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Sample records for expenditure panel survey

  1. MEDICAL EXPENDITURE PANEL SURVEY (MEPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, or MEPS as it is commonly called, is the third (and most recent) in a series of national probability surveys conducted by AHRQ on the financing and utilization of medical care in the United States.

  2. A Flexible Model for Correlated Medical Costs, with Application to Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinsong; Liu, Lei; Shih, Ya-Chen T.; Zhang, Daowen; Severini, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a flexible model for correlated medical cost data with several appealing features. First, the mean function is partially linear. Second, the distributional form for the response is not specified. Third, the covariance structure of correlated medical costs has a semiparametric form. We use extended generalized estimating equations to simultaneously estimate all parameters of interest. B-splines is used to estimate unknown functions, and a modification to Akaike Information Criterion is proposed for selecting knots in spline bases. We apply the model to correlated medical costs in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) dataset. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of our method. PMID:26403805

  3. A flexible model for correlated medical costs, with application to medical expenditure panel survey data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinsong; Liu, Lei; Shih, Ya-Chen T; Zhang, Daowen; Severini, Thomas A

    2016-03-15

    We propose a flexible model for correlated medical cost data with several appealing features. First, the mean function is partially linear. Second, the distributional form for the response is not specified. Third, the covariance structure of correlated medical costs has a semiparametric form. We use extended generalized estimating equations to simultaneously estimate all parameters of interest. B-splines are used to estimate unknown functions, and a modification to Akaike information criterion is proposed for selecting knots in spline bases. We apply the model to correlated medical costs in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey dataset. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of our method. PMID:26403805

  4. Chronic Pain and Health Care Spending: An Analysis of Longitudinal Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stockbridge, Erica L; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Pagán, José A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate average incremental health care expenditures associated with chronic pain by health care service category, expanding on prior research that focused on specific pain conditions instead of general pain, excluded low levels of pain, or did not incorporate pain duration. Data Source Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data (2008–2011; N = 26,671). Study Design Differences in annual expenditures for adults at different levels of pain that interferes with normal work, as measured by the SF-12, were estimated using recycled predictions from two-part logit-generalized linear regression models. Principal Findings “A little bit” of chronic pain-related interference was associated with a $2,498 increase in total adjusted expenditures over no pain interference (p < .0001) and a $1,008 increase over nonchronic pain interference (p = .0001). Moderate and severe chronic pain-related interference was associated with a $3,707 and $5,804 increase in expenditures over no pain interference and a $2,218 and $4,315 increase over nonchronic interference, respectively (p < .0001). Expenditure increases were most pronounced for inpatient and hospital outpatient expenditures compared to other types of health care expenditures. Conclusions Chronic pain limitations are associated with higher health care expenditures. Results underscore the substantial cost of pain to the health care system. PMID:25424348

  5. The Impact of Increased Tax Subsidies on the Insurance Coverage of Self-Employed Families: Evidence from the 1996-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    The share of health insurance premiums that self-employed workers can deduct when computing federal income taxes rose from 30 percent in 1996 to 100 percent in 2003. Data from the 1996-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey are used to show that the increased tax subsidy was associated with substantial increases in private coverage among…

  6. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Primary Care Quality Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ruwei; Shi, Leiyu; Liang, Hailun; Haile, Geraldine Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic disparities exist in diabetes prevalence, access to diabetes care, diabetes-related complications and mortality rates, and the quality of diabetes care among Americans. We explored racial and ethnic disparities in primary care quality among Americans with type 2 diabetes. Methods We analyzed data on adults with type 2 diabetes derived from the household component of the 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Multiple regression and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the association between race/ethnicity and primary care attributes related to first contact, longitudinality, comprehensiveness, and coordination, and clusters of confounding factors were added sequentially. Results Preliminary findings indicated differences in primary care quality between racial/ethnic minorities and whites across measures of first contact, longitudinality, comprehensiveness, and coordination. After controlling for confounding factors, these differences were no longer apparent; all racial/ethnic categories showed similar rates of primary care quality according to the 4 primary care domains of interest in the study. Conclusion Results indicate equitable primary care quality for type 2 diabetes patients across 4 key domains of primary care after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. Additional research is necessary to support these findings, particularly when considering smaller racial/ethnic groups and investigating outcomes related to diabetes. PMID:27490365

  7. Depression as a psychosocial consequence of occupational injury in the US working population: findings from the medical expenditure panel survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence describing the psychosocial consequences of occupational injury is still limited. The effect of occupational injury on depression might pose unique challenges in workers compared with other kinds of injury. This study aimed to assess the differential impact of workplace injury compared with non-workplace injury on depression over time, and to identify the potential risk factors associated with post-injury depression in the US working population. Methods Using pooled panel data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2000–2006, a total of 35,155 workers aged 18–64 years who had been followed for about 18 months in each panel were analyzed. Injuries in the 4–5 months before baseline, and subsequent depression incidence during follow-up, were identified using ICD-9 codes for the medical conditions captured in personal interviews. A discrete time-proportional odds model was used. Results A total of 5.5% of workers with occupational injury at baseline reported depression at follow-up, compared with 4.7% of workers with non-occupational injury and 3.1% of workers without injuries. Those with occupational injuries had more severe injuries and required longer treatment, compared with those with non-occupational injuries. Only 39% of workers with workplace injuries were paid Workers’ Compensation (WC). The association between injury and depression appeared to be stronger for workplace injury, and the adjusted odds ratio for depression was 1.72 for those with occupational injury (95% CI: 1.27–2.32), and 1.36 for those with non-occupational injury (95% CI: 1.07–1.65) compared with the no-injury group, after controlling for relevant covariates. Occupational injury was associated with higher odds of developing depression over time. WC as a source of medical payment was associated with 33% higher odds of developing depression (95% CI: 1.01–1.74). Part-time work, shorter job tenure, and long working hours were independently

  8. Identifying Episodes of Back Pain Using Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) Data: Patient Experience, Use of Services, and Chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Monica, Smith

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the correspondence between “episodes of pain” and “episodes of care” for individuals with back pain. Data Source Secondary analysis of Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) 2-year longitudinal data. Study Design Individual use and utilization of back pain services were examined across ambulatory settings and providers, and linked to MEPS medical condition data to identify individuals with back pain who do not use, or who delay or discontinue utilization of health services for back pain. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Episodes-of-care and episodes-of-pain were approximated through round-by-round temporal mapping of MEPS back pain utilization events data and medical conditions data. Principal Findings Of 10,193 individuals with back pain, approximately one fifth did not actively seek care for their back pain. Utilization of services for back pain (episodes-of-care) does not always correspond with an individual’s full experience of back pain (episodes-of-pain). Upwards of 20% of MEPS respondents who use services for some back pain episodes, reported additional episodes for which they do not use services. Conclusions These findings suggest that other longitudinal studies based only on data that reflect service use, e.g., claims data, may incorrectly infer the nature of back pain and back pain episodes. Many individuals report ongoing back pain that continues beyond their episodes-of-care, and many individuals with persistent back pain may use prescription drugs, medical services, and other health services only intermittently. PMID:21036278

  9. Aging Baby Boomers and the Rising Cost of Chronic Back Pain: Secular Trend Analysis of Longitudinal Medical Expenditures Panel Survey Data for Years 2000 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Monica; Davis, Matthew A.; Stano, Miron; Whedon, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purposes of this study were to analyze data from the longitudinal Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) to evaluate the impact of an aging population on secular trends in back pain and chronicity and to provide estimates of treatment costs for patients who used only ambulatory services. Methods Using the MEPS 2-year longitudinal data for years 2000 to 2007, we analyzed data from all adult respondents. Of the total number of MEPS respondent records analyzed (N = 71 838), we identified 12 104 respondents with back pain and further categorized 3842 as chronic cases and 8262 as nonchronic cases. Results Secular trends from the MEPS data indicate that the prevalence of back pain has increased by 29%, whereas chronic back pain increased by 64%. The average age among all adults with back pain increased from 45.9 to 48.2 years; the average age among adults with chronic back pain increased from 48.5 to 52.2 years. Inflation-adjusted (to 2010 dollars) biennial expenditures on ambulatory services for chronic back pain increased by 129% over the same period, from $15.6 billion in 2000 to 2001 to $35.7 billion in 2006 to 2007. Conclusion The prevalence of back pain, especially chronic back pain, is increasing. To the extent that the growth in chronic back pain is caused, in part, by an aging population, the growth will likely continue or accelerate. With relatively high cost per adult with chronic back pain, total expenditures associated with back pain will correspondingly accelerate under existing treatment patterns. This carries implications for prioritizing health policy, clinical practice, and research efforts to improve care outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness and for health workforce planning. PMID:23380209

  10. The economic burden of eating disorders and related mental health comorbidities: An exploratory analysis using the U.S. Medical Expenditures Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    Samnaliev, Mihail; Noh, H. LeAnn; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the economic burden of eating disorders (ED) and related mental health comorbidities. Methods Using 5 years of data from the U.S. Medical Expenditures Panel Survey, we estimated the difference in annual health care costs, employment status, and earned income (2011 US$) between individuals with current ED compared to those without ED. We further estimated the contribution of mental health comorbidities to these disparities in health care costs, employment and earnings. Results Individuals with ED had greater annual health care costs ($1869, p = 0.012), lower but borderline significant employment rates (OR = 0.67, 95% CIs [0.41, 1.09]), and lower but not statistically significant earnings among those who were employed ($2093, p = 0.48), compared to individuals without ED. Among individuals with ED, the presence of mental health comorbidities was associated with higher but not statistically significant health care costs ($1993, p = 0.17), lower borderline significant odds of employment (OR = 0.41, 95% CIs [0.14, 1.20]), and significantly lower earnings ($19,374, p < 0.01). Conclusions Treatment and prevention of ED may have broader economic benefits in terms of heath care savings and gains in work productivity than previously recognized. This exploratory study justifies large scale evaluations of the societal economic impact of eating disorders and comorbidities. PMID:26844048

  11. Estimating health expenditure shares from household surveys

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Benjamin PC; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify the effects of household expenditure survey characteristics on the estimated share of a household’s expenditure devoted to health. Methods A search was conducted for all country surveys reporting data on health expenditure and total household expenditure. Data on total expenditure and health expenditure were extracted from the surveys to generate the health expenditure share (i.e. fraction of the household expenditure devoted to health). To do this the authors relied on survey microdata or survey reports to calculate the health expenditure share for the particular instrument involved. Health expenditure share was modelled as a function of the survey’s recall period, the number of health expenditure items, the number of total expenditure items, the data collection method and the placement of the health module within the survey. Data exists across space and time, so fixed effects for territory and year were included as well. The model was estimated by means of ordinary least squares regression with clustered standard errors. Findings A one-unit increase in the number of health expenditure questions was accompanied by a 1% increase in the estimated health expenditure share. A one-unit increase in the number of non-health expenditure questions resulted in a 0.2% decrease in the estimated share. Increasing the recall period by one month was accompanied by a 6% decrease in the health expenditure share. Conclusion The characteristics of a survey instrument examined in the study affect the estimate of the health expenditure share. Those characteristics need to be accounted for when comparing results across surveys within a territory and, ultimately, across territories. PMID:23825879

  12. Consumer Expenditure Survey: Interview Survey, 1984. Bulletin 2267.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin presents detailed income and expenditure data for 1984 from the interview component of the ongoing Consumer Expenditure Survey. Data in this bulletin are for the urban population. Text tables include the following: (1) annual expenditures of urban consumer units, and percent change in consumer expenditures, Interview Survey and…

  13. POLLUTION ABATEMENT COSTS AND EXPENDITURES SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) Survey is a Census Bureau product funded via a cooperative agreement with EPA. PACE data was collected by Census from 1974-1996 (except 1987) and 1999. The survey consists of approximately 20,000 manufacturing facilities in ...

  14. Macro determinants of Iranian provincial healthcare expenditures from 2006 to 2013: evidence from panel data

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Satar; Fallah, Razieh; Moradi, Khalil; Delavari, Somayeh; Moradi, Siavash Doost; Matin, Behzad Karami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction During the last few decades, healthcare expenditures (HCEs) have increased significantly in Iran and throughout the world. Understanding the determinants of such increases is essential to health policymakers in finding the best policies to manage healthcare costs. This study aimed to determine the impact of some of the key explanatory variables on household healthcare expenditures across the provinces of Iran. Methods A panel data econometric model was used to determine the main factors that affected household healthcare expenditures (HHCEs) across the provinces of Iran from March 21, 2006 to February 19, 2013. The data on household healthcare expenditures per capita, number of physicians per 10,000 population, the degree of urbanization, the proportion of the population that was 65 or older, household income per capita, and literacy rate were obtained from the Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS) data in the Statistical Center of Iran. F-Limer and Hausman tests were used to choose the panel data, and Stata V.12 was used to analyze the data. Results Our findings indicated that income per capita, physicians per 10,000 population, and the degree of urbanization had significant impacts on healthcare expenditures. Also, the results of the study showed the elasticity of income, physicians, urbanization, proportion of the population 65 or older, and the literacy rate were 0.25 (p < 0.002), 0.37 (p < 0.001), 5.01 (p < 0.001), −0.1 (p < 0.73), and −1.02 (p < 0.082), respectively. Conclusion The results of the study indicated that the income elasticity of healthcare expenditures was less than 1; health expenditures were considered to be a “necessity good” across the provinces of Iran during the period that was studied. In addition, there were some other factors that affected healthcare expenditures that were not considered in the study, such as the advancement of new technology and the costs of dying. However, it is recommended that future

  15. School Expenditure and School Performance: Evidence from New South Wales Schools Using a Dynamic Panel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, G.; Mangan, J.; Blackburn, V.; Radicic, D.

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of school expenditure on school performance in government secondary schools in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2006-2010. It uses dynamic panel analysis to exploit time series data on individual schools that only recently has become available. We find a significant but small effect of expenditure on…

  16. Use of Internet panels to conduct surveys.

    PubMed

    Hays, Ron D; Liu, Honghu; Kapteyn, Arie

    2015-09-01

    The use of Internet panels to collect survey data is increasing because it is cost-effective, enables access to large and diverse samples quickly, takes less time than traditional methods to obtain data for analysis, and the standardization of the data collection process makes studies easy to replicate. A variety of probability-based panels have been created, including Telepanel/CentERpanel, Knowledge Networks (now GFK KnowledgePanel), the American Life Panel, the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel, and the Understanding America Study panel. Despite the advantage of having a known denominator (sampling frame), the probability-based Internet panels often have low recruitment participation rates, and some have argued that there is little practical difference between opting out of a probability sample and opting into a nonprobability (convenience) Internet panel. This article provides an overview of both probability-based and convenience panels, discussing potential benefits and cautions for each method, and summarizing the approaches used to weight panel respondents in order to better represent the underlying population. Challenges of using Internet panel data are discussed, including false answers, careless responses, giving the same answer repeatedly, getting multiple surveys from the same respondent, and panelists being members of multiple panels. More is to be learned about Internet panels generally and about Web-based data collection, as well as how to evaluate data collected using mobile devices and social-media platforms. PMID:26170052

  17. Estimating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Health Expenditures in ECO Countries Using Panel Cointegration Approach.

    PubMed

    Hatam, Nahid; Tourani, Sogand; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Bastani, Peivand

    2016-02-01

    Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions. PMID:26997596

  18. The temporal association of excessive health expenditure with suicidal ideation among primary income earners: a cross-sectional design using the Korean Welfare Panel Survey (KoWePS)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Jae Woo; Jang, Sung-in; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu; Ihm, Tae Hwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective Excessive health expenditure (EHE) is a global issue for households suffering from high-cost medical conditions, low incomes and limited insurance coverage. After the international financial crisis of 2008, EHE became a social problem in developed countries. Such economic crisis might induce severe mental stress, resulting in suicidal ideation. Methods We used the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KoWePS) from 2011 to 2013 and selected primary income earners, who were defined as practical and economic representatives of households; the total number of analysed samples was 4247 of 5717 households in the database. We only included households that had never experienced EHE before 2011. To examine the temporal relationship between EHE and suicidal ideation, we conducted a logistic regression analysis. Results Among 4247 participants, 146 (3.4%) experienced suicidal ideation, whereas 4101 (96.6%) did not. One scale of depression score (OR=1.28, CI 1.23 to 1.34, p<0.001) was associated with increased suicidal ideation. Such ideation was influenced to a greater extent by a recent EHE above 10% of disposable income (OR=1.91, CI 1.16 to 3.15, p=0.012) than by either a remote EHE (OR=1.29, CI 0.71 to 2.32) or one in 2011 and 2012 (OR=1.67, CI 1.01 to 2.78, p=0.048). Conclusions In this study, more recent EHE resulted in more suicidal ideation. In conclusion, we suggest that recent household EHE might be considered as an important factor to prevent suicidal ideation and to improve the mental health of individuals. PMID:26082463

  19. Catastrophic Health Expenditures for Households with Disabled Members: Evidence from the Korean Health Panel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Shin, Hyung-Ik; Do, Young Kyung; Yang, Eun Joo

    2016-03-01

    Persons with disabilities use more health care services due to ill health and face higher health care expenses and burden. This study explored the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures of households with persons with disabilities compared to that of those without such persons. We used the Korean Health Panel (KHP) dataset for the years 2010 and 2011. The final sample was 5,610 households; 800 (14.3%) of these were households with a person with a disability and 4,810 (85.7%) were households without such a person. Households with a person with a disability faced higher catastrophic health expenditures, spending about 1.2 to 1.4 times more of their annual living expenditures for out-of-pocket medical expenses, compared to households without persons with disabilities. Households having low economic status and members with chronic disease were more likely to face catastrophic health expenditures, while those receiving public assistance were less likely. Exemption or reduction of out-of-pocket payments in the National Health Insurance and additional financial support are needed so that the people with disabilities can use medical services without suffering financial crisis. PMID:26955233

  20. 78 FR 50373 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Capital Expenditures Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Capital Expenditures Survey AGENCY... 2013 through 2015 Annual Capital Expenditures Survey (ACES). The annual survey collects data on fixed... in the survey. The Bureau of Economic Analysis, the primary Federal user of the ACES data, ]...

  1. 75 FR 52507 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Capital Expenditures Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Capital Expenditures Survey AGENCY... 2012 Annual Capital Expenditures Survey (ACES). The annual survey collects data on fixed assets and... ] States. Both employer and nonemployer companies are included in the survey. The Bureau of...

  2. Smoking Behavior and Healthcare Expenditure in the United States, 1992–2009: Panel Data Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reductions in smoking in Arizona and California have been shown to be associated with reduced per capita healthcare expenditures in these states compared to control populations in the rest of the US. This paper extends that analysis to all states and estimates changes in healthcare expenditure attributable to changes in aggregate measures of smoking behavior in all states. Methods and Findings State per capita healthcare expenditure is modeled as a function of current smoking prevalence, mean cigarette consumption per smoker, other demographic and economic factors, and cross-sectional time trends using a fixed effects panel data regression on annual time series data for each the 50 states and the District of Columbia for the years 1992 through 2009. We found that 1% relative reductions in current smoking prevalence and mean packs smoked per current smoker are associated with 0.118% (standard error [SE] 0.0259%, p < 0.001) and 0.108% (SE 0.0253%, p < 0.001) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure (elasticities). The results of this study are subject to the limitations of analysis of aggregate observational data, particularly that a study of this nature that uses aggregate data and a relatively small sample size cannot, by itself, establish a causal connection between smoking behavior and healthcare costs. Historical regional variations in smoking behavior (including those due to the effects of state tobacco control programs, smoking restrictions, and differences in taxation) are associated with substantial differences in per capita healthcare expenditures across the United States. Those regions (and the states in them) that have lower smoking have substantially lower medical costs. Likewise, those that have higher smoking have higher medical costs. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that these results are robust. Conclusions Changes in healthcare expenditure appear quickly after changes in smoking behavior. A 10% relative drop in smoking in every

  3. 78 FR 65971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... nationwide. II. Method of Collection The survey will be conducted using two modes: in-person interviews and... Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... information. The objective of the survey is to collect information on both trip expenditures and...

