number of uninformative reports distributed by sponsors. From January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014, the FDA's Office of Hematology and Oncology Products received an average of 17,686 expedited safety reports per year. An analysis of FDA submissions by commercial sponsors covering this time period suggested a slight increase in the number of expedited safety reports per IND per year after publication of the final rule. An audit of 160 randomly selected expedited safety reports submitted to the FDA's Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in 2015 revealed that only 22 (14%) were informative. The submission of uninformative expedited safety reports by commercial sponsors of INDs continues to be a significant problem that can compromise detection of valid safety signals. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2111-3. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26783289

  7. Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2015-04-01

    The major aims of IODP Expedition 313 are estimating amplitudes, rates and mechanisms of sea-level change and the evaluation of sequence stratigraphic facies models that predict depositional environments, sediment compositions, and stratal geometries in response to sea-level change. Cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved during May to July 2009, using an ECORD "mission-specific" jack-up platform. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey. For this study, we have focused on pollen studies for the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. For most samples, the pollen assemblages were not highly diverse. The most abundant taxa through all samples were Quercus (oak) and Carya (hickory). Typical wetland elements like Cyperaceae, Taxodium (cypress), Nyssa (tupelo tree) and taxa today growing in the tropics and subtropics like Sapotaceae, Symplocaceae, Arecaceae (palm trees) and Alangium, which indicate particularly warm climate conditions, were only sporadically found, but indicate warmer phases during the second half of the MMCO. Herbal pollen was generally rare, but members of the Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Ericaceae families, together with infrequent occurences of Poaceae pollen indicate the presence of areas with open vegetation. The Mid-Miocene pollen assemblages reflect a vegetation in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf

  8. Climate-Ice Sheet Interactions through the Pliocene-Pleistocene: Preliminary Results from IODP Expedition 341 (Gulf of Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.; McClymont, E.; Sanchez Montes, M. L.; Moy, C. M.; Romero, O. E.; Lloyd, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Since the Pliocene, global climate history is distinguished by the transition into a colder world, dominated by the onset and intensification of major Northern Hemisphere glaciations which have also changed in their duration and intensity. Potential drivers for these events include falling atmospheric CO2, progressive sub-glacial erosion, tectonic uplift, and associated feedbacks. At present, isolating climate as the driver of evolving continental ice volume since the Pliocene is hindered by the limited long term data sets which directly link climate changes to evidence for ice-sheet advance/retreat, erosion, and tectonic evolution over million year timescales. IODP Expedition 341 drilled a cross-margin transect in the Gulf of Alaska from ice-proximal sites on the continental shelf to distal sites in the deep Pacific. This study focuses on the distal site (Site U1417, c.4190 m water depth) which contains variable biogenic and terrigenous contributions, and evidence for deposition through pelagic, mass movement and glacial processes. Our aim is to investigate links between north-east Pacific paleoceanography and the history of the north-west Cordilleran ice sheet, neither of which are fully understood given limited data pre-dating the Last Glacial Maximum. We reconstruct SSTs during the mid-Pliocene, Plio-Pleistocene Transition (PPT) and mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) using the UK37' index. We consider the interaction between SSTs and primary production by examining the absolute and relative abundances of plankton biomarkers (e.g. for haptophytes, diatoms and dinoflagellates), carbon/nitrogen ratios, stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) and diatom assemblages. Links between these climatic events and the north-west Cordilleran ice-sheet advance/retreat history are initially made using shipboard stratigraphy; emerging data sets on ice-rafting from members of the Expedition 341 Scientific Party will refine these relationships.

  9. Window of Opportunity: The Climatic Conditions of the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 1806.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Paul A.

    2004-09-01

    Lewis and Clark's entry into to the American West in search of an inland Northwest Passage is considered among the greatest expeditions in American history. The Corps of Discovery were also lucky as their travels west of the 100th meridian occurred during a “window” of generally favorable climatic conditions. Use of reconstructed summer Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values from 1700 1978 indicate that drought frequency at locations along the Lewis and Clark trail ranged from 4 to 12 yr and that the probability of encountering a drought either on the outbound or return trip approached 50% at some locations. Exact date comparisons of meteorological conditions during periods of extended encampment (i.e., 1 5 months) between 1804 06 with long-term records of nearby weather stations indicate that the Corps of Discovery avoided drought and traveled during a cooler and/or substantially wetter period than historical averages. Examination of reconstructed Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) values suggest wetter conditions prevailed in 1804 06 because of the co-occurrence of La Niña conditions during a cold PDO phase. Although the Corps of Discovery suffered hardships because of the wetter conditions, they avoided the more serious consequences of severe droughts that occurred in 1800 and 1808. Drought conditions along the semiarid and arid portions of the trail would have reduced forage yield for the game that were their principal source of food and increased their chances for starvation. Additionally, lower streamflow conditions along their principal navigation routes would have required greater effort and time to haul their supplies to the Continental Divide, perhaps delaying their expedition by a year.

  10. Climate-ice sheet interactions through the Pliocene-Pleistocene: Preliminary results from Expedition 341 (Gulf of Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClymont, Erin; Sanchez Montes, Maria Luisa; Mueller, Juliane; Henry, Matthew; Lloyd, Jerry; 341 Science Party, Expedition

    2014-05-01

    (SSTs), sea ice, and marine primary productivity through the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Here we present initial findings from sites U1417 (the most distal site, 4190 m water depth) and U1418 (at 3667 m water depth). We reconstruct SSTs using the alkenone biomarker proxy, the UK37' index, and compare our results with evidence for evolving ice-sheet history as determined through the shipboard-generated lithostratigraphy of the two sites. We consider the interaction between SSTs and primary production by examining the absolute abundance and relative distribution of biomarkers specific to plankton groups (e.g. for haptophytes, diatoms and dinoflagellates). Further investigation of the relationship between these climatic events and the northwest Cordilleran ice sheet advance/retreat history will continue through comparison to emerging data sets on ice-rafting and associated changes to sediment provenance, generated by members of the Expedition 341 Scientific Party.

  11. IODP Expedition 325: Great Barrier Reefs Reveals Past Sea-Level, Climate and Environmental Changes Since the Last Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Webster, J. M.; Cotterill, C.; Braga, J. C.; Jovane, L.; Mills, H.; Morgan, S.; Suzuki, A.; IODP Expedition 325 Scientists, the

    2011-09-01

    The timing and courses of deglaciations are key components in understanding the global climate system. Cyclic changes in global climate have occurred, with growth and decay of high latitude ice sheets, for the last two million years. It is believed that these fluctuations are mainly controlled by periodic changes to incoming solar radiation due to the changes in Earth's orbit around the sun. However, not all climate variations can be explained by this process, and there is the growing awareness of the important role of internal climate feedback mechanisms. Understanding the nature of these feedbacks with regard to the timing of abrupt global sea-level and climate changes is of prime importance. The tropical ocean is one of the major components of the feedback system, and hence reconstructions of temporal variations in sea-surface conditions will greatly improve our understanding of the climate system. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 325 drilled 34 holes across 17 sites in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia to recover fossil coral reef deposits. The main aim of the expedition was to understand the environmental changes that occurred during the last ice age and subsequent deglaciation, and more specifically (1) establish the course of sea-level change, (2) reconstruct the oceanographic conditions, and (3) determine the response of the reef to these changes. We recovered coral reef deposits from water depths down to 126 m that ranged in age from 9,000 years to older than 30,000 years ago. Given that the interval of the dated materials covers several paleoclimatologically important events, including the Last Glacial Maximum, we expect that ongoing scientific analyses will fulfill the objectives of the expedition. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.12.04.2011

  12. Investigating Future Climate Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Chris; Bodzin, Alec; Anastasio, David; Sahagian, Dork; Cirucci, Lori

    2012-01-01

    One of the most alarming impacts of projected climate change is a significant rise in sea level. Sea level has varied by hundreds of meters over geologic time, yet these changes have generally been slow paced, allowing ecosystems to adjust to changing land surface and marine habitats. Since the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenic emissions have…

  13. Correct implementation of the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) process for preremedial site investigations.

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J. C.; Cook, S.; Sedivy, R.; Walker, J. L.

    1997-12-12

    The Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ANL ESC) methodology, developed by Argonne National Laboratory and popularly known as ESC, is an effective, cost- and time-saving approach for technically successful preremedial site characterizations. The major objective of the ANL ESC is to determine whether a site containing contamination requires remediation. The methodology is equivalent to a CERCLA RI/FS or a RCRA RFI/CMS investigation. The ANL ESC methodology is an interactive, integrated process emphasizing the use of existing data, multiple complementary characterization methods, and on-site decision making to optimize site investigations. The ANL ESC is the basis for the expedited site characterization standard of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). The methodology has been registered under the service mark QuickSite{trademark} to offer both clients and providers a mechanism for ensuring that they receive the ANL ESC methodology developed by Argonne. The ANL ESC is a flexible process and is neither site nor contaminant dependent. It can be tailored to fit the unique characteristics that distinguish one site from the next, in contrast to the traditional approach of making all sites conform to the same rigid, inflexible investigation regimen. The ANL ESC has been applied successfully to remedial site investigations of landfills with multiple contaminants in the southwestern US for the Department of Interior (DOI), to former grain storage facilities in the Midwest for the Commodity Credit Corporation of the Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), to weapons production facilities in Texas for the Department of Energy (DOE), and to closing and active military bases in several locations for the Department of Defense (DOD). The process can be applied both at sites that have seen little investigation and at sites that have undergone numerous previous site characterizations without reaching closure. In the latter case (e.g., at many DOE and DOD sites

  14. 43 CFR 404.28 - Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study? 404.28 Section 404.28 Public Lands: Interior... or feasibility study? Yes. If Reclamation determines that a community or groups of communities to be..., to the maximum extent practicable, expedite appraisal investigations and reports and...

  15. 43 CFR 404.28 - Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study? 404.28 Section 404.28 Public Lands: Interior... or feasibility study? Yes. If Reclamation determines that a community or groups of communities to be..., to the maximum extent practicable, expedite appraisal investigations and reports and...

  16. 43 CFR 404.28 - Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study? 404.28 Section 404.28 Public Lands: Interior... or feasibility study? Yes. If Reclamation determines that a community or groups of communities to be..., to the maximum extent practicable, expedite appraisal investigations and reports and...

  17. Investigating the Deep Biosphere using Downhole Measurements, North Pond, IODP Expedition 336

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. M.; Salas, E. C.; Edwards, K. J.; Bach, W.; Becker, K.; Scientists, I.

    2012-12-01

    Downhole measurements acquired using logging tools are in situ, continuous measurements taken down a borehole. They provide physical property information on formations drilled, and allow for gaps in core recovery to be filled. During IODP Expedition 336 a series of three adapted triple combination tool strings were deployed at Sites 395, U1382 and U1383 (Microbiology Combo, Adapted Microbiology Combo I and Adapted Microbiology Combo II respectively). These included sondes to measure natural gamma radiation, borehole diameter, density, resistivity, temperature and density. Additionally, on each of these tool strings the basal sonde was the Deep Exploration Biosphere Investigative tool (DEBI-t). This tool was specifically designed and built for Expedition 336 to assess the presence and distribution of microbial communities in boreholes using laser induced native fluorescence. Two other tool strings incorporating the Formation MicroScanner (FMS) were deployed in order to acquire electrical images of the borehole wall and two-axis borehole diameter information (Sites U1382 and U1383); one of the strings included the sonic sonde (Site U1383). This study correlates the more standard physical property measurements and unique spectral data collected with the DEBI-t to investigate the biology found in these hostile environments. In order to examine trends in the data more objectively, the downhole measurements were also analyzed using an Iterative Non-hierarchical Cluster Analysis (INCA) program. The program starts with k random clusters, and then moves objects between those clusters aiming to (1) minimize variability within clusters and (2) maximize variability between clusters. It is a novel tool that outputs data groups, and produces independent log 'lithofacies' which can be correlated with those observed and described in recovered cores.

  18. 43 CFR 404.28 - Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study? 404.28 Section 404.28 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.28 Is...

  19. 43 CFR 404.28 - Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study? 404.28 Section 404.28 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.28 Is...

  20. Late Eocene to middle Miocene (33 to 13 million years ago) vegetation and climate development on the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain (IODP Expedition 313, Site M0027)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, U.; Greenwood, D. R.; McCarthy, F. M. G.; Müller-Navarra, K.; Prader, S.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027 of IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expedition 313 on the New Jersey shallow shelf to examine vegetation and climate dynamics on the east coast of North America between 33 and 13 million years ago and to assess the impact of over-regional climate events on the region. Palynological results are complemented with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions. Our results indicate that the hinterland vegetation of the New Jersey shelf was characterized by oak-hickory forests in the lowlands and conifer-dominated vegetation in the highlands from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene. The Oligocene witnessed several expansions of conifer forest, probably related to cooling events. The pollen-based climate data imply an increase in annual temperatures from ∼11.5 °C to more than 16 °C during the Oligocene. The Mi-1 cooling event at the onset of the Miocene is reflected by an expansion of conifers and mean annual temperature decrease of ∼4 °C, from ∼16 °C to ∼12 °C around 23 million years before present. Relatively low annual temperatures are also recorded for several samples during an interval around ∼20 million years before present, which may reflect the Mi-1a and the Mi-1aa cooling events. Generally, the Miocene ecosystem and climate conditions were very similar to those of the Oligocene. Miocene grasslands, as known from other areas in the USA during that time period, are not evident for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf, possibly reflecting moisture from the proto-Gulf Stream. The palaeovegetation data reveal stable conditions during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum at ∼15 million years before present, with only a minor increase in deciduous-evergreen mixed forest taxa and a decrease in swamp forest taxa. Pollen-based annual temperature reconstructions show average annual temperatures of ∼14 °C during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum, ∼2

  1. Ecosystem reconstructions for the hinterland of the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2016-04-01

    During IODP Expedition 313, cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved in 2009. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey in order to reconstruct environmental and climate change in the region during the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. In the analyzed samples, angiosperm tree pollen grains were most abundant and probably formed the main vegetation zone in the lowland during the MMCO. The pollen-based results point to the presence of a deciduous-evergreen mixed forest that was characterised by e.g. Quercus, Carya, Liquidambar, Juglans, Pterocarya, Tilia, Engelhardia. Frequent conifer pollen grains indicate that highland forests with e.g. Pinus, Cathaya, and Picea were present the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Typical wetland elements like Nyssa and Taxodium as well as herbal taxa like Polygonum and Polygala were generally rare. The pollen-based climate reconstructions for the hinterland oft the New Jersey shallow shelf document a warm temperate climate without winterfrost and relatively high precipitation through the year during this time. Our results imply that the vegetation and regional climate in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf did not react as sensitively to the cooling phase following the MMCO as other regions in North America or Europe.

  2. Vegetation and climate development on the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain from 33 to 13 million years ago (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, U.; Greenwood, D. R.; McCarthy, F. M. G.; Müller-Navarra, K.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Sites M0027 and M0029 of IODP Expedition 313 on the New Jersey shallow shelf, east coast of North America, spanning an age range of 33 to 13 million years before present. Additionally, a pollen assemblage from the Pleistocene was examined. The palynological results were statistically analyzed and complemented with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions. Transport-related bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via analysis of the ratio of terrestrial to marine palynomorphs, and considered when interpreting palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate from the pollen data. Results indicate that from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene, the hinterland vegetation of the New Jersey shelf was characterized by oak-hickory forests in the lowlands and conifer-dominated vegetation in the highlands. The Oligocene witnessed several expansions of conifer forest, probably related to cooling events. The pollen-based climate data imply an increase in annual temperatures from ~12 °C to more than 15 °C during the Oligocene. The Mi-1 cooling event at the onset of the Miocene is reflected by an expansion of conifers and an annual temperature decrease by almost 3 °C, from 15 °C to 12.5 °C around 23 million years before present. Particularly low annual temperatures are also recorded for an interval around ~20 million years before present, which probably reflects the Mi-1aa cooling event. Generally, the Miocene ecosystem and climate conditions were very similar to those of the Oligocene in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Miocene grasslands, as known from other areas in the USA during that time period, are not evident for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Surprisingly, the palaeovegetation data for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf do not show extraordinary changes during the Mid-Miocene climatic optimum at ~15 million years before present, except for a minor increase in deciduous

  3. CALIPSO Expedited Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    ... Thursday, January 31, 2013 The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration ... Science investigations to be published in research journals should, therefore, not be based on the Expedited data products, but ...

  4. Expedition Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    Planning an expedition, particularly an expedition to climb Mount McKinley, can appear monumental. Not only must the obvious items like food, equipment and personnel be carefully planned, but attention must also focus on "insignificant" items like applications and reservations which, if forgotten, could mean the difference between a successful or…

  5. Argonne`s Expedited Site Characterization: An integrated approach to cost- and time-effective remedial investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Meyer, W.T.

    1995-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a methodology for remedial site investigation that has proven to be both technically superior to and more cost- and time-effective than traditional methods. This methodology is referred to as the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). Quality is the driving force within the process. The Argonne ESC process is abbreviated only in time and cost and never in terms of quality. More usable data are produced with the Argonne ESC process than with traditional site characterization methods that are based on statistical-grid sampling and multiple monitoring wells. This paper given an overview of the Argonne ESC process and compares it with traditional methods for site characterization. Two examples of implementation of the Argonne ESC process are discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the process in CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) and RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) programs.

  6. Using Tree-Ring Data, Research, and Expeditions as an Accessible, Hands-on "Bridge" into Climate Studies for Diverse Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davi, N. K.; Wattenberg, F.; Pringle, P. T.; Tanenbaum, J.; O'Brien, A.; Greidanus, I.; Perry, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tree-ring research provides an engaging, intuitive, and relevant entryway into understanding both climate-change and environmental research, as well as the process of science from inspiration, to fieldwork, to analysis, to publishing and communicating. The basic premise of dendrochronology is that annual rings reflect environmental conditions year-by-year and that by studying long-lived trees we can learn about past environments and climates for hundreds-to-thousands of years in the past. Conceptually, this makes tree-ring studies accessible to students and faculty for a number of reasons. First, in order to collect their data, dendrochronologists often launch expeditions to stunningly picturesque and remote places in search of long-lived, climate sensitive trees. Scientist exciting stories and images from the field can be leveraged to connect students to the study and the data. Second, tree-rings can be more easily explained as a proxy for climate than other methods (ice cores, carbon-isotope ratios, etc.), and most people have prior-knowledge about trees and annual growth rings. It is even possible, for example, for non-expert audiences to see climate variability through time with the naked eye by looking at climate sensitive tree cores. Third, tree-rings are interdisciplinary and illustrate the interplay between the mathematical sciences, the biological sciences, and the geosciences—that is, they show that the biosphere is a fundamental component of the Earth system. Here, we will present several projects have been initiated for a range of audiences, including; elementary school, where 5th graders visited a local forest to collect samples and apply their samples and what they learned to math and science classes. 5th grade students also leaned how to use Climate Explorer (KNMI), an online tool that allows scientist and students the opportunity to access and visualize global climate data within a few clicks. Geared to 2 and 4 year colleges, we are also

  7. Guide for Planning a Learning Expedition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Meg, Ed.; Liebowitz, Martin, Ed.; Mednick, Amy, Ed.; Rugen, Leah, Ed.

    This guide aims to help teachers plan, reflect on, and revise learning expeditions. Growing out of the metaphor of an Outward Bound wilderness expedition, learning expeditions are long-term, in-depth investigations of a topic that engage students in the world through authentic projects, fieldwork, and service. The work centers on critical…

  8. Astronomical forcing, insolation and millennial-scale climate variability: evidence from the North Atlantic Ocean (IODP Expedition 306, Site U1313) during the Early-Middle Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Patrizia; Crowhurst, Simon; Naafs, David; Barbante, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Since the seminal work by Hays, Imbrie and Shackleton (1976), a plethora of studies mostly based on marine sediments collected during DSDP-ODP-IODP Expeditions has demonstrated a correlation between orbital variations and climatic change. However, information on how changes in orbital boundary conditions affected the frequency and amplitude of millennial-scale climate variability is still fragmentary. Here we examine the record of climatic conditions from MIS 23 to 17 (c. 920-670 ka) using high-resolution stable isotope records from benthic and planktonic foraminifera from a sedimentary sequence in the North Atlantic (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 306, Site U1313) in order to evaluate the climate system's response in the millennial band to known orbitally induced insolation changes. Special emphasis is placed on Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19, an interglacial centred at around 785 ka during which the insolation appears comparable to the current orbital geometry: MIS 19 is characterised by a minimum of the 400-kyr eccentricity cycle, subdued amplitude of precessional changes, and small amplitude variations in insolation making this marine isotopic stage a potential astronomical analogue for the Holocene and its future evolution, if this remains governed by natural forcing (Loutre and Berger 2000). Benthic and planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope values indicate relatively stable conditions during the peak warmth of MIS 19, but sea-surface and deep-water reconstructions start diverging during the transition towards the glacial MIS 18, when large, cold excursions disrupt the surface waters whereas low amplitude millennial scale fluctuations persist in the deep waters as recorded by the oxygen isotope signal (Ferretti et al., 2015). The glacial inception occurred at ˜779 ka, in agreement with an increased abundance of tetra-unsaturated alkenones, reflecting the influence of icebergs and associated meltwater pulses and high-latitude waters at the study

  9. Cenozoic Climate-Tectonic Interactions in the Western Himalaya Recorded in the Indus Submarine Fan: Initial Results from IODP Expedition 355

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Pandey, Dhananjai; Kulhanek, Denise; Andò, Sergio; Zhou, Peng; 355 Scientists Expedition

    2016-04-01

    The Indus Submarine Fan is the largest repository of clastic sediment eroded from the Western Himalayas since the start of India-Eurasia collision, likely around 50 Ma. Interpreting this sedimentary archive is central to understanding how the Asian monsoon and Himalaya have evolved together. Models indicate linkages between surface processes, controlled by climatic influences, and the tectonics of the solid Earth. The development of large-scale duplexes within the Lesser Himalaya starting in the Late Miocene may be linked to changes in erosion intensity and location, especially spanning the 7-8 Ma climatic transition previously identified in the foreland basin and offshore Oman. Although some of these issues can be addressed by studies onshore, erosion has removed much of the older record from the crystalline basement itself and the Siwalik Group foreland sediment tend to image limited stretches of the Himalayan front rather than supplying a basin-wide record. The sediment record of the Arabian Sea must be used to understand how the Indus catchment responds to changes in monsoon strength. Drilling by International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 in the Eastern Arabian Sea has recovered two submarine fan sections spanning the last ca. 11 Ma, predated by a mass transport deposit. These should allow us to reconstruct how the Western Himalaya have responded to climate change since the late Miocene. Autocyclic processes within the fan and a major mass transport deposit mean that the record is not continuous, but is largely complete. Initial results indicate that the Indus Submarine Fan was receiving materials from Himalayan high-grade metamorphic rocks since at least ca. 14-17 Ma and that there was a direct connection with the suture, likely close to the western syntaxis, dating from the late Miocene. However, initial postcruise results now indicate that there has been significant flux directly from the Indian Peninsular, especially since 3 Ma that disrupts the

  10. A lunar polar expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  11. A Cooperative Classroom Investigation of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Scientists have a particularly difficult time explaining warming trends in Antarctica--a region with a relatively short history of scientific observation and a highly variable climate (Clarke et al. 2007). Regardless of the mechanism of warming, however, climate change is having a dramatic impact on Antarctic ecosystems. In this article, the…

  12. The Exomars Climate Sounder (EMCS) Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, F.; Schofield, J. T.; Kass, D. M.; Kleinböhl, A.; McCleese, D. J.; Allen, M. A.; Foote, M. C.; Millour, E.; Spiga, A.; Talagrand, O.; Calcutt, S. B.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Read, P. L.; Lewis, S. R.; Fouchet, T.; Lefèvre, F.; Määttänen, A.; Barnes, J. R.; Bougher, S. W.; Haberle, R. M.; Jeganathan, M.; Bowles, N.