  4. Catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the incidence of – and illnesses commonly associated with – catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal. Methods We did a cross-sectional population-based survey in five municipalities of Kathmandu Valley between November 2011 and January 2012. For each household surveyed, out-of-pocket spending on health in the previous 30 days that exceeded 10% of the household’s total expenditure over the same period was considered to be catastrophic. We estimated the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure. We identified the illnesses most commonly associated with such expenditure using a Poisson regression model and assessed the distribution of expenditure by economic quintile of households using the concentration index. Findings Overall, 284 of the 1997 households studied in Kathmandu, i.e. 13.8% after adjustment by sampling weight, reported catastrophic health expenditure in the 30 days before the survey. After adjusting for confounders, this expenditure was found to be associated with injuries, particularly those resulting from road traffic accidents. Catastrophic expenditure by households in the poorest quintile were associated with at least one episode of diabetes, asthma or heart disease. Conclusion In an urban area of Nepal, catastrophic household expenditure on health was mostly associated with injuries and noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and asthma. Throughout Nepal, interventions for the control and management of noncommunicable diseases and the prevention of road traffic accidents should be promoted. A phased introduction of health insurance should also reduce the incidence of catastrophic household expenditure. PMID:25378730

  5. Gender Difference in Health-Care Expenditure: Evidence from India Human Development Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Nandita; Moradhvaj; Bora, Jayanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background While the gender disparity in health and mortality in various stages of life in India is well documented, there is limited evidence on female disadvantage in health-care expenditure (HCE). Aims Examine the gender difference in HCE in short-term and major morbidity in India, and understand the role of factors underlying the difference. Data and Methods Using two rounds of nationally representative panel data—the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) 2004–2005 and 2011–2012 (IHDS I & II)—we calculate morbidity prevalence rate and mean HCE by gender, and examine the adjusted effect of gender on major morbidity-related HCE by using a two-part regression model. Further, we performed Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of the gender gap in HCE in major morbidity to understand the contribution of demographic and socio-economic factors. Results Health-care expenditure on females was systematically lower than on males across all demographic and socio-economic groups. Multivariate analysis confirms that female HCE is significantly lower than male HCE even after controlling demographic and socio-economic factors (β = -0.148, p = 0.000, CI:-0.206–0.091). For both short-term and major morbidity, a female disadvantage on HCE increased from IHDS I to IHDS II. For instance, the male–female gap in major morbidity related expenditure increased from INR 1298 to INR 4172. A decomposition analysis of gender gap in HCE demonstrates that about 48% of the gap is attributable to differences in demographic and socio-economic factors (endowment effect), whereas 50% of the gap is due to the differential effect of the determinants (coefficient effect). Interpretation Indians spend less on female health care than on male health care. Most of the gender gap in HCE is not due to differential distribution of factors affecting HCE. PMID:27391322

  6. Catastrophic health expenditure according to employment status in South Korea: a population-based panel study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Woo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Jang, Sung In; Jang, Suk Yong; Kim, Woo-Rim; Park, Eun Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) means that the medical spending of a household exceeds a certain level of capacity to pay. Previous studies of CHE have focused on benefits supported by the public sector or high medical cost incurred by treating diseases in South Korea. This study examines variance of CHE in these households according to changes in employment status. We also determine whether a relationship exists according to income level. Design A longitudinal study. Setting We used the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS) conducted by the Korea Institute. Participants The data came from 5335 households during 2009–2012. Outcome measure CHE, defined as health expenditures that were 40% greater than the ability of the household to pay. Results Households with people who experienced changes in job status from employed to unemployed (OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.06 to 3.78) or were unemployed with no status change (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.92) were more likely to incur CHE than those containing people who were consistently employed. In addition, low-income families with members who had either lost a job (OR 3.52, 95% CI 2.44 to 5.10) or were already unemployed (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.16) were more likely to incur CHE than those with family members with a consistent job. Conclusions Given the insecure employment status of people with low income, they are more likely to face barriers in obtaining needed health services. Meeting their healthcare needs is an important consideration. PMID:27456329

  7. 76 FR 18517 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey: Expenditures Incurred by Recipients of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey: Expenditures..., Government Division (BE-57), Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC...

  8. 77 FR 75408 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Expenditure Survey of Wreckfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Expenditure Survey of Wreckfish Fishermen in the U.S. South Atlantic Region AGENCY: National Oceanic...

  9. Do Increased Resources Increase Educational Attainment during a Period of Rising Expenditure? Evidence from English Secondary Schools Using a Dynamic Panel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Geoff; Mangan, Jean; Gray, John

    2011-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of school expenditure on school performance at Key Stage 4 in England, over the period 2003-07 during which real per pupil expenditure increased rapidly. It adds to previous investigations by using dynamic panel analysis to: exploit time series data on individual schools that only recently has become available;…

  10. Comparison of the Effects of Public and Private Health Expenditures on the Health Status: A Panel Data Analysis in Eastern Mediterranean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Vahedi, Sajad; Teimourizad, Abedin; Esmaeilzadeh, Firooz; Hadian, Mohamad; Torabi Pour, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health expenditures are divided in two parts of public and private health expenditures. Public health expenditures contain social security spending, taxing to private and public sectors, and foreign resources like loans and subventions. On the other hand, private health expenditures contain out of pocket expenditures and private insurances. Each of these has different effects on the health status. The present study aims to compare the effects of these expenditures on health in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Methods: In this study, infant mortality rate was considered as an indicator of health status. We estimated the model using the panel data of EMR countries between 1995 and 2010. First, we used Pesaran CD test followed by Pesaran’s CADF unit root test. After the confirmation of having unit root, we used Westerlund panel cointegration test and found that the model was cointegrated and then after using Hausman and Breusch-Pagan tests, we estimated the model using the random effects. Results: The results showed that the public health expenditures had a strong negative relationship with infant mortality rate. However, a positive relationship was found between the private health expenditures and infant mortality rate (IMR). The relationship for public health expenditures was significant, but for private health expenditures was not. Conclusion: The study findings showed that the public health expenditures in the EMR countries improved health outcome, while the private health expenditures did not have any significant relationship with health status, so often increasing the public health expenditures leads to reduce IMR. But this relationship was not significant because of contradictory effects for poor and wealthy peoples. PMID:24596857

  11. 76 FR 4635 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Expenditure Survey of Golden Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Expenditure Survey of Golden Crab Fishermen in the U.S. South Atlantic Region AGENCY: National Oceanic...

  12. A Survey of Out-of-Pocket Expenditures for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Raanan; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Leon, Odelia; Chodick, Gabriel; Gabis, Lidia V.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a survey of children with ASD aged 4-10 years. The main dependent variables were out-of-pocket expenditures for health services and hours of therapy. Multivariable logistic regression models were used in order to find independent predictors for service utilization. Parents of 178 of the children (87%) agreed to participate. The average…

  13. 77 FR 21086 - Patents External Quality Survey (formerly Customer Panel Quality Survey)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents External Quality Survey (formerly Customer Panel Quality Survey) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and...@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 0057 Patents External Quality Survey comment'' in the subject line of...

  14. Modeling healthcare expenditures: overview of the literature and evidence from a panel time-series model.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Roel; Mot, Esther; Franses, Philip Hans

    2010-02-01

    The rapid growth of healthcare expenditures in the past 40 years in many industrial countries has contributed to an improvement in life expectancy and the quality of life, but has also jeopardized the sustainability of public budgets. For the future, it is important to get more insight into the determinants of this growth. Factors, such as aging, income growth and technological development have been discussed extensively. In this review, we want to pay attention to a somewhat neglected factor: the increase in the relative price of healthcare. Owing to the Baumol effect, healthcare tends to become more expensive over time. How does the demand for healthcare react to this price increase? PMID:20121562

  15. Time discounting and smoking behavior: evidence from a panel survey(*).

    PubMed

    Kang, Myong-Il; Ikeda, Shinsuke

    2014-12-01

    By using a panel survey of Japanese adults, we show that smoking behavior is associated with personal time discounting and its biases, such as hyperbolic discounting and the sign effect, in the way that theory predicts: smoking depends positively on the discount rate and the degree of hyperbolic discounting and negatively on the presence of the sign effect. Positive effects of hyperbolic discounting on smoking are salient for naïve people, who are not aware of their self-control problem. By estimating smoking participation and smokers' cigarette consumption in Cragg's two-part model, we find that the two smoking decisions depend on different sets of time-discounting variables. Particularly, smoking participation is affected by being a naïve hyperbolic discounter, whereas the discount rate, the presence of the sign effect, and a hyperbolic discounting proxy constructed from procrastination behavior vis-à-vis doing homework assignments affect both types of decision making. The panel data enable us to analyze the over-time instability of elicited discount rates. The instability is shown to come from measurement errors, rather than preference shocks on time preference. Several evidences indicate that the detected associations between time preferences and smoking behavior are interpersonal one, rather than within-personal one. PMID:24136867

  16. Impact of Illness and Medical Expenditure on Household Consumptions: A Survey in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Kuangnan; Jiang, Yefei; Shia, BenChang; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    Background The main goal of this study is to examine the associations between illness conditions and out-of-pocket medical expenditure with other types of household consumptions. In November and December of 2011, a survey was conducted in three cities in western China, namely Lan Zhou, Gui Lin and Xi An, and their surrounding rural areas. Results Information on demographics, income and consumption was collected on 2,899 households. Data analysis suggested that the presence of household members with chronic diseases was not associated with characteristics of households or household heads. The presence of inpatient treatments was significantly associated with the age of household head (p-value 0.03). The level of per capita medical expense was significantly associated with household size, presence of members younger than 18, older than 65, basic health insurance coverage, per capita income, and household head occupation. Adjusting for confounding effects, the presence of chronic diseases was negatively associated with the amount of basic consumption (p-value 0.02) and the percentage of basic consumption (p-value 0.01), but positively associated with the percentage of insurance expense (p-value 0.02). Medical expenditure was positively associated with all other types of consumptions, including basic, education, saving and investment, entertainment, insurance, durable goods, and alcohol/tobacco. It was negatively associated with the percentage of basic consumption, saving and investment, and insurance. Conclusions Early studies conducted in other Asian countries and rural China found negative associations between illness conditions and medical expenditure with other types of consumptions. This study was conducted in three major cities and surrounding areas in western China, which had not been well investigated in published literature. The observed consumption patterns were different from those in early studies, and the negative associations were not observed. This

  17. Characteristics of respondents with glaucoma and dry eye in a national panel survey

    PubMed Central

    Schmier, Jordana K; Covert, David W

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing body of evidence strongly suggesting that glaucoma medications may contribute to ocular surface disease and development of dry eye. Objective: To identify glaucoma patients with dry eye, using a nationally representative sample, and to compare clinical and treatment characteristics with controls without dry eye. Methods: Patients taking intraocular pressure-lowering medications were identified from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A matched cohort without glaucoma served as controls. Dry eye was identified by diagnosis or use of prescription or over-the-counter medications. Demographic and clinical characteristics and medication use patterns were compared. Results: The analysis identified 629 respondents with glaucoma and 6,934 controls without glaucoma. Dry eye was more common among glaucoma respondents than nonglaucoma controls (16.5% vs 5.6%, P < 0.0001). There was a nonsignificant trend for respondents with dry eye to report higher rates of glaucoma adjunctive therapy use compared to those without dry eye (44.2% vs 35.0%, P < 0.076). Prostaglandin analogs were the most common glaucoma medication. Conclusions: This analysis found that the rate of dry eye was higher in patients with glaucoma than in controls. The use of glaucoma adjunctive therapies may increase the rate of dry eye in glaucoma patients. PMID:19997568

  18. Methods for Estimating Medical Expenditures Attributable to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Derek S.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Mercy, James A.

    2008-01-01

    This article compares three methods for estimating the medical cost burden of intimate partner violence against U.S. adult women (18 years and older), 1 year postvictimization. To compute the estimates, prevalence data from the National Violence Against Women Survey are combined with cost data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the…

  19. Personality Measurement and Assessment in Large Panel Surveys*

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Brent; Jackson, Joshua J.; Duckworth, Angela L.; Von Culin, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Personality tests are being added to large panel studies with increasing regularity, such as the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). To facilitate the inclusion and interpretation of these tests, we provide some general background on personality psychology, personality assessment, and the validity of personality tests. In this review, we provide background on definitions of personality, the strengths and weaknesses of the self-report approaches to personality testing typically used in large panel studies, and the validity of personality tests for three outcomes: genetics, income, and health. We conclude with recommendations on how to improve personality assessment in future panel studies. PMID:23503719

  20. Health insurance and subjective health status: data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure survey.

    PubMed Central

    Franks, P; Clancy, C M; Gold, M R; Nutting, P A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The relationship between health insurance and subjective health status was investigated. It was hypothesized that persons without health insurance would have lower levels of subjective health status than those with health insurance and that this relationship would hold for both poor and nonpoor persons. METHODS. Data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey were analyzed to examine the relationship between health insurance and self-reported health status. The analysis controlled for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables and medical conditions. RESULTS. Persons without health insurance had significantly lower levels of subjective health status than did persons with insurance. This adverse effect persisted after adjustments were made for the effects of age, sex, race, income, attitude toward the value of medical care and health insurance, and medical conditions. The detrimental effect of lacking health insurance on subjective health status was present for persons at all income levels and was greater than the effect on subjective health status found for 2 of the 11 reported medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS. Lacking health insurance is associated with clinically significant lower levels of subjective health status in both poor and non-poor persons. PMID:8363006

  1. Malaria related care-seeking-behaviour and expenditures in urban settings: A household survey in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Beogo, Idrissa; Huang, Nicole; Drabo, Maxime K; Yé, Yazoumé

    2016-08-01

    In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria inflicts a high healthcare expenditure to individuals. However, little is known about healthcare expenditure to individual affected by malaria and determinants of healthcare seeking behaviour in urban settings where private sector is thriving. This study investigated the level and correlates of expenditure among individuals with self-reported malaria episode in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional household survey conducted in August-November 2011 in Ouagadougou covered 8,243 individuals (1,600 households). Using Generalized Estimating Equations, the analysis included 1082 individuals from 715 households, who reported an episode of malaria. Of individuals surveyed, 38.3% sought care from public, 27.4% from private providers, and, 34.2% self-medicated. The median cost for malaria treatment was USD10.1 (4,850.0XOF) with significant different between public, private and self-medication (p<0.001). In public primary care health facilities, the median cost was USD8.4 (4,050.0XOF) for uncomplicated malaria and USD15.2 (7,333.5XOF) for severe malaria. In private-for-profit facilities run by a medical doctor, the median cost was USD30.3 (14,600.0XOF) for uncomplicated malaria and USD 43.0 (20,725.0XOF) for severe malaria. Regardless of the source of care, patients with insurance incurred significantly higher expenditure compared to those without insurance (p<0.001) and medicine accounted for the largest share of the expenditure. The type of provider, having insurance, and the severity of the malaria predict the amount of money spent. The high financial cost of malaria treatment regardless of the providers poses threat to the goal of universal access to malaria interventions, the unique way to achieve elimination goals. PMID:27154586

  2. The modeling of medical expenditure data from a longitudinal survey using the generalized method of moments (GMM) approach.

    PubMed

    Hass, Zachary; Levine, Michael; Sands, Laura P; Ting, Jeffrey; Xu, Huiping

    2016-07-10

    Medical expenditure data analysis has recently become an important problem in biostatistics. These data typically have a number of features making their analysis rather difficult. Commonly, they are heavily right-skewed, contain a large percentage of zeros, and often exhibit large numbers of missing observations because of death and/or the lack of follow-up. They are also commonly obtained from records that are linked to large longitudinal data surveys. In this manuscript, we suggest a novel approach to modeling these data through the use of generalized method of moments estimation procedure combined with appropriate weights that account for both dropout due to death and the probability of being sampled from among the National Long Term Care Survey (NLTCS) subjects. This approach seems particularly appropriate because of the large number of subjects relative to the length of observation period (in months). We also use a simulation study to compare our proposed approach with and without the use of weights. The proposed model is applied to medical expenditure data obtained from the 2004-2005 NLTCS-linked Medicare database. The results suggest that the amount of medical expenditures incurred is strongly associated with higher number of activities of daily living (ADL) disabilities and self-reports of unmet need for help with ADL disabilities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26823052

  3. Assessing the need for a new nationally representative household panel survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Robert; Schoeni, Robert F.; Brown, Charles; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Couper, Mick P.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Hurst, Erik; Seltzer, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce this special issue on the critical matter of whether the existing household panel surveys in the U.S. are adequate to address the important emerging social science and policy questions of the next few decades. We summarize the conference papers which address this issue in different domains. The papers detail many new and important emerging research questions but also identify key limitations in existing panels in addressing those questions. To address these limitations, we consider the advantages and disadvantages of initiating a new, general-purpose omnibus household panel in the U.S. We also discuss the particular benefits of starting new panels that have specific targeted domains such as child development, population health and health care. We also develop a list of valuable enhancements to existing panels which could address many of their limitations. PMID:26688609

  4. Health Care Expenditures of Immigrants in the United States: A Nationally Representative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sarita A.; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U.; Pati, Susmita; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Bor, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the health care expenditures of immigrants residing in the United States with health care expenditures of US-born persons. Methods. We used the 1998 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey linked to the 1996–1997 National Health Interview Survey to analyze data on 18398 US-born persons and 2843 immigrants. Using a 2-part regression model, we estimated total health care expenditures, as well as expenditures for emergency department (ED) visits, office-based visits, hospital-based outpatient visits, inpatient visits, and prescription drugs. Results. Immigrants accounted for $39.5 billion (SE=$4 billion) in health care expenditures. After multivariate adjustment, per capita total health care expenditures of immigrants were 55% lower than those of US-born persons ($1139 vs $2546). Similarly, expenditures for uninsured and publicly insured immigrants were approximately half those of their US-born counterparts. Immigrant children had 74% lower per capita health care expenditures than US-born children. However, ED expenditures were more than 3 times higher for immigrant children than for US-born children. Conclusions. Health care expenditures are substantially lower for immigrants than for US-born persons. Our study refutes the assumption that immigrants represent a disproportionate financial burden on the US health care system. PMID:16043671

  5. Estimation and adjustment of self-selection bias in volunteer panel web surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chengying

    2016-06-01

    By using propensity score matching method of random sample, we matched simple random sample units and volunteer panel Web survey sample units based on the equal or similar propensity score. The unbiased estimators of the population parameters are constructed by using the matching simple random sample, and the self-selection bias is estimated. We propose propensity score weighted and matching sample post stratification weighted methods to estimate the population parameters, and the self-selection bias in volunteer panel Web Surveys are adjusted.

  6. Panel Conditioning in Longitudinal Studies: Evidence from Labor Force Items in the Current Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew; Warren, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    Does participating in a longitudinal survey affect respondents’ answers to subsequent questions about their labor force characteristics? In this article, we investigate the magnitude of “panel conditioning” or “time in survey” biases for key labor force questions in the monthly Current Population Survey (CPS). Using linked CPS records for household heads first interviewed between January 2007 and June 2010, our analyses are based on strategic within-person comparisons across survey months and between-person comparisons across CPS rotation groups. We find considerable evidence for panel conditioning effects in the CPS. Panel conditioning downwardly biases the CPS-based unemployment rate, mainly by leading people to remove themselves from its denominator. Across surveys, CPS respondents (claim to) leave the labor force in greater numbers than otherwise equivalent respondents who are participating in the CPS for the first time. The results cannot be attributed to panel attrition or mode effects. We discuss implications for CPS-based research and policy as well as for survey methodology more broadly. PMID:22893185

  7. Persons with Mental Retardation and Related Conditions in Mental Retardation Facilities: Selected Findings from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey. Project Report 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, K. Charlie; And Others

    This report presents statistics on residential facilities for the mentally retarded and on the residents themselves, derived from the Institutional Population Component of the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES). Part 1 presents an overview of the NMES and discusses previous efforts to survey persons residing in mental retardation…

  8. Changes in the Returns to Schooling 1991-2002: Evidence from the British Household Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Seamus; Bennett, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The present paper uses British Household Panel Survey data from 1991 to 2002 to assess the extent to which labour market returns have been influenced by changes in the nature of educational supply. We find that whilst there have been substantial shifts in the returns to schooling over the period, these effects are much more pronounced for younger…

  9. Error correction for vertical surveys conducted over a subsiding longwall mining panel

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, A.

    1996-12-31

    The difference between a conventional land survey and a survey of subsiding ground is discussed and a correction method was formulated for surveys conducted on subsiding ground. The area over the longwall mining panel subsided detectable amounts during the time required to conduct the survey when subsidence was at its highest rate, which introduces error into the survey. When the ground subsides before the survey is completed, the survey no longer represents the locations of all points at a common point in time, which is a basic assumption of conventional land surveying. Conventional methods of correction average movement of subsiding points and apply those amounts of movement to points which were unaffected by subsidence, a different correction method was needed. A correction method was used which uses multiple surveys to calculate rates of subsidence for each point in the survey. Subsidence rates were used to estimate the location of each point at a common time, Results are presented using the correction for subsiding ground and using no correction. Different results of the same surveys are shown in terms of elevations and curvatures. The significance of the different types of corrections is discussed and the compounding of error is demonstrated when calculating curvatures.