    2011-10-01

    The ExoMars Climate Sounder (EMCS) investigation is developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Principal Investigator J. T. Schofield) in collaboration with an international scientific team from France, the United Kingdom and the USA. EMCS plans to map daily, global, pole-to-pole profiles of temperature, dust, water and CO2 ices, and water vapor from the proposed 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (EMTGO). These profiles are to be assimilated into Mars General Circulation Models (MGCMs) to generate global, interpolated fields of measured and derived parameters such as wind. Sciences objectives of EMCS are to: Enhance understanding of Mars photochemistry by providing daily, global, high vertical resolution fields of atmospheric state, aerosol distribution, and water vapor concentration. EMCS atmospheric state measurements, combined with data assimilation, characterize the transport, sources and sinks of trace gases measured by the proposed EMTGO. The aerosol measurements reveal the heterogeneous photochemical pathways of trace gases. EMCS plans to map water vapor, the key source gas for odd hydrogen, known to be important in Martian photochemistry. Extend the MRO/MCS climatology of high vertical resolution measurements of the lower and middle atmosphere of Mars, with the improved coverage of local time provided by the proposed EMTGO. EMCS will determine the diurnal, seasonal & long-term variability of temperature and aerosol, and its impact on photochemistry. EMCS climatology, combined with earlier data, would relate EMTGO observations to earlier trace gas measurements. Support future Mars missions with measured climatology and near real-time density profile retrievals for landing and aerocapture, in the same way that MRO/MCS supported the Phoenix landing and is supporting the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing. EMCS could be the only instrument in orbit able to support Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) for the proposed ExoMars 2018 Rover Mission.

  13. The role of the Bering Sea in the global climate: Preliminary results of the IODP Expedition 323, Bering Sea paloceanography (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Sakai, S.; Iijima, K.; Sugisaki, S.; Oguri, K.; Takahashi, K.; Asahi, H.; Ikehara, M.; Onodera, J.; Ijiri, A.; Okazaki, Y.; Horikawa, K.; Mix, A. C.; Ravelo, A. C.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Scieintific Party Of Iodp Expedition 323

    2010-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: The IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea was the first expedition to recover continuous marine sediment sections to investigate high-resolution paleoceanography at the most northern region of the North Pacific during 5 Ma. Drill sites explored in the Bowers Ridge region (Sites U1340 and U1341) provide complete sequences for the last 5 myrs, including Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG), and drill sites at the continental slope of the Aleutian Basin (Sites U1343 and U1344) provide complete sequences for the last 2 myrs, including the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) with drastic changes in the character of glacial-interglacial cycles. Post cruise age models of the drilled sequences are constructed using oxygen isotope stratigraphy, tephrachronology, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, along with onboard bio- and magneto-stratigraphy. Astronomical calibration of high-resolution non-destructive core measurement data provides additional age control, and shows that sedimentation rates during interglacials are two to three times higher than that of glacials. Marine primary productivity changes dramatically during the Plio-Pleistocene. Si /Al ratio measured using non-destructive XRF scanning by TATSCAN-F2 is consistent with discrete biogenic silica content, and exhibits large glacial-interglacial cycles. The productivity is relatively high, similar to that of today’s “green-belt”, during the interglacial periods with increasing glacial-interglacial variability after NHG, and even larger amplitude variations during last 500 kyrs. Significant large peaks of biogenic carbonate detected by TATSCAN-F2 occur during every deglaciation period (in the early stage of warming) during the Pleistocene. The increase in biogenic carbonate is related to enhanced terrigenous nutrient supply mainly from the continental shelf exposed during the glacial periods. During the middle and later part of the interglacial, carbonate content becomes significant

  14. Expedition Seven Crew Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This crew portrait of Expedition Seven, Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander (left), and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer (right) was taken while in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), the two-man crew launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. aboard a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft.

  15. Expedition 36 Crew Profile

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn more about Expedition 36 Commander Pavel Vinogradov and Flight Engineers Chris Cassidy, Alexander Misurkin, Karen Nyberg, Fyodor Yurchikhin and Luca Parmitano and their mission aboard the Int...

  16. Biomarker based reconstruction of Pleistocene climate and environmental conditions in the Gulf of Alaska: Preliminary results obtained from IODP Expedition 341 sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Juliane; Sanchez Montes, Maria Luisa; McClymont, Erin; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wilkes, Heinz; 341 Scientists, Expedition

    2014-05-01

    A remarkable sedimentary record that extends from the Miocene to the late Pleistocene/Holocene has been drilled during IODP Expedition 341 (May - July 2013) in the Gulf of Alaska. The recovery and examination of sediments along a transect of five drill sites (U1417 - U1421) from the deep ocean towards the continental slope and shelf offshore the St. Elias Mountains enables the reconstruction of the palaeoceanographic and environmental development in the NE Pacific during a period of significant global cooling and directly addresses the overall research objectives of the IODP programme. The knowledge about palaeo sea surface conditions and their relation to climate changes in the subpolar NE Pacific is relatively scarce and mainly confined to the past 17 ka BP (Barron et al., 2009; Davies et al., 2011; Addison et al., 2012). Biomarker based reconstructions of the sea surface conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice coverage, marine primary productivity) that characterised the subpolar NE Pacific during critical time intervals of Plio- and Pleistocene climate change may provide new information on oceanic and atmospheric feedback mechanisms and further enable the identification of teleconnections between the palaeoceanographic evolution in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Here we present preliminary biomarker data obtained from sediments from the distal deepwater site U1417 and the proximal site U1419 located at the Gulf of Alaska continental slope. Variability in the distribution and abundance of short- and long-chain n-alkanes, sterols, and C25-highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs) is interpreted to reflect changes in the environmental setting. These data provide insight in marine primary productivity changes (in response to cooling and warming intervals) and the variable input of terrigenous organic matter via meltwater and/or iceberg discharge events. The C25-HBI diene/triene ratio - hitherto used as a sea ice proxy in the Southern Ocean

  17. Effective Expedition Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederquist, John

    An expedition is different from other forms of overnight wilderness travel in that it involves extended time and distance in the field; it is beyond the reach of immediate rescue; and the party is self-contained regarding gear, provisions, and decision-making responsibilities. Successful expeditions may prove to be powerful, life-changing…

  18. Chlorofluorocarbon measurements in the southwestern pacific during the CGC-90 expedition. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Wisegarver, D.P.; Bullister, J.L.; Van Woy, F.A.; Menzia, F.A.; Weiss, R.F.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydgrographic data collected in the Southwest Pacific Ocean during the 1990 NOAA Climate and Global Change (CGC-90) expedition on NOAA Research Ship Malcolm Baldrige. On this expedition, full water column CTD/hydrocast stations were made on a section extending along 170 deg W from 5 deg N to 60 deg S, on a short section crossing the Southwest Pacific Basin to the southeast of New Zealand, and on a short section along 32 deg 30`S east of the kermadec Ridge. Measurements of dissolved and atmospheric dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) and trichlorofluromethane (CFC-11) made by the SIO and NOAA/PMEL groups are compared in this report. Also included in the report are hydrographic data (measurements of salinity, temperature, pressure and depth) collected by NOAA/PMEL investigators during this expedition.

  19. Focus on Quality: Investigating Residents’ Learning Climate Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Silkens, Milou E. W. M.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A department’s learning climate is known to contribute to the quality of postgraduate medical education and, as such, to the quality of patient care provided by residents. However, it is unclear how the learning climate is perceived over time. Objectives This study investigated whether the learning climate perceptions of residents changed over time. Methods The context for this study was residency training in the Netherlands. Between January 2012 and December 2014, residents from 223 training programs in 39 hospitals filled out the web-based Dutch Residency Educational Climate Test (D-RECT) to evaluate their clinical department’s learning climate. Residents had to fill out 35 validated questions using a five point Likert-scale. We analyzed data using generalized linear mixed (growth) models. Results Overall, 3982 D-RECT evaluations were available to investigate our aim. The overall mean D-RECT score was 3.9 (SD = 0.3). The growth model showed an increase in D-RECT scores over time (b = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01–0.06; p < 0.05). Conclusions The observed increase in D-RECT scores implied that residents perceived an improvement in the learning climate over time. Future research could focus on factors that facilitate or hinder learning climate improvement, and investigate the roles that hospital governing committees play in safeguarding and improving the learning climate. PMID:26765742

  20. Expedition 33 Crew Returns

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and Flight Engineer Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide land in Kazakhstan aboard their Soyuz TMA-05M spacecraft after more than four months aboard the Internatio...

  1. Expedition 29 Crew Profile

    NASA Video Gallery

    The six members of Expedition 29 are profiled and interviewed. NASA astronauts Mike Fossum and Dan Burbank; JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa; and cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin di...

  2. Expedition 34 Thanksgiving Message

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford shares a Thanksgiving message from the International Space Station. Ford demonstrates how the crew will spend the holiday on orbit and describes the menu he and h...

  3. Expedition 30 Hatch Opening

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Flight Engineers Don Pettit, Oleg Kononenko and Andre Kuipers are welcomed aboard the International Space Station when the hatches between the station and the Soyuz TMA-03M spacecraft...

  4. Expedition 27 Says Goodbye

    NASA Video Gallery

    At 2:45 p.m. EDT on May 23, 2011, hatches were closed between the International Space Station and Soyuz TMA-20 spacecraft. Expedition 27 crew members Dmitry Kondratyev, NASA Flight Engineer Cady Co...

  5. Expedition 34 Final Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 34 crew members conduct final training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center before their Dec. 19 launch to the International Space Station. Flight Engineers Chris Hadfield, Roman...

  6. Investigation of the climate change within Moscow metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Trusilova, Kristina; Konstantinov, Pavel; Samsonov, Timofey

    2014-05-01

    As the urbanization continues worldwide more than half of the Earth's population live in the cities (U.N., 2010). Therefore the vulnerability of the urban environment - the living space for millions of people - to the climate change has to be investigated. It is well known that urban features strongly influence the atmospheric boundary layer and determine the microclimatic features of the local environment, such as urban heat island (UHI). Available temperature observations in cities are, however, influenced by the natural climate variations, human-induced climate warming (IPCC, 2007) and in the same time by the growth and structural modification of the urban areas. The relationship between these three factors and their roles in climate changes in the cities are very important for the climatic forecast and requires better understanding. In this study, we made analysis of the air temperature change and urban heat island evolution within Moscow urban area during decades 1970-2010, while this urban area had undergone intensive growth and building modification allowing the population of Moscow to increase from 7 to 12 million people. Analysis was based on the data from several meteorological stations in Moscow region and Moscow city, including meteorological observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Differences in climate change between urban and rural stations, changes of the power and shape of urban heat island and their relationships with changes of building height and density were investigated. Collected data and obtained results are currently to be used for the validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with the purpose to use this model for further more detailed climate research and forecasts for Moscow metropolitan area. References: 1. U.N. (2010), World Urbanization Prospects. The 2009 Revision.Rep., 1-47 pp, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division., New York. 2. IPCC (2007), IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

  7. Expeditions INDIEN-SUD-1 &2 : Variations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and of the Austral ocean in the Kerguelen sector during the Deglaciation and the last Climatic Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaud, Alain; Michel, Elisabeth; Crosta, Xavier; Eynaud, Frederique; Paterne, Martine; Bout-Roumazeilles, Viviane; Jaccard, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    IndienSud-1 and 2 expeditions aboard the RV Marion-Dufresne were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in the Kerguelen sector of the South Indian Ocean. Objectives are to document past ocean circulation changes, in particular the variations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), as well as oceanic temperature variability and frontal movement, during the last climatic cycles, with a focus on the last deglaciation. Sedimentary archives collected with the Casq and Calypso coring systems of the RV Marion-Dufresne allow producing high-resolution, well-dated sedimentary records. Comparaisons with exisiting records from other ocean-continental-glaciological archives allow examining the mechanisms involved, with a close attention paid to the temporal phasing between ocean and atmosphere proxy records, at both regional- and hemispheric scales. Past Changes in the intensity of the ACC are investigated using environmental magnetism methods, which trace amount and size of sedimentary magnetic grains. Oxygen isotopes and foraminifera faunal assemblages trace hydrological and temperature changes, while vertical mixing is documented by δ13C. A precise age scale will be derived from 14C ages determinations, augmented by regional correlations (magnetic susceptibility) to well-dated cores in the same area, thanks to a tephrochronological study of the marine cores and peat cores from the Kerguelen archipelago. Results document a stronger ACC current during glacial intervals than during interglacials over at least the last 600 kyrs. This pattern is opposite to observations of flow of the NADW branch (WBUC) south of Greenland in the North Atlantic Ocean. It suggests an inter-hemispheric antiphasing between ACC and NADW at Milankovitch timescales, with a strong circulation in the deep North Atlantic when the ACC is weak, and vice versa (thus with an ACC correlated with the GNAIW intensity). During the last deglaciation, temperature and vertical mixing increased prior to changes in the ACC

  8. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  9. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  10. Expedition 5 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON, TEXAS -- EXPEDITION FIVE CREW PORTRAIT --- (JSC ISS05-5-002) -- Cosmonaut Valeri G. Korzun (left), Expedition Five mission commander; astronaut Peggy A. Whitson and cosmonaut Sergei Y. Treschev, both flight engineers, attired in training versions of the shuttle launch and entry suit, pause from their training schedule for a crew portrait. The three will be launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in early spring of this year aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Korzun and Treschev represent the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Rosaviakosmos)

  11. The GLOBE Program's Student Climate Research Campaign: Empowering Students to Measure, Investigate, and Understand Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackaro, J.; Andersen, T.; Malmberg, J.; Randolph, J. G.; Wegner, K.; Tessendorf, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBE Program's Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRC) is a two-year campaign focused on empowering students to measure, investigate, and understand the climate system in their local community and around the world. Schools can participate in the campaign via three mechanisms: climate foundations, intensive observing periods (IOPs), and research investigations. Participation in the first year of the SCRC focused on increasing student understanding and awareness of climate. Students in 49 countries participated by joining a quarterly webinar, completing the online climate learning activity, collecting and entering data during IOPs, or completing an online join survey. The year also included a video competition with the theme of Earth Day 2012, as well as a virtual student conference in conjunction with The GLOBE Program's From Learning to Research Project. As the SCRC continues into its second year, the goal is for students to increase their understanding of and ability to conduct scientific research focused on climate. Furthermore, year two of the SCRC seeks to improve students' global awareness by encouraging collaborations among students, teachers and scientists focused on understanding the Earth as a system. In addition to the continuation of activities from year one, year two will have even more webinars offered, two competitions, the introduction of two new IOPs, and a culminating virtual student conference. It is anticipated that this virtual conference will showcase research by students who are enthusiastic and dedicated to understanding climate and mitigating impacts of climate change in their communities. This presentation will highlight examples of how the SCRC is engaging students all over the world in hands-on and locally relevant climate research.

  12. Using R for Hydrologic Investigations of Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeysekera, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change hydrologic investigations involve assembling, organizing, and analyzing large data sets from archived observations and complex model outputs. R is a free open-source software system consisting of nearly 4,800 packages running on Windows, Unix-like, and Mac families of operating systems. It is becoming a popular option for statisticians, scientists and engineers for investigations associated with climate change. The rapid growth and use of R is facilitated by the relative ease of assembling the user's scripts into a customized 'package' that can be submitted to the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) for others to use. This presentation includes several examples of climate change investigations where R was used for trend analysis in historical time series; reading and analyzing downscaled; large climate data sets; extreme value modeling of hydrologic time series and presentation of analysis results. An R package called nsextremes was created for modeling non-stationary hydrologic time series using a recently developed methodology for computing risk and return periods in changing environments. The presentation describes the theory, details of the scripts, and the process that was used to create the nsextremes package.

  13. Investigations of the Climate System Response to Climate Engineering in a Hierarchy of Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, Kelly E.

    Global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases is causing negative impacts on diverse ecological and human systems around the globe, and these impacts are projected to worsen as climate continues to warm. In the absence of meaningful greenhouse gas emissions reductions, new strategies have been proposed to engineer the climate, with the aim of preventing further warming and avoiding associated climate impacts. We investigate one such strategy here, falling under the umbrella of `solar radiation management', in which sulfate aerosols are injected into the stratosphere. We use a global climate model with a coupled mixed-layer depth ocean and with a fully-coupled ocean general circulation model to simulate the stabilization of climate by balancing increasing carbon dioxide with increasing stratospheric sulfate concentrations. We evaluate whether or not severe climate impacts, such as melting Arctic sea ice, tropical crop failure, or destabilization of the West Antarctic ice sheet, could be avoided. We find that while tropical climate emergencies might be avoided by use of stratospheric aerosol injections, avoiding polar emergencies cannot be guaranteed due to large residual climate changes in those regions, which are in part due to residual atmospheric circulation anomalies. We also find that the inclusion of a fully-coupled ocean is important for determining the regional climate response because of its dynamical feedbacks. The efficacy of stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections, and solar radiation management more generally, depends on its ability to be maintained indefinitely, without interruption from a variety of possible sources, such as technological failure, a breakdown in global cooperation, lack of funding, or negative unintended consequences. We next consider the scenario in which stratospheric sulfate injections are abruptly terminated after a multi- decadal period of implementation while greenhouse gas emissions have continued unabated

  14. Investigating Climate on Venus with Future Missions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    Venus presents unique opportunities to study climate on a nearby, active planet that is both surprisingly like Earth and startlingly different. Venus is remarkably like Earth in terms of bulk properties such as size, mass and density. And yet its modern climate has evolved to a state which is dramatically divergent from that of Earth. Thus Venus presents a fascinating experimental laboratory for studying and modeling climate processes on an Earth-sized world with a strong atmospheric greenhouse and for exploring the role of heliocentric distance and other initial conditions in determining the outcome of climate evolution on an Earth-like planet. Previous spacecraft investigations of Venus, combined with ground based observations, have confirmed the existence of a dynamic, changeable atmosphere with a deep troposphere extending to an altitude of 65 km, a highly variable globally encompassing cloud deck extending from 48 to 70 km altitude, and a complex pattern of global circulation dominated by superrotating winds which circle the globe at a rate up to 60 times faster than the retrograde rotation of the solid planet, with the peak wind velocities at an altitude of 60 km. Other large scale features of the global circulation include Hadley cells in which air rises at low latitudes and travels poleward at high altitudes; and large, complex vortices at both poles where sinking air from the Hadley circulation intersects with the superrotation. Attempts to model this global circulation using modified terrestrial General Circulation Models (GCMs) have been only partially successful. Such tests have the promise of not only increasing our understanding of the Venus atmosphere and its response to solar radiation, but improving our general knowledge of climate and global circulation on Earth-sized terrestrial planets, including Earth itself. They also serve as a 'reality check' on the current generation of terrestrial GCMs and their ability to accurately model climate and

  15. [The botanical project of the Malaspina expedition].

    PubMed

    Galera, A

    1995-01-01

    Concluding the XVIIIth century, the monarchy of Carlos III patronizes the expedition Malaspina with the goal of exploring the continents of America, Asia and Oceania. On their political aspect the journey persecuted the reformation of the obsolescent colonial Spanish model, and in their scientific facet the development of a project of investigation in agreement with the European interests. Our goal is to define the botanical studies accomplished by the naturalists of the expedition Malaspina in relationship with the scientific policy that from the Royal Botanical Garden from Madrid the Spanish crown projected for their overseas territories. PMID:11625886

  16. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 and Multidisciplinary Research in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Li, C. F.; Wang, P.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Dadd, K. A.; Kulhanek, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest low-latitude marginal seas in the world, serving as a natural laboratory for studying the linkages between complex tectonic, volcanic, and oceanic processes. The last several years have witnessed significant progress in investigation of the SCS through comprehensive research programs using multidisciplinary approaches and enhanced international collaboration. In January-March 2014, International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 drilled and cored five sites in the SCS, with three sites located near the relict spreading center in the East and Southwest Subbasins and two sites near the transition zone between the oceanic and continental crust (Expedition 349 Scientists, 2014). The expedition successfully obtained the first basaltic rock samples of the SCS relict spreading center, discovered large and frequent deep-sea turbidity events, and sampled multiple seamount volcaniclastic layers. The Expedition 349 shipboard and shorebased research involves the participation and strong collaboration of scientists from the international community including scientists from countries and regions surrounding the SCS. Meanwhile, major progress in studying the SCS processes has also been made through comprehensive multidisciplinary programs, for example, the "South China Sea Deep" initiative (Wang, 2012). This presentation will highlight the recent multidisciplinary research initiatives in investigation of the SCS and the important role of international collaboration. Expedition 349 Scientists, 2014. South China Sea tectonics: Opening of the South China Sea and its implications for southeast Asian tectonics, climates, and deep mantle processes since the late Mesozoic. International Ocean Discovery Program Preliminary Report, 349. http://dx.doi.org/10.14379/iodp.pr.349.2014. Wang, P., 2012. Tracing the life history of a marginal sea—on "The South China Sea Deep" research program. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57(24), 3093

  17. Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.