  10. Selection of key financial indicators: a literature, panel and survey approach.

    PubMed

    Pink, George H; Daniel, Imtiaz; Hall, Linda McGillis; McKillop, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998, most hospitals in Ontario have voluntarily participated in one of the largest and most ambitious publicly available performance-reporting initiatives in the world. This article describes the method used to select key financial indicators for inclusion in the report including the literature review, panel and survey approaches that were used. The results for five years of recent data for Ontario hospitals are also presented. PMID:18271103

  11. Affordability of the Health Expenditures of Insured Americans Before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Trenz, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    Central to the Affordable Care Act is the notion of affordability and the role of health insurance in making otherwise unaffordable health care affordable. We used data from the 1996 to 2008 versions of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the portion of overall health care expenditures by insured respondents that would otherwise have been beyond their disposable incomes and assets. We found that about one third of insured expenditures would have been unaffordable, with a much higher percentage among publicly insured individuals. This result suggests that one of the main functions of insurance is to cover expenses that insured individuals would not otherwise be able to afford. PMID:26691116

  12. Estimating resting energy expenditure in patients requiring nutritional support: a survey of dietetic practice.

    PubMed

    Green, A J; Smith, P; Whelan, K

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of resting energy expenditure (REE) involves predicting basal metabolic rate (BMR) plus adjustment for metabolic stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods used to estimate REE and to identify the impact of the patient's clinical condition and the dietitians' work profile on the stress factor assigned. A random sample of 115 dietitians from the United Kingdom with an interest in nutritional support completed a postal questionnaire regarding the estimation of REE for 37 clinical conditions. The Schofield equation was used by the majority (99%) of dietitians to calculate BMR; however, the stress factors assigned varied considerably with coefficients of variation ranging from 18.5 (cancer with cachexia) to 133.9 (HIV). Dietitians specializing in gastroenterology assigned a higher stress factor to decompensated liver disease than those not specializing in gastroenterology (19.3 vs 10.7, P=0.004). The results of this investigation strongly suggest that there is wide inconsistency in the assignment of stress factors within specific conditions and gives rise to concern over the potential consequences in terms of under- or overfeeding that may ensue. PMID:17311053

  13. Online and Social Media Data As an Imperfect Continuous Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is a large body of research on utilizing online activity as a survey of political opinion to predict real world election outcomes. There is considerably less work, however, on using this data to understand topic-specific interest and opinion amongst the general population and specific demographic subgroups, as currently measured by relatively expensive surveys. Here we investigate this possibility by studying a full census of all Twitter activity during the 2012 election cycle along with the comprehensive search history of a large panel of Internet users during the same period, highlighting the challenges in interpreting online and social media activity as the results of a survey. As noted in existing work, the online population is a non-representative sample of the offline world (e.g., the U.S. voting population). We extend this work to show how demographic skew and user participation is non-stationary and difficult to predict over time. In addition, the nature of user contributions varies substantially around important events. Furthermore, we note subtle problems in mapping what people are sharing or consuming online to specific sentiment or opinion measures around a particular topic. We provide a framework, built around considering this data as an imperfect continuous panel survey, for addressing these issues so that meaningful insight about public interest and opinion can be reliably extracted from online and social media data. PMID:26730933

  14. Online and Social Media Data As an Imperfect Continuous Panel Survey.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fernando; Gamon, Michael; Hofman, Jake M; Kıcıman, Emre; Rothschild, David

    2016-01-01

    There is a large body of research on utilizing online activity as a survey of political opinion to predict real world election outcomes. There is considerably less work, however, on using this data to understand topic-specific interest and opinion amongst the general population and specific demographic subgroups, as currently measured by relatively expensive surveys. Here we investigate this possibility by studying a full census of all Twitter activity during the 2012 election cycle along with the comprehensive search history of a large panel of Internet users during the same period, highlighting the challenges in interpreting online and social media activity as the results of a survey. As noted in existing work, the online population is a non-representative sample of the offline world (e.g., the U.S. voting population). We extend this work to show how demographic skew and user participation is non-stationary and difficult to predict over time. In addition, the nature of user contributions varies substantially around important events. Furthermore, we note subtle problems in mapping what people are sharing or consuming online to specific sentiment or opinion measures around a particular topic. We provide a framework, built around considering this data as an imperfect continuous panel survey, for addressing these issues so that meaningful insight about public interest and opinion can be reliably extracted from online and social media data. PMID:26730933

  15. Correlation Results for a Mass Loaded Vehicle Panel Test Article Finite Element Models and Modal Survey Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maasha, Rumaasha; Towner, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    High-fidelity Finite Element Models (FEMs) were developed to support a recent test program at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The FEMs correspond to test articles used for a series of acoustic tests. Modal survey tests were used to validate the FEMs for five acoustic tests (a bare panel and four different mass-loaded panel configurations). An additional modal survey test was performed on the empty test fixture (orthogrid panel mounting fixture, between the reverb and anechoic chambers). Modal survey tests were used to test-validate the dynamic characteristics of FEMs used for acoustic test excitation. Modal survey testing and subsequent model correlation has validated the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the FEMs. The modal survey test results provide a basis for the analysis models used for acoustic loading response test and analysis comparisons

  16. Selected Data on Academic Science and Engineering R&D Expenditures: Fiscal Year 1992. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machen, M. Marge

    This document presents 1992 statistical data on science and engineering expenditures for separately budgeted research and development (R&D) programs that were obtained from over 450 institutions of higher education, including all doctorate-granting institutions, all historically black colleges, and universities with any R&D expenditures. Trend…

  17. Health Care Utilisation and Out-of-Pocket Expenditure Associated with Back Pain: A Nationally Representative Survey of Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Emma R.; Broom, Alex F.; Sibbritt, David W.; Refshauge, Kathryn M.; Adams, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Background Back pain impacts on a significant proportion of the Australian population over the life course and has high prevalence rates among women, particularly in older age. Back pain care is characterised by multiple practitioner and self-prescribed treatment options, and the out-of-pocket costs associated with consultations and self-prescribed treatments have not been examined to date. Objective To analyse the extent of health care practitioner consultations and self-prescribed treatment for back pain care among Australian women, and to assess the self-reported costs associated with such usage. Methods Survey of 1,310 women (response rate 80.9%) who reported seeking help for back pain from the ‘1946-51 cohort’ of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Women were asked about their use of health care practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain and the costs associated with such usage. Results In the past year 76.4% consulted a complementary and alternative practitioner, 56% an allied health practitioner and 59.2% a GP/medical specialist. Overall, women consulted with, on average, 3.0 (SD = 2.0) different health care practitioners, and had, on average, 12.2 (SD = 9.7) discrete health care practitioner consultations for back pain. Average self-reported out-of-pocket expenditure on practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain care per annum was AU$873.10. Conclusions Multiple provider usage for various but distinct purposes (i.e. pain/mobility versus anxiety/stress) points to the need for further research into patient motivations and experiences of back pain care in order to improve and enhance access to and continuity of care. Our results suggest that the cost of back pain care represents a significant burden, and may ultimately limit women’s access to multiple providers. We extrapolate that for Australian working-age women, total out-of-pocket expenditure on back pain care per annum is in excess of AU$1

  18. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  19. Data collecting activities of the 'Outlook for Space' Panel. [information sources for technological forecasting survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the 'Outlook for Space' Panel, a NASA-wide study group concerned with the role space flight might play in American society during the years approaching 2000. The study considers the progression of projects from 'could do' (for which capability exists), to 'should do' (because of social benefits), to 'will do' (unknown at this time). Opinions as to objectives were solicited from NASA personnel, advisory committees, industrial organizations, and academic theoreticians. Poll data was examined. A large-scale survey of the attitudes of young people toward the future and space was also undertaken, and a complete matrix is presented of themes (such as production and management of food and forestry resources) and theme subcategory specific activities (for example, global crop production), versus the students' perceived areas of national interest or benefit (e.g., expansion of human knowledge).

  20. Health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, Cornelius B.; Wright, Davene R.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of pediatric pain-related conditions on health care expenditures. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 6- to 17-year-old children captured in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey and 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Health care expenditures of children with pain-related conditions were compared with those of children without pain-related conditions. Pain-related conditions were associated with incremental health care expenditures of $1339 (95% confidence interval [CI], $248-$2447) per capita. Extrapolated to the nation, pediatric pain-related conditions were associated with $11.8 billion (95% CI, $2.18-$21.5 billion) in total incremental health care expenditures. The incremental health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions were similar to those of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder ($9.23 billion; 95% CI, $1.89-$18.1 billion), but more than those associated with asthma ($5.35 billion; 95% CI, $0-$12.3 billion) and obesity ($0.73 billion; 95% CI, $6.28-$8.81 billion). Health care expenditures for pediatric pain-related conditions exert a considerable economic burden on society. Efforts to prevent and treat pediatric pain-related conditions are urgently needed. PMID:25734992

  1. Maternal depressive symptoms and healthcare expenditures for publicly insured children with chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jada L; Beil, Heather; Beeber, Linda S

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms and tested associations between maternal depressive symptoms and healthcare utilization and expenditures among United States publicly insured children with chronic health conditions (CCHC). A total of 6,060 publicly insured CCHC from the 2004-2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys were analyzed using negative binomial models to compare healthcare utilization for CCHC of mothers with and without depressive symptoms. Annual healthcare expenditures for both groups were compared using a two-part model with a logistic regression and generalized linear model. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among mothers with CCHC was 19 %. There were no differences in annual healthcare utilization for CCHC of mothers with and without depressive symptoms. Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with greater odds of ED expenditures [odds ratio (OR) 1.26; 95 % CI 1.03-1.54] and lesser odds of dental expenditures (OR 0.81; 95 % CI 0.66-0.98) and total expenditures (OR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.51-0.98). Children of symptomatic mothers had lower predicted outpatient expenditures and higher predicted expenditures for total health, prescription medications, dental care; and office based, inpatient and ED visits. Mothers with CCHC were more likely to report depressive symptoms than were mothers with children without chronic health conditions. There were few differences in annual healthcare utilization and expenditures between CCHC of mothers with and without depressive symptoms. However, having a mother with depressive symptoms was associated with higher ED expenditures and higher predicted healthcare expenditures in a population of children who comprise over three-fourths of the top decile of Medicaid spending. PMID:25047785

  2. Dynamics of Adult Participation in Part-Time Education and Training: Results from the British Household Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Flora; Lambe, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the dynamics of adult participation in part-time education and training throughout the 90s and into the 2000s using data from 14 waves (1992-2005) of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). We study the volume (stocks) of participation and non-participation and the gross flows between states. This analysis provides a…

  3. Distinguishing the Influences of Father's and Mother's Involvement on Adolescent Academic Achievement: Analyses of Taiwan Education Panel Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsien-Yuan; Zhang, Dalun; Kwok, Oi-Man; Li, Yan; Ju, Song

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample drawn from Taiwan, this study evaluated the role of mother and father involvement in adolescent academic achievement. The participants were drawn from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) and consisted of 8,108 adolescents who studied seventh grade in 2001. Father and mother involvement related to academic achievement was…

  4. Trade as a structural driver of dietary risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in the Pacific: an analysis of household income and expenditure survey data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases are a health and development challenge. Pacific Island countries are heavily affected by NCDs, with diabetes and obesity rates among the highest in the world. Trade is one of multiple structural drivers of NCDs in the Pacific, but country-level data linking trade, diets and NCD risk factors are scarce. We attempted to illustrate these links in five countries. The study had three objectives: generate cross-country profiles of food consumption and expenditure patterns; highlight the main ‘unhealthy’ food imports in each country to inform targeted policymaking; and demonstrate the potential of HCES data to analyze links between trade, diets and NCD risk factors, such as obesity. Methods We used two types of data: obesity rates as reported by WHO and aggregated household-level food expenditure and consumption from Household Income and Expenditure Survey reports. We classified foods in HIES data into four categories: imported/local, ‘unhealthy’/’healthy’, nontraditional/traditional, processed/unprocessed. We generated cross-country profiles and cross-country regressions to examine the relationships between imported foods and unhealthy foods, and between imported foods and obesity. Results Expenditure on imported foods was considerable in all countries but varied across countries, with highest values in Kiribati (53%) and Tonga (52%) and lowest values in Solomon Islands and Vanuatu (30%). Rice and sugar accounted for significant amounts of imported foods in terms of expenditure and calories, ranking among the top 3 foods in most countries. We found significant or near-significant associations in expenditure and caloric intake between ‘unhealthy’ and imported foods as well as between imported foods and obesity, though inferences based on these associations should be made carefully due to data constraints. Conclusions While additional research is needed, this study supports previous findings on trade as a structural

  5. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Total Health Care Expenditure in Prediction of Patient Satisfaction: Results From a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Wei; Bounsanga, Jerry; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D; Crum, Anthony B; Voss, Maren W; Hon, Shirley D

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care quality is often linked to patient satisfaction. Yet, there is a lack of national studies examining the relationship between patient satisfaction, patient-reported outcomes, and medical expenditure. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the contribution of physical health, mental health, general health, and total health care expenditures to patient satisfaction using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample. Methods Using data from the 2010-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, analyses were conducted to predict patient satisfaction from patient-reported outcomes and total health care expenditures. The study sample consisted of adult participants (N=10,157), with sampling weights representative of 233.26 million people in the United States. Results The results indicated that patient-reported outcomes and total health care expenditure were associated with patient satisfaction such that higher physical and mental function, higher general health status, and higher total health care expenditure were associated with higher patient satisfaction. Conclusions We found that patient-reported outcomes and total health care expenditure had a significant relationship with patient satisfaction. As more emphasis is placed on health care value and quality, this area of research will become increasingly needed and critical questions should be asked about what we value in health care and whether we can find a balance between patient satisfaction, outcomes, and expenditures. Future research should apply big data analytics to investigate whether there is a differential effect of patient-reported outcomes and medical expenditures on patient satisfaction across different medical specialties. PMID:27227131

  6. The Impact of Health Insurance Programs on Out-of-Pocket Expenditures in Indonesia: An Increase or a Decrease?

    PubMed Central

    Aji, Budi; De Allegri, Manuela; Souares, Aurelia; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    We used panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey to investigate the impact of health insurance programs on reducing out-of-pocket expenditures. We employed three linear panel data models, two of which accounted for endogeneity: pooled ordinary least squares (OLS), pooled two-stage least squares (2SLS) for instrumental variable (IV), and fixed effects (FE). The study revealed that two health insurance programs had a significantly negative impact on out-of-pocket expenditures by using IV estimates. In the IV model, Askeskin decreased out-of-pocket expenditures by 34% and Askes by 55% compared with non-Askeskin and non-Askes, respectively, while Jamsostek was found to bear a nonsignificant effect on out-of-pocket expenditures. In the FE model, only Askeskin had a significant negative effect with an 11% reduction on out-of-pocket expenditures. This study showed that two large existing health insurance programs in Indonesia, Askeskin and Askes, effectively reduced household out-of-pocket expenditures. The ability of programs to offer financial protection by reducing out-of-pocket expenditures is likely to be a direct function of their benefits package and co-payment policies. PMID:23873263

  7. Co-occurring chronic conditions and healthcare expenditures associated with Parkinson’s disease: A propensity score matched analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Sandipan; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to ascertain co-occurring chronic conditions and expenditures associated with Parkinson’s disease among elderly individuals (age ≥ 65 years). Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional matched case–control design with data from Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative survey of households in the United States was used. Elderly with Parkinson’s disease (N = 350) were compared to a matched control group (N = 1050) based on propensity scores. Ordinary Least Squares regressions on logged dollars were performed to understand the association between Parkinson’s disease and expenditures. All analyses accounted for the complex survey design of the MEPS and were conducted in SAS 9.3. Results Among elderly, the average total expenditures were $15,404 for those with Parkinson’s disease and $13,333 for those without Parkinson’s disease. Results from regressions revealed that elderly with Parkinson’s disease had 109% greater total expenditure compared to those without Parkinson’s disease, when only demographic and socioeconomic variables were entered in the model. When co-occurring chronic conditions were additionally included in the model, those with Parkinson’s disease had 84% greater expenditures compared to those without Parkinson’s disease. Conclusions Excess expenditures associated with Parkinson’s disease are partially driven by co-occurring conditions among individuals with Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23680418

  8. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Muoi T.; Chan, Winnie Y.; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data. This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6). Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ2 tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively). Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics. Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health. PMID:26334899

  9. Health care expenditures associated with depression in adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyun; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Background The rates of depression in adults with cancer have been reported as high as 38%–58%. How depression affects overall health care expenditures in individuals with cancer is an under-researched area. Objective To estimate excess average total health care expenditures associated with depression in adults with cancer by comparing those with and without depression after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, access to care, and other health status variables. Methods Cross-sectional data on 4,766 adult survivors of cancer from 2006–2009 of the nationally representative household survey, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), were used. The patients were older than 21 years. Cancer and depression were identified from the patients’ medical conditions files. Dependent variables consisted of total, inpatient, outpatient, emergency department, prescription drugs, and other expenditures. Ordinary least square (OLS) on logged dollars and generalized linear models with log-link function were performed. All analyses (SAS 9.3 and STATA12) accounted for the complex survey design of the MEPS. Results Overall, 14% of individuals with cancer reported having depression. In those with cancer and depression, the average annual health care expenditures were $18,401 compared with $12,091 in those without depression. After adjusting for demographic, socio-economic, access to care, and other health status variables, those with depression had about 31.7% greater total expenditures compared with those without depression. Total, outpatient, and prescription expenditures were higher in individuals with depression than in those without depression. Individuals with cancer and depression were significantly more likely to use emergency departments (adjusted odds ratio, 1.46) compared with their counterparts without depression. Limitations Cancer patients who died during the reporting year were excluded. The financial burden of depression may have been underestimated because

  10. Family Formation Processes: Assessing the Need for a New Nationally Representative Household Panel Survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    The American family has undergone rapid transformation. Careful measurement attention to family formation is important because families are at the heart of numerous decisions, roles, and responsibilities with implications for understanding the well-being of families, adults and children. This paper considers whether there is a need for a new household panel study that addresses family formation. This paper consists of a review of the recent body of population-based, American surveys and finds a considerable gap in the ability to study the implications of families for the health and well-being of Americans. Earlier panel surveys used to assess family life anchored questions around marital events, but changes in family patterns require attention to a more diverse set of family forms. The paper concludes with recommendations for a multi-purpose panel study. The key challenge is to keep to pace with complexity and changes in American family life while at the same time maintaining a parsimonious set of survey questions. PMID:26612969

  11. The Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation Study: Results of the Expert Survey and RAND Panel

    PubMed Central

    Pinkham, Amy E.; Penn, David L.; Green, Michael F.; Buck, Benjamin; Healey, Kristin; Harvey, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In schizophrenia, social cognition is strongly linked to functional outcome and is increasingly seen as a viable treatment target. The goal of the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study is to identify and improve the best existing measures of social cognition so they can be suitably applied in large-scale treatment studies. Initial phases of this project sought to (1) develop consensus on critical domains of social cognition and (2) identify the best existing measures of social cognition for use in treatment studies. Methods: Experts in social cognition were invited to nominate key domains of social cognition and the best measures of those domains. Nominations for measures were reduced according to set criteria, and all available psychometric information about these measures was summarized and provided to RAND panelists. Panelists rated the quality of each measure on multiple criteria, and diverging ratings were discussed at the in-person meeting to obtain consensus. Results: Expert surveys identified 4 core domains of social cognition—emotion processing, social perception, theory of mind/mental state attribution, and attributional style/bias. Using RAND panel consensus ratings, the following measures were selected for further evaluation: Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire, Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, Penn Emotion Recognition Test, Relationships Across Domains, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, The Awareness of Social Inferences Test, Hinting Task, and Trustworthiness Task. Discussion: While it was possible to establish consensus, only a limited amount of psychometric information is currently available for the candidate measures, which underscores the need for well-validated and standardized measures in this area. PMID:23728248

  12. A novel nonparametric item response theory approach to measuring socioeconomic position: a comparison using household expenditure data from a Vietnam health survey, 2003

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measures of household socio-economic position (SEP) are widely used in health research. There exist a number of approaches to their measurement, with Principal Components Analysis (PCA) applied to a basket of household assets being one of the most common. PCA, however, carries a number of assumptions about the distribution of the data which may be untenable, and alternative, non-parametric, approaches may be preferred. Mokken scale analysis is a non-parametric, item response theory approach to scale development which appears never to have been applied to household asset data. A Mokken scale can be used to rank order items (measures of wealth) as well as households. Using data on household asset ownership from a national sample of 4,154 consenting households in the World Health Survey from Vietnam, 2003, we construct two measures of household SEP. Seventeen items asking about assets, and utility and infrastructure use were used. Mokken Scaling and PCA were applied to the data. A single item measure of total household expenditure is used as a point of contrast. Results An 11 item scale, out of the 17 items, was identified that conformed to the assumptions of a Mokken Scale. All the items in the scale were identified as strong items (Hi > .5). Two PCA measures of SEP were developed as a point of contrast. One PCA measure was developed using all 17 available asset items, the other used the reduced set of 11 items identified in the Mokken scale analaysis. The Mokken Scale measure of SEP and the 17 item PCA measure had a very high correlation (r = .98), and they both correlated moderately with total household expenditure: r = .59 and r = .57 respectively. In contrast the 11 item PCA measure correlated moderately with the Mokken scale (r = .68), and weakly with the total household expenditure (r = .18). Conclusion The Mokken scale measure of household SEP performed at least as well as PCA, and outperformed the PCA measure developed with

  13. Long-running German panel survey shows that personal and economic choices, not just genes, matter for happiness

    PubMed Central

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud; Wagner, Gert G.

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists and economists take contradictory approaches to research on what psychologists call happiness or subjective well-being, and economists call subjective utility. A direct test of the most widely accepted psychological theory, set-point theory, shows it to be flawed. Results are then given, using the economists’ newer “choice approach”—an approach also favored by positive psychologists—which yields substantial payoffs in explaining long-term changes in happiness. Data come from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984–2008), a unique 25-y prospective longitudinal survey. This dataset enables direct tests of theories explaining long-term happiness. PMID:20921399

  14. Occupational Choice, Socio-Economic Status and Educational Attainment: A Study of the Occupational Choices and Destinations of Young People in the British Household Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The article considers young people's occupational choices at the age of 15 in relation to their educational attainment, the occupations of their parents and their actual occupations when they are in their early 20s. It uses data from the British Household Panel Survey over periods of between five and ten years. The young people in the survey are…

  15. Parent-Reported Health Consequences and Relationship to Expenditures in Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    deJong, Neal A; Williams, Christianna S; Thomas, Kathleen C

    2016-04-01

    Objectives (1) To describe parents' report of special needs for children with ADHD on the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) Screener; and (2) to assess the association between responses to Screener items and annual mental health and total health expenditures per child. Methods In pooled 2002-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, we identify children ages 4-17 years with ADHD. We use OLS and two-part regressions to model the relationship between CSHCN Screener items and mental health and total health expenditures. Based on these models we estimate adjusted, average total health expenditures for children with ADHD-both with and without a co-morbid mental health condition-and different combinations of endorsed Screener items. This research was conducted in accordance with prevailing ethical principles. Results There were 3883 observations on 2591 children with ADHD. Without a co-morbid mental health condition, average total expenditures per year from adjusted, model-based estimates were $865 for those meeting no Screener items, $2664 for those meeting only the medication item, $3595 for those meeting the medication and counseling items, and $4203 for those meeting the medication, counseling, and use of more health services items. Children with a co-morbid mental health condition had greater total health expenditures for each combination of Screener items. The associations between Screener items and mental health expenditures were similar, but with a slightly lower marginal effect of the medication item (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusions Parents' responses on the CSHCN Screener are associated with meaningful variation in expenditures for children with ADHD. Though cross-sectional, this study suggests that the CSHCN Screener can be a useful categorization scheme for children with ADHD. It may be an efficient, standardized tool at the point of care for identifying children who need more resources and for targeting intensive

  16. Faculty Employment and R&D Expenditures at Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses panel data to examine the relationship between faculty employment and external R&D expenditures at Research and Doctoral institutions over a 15-year period of time. On average, a 1% increase in the number of full-time faculty is associated with about 0.2% increase in total R&D expenditure. Further, a one percentage point increase…

  17. Gender, Marital Status, and Commercially Prepared Food Expenditure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Assess how per capita expenditure on commercially prepared food as a proportion of total food expenditure varies by the sex and marital status of the head of the household. Design: Prospective cohort study, data collected by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004 Consumer Expenditure Survey. Setting: United States.…

  18. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of…

  19. Health Literacy Impact on National Healthcare Utilization and Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Rasu, Rafia S.; Bawa, Walter Agbor; Suminski, Richard; Snella, Kathleen; Warady, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health literacy presents an enormous challenge in the delivery of effective healthcare and quality outcomes. We evaluated the impact of low health literacy (LHL) on healthcare utilization and healthcare expenditure. Methods: Database analysis used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) from 2005-2008 which provides nationally representative estimates of healthcare utilization and expenditure. Health literacy scores (HLSs) were calculated based on a validated, predictive model and were scored according to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). HLS ranged from 0-500. Health literacy level (HLL) and categorized in 2 groups: Below basic or basic (HLS <226) and above basic (HLS ≥226). Healthcare utilization expressed as a physician, nonphysician, or emergency room (ER) visits and healthcare spending. Expenditures were adjusted to 2010 rates using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). A P value of 0.05 or less was the criterion for statistical significance in all analyses. Multivariate regression models assessed the impact of the predicted HLLs on outpatient healthcare utilization and expenditures. All analyses were performed with SAS and STATA® 11.0 statistical software. Results: The study evaluated 22 599 samples representing 503 374 648 weighted individuals nationally from 2005-2008. The cohort had an average age of 49 years and included more females (57%). Caucasian were the predominant racial ethnic group (83%) and 37% of the cohort were from the South region of the United States of America. The proportion of the cohort with basic or below basic health literacy was 22.4%. Annual predicted values of physician visits, nonphysician visits, and ER visits were 6.6, 4.8, and 0.2, respectively, for basic or below basic compared to 4.4, 2.6, and 0.1 for above basic. Predicted values of office and ER visits expenditures were $1284 and $151, respectively, for basic or below basic and $719 and $100 for above basic (P < .05). The extrapolated national

  20. Malaria Incidence Rates from Time Series of 2-Wave Panel Surveys.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marcia C; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H

    2016-08-01

    Methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from a commonly occurring form of interval-censored longitudinal parasitological data-specifically, 2-wave panel data-was first proposed 40 years ago based on the theory of continuous-time homogeneous Markov Chains. Assumptions of the methodology were suitable for settings with high malaria transmission in the absence of control measures, but are violated in areas experiencing fast decline or that have achieved very low transmission. No further developments that can accommodate such violations have been put forth since then. We extend previous work and propose a new methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from 2-wave panel data, utilizing the class of 2-component mixtures of continuous-time Markov chains, representing two sub-populations with distinct behavior/attitude towards malaria prevention and treatment. Model identification, or even partial identification, requires context-specific a priori constraints on parameters. The method can be applied to scenarios of any transmission intensity. We provide an application utilizing data from Dar es Salaam, an area that experienced steady decline in malaria over almost five years after a larviciding intervention. We conducted sensitivity analysis to account for possible sampling variation in input data and model assumptions/parameters, and we considered differences in estimates due to submicroscopic infections. Results showed that, assuming defensible a priori constraints on model parameters, most of the uncertainty in the estimated incidence rates was due to sampling variation, not to partial identifiability of the mixture model for the case at hand. Differences between microscopy- and PCR-based rates depend on the transmission intensity. Leveraging on a method to estimate incidence rates from 2-wave panel data under any transmission intensity, and from the increasing availability of such data, there is an opportunity to foster further methodological developments

  1. Malaria Incidence Rates from Time Series of 2-Wave Panel Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    Methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from a commonly occurring form of interval-censored longitudinal parasitological data—specifically, 2-wave panel data—was first proposed 40 years ago based on the theory of continuous-time homogeneous Markov Chains. Assumptions of the methodology were suitable for settings with high malaria transmission in the absence of control measures, but are violated in areas experiencing fast decline or that have achieved very low transmission. No further developments that can accommodate such violations have been put forth since then. We extend previous work and propose a new methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from 2-wave panel data, utilizing the class of 2-component mixtures of continuous-time Markov chains, representing two sub-populations with distinct behavior/attitude towards malaria prevention and treatment. Model identification, or even partial identification, requires context-specific a priori constraints on parameters. The method can be applied to scenarios of any transmission intensity. We provide an application utilizing data from Dar es Salaam, an area that experienced steady decline in malaria over almost five years after a larviciding intervention. We conducted sensitivity analysis to account for possible sampling variation in input data and model assumptions/parameters, and we considered differences in estimates due to submicroscopic infections. Results showed that, assuming defensible a priori constraints on model parameters, most of the uncertainty in the estimated incidence rates was due to sampling variation, not to partial identifiability of the mixture model for the case at hand. Differences between microscopy- and PCR-based rates depend on the transmission intensity. Leveraging on a method to estimate incidence rates from 2-wave panel data under any transmission intensity, and from the increasing availability of such data, there is an opportunity to foster further methodological

  2. Selection of population controls for a Salmonella case-control study in the UK using a market research panel and web-survey provides time and resource savings.

    PubMed

    Mook, P; Kanagarajah, S; Maguire, H; Adak, G K; Dabrera, G; Waldram, A; Freeman, R; Charlett, A; Oliver, I

    2016-04-01

    Timely recruitment of population controls in infectious disease outbreak investigations is challenging. We evaluated the timeliness and cost of using a market research panel as a sampling frame for recruiting controls in a case-control study during an outbreak of Salmonella Mikawasima in the UK in 2013. We deployed a web-survey by email to targeted members of a market research panel (panel controls) in parallel to the outbreak control team interviewing randomly selected public health staff by telephone and completing paper-based questionnaires (staff controls). Recruitment and completion of exposure history web-surveys for panel controls (n = 123) took 14 h compared to 15 days for staff controls (n = 82). The average staff-time cost per questionnaire for staff controls was £13·13 compared to an invoiced cost of £3·60 per panel control. Differences in the distribution of some exposures existed between these control groups but case-control studies using each group found that illness was associated with consumption of chicken outside of the home and chicken from local butchers. Recruiting market research panel controls offers time and resource savings. More rapid investigations would enable more prompt implementation of control measures. We recommend that this method of recruiting controls is considered in future investigations and assessed further to better understand strengths and limitations. PMID:26493476

  3. 78 FR 76285 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Panel Member Survey To Develop Indicators of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Member Survey To Develop Indicators of Resilient Coastal Tourism AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... shape the tourism industry's ability to adapt to or bounce back from external shocks such as natural... to measure the resiliency of coastal tourism. To help gather this information, NOAA will conduct...

  4. Coastal proximity, health and well-being: results from a longitudinal panel survey.

    PubMed

    White, Mathew P; Alcock, Ian; Wheeler, Benedict W; Depledge, Michael H

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of English census data revealed a positive association between self-reported health and living near the coast. However that analysis was based on cross-sectional data and was unable to control for potential selection effects (e.g. generally healthier, personality types moving to coastal locations). In the current study we have used English panel data to explore the relationship between the proximity to the coast and indicators of generic and mental health for the same individuals over time. This allowed us to control for both time-invariant factors such as personality and compare the strength of any relationship to that of other relationships (e.g. employment vs. unemployment). In support of cross-sectional analysis, individuals reported significantly better general health and mental health when living nearer the coast, controlling for both individual (e.g. employment status) and area (e.g. green space) level factors. No coastal effect on life satisfaction was found. Although individual level coastal proximity effects for general health and mental health were small, their cumulative impact at the community level may be meaningful for policy makers. PMID:23817167

  5. Dental Use and Expenditures for Older Uninsured Americans: The Simulated Impact of Expanded Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manski, Richard J; Moeller, John F; Chen, Haiyan; Schimmel, Jody; Pepper, John V; St Clair, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if providing dental insurance to older Americans would close the current gaps in dental use and expenditure between insured and uninsured older Americans. Data Sources/Study Setting We used data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) supplemented by data from the 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Study Design We compared the simulated dental use and expenditures rates of newly insured persons against the corresponding rates for those previously insured. Data Collection/Extraction Methods The HRS is a nationally representative survey administered by the Institute for Social Research (ISR). The MEPS is a nationally representative household survey sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Principal Findings We found that expanding dental coverage to older uninsured Americans would close previous gaps in dental use and expense between uninsured and insured noninstitutionalized Americans 55 years and older. Conclusions Providing dental coverage to previously uninsured older adults would produce estimated monthly costs net of markups for administrative costs that comport closely to current market rates. Estimates also suggest that the total cost of providing dental coverage targeted specifically to nonusers of dental care may be less than similar costs for prior users. PMID:25040355

  6. The Impact of HbA1c Testing on Total Annual Healthcare Expenditures Among Newly Diagnosed Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhounsule, Prajakta; Peterson, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes also imposes a huge financial burden on the US economy. In 2009, the American Diabetes Association International Expert Committee recommended the use of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test as a uniform diagnostic measure to identify patients with diabetes. Although HbA1c is a convenient diagnostic test, it is also more expensive than older tests and could, therefore, have an impact on patients’ healthcare expenditures. Objectives To determine if HbA1c testing has an impact on total annual healthcare expenditures among newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and to analyze the factors that are associated with the total healthcare expenditures among diabetic patients before and after HbA1c was implemented as a standard diagnostic factor. Methods This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component 2009 and 2011 databases were used to form the study cohort of patients with diabetes. The total mean healthcare expenditures among patients with diabetes formed the dependent variable. A proxy variable representing a diagnosis of diabetes with and without the use of HbA1c testing in 2009 and in 2011, respectively, formed the main independent variable along with demographic factors, comorbidities, and healthcare services utilization in both years. A generalized linear regression was conducted to determine the association of HbA1c testing with total diabetes-related healthcare expenditures. Results The mean total healthcare expenditure decreased in 2011 compared with 2009. The HbA1c test did not show an association with the total healthcare expenditures versus earlier diabetes-related diagnostic factors. The total expenditures were associated with private insurance, the incidence of a previous heart attack, prescription drug refills, inpatient hospital stays, home care, hospital discharges, and visits to

  7. The association between smoking and subsequent suicide-related outcomes in the National Comorbidity Survey panel sample

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Borges, Guilherme; Sampson, Nancy; Miller, Matthew; Nock, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy exists about whether the repeatedly-documented associations between smoking and subsequent suicide-related outcomes (SROs; ideation, plans, gestures, and attempts) are due to unmeasured common causes or to causal effects of smoking on SROs. We address this issue by examining associations of smoking with subsequent SROs with and without controls for potential explanatory variables in the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) panel. The latter consists of 5001 people who participated in both the 199002 NCS and the 2001–03 NCS Follow-up Survey. Explanatory variables include socio-demographics, potential common causes (parental history of mental-substance disorders; other respondent childhood adversities) and potential mediators (respondent history of DSM-III-R mental-substance disorders). Small gross (i.e., without controls) prospective associations are found between history of early-onset nicotine dependence and both subsequent suicide ideation and, among ideators, subsequent suicide plans. None of the baseline smoking measures, though, predicts subsequent suicide gestures or attempts among ideators. The smoking-ideation association largely disappear, but the association of early-onset nicotine dependence with subsequent suicide plans persists (Odds-ratio = 3.0), after adjustment for control variables. However, the latter association is as strong with remitted as active nicotine dependence, arguing against a direct causal effect of nicotine dependence on suicide plans. Decomposition of the control variable effects, furthermore, suggests that these effects are due to common causes more than to mediators. These results refine our understanding of the ways in which smoking is associated with later SROs and for the most part argue against the view that these associations are due to causal effects of smoking. PMID:18645572

  8. School context, friendship ties and adolescent mental health: A multilevel analysis of the Korean Youth Panel Survey (KYPS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo

    2015-11-01

    Research on the social determinants of health suggests that interpersonal networks play a critical role in facilitating individual mental and physical well-being. Prior studies also indicate that ecological or contextual factors contribute to positive health outcomes. This study extends prior research by examining the factors associated with adolescent health in an Asian context. Based on the multilevel analysis of the Korean Youth Panel Survey (2006 & 2007), a longitudinal project funded by the Korean government, it investigates some of the key variables related to the mental health of Korean students. Much of previous research focuses on the functions of social capital. This study contributes to the social epidemiology literature by investigating the possible downside of network ties. Specifically, it asks whether having delinquent friends is associated with negative mental health experiences. In addition, little research has been conducted concerning the associations between adolescent health outcomes and school characteristics. This study moves in that direction by examining the relationship between mental well-being of students and a variety of school related variables (e.g., subjective attitude toward school and quality of relationship with peers and teachers). Hierarchical linear modeling shows that, among the social capital control variables, being properly integrated into the family and frequent peer interaction significantly add to mental health. At the individual (student) level only, ties to delinquent friends are negatively associated with mental health, while at both individual and contextual levels, school characteristics are positively related to adolescent subjective well-being. PMID:25960374

  9. Household income and health care expenditures in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Parker, S W; Wong, R

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of household health expenditures in Mexico. Our analysis involves the estimation of household monetary health care expenditures, using the economic and demographic characteristics of the household as covariates. We pay particular attention to the impact of household income on health expenditures, estimating the elasticity of health care expenditures with respect to income for different income groups and according to health insurance status. For the empirical analysis, we use the Mexican National Survey of Income and Expenditures of 1989. Our principle findings show that monetary health expenditures by Mexican households are sensitive to changes in household income levels and that the group which is most responsive to changes in income levels in the lower-income uninsured group. This suggests that in times of economic crisis, these households reduce cash expenditures on health care by proportionately more than higher-income and insured households. PMID:10168755

  10. Patient-Centered Medical Home Features and Health Care Expenditures of Medicare Beneficiaries with Chronic Disease Dyads.

    PubMed

    Philpot, Lindsey M; Stockbridge, Erica L; Padrón, Norma A; Pagán, José A

    2016-06-01

    Three out of 4 Medicare beneficiaries have multiple chronic conditions, and managing the care of this growing population can be complex and costly because of care coordination challenges. This study assesses how different elements of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model may impact the health care expenditures of Medicare beneficiaries with the most prevalent chronic disease dyads (ie, co-occurring high cholesterol and high blood pressure, high cholesterol and heart disease, high cholesterol and diabetes, high cholesterol and arthritis, heart disease and high blood pressure). Data from the 2007-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey suggest that increased access to PCMH features may differentially impact the distribution of health care expenditures across health care service categories depending on the combination of chronic conditions experienced by each beneficiary. For example, having no difficulty contacting a provider after regular hours was associated with significantly lower outpatient expenditures for beneficiaries with high cholesterol and diabetes (n = 635; P = 0.038), but it was associated with significantly higher inpatient expenditures for beneficiaries with high blood pressure and high cholesterol (n = 1599; P = 0.015), and no significant differences in expenditures in any category for beneficiaries with high blood pressure and heart disease (n = 1018; P > 0.05 for all categories). However, average total health care expenditures are largely unaffected by implementing the PCMH features considered. Understanding how the needs of Medicare beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions can be met through the adoption of the PCMH model is important not only to be able to provide high-quality care but also to control costs. (Population Health Management 2016;19:206-211). PMID:26440215

  11. Physicians' Characteristics Associated with Exploring Suicide Risk among Patients with Depression: A French Panel Survey of General Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Bocquier, Aurélie; Pambrun, Elodie; Dumesnil, Hélène; Villani, Patrick; Verdoux, Hélène; Verger, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) have a key role to play in suicide prevention, but the rates at which they question patients with depression about suicidal thoughts and plans are rather low. Little is known about GPs' characteristics associated with such inquiries. Our objectives were to describe GPs' attitudes, perceived barriers, and self-reported practices in this questioning of these patients and to analyze factors associated with these practices. Methodology This cross-sectional survey was conducted among participants in a panel of randomly selected French GPs (1249/1431 participated: 87.3%). GPs were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire covering their professional and personal characteristics, attitudes, and practices in exploring the suicide risk of their patients with depression. We built a suicide inquiry score by summing the responses to 5 items and used a multiple linear regression analysis to explore the characteristics associated with this score. Principal Findings Most GPs reported inquiring about the presence of suicidal ideation often or very often; less than 30% reported that they frequently explored signs of a specific suicide plan. The mean suicide inquiry score was 12.4 (SD, 2.9; range, 5–20). False ideas, such as thinking that patients who report suicidal ideas do not often commit suicide, were frequent (42.3%). Previous continuing medical education on suicide, participation in a formal mental health network, and patients who committed suicide in the past 5 years were associated with a higher score. Reluctance to question patients about suicide and perception of insufficient skill were associated with a lower score. Conclusions/Significance This study showed great variability in French GPs' practices in exploring suicide risk in patients with depression. Interventions aiming at improving GPs' initial training and continuing medical education in suicide and/or depression, and their collaboration with mental health specialists

  12. The Association between Disturbed Eating Behavior and Socioeconomic Status: The Online Korean Adolescent Panel Survey (OnKAPS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Park, Sangshin; Kim, Cho-il; Choi, Doo-won; Lee, Jung Sun; Oh, Sun Min; Cho, Eunyoung; Park, Hye Kyung; Kwon, Kwang-il; Oh, Sang Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background A limited amount of research, primarily conducted in Western countries, has suggested that higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher risk of eating disorders (EDs). However, little is known about this association in Asian countries. We examined the association of SES with disturbed eating behavior (DEB) and related factors in Korean adolescents. Subjects A nationwide online panel survey was conducted in a sample of adolescents (n = 6,943, 49.9% girls). DEB was measured with the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Participants who scored ≥20 on the EAT-26 were considered to have DEB. Participants’ SES was determined based on self-reported household economic status. Results The prevalence of DEB was 12.7%: 10.5% among boys and 14.8% among girls. Both boys and girls with DEB were more likely to perceive themselves as obese, experience higher levels of stress, and have lower academic achievement. The risk for DEB was significantly higher in boys of higher SES than in those of middle SES (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.05–1.99 for high SES; OR = 5.16, 95%CI: 3.50–7.61 for highest SES). Among girls, higher risk of DEB was associated with the highest and lowest SES (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.13–2.06 for lowest SES; OR = 2.22, 95%CI: 1.34–3.68 for highest SES). Conclusions Despite the lower prevalence of obesity in Korea compared with Western countries, the prevalence of DEB in Korean adolescents was high, especially among girls. Moreover, the association between SES and DEB followed a U-shaped curve for girls and a J-shaped curve for boys. PMID:23472117