    PubMed Central

    A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

    1995-01-01

    Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

  18. Expedition 32 Departs for Baikonur

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new trio of Expedition 32 flight engineers, NASA astronaut Suni Williams, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, departs the Gagarin Cosm...

  19. Expediting drug development--the FDA's new "breakthrough therapy" designation.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Rachel E; Li, Jun; Shapley, Stephanie; Robb, Melissa; Woodcock, Janet

    2013-11-14

    The FDA's new "breakthrough therapy" designation for investigational drugs adds to the agency's portfolio of expedited programs for serious conditions. The designation requires preliminary clinical evidence demonstrating substantial improvement over existing therapies. PMID:24224621

  20. Lewis & Clark: An Interdisciplinary Expedition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugar, Kristy

    2004-01-01

    On January 18, 1803 President Thomas Jefferson asked Congress to fund an expedition to the source of the Missouri River. This expedition would become known as the Corps of Discovery, which would spend twenty-eight months exploring, studying, and documenting the wonders of the western frontier. Led by Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark,…

  1. Martian Polar Expeditions: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2001-12-01

    The Martian polar ice caps are regions of substantial scientific interest, being the most dynamic regions of Mars. They are volatile sinks and thus closely linked to Martian climatic conditions. Because of their scale and the precedent set by the past history of polar exploration on Earth, it is likely that an age of polar exploration will emerge on the surface of Mars after the establishment of a capable support structure at lower latitudes. Expeditions might be launched either from a lower latitude base camp or from a human-tended polar base. Based on previously presented expeditionary routes to the Martian poles, in this paper a "spiral in-spiral out" unsupported transpolar assault on the Martian north geographical pole is used as a Reference expedition to propose new types of equipment for the human polar exploration of Mars. Martian polar "ball" tents and "hover" modifications to the Nansen sledge for sledging on CO 2-containing water ice substrates under low atmospheric pressures are suggested as elements for the success of these endeavours. Other challenges faced by these expeditions are quantitatively and qualitatively addressed.

  2. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  3. Expedited site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    McCreary, I.; Booth, S.R.

    1997-03-01

    Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) is being offered as a new, more cost-effective way to perform DOE environmental site characterizations. Site characterization of environmental cleanup sites can be costly and time consuming. {open_quotes}Traditional techniques,{close_quotes} though effective, are the outgrowth of cautious and often restrictive regulatory control. At some sites up to 40% of the funds and 70% of the time spent on cleanup operations have been devoted to characterization. More realistically, the DOE`s Ten Year Plan (TYP) Cost Rollup by Category (high budgetary version) budgets $1.34 billion to remedial action assessments out of a total of $9.7 billion in remedial actions - about 14% of the total TYP expenditures for this type of cleanup work. The expenditure percentage for characterization drops to a much lower 3% of total expenditures during outyears, after 2006, as most of the assessments will have been completed during the early TYP years. (The sampling and monitoring costs, however, rise from 7% of the budget during the TYP to 30% during the outyears as this activity continues and others decline. Improved characterizations could have the potential to reduce the need for some of these ongoing monitoring costs.) Fortunately, regulatory agencies have begun to relax many of the constraints on site characterization allowing more efficient and innovative approaches to be applied. Argonne National Laboratory`s Expedited Site Characterization is perhaps the best defined of these new approaches. ESC is founded on the premise that it is cheaper, faster, and more efficient to develop and test a conceptual model (or {open_quotes}hypothesis{close_quotes}) of contamination at a site than it is to collect data on a statistical basis and then attempt to model a site from those data. The difference between these two approaches has been described as a {open_quotes}scientific versus an engineering approach{close_quotes}.

  4. Stochastic investigation of wind process for climatic variability identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Tyrogiannis, Vassilis; Daskalou, Olympia; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Markonis, Yannis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is considered one of the hydrometeorological processes that generates and drives the climate dynamics. We use a dataset comprising hourly wind records to identify statistical variability with emphasis on the last period. Specifically, we investigate the occurrence of mean, maximum and minimum values and we estimate statistical properties such as marginal probability distribution function and the type of decay of the climacogram (i.e., mean process variance vs. scale) for various time periods. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  5. Stochastic investigation of temperature process for climatic variability identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerias, Eleutherios; Kalamioti, Anna; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Markonis, Yannis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The temperature process is considered as the most characteristic hydrometeorological process and has been thoroughly examined in the climate-change framework. We use a dataset comprising hourly temperature and dew point records to identify statistical variability with emphasis on the last period. Specifically, we investigate the occurrence of mean, maximum and minimum values and we estimate statistical properties such as marginal probability distribution function and the type of decay of the climacogram (i.e., mean process variance vs. scale) for various time periods. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  6. An Environmental Expedition Course in Search of the Maya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loret, John

    1978-01-01

    Sponsoring an interdisciplinary program (over 30 lecture hours of geology, ecology, anthropology, ethnology, and agriculture of the Yucatan and Meso-America), Queens College and the University of Connecticut provide expeditions to Mexico and study of local geomorphology, stratigraphy, climate, topography, soils, archeological sites, flora, and…

  7. Mid-Miocene to Pleistocene Radiolarian fossil record from IODP Expedition 346: Faunal response to the global climatic changes and local/regional tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itaki, T.; Motoyama, I.; Kamikuri, S.; Tada, R.; Murray, R. W.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that radiolarian fossils can be used as a geological tool for the age assignment and paleoceanographic reconstruction. In this study, we analyzed radiolarian fossils for seven drilled sites of IODP Exp. 346 from the Japan, Yamato and Ulleung (JYU) basins in a marginal sea of the mid-latitude NW Pacific. Significant variations of the well-preserved fossil assemblage imply that the unique oceanic circulation changes in the basins through Mid-Miocene to Pleistocene might be controlled by global climatic changes and topographic changes with local/regional tectonics. Warm water radiolarians Dictyocoryne spp. and Tetrapyle spp. characterized in the Tsushima Current water occurred commonly since 1.7 Ma suggesting a beginning of the warm water inflow from the southern strait of the basins. It might be coincident with an opening of the Okinawa Trough in the East China Sea. On the other hand, during the Pliocene period, sporadic occurrence of the warm water species was recognized in southern part of the examined area. This implies that a minor influence of the warm water was present in the southern coastal area of the Yamato Basin. Typical deep dwelling species such as Cornutella profunda and Peripyramis circumtexta is absent in the present JYU basins, however they occurred frequently during Pliocene and Miocene. This suggests the deep-water exchange between the JYU basins and the North Pacific via the deeper strait, which might be present in the northern part of the sea. These deep-water radiolarians disappeared from the JYU basins at the early Pleistocene (~2.7 Ma to 1.7 Ma), which is almost coincident with the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation.

  8. IODP Expedition 334: An Investigation of the Sedimentary Record, Fluid Flow and State of Stress on Top of the Seismogenic Zone of an Erosive Subduction Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannucchi, P.; Ujiie, K.; Stroncik, N.; IODP Exp. 334 Scientific Party, the

    2013-03-01

    The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) is an experiment to understand the processes that control nucleation and seismic rupture of large earthquakes at erosional subduction zones. Integrated Ocean Drililng Program (IODP) Expedition 334 by R/V JOIDES Resolution is the first step toward deep drilling through the aseismic and seismic plate boundary at the Costa Rica subduction zone offshore the Osa Peninsula where the Cocos Ridge is subducting beneath the Caribbean plate. Drilling operations included logging while drilling (LWD) at two slope sites (Sites U1378 and U1379) and coring at three slope sites (Sites U1378-1380) and at one site on the Cocos plate (Site U1381). For the first time the lithology, stratigraphy, and age of the slope and incoming sediments as well as the petrology of the subducting Cocos Ridge have been characterized at this margin. The slope sites recorded a high sediment accumulation rate of 160-1035m m y-1 possibly caused by on-land uplift triggered by the subduction of the Cocos Ridge. The geochemical data as well as the in situ temperature data obtained at the slope sites suggest that fluids are transported from greater depths. The geochemical profiles at Site U1381 reflect diffusional communication of a fluid with seawater-like chemistry and the igneous basement of the Cocos plate (Solomon et al., 2011; Vannucchi et al., 2012a). The present-day in situ stress orientation determined by borehole breakouts at Site U1378 in the middle slope and Site U1379 in the upper slope shows a marked change in stress state within ~12 km along the CRISP transect; that may correspond to a change from compression (middle slope) to extension (upper slope). doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.15.03.2013

  9. Investigating the Climatic Impacts of Globally Shifted Anthropogenic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.

    2014-12-01

    With a quasi-exponential growth in industrialization since the mid-1990s, Asia has undergone a dramatic increase in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol and precursor gases to the atmosphere. Meanwhile, such emissions have been stabilized or reduced over North America and Europe. This geographical shift of global emission sources could potentially perturb the regional and global climate due to impact of aerosols on cloud properties, precipitation, and large-scale circulation. We use an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) with different aerosol scenarios to investigate the radiative and microphysical effects of anthropogenic aerosols on the large-scale circulation and regional climate over the globe. We conduct experiments to simulate the continental shift of aerosol distribution by contrasting two simulations using 1970 and 2010 anthropogenic emission sources. We found the elevation of aerosol concentrations in East and South Asia results in regional surface temperature cooling of -0.10° to -0.17°C, respectively, due to the enhanced solar extinction by aerosols and cloud reflectivity. The reduction of the local aerosol loadings in Europe causes a significant warming of +0.4°C. However, despite recent decreasing in aerosol emission, North America shows a cooling of -0.13°C, likely caused by increasing of cloudiness under the influence of modulated general circulation. These aerosol induced temperature changes are consistent with the observed temperature trends from 1980 to 2013 in the reanalysis data. Our study also predicts weaker East/South Asia summer monsoons due to strong regional aerosol forcing. Moreover, the ascending motion in the northern tropics is found to be weakened by asymmetrical aerosol forcing, resulting in the cross-equatorial shift of Hadley Circulation.

  10. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited processes. 303.101 Section 303.101... STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.101 Expedited processes. (a) Definition. Expedited processes means... intrastate cases, expedited processes as specified under this section to establish paternity and to...

  11. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expedited processes. 303.101 Section 303.101... STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.101 Expedited processes. (a) Definition. Expedited processes means... intrastate cases, expedited processes as specified under this section to establish paternity and to...

  12. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Expedited processes. 303.101 Section 303.101 Public... STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.101 Expedited processes. (a) Definition. Expedited processes means... intrastate cases, expedited processes as specified under this section to establish paternity and to...

  13. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Expedited processes. 303.101 Section 303.101... STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.101 Expedited processes. (a) Definition. Expedited processes means... intrastate cases, expedited processes as specified under this section to establish paternity and to...

  14. Expedition 28 Crew Lands Safely

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko and Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev and Ron Garan land their Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft in Kazakhstan. Russian recovery teams were on hand to help the c...

  15. Nested-model approach to investigate climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, Lauren E.; Leavesley, George H.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation in mountainous regions is critical for assessing the effects of climate variability on water resources in these regions. Potential effects of climate change on water resources in the Gunnison River basin of southwestern Colorado currently are being studied using a nested-model approach to disaggregate large-scale general circulation model output to account for smaller-scale processes. This paper presents a disaggregation technique in which scenarios of possible climate change will be developed by nesting a global general circulation model, a mesoscale climate model, a local orographic precipitation model, and a watershed model.

  16. Mt. Kilimanjaro expedition in earth science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Narita, Kenji; Brettenny, Mark; Yule, Sheila; O'Toole, Michael; Brettenny, Rogeline

    2010-05-01

    Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain is 5,895 meters above sea level and is located 330 km south of the equator in Tanzania. In 1976 glaciers covered most of Mt. Kilimanjaro's summit; however in 2000, an estimated eighty percent of the ice cap has disappeared since the last thorough survey done in 1912. There is increased scientific interest in Mt. Kilimanjaro with the increase in global and African average temperatures. A team of college and pre-college school students from Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya, teachers from South Africa and the United States, and scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in the United States and Akita University in Japan, climbed to the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro in October 2009. They were accompanied by guides, porters, two expedition guests, and a videographer. This expedition was part of the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Project and the GLOBE Africa science education initiative, exploring and contributing to climate change studies. Students learned about earth science experientially by observing their physical and biological surroundings, making soil and air temperature measurements, participating in discussions, journaling their experience, and posing research questions. The international trekkers noted the change in the biomes as the altitude, temperature and conditions changed, from cultivated lands, to rain forest, heath zone, moorland, alpine desert, and summit. They also discovered permafrost, but not at the summit as expected. Rather, it was where the mountain was not covered by a glacier and thus more exposed to low extreme temperatures. This was the first report of permafrost on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Classrooms from all over the world participated in the expedition virtually. They followed the trek through the expedition website (http://www.xpeditiononline.com/) where pictures and journals were posted, and posed their own questions which were answered by the expedition and base camp team members

  17. Civility norms, safety climate, and safety outcomes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Walsh, Benjamin M; Kath, Lisa M; Morrow, Stephanie L

    2014-10-01

    Working environments that are both civil and safe are good for business and employee well-being. Civility has been empirically linked to such important outcomes as organizational performance and individuals' positive work-related attitudes, yet research relating civility to safety is lacking. In this study, we link perceptions of civility norms to perceptions of safety climate and safety outcomes. Drawing on social exchange theory, we proposed and tested a model in 2 samples wherein civility norms indirectly relate to safety outcomes through associations with various safety climate facets. Our results supported direct relationships between civility and management safety climate and coworker safety climate. Additionally, indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors and injuries were observed. Indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors were observed through coworker safety climate and work-safety tension. Indirect effects of civility norms on injuries were observed through management safety climate and work-safety tension for full-time employees, although these effects did not hold for part-time employees. This study provides initial evidence that researchers and practitioners may want to look beyond safety climate to civility norms to more comprehensively understand the origins of unsafe behaviors and injuries and to develop appropriate preventive interventions. PMID:24933595

  18. Investigating Hilbert frequency dynamics and synchronisation in climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalà, Dario; Masoller, Cristina; Tirabassi, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    In this work we investigate climate dynamics and interactions from the point of view of synchronisation. We analyse daily Surface Air Temperature (SAT) time series in 10512 grid points over the Earth's surface. [1] From each SAT time series we calculate the anomalies time series and also, by using the Hilbert transform, we calculate the frequency time series. By plotting the map of the average frequency in every grid point, we extract relevant information about the SAT dynamics in different regions of the world. Then, we calculate frequency and anomalies autocorrelations. The autocorrelation maps also allow uncovering geographical regions with different memory properties. In a second step, to detect Hilbert-frequency synchronisation in different regions, we compute the zero-lag cross correlation (CC). By thresholding the CC matrices (both, of SAT anomalies and of Hilbert frequencies), we build two undirected networks. A comparison between these networks allows to test the recent demonstration of optimal network inference when the similarity analysis is performed over Hilbert frequency time series. [2] In a third step, we consider non uniform thresholds and keep in each geographical location only the links with the highest CC values. In this way, we build directed networks that allow identifying in each geographical region the most relevant inward teleconnections. [1] ERA-Interim analysis daily data, from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. [2] G. Tirabassi, R. Sevilla-Escoboza, J. M. Buldú and C. Masoller, Inferring the connectivity of coupled oscillators from time-series statistical similarity analysis, Sci. Rep. 5 10829 (2015).

  19. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine.

    PubMed

    Imray, Christopher H E; Grocott, Michael P W; Wilson, Mark H; Hughes, Amy; Auerbach, Paul S

    2015-12-19

    Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine are modern and rapidly evolving specialties that address the spirit of adventure and exploration. The relevance of and interest in these specialties are changing rapidly to match the underlying activities, which include global exploration, adventure travel, and military deployments. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine share themes of providing best available medical care in the outdoors, especially in austere or remote settings. Early clinical and logistics decision making can often have important effects on subsequent outcomes. There are lessons to be learned from out-of-hospital care, military medicine, humanitarian medicine, and disaster medicine that can inform in-hospital medicine, and vice-versa. The future of extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine will be defined by both recipients and practitioners, and empirical observations will be transformed by evidence-based practice. PMID:26738718

  20. Expedition-8 Crew Members Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This is a portrait of the Expedition-8 two man crew. Pictured left is Cosmonaut Alexander Y, Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer; and Michael C. Foale (right), Expedition-8 Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer. The crew posed for this portrait while training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The two were launched for the International Space Station (ISS) aboard a Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, along with European Space Agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, on October 18, 2003.

  1. Investigating Climate Change and Reproduction: Experimental Tools from Evolutionary Biology

    PubMed Central

    Grazer, Vera M.; Martin, Oliver Y.

    2012-01-01

    It is now generally acknowledged that climate change has wide-ranging biological consequences, potentially leading to impacts on biodiversity. Environmental factors can have diverse and often strong effects on reproduction, with obvious ramifications for population fitness. Nevertheless, reproductive traits are often neglected in conservation considerations. Focusing on animals, recent progress in sexual selection and sexual conflict research suggests that reproductive costs may pose an underestimated hurdle during rapid climate change, potentially lowering adaptive potential and increasing extinction risk of certain populations. Nevertheless, regime shifts may have both negative and positive effects on reproduction, so it is important to acquire detailed experimental data. We hence present an overview of the literature reporting short-term reproductive consequences of exposure to different environmental factors. From the enormous diversity of findings, we conclude that climate change research could benefit greatly from more coordinated efforts incorporating evolutionary approaches in order to obtain cross-comparable data on how individual and population reproductive fitness respond in the long term. Therefore, we propose ideas and methods concerning future efforts dealing with reproductive consequences of climate change, in particular by highlighting the advantages of multi-generational experimental evolution experiments. PMID:24832232

  2. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  3. Investigating Climate at an Inland Sea During Snowball Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A. J.; Bitz, C. M.; Warren, S. G.; Waddington, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    During the Neoproterozoic, the Earth's oceans may have been completely covered with thick ice, during periods commonly called Snowball Earth events. The Snowball Earth environment would seemingly have prohibited the survival of photosynthetic eukaryotic algae; however, these organisms were alive immediately prior to and immediate subsequent to these periods. Where on a Snowball Earth, or a Snowball-like exoplanet, could photosynthetic eukaryotic algae survive? Recent research, in attempt to reconcile this paradox, has demonstrated that narrow channels connected the ocean, called inland seas, could have provided refugia for photosynthetic eukaryotic algae during Snowball Earth events. Narrow channels could have restricted the flow of ocean-derived ice, called sea glaciers, diminishing sea-glacier penetration into these channels. Provided certain climate conditions and channel geometries, this diminished sea-glacier penetration would have allowed for either open water or thin sea ice, at the far end of these channels. A channel with open water or thin sea ice would provide the conditions needed for survival of photosynthetic eukaryotic algae. Here we test whether the climate needed to prevent sea-glacier penetration, could have existed in the special inland sea environment. Previous climate modeling of Snowball Earth has shown that tropical regions would have likely been warmer than the global average and would have experienced net sublimation at the surface. An inland sea located in the tropics would be surrounded by land that is bare and free from snow, while the inland sea itself would be either ice-covered or open water. With these conditions the inland sea would likely have a high albedo, while the surrounding bare land, would have a lower albedo. This albedo contrast could cause the climate over an inland sea to be warmer than the climate over the ice-covered ocean at the same latitude. We calculate the surface temperature and sublimation rate at an inland sea

  4. Expedition 3 Crew Training Clips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Expedition 3 crewmembers, Frank Culbertson, Jr., Mikhail Turin, and Vladimir Dezhurov, are seen during various stages of their training. Footage includes Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Training at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), EVA Preparation and Post Training in the International Space Station Airlock Mock-up, in the NBL Space Station Remote Manipulator System Workstation, and during the T-38 flight at Ellington Field.

  5. Expedition 34 Welcomes New Trio

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Soyuz TMA-07M carrying new Expedition 34 crew members Chris Hadfield, Roman ROmanenko and Tom Marshburn docked to the International Space Station’s Rassvet module at 9:09 a.m. EST on Friday. ...

  6. 12 CFR 347.118 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expedited processing. 347.118 Section 347.118... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.118 Expedited processing. (a) Expedited processing of branch applications. An eligible bank may establish a foreign branch conducting activities authorized by § 347.115 in an...

  7. 12 CFR 347.118 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited processing. 347.118 Section 347.118... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.118 Expedited processing. (a) Expedited processing of branch applications. An eligible bank may establish a foreign branch conducting activities authorized by § 347.115 in an...

  8. 12 CFR 347.118 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expedited processing. 347.118 Section 347.118... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.118 Expedited processing. (a) Expedited processing of branch applications. An eligible bank may establish a foreign branch conducting activities authorized by § 347.115 in an...

  9. 12 CFR 347.118 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expedited processing. 347.118 Section 347.118... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.118 Expedited processing. (a) Expedited processing of branch applications. An eligible bank may establish a foreign branch conducting activities authorized by § 347.115 in an...

  10. 12 CFR 347.118 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expedited processing. 347.118 Section 347.118... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.118 Expedited processing. (a) Expedited processing of branch applications. An eligible bank may establish a foreign branch conducting activities authorized by § 347.115 in an...

  11. 7 CFR 1.9 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expedited processing. 1.9 Section 1.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.9 Expedited processing. (a) A requester may apply for expedited processing at the time of the initial request for...

  12. 7 CFR 1.9 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited processing. 1.9 Section 1.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.9 Expedited processing. (a) A requester may apply for expedited processing at the time of the initial request for...

  13. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either:...

  14. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either:...

  15. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either:...

  16. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either:...

  17. Mars Climate Orbiter's Investigation of the Atmosphere and Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleese, D. J.; Moroz, V.; Schofield, T.; Taylor, F.; Zurek, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) is now on its way to Mars. It carries an atmospheric sounder whose observations will provide a continuous, global data set on weather and climate for a full Martian year. This paper describes the observation strategy and anticipated results from the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR). PMIRR will measure vertical profiles of atmospheric infrared radiance in the 7 to 50 micron wavelength region extending from the surface of Mars to 80-km altitude. The observations have a vertical resolution of 5 km, or one-half the atmospheric scale height. From these radiance profiles we will retrieve profiles of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and the amounts of dust, condensates and water vapor. In addition, PMIRR will measure the radiative balance of the polar regions of Mars in an effort to better understand the short-term climate variability of the planet. The information obtained with PMIRR on MCO will be complementary to data obtained by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Radio Science (RS) experiments on the Mars Global Surveyor. A major emphasis of our research will be the assimilation of PMIRR data into numerical models of the Martian atmosphere. Assimilation schemes, of which several are currently in development, will permit the extension of measurements to spatial and temporal scales and to phenomena (e.g. winds) not observed directly by PMIRR.

  18. Investigating Climate Change Issues With Web-Based Geospatial Inquiry Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, C.; Bodzin, A. M.; Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Peffer, T.; Cirucci, L.

    2011-12-01

    In the Environmental Literacy and Inquiry middle school Climate Change curriculum we focus on essential climate literacy principles with an emphasis on weather and climate, Earth system energy balance, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and how human activities influence climate change (http://www.ei.lehigh.edu/eli/cc/). It incorporates a related set of a framework and design principles to provide guidance for the development of the geospatial technology-integrated Earth and environmental science curriculum materials. Students use virtual globes, Web-based tools including an interactive carbon calculator and geologic timeline, and inquiry-based lab activities to investigate climate change topics. The curriculum includes educative curriculum materials that are designed to promote and support teachers' learning of important climate change content and issues, geospatial pedagogical content knowledge, and geographic spatial thinking. The curriculum includes baseline instructional guidance for teachers and provides implementation and adaptation guidance for teaching with diverse learners including low-level readers, English language learners and students with disabilities. In the curriculum, students use geospatial technology tools including Google Earth with embedded spatial data to investigate global temperature changes, areas affected by climate change, evidence of climate change, and the effects of sea level rise on the existing landscape. We conducted a designed-based research implementation study with urban middle school students. Findings showed that the use of the Climate Change curriculum showed significant improvement in urban middle school students' understanding of climate change concepts.

  19. Exploring the Expedition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paznokas, Lynda

    2003-01-01

    Introduces research projects based on the Lewis and Clark journals that focus on building communication skills. Provides two outdoor activities for multidisciplinary learning and numerous science investigations. (KHR)

  20. Effect of a Prolonged Altitude Expedition on Glucose Tolerance and Abdominal Fatness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Tsung; Lee, Wen-Chih; Chen, Shih-Chang; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Chen, Chung-Yu; Lee, Shin-Da; Jensen, Jorgen; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of a long-term mountain expedition on glucose tolerance and insulin action. Twelve registered mountaineers ages 31 years (SD = 1.1) participated in a 25-day expedition at a 2,200-3,800-m altitude with an average duration of 8 hr per day. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO[subscript 2]) was…

  1. Perceived Learning, Critical Elements and Lasting Impacts on University-Based Wilderness Educational Expeditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asfeldt, Morten; Hvenegaard, Glen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined participants' perceptions of learning, critical elements, and lasting impacts of their wilderness expeditions. Fifty-seven students, who completed a for-credit wilderness canoe expedition between 1993 and 2007 at the Augustana Campus, University of Alberta, participated in the investigation. Perceived learning most…

  2. COMMUNICATING GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: INVESTIGATING MESSAGE STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNICATING THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program is designed to generate findings that provide specific guidance to science communicators and government officials on how to best communicate knowledge about global climate change and other environmental issues to diverse lay audiences. Beyond providing gui...

  3. Controls on the Archean climate system investigated with a global climate model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2014-03-01

    The most obvious means of resolving the faint young Sun paradox is to invoke large quantities of greenhouse gases, namely, CO2 and CH4. However, numerous changes to the Archean climate system have been suggested that may have yielded additional warming, thus easing the required greenhouse gas burden. Here, we use a three-dimensional climate model to examine some of the factors that controlled Archean climate. We examine changes to Earth's rotation rate, surface albedo, cloud properties, and total atmospheric pressure following proposals from the recent literature. While the effects of increased planetary rotation rate on surface temperature are insignificant, plausible changes to the surface albedo, cloud droplet number concentrations, and atmospheric nitrogen inventory may each impart global mean warming of 3-7 K. While none of these changes present a singular solution to the faint young Sun paradox, a combination can have a large impact on climate. Global mean surface temperatures at or above 288 K could easily have been maintained throughout the entirety of the Archean if plausible changes to clouds, surface albedo, and nitrogen content occurred. PMID:24621308

  4. Investigating Satellite Microwave observations of Precipitation in Different Climate Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Ferraro, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Microwave satellite remote sensing of precipitation over land is a challenging problem due to the highly variable land surface emissivity, which, if not properly accounted for, can be much greater than the precipitation signal itself, especially in light rain/snow conditions. Additionally, surfaces such as arid land, deserts and snow cover have brightness temperature characteristics similar to precipitation Ongoing work by GPM microwave radiometer team is constructing databases through a variety of means, however, there is much uncertainty as to what is the optimal information needed for the wide array of sensors in the GPM constellation, including examination of regional conditions. The original data sets will focus on stratification by emissivity class, surface temperature and total perceptible water. We'll perform sensitivity studies to determine the potential role of ancillary data (e.g., land surface temperature, snow cover/water equivalent, etc.) to improve precipitation estimation over land in different climate regimes, including rain and snow. In other words, what information outside of the radiances can help describe the background and subsequent departures from it that are active precipitating regions? It is likely that this information will be a function of the various precipitation regimes. Statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) will be utilized in this task. Databases from a variety of sources are being constructed. They include existing satellite microwave measurements of precipitating and non-precipitating conditions, ground radar precipitation rate estimates, surface emissivity climatology from satellites, surface temperature and TPW from NWP reanalysis. Results from the analysis of these databases with respect to the microwave precipitation sensitivity to the variety of environmental conditions in different climate regimes will be discussed.

  5. Investigating Tectonic Drivers of Miocene - Pliocene Polar Climate Evolution using the HadCM3 Climate Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, S. J.; Knies, J.; Haywood, A. M.; Dolan, A. M.; Pound, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    We model the climate of the Miocene (Tortonian and the Messinian) and the Pliocene (Piacenzian) using the HadCM3 Atmosphere-Ocean GCM. We use baseline Miocene and Pliocene geographies that have different reconstruction lineages so we describe methods to create a set of self-consistent paleogeographies that represent the main features of the three stages. We present large-scale features of the evolving climate and examine model fidelity by comparing modelled climatology against palaeoenvironmental proxy data. We focus on the climate of the Arctic region and investigate tectonic drivers of sea ice expansion by comparing and interpreting model predictions against borehole data from the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. In particular how Late Miocene/ early Pliocene tectonic uplift in the Svalbard/Barents Sea and Greenland region, the opening of the Bering Strait, and the onset of deep water Atlantic-Arctic exchange influenced the development of modern sea ice cover.

  6. Investigating uncertainties in global gridded datasets of climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, R. J. H.; Donat, M. G.; Alexander, L. V.

    2014-12-01

    We assess the effects of different methodological choices made during the construction of gridded data sets of climate extremes, focusing primarily on HadEX2. Using global land-surface time series of the indices and their coverage, as well as uncertainty maps, we show that the choices which have the greatest effect are those relating to the station network used or that drastically change the values for individual grid boxes. The latter are most affected by the number of stations required in or around a grid box and the gridding method used. Most parametric changes have a small impact, on global and on grid box scales, whereas structural changes to the methods or input station networks may have large effects. On grid box scales, trends in temperature indices are very robust to most choices, especially in areas which have high station density (e.g. North America, Europe and Asia). The precipitation indices, being less spatially correlated, can be more susceptible to methodological choices, but coherent changes are still clear in regions of high station density. Regional trends from all indices derived from areas with few stations should be treated with care. On a global scale, the linear trends over 1951-2010 from almost all choices fall within the 5-95th percentile range of trends from HadEX2. This demonstrates the robust nature of HadEX2 and related data sets to choices in the creation method.

  7. Changes in Aspects of Students' Self-Reported Personal, Social and Technical Skills during a Six-Week Wilderness Expedition in Arctic Greenland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Tim; Hall, Neil

    2003-01-01

    This investigation focuses on students' self-reported changes in personal, social and technical skills that took place during a six-week long expedition to East Greenland. A 105-item pre-and post-expedition questionnaire was completed by 60 young expeditioners aged 16 to 20. Before the expedition participants generally felt that they had high…

  8. The Construction of Shared Knowledge in an Internet-based Shared Environment for Expeditions (iExpeditions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Minjuan; Laffey, James; Poole, Melissa J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how participants (39 teenagers and 10 college-age online mentors) interacted and constructed shared knowledge of concepts, goals, tasks, procedures, and solutions when solving a real-world problem in an Internet-mediated project-based learning environment (iExpeditions). The main focus of the study was on how different patterns of…

  9. Investigating the Paleoproterozoic glaciations with 3-D climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitler, Yoram; Le Hir, Guillaume; Fluteau, Frédéric; Philippot, Pascal; Donnadieu, Yannick

    2014-06-01

    It is generally assumed that the Earth's surface was warm during most of its early history but that significant cooling occurred between 2.45 and 2.22 Ga leading to the first global and cyclical glacial epoch. This onset of snowball Earth conditions was coeval with a large pulse of oxygenation that permanently oxygenated the atmosphere and shallow oceans (Great Oxygenation Event, GOE), though it is not known whether one influenced the other or if they were independent events. Hereafter we used a General Circulation climate Model (GCM) to estimate the partial pressures of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2) and CH4 (pCH4) required to account for the onset of snowball Earth conditions during the Paleoproterozoic. We show that Earth's surface can be maintained in an ice-free state under atmospheric CO2 concentrations lower than 2.6×10-2 bar without invoking the need of high CH4 concentrations. Assuming that the cooling of the Earth's surface is related to the collapse of atmospheric greenhouse gases, we tested the relevance of different scenarios including (i) the collapse of pCH4 in response to the GOE and (ii) the drawdown of pCO2 due to both a decrease in volcanic outgassing rate and an increase in global weathering efficiency. We show that the cyclical character of Paleoproterozoic glaciations is best explained by a long-lasted decrease of pCO2. To support this scenario, we examine how the long-term carbon cycle and the equilibrium pCO2 respond to the emplacement of large subaerial basaltic provinces (LIPs) and to a temporary shutdown of volcanism as supported by geologic data. We show that the sink of pCO2 through silicate weathering is limited by the absence of terrestrial higher plants. In such conditions, the equilibrium pCO2 remains high enough to preclude the onset of snowball conditions regardless the intensity of the pCH4 collapse. The combination of an increase in weathering efficiency and a decrease in volcanic outgassing rate can significantly reduce the

  10. An intensive Alpine climbing expedition and its influence on some anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of an intensive 4 week Alpine climbing expedition on percentage body fat, absolute body fat and lean body mass was investigated in 14 adult male students. Anthropometric measures were taken on two occasions during the training period prior to the expedition, twice during the expedition and finally eight weeks after the expedition had returned home. There was a 3% reduction in percentage body fat between the first testing occasion and the fourth taken towards the end of the expedition. Over the same interval there was a mean reduction of 2.6 kg in absolute body fat and a reduction in lean body mass of 2.47 kg. All three criterion mean values on the final testing session returned to or exceeded those taken on session one. Images p126-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7407450

  11. Expedition 31 Qualification Training Simulation Runs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 31 Flight Engineers Gennady Padalka, Sergei Revin and Joe Acaba, along with backup crew members Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin, complete qualification training simulation...

  12. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a... liability or relating to the practitioner's own tax liability, for— (i) Instituting or...

  13. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a... liability or relating to the practitioner's own tax liability, for— (i) Instituting or...

  14. Expedition 30 Departs for Launch Site

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Expedition 30 flight engineers -- NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers -- departed Star City, Russia on Thursday for t...

  15. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P-16C and P-17C) during the TUNES/2 expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August, 1991. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Rubin, S.; Chipman, D.W.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of carbon dioxide and associated hydrographic measurements made during the oceanographic expedition, TUNES/2, aboard the R/V Thomas Washington in the central South Pacific Ocean. During the 40 day expedition, the total carbon dioxide concentration in 1000 seawater samples were determined using a coulometer system and the pCO(sub 2) in 940 seawater samples were determined using an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The alkalinity values in 900 water samples were computed using these measurements. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements were made for the Certified Reference Solutions (Batch No. 6) and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 +or- 1.5umol/kg. The chemical characteristics for the major water masses have been determined.

  16. Stochastic investigation of precipitation process for climatic variability identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriadou, Alexia; Petsiou, Amalia; Feloni, Elisavet; Kastis, Paris; Iliopoulou, Theano; Markonis, Yannis; Tyralis, Hristos; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The precipitation process is important not only to hydrometeorology but also to renewable energy resources management. We use a dataset consisting of daily and hourly records around the globe to identify statistical variability with emphasis on the last period. Specifically, we investigate the occurrence of mean, maximum and minimum values and we estimate statistical properties such as marginal probability distribution function and the type of decay of the climacogram (i.e., mean process variance vs. scale). Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  17. Investigating an Apparent Warming Event in the Southern Ocean During the Late Miocene (11.5-11.0 Ma): Foraminiferal and Geochemical Results from IODP Expedition 318 Site U1361 Wilkes Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCesare, M.; Pekar, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution isotope and foraminiferal biofacies records are being developed from samples obtained from IODP Expedition 318 Site U1361 to investigate a transient warming event that effected the Southern Ocean and Antarctica during the Late Miocene (11.5-11.0 Ma). The Pagodroma Group are proximal glaciomarine strata and provide evidence that the Lambert Glacier had receded up 300 km inland from its present-day grounding line between 12.1 and 8.5 Ma. Four cores, 34X-37X (311.6-349.99 mbsf), recovered from Site U1361 and dated at 11.5-11.0 Ma, contain a sedimentary archive suggestive of a transient warming event. With excellent core recovery and good preservation of foraminifers, it will be possible to document the extent and duration of this warming event. Integrated biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy, as well as high sedimentation rates of ~69 m/106 yr allow for excellent age control. These cores were drilled in 3,466 meters water depth on the continental rise, ~280km offshore from Wilkes Land. Foraminiferal abundances are variable, with specimens ranging from rare to relatively high abundances. Planktonic foraminifers are dominated by Globigerina bulloides, while benthic foraminiferal assemblages include Oridorsalis Umbonatus, Cibicidoides Wuellertorfi, Cibicidoides Bradyi, and Epistominella Exigua. Shipboard studies recognized apparent cyclicity in the sediments, which shows good correlation with 41-kyr obliquity cycles. This is supported by comparing foraminiferal abundances to sediment luminosity (total light reflectance or L*). These changes in foraminiferal abundances are interpreted to represent a periodic deepening of the lysocline and carbonate compensation depth. Stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) records are being developed to reconstruct bottom and surface water conditions and place constraints on changes in Southern Ocean dynamics. Mg/Ca and Li/Ca ratio records are being obtained using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

  18. New Titan Saltation Threshold Experiments: Investigating Current and Past Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N.; Burr, D. M.; Marshall, J.; Smith, J. K.; Emery, J. P.; Horst, S. M.; Nield, E.; Yu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Titan exhibits aeolian sand dunes that cover ~20% of its surface, attesting to significant sediment transport by the wind. Recent experiments in the Titan Wind Tunnel (TWT) at NASA Ames Research Center [1,2] found that the threshold friction speed needed to detach Titanian "sand" is about 50% higher than previous estimates based on theory alone [3], a result that might be explained by the low ratio of particle to fluid density on the body [1]. Following the successful completion of the initial Titan threshold tests, we are conducting new experiments that expand the pressure range above and below current Titan values. The basic experimental techniques are described in [1], with minor updates to the instrumentation as described in [2]. To reproduce the kinematic viscosity and particle friction Reynolds number equivalent to that expected for Titan's nitrogen atmosphere at 1.4 bars and 94 K requires that TWT be pressurized to 12.5 bars for air at 293K. In addition to running experiments at this pressure to reproduce previous results [1] and investigate low density (high density ratio) materials, TWT pressures of 3 and 8 bars are in the experimental matrix to understand threshold under past Titan conditions when the atmospheric pressure may have been lower [4]. Higher pressures, at 15 and 20 bars in TWT, are also being run to understand the putative effects of low density ratio conditions. Our experimental matrix for this follow-on work uses some of the same materials as previously used, including walnut shells, basalt, quartz, glass spheres, and various low density materials to better simulate the gravity-equivalent weight of Titan sand. For these experiments, the TWT is now equipped with a new high pressure Tavis transducer with sufficient sensitivity to measure freestream speeds of less than 0.5 m s-1 at 12.5 bars. New techniques include video documentation of the experiments. We are also investigating methods of measuring humidity of the wind tunnel environment and

  19. An exploratory investigation into safety climate and work-related driving.

    PubMed

    Wills, Andrew; Watson, Barry; Biggs, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of safety climate upon occupational safety behavior or intentions, focusing instead on the event of incidents and injuries. Similarly, while safety climate has been studied in numerous industrial settings, limited attention has been given to the motor vehicle fleet context. This study conceptualized safety climate and work-related driver safety within a model informed by Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism and the Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. The relative impact of safety climate upon four self-reported measures of work-related driver safety was investigated including: 1) current work-related driver behavior, 2) future work-related driving intentions, and 3) past crash involvement while driving for work. There was a moderate relationship between safety climate perceptions and the safety of current driver behavior at work (r = 0.40). The relationship with the safety of future driving intentions was also moderate (r = 0.29). Multiple regression analyses revealed that safety climate was a significant predictor of current driver behavior (beta = 0.30) and future driving intentions (beta = 0.18) at work. However, attitude was the stronger predictor of future driving intentions (beta = 0.28). Logistic regression analyses showed that neither fleet safety climate, nor the other factors included, predicted work-related crash involvement or traffic offences. Possible explanations for these results are outlined. Implications of the findings for occupational safety management, particularly in the fleet setting, are also discussed. PMID:19276528

  20. Investigating the Association of Mental-Social Climate and Social Anxiety With Students’ Self-Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Farideh; Nadi Ghara, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The tendency and motivation to progress and achieve the ideal position have always encouraged people towards acquiring the required education. Objectives: The present research aimed to investigate the association of mental-social climate and social anxiety with self-efficiency and also predict the academic self-efficiency of first grade high school students based on social anxiety and the mental-social climate of the classroom. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 subjects (172 girls and 178 boys) have been chosen by a random clustering sampling form the first grade high school students of Qaemshahr, Iran. The academic self-efficiency questionnaire, the social anxiety scale for teenagers and the classroom mental climate scale were used to collect the required data. For data analysis, the statistical method of correlation analysis, independent t test, and multivariate regression have been used. Results: The research findings showed that there was a significant negative relationship between mental-social climate of the classroom and students’ self-efficiency. In addition, social anxiety has been a significant negative relationship with self-efficiency. Furthermore, a significant positive relationship exists between mental-social climate and social anxiety. Conclusions: In order to develop students’ self-efficacy, there should be appropriate psychosocial climate. Therefore, teachers and administrators of education must provide all necessary arrangements to improve psychosocial climate classes. PMID:26576172

  1. 15 CFR 904.209 - Expedited administrative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... application of any party, may expedite the administrative proceeding. A motion by a party to expedite the... actual notice to all parties. Upon granting a motion to expedite the scheduling of an...

  2. 15 CFR 904.209 - Expedited administrative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... application of any party, may expedite the administrative proceeding. A motion by a party to expedite the... actual notice to all parties. Upon granting a motion to expedite the scheduling of an...

  3. 29 CFR 1404.18 - Procedures for requesting expedited panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.18 Procedures for requesting expedited panels. (a) With the... arbitration services shall apply to Expedited Arbitration. (b) Upon receipt of a joint Request for...

  4. 29 CFR 1404.18 - Procedures for requesting expedited panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.18 Procedures for requesting expedited panels. (a) With the... arbitration services shall apply to Expedited Arbitration. (b) Upon receipt of a joint Request for...

  5. Investigating the Link Between Climate and Leptospirosis in the Caribbean Using Wavelet Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, T. W.; Amarakoon, D.; Taylor, M. A.; Stephenson, T.

    2009-05-01

    The Caribbean has shown changes in its climate (temperature and rainfall) as a result of urbanisation, population growth and industrialisation. The climatic changes have implications for the emergence and re- emergence of rodent-borne diseases such as leptospirosis. In this paper wavelet analysis is used to investigate the relationship between the incidence of leptospirosis in the Caribbean and climate variables such as temperature and precipitation. Wavelet analysis takes into account characteristics unique to climate and epidemiological data which other spectral techniques failed to do. The analysis reveals 2-3 year periodic signals in both the wavelet power spectrum and wavelet coherency. There is also a correlation between incidence of leptospirosis and late season Caribbean rainfall.

  6. An Outline of Project Work in Ecology/Environmental Biology for Expedition Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyatt, F. Brian

    1993-01-01

    This article aims to encourage the development of safe, valuable and scientifically sound field investigations, and offers suggestions or guidelines for your people participating in environmental work on expeditions to areas in the northern United Kingdom. (Author/MDH)

  7. 21 CFR 20.44 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Procedures and Fees § 20.44 Expedited processing. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will provide expedited... by the specific individual who is subject to an imminent threat, or by a family member, medical...

  8. 40 CFR 154.34 - Expedited procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited procedures. 154.34 Section 154.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES Procedures § 154.34 Expedited procedures. (a) The Agency may elect to issue...

  9. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited suspension. 10.82 Section 10.82 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a) When applicable. Whenever the Director of the...

  10. 7 CFR 1.9 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expedited processing. 1.9 Section 1.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.9 Expedited... or alleged federal government activity, if made by an individual primarily engaged in...

  11. 7 CFR 1.9 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expedited processing. 1.9 Section 1.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.9 Expedited... or alleged federal government activity, if made by an individual primarily engaged in...