  13. Is changing status through housing tenure associated with changes in mental health? Results from the British Household Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Frank; Williamson, Lee; Whitley, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Background Actual or perceived status, such as housing tenure, may impact on health through stress-inducing social comparisons. Studies of how status change impacts mental health change are rare but important because they are less prone to confounding. Methods We used data from the British Household Panel Survey to compare psychological distress in local authority renters who opted to buy their home under the UK's Right to Buy (RTB) policy versus those who continued to rent the same (social non-mover (SNM)) or a different (social mover (SM)) local authority property or who bought privately (owner mover (OM)). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores before and after any change in tenure and/or address were compared across groups using a difference-in-difference approach. Results Individuals who moved house (bought or rented) were younger while those who bought (the same or different house) were better off, more likely to be employed, and had higher educational qualifications. Individuals who bought their home (under RTB or privately) had lower distress scores from the outset. Individuals who moved house (bought or rented) experienced a rise in distress prior to moving that was no longer evident 1 year after the move. There was no evidence that changing tenure reduced psychological distress comparing (difference (95% CI)) average GHQ score 2 years preaddress and 1 year postaddress/tenure change in RTB vs SNM, SM, OM: −0.08 (−0.68 to 0.51), 0.16 (−0.70 to 1.01) and −0.17 (−1.28 to 0.94), respectively). Conclusions Changing tenure under RTB did not, on average, impact psychological distress, suggesting that this status change did not change mental health. PMID:25294896

  14. Does active commuting improve psychological wellbeing? Longitudinal evidence from eighteen waves of the British Household Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between active travel and psychological wellbeing. Method This study used data on 17,985 adult commuters in eighteen waves of the British Household Panel Survey (1991/2–2008/9). Fixed effects regression models were used to investigate how (i.) travel mode choice, (ii.) commuting time, and (iii.) switching to active travel impacted on overall psychological wellbeing and how (iv.) travel mode choice impacted on specific psychological symptoms included in the General Health Questionnaire. Results After accounting for changes in individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and potential confounding variables relating to work, residence and health, significant associations were observed between overall psychological wellbeing (on a 36-point Likert scale) and (i.) active travel (0.185, 95% CI: 0.048 to 0.321) and public transport (0.195, 95% CI: 0.035 to 0.355) when compared to car travel, (ii.) time spent (per 10 minute change) walking (0.083, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.163) and driving (− 0.033, 95% CI: − 0.064 to − 0.001), and (iii.) switching from car travel to active travel (0.479, 95% CI: 0.199 to 0.758). Active travel was also associated with reductions in the odds of experiencing two specific psychological symptoms when compared to car travel. Conclusion The positive psychological wellbeing effects identified in this study should be considered in cost–benefit assessments of interventions seeking to promote active travel. PMID:25152507

  15. Determinants of Obesity and Associated Population Attributability, South Africa: Empirical Evidence from a National Panel Survey, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Sartorius, Benn; Veerman, Lennert J.; Manyema, Mercy; Chola, Lumbwe; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for emerging non-communicable diseases (NCDS) in middle income countries including South Africa (SA). Understanding the multiple and complex determinants of obesity and their true population attributable impact is critical for informing and developing effective prevention efforts using scientific based evidence. This study identified contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity in South Africa. Methods Analysis of three national cross sectional (repeated panel) surveys, using a multilevel logistic regression and population attributable fraction estimation allowed for identification of contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) among adults (15years+). Results Obesity prevalence increased significantly from 23.5% in 2008 to 27.2% in 2012, with a significantly (p-value<0.001) higher prevalence among females (37.9% in 2012) compared to males (13.3% in 2012). Living in formal urban areas, white ethnicity, being married, not exercising and/or in higher socio-economic category were significantly associated with male obesity. Females living in formal or informal urban areas, higher crime areas, African/White ethnicity, married, not exercising, in a higher socio-economic category and/or living in households with proportionate higher spending on food (and unhealthy food options) were significantly more likely to be obese. The identified determinants appeared to account for 75% and 43% of male and female obesity respectively. White males had the highest relative gain in obesity from 2008 to 2012. Conclusions The rising prevalence of obesity in South Africa is significant and over the past 5 years the rising prevalence of Type-2 diabetes has mirrored this pattern, especially among females. Targeting young adolescent girls should be a priority. Addressing determinants of obesity will involve a multifaceted strategy and requires at individual and population levels. With rising costs in the

  16. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  17. Expenditure on Higher Education in Europe: Past Trends and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jallade, Jean-Pierre

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of trends in expenditures on higher education in 19 European countries, including six eastern countries. Data, presented in tables and analyzed briefly, are derived from UNESCO and OECD surveys. Data include expenditures in national currency and American dollars, and in constant and current prices, since 1961. (MSE)

  18. Expenditures on Children by Families: 2000 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lino, Mark

    Since 1960, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has provided estimates of expenditures on children from birth through age 17. This technical report presents the most recent estimates for husband-wife and single-parent families, using data from the 1990-92 Consumer Expenditure Survey, updated to 2000 dollars using the Consumer Price Index. Data and…

  19. Expenditures on Children by Families: 2001 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lino, Mark

    Since 1960, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has provided estimates of expenditures on children from birth through age 17. This technical report presents the most recent estimates for husband-wife and single-parent families, using data from the 1990-92 Consumer Expenditure Survey, updated to 2001 dollars using the Consumer Price Index. Data and…

  20. Expenditures on Children by Families: 2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lino, Mark

    Since 1960, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has provided estimates of expenditures on children from birth through age 17. This technical report presents the most recent estimates for husband-wife and single-parent families, using data from the 1990-92 Consumer Expenditure Survey, updated to 2002 dollars using the Consumer Price Index. Data and…

  1. Hospital utilization and expenditures in a Medicaid population

    PubMed Central

    Buczko, William

    1989-01-01

    Determinants of hospital utilization and expenditures are analyzed for Medicaid enrollees in the State Medicaid household sample portion of the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey who were continuously enrolled throughout 1980. Health status measures were the best predictors of both the probability of hospitalization and total hospitalizations. Children covered by Aid to Families with Dependent Children were the Medicaid enrollees least likely to be hospitalized. Number of hospital days, surgery, and California residence directly increased hospital expenditures. Conditions responsible for hospitalization increased hospital expenditures indirectly by increasing the number of hospital days and the probability of surgery. PMID:10313353

  2. National Health Expenditures, 1993

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Katharine R.; Sensenig, Arthur L.; Cowan, Cathy A.; Lazenby, Helen C.; McDonnell, Patricia A.; Won, Darleen K.; Sivarajan, Lekha; Stiller, Jean M.; Donham, Carolyn S.; Stewart, Madie S.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents data on health care spending for the United States, covering expenditures for various types of medical services and products and their sources of funding from 1960 to 1993. Although these statistics show a slowing in the growth of health care expenditures over the past few years, spending continues to increase faster than the overall economy. The share of the Nation's health care bill funded by the Federal Government through the Medicaid and Medicare programs steadily increased from 1991 to 1993. This significant change in the share of health expenditures funded by the public sector has caused Federal health expenditures as a share of all Federal spending to increase dramatically. PMID:10140156

  3. How Do Revenue Variations Affect Expenditures within U.S. Research Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Larry L.; Slaughter, Sheila; Taylor, Barrett J.; Zhang, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) figures on the 96 Research Extensive Institution in academic year 2007-2008, we employ panel data from academic year 1984-1985 to 2007-2008 to identify revenue-expenditure relationships. Although we consider a wide range of functional expenditure categories, we focus our analysis on…

  4. Academic Research and Development Expenditures: Fiscal Year 1996. Detailed Statistic Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machen, M. Marage, Comp.

    Data contained in this report were collected using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) fiscal year 1996 academic research and development expenditures survey and refer to science and engineering expenditures for separately budgeted research and development (R&D). R&D expenditures were collected from 493 institutions of higher education in the…

  5. Effects of Energy Needs and Expenditures on U.S. Public Schools. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy; Porch, Rebecca; Farris, Elizabeth; Fowler, William

    This report provides national estimates on energy needs and expenditures of U.S. public school districts. The survey provides estimates of Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 energy expenditures, FY 2001 energy budgets and expenditures, and FY 2002 energy budgets; methods used to cover energy budget shortfalls in FY 2001; and possible reasons for those…

  6. 43 CFR 3861.2-3 - Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-3 Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements. (a) In the mineral surveyor's report of the value of the improvements all actual expenditures and... provision requiring an expenditure of $500 as a basis for patent as to all of the claims of the...

  7. National health expenditures, 1987

    PubMed Central

    Letsch, Suzanne W.; Levit, Katharine R.; Waldo, Daniel R.

    1988-01-01

    The 1987 national health expenditure estimates are examined from different perspectives in the following two articles. In the first article, revised expenditure estimates for 1984-87 are presented. A breakdown of the type of services and products purchased is included, as well as the source of funds used to finance health care. In the second article, health care expenditure estimates are used to explore marginal analysis as a policy tool for understanding health spending in relation to our Nation's ability to finance that spending. The concept of marginal analysis is also used to examine selected periods that were relevant to health policy and the timing of public and private changes in health policy in the past. PMID:10313081

  8. National health expenditures, 1990

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Katharine R.; Lazenby, Helen C.; Cowan, Cathy A.; Letsch, Suzanne W.

    1991-01-01

    During 1990, health expenditures as a share of gross national product rose to 12.2 percent, up from 11.6 percent in 1989. This dramatic increase is the second largest increase in the past three decades. The national health expenditure estimates presented in this article document rapidly rising health care costs and provide a context for understanding the health care financing crisis facing the Nation today. The 1990 national health expenditures incorporate the most recently available data. They differ from historical estimates presented in the preceding article. The length of time and complicated process of producing projections required use of 1989 national health expenditures—data available prior to the completion of the 1990 estimates presented here. PMID:10114934

  9. National health expenditures, 1988

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Every year, analysts in the Health Care Financing Administration present figures on what our Nation spends for health. As the result of a comprehensive re-examination of the definitions, concepts, methods, and data sources used to prepare those figures, this year's report contains new estimates of national health expenditures for calendar years 1960 through 1988. Significant changes have been made to estimates of spending for professional services and to estimates of what consumers pay out of pocket for health care. In the first article, trends in use of and expenditure for various types of goods and services are discussed, as well as trends in the sources of funds used to finance health care. In a companion article, the benchmark process is described in more detail, as are the data sources and methods used to prepare annual estimates of health expenditures. PMID:10113395

  10. Does Personality Moderate Reaction and Adaptation to Major Life Events? Evidence from the British Household Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Stevie C. Y.; Anusic, Ivana; Lucas, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    A nationally representative panel study of British households was used to examine the extent to which Big Five personality traits interact with the experience of major life events (marriage, childbirth, unemployment, and widowhood) to predict increases and decreases in life satisfaction following the event. Results show that major life events are associated with changes in life satisfaction, and some of these changes are very long lasting. Personality traits did not have consistent moderating effects on the association between stressful life events and life satisfaction over time. PMID:23049147

  11. National health expenditures, 1984

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Katharine R.; Lazenby, Helen; Waldo, Daniel R.; Davidoff, Lawrence M.

    1985-01-01

    Growth in health care expenditures slowed to 9.1 percent in 1984, the smallest increase in expenditures in 19 years. Economic forces and emerging structural changes within the health sector played a role in slowing growth. Of the $1,580 per person spent for health care in 1984, 41 percent was financed by public programs; 31 percent by private health insurance; and the remainder by other private sources. Together, Medicare and Medicaid accounted for 27 percent of all health spending. PMID:10311395

  12. Understanding Expenditure Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Frances L.

    2000-01-01

    Stresses the importance of common understandings of cost definitions and data collection in order to create reliable databases with optimal utility for inter-institutional analysis. Examines definitions of common expenditure categories, discusses cost-accumulation rules governing financial reporting, and explains differences between direct costs…

  13. Student Service Expenditures Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Webber, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    The "Great Recession" has caused a fiscal crisis in both public and private higher education that is unmatched in recent memory. Institutions' attention is focused on what they can cut out of their budgets. Student-service expenditures are often seen as discretionary in institutional budgets; they are viewed by some critics as "frills" that make…

  14. Probability of solar panel clearing events at the Insight landing sites (Mars) from a dust devil track survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, D.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2015-10-01

    The InSight robotic lander is scheduled to land on Mars in September 2016. InSight was designed to perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars [1]. Passage of vortices may have a number of influences on the geophysical measurements to be made by InSight. Seismic data could be influenced by dust devils and vortices via several mechanisms such as loading of the elastic ground by a surface pressure field which causes a local tilt [e.g. 2]. In addition, the power supply of the InSight instruments is provided by solar arrays. Solar-powered missions on Mars like the Sojourner rover in 1997 were affected by a decline in electrical power output by 0.2-0.3 %per day caused by steadily dust deposition on its horizontal solar panel [3]. The solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit and Opportunity experienced similar dust deposition rates [4] which led to steady power decrease over time endangering longer rover operation times. The much longer operation times of the rovers were made possible by unanticipated 'dust clearing events' of the solar arrays by wind gust or dust devils [5]. Recent studies imply that dust devils are primarily responsible for those recurrent 'dust clearing events' [6]. In this study we investigate the potential frequency of intense dust devil occurrences at the InSight landing site regions, which are able to remove dust from its solar panels. We analyzed newly formed dust devil tracks within a given time span using multi-temporal HiRISE image data covering the same surface area. Based on these measurements we will give encounter rate predictions of intense (high tangential speed and high pressure drop) dust devils with the InSight lander.

  15. Expenditures for physician services under alternative models of managed care.

    PubMed

    Kapur, K; Joyce, G F; Van Vorst, K A; Escarce, J J

    2000-06-01

    This study compares expenditures for physician services in a closed panel gatekeeper health maintenance organization (HMO) and an open panel point of service HMO that share the same physician network. The study uses administrative files of the two study HMOs for 1994-1995 to assess differences in spending for primary care physicians' (PCPs') services, specialists' services, and total physician services. When the copayments for PCP visits and PCP-referred specialist visits were $0, total physician expenditures were 4 percent higher in the gatekeeper HMO than in the point of service plan (p < .05). When the copayments for PCP visits and PCP-referred specialist visits were $10, total physician expenditures ranged from equal in both HMOs to 7 percent higher in the gatekeeper HMO (p < .01), depending on the copayment for self-referred visits. Expenditures for specialists' services were not higher in the point of service plan. The authors conclude that direct patient access to specialists does not necessarily result in higher physician or specialist expenditures in HMOs. PMID:10868071

  16. Households across All Income Quintiles, Especially the Poorest, Increased Animal Source Food Expenditures Substantially during Recent Peruvian Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie L.; Behrman, Jere R.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. Objective To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. Methods The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Results Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Conclusions Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Information on National Industrial R&D Expenditures. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary V.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) annually publishes information generated by its survey of research and development (R&D) expenditures by United States industry. These data are collected for NSF by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Other organizations also publish information on industrial R&D expenditures collected by surveys or derived from…

  18. National health expenditures, 1991

    PubMed Central

    Letsch, Suzanne W.; Lazenby, Helen C.; Levit, Katharine R.; Cowan, Cathy A.

    1992-01-01

    Spending for health care rose to $751.8 billion in 1991, an increase of 11.4 percent from the 1990 level. National health expenditures as a share of gross domestic product increased to 13.2 percent, up from 12.2 percent in 1990. The health care sector exhibited strong growth, despite slow growth in the overall economy. This combination resulted in the largest increase in the share of the Nation's output consumed by health care in the past three decades. In this article, the authors present estimates of health spending in the United States for 1991. The authors also examine reasons for the unusually large growth in Medicaid expenditures and highlight recent trends in the hospital sector. PMID:10127445

  19. Catastrophic medical expenditure risk.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gabriela; O'Donnell, Owen

    2016-03-01

    We propose a measure of household exposure to particularly onerous medical expenses. The measure can be decomposed into the probability that medical expenditure exceeds a threshold, the loss due to predictably low consumption of other goods if it does and the further loss arising from the volatility of medical expenses above the threshold. Depending on the choice of threshold, the measure is consistent with a model of reference-dependent utility with loss aversion. Unlike the risk premium, the measure is only sensitive to particularly high expenses, and can identify households that expect to incur such expenses and would benefit from subsidised, but not actuarially fair, insurance. An empirical illustration using data from seven Asian countries demonstrates the importance of taking account of informal insurance and reveals clear differences in catastrophic medical expenditure risk across and within countries. In general, risk is higher among poorer, rural and chronically ill populations. PMID:26812650

  20. Panel flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Criteria are presented for the prediction of panel flutter, determination of its occurrence, design for its prevention, and evaluation of its severity. Theoretical analyses recommended for the prediction of flutter stability boundaries, vibration amplitudes, and frequencies for several types of panels are described. Vibration tests and wind tunnel tests are recommended for certain panels and environmental flow conditions to provide information for design of verification analysis. Appropriate design margins on flutter stability boundaries are given and general criteria are presented for evaluating the severity of possible short-duration, limited-amplitude panel flutter on nonreusable vehicles.

  1. National Health Expenditures, 1982

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Robert M.; Waldo, Daniel R.; Levit, Katharine R.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid growth in the share of the nation's gross national product devoted to health expenditure has heightened concern over the survival of government entitlement programs and has led to debate of the desirability of current methods of financing health care. In this article, the authors present the data at the heart of the issue, quantifying spending for various types of health care in 1982 and discussing the sources of funds for that spending. PMID:10310273

  2. Pharmaceutical expenditure in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, F; Hjortsberg, C; Rehnberg, C

    1999-05-01

    Recently, the responsibility for prescribed pharmaceuticals in Sweden was transferred from national level to the regional health authorities (county councils). The purpose was that a closer integration and balance between pharmaceuticals and other factors of production in health care should produce better opportunities for a cost-effective use of the total health care resources. The purpose of this paper is to present a deeper analysis of pharmaceuticals as a production factor in Sweden, mainly during the 1990s, and to discuss the future development and future policy decisions in Sweden. Pharmaceuticals have increased their share of total health care expenditure in Sweden, from about 9% in 1990 to about 14% in 1995. The Swedish pharmaceutical market can be divided into sub-markets, where the prescription sub-market accounts for the greater part of pharmaceutical expenditure. Further, a few disease categories account for a larger fraction of the cost of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The importance of pharmaceuticals as a production factor also differs between different age groups. Several factors are expected to contribute to a future increase in Swedish pharmaceutical expenditure, for instance an ageing population and the rapid introduction of expensive new pharmaceuticals. PMID:10538288

  3. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence from OPEC Data, 1995-2012

    PubMed Central

    Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Ghaderi, Hossein; Salehi, Masoud; Fazaeli, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a large body of literature examining income in relation to health expenditures. The share of expenditures in health sector from GDP in developed countries is often larger than in non-developed countries, suggesting that as the level of economic growth increases, health spending increase, too. Objectives: This paper estimates long-run relationships between health expenditures and GDP based on panel data of a sample of 12 countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), using data for the period 1995-2012. Patients & Methods: We use panel data unit root tests, cointegration analysis and ECM model to find long-run and short-run relation. This study examines whether health is a luxury or a necessity for OPEC countries within a unit root and cointegration framework. Results: Panel data analysis indicates that health expenditures and GDP are co-integrated and have Engle and Granger causality. In addition, in oil countries that have oil export income, the share of government expenditures in the health sector is often greater than in private health expenditures similar developed countries. Conclusions: The findings verify that health care is not a luxury good and income has a robust relationship to health expenditures in OPEC countries. PMID:26383195

  4. National Beef Tenderness Survey-2010: Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and food service establishments.

    PubMed

    Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

    2013-02-01

    The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values, whereas steaks from the round had the greatest (P < 0.05) values. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values compared with top sirloin steaks. Retail top blade steaks and food service top loin steaks received among the greatest (P < 0.05) consumer sensory panel ratings compared with the other steaks evaluated. Prime food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P < 0.05) for overall like, like tenderness, tenderness level, like juiciness, and juiciness level, whereas ungraded rib eye steaks received the lowest ratings (P < 0.05) for like tenderness and tenderness level. The WBS values for food service steaks were greater (P < 0.05) for the Select and ungraded groups compared with the Prime, Top Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred. PMID:23230117

  5. Energy Expenditure Ranges and Muscular Work Grades

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. R.; Crowden, G. P.