  12. 7 CFR 1.9 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expedited processing. 1.9 Section 1.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.9 Expedited... or alleged federal government activity, if made by an individual primarily engaged in...

  13. Raman Spectroscopy: an essential tool for future IODP expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Kulhanek, Denise K.

    2016-04-01

    The scientific drilling of oceanic sedimentary sequences plays a fundamental part in provenance studies, paleoclimate recostructions, and source-to-sink investigations (e.g., France-Lanord et al., 2015; Pandey et al., 2015). When studying oceanic deposits, Raman spectroscopy can and does represent an essential flexible tool for the multidisciplinary approach necessary to integrate the insight provided by different disciplines. This new user-friendly technique opens up an innovative avenue to study in real time the composition of detrital mineral grains of any origin, complementing traditional methods of provenance analysis (e.g., sedimentary petrography, heavy minerals; Andò and Garzanti, 2014). Raman spectra can readily reveal the chemistry of foraminiferal tests, nannofossils and other biogenic debris for the study of ecosystem evolution and paleoclimate, or the Ca/Mg ratio in biogenic or terrigenous carbonates for geological or marine biological applications and oil exploration (Borromeo et al., 2015). For the study of pelagic or turbiditic muds, which represent the bulk of the deep-marine sedimentary record, Raman spectroscopy allows us to identify silt-sized grains down to the size of a few microns with the same precision level required in quantitative provenance analysis of sand-sized sediments (Andò et al., 2011). Silt and siltstone also represent a very conspicuous part of the stratigraphic record onshore and usually preserve original mineralogical assemblages better than more permeable interbedded sand and sandstone (Blatt, 1985). Raman spectra can be obtained on sample volumes of only a few cubic microns by a confocal micro-Raman coupled with a standard polarizing light microscope using a 50× objective. The size of this apparatus can be easily placed onboard an IODP vessel to provide crucial information and quickly solve identification problems for the benefit of a wide range of scientists during future expeditions. Cited references Andò, S., Vignola

  14. Evaluating meteo marine climatic model inputs for the investigation of coastal hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellafiore, D.; Bucchignani, E.; Umgiesser, G.

    2010-09-01

    One of the major aspects discussed in the recent works on climate change is how to provide information from the global scale to the local one. In fact the influence of sea level rise and changes in the meteorological conditions due to climate change in strategic areas like the coastal zone is at the base of the well known mitigation and risk assessment plans. The investigation of the coastal zone hydrodynamics, from a modeling point of view, has been the field for the connection between hydraulic models and ocean models and, in terms of process studies, finite element models have demonstrated their suitability in the reproduction of complex coastal morphology and in the capability to reproduce different spatial scale hydrodynamic processes. In this work the connection between two different model families, the climate models and the hydrodynamic models usually implemented for process studies, is tested. Together, they can be the most suitable tool for the investigation of climate change on coastal systems. A finite element model, SHYFEM (Shallow water Hydrodynamic Finite Element Model), is implemented on the Adriatic Sea, to investigate the effect of wind forcing datasets produced by different downscaling from global climate models in terms of surge and its coastal effects. The wind datasets are produced by the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CIRA), and by EBU-POM model (Belgrade University), both downscaling from ECHAM4. As a first step the downscaled wind datasets, that have different spatial resolutions, has been analyzed for the period 1960-1990 to compare what is their capability to reproduce the measured wind statistics in the coastal zone in front of the Venice Lagoon. The particularity of the Adriatic Sea meteo climate is connected with the influence of the orography in the strengthening of winds like Bora, from North-East. The increase in spatial resolution permits the more resolved wind dataset to better reproduce meteorology and to provide a more

  15. 20 CFR 416.999 - What is expedited reinstatement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999 What is expedited reinstatement? The expedited reinstatement provision provides...

  16. 20 CFR 416.999 - What is expedited reinstatement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999 What is expedited reinstatement? The expedited reinstatement provision provides...

  17. 20 CFR 416.999 - What is expedited reinstatement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999 What is expedited reinstatement? The expedited reinstatement provision provides...

  18. 20 CFR 416.999 - What is expedited reinstatement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999 What is expedited reinstatement? The expedited reinstatement provision provides...

  19. 20 CFR 416.999 - What is expedited reinstatement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999 What is expedited reinstatement? The expedited reinstatement provision provides...

  20. Exploring Links Between Global Climate and Explosive Arc Volcanism in Tephra-Rich Quaternary Sediments: A Pilot Study from IODP Expedition 350 Site 1437B, Izu Bonin Rear-Arc Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corry-Saavedra, K.; Straub, S. M.; Bolge, L.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Woodhead, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Fallout tephra in marine sediment provide an excellent archive of explosive arc volcanism that can be directly related to the other parameters of climate change, such as ice volume data, IRD (ice-rafted debris) input, etc. Current studies are based on 'discrete' tephra beds, which are produced by major eruptions and visible with the naked eye. Yet the more common, but less explosive arc eruptions that are more continuous through time produce 'disperse' tephra, which is concealed by the non-volcanic host sediment and invisible to the eye. The proportion of disperse tephra in marine sediments is known to be significant and may be critical in elucidating potential synchronicity between arc volcanism and glacial cycles. We conducted a pilot study in young sediments of IODP Hole 1437B drilled at 31°47.3911'N and 139°01.5788'E at the rear-arc of the Izu Bonin volcanic arc. By means of δ18O (Vautravers, in revision), eleven climatic cycles are recorded in uppermost 120 meter of carbonate mud that is interspersed by cm-thick tephra fallout layers. We selected six tephra layers, ranging from 0.2 to 1.16 million years in age, and sampled those vertically, starting from carbonate mud below the basal contact throughout the typical gradational top into the carbonate mud above. From each tephra bed, volcanic particles (>125 micrometer) were handpicked. All other samples were powdered and leached in buffered acetic acid and hydroxylamine hydrochloride to remove the carbonate and authigenous fraction, respectively. Major and trace element abundances (except for SiO2) from all samples were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES methods. Strong binary mixing trends are revealed between the pure tephra end member, and detrital sediment component. The tephra is derived from the Izu Bonin volcanic front and rear-arc, while the sediment component is presumably transported by ocean surface currents from the East China Sea. Our data show that mixing proportions change systematically with

  1. Haughton-Mars Project Expedition 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWeck, Olivier; Simchi-Levi, David

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 expedition to the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) research station on Devon Island was part of a NASA-funded project on Space Logistics. A team of nine r&searchers from MIT went to the Canadian Arctic to participate in the annual I-IMP field campaign from July 8 to August 12, 2005. We investigated the applicability of the HMP research station as an analogue for planetary macro- and micro-logistics to the Moon and Mars, and began collecting data for modeling purposes. We also tested new technologies and procedures to enhance the ability of humans and robots to jointly explore remote environments. The expedition had four main objectives. We briefly summarize our key findings in each of these areas. 1. Classes of Supply: First, we wanted to understand what supply items existed at the HMP research station in support of planetary science and exploration research at and around the Haughton Crater. We also wanted to quantify the total amount of imported mass at HMP and compare this with predictions from existing parametric lunar base demand models. 2. Macro-Logistics Transportation Network: Our second objective was to understand the nodes, transportation routes, vehicles, capacities and crew and cargo mass flow rates required to support the HMP logistics network. 3. Agent and Asset Tracking: Since the current inventory management system on ISS relies heavily on barcodes and manual tracking, we wanted to test new automated technologies and procedures such as radio frequency identification RFID) to support exploration logistics. 4. Micro-Logistics (EVA): Finally, we wanted to understand the micro-logistical requirements of conducting both short (<1 day) and long traverses in the Mars-analog terrain on Devon Island. Micro-logistics involves the movement of surface vehicles, people and supplies from base to various exploration sites over short distances (<100 km).

  2. Improved Upper Ocean/Sea Ice Modeling in the GISS GCM for Investigating Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This project built on our previous results in which we highlighted the importance of sea ice in overall climate sensitivity by determining that for both warming and cooling climates, when sea ice was not allowed to change, climate sensitivity was reduced by 35-40%. We also modified the GISS 8 deg x lO deg atmospheric GCM to include an upper-ocean/sea-ice model involving the Semtner three-layer ice/snow thermodynamic model, the Price et al. (1986) ocean mixed layer model and a general upper ocean vertical advection/diffusion scheme for maintaining and fluxing properties across the pycnocline. This effort, in addition to improving the sea ice representation in the AGCM, revealed a number of sensitive components of the sea ice/ocean system. For example, the ability to flux heat through the ice/snow properly is critical in order to resolve the surface temperature properly, since small errors in this lead to unrestrained climate drift. The present project, summarized in this report, had as its objectives: (1) introducing a series of sea ice and ocean improvements aimed at overcoming remaining weaknesses in the GCM sea ice/ocean representation, and (2) performing a series of sensitivity experiments designed to evaluate the climate sensitivity of the revised model to both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, determine the sensitivity of the climate response to initial ice distribution, and investigate the transient response to doubling CO2.

  3. Improved Upper Ocean/Sea Ice Modeling in the GISS GCM for Investigating Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This project built on our previous results in which we highlighted the importance of sea ice in overall climate sensitivity by determining that for both warming and cooling climates, when sea ice was not allowed to change, climate sensitivity was reduced by 35-40%. We also modified the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) 8 deg x lO deg atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) to include an upper-ocean/sea-ice model involving the Semtner three-layer ice/snow thermodynamic model, the Price et al. (1986) ocean mixed layer model and a general upper ocean vertical advection/diffusion scheme for maintaining and fluxing properties across the pycnocline. This effort, in addition to improving the sea ice representation in the AGCM, revealed a number of sensitive components of the sea ice/ocean system. For example, the ability to flux heat through the ice/snow properly is critical in order to resolve the surface temperature properly, since small errors in this lead to unrestrained climate drift. The present project, summarized in this report, had as its objectives: (1) introducing a series of sea ice and ocean improvements aimed at overcoming remaining weaknesses in the GCM sea ice/ocean representation, and (2) performing a series of sensitivity experiments designed to evaluate the climate sensitivity of the revised model to both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, determine the sensitivity of the climate response to initial ice distribution, and investigate the transient response to doubling CO2.

  4. Investigating the biogeophysical impacts of land cover change on future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Mao, J.; Thornton, P. E.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Land use plays an important role in determining terrestrial-atmosphere mass and energy exchange, which in turn influences local to global climate. The CMIP5 project used "land use harmonization" to provide land use input for Earth System Model (ESM) simulations, but did not address numerous climate and carbon-cycle inconsistencies between Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) and ESMs. Our new approach to reducing such inconsistencies is to integrate an IAM (Global Change Assessment Model) and an ESM (Community Earth System Model) into the first fully coupled model that directly simulates human-environment feedbacks. The resulting Integrated Earth System Model (iESM) is used to investigate the biogeophysical impacts of land cover change (LCC) at regional and global scales under RCP4.5 scenario. Regions with significant LCC differences between the coupled (predicted LCC with climate feedback) and control (prescribed LUC without climate feedback, CMIP5 style) runs include large portions of Europe, United States, eastern China, India, Indonesia and Brail at the end of 21st century. The model results suggest that the LCCs have little impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2m temperature is -0.004 K cooler in the coupled simulation compared to control simulation with prescribed LCC). Within some of the regions with significant LCCs, there are relatively large changes o f selected climatic variables, but most are not statistically significant in the local annual mean (e.g., the reduction of precipitation is large as -0.115 mm/day over Southeast China, but not significant). Conversely, within some regions with small LCCs, there are relatively large and significant model changes (e.g., significant changes for precipitation, ET, LH, and net radiation appear over Tigris Euphrates). On the basis of our model experiments, it is important to consider the two-way feedbacks between the climate and LCC for projecting future climate, particularly at regional scales.

  5. Multidisciplinary Investigations of Climate Change in Mexico: Reports from a Collaborative Academic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endfield, G. H.

    2007-05-01

    Unusually severe or prolonged drought ranks among the most devastating of climate changes in Mexico, and has contributed to wildfires, crop failure, livestock death and famine across the country throughout its history and pre- history (Liverman, 1999; Florescano, 1980). Some of these droughts are thought to be associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) - the most prominent signal in inter-annual climate variability in Mexico and the subject of increasing interest following the effects of the severe El Niño of 1997-98 (Magaña et al., 2003). Obtaining detailed records of droughts and gaining a better understanding of how rainfall variability has affected Mexico's populations in the past, and is affecting society today, are essential steps toward designing appropriate drought preparedness, mitigation and relief programmes both in Mexico and other vulnerable regions of the world (ISDR, 2002). This paper reports on the development of Collaborative Academic Network entitled "Multi-disciplinary investigations of climate change in Mexico". The network represents an important research initiative, funded by the Leverhulme Trust, involving individuals from Mexico, the United Kingdom and the United States with established reputations for research in complementary methodological approaches to understanding climate change and drought in Mexico. The aim of the network is to draw on internationally recognised expertise in dendroclimatology, palaeolimnology, climate history and modern climatology, with the following objectives: - to improve understanding of the climatic mechanisms that cause drought across Mexico and how these vary spatially; - to identify past, present and future impacts of, and responses to, drought in Mexico; - to develop a more comprehensive understanding of climate change and its impacts across Mexico on a range of time scales. Here I report on the progress of the network so far in its aims to facilitate the integration and development of

  6. Investigating the variation of terrestrial water storage under changing climate and land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Niu, G. Y.; Zhang, X.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) consists of groundwater, soil moisture, snow and ice, lakes and rivers and water contained in biomass. The water storage, especially the subsurface storage, is an essential property of the catchment, which controls climate, hydrological and biogeochemical processes at different scales. During the past decades, climate and land cover change has been proved to exert significant influences on hydrological processes which in turn alters the TWS variation. In order to better understand the interaction and feedback mechanism between TWS and earth system, it is necessary to quantify the effects of climate and land cover change on TWS variation. Direct estimation of total TWS has been made possible by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites that measures the earth gravity field. At present, few efforts were made to explicitly investigate the TWS variation under changing climate and land cover. GRACE data has its own limitations. One is its temporal coverage is short, it's only available since 2002, which is not sufficient to reflect the trend due to climate and land cover change. The other reason is that it cannot distinguish different components contributing to TWS. The limitation of TWS observation data can be overcame by numerical models developed to reproduce or to predict different earth system processes. After calibration and validation, with limited observations, these models can be trusted to extend our knowledge to where observations are not available both in time and space. In this study, based on Noah-MP LSM and satellite and ground data, we aim to: (1) Investigate the variation of total TWS as well as its components over Upper Colorado River Basin from 1990 to 2014. (2) Identify the major factors that control the TWS variation. (3) Quantify how the changing climate and land cover affect TWS variation in the same period.

  7. Investigating Climate Science Misconceptions Using a Teacher Professional Development Workshop Registration Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, S. E.; Gold, A. U.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthLabs Climate project, an NSF-Discovery Research K12 program, has developed a suite of three online classroom-ready modules: Climate and the Cryosphere; Climate and the Carbon Cycle; and Climate and the Biosphere. The EarthLabs Climate project included week-long professional development workshops during June of 2012 and 2013 in Texas and Mississippi. Evaluation of the 2012 and 2013 workshops included participant self-reported learning levels in many areas of climate science. Teachers' answers indicated they had increased their understanding of the topics addressed in the workshops. However, the project team was interested in refining the evaluation process to determine exactly those areas of climate science in which participants increased content knowledge and ameliorated misconceptions. Therefore, to enhance the investigation into what teachers got out of the workshop, a pre-test/post-test design was implemented for 2013. In particular, the evaluation team was interested in discovering the degree to which participants held misconceptions and whether those beliefs were modified by attendance at the workshops. For the 2013 workshops, a registration survey was implemented that included the Climate Concept Inventory (a climate content knowledge quiz developed by the education research team for the project). The multiple-choice questions are also part of the pre/post student quiz used in classrooms in which the EarthLabs Climate curriculum was implemented. Many of the questions in this instrument assess common misconceptions by using them as distractors in the multiple choice options. The registration survey also asked respondents to indicate their confidence in their answer to each question, because, in addition to knowledge limitations, lack of confidence also can be a barrier to effective teaching. Data from the registration survey informed workshop managers of the topic content knowledge of participants, allowing fine-tuning of the professional development

  8. A Study of Teacher Candidates' Experiences Investigating Global Climate Change within an Elementary Science Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestness, Emily; McGinnis, J. Randy; Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the inclusion of a curricular module on global climate change in an Elementary Science Methods course. Using complementary research methods, we analyzed findings from 63 teacher candidates' drawings, questionnaires, and journal entries collected throughout their participation in the module. We highlighted three focal cases to…

  9. Iranian speleothems: Investigating Quaternary climate variability in semi-arid Western Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carolin, Stacy; Morgan, Jacob; Peckover, Emily; Walker, Richard; Henderson, Gideon; Rowe, Peter; Andrews, Julian; Ersek, Vasile; Sloan, Alastair; Talebian, Morteza; Fattahi, Morteza; Nezamdoust, Javad

    2016-04-01

    Rapid population growth and limited water supply has highlighted the need for vigorous water resource management practices in the semi-arid regions of Western Asia. One significant unknown in this discussion is the future change in rainfall amount due to the consequential effects of today's greenhouse gas forcing on the regional climate system. Currently, there is little paleoclimate proxy data in Western Asia to extend climate records beyond the limits of the instrumental period, leaving scant evidence to investigate the system's response to various climate forcings on different timescales. Here we present a synthesis of speleothem climate records across northern Iran, from the wetter climate of the Alborz and Zagros mountain ranges to the dry northeast, in order to investigate the magnitude of past climate variability and the forcings responsible. The stalagmites collected from the west and north-central mountain ranges, areas with ~200-400mm mean annual precipitation mostly falling within the fall-winter-spring months, all demonstrate growth limited to the interglacial periods of the Quaternary. We present overlapping Holocene stable isotope records with a complementary trace element record to assist in interpreting the isotopic variability. One of the records is sampled at <4yr resolution and spans 3.7-5.3 kyBP, a contested period of catastrophic droughts that allegedly eradicated civilizations in areas of the near East. Imposed upon decadal-scale variability, the record reveals a 1,000-yr gradual trend toward enriched stable oxygen isotope values, interpreted as a trend toward drier conditions, which ends with an abrupt 300-yr cessation in growth beginning at 4.3 kyBP, coincident with the so-called 4.2 kyBP drought event. From the northeast Iranian plateau, we present a new stalagmite record that spans the penultimate deglaciation and Stages 5e-5a. This region presently receives limited rain annually (~100-300mm/yr, regularly falling between November and May

  10. Promoting Climate Literacy through Collaborative Temperature Investigations at Local, Regional, and Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.; Charlevoix, D.; Hoffman, M.

    2009-12-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in promoting student and citizen climate literacy is developing awareness and understanding of the time and spatial scales on which climate changes occur. Students and citizens living in polar regions are now able to observe changes in sea ice extent, permafrost depth, and local ecosystems that have occurred in their lifetimes. In other parts of the world, environmental changes related to climate tend to be more subtle making it more challenging for students and citizens to recognize how changes in climate are affecting their communities. The GLOBE program, an international science and education program operating in 110 countries, implements field-based research and education programs that directly involve students and citizens in observations of their local environment as well as online collaboration using Web 2.0 communication tools to share and discuss how their research findings compare to other environments around the world. In fall 2009, secondary students from several GLOBE schools from around the world will use the GLOBE Minimum-Maximum Temperature protocol to determine daily and monthly average mean air temperatures. Students will collect data in a manner identical to that used by scientists who contributed to the International Panel on Climate Change reports. Students will then use historic weather and climate data from nearby global weather stations to create baseline weather and climate profiles for their communities. Students will use FieldScope, an online GIS tool created by the National Geographic Society to compare their data to temperature trends in their regions for the past 30 to 50 years. Students will share the results of their local temperature investigations with other participating schools via a live Webinar and through asynchronous Web-based conversations held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Group on Earth Observations. Students participating in this “Great Global Investigation of

  11. Investigating the topology of interacting networks. Theory and application to coupled climate subnetworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, J. F.; Schultz, H. C. H.; Marwan, N.; Zou, Y.; Kurths, J.

    2011-12-01

    Network theory provides various tools for investigating the structural or functional topology of many complex systems found in nature, technology and society. Nevertheless, it has recently been realised that a considerable number of systems of interest should be treated, more appropriately, as interacting networks or networks of networks. Here we introduce a novel graph-theoretical framework for studying the interaction structure between subnetworks embedded within a complex network of networks. This framework allows us to quantify the structural role of single vertices or whole subnetworks with respect to the interaction of a pair of subnetworks on local, mesoscopic and global topological scales. Climate networks have recently been shown to be a powerful tool for the analysis of climatological data. Applying the general framework for studying interacting networks, we introduce coupled climate subnetworks to represent and investigate the topology of statistical relationships between the fields of distinct climatological variables. Using coupled climate subnetworks to investigate the terrestrial atmosphere's three-dimensional geopotential height field uncovers known as well as interesting novel features of the atmosphere's vertical stratification and general circulation. Specifically, the new measure "cross-betweenness" identifies regions which are particularly important for mediating vertical wind field interactions. The promising results obtained by following the coupled climate subnetwork approach present a first step towards an improved understanding of the Earth system and its complex interacting components from a network perspective.

  12. Information-computational platform for collaborative multidisciplinary investigations of regional climatic changes and their impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Lykosov, Vasily; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of growing volume of related to climate change data from sensors and model outputs requires collaborative multidisciplinary efforts of researchers. To do it timely and in reliable way one needs in modern information-computational infrastructure supporting integrated studies in the field of environmental sciences. Recently developed experimental software and hardware platform Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/) provides required environment for regional climate change related investigations. The platform combines modern web 2.0 approach, GIS-functionality and capabilities to run climate and meteorological models, process large geophysical datasets and support relevant analysis. It also supports joint software development by distributed research groups, and organization of thematic education for students and post-graduate students. In particular, platform software developed includes dedicated modules for numerical processing of regional and global modeling results for consequent analysis and visualization. Also run of integrated into the platform WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, modeling results data preprocessing and visualization is provided. All functions of the platform are accessible by a user through a web-portal using common graphical web-browser in the form of an interactive graphical user interface which provides, particularly, capabilities of selection of geographical region of interest (pan and zoom), data layers manipulation (order, enable/disable, features extraction) and visualization of results. Platform developed provides users with capabilities of heterogeneous geophysical data analysis, including high-resolution data, and discovering of tendencies in climatic and ecosystem changes in the framework of different multidisciplinary researches. Using it even unskilled user without specific knowledge can perform reliable computational processing and visualization of large meteorological, climatic and satellite monitoring datasets through

  13. A Study of Teacher Candidates' Experiences Investigating Global Climate Change Within an Elementary Science Methods Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestness, Emily; Randy McGinnis, J.; Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the inclusion of a curricular module on global climate change in an Elementary Science Methods course. Using complementary research methods, we analyzed findings from 63 teacher candidates' drawings, questionnaires, and journal entries collected throughout their participation in the module. We highlighted three focal cases to illustrate the diversity of participants' experiences. Findings suggest potential positive impacts on teacher candidates' content understanding related to global climate change, confidence to teach, and awareness of resources to support their future science instruction. Recommendations for science teacher education underscore the importance of providing opportunities for teacher candidates to increase their relevant content understanding, helping teacher candidates become familiar with appropriate curricular resources, and engaging in ongoing conversation and evaluation of developing views and understandings related to global climate change.

  14. Multi-Model Framework for Investigating Potential Climate Change Impacts on Interdependent Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, L.; Allen, M. R.; Wilbanks, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Built infrastructure consists of a series of interconnected networks with many coupled interdependencies. Traditionally, risk and vulnerability assessments are conducted one infrastructure at a time, considering only direct impacts on built and planned assets. However, extreme events caused by climate change affect local communities in different respects and stress vital interconnected infrastructures in complex ways that cannot be captured with traditional risk assessment methodologies. We employ a combination of high-performance computing, geographical information science, and imaging methods to examine the impacts of climate change on infrastructure for cities in two different climate regions: Chicago, Illinois in the Midwest and Portland, Maine (and Casco Bay area) in the Northeast. In Illinois, we evaluate effects of changes in regional temperature and precipitation, informed by an extreme climate change projection, population growth and migration, water supply, and technological development, on electricity generation and consumption. In Maine, we determine the aggregate effects of sea level rise, changing precipitation patterns, and population shifts on the depth of the freshwater-saltwater interface in coastal aquifers and the implications of these changes for water supply in general. The purpose of these efforts is to develop a multi-model framework for investigating potential climate change impacts on interdependent critical infrastructure assessing both vulnerabilities and alternative adaptive measures.

  15. 29 CFR 1404.20 - Proper use of expedited arbitration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proper use of expedited arbitration. 1404.20 Section 1404... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.20 Proper use of expedited arbitration. (a) FMCS reserves the right to cease honoring request for Expedited Arbitration if a pattern of misuse of this...

  16. 29 CFR 1404.20 - Proper use of expedited arbitration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proper use of expedited arbitration. 1404.20 Section 1404... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.20 Proper use of expedited arbitration. (a) FMCS reserves the right to cease honoring request for Expedited Arbitration if a pattern of misuse of this...

  17. Expedition 31 Welcomes Three New Crewmates

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 31 crew members Gennady Padalka, Joe Acaba and Sergei Revin were welcomed aboard the International Space Station after the hatches opened Thursday at 4:10 a.m. EDT. They docked to the Po...

  18. Expedition 33/34 Crew Prelaunch Activities

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 crew members Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin participate in a variety of prelaunch activities at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. They are set to launch aboard...

  19. The Expedition 34 Crew Lands in Kazakhstan

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford and Flight Engineers Evgeny Tarelkin and Oleg Novitskiy landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft in the steppe of Kazakhstan, northeast of the remote town of Arkalyk...

  20. Expedition 34/35 Mission Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    Commander Kevin Ford leads Expedition 34 as the six-member crew conducts science and research that cannot be performed on Earth. Ford and the other five crew members Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy...

  1. New Expedition 32 Trio Arrives at Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide have arrived at the International Space Station after two days in orbit. The new trio docked its Soyuz TMA-05M spacecr...

  2. New Expedition 32 Trio Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide launched aboard the Soyuz TMA-05M spacecraft at 10:40 p.m. EDT Saturday (8:40 a.m. Kazakhstan time on Sunday) from Bai...

  3. Expedition 33 Post-Landing Activities

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and Flight Engineers Aki Hoshide and Yuri Malenchenko are greeted by local and space officials at an airport in Kostanay, Kazakhstan, after completing their mi...

  4. 49 CFR 385.105 - Expedited action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.105 Expedited action. (a) A...

  5. 49 CFR 385.105 - Expedited action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.105 Expedited action. (a) A...

  6. 49 CFR 385.105 - Expedited action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.105 Expedited action. (a) A...

  7. Expedition 33/34 Mission Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The work now under way on board the International Space Station is designed to support deep space exploration in the future and provide benefits on earth today. The Expedition 33 crew members are w...

  8. Expedition 27 Trains for Soyuz Undocking

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 27 crew members Dmitry Kondratyev, Cady Coleman and Paolo Nespoli train inside the Soyuz TMA-20 spacecraft. They are preparing for their undocking and landing in Kazakhstan planned for M...

  9. Expedition 25 Crew Lands Safely in Kazakhstan

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin, NASA International Space Station Commander Doug Wheelock and NASA Flight Engineer Shannon Walker landed safely on the steppe of Kazakhstan on Nov. 2...

  10. Expedition 28 Farewell and Hatch Closure

    NASA Video Gallery

    The hatches between the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft and the International Space Station were closed at 5:30 p.m. EDT Thursday, Sept. 15 wrapping up 162 days aboard the orbiting outpost for Expedition 2...

  11. Expedition 28 Crew Undocks from Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko and Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev and Ron Garan undock from the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft, wrapping up 162 days ab...

  12. Expedition 33/34 Change of Command

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams ceremonially handed over command of the International Space Station on Saturday to fellow NASA astronaut Kevin Ford on the eve of her departure from the comple...

  13. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a...), relating to any taxpayer's tax liability or relating to the practitioner's own tax liability, for—...

  14. Expedition 36 Final Exams and Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 36 crew members conduct final training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center before their May 28 launch to the International Space Station. Flight Engineers Karen Nyberg, Fyodor Y...

  15. Expedition 35/36 Final Exams

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Expedition 35/36 crew members prepare for their final exams in their Sokol launch and entry suits at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy a...

  16. Expedition 32 Final Soyuz Qualification Exams

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide take their final Soyuz systems qualification exams at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The ...

  17. Expedition 31 Crew Trains for Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 31 crew - astronaut Joe Acaba and cosmonauts Gennady Padalka and Sergei Revin -- trains at Star City, Russia, for its upcoming launch to the International Space Station. Their backup...

  18. Unique View of Expedition 23 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Video Gallery

    A camera mounted on an all-terrain vehicle that was part of the Russian Search and Recovery Forces team in Kazakhstan captured never-before-seen views of the landing of the Expedition 23 crew in th...

  19. Students Speak With Expedition 30 Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station's Expedition 30 crew participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at O. Henry Middle School in Austin, Texas. The DLN connects students and t...

  20. Riverland expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Riverland Railroad Car Wash Pit and the 600 Area Army Munitions Burial Site. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA proposal will undergo reviews by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE, EPA, Ecology, and the public. Ecology and EPA will issue an Action Agreement Memorandum after resolution of all review comments. The, memorandum will authorize remediation activities. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-1 Operable Unit. A No Action Record of Decision may be issued after cleanup completion.

  1. Expedited site characterization. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) has been developed, demonstrated, and deployed as a new time-saving, cost-effective approach for hazardous waste site investigations. ESC is an alternative approach that effectively shortens the length of the assessment period and may significantly reduce costs at many sites. It is not a specific technology or system but is a methodology for most effectively conducting a site characterization. The principal elements of ESC are: a field investigation conducted by an integrated team of experienced professionals working in the field at the same time, analysis, integration and initial validation of the characterization data as they are obtained in the field, and a dynamic work plan that enables the team to take advantage of new insights from recent data to adjust the work plan in the field. This report covers demonstrations that took place between 1989 and 1996. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  2. Servant leadership, procedural justice climate, service climate, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior: a cross-level investigation.

    PubMed

    Walumbwa, Fred O; Hartnell, Chad A; Oke, Adegoke

    2010-05-01

    This study tests the influence of servant leadership on 2 group climates, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior. Results from a sample of 815 employees and 123 immediate supervisors revealed that commitment to the supervisor, self-efficacy, procedural justice climate, and service climate partially mediated the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. Cross-level interaction results revealed that procedural justice climate and positive service climate amplified the influence of commitment to the supervisor on organizational citizenship behavior. Implications of these results for theory and practice and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20476830

  3. Investigating annually-resovled natural climate variability during MIS 11 using lacustrine records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, G. J.; Palmer, A. P.; Candy, I.; Coxon, P.; Hardiman, M.

    2012-04-01

    Marine isotope stage 11 (MIS 11, ca 410,000 yrs BP) is considered to be one of the best analogues for current and future climate change due to the similarity of orbital forcing patterns during these two interglacials. Marine and ice-core records suggest that MIS 11 was a particularly long interglacial, characterised by stable climates. The investigation of high-resolution climate records from MIS 11 can, therefore, allow us to understand how the climate of a Holocene-like interglacial might evolve in the absence of anthropogenic modification. MIS 11 sediments preserved in the palaeolake basin at Marks Tey, eastern England, offer the potential for such a study as they are considered to be annually-laminated (varved) throughout a large part of the interglacial (Turner, 1970, 1975). The lamination sets appear to be comprised, primarily, of three regularly occurring laminae types; 1) authigenic carbonate, 2) diatom blooms, and 3) organic detritus, although there appears to be some variability in the microfacies of these laminations. The carbonate laminations are the key to the study of climate variability during MIS 11, as they represent authigenic carbonate precipitation, consistent with temperature/biologically driven changes in lake chemistry during the summer months. Oxygen isotopic analysis of the carbonate therefore gives a proxy for summer temperature. A period of key interest in the MIS 11 sequence at Marks Tey occurs during the early part of the interglacial, where there is a short-lived increase in grass pollen relative to tree pollen, termed the Non-Arboreal Pollen Zone (NAPZ). The cause of this shift in pollen has been subject to debate, with natural wildfire (Turner, 1970) or climatic deterioration (e.g. Kelly, 1964) being suggested as possible forcing mechanisms. In this study, as well as discussing the main characteristics of the MIS 11 sequence at Marks Tey, we will focus on the sedimentary, micromorphological and geochemical record of the NAPZ. In

  4. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  5. Investigation of the 2013 Alberta flood from weather and climate perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teufel, Bernardo; Diro, G. T.; Whan, K.; Milrad, S. M.; Jeong, D. I.; Ganji, A.; Huziy, O.; Winger, K.; Gyakum, J. R.; de Elia, R.; Zwiers, F. W.; Sushama, L.

    2016-06-01

    During 19-21 June 2013 a heavy precipitation event affected southern Alberta and adjoining regions, leading to severe flood damage in numerous communities and resulting in the costliest natural disaster in Canadian history. This flood was caused by a combination of meteorological and hydrological factors, which are investigated from weather and climate perspectives with the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model. Results show that the contribution of orographic ascent to precipitation was important, exceeding 30 % over the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Another contributing factor was evapotranspiration from the land surface, which is found to have acted as an important moisture source and was likely enhanced by antecedent rainfall that increased soil moisture over the northern Great Plains. Event attribution analysis suggests that human induced greenhouse gas increases may also have contributed by causing evapotranspiration rates to be higher than they would have been under pre-industrial conditions. Frozen and snow-covered soils at high elevations are likely to have played an important role in generating record streamflows. Results point to a doubling of surface runoff due to the frozen conditions, while 25 % of the modelled runoff originated from snowmelt. The estimated return time of the 3-day precipitation event exceeds 50 years over a large region, and an increase in the occurrence of similar extreme precipitation events is projected by the end of the 21st century. Event attribution analysis suggests that greenhouse gas increases may have increased 1-day and 3-day return levels of May-June precipitation with respect to pre-industrial climate conditions. However, no anthropogenic influence can be detected for 1-day and 3-day surface runoff, as increases in extreme precipitation in the present-day climate are offset by decreased snow cover and lower frozen water content in soils during the May-June transition months, compared to pre

  6. IODP Expedition 359: Maldives Monsoon and Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor; Zarikian, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Drilling the carbonate platforms and drifts in the Maldives aimed to recover the marine tropical record of the Neogene sea-level changes and the onset of the monsoon related current system in the Indian Ocean. To reach this goal, eight sites were drilled along two transects in the Kardiva Channel in the Inner Sea of the Maldives during IODP Expedition 359. The recovered cores and log data retrieved the material to achieve all the objectives set for the expedition. The most arresting accomplishment is the documentation of how the sea level controlled the carbonate platform system that was thriving during the Miocene Climate Optimum abruptly transitioned into a current-dominated system in the late Middle Miocene. This transition is linked to the onset of an early intensification of the Indian monsoon and the coeval demise of some of the Maldivian platforms. Cores and downhole logs allowed producing a solid record and reconstructing the Neogene environmental changes in the central Indian Ocean. Preliminary shipboard analyses allow a precise dating of this major paleoclimatological and paleoceanographical changes, as it also applies for the extension of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) into this part of the Indian Ocean. Coring produced a solid framework to foster the post-cruise research of these distinct topics. In addition, complete spliced sections and logging at key sites during Expedition 359 provide the potential to assemble a cycle-based astrochronology for the Neogene section in the Maldives. This high-resolution chronology will allow: 1) independent ages to be assigned to key biostratigraphic events in the Maldives for comparison with those from other tropical regions; 2) more precise ages for the major sequence boundaries and unconformities; and 3) evaluation of higher-resolution sedimentation rate variations.

  7. An empirical investigation of the influence of safety climate on organizational citizenship behavior in Taiwan's facilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzai-Zang; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Hong, Chih-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Although the social exchange relationships between employers and employees are increasingly important to the performance of safety management systems, the psychological effects of work attitudes on this relationship have been less studied. Using a sample of first-line operators and their supervisors from 188 facilities in Taiwan which had Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18000 (OHSAS 18000) certification, the current research conducted an empirical investigation of the influence of safety climate on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Work attitude was used to disclose the psychological effect. Research results indicated that (a) safety climate was a significant predicator of OCB, (b) the psychological effect significantly influenced social exchange relationships, and (c) job satisfaction showed a stronger mediating influence than organizational commitment due to the frequent top management turnover. Discussions and implications are also addressed. PMID:17888235

  8. Medical planning for extended remote expeditions.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2013-12-01

    Remote extended expeditions often support scientific research and commercial resource exploration or extraction in hostile environments. Medical support for these expeditions is inherently complex and requires in-depth planning. To be successful, this planning must include substantial input from clinicians with experience in remote, emergency, and prehospital medicine and from personnel familiar with the proposed working environment. Using the guidelines discussed in this paper will help ensure that planners consider all necessary, medically relevant elements before launching an extended remote expedition. The 10 key elements of a workable remote healthcare system are to: 1. Optimize workers’ fitness. 2. Anticipate treatable problems. 3. Stock appropriate medications. 4. Provide appropriate equipment. 5. Provide adequate logistical support. 6. Provide adequate medical communications. 7. Know the environmental limitations on patient access and evacuation. 8. Use qualified providers. 9. Arrange for knowledgeable and timely consultations. 10. Establish and distribute rational administrative rules. Planners using these guidelines may better be able to generate a strategy that optimizes the participants' health benefits, the expedition's productivity, and the expedition sponsor's cost savings. PMID:24001390

  9. Detailed glaciochemical investigations in southern Victoria Land - a proxy climatic record

    SciTech Connect

    Mayewski, P.A.

    1987-09-01

    Local accumulation-basins in the Transantarctic Mountains possess sites suitable for recovering ice-core records that are valuable for studying climate change. These sites are also unique, because they are close to the sites of other ice-core studies and to areas with established terrestrial records. The objective is to study a snowpit in detail and collect ice cores in southern Victoria Land; this work will be similar to the investigations that the authors has conducted in south Greenland and in the Dominion Range near the Beardmore Glacier. The proposed sites are in Convoy, Asgard, and Royal Society ranges. The authors will select one site at which he will recover two ice cores, each approximately 200 to 300 meters in depth. Samples will be analyzed for major anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride) and cations (sodium, potassium, magnesium, ammonium, silicate), total acidity, conductivity, density, and core stratigraphy with dating provided by cross-calibration of all of the preceding plus total beta-activity, lead-210, oxygen isotopes, and microparticles. This investigation will yield a detailed record of several thousand years of glacial history, climate change, and volcanic activity for southern Victoria Land. This record will be compared to existing terrestrial records to add necessary detail and to other global ice-core records to assess global climatic change. It will also help to document volcanic activity for Mount Erebus as well as other volcanos in the Southern Hemisphere and possibly some in the Northern Hemisphere. With this record, the author will be able to evaluate the influence of volcanic and solar activity on climate as well as add greatly to the understanding of the chemistry of the global atmosphere.

  10. Bistability of the climate around the habitable zone: a thermodynamic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascale, S.; Boschi, R.; Lucarini, V.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential multistability of the cli- mate of a planet around the habitable zone. We apply our methodology to the Earth system, but our investigation has more general relevance. A thor- ough investigation of the thermodynamics of the climate system is performed for very diverse conditions of energy input and infrared atmosphere opacity. Using PlaSim, an Earth-like general circulation model, the solar constant S is modulated between 1160 and 1510 Wm-2 and the CO2 concentration, [CO2], from 90 to 2880 ppm. It is observed that in such a parameter range the climate is bistable, i.e. there are two coexisting attractors, one char- acterised by warm, moist climates (W) and one by completely frozen sea surface (Snowball Earth, SB). Linear relationships are found for the two transition lines (W→SB and SB →W) in (S,[CO2]) between S and the log- arithm of [CO2]. The dynamical and thermodynamical properties - energy fluxes, Lorenz energy cycle, Carnot efficiency, material entropy production - of the W and SB states are very different: W states are dominated by the hydrological cycle and latent heat is prominent in the material entropy production; the SB states are eminently dry climates where heat transport is realized through sensible heat fluxes and entropy mostly generated by dis- sipation of kinetic energy. We also show that the Carnot efficiency regularly increases towards each transition between W and SB, with a large decrease in each transition. Finally, we propose well-defined empirical functions al- lowing for expressing the global non-equilibrium thermodynamical properties of the system in terms of either the mean surface temperature or the mean planetary emission temperature. This paves the way for the possibility of proposing efficient parametrisations of complex non-equilibrium properties and of practically deducing fundamental properties of a planetary system from a relatively simple observable.

  11. What Is That Thing Called Climate Change? an Investigation into the Understanding of Climate Change by Seventh-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdem, Yasemin; Dal, Burçkin; Öztürk, Nilay; Sönmez, Duygu; Alper, Umut

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research on students' general environmental concerns, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, worldviews, values, and actions relating to climate change. Data was gathered from a sample of 646 seventh-grade students. The findings indicate that students identify climate change as a consequence of modern life. They…

  12. Investigation of rotated PCA from the perspective of network communities applied to climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, David; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Vejmelka, Martin; Palus, Milan

    2013-04-01

    Applications of the rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) have a long history in climatology usually due to efforts of finding specific circulation patterns (Barnston and Livezey 1987). Using this approach several well known patterns like the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or the Pacific/North American Pattern (PNA) can be identified (Barnston and Livezey 1987; Feldstein 2000). Applied to the whole globe this method gives several weakly related components that can be suspected of being important modes of climate variability. On the other hand, a relatively new topic in climate research is that of community detection and analysis (Tsonis et al. 2011), although the detection of communities in complex networks is a well established scientific field itself (Fortunato 2010; Girvan and Newman 2002). To analyze community structure one has to consider the climate system as a complex network (Tsonis and Swanson 2012), i.e. as a set of nodes represented by a climate-related variable on specific globe positions and a set of edges mutually connecting these nodes according to chosen measure of coherence (Hlinka et al. preprint). Determination of optimal community structure is well known to be a hard problem and there are several methods excelling in specific situations (Fortunato 2010) and several ways of measuring quality of resulting community structure such as modularity (Newman and Girvan 2004). Following the fact that RPCA gives us a set of components that can be represented as a community structure we investigate the potential of RPCA in community-detection context. For this purpose we use data from global National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis (Kistler et al. 2001), more specifically surface air temperature (SAT) and surface pressure level (SPL). Acknowledgement: This study is supported by the Czech Science Foundation, Project No. P103/11/J068. Barnston, AG; Livezey RE (1987) Classification

  13. The Role of Ethnographic Interviewing in Climate Change Evaluation Research: Investigating Intended and Unintended program effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloro-Bidart, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ethnographic interviewing is an under-utilized tool in climate change evaluation research, even though it has the potential to serve as a powerful method of data collection. The utility of the ethnographic interview lies in its ability to elicit responses from program participants describing what a program is in practice, shedding light on both intended and unintended program impacts. Drawing on evaluation work involving a federally-funded climate change grant at the University of California, Riverside, I will discuss how to design an ethnographic interview protocol in an effort to share "best practices" with other climate change evaluators. Particular attention will be given to applying ethnographic approaches to various program types, even those differing from the one discussed. I will share some of the concrete findings from my work on this grant, to serve as examples of the kinds of data evaluators can collect when employing an ethnographic approach to interviewing. UC Riverside's climate change grant is multi-faceted, however the component studied ethnographically was a science fair mentoring program. About twenty K-12 students from high poverty, ethnically diverse schools who expressed an interest in participating in science fair were paired up with graduate student mentors to simultaneously research climate change and design authentic science fair projects to compete at various levels. Since one of the stated goals of the grant is to "stimulate…students to consider climate science as a career track through experiential education activities" I was particularly interested in how student experiences with the project might differ from school science which has historically "pushed out" ethnically diverse students like those in many of Riverside's schools. (In the program students are able to interact one-on-one with a mentor and in school settings there is typically one teacher for more than thirty students). I also sought to understand student perceptions of

  14. 2016 Total Solar Eclipse Expedition of KASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bong, Su-Chan; Choi, SeongHwan; Jang, Bi-Ho; Park, Jongyeob; Jeon, Young-Beom; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Chae, Jongchul

    2016-05-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred on March 9 along the path through Indonesia and the Pacific. KASI organized an expedition team for total solar eclipse observation. The main purpose of this observation is to test the coronal temperature and outflow velocity diagnostics based on filter observation, which is proposed for the next generation coronagraph. In addition, various white light observations were tried. Although we could not get satisfactory data for the quantitative diagnostics due to system problem and weather, we could get some useful experimental data and nice white light images. We plan next expedition for 2017 total solar eclipse in USA.