    1963-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a field study which was planned to ascertain by metabolic measurement the rates of energy expenditure of men and women on productive effort at work in modern factories. The investigation which is described was carried out during a period of peace-time full employment, mainly in factories associated with the Slough Industrial Health Service in which a nutritional survey of the calorie intake of male operatives had been made by the Ministry of Health and the Medical Research Council in 1952. The rates of energy expenditure of 70 men and 54 women in 27 occupational groups were measured by indirect calorimetric methods. On the basis of the criteria for the classification of work according grades to its heaviness, adopted by the Factory Department of the Ministry of Labour, muscular work grades have been ascribed to the occupations studied. From the distribution of 390 metabolic measurements, ranges of energy expenditure have been computed for occupations classed as sedentary, light, moderate, heavy, or very heavy, Observation of recurrent phase variations in types of productive effort in the work-cycle indicated that wider work grades, such as light-to-moderate or moderate-to-heavy, are needed to cover the energy expenditure rates of men and women in many occupations. The data obtained in this study have enabled a table termed the “Slough Scales” to be compiled giving ranges of energy expenditure and pulmonary ventilation rates for the various work grades ascribed to occupations. The mean rates of energy expenditure of 257 workers (in industries in different parts of England and Scotland) which have been calculated from data published by other investigators have been found to fall within the ranges specified in these scales for the work grades of their occupations. It is felt, therefore, that the Slough Scales represent a reasonably true appraisal of the relation between the Ministry of Labour occupational work grades and the

  6. National health expenditures, 1989

    PubMed Central

    Lazenby, Helen C.; Letsch, Suzanne W.

    1990-01-01

    Spending for health care in the United States grew to $604.1 billion in 1989, an increase of 11.1 percent from the 1988 level. Growth in national health expenditures has been edging upward since 1986, when the annual growth in the health care bill was 7.7 percent. Health care spending continues to command a larger and larger proportion of the resources of the Nation: In 1989, 11.6 percent of the Nation's output, as measured by the gross national product, was consumed by health care, up from 11.2 percent in 1988. PMID:10113559

  7. Determinants of US local health department expenditures, 1992 through 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, R L; Gerzoff, R B; Richards, T B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined local health department expenditures and their relationship to several departmental characteristics, including the size of the population in the department's jurisdiction. METHODS: Local health department characteristics were obtained from a 1992/93 nationwide mail survey and modeled by means of multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Great variability existed in the per capita expenditures of local health departments, and approximately 70% of the variability was accounted for by differences in jurisdiction population size. Additional characteristics of the health departments explained another 11%. The average unadjusted per capita expenditure by local health departments nationwide was $26. CONCLUSIONS: Local health department expenditures that support essential public health services average a dime a day per person. PMID:9065234

  8. 78 FR 54796 - Research Expenditures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BE64 Research Expenditures AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... document proposes regulations to amend the definition of research and experimental expenditures under... property, including pilot models. The regulations will affect taxpayers engaged in research...

  9. Expenditures for Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Levin, Jesse; Perez, Maria; Lam, Irene; Chambers, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    What does it cost to provide early intervention services? Data collected as part of the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study were used to determine expenditures for infants, toddlers, and their families receiving services through Part C programs. The study found that the national average total expenditure for early intervention services…

  10. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  11. The sociodemographic pattern of tobacco cessation in the 1980s: results from a panel study of living condition surveys in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Tillgren, P; Haglund, B J; Lundberg, M; Romelsjö, A

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To analyse the factors that determined whether or not people were successful in quitting tobacco during the 1980s in Sweden. DESIGN: A logistic regression model was used for the analyses and included: education, marital status, socioeconomic group, social network, physical activities, cigarette consumption, and years spent smoking as independent variables. Men and women were analysed separately for smoking. A specific univariate analysis was also performed for men who used snuff. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: A panel of 5104 randomised people aged 16-84 years was interviewed in 1980-81 and followed up in 1988-89 in the survey of living conditions undertaken by Statistics Sweden. The participation rate was 86%. The panel included 1546 men and women who were daily smokers. There were 418 daily users of snuff among the men, and 129 men both smoked and used snuff. MAIN RESULTS: Together 26% of women and 23% of men had quit smoking. Five percent in both groups were new smokers. Among men, 26% had quit using snuff and 5% had begun smoking. New snuff users among men were 5%. In the multivariate analysis, unmarried men kept smoking at significantly higher rates (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2,3.6), as did those men who smoked 11-20 cigarettes/day (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5, 3.4), or more than 20 cigarettes/day (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.4,5.7). Among women, smoking 11-20 cigarettes/day was also a significant factor (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.1,5.0). Men and women aged 25-44 were significantly more likely to continue smoking (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.1,3.7, and 2.2; 95% CI 1.2,4.4) as were those who had smoked for 20 years or more (OR 4.7; 95% CI 2.0,10.8 and OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1,5.5, respectively). For women, low education (up to grade 9) was also a significant factor (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.2,5.1). Among men who had quit using snuff we did not find any values of significance. CONCLUSIONS: One in four smokers had quit during the 1980s and a few started smoking (5%). Some men quit smoking and started

  12. National Health Expenditures, 19811

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Robert M.; Waldo, Daniel R.

    1982-01-01

    The United States spent an estimated $287 billion for health care in 1981 (Figure 1), an amount equal to 9.8 percent of the Gross National Product (GNP). Highlights of the figures that underly this estimate include the following: Health care expenditures continued to grow at a rapid rate in 1981, at a time when the economy as a whole exhibited sluggish growth. The 9.8 percent share of the GNP was a dramatic increase from the 8.9 percent share seen just two years earlier.Health care expenditures amounted to $1,225 per person in 1981 (Table 1). Of that amount, $524, or 42.7 percent, came from public funds.Hospital care accounted for 41.2 percent of total health care spending in 1981 (Table 2). These expenditures increased 17.5 percent from 1980, to a level of $118 billion.Spending for the services of physicians increased 16.9 percent to $55 billion—19.1 percent of all health care spending.Public sources provided 42.7 percent of the money spent on health in 1981, including Federal payments of $84 billion and $39 billion in State and local government funds (Table 3).All third parties combined—private health insurers, governments, private charities, and Industry—financed 67.9 percent of the $255 billion in personal health care in 1981 (Table 4), covering 89.2 percent of hospital care services, 62.1 percent of physicians' services, and 41.3 percent of the remainder (Table 5).Direct patient payments for health care reached $82 billion in 1981, accounting for 32.1 percent of all personal health care expenses (Table 6). Consumers and their employers paid another $73 billion in premiums to private health insurers, $67 billion of which was returned in the form of benefits.Outlays for health care benefits by the Medicare and Medicaid programs totaled $73 billion, including $42 billion for hospital care. The two programs combined paid for 28.6 percent of all personal health care in the nation (Table 7). PMID:10309718

  13. Neural Control of Energy Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Münzberg, Heike; Qualls-Creekmore, Emily; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Morrison, Christopher D; Yu, Sangho

    2016-01-01

    The continuous rise in obesity is a major concern for future healthcare management. Many strategies to control body weight focus on a permanent modification of food intake with limited success in the long term. Metabolism or energy expenditure is the other side of the coin for the regulation of body weight, and strategies to enhance energy expenditure are a current focus for obesity treatment, especially since the (re)-discovery of the energy depleting brown adipose tissue in adult humans. Conversely, several human illnesses like neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, or autoimmune deficiency syndrome suffer from increased energy expenditure and severe weight loss. Thus, strategies to modulate energy expenditure to target weight gain or loss would improve life expectancies and quality of life in many human patients. The aim of this book chapter is to give an overview of our current understanding and recent progress in energy expenditure control with specific emphasis on central control mechanisms. PMID:26578523

  14. Neural Control of Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Qualls-Creekmore, Emily; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Morrison, Christopher D.; Yu, Sangho

    2016-01-01

    The continuous rise in obesity is a major concern for future healthcare management. Many strategies to control body weight focus on a permanent modification of food intake with limited success in the long term. Metabolism or energy expenditure is the other side of the coin for the regulation of body weight, and strategies to enhance energy expenditure are a current focus for obesity treatment, especially since the (re)-discovery of the energy depleting brown adipose tissue in adult humans. Conversely, several human illnesses like neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, or autoimmune deficiency syndrome suffer from increased energy expenditure and severe weight loss. Thus, strategies to modulate energy expenditure to target weight gain or loss would improve life expectancies and quality of life in many human patients. The aim of this book chapter is to give an overview of our current understanding and recent progress in energy expenditure control with specific emphasis on central control mechanisms. PMID:26578523

  15. Validating self-reported food expenditures against food store and eating-out receipts

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Liu, Zhongyuan; Acheson, Molly; Rehm, Colin D; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare objective food store and eating-out receipts with self-reported household food expenditures. Design and setting The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS II) was based on a representative sample of King County adults, Washington, USA. Self-reported household food expenditures were modeled on the Flexible Consumer Behavior Survey (FCBS) Module from 2007–2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Objective food expenditure data were collected using receipts. Self-reported food expenditures for 447 participants were compared to receipts using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and kappa statistics. Bias by socio-demographics was also examined. Results Self-reported expenditures closely matched with objective receipt data. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between receipts and self-reported data on total food expenditures, expenditures at food stores, or eating out. However, the highest income strata showed weaker agreement. Bland Altman plots confirmed no significant bias across both methods - mean difference: 6.4; agreement limits: −123.5, 143.4 for total food expenditures, mean difference 5.7 for food stores, and mean difference 1.7 for eating-out. Kappa statistics showed good agreement for each (kappa 0.51, 0.41 and 0.49 respectively. Households with higher education and income had significantly more number of receipts and higher food expenditures. Conclusion Self-reported food expenditures using NHANES questions, both for food stores and eating-out, serve as a decent proxy for objective household food expenditures from receipts. This method should be used with caution among high income populations, or with high food expenditures. This is the first validation of the FCBS food expenditures question using food store and eating-out receipts. PMID:26486299

  16. 43 CFR 3861.2-3 - Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-3 Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures...

  17. 43 CFR 3861.2-3 - Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-3 Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures...

  18. 43 CFR 3861.2-3 - Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-3 Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures...

  19. R and D Expenditures of State Public Institutions, Fiscal Year 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NSF 75-311, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Data on funding and manpower are gathered by means of a series of surveys that cover the different performance sectors. This study combines data for 1973 from reports covering state agency expenditures for research and development and a series covering all institutions of higher education expenditures. This joint consideration of state agency and…

  20. Science Resources Studies Highlights. Academic R & D Expenditures Up 9 Percent in FY 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    The preliminary findings of the National Science Foundation's survey of scientific and engineering expenditures at universities and colleges for FY 1976 reveal that: (1) research and development (R & D) expenditures totaled $3.7 billion, a nine percent increase over the previous year; after discounting inflationary effects, this represents a…

  1. Academic Science/Engineering: R&D Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The data presented in this report were compiled from the National Science Foundation's fiscal year 1989 Survey of Scientific and Engineering Expenditures at Universities and Colleges. Expenditures include science and engineering (S/E) costs for separately budgeted research and development (R&D). This includes all funds expended for activities…

  2. Expenditures on Children by Families, 2007. Miscellaneous Publication Number 1528-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lino, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has provided estimates of expenditures on children from birth through age 17. This technical report presents the most recent estimates for husband-wife and single-parent families using data from the 1990-92 Consumer Expenditure Survey, updated to 2007 dollars using the Consumer Price Index. Data and…

  3. Impact of changes in mode of travel to work on changes in body mass index: evidence from the British Household Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam; Panter, Jenna; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Active commuting is associated with various health benefits, but little is known about its causal relationship with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used cohort data from three consecutive annual waves of the British Household Panel Survey, a longitudinal study of nationally representative households, in 2004/2005 (n=15 791), 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Participants selected for the analyses (n=4056) reported their usual main mode of travel to work at each time point. Self-reported height and weight were used to derive BMI at baseline and after 2 years. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between switching to and from active modes of travel (over 1 and 2 years) and change in BMI (over 2 years) and to assess dose–response relationships. Results After adjustment for socioeconomic and health-related covariates, the first analysis (n=3269) showed that switching from private motor transport to active travel or public transport (n=179) was associated with a significant reduction in BMI compared with continued private motor vehicle use (n=3090; −0.32 kg/m2, 95% CI −0.60 to −0.05). Larger adjusted effect sizes were associated with switching to active travel (n=109; −0.45 kg/m2, −0.78 to −0.11), particularly among those who switched within the first year and those with the longest journeys. The second analysis (n=787) showed that switching from active travel or public transport to private motor transport was associated with a significant increase in BMI (0.34 kg/m2, 0.05 to 0.64). Conclusions Interventions to enable commuters to switch from private motor transport to more active modes of travel could contribute to reducing population mean BMI. PMID:25954024

  4. Projecting future drug expenditures--2003.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nilay D; Hoffman, James M; Vermeulen, Lee C; Hunkler, Robert J; Hontz, Karrie M

    2003-01-15

    Drug expenditure projections for 2003 and factors likely to influence drug costs are discussed. The United States continues to face the challenge of increased growth in health expenditures, and drug expenditures are continuing to increase faster than the growth in total health care expenditures. These increases can be largely attributed to an increase in the average age of the U.S. population and technological advancement. On the basis of price inflation and non-price inflationary factors, including increases in volume, shifts in patient and therapeutic intensity, and expected approval of new drugs, a 10-12% increase in drug expenditures in 2003 for the inpatient setting and a 13.5-15.5% increase for ambulatory care settings are forecasted. While few new drugs are expected to greatly influence expenditures in 2003, the continued diffusion of recently approved drugs such as drotrecogin alfa and nesiritide will have a dramatic impact on total drug expenditures and must be carefully considered in the budgeting process. An agent likely to have a significant impact on HIV treatment is enfuvirtide, the first in a new class of antiretrovirals (fusion inhibitors), but its high cost ($10,000-$15,000 per year) may limit patients' access to this medication. An expanded user's guide is provided to assist the reader in appropriate application of this information in the drug budgeting process. Technological, demographic, and market-based changes and changes in public policy will continue to influence pharmaceutical expenditures in the coming year. An understanding of the overall drivers of medication expenditures and vigilance in monitoring pharmaceutical innovation are critical in the effective management of these resources. PMID:12561658

  5. Expenditures for Scientific Activities at Universities and Colleges, Fiscal Year 1975. Detailed Statistical Tables, Appendixes B and C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Provided are detailed statistical tables for the fiscal year 1975 National Science Foundation (NSF) survey of expenditures for scientific activities at universities and colleges. The survey included 540 universities and colleges which account for more than 99% of all academic R&D expenditures. In addition to data reported for 1975, selected…

  6. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    PubMed Central

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    (−€5,589 million), and, far behind them, Germany (−€831 million), Greece (−€808 million), Portugal (−€243 million), and Hungary (−€84 million). The main source of savings came from the cardiovascular, central nervous system, and respiratory areas and from biosimilar entries. Oncology, immunology, and inflammation, in contrast, lead to additional expenditure. The model was particularly sensitive to the time to market of branded products, generic prices, generic penetration, and the distribution of biosimilars. Conclusions The results of this forecast suggested a decrease in pharmaceutical expenditure in the studied period. The model was sensitive to pharmaceutical policy decisions. PMID:27226837

  7. [The federal health expenditure on the uninsured population: Mexico 1980-1995].

    PubMed

    Lara, A; Gómez-Dantés, O; Urdapilleta, O; Bravo, M L

    1997-01-01

    In the last fifteen years Mexico suffered several economic crisis which have negatively affected public expenditure in social welfare and, as a consequence, public expenditure in health. This paper discusses the relationship between the adjustment policies adopted to confront these crisis and public expenditure in health care for the non-insured population, as well as the regional distribution of this expenditure. In part one, the evolution of general public expenditure, public expenditure in social welfare, and public expenditure in health between 1980 and 1995 is described. In part two, the distribution of public health expenditure for the non-insured population among the five regions in which the country was divided by the National Health Survey II is discussed. The main conclusion of this paper is that, between 1980 and 1995, the public expenditure gaps that have existed for a long time in Mexico among regions remained unchanged. These gaps basically affect the southern states of the country, are not related to health needs, and may deepen in view of the new relative cuts in public expenditure in social welfare announced by the new administration. PMID:9254433

  8. Patterns of Health Expenditures and Financial Protections in Vietnam 1992-2012.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Van Minh; Oh, Juhwan; Tran, Tuan Anh; Tran, Thi Giang Huong; Ha, Anh Duc; Luu, Ngoc Hoat; Nguyen, Thi Kim Phuong

    2015-11-01

    Health financing has been considered as an important building block of a health system and has a key role in promoting universal health coverage in the Vietnam. This paper aims to describe the pattern of health expenditure, including total health expenditure and composition of health expenditure, over the last two decades in Vietnam. The paper mainly uses the data from Vietnam National Health Account and Vietnam Living Standards Survey. We also included data from other relevant published literature, reports and statistics about health care expenditure in Vietnam. The per capita health expenditure in Vietnam increased from US$ 14 in 1995 to US$ 86 in 2012. The total health expenditure as a share of GDP also rose from 5.2% in 1995 to 6.9% in 2012. Public health expenditure as percentage of government expenditure rose from 7.4% in 1995 to nearly 10% in 2012. The coverage of health insurance went up from 10% in 1995 to 68.5% in 2012. However, health financing in Vietnam was depending on private expenditures (57.4% in 2012). As a result, the proportion of households with catastrophic expenditure in 2012 was 4.2%. The rate of impoverishment in 2012 was 2.5%. To ensure equity and efficient goal of health system, policy actions for containing the health care out-of-pocket payments and their poverty impacts are urgently needed in Vietnam. PMID:26617446

  9. Patterns of Health Expenditures and Financial Protections in Vietnam 1992-2012

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Van Minh; Tran, Tuan Anh; Tran, Thi Giang Huong; Ha, Anh Duc; Luu, Ngoc Hoat; Nguyen, Thi Kim Phuong

    2015-01-01

    Health financing has been considered as an important building block of a health system and has a key role in promoting universal health coverage in the Vietnam. This paper aims to describe the pattern of health expenditure, including total health expenditure and composition of health expenditure, over the last two decades in Vietnam. The paper mainly uses the data from Vietnam National Health Account and Vietnam Living Standards Survey. We also included data from other relevant published literature, reports and statistics about health care expenditure in Vietnam. The per capita health expenditure in Vietnam increased from US$ 14 in 1995 to US$ 86 in 2012. The total health expenditure as a share of GDP also rose from 5.2% in 1995 to 6.9% in 2012. Public health expenditure as percentage of government expenditure rose from 7.4% in 1995 to nearly 10% in 2012. The coverage of health insurance went up from 10% in 1995 to 68.5% in 2012. However, health financing in Vietnam was depending on private expenditures (57.4% in 2012). As a result, the proportion of households with catastrophic expenditure in 2012 was 4.2%. The rate of impoverishment in 2012 was 2.5%. To ensure equity and efficient goal of health system, policy actions for containing the health care out-of-pocket payments and their poverty impacts are urgently needed in Vietnam. PMID:26617446

  10. Media Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Hanse, Mona-Britt, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The Swedish Media Panel is a research program about children and young persons and their use of mass media. The aim of the ten-year (1975-1985) project is to explain how media habits originate, how they change as children grow older, what factors on the part of children themselves and in their surroundings may be connected with a certain use of…

  11. Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Mid-Year Meeting, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Lists the speakers and summarizes the issues addressed for 12 panel sessions on topics related to networking, including libraries and national networks, federal national resources and energy programs, multimedia issues, telecommuting, remote image serving, accessing the Internet, library automation, scientific information, applications of Z39.50,…

  12. Income, Needs, and Expenditures: Metro-Nonmetro Differences in Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghelfi, Linda M.

    This report compares the relative adequacy of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan household income in Wisconsin. In 1981, 1,133 respondents completed the Wisconsin Basic Needs Survey, covering income, assets, debts, and taxes, filled out two-week diaries of food expenditures and small recurring expenses, and answered questions on perceived income…

  13. Higher Education Institutions: Patterns of Expenditures. NEA Research Memo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graybeal, William S.

    Patterns of expenditures in higher education are examined, based on 1977 financial data from the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) and on data from "Higher Education Financing in the Fifty States, Interstate Comparisons, Fiscal Year 1976, Review Edition." Based on 1977 fiscal year data from HEGIS, distributions of institutional…

  14. Lifestyle Expenditures in Contemporary America: Relations between Stratification and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    Using a multiple-indicator multiple-cause model to analyze a 1972-73 national survey of consumer expenditures, the author isolates four patterns of spending on leisure activities and identifies the social and demographic characteristics of people exhibiting each pattern. (Author/RM)

  15. Welfare Attitudes and Social Expenditure: Do Regimes Shape Public Opinion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Tor Georg

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the link between regime types, social expenditure, and welfare attitudes. By employing data on 19 countries taken from the World Values Survey, the main aim is to see to what degree the institutions of a country affect the attitudes of its citizens. According to Esping-Andersen ("The three worlds of welfare capitalism".…

  16. Energy expenditure cutting supercane.

    PubMed

    Spurr, G B; Barac-nieto, M; Maksud, M G

    1975-12-01

    VO2 VE, and heart rates (fH) were measured in 61 Colombian sugarcane cutters while harvesting cane in the AM and PM and in the laboratory during a VO2max test. Productivity and sweat rates were also measured in the field. The subjects had an estimated dietary intake of 2,970 kcal/day, which was lower than calculated daily energy expenditure. During the work measurements the VO2 was 1.5 1/min, VE 48 1/min, and fH 135 beats/min; there were no differences between AM and PM values. The subjects sustained about 35% of VO2max during the 8 h workday, but worked at 57% of VO2max during the tests. Measured energy cost was 7.4 +/- 1.5 kcal/min during the workday. Sweat rates were higher PM than AM (5 KG/8 h day). Grouping of the men according to productivity demonstrated that taller, heavier men were better producers and had lower calculated heart rates at VO2 1.51/min. Efficiency of cane cutting was higher (9%) PM. PMID:1240097

  17. 11 CFR 100.113 - Independent expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... that meets the requirements of 11 CFR 104.4 or part 109 is an expenditure, and such independent expenditure is to be reported by the person making the expenditure in accordance with 11 CFR 104.4 and part... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Independent expenditures. 100.113 Section...