  15. From Miami to Madison: Investigating the Relationship Between Climate and Terrestrial Net Primary Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaks, D.; Foley, J.; Ramankutty, N.; Barford, C.

    2005-12-01

    The ``Miami Model'' (Lieth, 1975) was the first global scale empirical model of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP). This model used sparse observations to calibrate NPP based on the minimum of temperature and precipitation functions. The simplicity and relative accuracy of this model has led to its continued use. The development of improved techniques to measure NPP in the field (Gower et al. 1999, 2001; Malhi et al. 2002, Clark et al., 2001), and the expanded spatial and temporal range of observations have prompted this study, which reexamines the relationship of ecophysiological variables to NPP. A large reference dataset (n = 2268) of NPP field observations, including many from the Global Primary Production Data Initiative (Olson et al., 2001), were compiled for calibration and parameter optimization. We developed a rigorous statistical test for several paired climatic variables in order to investigate their relationship to terrestrial NPP. In addition to temperature and precipitation, we chose more robust pairs of independent climatic variables based on their ability to represent plant stressors such as heat and water stress. These variables included growing degree-days base 0, a water stress index, and average incident photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) for each day the average temperature is greater then 0°C. The water stress and PAR indices used in the study were calculated using a simple surface energy and water balance model (Prentice et al., 1993; Foley, 1994; Haxeltine and Prentice, 1996) using climate data from New (2002). Both linear and sigmoidal functional forms were chosen to relate the climatic variables to NPP. The model coefficients were determined by minimizing the least squared error between the observations and simulations. Calculated annual global NPP ranged from 50 - 60 Pg, well within the estimates of previous studies (i.e. Cramer et al. 1999). Spatial patterns of NPP were compared using biome averages as well as latitudinal

  16. Expedition 33/34 Change of Command Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams hands over station command to Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford in a ceremony that took place Saturday Nov. 17, 2012. Williams returned to Earth with two crew...

  17. Greenland Expeditions by Alfred Wegener - A photographic window to past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, M.; Tschürtz, S.; Kirchengast, G.; Kranzelbinder, H.; Prügger, B.; Krause, R. A.; Kalliokoski, M.; Thórhallsdóttir, E.

    2012-04-01

    On several expeditions to Greenland, Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) took pictures on glass plates from landscapes and glaciers, the expedition equipment, the people and animals taking part on the expeditions as well as physical phenomena as dust storm, clouds or spherical light phenomena. Chronologically the plates show the Danmark Expedition 1906-1908, the crossing of Greenland expedition with stop in Iceland 1912-1913, and the German Greenland Expedition 1929-1930. Until the tragic end of the expedition in 1930, Wegener was professor at the University of Graz, and such a stock of about 300 glass plates stayed there. The aim of our work is to digitize all plates for further studies. We present a first selection of Wegener's Greenland expedition pictures. For those made at Iceland in 1912 we will present a comparison of the past with pictures from the same viewing point made in 2011.

  18. Investigation of the effect of sealed surfaces on local climate in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Hasel, Stefan; Mursch-Radlgruber, Erich; Gützer, Christian; Krispel, Stefan; Peyerl, Martin; Trimmel, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    Local climate is driven by the interaction between energy balance and energy transported by advected air. Short-wave and long-wave radiation are major components in this interaction. Some few studies (e.g. Santamouris et al.) showed that adjusting the grade of reflection of surfaces is an efficient way to influence temperature. The present study investigates the influence of high albedo concrete surfaces on local climate. The first step of the study consisted of experimental investigations: routine measurements of the short and longwave radiation balance, of the ground and of the air temperature and humidity at different heights above 6 different types of sealed surfaces were performed. During this measurement campaign the above mentioned components were measured over a duration of 4 months above two conventional asphalt surfaces, one conventional concrete and three newly developed concrete surfaces with increased reflectances. Measured albedo values amounted to 0.12±0.02 for the asphalt surfaces and to maximum values of 0.56 for high albedo concrete. The maximum difference in surface temperature between the asphalt surfaces and the high albedo concrete surfaces amounted to 15°C. In addition the emission constants of the different sealed surfaces were also determined and were compared to values from literature.. In a second step the urban energy balance model Envi_Met was used to simulate the surface temperature of the six surfaces. The simulated surface temperatures were compared to the measured surface temperatures and statements as to uncertainties of the model simulations were made In a third step, Envi_Met was used to simulate the local climate of an urban district in Vienna. The surface and air temperature and the SW, LW fluxes were calculated for different types of sealed surfaces. By performing calculations of thermal stress indices (UTCI, PMV), statements as to the influence of the type of sealed surface on thermal stress on humans was made.

  19. Using Observations and Climate Models to Investigate Recent Variability in Upper Ocean Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durack, P. J.; Gleckler, P. J.; Guilyardi, E.; Landerer, F. W.

    2015-12-01

    The global ocean is responsible for storing more than 90% of the heat associated with observed greenhouse-gas-attributed warming. Our previous work used multiple in-situ estimates as well as altimetry in conjunction with a large suite of climate models to quantify how estimates of global upper-ocean warming since 1970 are likely biased low. This apparent underestimation, consistent with earlier studies, was attributed to poor observational coverage of the Southern Hemisphere. Recent 2006-2013 Argo ocean heat content (OHC) change estimates have placed 67-98% of increased heat in the Southern Hemisphere. The new estimates contrast markedly to long-term evaluations that place only 35-49% of the warming since 1970 in the Southern Hemisphere - even though the Southern Hemisphere contains more than 60% of the upper ocean volume. Although unforced variability is likely to play a larger role on resolved trends over this shorter time period, results from climate models provide one mechanism for investigating the role of variability across time scales. Extending our previous work, we investigate the hemispheric distribution of OHC using a number of observed change estimates along with a large suite of CMIP5 model simulations. We consider changes over decadal (Argo) to multi-decadal (multi-platform) time scales and contrast the observation-based hemispheric partitioning of OHC changes to a distribution of results from individual model simulations.

  20. An integrated dynamic modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change and variability on irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, Timothy S. C.; Maier, Holger R.; Connor, Jeff; Dandy, Graeme C.

    2011-07-01

    Many hydrologic systems are likely to be affected by climate change. This is of particular importance given that agricultural production systems are inextricably linked to the hydrologic systems they rely upon. Although irrigation is often employed as a method to dampen the effect of short-term variation in climatic inputs to agricultural production, sources of irrigation water are not immune to long-term climatic change. Irrigation water use decisions are most often made at the farm level. It is at this scale that the economic and social impacts of climate change will be manifest. This paper presents an integrated stochastic dynamic modeling framework that can be used to investigate the viability of irrigated farms under alternative climate change scenarios. The framework is applied to a theoretical farm in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia, under four potential future climate scenarios. It is found that neglecting interannual variability in climatic inputs to agriculture consistently underestimates the reduction in farm viability caused by climate change and that multiyear sequences of climate states strongly influence estimates of farm profitability.

  1. STS-111 Expedition Five Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-111 Expedition Five Crew begins with training on payload operations. Flight Engineer Peggy Whitson and Mission Specialist Sandy Magnus are shown in Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) procedures. Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev gets suited for Neutral Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training. Virtual Reality lab training is shown with Peggy Whitson. Habitation Equipment and procedures are also presented.

  2. Expedition: Yellowstone! A Cooperative School Outreach Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Golia, Jack; And Others

    Designed to help upper elementary school teachers prepare for a class expedition to Yellowstone National Park, this workbook presents environmental learning activities that are also useful in schools too distant for an actual visit. Either way, the workbook aims to develop student appreciation of Yellowstone, the life in it, and the park's value…

  3. 40 CFR 1515.7 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expedited processing. 1515.7 Section 1515.7 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROCEDURES... the life or physical safety of an individual; or (2) An urgency to inform the public about an...

  4. Using the Expedition Leader Style Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice L.; Phipps, Cynthia A.

    The Expedition Leader Style Analysis (ELSA) is an inventory designed to measure leadership style adaptability and effectiveness in terms of the situational leadership model. Situational leadership arose from the Experiential Leadership Education model, which is used in business and management, by replacing management jargon and phrases with…

  5. 45 CFR 155.540 - Expedited appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Expedited appeals. 155.540 Section 155.540 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT Appeals of...

  6. 45 CFR 155.540 - Expedited appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Expedited appeals. 155.540 Section 155.540 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT Appeals of...

  7. 40 CFR 164.121 - Expedited hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Expedited hearing. 164.121 Section 164..., the presiding officer shall publish in the Federal Register notice of such hearing. (e) Intervention... Administrator has received from the registrant a timely request for such hearing in response to...

  8. 49 CFR 385.705 - Expedited action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 171.15 or 171.16, within the United States involving— (i) A highway route controlled quantity of... described under 49 CFR 171.15 or 171.16, occurring within the United States and involving any hazardous... inspections, or by any other means, may be subjected to an expedited compliance review, or may be required...

  9. Cowboys with Cameras: An Interactive Expedition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Kenny; Lenz, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing the same technologies pioneered by the embedded journalists in Iraq, the University of Central Florida (UCF) teamed up with TracStar, Inc to create a small-scale, satellite-based expedition transmission package to accompany a university film and digital media professor into parts of Utah and the Moab Desert that had a historical…

  10. Trip Leaders Guide. Outdoor Expeditions and Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, Bob

    Written to help teachers or leaders plan and lead field trips, excursions, or expeditions which stimulate a motivation to positive action, this pamphlet provides assistance in conducting learning experiences outside the classroom. Topics and subtopics discussed include: (1) Campsites: selection; firebuilding; knives, axes, saws; neat campsites;…

  11. 40 CFR 791.31 - Expedited procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... American Arbitration Association in its discretion determines otherwise, the Expedited Procedures described in this section shall be applied in any case where the total claim of any party does not exceed $5..., § 791.31. (b) Notice by telephone. The parties shall accept all notices from the American...

  12. 49 CFR 385.105 - Expedited action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited action. 385.105 Section 385.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  13. 49 CFR 385.105 - Expedited action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Expedited action. 385.105 Section 385.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  14. New Trio Launches to Join Expedition 33

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three new crew members are on their way to join their Expedition 33 crewmates onboard the International Space Station. They launched aboard the Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft at 6:51 a.m. EDT (5:51 p.m. ...

  15. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. Link to... (including suits for injunctive relief), relating to any taxpayer's tax liability or relating to the practitioner's own tax liability, for— (i) Instituting or maintaining proceedings primarily for delay;...

  16. Investigating the long-term landscape evolution for various combinations of climatic and geologic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, K.; Kim, W.

    2012-12-01

    Landscape evolution is a continuous process driven by fluvial, tectonic, and biological processes among others. The response of landscape to different combinations of tectonic and climatic conditions has been a core subject of studying the Earth surface processes. While actual landscapes exhibit highly complex settings, it would be ideal if we can understand basic behavior of landscape under simplest conditions. To pursue this desire, we investigate how a theoretical landscape develops under ideal combinations using a numerical model named LEGS [Paik, 2012]. We investigate various combinations of tectonic uplift conditions, sinusoidal precipitation time series, and orographic effects and will present scientific insights obtained from the simple combinations. Keywords: Landscape evolution, Surface process models, Orographic rainfall Paik, K. (2012) Simulation of landscape evolution using global flow path search, Environmental Modelling & Software, 33, 35-47

  17. 15 CFR 325.8 - Expediting the certification process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expediting the certification process... CERTIFICATES OF REVIEW § 325.8 Expediting the certification process. (a) Request for expedited action. (1) An... whole or in part and process the remainder of the application through the normal procedures....

  18. 7 CFR 1703.112 - Expedited telecommunications loans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... See 7 CFR part 1737 for loans and 7 CFR part 1744 for advances under this section. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited telecommunications loans 1703.112 Section... § 1703.112 Expedited telecommunications loans RUS will expedite consideration and determination of...

  19. 20 CFR 404.926 - Agreement in expedited appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Expedited Appeals Process § 404.926 Agreement in expedited appeals process. If you meet... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreement in expedited appeals process....

  20. The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Greg; Hood, Raleigh

    2015-04-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. SCOR and the IOC are working to stimulate a new phase of coordinated international research focused on the Indian Ocean for a 5-year period beginning in late 2015 and continuing through 2020. The goal is to help to organize ongoing research and stimulate new initiatives in the 2015-2020 time frame as part of a larger expedition. Several International programs that have research ongoing or planned in the Indian Ocean during this time period and many countries are planning cruises in this time frame as well. These programs and national cruises will serve as a core for the new Indian Ocean research focus, which has been dubbed "IIOE-2." The overarching goal of the IIOE-2 is to advance our understanding of interactions between geological, oceanic and atmospheric processes that give rise to the complex physical dynamics of the Indian Ocean region, and to determine how those dynamics affect climate, extreme events, marine biogeochemical cycles, ecosystems and human populations. This understanding is required to predict the impacts of climate change, pollution, and increased fish harvesting on the Indian Ocean and its nations, as well as the influence of the Indian Ocean on other components of the Earth System. New understanding is also fundamental to policy makers for

  1. Investigating the correlation between increases in spectral gamma ray signals observed from wireline logging, geochemistry of the recovered core and reef processes in Tahiti coral reef formations (IODP Expedition 310)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inwood, J.; Brewer, T.

    2009-04-01

    The last deglacial reef sequence in Tahiti consists of a series of successive reef terraces seaward of the living barrier reef. IODP Expedition 310 recovered core from 37 boreholes within three locations. The recovered core can be assigned to (i) the last deglacial reef sequence and (ii) an older Pleistocene unit, each comprising a series of distinctive coral assemblages with microbialites locally forming the major component of the reef. Spectral gamma measurements were acquired for eight boreholes in total from both south (Maraa area) and north (Tiarei area) of the main island of Tahiti. In general, gamma counts are low (< 50 cps) for all boreholes, although there is a significant interval of elevated gamma counts in Hole M0005D. This ~ 20 m thick interval is located in the Pleistocene succession a few metres below the boundary with the last deglacial sequence. Few logging measurements were obtained across this boundary due to hostile borehole conditions; thus the spectral gamma log of Hole M0005D is useful for establishing some characteristics of this horizon. Analysis of the individual elements contributing to the raised gamma counts show that U is the major contributor to the higher counts in the upper part of this interval. Lithologies here comprise the coralgal-microbialite reef frameworks that dominate much of the reef terraces. High levels of U in carbonates have previously been linked to diagenetic processes, subaerial exposure, higher levels of organic material and the presence of red algae. Higher counts in the lower section of raised counts result from raised Th and K concentrations and correlate with silt dominated lithology at these depths. We selected 104 core samples from the interval of raised counts for standard geochemical analyses (XRF). Major element correlation diagrams including our new data and published data on Tahiti igneous rocks imply that igneous fragments were incorporated during carbonate precipitation. Detailed thin section analyses

  2. Investigations of Global Chemistry-Climate Interactions and Organic Aerosol Using Atmospheric Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, Havala Olson Taylor

    Aerosol, or particulate matter (PM), is an important component of the atmosphere responsible for negative health impacts, environmental degradation, reductions in visibility, and climate change. In this work, the global chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, is used as a tool to examine chemistry-climate interactions and organic aerosols. GEOS-Chem is used to simulate present-day (year 2000) and future (year 2050) sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosols and investigate the potential effects of changes in climate and emissions on global budgets and U.S. air quality. Changes in a number of meteorological parameters, such as temperature and precipitation, are potentially important for aerosols and could lead to increases or decreases in PM concentrations. Although projected changes in sulfate and nitrate precursor emissions favor lower PM concentrations over the U.S., projected increases in ammonia emissions could result in higher nitrate concentrations. The organic aerosol simulation in GEOS-Chem is updated to include aerosol from primary semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCS), intermediate volatility compounds (IVOCs), NOx dependent terpene aerosol, and aerosol from isoprene + NO3 reaction. SVOCs are identified as the largest global source of organic aerosol even though their atmospheric transformation is highly uncertain and emissions are probably underestimated. As a result of significant nighttime terpene emissions, fast reaction of monoterpenes with the nitrate radical, and high aerosol yields from NO3 oxidation, biogenic hydrocarbons reacting with the nitrate radical are expected to be a major contributor to surface level aerosol concentrations in anthropogenically influenced areas such as the United States. Globally, 69 to 88 Tg/yr of aerosol is predicted to be produced annually, approximately 22 to 24 Tg/yr of which is from biogenic hydrocarbons.

  3. Investigating Mars South Residual CO2 Cap with a Global Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahre, M. A.; Dequaire, J.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The CO2 cycle is one of the three controlling climate cycles on Mars. One aspect of the CO2 cycle that is not yet fully understood is the existence of a residual CO2 ice cap that is offset from the south pole. Previous investigations suggest that the atmosphere may control the placement of the south residual cap (e.g., Colaprete et al., 2005). These investigations show that topographically forced stationary eddies in the south during southern hemisphere winter produce colder atmospheric temperatures and increased CO2 snowfall over the hemisphere where the residual cap resides. Since precipitated CO2 ice produces higher surface albedos than directly deposited CO2 ice, it is plausible that CO2 snowfall resulting from the zonally asymmetric atmospheric circulation produces surface ice albedos high enough to maintain a residual cap only in one hemisphere. The goal of the current work is to further evaluate Colaprete et al.'s hypothesis by investigating model-predicted seasonally varying snowfall patterns in the southern polar region and the atmospheric circulation components that control them.

  4. Expedition 7 Crew Interview: Ed Lu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Ed Lu of Expedition Seven is seen during a pre-launch interview. He explains why he became interested in space flight. He states that this is a different type of mission and gives his reaction to the Columbia Space Shuttle tragedy. The handover of Expedition six is explained by Ed Lu. The challenges of this mission are also described by Lu. These challenges include working with a crew member reduction from three to two, and the conservation of clothing and consumables. Ed Lu talks about what it is like to work with commander Yuri Malenchenko in space. Finally, Ed Lu states that he will continue scientific experiments in space on calcium loss in bones.

  5. Expedition 7 Crew Interview: Yuri Malenchenko

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko of Expedition Seven is seen during a pre-launch interview. He begins by telling why he wanted to become a cosmonaut. Malenchenko expresses his reaction about the news of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, and how this mission will be different from other missions. He also expresses the challenges that face Malenchenko and Ed Lu such as the crew reduction from three to two, less supplies and no space shuttle flights. Malenchenko says that he will have to work on a compressed schedule, which will make the mission even more challenging. A description of the handover of Expedition Six is given. Malenchenko and Ed Lu will be cramped in a confined space on the Soyuz Spacecraft for two days before docking, and he talks about this experience. Lastly, Malenchenko gives his thoughts on how it will be to work with Ed Lu in space, and tells of Lu's trustworthiness and reliability as a fellow crew member.

  6. Psychosocial issues during an expedition to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Much is known about psychological and interpersonal issues affecting astronauts participating in manned space missions near the Earth. But in a future long-distance, long-duration expedition to Mars, additional stressors will occur that will result in psychological, psychiatric, and interpersonal effects on the crew, both negative and positive. This paper will review what is known about important psychosocial issues in space and will extrapolate them to the scenario of a future manned space mission to Mars.

  7. NASA satellite to track North Pole expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The proposed expedition of a lone explorer and the use of Nimbus 6 (NASA meteorological research satellite) to track his journey is reported. The journey is scheduled to start March 4, 1978, and will cover a distance of 6.000 Km (3,728 miles) from northern Canada to the North Pole and return, traveling the length of Greenland's isolated interior. The mode of transportation for the explorer will be by dog sled. Instrumentation and tracking techniques are discussed.

  8. Orbitally-resolved SST Changes during the EOT: Results from IODP 342 Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; He, Y.; Wilson, P. A.; Pagani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) changes during the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition were characterized by substantial cooling at high latitudes and less cooling in low latitudes, with little information from mid-latitudes so far. Taking advantage of the newly retrieved drift sediments from the IODP 342 Expedition, we aim to reconstruct SST changes at the mid-latitude Newfoundland region, at an unprecedented orbital resolution from Site U1411. During the period investigated, 32-36 Ma, the alkenone UK'37 values range from 0.65 to 0.95, with values all greater than 0.80 before the transition and lower values (<0.80) occurring approximately at the eccentricity minimum nodes after the transition. No immediate cooling associated with Oi-1 glaciation was observed. During the Oligocene, SSTs during warm epochs (corresponding to eccentricity maxima) were not significantly cooler than before. Overall, SST fluctuations appear to be modulated by orbital changes throughout the record, although more apparent due to larger amplitude of SST variability after the transition. We thus hypothesize that the mid-latitude Newfoundland region was largely bathed by low-latitude warm waters during the transition and that polar waters (fronts) reached to the region occasionally at periods of eccentricity minimum nodes during the Oligocene.

  9. An Investigation of Climate Change Impact on Snow/Ice Melts Runoff in Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvan, M. T.; Ahmad, S. S.