  18. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  19. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2005-06 (Fiscal Year 2006). First Look. NCES 2008-345

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2008-01-01

    This brief publication contains basic revenue and expenditure data, by state, for public elementary and secondary education for school year 2005-06. It contains state-level data on revenues by source and expenditures by function, including expenditures per pupil. It presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2005-06…

  20. 43 CFR 3861.2-4 - Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-4 Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements. If the value...

  1. 43 CFR 3861.2-4 - Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-4 Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements. If the value...

  2. 43 CFR 3861.2-4 - Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-4 Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements. If the value...

  3. 43 CFR 3861.2-4 - Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-4 Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements. If the value...

  4. 61. Upper panel in cornerpower panel lcpa lower panel in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Upper panel in corner-power panel lcpa lower panel in corner-oxygen regeneration unit, at right-air conditioner control panel, on floor-bio-pack 45 for emergency breathing, looking northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  5. Measuring the Displacement and Replacement of Government Health Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Dieleman, Joseph L; Hanlon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Research assessing the relationship between government health expenditure and development assistance for health channeled to governments (DAHG) has not considered that this relationship may depend on whether DAHG is increasing or decreasing. We explore this issue using general method of moments estimation and a panel of financial flows data spanning 119 countries and 16 years. Our primary concern is how DAHG affects government health expenditure as source (GHES). We disaggregate the average effect of DAHG and separately identify the effects of increases versus decreases in DAHG. We find that a $1 year-over-year increase in DAHG leads to a $0.62 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 1.09) decrease in GHES, whereas a $1 year-over-year decrease in DAHG does not have an effect on GHES that is statistically different from zero (CI: −0.67, 1.17). Simulation shows that the displacement of GHES between 1995 and 2010 reduced total government health expenditure by $152.8 billion (CI: 46.9, 277.6). Moreover, the irregular disbursement of DAHG reduced total government expenditure by $96.9 billion (CI: 0.5, 212.4). Thus, this research shows that health aid is fungible and highlights the cost of displacement and erratic aid disbursement. PMID:24327240

  6. Measuring the displacement and replacement of government health expenditure.

    PubMed

    Dieleman, Joseph L; Hanlon, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Research assessing the relationship between government health expenditure and development assistance for health channeled to governments (DAHG) has not considered that this relationship may depend on whether DAHG is increasing or decreasing. We explore this issue using general method of moments estimation and a panel of financial flows data spanning 119 countries and 16 years. Our primary concern is how DAHG affects government health expenditure as source (GHES). We disaggregate the average effect of DAHG and separately identify the effects of increases versus decreases in DAHG. We find that a $1 year-over-year increase in DAHG leads to a $0.62 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 1.09) decrease in GHES, whereas a $1 year-over-year decrease in DAHG does not have an effect on GHES that is statistically different from zero (CI: -0.67, 1.17). Simulation shows that the displacement of GHES between 1995 and 2010 reduced total government health expenditure by $152.8 billion (CI: 46.9, 277.6). Moreover, the irregular disbursement of DAHG reduced total government expenditure by $96.9 billion (CI: 0.5, 212.4). Thus, this research shows that health aid is fungible and highlights the cost of displacement and erratic aid disbursement. PMID:24327240

  7. Architectural Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Alliance Wall Corporation's Whyteboard, a porcelain enamel on steel panels wall board, owes its color stability to a KIAC engineering background study to identify potential technologies and manufacturers of equipment which could be used to detect surface flaws. One result of the data base search was the purchase of a spectrocolorimeter which enables the company to control some 250 standard colors, and match special colors.

  8. Projecting future drug expenditures--1994.

    PubMed

    Santell, J P

    1994-01-15

    The use of information on inflation, generic competition, market introduction of new drug entities, institution-specific drug-use patterns, and federal legislation to project drug expenditures is discussed. Inflation of pharmaceutical prices has been decreasing over the past few years. Increases in the producer price index for drugs and pharmaceuticals diminished from 6.9% in 1991 to 4.3% in the first half of 1993; the specter of government regulation may be one reason. Pharmacy group purchasing organizations (GPOs) predicted that in 1994 expenditures would increase an average of 2.1% for contracted drug items and 8.3% for noncontracted items. Expenditures for biotechnology drugs in January through July 1993 increased 16% over the same period in 1992; such agents are now hospital pharmacies' third most costly drug category, at 10% of total expenditures. Future price competition by generic drug products can be predicted from information on patent or market-exclusivity expiration. To predict the market release of new drug products, new-drug applications filed with FDA can be monitored. The most important component in projecting drug expenditures is a specific institution's pattern of use of high-cost drugs. Mechanisms that can be used to monitor changes in therapeutic strategies and drug-use protocols include drug cost indexes, assessment of drug-use patterns by outside companies, and computerized models for specific high-cost drugs. Drug expenditures can be affected by legislative changes such as the Medicaid rebate provisions of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 and the Medicare outpatient drug benefit in the proposed American Health Security Act. The accuracy of projections of drug expenditures can be improved by examining inflation, generic competition, the introduction of new drug entities, institution-specific drug-use patterns, and legislative issues. Pharmacy managers need better methods for estimating institution-specific use of high-cost drugs

  9. Medicaid Expenditures on Psychotropic Medications for Children in the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Derek S.; Thompson, Hope; Ettner, Susan L.; Clements, Lisa M.; Key, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Children in the child welfare system are the most expensive child population to insure for their mental health needs. The objective of this article is to estimate the amount of Medicaid expenditures incurred from the purchase of psychotropic drugs – the primary drivers of mental health expenditures – for these children. Methods We linked a subsample of children interviewed in the first nationally representative survey of children coming into contact with U.S. child welfare agencies, the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), to their Medicaid claims files obtained from the Medicaid Analytic Extract. Our data consist of children living in 14 states, and Medicaid claims for 4 years, adjusted to 2010 dollars. We compared expenditures on psychotropic medications in the NSCAW sample to a propensity score-matched comparison sample obtained from Medicaid files. Results Children surveyed in NSCAW had over thrice the odds of any psychotropic drug use than the comparison sample. Each maltreated child increased Medicaid expenditures by between $237 and $840 per year, relative to comparison children also receiving medications. Increased expenditures on antidepressants and amphetamine-like stimulants were the primary drivers of these increased expenditures. On average, an African American child in NSCAW received $399 less expenditure than a white child, controlling for behavioral problems and other child and regional characteristics. Children scoring in the clinical range of the Child Behavior Checklist received, on average, $853 increased expenditure on psychotropic drugs. Conclusion Each child with child welfare involvement is likely to incur upwards of $1482 in psychotropic medication expenditures throughout his or her enrollment in Medicaid. Medicaid agencies should focus their cost-containment strategies on antidepressants and amphetamine-type stimulants, and expand use of instruments such as the Child Behavior Checklist to

  10. Projecting future drug expenditures--1995.

    PubMed

    Santell, J P

    1995-01-15

    Use of information on inflation, pharmacoeconomics, market introduction of new drug entities, practice-site-specific drug-use patterns, federal legislation, and the changing structure of health care delivery to project drug expenditures is discussed. Drug price inflation has been declining over the past several years, from 6.9% in 1991 to 2.2% for part of 1994. This can be attributed to both the growth of managed care and the industry's fear of government price controls. Pharmaceutical industry analysts project the overall price increase for pharmaceuticals in the next 12-24 months to be 2-5%. Pharmacoeconomic research is likely to become increasingly important; pharmacists will need to understand and critically evaluate this research. Drug budget projections should include a complete review of new drugs and biotechnology agents pending FDA approval, drugs pending approval for new indications, and common unlabeled uses of expensive existing agents. Various methods are available for tracking practice-site-specific drug-use patterns; those that categorize expenditures by diagnosis-related group may underestimate total expenditures associated with treating a given condition. State and federal legislation may affect drug rebates, prices, and ultimately drug expenditures. Although health care reform legislation did not pass in 1994, changes are occurring in both the pharmaceutical industry and in health care delivery, shifting the control of drug selection, utilization, and expenditures from individual prescribers to large purchasers. The accuracy of projections of drug expenditures can be improved by examining inflation, pharmacoeconomic research, the introduction of new drug entities, practice-site-specific drug-use patterns, federal legislation, and the changing structure of health care delivery. PMID:12879542

  11. Expenditure limits and cost containment.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, P B

    1993-01-01

    The Clinton administration's proposal for health care reform would tie limits on premiums and, indirectly, provider payment rates to a national health care budget. An expenditure limit (or global budget) is a mechanism to calibrate the parameters of underlying cost containment policies. This article analyzes provider rate setting and managed competition and discusses how they can be guided by expenditure limits. Particular attention is paid to health systems that include elements of both traditional fee-for-service insurance and organized systems of care. Success in containing costs also will require additional policies that can supplement rate setting and managed competition to achieve specific goals to slow spending growth. PMID:8288402

  12. 44 CFR 361.8 - Ineligible expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.8 Ineligible expenditures. (a) Expenditures... annual negotiation process with FEMA how this equipment will support the earthquake hazards...

  13. 44 CFR 361.8 - Ineligible expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.8 Ineligible expenditures. (a) Expenditures... annual negotiation process with FEMA how this equipment will support the earthquake hazards...

  14. 44 CFR 361.8 - Ineligible expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.8 Ineligible expenditures. (a) Expenditures... annual negotiation process with FEMA how this equipment will support the earthquake hazards...

  15. 44 CFR 361.8 - Ineligible expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.8 Ineligible expenditures. (a) Expenditures... annual negotiation process with FEMA how this equipment will support the earthquake hazards...

  16. 44 CFR 361.8 - Ineligible expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.8 Ineligible expenditures. (a) Expenditures... annual negotiation process with FEMA how this equipment will support the earthquake hazards...

  17. Heat exchanger panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  18. Spatial Structure and Climatic Adaptation in African Maize Revealed by Surveying SNP Diversity in Relation to Global Breeding and Landrace Panels

    PubMed Central

    Westengen, Ola T.; Berg, Paul R.; Kent, Matthew P.; Brysting, Anne K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change threatens maize productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. To ensure food security, access to locally adapted genetic resources and varieties is an important adaptation measure. Most of the maize grown in Africa is a genetic mix of varieties introduced at different historic times following the birth of the trans-Atlantic economy, and knowledge about geographic structure and local adaptations is limited. Methodology A panel of 48 accessions of maize representing various introduction routes and sources of historic and recent germplasm introductions in Africa was genotyped with the MaizeSNP50 array. Spatial genetic structure and genetic relationships in the African panel were analysed separately and in the context of a panel of 265 inbred lines representing global breeding material (based on 26,900 SNPs) and a panel of 1127 landraces from the Americas (270 SNPs). Environmental association analysis was used to detect SNPs associated with three climatic variables based on the full 43,963 SNP dataset. Conclusions The genetic structure is consistent between subsets of the data and the markers are well suited for resolving relationships and admixture among the accessions. The African accessions are structured in three clusters reflecting historical and current patterns of gene flow from the New World and within Africa. The Sahelian cluster reflects original introductions of Meso-American landraces via Europe and a modern introduction of temperate breeding material. The Western cluster reflects introduction of Coastal Brazilian landraces, as well as a Northeast-West spread of maize through Arabic trade routes across the continent. The Eastern cluster most strongly reflects gene flow from modern introduced tropical varieties. Controlling for population history in a linear model, we identify 79 SNPs associated with maximum temperature during the growing season. The associations located in genes of known importance for abiotic stress tolerance are

  19. Projecting future drug expenditures--1997.

    PubMed

    Mehl, B; Santell, J P

    1997-01-15

    Use of the producer price index; data from independent sources, drug industry analyst, group purchasing organizations (GPOs), and health maintenance organizations (HMOs); pharmacoeconomics; and legal developments to project drug expenditures and prepare pharmacy budgets for 1997 is discussed. The producer price index indicates that prices for drugs and pharmaceuticals increased 2.2% during January to May 1996; the increase for prescription preparations was 3.4%. Medi-Span reports an average increase for all drug products of 1.2% for the first six months of 1996. IMS America data show the price of all drugs increasing 1.8% between the second quarters of 1995 and 1996. Drug industry analysts project the overall price increase in the next 12 months at 2.5-5.0%. GPOs predict an average increase over the next 12 months of 2.2% for contracted drugs and 4.3% for non-contracted drugs. HMO pharmacy directors predict pharmacy expenditures will increase by 4.5% per member in 1997. Caution must be applied in using pharmacoeconomics to project drug costs and their impact on health care expenditures. Today's budget must account for the greater integration of drug expenditures into the institution's objectives, possible reductions in other service costs, capitation, competition, shifting of control of the drug budget to specific patient care centers, relocation of services to the ambulatory care setting, and outsourcing. Legal actions in 1996 that may affect price increases and drug budgets included a class-action lawsuit by community and chain pharmacies alleging price discrimination by manufactures and wholesalers. Prices of pharmaceutical products are fairly stable and may remain so in 1997, but projections of future drug expenditures must account for the continuing reshaping of the health care landscape. PMID:9117803

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in the healthiness of food choices: Exploring the contributions of food expenditures.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Investigations of the contribution of food costs to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality may have been limited by the use of estimated (vs. actual) food expenditures, not accounting for where individuals shop, and possible reverse mediation between food expenditures and healthiness of food choices. This study aimed to explore the extent to which food expenditure mediates socioeconomic inequalities in the healthiness of household food choices. Observational panel data on take-home food and beverage purchases, including expenditure, throughout 2010 were obtained for 24,879 UK households stratified by occupational social class. Purchases of (1) fruit and vegetables and (2) less-healthy foods/beverages indicated healthiness of choices. Supermarket choice was determined by whether households ever visited market-defined high-price and/or low-price supermarkets. Results showed that higher occupational social class was significantly associated with greater food expenditure, which was in turn associated with healthier purchasing. In mediation analyses, 63% of the socioeconomic differences in choices of less-healthy foods/beverages were mediated by expenditure, and 36% for fruit and vegetables, but these figures were reduced to 53% and 31% respectively when controlling for supermarket choice. However, reverse mediation analyses were also significant, suggesting that 10% of socioeconomic inequalities in expenditure were mediated by healthiness of choices. Findings suggest that lower food expenditure is likely to be a key contributor to less-healthy food choices among lower socioeconomic groups. However, the potential influence of cost may have been overestimated previously if studies did not account for supermarket choice or explore possible reverse mediation between expenditure and healthiness of choices. PMID:27095324

  1. Expenditures for Scientific Activities at Universities and Colleges, Fiscal Year 1977. Detailed Statistical Tables, Appendixes B and C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Presented are data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Scientific and Engineering Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, Fiscal Year 1977. Data summarize research and development (R&D) expenditures for 539 institutions, accounting for more than 99% of academic R&D funds. (Author/RE)

  2. Health Care Expenditure among People with Disabilities: Potential Role of Workplace Health Promotion and Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpur, Arun; Bruyere, Susanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Workplace health-promotion programs have the potential to reduce health care expenditures, especially among people with disabilities. Utilizing nationally representative survey data, the authors provide estimates for health care expenditures related to secondary conditions, obesity, and health behaviors among working-age people with disabilities.…

  3. Survey of the World Agricultural Documentation Services, Draft; Prepared on Behalf of the FAO Panel of Experts on "AGRIS" (International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buntrock, H.

    The purpose of the survey was: (1) to evaluate existing agricultural information services and (2) to propose possible frameworks for an improved world-wide agricultural information service. The principal statistical results of the survey are summarized in the following figures which are based on data collected in nearly all instances for the year…

  4. Heterogeneity in the Effect of Common Shocks on Healthcare Expenditure Growth.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Katharina; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare expenditure growth is affected by important unobserved common shocks such as technological innovation, changes in sociological factors, shifts in preferences, and the epidemiology of diseases. While common factors impact in principle all countries, their effect is likely to differ across countries. To allow for unobserved heterogeneity in the effects of common shocks, we estimate a panel data model of healthcare expenditure growth in 34 OECD countries over the years 1980 to 2012, where the usual fixed or random effects are replaced by a multifactor error structure. We address model uncertainty with Bayesian model averaging, to identify a small set of robust expenditure drivers from 43 potential candidates. We establish 16 significant drivers of healthcare expenditure growth, including growth in GDP per capita and in insurance premiums, changes in financing arrangements and some institutional characteristics, expenditures on pharmaceuticals, population ageing, costs of health administration, and inpatient care. Our approach allows us to provide robust evidence to policy makers on the drivers that were most strongly associated with the growth in healthcare expenditures over the past 32 years. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26940606

  5. Revenues and Expenditures of Institutions of Higher Education: Fiscal Years 1983-1985. OERI Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Education Statistics (ED/OERI), Washington, DC.

    Information on revenues and expenditures at U.S. colleges and universities are reported for fiscal years (FY) 1983, 1984, and 1985, based on findings from the Financial Statistics of Institutions of Higher Education survey, which is part of the Higher Education General Information Survey. Narrative and statistical information is presented on:…

  6. Expenditures for Scientific Activities at Universities and Colleges, Fiscal Year 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehn, James; And Others

    Presented is the National Science Foundation's fiscal year 1975 survey of expenditures for scientific activities at colleges and universities. The survey covered 562 institutions, includes funds expended for activities specifically organized to produce research outcomes, and includes direct and indirect costs. Statistical data presented includes:…

  7. Estimation of own and cross price elasticities of alcohol demand in the UK--A pseudo-panel approach using the Living Costs and Food Survey 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yang; Brennan, Alan; Purshouse, Robin; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Angus, Colin; Holmes, John; Meier, Petra Sylvia

    2014-03-01

    The estimation of price elasticities of alcohol demand is valuable for the appraisal of price-based policy interventions such as minimum unit pricing and taxation. This study applies a pseudo-panel approach to the cross-sectional Living Cost and Food Survey 2001/2-2009 to estimate the own- and cross-price elasticities of off- and on-trade beer, cider, wine, spirits and ready-to-drinks in the UK. A pseudo-panel with 72 subgroups defined by birth year, gender and socioeconomic status is constructed. Estimated own-price elasticities from the base case fixed effect models are all negative and mostly statically significant (p<0.05). Off-trade cider and beer are most elastic (-1.27 and -0.98) and off-trade spirits and on-trade ready-to-drinks are least elastic (-0.08 and -0.19). Estimated cross-price elasticities are smaller in magnitude with a mix of positive and negative signs. The results appear plausible and robust and could be used for appraising the estimated impact of price-based interventions in the UK. PMID:24508846

  8. What drives health care expenditure?--Baumol's model of 'unbalanced growth' revisited.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Jochen

    2008-05-01

    The share of health care expenditure in GDP rises rapidly in virtually all OECD countries, causing increasing concern among politicians and the general public. Yet, economists have to date failed to reach an agreement on what the main determinants of this development are. This paper revisits Baumol's [Baumol, W.J., 1967. Macroeconomics of unbalanced growth: the anatomy of urban crisis. American Economic Review 57 (3), 415-426] model of 'unbalanced growth', showing that the latter offers a ready explanation for the observed inexorable rise in health care expenditure. The main implication of Baumol's model in this context is that health care expenditure is driven by wage increases in excess of productivity growth. This hypothesis is tested empirically using data from a panel of 19 OECD countries. Our tests yield robust evidence in favor of Baumol's theory. PMID:18164773

  9. The Medical Cost Attributable to Obesity and Overweight in China: Estimation Based on Longitudinal Surveys.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xuezheng; Pan, Jay

    2016-10-01

    With its rapid economic growth and fast changing lifestyle, China witnessed expansionary prevalence of obesity and overweight during the recent decades. This paper provides the first nationally representative estimate of the medical cost attributable to obesity and overweight in China. We improve upon the traditional estimation methodology (two-part model) by jointly adopting the instrumental variable approach and the panel data methods in order to correct for the potential endogeneity of body size and the individual heterogeneity in medical expenditure. Using longitudinal data from 2000-2009 China Health and Nutrition Surveys, we find that body size has a significant impact on the individual expected medical expenditure and the per capita medical cost attributable to obesity and overweight in a single medical event is estimated to be 6.18 Yuan, or 5.29% of the total personal medical expenditure. This translates to 24.35 billion Yuan annual cost on the national scale, accounting for 2.46% of China's national health care expenditure. The subsample analyses also show that such cost is higher for the urban, women, and better educated people and increases over time. Our results contribute to the literature on the economic impact of obesity in developing countries and bear policy implications on controlling the rising health care costs in China. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26223895

  10. State energy price and expenditure report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs.

  11. State energy price and expenditure report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1980, and 1985 through 1992. Data for all years, 1970 through 1992, are available on personal computer diskettes.