    2005-12-01

    Glacial density varies across Himalayas, maximum in the Sutlej and Tista basin and moderate in Jhelum and Bhagirathi basin, while least density is in Arunachal Pradesh basin. Most of the glaciers are simple type, but some glaciers are bigger in size and composite in nature. The impact of global warming is perhaps already upon the Himalayas. They are located so near the tropic of cancer that they receive more heat than it commonly reaches Temperate and Arctic glaciers. In all these areas the orographic snowline is often a little higher than regional snowline. In the Himalayas the main source of moisture which feeds the glaciers comes from three sources as Southern monsoon, Northwestern disturbances and Local convection currents. The snowline is also lower on the northern slopes than on the southern slopes. According to the climatologists, alpine glaciers, such as those in the Himalaya are particularly sensitive indicators of climate change and the trend is expected to continue this century. Present study made by the availability of GIS, Image Processing and Digital Data Sets have made the task of runoff modeling easier on the regional and local scenario. For mapping the snow-cover on local level with high resolution remote sensing data (ASTER, LANDSAT and IRS) been used, for regional level, EOS and MODIS used, which provides good images with sufficient temporal scale. Investigation shows that spatial distributions of survival index based on relief area gradient and elongation index has least climate sensitivity of the glaciers situated in the Bhagirathi basin in Ganga headwater. In a high mountain environment the influence of certain topographic variables varying greatly. Elevation is one of the variables that have been identified as having a positive effect on snow depth and other factors those influence snow accumulation and the snowpack also computed for relational study. The variations in snow cover have a major influence on regional and continental weather

  10. Using Coastal Ice Cap Records to Investigate Maritime Climate and Ice Sheet Processes in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. B.; Evans, M. J.; Frey, K. E.; Osman, M. B.; Smith, B. E.; Stevens, L. A.; Trusel, L. D.; York, A.; Bingham, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent changes, including outlet glacier retreat and speedup, and increased rates of surface melting, have dramatically increased the Greenland ice sheet contribution to sea-level rise over the past few decades. Increasingly studies point towards the influence of coupled ocean-ice processes in modulating Greenland ice sheet mass balance and glacier behavior in response to climate change, but many of these studies are limited to the past few years to decades, restricting our ability to understand these ocean-ice relationships over longer time periods. Ice core records have the potential to provide unique, high-resolution records of interest (e.g. accumulation and melt variability, as well as contemporaneous proxy records of regional air temperature and sea surface conditions), but suitable Greenland ice sheet coring regions are often located far inland (>200 km) from many maritime regions of interest. In this study we focus on new records from previously unstudied maritime ice caps (10-30 km from the coast) to reconstruct past environmental conditions in the Disko, Ummannaq and Baffin Bay regions. Here we present results from our recent 2014 field investigation of three high altitude ice caps (1300-2000 m) on Disko Island and the Nuussuaq Peninsula, as well as complementary results from two sites in the western ice sheet accumulation zone. Geophysical observations provide constraints on ice thickness, layering, and ice flow. Physical and chemical stratigraphic observations from snow pits and shallow firn cores are used to reconstruct recent accumulation rate and melt variability, as well as to develop and test environmental proxy relationships over the satellite era. Multi-century records from longer coastal ice cores, to be drilled in 2015, will contribute a key missing component to the existing observational record documenting ice, ocean and atmospheric changes in this region over a time period of dramatic change in Greenland ice sheet behavior (retreat and

  11. Construction of fingerprints relevant for climate investigations by using GNSS Radio Occultation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vespe, Francesco; Brizio, Franco; Benedetto, Catia; Amoroso, Marilena

    2014-05-01

    a parameter suitable for climate investigations

  12. Journey to the end of the dinosaur era: A society expedition to Belize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocampo, Adriana

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the extraterrestrial object that formed the Chicxulub crater in the northwestern Yucatan peninsula of Mexico is the leading suspect for the extinction of the dinosaurs. This article reports on a Planetary Society expedition to Albion Island in the Rio Hondo region of Belize to investigate evidence supporting the impact theory.

  13. The FDA's Final Rule on Expedited Safety Reporting: Statistical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wittes, Janet; Crowe, Brenda; Chuang-Stein, Christy; Guettner, Achim; Hall, David; Jiang, Qi; Odenheimer, Daniel; Xia, H. Amy; Kramer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    In March 2011, a Final Rule for expedited reporting of serious adverse events took effect in the United States for studies conducted under an Investigational New Drug (IND) application. In December 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) promulgated a final Guidance describing the operationalization of this Final Rule. The Rule and Guidance clarified that a clinical trial sponsor should have evidence suggesting causality before defining an unexpected serious adverse event as a suspected adverse reaction that would require expedited reporting to the FDA. The Rule's emphasis on the need for evidence suggestive of a causal relation should lead to fewer events being reported but, among those reported, a higher percentage actually being caused by the product being tested. This article reviews the practices that were common before the Final Rule was issued and the approach the New Rule specifies. It then discusses methods for operationalizing the Final Rule with particular focus on relevant statistical considerations. It concludes with a set of recommendations addressed to Sponsors and to the FDA in implementing the Final Rule. PMID:26550466

  14. MITAS-2009 Expedition, U.S. Beaufort Shelf and Slope—Lithostratigraphy Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.; Johnson, J.E.; Phillips, S.C.; Smith, J.; Reed, A.; Disenhof, C.; Presley, J.

    2012-09-17

    The volume of methane released through the Arctic Ocean to the atmosphere and its potential role in the global climate cycle have increasingly become the focus of studies seeking to understand the source and origin of this methane. In 2009, an international, multi-disciplinary science party aboard the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea successfully completed a trans-U.S. Beaufort Shelf expedition aimed at understanding the sources and volumes of methane across this region. Following more than a year of preliminary cruise planning and a thorough site evaluation, the Methane in the Arctic Shelf/Slope (MITAS) expedition departed from the waters off the coast of Barrow, Alaska in September 2009. The expedition was organized with an international shipboard science team consisting of 33 scientists with the breadth of expertise necessary to meet the expedition goals. NETL researchers led the expedition’s initial core processing and lithostratigraphic evaluations, which are the focus of this report. This data report is focused on the lithostratigraphic datasets from the recovered vibra cores and piston cores. Operational information about the piston and vibra cores such as date acquired, core name, total length, water depth, and geographic location is provided. Once recovered, gas samples were immediately collected from cores. In addition, each core was run through the Geotek multi-sensor core logger for magnetic susceptibility, P-wave velocity, resistivity, and gamma-density measurements (Rose et al., 2010). After the samples and measurements were completed, the cores were split into working and archive halves. Visual core descriptions of the archive half was completed for each core. Samples for shipboard smear slides, coarse fractions, and XRD analyses were collected, as well as corresponding samples for post-cruise grain size analysis from the working half of each core. Line scan images of the split core surfaces were collected post-expedition. The methods used to

  15. An investigation of safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified and non-certified organizations.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl

    2016-09-01

    Many organizations worldwide have implemented Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 in their premises because of the assumed positive effects of this standard on safety. Few studies have analyzed the effect of the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organizations. This case-control study used a new safety climate questionnaire to evaluate three OHSAS 18001-certified and three non-certified manufacturing companies in Iran. Hierarchical regression indicated that the safety climate was influenced by OHSAS implementation and by safety training. Employees who received safety training had better perceptions of the safety climate and its dimensions than other respondents within the certified companies. This study found that the implementation of OHSAS 18001 does not guarantee improvement of the safety climate. This study also emphasizes the need for high-quality safety training for employees of the certified companies to improve the safety climate. PMID:27108658

  16. Dust Aerosols Investigated Using an Integrated Microphysical-Climate-Radiation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Lin

    I have developed a three-dimensional coupled microphysical-climate-radiation model based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheres Model (CAM3.0 and CAM5.0) and the University of Colorado/NASA Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA2.3 and CARMA3.0). The model has been used to investigate the sources, removal processes, transport, optical properties, and radiative effects of Asian dust aerosols on climate. In the initial project, a A Weibull distribution is implemented to estimate the sub-grid scale wind speed variability. The dust AOD agrees well with AERONET data and the timing of dust events is comparable to the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) lidar data in Beijing and Nagasaki. In the second project, the simulated properties of atmospheric dust from the Saharan deserts and the Asian deserts are compared using data from CALIPSO and AERONET during 2006 and 2007. In my model the yearly horizontal dust flux just downwind of the African dust source is about 1088 Tg (10S-40N, 10W) and from the Asian dust source it is about 355 Tg (25N-55N, 105E) in 2007. I find the difference in dust flux is mainly due to the larger area over which dust is lifted in Africa than Asia. However, Africa also has stronger winds in some seasons. Some previous studies suggested that the observed descent of Saharan dust is due to sedimentation of the particles, but my work and satellite data show instead it is dominated by meteorology. I find the size distributions of Asian and African dust are similar when the dust is lifted, but the mode size can differ and secondary size modes can develop probably due to differences in vertical wind velocities during transport. The importance of the uncertainty in the single scattering albedo (SSA) to the radiative effects of dust on the climate of China is explored in my final project through two case studies based on the modeled and observed solar diffuse fluxes/irradiances at

  17. Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Linda

    paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with ASTEP field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. SUMMARY The Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? Goals of the Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of past life on Earth with its changing environment, the formation and evolution of planets, links between planetary and biological evolution, the effects of climate and geology on habitability, and life's precursors and habitats in the outer solar system. Research dedicated to fulfilling these goals is conducted on Earth and in space, with a growing number of astrobiology investigations flying on planetary exploration missions. The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Since 1995, the field of astrobiology has grown rapidly, and the pace of discovery has been brisk. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is now a serious scientific question. Research findings over the past decade that are relevant to this question include the controversial 1996 claim of fossil evidence for microbial life in a

  18. Investigating Cenozoic climate change in tectonically active regions with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutz, Sebastian; Ehlers, Todd; Li, Jingmin; Werner, Martin; Stepanek, Christian; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Studies of Cenozoic palaeo-climates contribute to our understanding of contemporary climate change by providing insight into analogues such as the Pliocene (PLIO), and by evaluation of GCM (General Circulation Models) performance using the Mid-Holocene (MH) and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Furthermore, climate is a factor to be considered in the evolution of ecology, landscapes and mountains, and in the reconstruction of erosion histories. In this study, we use high-resolution (T159) ECHAM5 simulations to investigate pre-industrial (PI) and the the above mentioned palaeo-climates for four tectonically active regions: Alaska (St. Elias Range), the US Northwest Pacific (Cascade Range), western South America (Andes) and parts of Asia (Himalaya-Tibet). The PI climate simulation is an AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) style ECHAM5 experiment, whereas MH and LGM simulation are based on simulations conducted at the Alfred Wegner Institute, Bremerhaven. Sea surface boundary conditions for MH were taken from coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations (Wei and Lohmann, 2012; Zhang et al, 2013) and sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentration for the LGM are based on GLAMAP project reconstructions (Schäfer-Neth and Paul, 2003). Boundary conditions for the PLIO simulation are taken from the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) project and the employed PLIO vegetation boundary condition is created by means of the transfer procedure for the PRISM vegetation reconstruction to the JSBACH plant functional types as described by Stepanek and Lohmann (2012). For each of the investigated areas and time slices, the regional simulated climates are described by means of cluster analyses based on the variability of precipitation, 2m air temperature and the intra-annual amplitude of the values. Results indicate the largest differences to a PI climate are observed for LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and warming

  19. Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry-Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Dorothy; Bauer, Susanne E.; Del Genio, Anthony; Faluvegi, Greg; McConnell, Joseph R.; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ronald L.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew

    2011-01-01

    The authors simulate transient twentieth-century climate in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, with aerosol and ozone chemistry fully coupled to one another and to climate including a full dynamic ocean. Aerosols include sulfate, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, nitrate, sea salt, and dust. Direct and BC snow-albedo radiative effects are included. Model BC and sulfur trends agree fairly well with records from Greenland and European ice cores and with sulfur deposition in North America; however, the model underestimates the sulfur decline at the end of the century in Greenland. Global BC effects peak early in the century (1940s); afterward the BC effects decrease at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but continue to increase at lower latitudes. The largest increase in aerosol optical depth occurs in the middle of the century (1940s-80s) when sulfate forcing peaks and causes global dimming. After this, aerosols decrease in eastern North America and northern Eurasia leading to regional positive forcing changes and brightening. These surface forcing changes have the correct trend but are too weak. Over the century, the net aerosol direct effect is -0.41 Watts per square meter, the BC-albedo effect is -0.02 Watts per square meter, and the net ozone forcing is +0.24 Watts per square meter. The model polar stratospheric ozone depletion develops, beginning in the 1970s. Concurrently, the sea salt load and negative radiative flux increase over the oceans around Antarctica. Net warming over the century is modeled fairly well; however, the model fails to capture the dynamics of the observedmidcentury cooling followed by the late century warming.Over the century, 20% of Arctic warming and snow ice cover loss is attributed to the BC albedo effect. However, the decrease in this effect at the end of the century contributes to Arctic cooling. To test the climate responses to sulfate and BC pollution, two experiments were branched from 1970 that removed

  20. Investigation of Aerosol Indirect Effects using a Cumulus Microphysics Parameterization in a Regional Climate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kyo-Sun; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Guang; Song, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-29

    A new Zhang and McFarlane (ZM) cumulus scheme includes a two-moment cloud microphysics parameterization for convective clouds. This allows aerosol effects to be investigated more comprehensively by linking aerosols with microphysical processes in both stratiform clouds that are explicitly resolved and convective clouds that are parameterized in climate models. This new scheme is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is coupled with the physics and aerosol packages from the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). A test case of July 2008 during the East Asian summer monsoon is selected to evaluate the performance of the new ZM scheme and to investigate aerosol effects on monsoon precipitation. The precipitation and radiative fluxes simulated by the new ZM scheme show a better agreement with observations compared to simulations with the original ZM scheme that does not include convective cloud microphysics and aerosol convective cloud interactions. Detailed analysis suggests that an increase in detrained cloud water and ice mass by the new ZM scheme is responsible for this improvement. To investigate precipitation response to increased anthropogenic aerosols, a sensitivity experiment is performed that mimics a clean environment by reducing the primary aerosols and anthropogenic emissions to 30% of that used in the control simulation of a polluted environment. The simulated surface precipitation is reduced by 9.8% from clean to polluted environment and the reduction is less significant when microphysics processes are excluded from the cumulus clouds. Ensemble experiments with ten members under each condition (i.e., clean and polluted) indicate similar response of the monsoon precipitation to increasing aerosols.

  1. The physiology of extremes: Ancel Keys and the International High Altitude Expedition of 1935.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the International High Altitude Expedition of 1935 and its significance in the life and science of Ancel Keys. Both the expedition and Keys's story afford excellent opportunities to explore the growing reach of interwar physiology into extreme climates-whether built or natural. As IHAE scientists assessed human performance and adaptation to hypoxia, low barometric pressure, and cold, they not only illuminated the physiological and psychological processes of high altitude acclimatization, but they also drew borderlines between the normal and the pathological, paved the way for the neocolonial exploitation of natural and human resources in Latin America, and pioneered field methods in physiology that were adapted and adopted by the Allied Forces during the Second World War. This case study in the physiology of place reveals the power and persistence of environmental determinism within biomedicine well into the twentieth century. PMID:23263349

  2. Arctic Expedition of the Frozen Five: an Alternative way of Education and Outreach During the International Polar Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senger, K.; Björkman, M.; Garny, H.; Girard, L.; Lichteneger, J.

    2006-12-01

    In March 2007, a group of international students of the geosciences will embark on a two month expedition across the wilderness of Svalbard. The journey will involve traversing up to 1000 km of high Arctic glaciers between 76° an 80°N, reaching both the southernmost and northernmost capes of Spitsbergen, Svalbard's largest island. We expect to be frequently camping at -30°C, as well as having a high probability of encountering polar bears, crevasses and arctic storms during the expedition. Through this expedition, we wish to promote the multi-disciplinary approach required in successful Arctic science. Our team, young and energetic, has already demonstrated a strong research interest in the Arctic and is ready to share their passion with the general public. Presentations by the various team members focus on the enhanced climate change and related processes witnessed at high latitudes. The concept of alternative energy, including solar power and kites used while en route, is given a high priority throughout. Here we present the education and outreach framework of the project, as well as introducing the research background of the team. We highlight current progress on the integration of this expedition in high schools around the world. The Frozen Five expedition runs in close collaboration with New Zealand's Youth Steering Committee, a major IPY project, aiming to network young polar researchers and promote the study of the polar regions to potential scientists.

  3. An investigation of thermal comfort inside a bus during heating period within a climatic chamber.

    PubMed

    Pala, Uzeyir; Oz, H Ridvan

    2015-05-01

    By this study, it was aimed to define a testing and calculation model for thermal comfort assessment of a bus HVAC design and to compare effects of changing parameters on passenger's thermal comfort. For this purpose, a combined theoretical and experimental work during heating period inside a coach was carried out. The bus was left under 20 °C for more than 7 h within a climatic chamber and all heat sources were started at the beginning of a standard test. To investigate effects of fast transient conditions on passengers' physiology and thermal comfort, temperatures, air humidity and air velocities were measured. Human body was considered as one complete piece composed of core and skin compartments and the Transient Energy Balance Model developed by Gagge et al. in 1971 was used to calculate changes in thermal parameters between passenger bodies and bus interior environment. Depending on the given initial and environmental conditions, the graphs of passengers Thermal Sensation and Thermal Discomfort Level were found. At the end, a general mathematical model supported with a related experimental procedure was developed for the use of automotive HVAC engineers and scientists working on thermal comfort as a human dimension. PMID:25683544

  4. Investigating the potential of SST assimilation for ocean state estimation and climate prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenlyside, Noel; Counillon, Francois; Bethke, Ingo; Wang, Yiguo; Billeau, Sebastien; Shen, Mao-Lin; Bentsen, Mats

    2016-04-01

    The Norwegian Climate Prediction Model (NorCPM) assimilates the stochastic HadISST2 product with the ensemble Kalman Filter data assimilation method into the ocean part the Norwegian Earth System model. We document a pilot stochastic reanalysis for the period 1950-2010 and use it to perform seasonal-to-decadal (s2d) predictions. The accuracy, reliability and drift is investigated using both assimilated and independent observations. NorCPM is found slightly over-dispersive against assimilated observations but shows stable performance through the analysis period (˜0.4K). It demonstrates skill against independent measurements: SSH, heat and salt content, in particular in the ENSO, the North Pacific, the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) regions and the Nordic Seas. Furthermore, NorCPM provides a reliable monitoring of the SPG index and represents the variability of the temperature vertical structure there in good agreement with observations. The monitoring of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is also encouraging. The benefit of using flow dependent assimilation method and constructing the covariance in isopycnal coordinate are investigated in the SPG region. Isopycnal coordinate discretisation is found to better captures the vertical structure than standard depth-coordinate discretisation, which can deepen the influence of assimilation when assimilating surface observations. The vertical covariance shows a pronounced seasonal and decadal variability, which highlights the benefit of flow dependent data assimilation method. This study demonstrates the potential of NorCPM for providing a long reanalysis for the 19-20 century when SST observations are available. The results of s2d predictions carried out will be presented, and the potential to use this method to assess decadal predictability over the historical period will be discussed.

  5. Expedition 35/36 Crew Departs Star City

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 35 Flight Enginners Chris Cassidy, Pavel Vinogradov and Alexander Misurkin participated in traditional ceremonies at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia outside Mo...

  6. Expedition 33/34 Crew Departs for Kazakh Launch Site

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, NASA Flight Engineer Kevin Ford and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin participated in traditional ceremonies at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training...

  7. Expedition 28 Launch - Duration: 5 minutes, 35 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three new Expedition 28 flight engineers -- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa -- launch from the Baikonur...

  8. IODP Expedition 352 (Bonin Forearc): First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. A.; Reagan, M. K.; Stern, R. J.; Petronotis, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition #352 (Testing Subduction Initiation and Ophiolite Models by Drilling the Outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana Forearc: July 30-Sept. 29, 2014) is just underway at the time of writing. It is testing the Stern-Bloomer hypothesis that subduction initiation (SI) was followed by a strongly extensional period of slab sinking and trench roll-back and then by a transitional period leading to the establishment of significant slab-parallel plate motion and hence normal subduction. The Expedition aims to carry out offset drilling at two sites near 28°30'N in the Bonin forearc. Ideally, these together will give the vertical volcanic stratigraphy needed to trace the geodynamic and petrogenetic processes associated with SI, and provide the complete reference section required for comparison with volcanic sequences of possible SI origin found on land in ophiolite complexes and elsewhere. We predict, but need to confirm, a c. 1.0-1.5km sequence with basal, MORB-like forearc basalts (known as FAB) marking the initial period of extension, boninites characterizing the transitional period, and tholeiitic and calc-alkaline lavas marking the establishment of normal arc volcanism. Study of such a sequence will enable us to understand the chemical gradients within and across these volcanic units, to reconstruct mantle flow and melting processes during the course of SI, and to test the hypothesis that fore-arc lithosphere created during SI is the birthplace of most supra-subduction zone ophiolites. Here, we present the first Expedition results, including (a) the volcanic stratigraphic record and subdivision into lava units, (b) the classifications and interpretations made possible by shipboard (portable XRF and ICP) analyses and down-hole measurements, and (c) the biostratigraphic, magnetic, mineralogical, sedimentary and structural constraints on the geological history of the SI section and the interactions between magmatic, hydrothermal and tectonic activity during its evolution.

  9. Bringing "Scientific Expeditions" Into the Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Two new technologies, the FASTexpedition and Remote FAST, have been developed that provide remote, 3D, high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data (such as simulations or measurements of fluid dynamics). The FASTexpedition permits one to access scientific data from the World Wide Web, take guided expeditions through the data, and continue with self controlled expeditions through the data. Remote FAST permits collaborators at remote sites to simultaneously view an analysis of scientific data being controlled by one of the collaborators. Control can be transferred between sites. These technologies are now being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel testing. Also, NASA Ames Research Center has initiated a project to make scientific data and guided expeditions through the data available as FASTexpeditions on the World Wide Web for educational purposes. Previously, remote visualiZation of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewer's local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit). The advantages of this new technology over using video format are: 1. The visual is much higher in resolution (1280xl024 pixels with 24 bits of color) than typical video format transmitted over the network. 2. The form of the visualization can be controlled interactively (because the viewer is interactively controlling the visualization tool running on his workstation). 3. A rich variety of guided expeditions through the data can be included easily. 4. A capability is provided for other sites to see a visual analysis of

  10. Expediting environmental restoration at a reduced cost

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.R.; Plack, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    With Congress appropriating approximately $1.0--1.5 Billion each year for Department of Defense (DOD) Environmental Restoration Program (DERP), every effort must be made to find ways to use these funds efficiently and effectively to nations hazardous waste sites. Each federal agency involved in environmental restoration is striving to find smarter, faster ways to accomplish this service. The Omaha District Corps of Engineers, Hazardous and Toxic Waste Branch (Omaha) and the Air Combat Command Installation Restoration Branch (ACC) have teamed up to develop and implement an innovative Accelerated Clean-up Program which with the President`s edict for expedited installation environmental restoration.