  12. Determinants and Equity Evaluation for Health Expenditure Among Patients with Rare Diseases in China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiao-Xiong; Zhao, Liang; Guan, Xiao-Dong; Shi, Lu-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background: China has not established social security system for rare diseases. Rare diseases could easily impoverish patients and their families. Little research has studied the equity and accessibility of health services for patients with rare diseases in China. This study aimed to explore the factors that influence health expenditure of rare diseases and evaluate its equity. Methods: Questionnaire survey about living conditions and cost burden of patients with rare diseases was conducted. Individual and family information, health expenditure and reimbursement in 2014 of 982 patients were collected. The impact of medical insurance, individual sociodemographic characteristics, family characteristics, and healthcare need on total and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures was analyzed through the generalized linear model. Equity of health expenditure was evaluated by both concentration index and Lorenz curve. Results: Of all the surveyed patients, 11.41% had no medical insurance and 92.10% spent money to seek medical treatment in 2014. It was suggested female (P = 0.048), over 50 years of age (P = 0.062), high-income group (P = 0.021), hospitalization (P = 0.000), and reimbursement ratio (RR) (P = 0.000) were positively correlated with total health expenditure. Diseases not needing long-term treatment (P = 0.000) was negatively correlated with total health expenditure. Over 50 years of age (P = 0.065), high-income group (P = 0.018), hospitalization (P = 0.000) and having Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) (P = 0.022) were positively correlated with OOP health expenditure. Patient or the head of the household having received higher education (P = 0.044 and P = 0.081) and reimbursement ratio (P = 0.078) were negatively correlated with OOP health expenditure. The equity evaluation found concentration indexes of health expenditure before and after reimbursement were 0.0550 and 0.0539, respectively. Conclusions: OOP health expenditure of patients with UEBMI

  13. State energy price and expenditure report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1991. Data for all years, 1970 through 1991, are available on personal computer diskettes. Documentation in Appendix A describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1990, published in September 1992.

  14. Prescription Drug Expenditures and Population Demographics

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To provide detailed demographic profiles of prescription drug utilization and expenditures in order to isolate the impact of demographic change from other factors that affect drug expenditure trends. Data Sources/Study Setting Demographic information and drug utilization data were extracted for virtually the entire British Columbia (BC) population of 1996 and 2002. All residents had public medical and hospital insurance; however their drug coverage resembled the mix of private and public insurance in the United States. Study Design A series of research variables were constructed to illustrate profiles of drug expenditures and drug utilization across 96 age/sex strata. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Drug use and expenditure information was extracted from the BC PharmaNet, a computer network connecting all pharmacies in the province. Principal Findings Per capita drug expenditures increased at an average annual rate of 10.8 percent between 1996 and 2002. Population aging explained 1.0 points of this annual rate of expenditure growth; the balance was attributable to rising age/sex-specific drug expenditures. Conclusions Relatively little of the observed increase in drug expenditures in BC could be attributed to demographic change. Most of the expenditure increase stemmed from the age/sex-specific quantity and type of drugs purchased. The sustainability of drug spending therefore depends not on outside forces but on decisions made by policy makers, prescribers, and patients. PMID:16584456

  15. Academic Science/Engineering: R&D Funds Fiscal Year 1983. Surveys of Science Resources Series. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Presented are statistical data from the Annual Survey of Scientific and Engineering Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, FY 1983. These data represent science and engineering (SE) expenditures for separately budgeted research and development (R&D). The phrase "separately budgeted R&D expenditures" refers to current fund expenditures designed…

  16. Optical & NIR Transient Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Nicholas J. G.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    A workshop on Optical & Near Infrared Transients took place during the first afternoon of the Symposium. It ran for two sessions. The first was given over to talks about various current optical and near-infrared transient surveys, focussing on the Vista surveys, the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, Pan-STARRS, Gaia, TAOS and TAOS2. The second session was a panel-led discussion about coordinating multi-wavelength surveys and associated follow-ups.

  17. Development of Self-Management Indicators for Chronic Hepatitis B Patients on Antiviral Therapy: Results of a Chinese Delphi Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Na; Guo, Ying; Qin, Bo; Peng, Xin; Zhu, Wen-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a set of indicators that could be used to measure and monitor the self-management performance for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients on antiviral therapy in China. Methods A two-round Delphi study via e-mail correspondence was conducted, with a group of 30 Chinese experts. The Delphi questionnaire consisted of 53 indicators identified from a literature review. Experts rated and scored the importance of indicators on a five-point Likert scale. Consensus was considered to be reached if a median score in the top tertile (4-5) and ≥80% of panel ratings in the top tertile (4-5) after Round 2. The included indicators were validated with a group of 106 CHB patients. Results The response rates for the first and second rounds were 90.9% (n=30) and 86.7% (n=26), respectively. Three new indicators were suggested in the first round. 55 indicators were included in the second round after modified. 45 (81.8%) indicators achieved on the level of consensus, all of which had an inter-quartile range of 1 or below. The final set included 4 domains and 45 indicators which were well accepted and understandable by CHB patients. Conclusion This Delphi study produced a set of 45 self-management indicators for CHB patients on antiviral therapy in China. These indicators could be used to measure and monitor the patients’ self-management performance, with the goal of improving the quality of life in this population. PMID:26327606

  18. Administrative Expenditures in Texas Public Universities, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin.

    This document presents text and graphs to provide an overview of administrative expenditures in institutions of higher education in Texas. Administrative expenditure indicators at Texas public senior universities are compared with each other, with national averages, and with averages of the 10 states nearest Texas in population. In constant…

  19. 18 CFR 154.402 - ACA expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ACA expenditures. 154.402 Section 154.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION....402 ACA expenditures. (a) Requirements. Upon approval by the Commission, a natural gas...

  20. 29 CFR 452.74 - Expenditures permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenditures permitted. 452.74 Section 452.74 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.74 Expenditures permitted. The Act does not...

  1. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... How your kidneys and liver are working Blood sugar, cholesterol, and calcium levels Sodium, potassium, and chloride ...

  2. CF Mutation Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Cystic Fibrosis Genotyping; CF DNA Analysis; CF Gene Mutation Panel; CF Molecular Genetic Testing Formal name: Cystic Fibrosis Gene Mutation Panel Related tests: Sweat Test ; Trypsinogen ; ...

  3. State energy price and expenditure report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1995. Data for all years are available on a CD-ROM and via Internet. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1995, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in December 1997. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources.

  4. Expenditures in the elderly with peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Brian C.; Burke, James F.; Rodgers, Ann; McCammon, Ryan; Langa, Kenneth M.; Feldman, Eva L.; Kerber, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary To optimize care in the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy, we sought to define which tests drive expenditures and the role of the provider type. We investigated test utilization and expenditures by provider type in those with incident neuropathy in a nationally representative elderly, Medicare population. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of MRI and electrodiagnostic utilization. MRIs of the neuroaxis and electrodiagnostic tests accounted for 88% of total expenditures. Mean and aggregate diagnostic expenditures were higher in those who saw a neurologist. Patients who saw a neurologist were more likely to receive an MRI and an electrodiagnostic test. MRIs and electrodiagnostic tests are the main contributors to expenditures in the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy, and should be the focus of future efficiency efforts. PMID:24175158

  5. Advanced concentrator panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Bedard, R. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The prototype fabrication of a lightweight, high-quality cellular glass substrate reflective panel for use in an advanced point-focusing solar concentrator was completed. The reflective panel is a gore shaped segment of an 11-m paraboloidal dish. The overall concentrator design and the design of the reflective panels are described. prototype-specific panel design modifications are discussed and the fabrication approach and procedure outlined.

  6. Social dynamics of health inequalities: a growth curve analysis of aging and self assessed health in the British household panel survey 1991–2001

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, A.; Clarke, P.; Wiggins, R.; Bartley, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To study how social inequalities change as people age, this paper presents a growth curve model of self assessed health, which accommodates changes in occupational class and individual health with age. Design: Nationally representative interview based longitudinal survey of adults in Great Britain. Setting: Representative members of private households of Great Britain in 1991. Participants: Survey respondents (n = 6705), aged 21–59 years in 1991 and followed up annually until 2001. Main outcome measure: Self assessed health. Results: On average, self assessed health declines slowly from early adulthood to retirement age. No significant class differences in health were observed at age 21. Health inequalities emerged later in life with the gap between mean levels of self assessed health of those in managerial and professional occupations and routine occupations widening approaching retirement. Individual variability in health trajectories increased between ages 40 and 59 years so that this widening of mean differences between occupational classes was not significant. When the analysis is confined to people whose occupational class remained constant over time, a far greater difference in health trajectories between occupational classes was seen. Conclusions: The understanding of social inequalities in health at the population level is enriched by an analysis of individual variation in age related declines by social position. PMID:15911646

  7. TRMM Solar Array Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This final report presents conclusions/recommendations concerning the TRMM Solar Array; deliverable list and schedule summary; waivers and deviations; as-shipped performance data, including flight panel verification matrix, panel output detail, shadow test summary, humidity test summary, reverse bias test panel; and finally, quality assurance summary.

  8. Out-of-pocket health care expenditures due to excess of body weight in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Paula

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence for excessive weight has also been increasing dramatically in Portugal over the last decades. The consequences for families as well as for the publicly funded Portuguese health care system are a matter of policy interest. This paper uses an econometric model to compute the fraction of the national out-of-pocket health care expenditures attributable to overweight and obesity among Portuguese adults. Given that public health care system pays for a substantial share of the national health care expenditures, the estimated the out-of-pocket expenditures is only a share of the total expenditures. Per-capita expenditures and the burden that obesity and overweight impose on families are also estimated. Two waves of the Portuguese National Health Survey (NHS), namely; 1995/1996 and 1998/1999 are considered. The results suggest that out-of-pocket expenditures due to excess weight have increased sharply during these 3 years. The two-part model estimates suggest that the obese and overweight are more likely to incur out-of-pocket health care expenditures but, in the restricted sample of those that incur expenditures, there is weak or no evidence that the obese or overweight spend, on average, more than those of normal weight. Overall, it is estimated that in 1995/1996, more than 1.8% out-of-pocket health care expenditures were attributable to obesity and 2% to overweight (although not statistically significant). The estimated percentages are over 2.9% for obesity and 4% for overweight in 1998/1999. Combined, the estimated attributable percentage of national out-of-pocket expenditures due to excess weight was 3.8% in 1995/1996 and 6.9% in 1998/1999. Per-capita expenditures due to obesity or overweight are small, on average, in absolute terms, but they can be a significant cost for low income families. With respect to public policy concerns, the results suggest that measures which only slightly increase the out-of-pocket health care expenditures of being obese

  9. Projecting future drug expenditures--1996.

    PubMed

    Santell, J P

    1996-01-15

    The use of information on inflation, pharmacoeconomics, generic competition, new drug entities, site-specific drug-use patterns, legislation, and the changing health care environment in the projection of drug expenditures is discussed. Drug price inflation has declined from 6.9% in 1991 to 2.1% for part of 1995. Much of the decline is attributable to deep discounts given by manufacturers to managed care institutions. Some marketing specialists are predicting that drug manufacturers will begin to scale back discounts. Pharmaceutical industry analysts project that overall price increase for pharmaceuticals in the next 12-24 months will average 2.8% (range, 0-6%). Pharmacists need to be able to understand and critically evaluate pharmacoeconomic research, particularly studies conducted by the pharmaceutical industry. Savings due to increases in generic product selection may be offset to some degree by extensions of patent expiration dates under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Drug budget projections should include a complete review of new drugs and biotechnology agents pending FDA approval, drugs pending approval for new indications, and common unlabeled uses of expensive existing agents. Various methods are available for tracking drug-use patterns in specific practice settings. When resources are limited, pharmacy managers may elect to target only high-cost drugs; a proactive approach, such as projecting costs and developing guidelines for costly agents before their market release and before consideration by the pharmacy and therapeutics committee, is advantageous. Relevant legislative activities in 1995 included reform proposals for Medicare, Medicaid, and FDA; the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act; and GATT. Disease management and other approaches to pharmacy benefits have increased opportunities for cooperative arrangements between drug companies and health care providers that may have major effects on drug marketing and pricing. Combining

  10. Projecting future drug expenditures--1998.

    PubMed

    Mehl, B; Santell, J P

    1998-01-15

    Drug cost projections for 1998, factors that directly influence drug costs, and tools for projecting drug expenditures are discussed. The producer price index indicates that prices for drugs and pharmaceuticals increased 2.1% between January and June 1997; the increase for prescription preparations was 2.7%. Medi-Span data show an average increase for all drug products of 1.02% during the first six months of 1997; First Data-Bank reports a 1.7% increase for the same period. IMS America data, which take account of weighting for individual drugs or drug classes, show the prices of all drugs increasing 2.3% between the second quarters of 1996 and 1997. Drug industry analysts project the overall price increase in the next 12 months at 2-4%. Group purchasing organizations predict an average increase over the next 12 months of 0.56% for contracted drugs and 3.6% for noncontracted drugs. Various health care provider indexes suggest that increases in drug costs could be smaller over the next few years. The current trend of takeovers and mergers of pharmaceutical companies and health systems is likely to continue into 1998. As a result of generic competition and the loss of patent protection for many pharmaceutical products, the number of drugs to be introduced onto the market and the number of drugs in development are expected to escalate until the year 2000. These and other major changes in the health care environment, including changes in drug distribution and controversies over the use of formularies, will make future forecasting difficult. Compared with previous years, smaller increases in drug costs have been projected for 1998 and beyond, but changes in the health care environment mean that greater knowledge will be required to forecast future drug expenditures. PMID:9465976

  11. Expenditure patterns of older Americans, 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sudipto

    2012-02-01

    PRE- AND POSTRETIREMENT EXPENSES: Before retirement, people pay FICA taxes, incur work-related expenses, and set aside money for retirement. But after retirement, most people have different financial obligations, and, as a result, retirees may still be able to maintain their level of preretirement well-being with very different income levels. Studying income, expenditures, and wealth-holding patterns together provides a more complete idea of how people are doing in terms of being able to afford retirement than arbitrary estimates such as income replacement ratios. UNIQUE DATA: This Issue Brief examines the expenditure patterns of the older section of the population. It uses data from the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey (CAMS), a supplement to the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, contains detailed expenditure data on 32 categories, and follows the same group of individuals over eight years In addition, the income and wealth data available in the HRS are used to establish the financial standing of older households. DECLINING EXPENSES: Household expenses steadily decline with age. With the age 65 expenditure as a benchmark, household expenditure falls by 19 percent by age 75, 34 percent by age 85, and 52 percent by age 95. HOME EXPENSES: Home and home-related expenses remain the single largest spending category for older Americans. On average, those over age 50 spend around 40-45 percent of their budget on home and home-related items. RISING HEALTH CARE EXPENSES: Health-related expenses are the second-largest component in the budget of older Americans. It is the only component which steadily increases with age. Health care expenses capture around 10 percent of the budget for those between 50-64, but increase to about 20 percent for those age 85 and over. DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS: Singles, blacks, and high school dropouts do not have a sound financial standing in retirement. Their

  12. Hospital–Physician Affiliations and Patient Treatments, Expenditures, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between hospital–physician affiliations and the treatments, expenditures, and outcomes of patients. Data Sources Sources include the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review dataset, the American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey, and the Area Resource File (ARF). Study Design A multivariate regression analysis of the relationship between hospital–physician affiliations (such as physician–hospital organizations [PHOs] or salaried employment) and the treatment of Medicare patients with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction admitted to general medical-surgical hospitals between 1994 and 1998. Dependent variables include whether the patient received a catheterization or angioplasty or bypass surgery; whether a patient was readmitted, or died within 90 days of initial admission; and expenditures. Independent variables include patient, admission hospital, and market characteristics, as well as hospital and year fixed effects. Principal Findings The integrated salary model form of hospital–physician affiliation is associated with slightly higher procedure rates, and higher patient expenditures. At the same time, there is little evidence that hospital–physician affiliations in the aggregate have had any measurable impact on patient treatment or outcomes. Conclusions The limited effect of hospital–physician affiliations on patient outcomes is consistent with previous research showing that affiliations have not much changed the nature of health care delivery. However, the finding that the integrated salary model is associated with higher treatment intensity suggests that affiliations may have had some impact on patients, and could have more in the future. PMID:15032954

  13. 26 CFR 1.528-6 - Expenditure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Qualifying expenditures are expenditures by an organization for the acquisition, construction, management..., construction, management, maintenance or care of association property, shall constitute qualifying...

  14. 26 CFR 1.528-6 - Expenditure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Qualifying expenditures are expenditures by an organization for the acquisition, construction, management..., construction, management, maintenance or care of association property, shall constitute qualifying...

  15. 26 CFR 1.528-6 - Expenditure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Qualifying expenditures are expenditures by an organization for the acquisition, construction, management..., construction, management, maintenance or care of association property, shall constitute qualifying...

  16. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Langellier, Brent A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Methods Data were from 45,241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1) expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2) frequency of consumption of comida corrida/restaurant food and street food. Results Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (p<0.001 for all relationships in bivariate analyses). Conclusions Consumption of food prepared outside of the home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment. PMID:25629274

  17. Safety Panel Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore what resources are potentially available to safety panels and to provide some guidance on how to utilize those resources. While the examples used in this paper will concentrate on the Flight Equipment and Reliability Review Panel (FESRRP) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hardware that have come through that panel, as well as resources at Johnson Space Center, the paper will address how this applies to safety panels in general, and where possible cite examples for other safety panels.

  18. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

  19. Quiet Honeycomb Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Klos, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Sandwich honeycomb composite panels are lightweight and strong, and, therefore, provide a reasonable alternative to the aluminum ring frame/stringer architecture currently used for most aircraft airframes. The drawback to honeycomb panels is that they radiate noise into the aircraft cabin veil- efficiently provoking the need for additional sound treatment which adds weight and reduces the material's cost advantage. A series of honeycomb panels was made -hick incorporated different design strategies aimed at reducing the honeycomb panels' radiation efficiency while at the same time maintaining their strength. The majority of the designs were centered around the concept of creating areas of reduced stiffness in the panel by adding voids and recesses to the core. The effort culminated with a reinforced/recessed panel which had 6 dB higher transmission loss than the baseline solid core panel while maintaining comparable strength.

  20. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

  1. ICFA neutrino panel report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: "To promote international cooperation in the development of the accelerator-based neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments." In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel's findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel's initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  2. Household Expenditure for Dental Care in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Mohd; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent of household catastrophic expenditure in dental health care and its possible determinants in 41 low and middle income countries. Data from 182,007 respondents aged 18 years and over (69,315 in 18 low income countries, 59,645 in 15 lower middle income countries and 53,047 in 8 upper middle income countries) who participated in the WHO World Health Survey (WHS) were analyzed. Expenditure in dental health care was defined as catastrophic if it was equal to or higher than 40% of the household capacity to pay. A number of individual and country-level factors were assessed as potential determinants of catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE) in multilevel logistic regression with individuals nested within countries. Up to 7% of households in low and middle income countries faced CDHE in the last 4 weeks. This proportion rose up to 35% among households that incurred some dental health expenditure within the same period. The multilevel model showed that wealthier, urban and larger households and more economically developed countries had higher odds of facing CDHE. The results of this study show that payments for dental health care can be a considerable burden on households, to the extent of preventing expenditure on basic necessities. They also help characterize households more likely to incur catastrophic expenditure on dental health care. Alternative health care financing strategies and policies targeted to improve fairness in financial contribution are urgently required in low and middle income countries. PMID:25923691

  3. Household expenditure for dental care in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent of household catastrophic expenditure in dental health care and its possible determinants in 41 low and middle income countries. Data from 182,007 respondents aged 18 years and over (69,315 in 18 low income countries, 59,645 in 15 lower middle income countries and 53,047 in 8 upper middle income countries) who participated in the WHO World Health Survey (WHS) were analyzed. Expenditure in dental health care was defined as catastrophic if it was equal to or higher than 40% of the household capacity to pay. A number of individual and country-level factors were assessed as potential determinants of catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE) in multilevel logistic regression with individuals nested within countries. Up to 7% of households in low and middle income countries faced CDHE in the last 4 weeks. This proportion rose up to 35% among households that incurred some dental health expenditure within the same period. The multilevel model showed that wealthier, urban and larger households and more economically developed countries had higher odds of facing CDHE. The results of this study show that payments for dental health care can be a considerable burden on households, to the extent of preventing expenditure on basic necessities. They also help characterize households more likely to incur catastrophic expenditure on dental health care. Alternative health care financing strategies and policies targeted to improve fairness in financial contribution are urgently required in low and middle income countries. PMID:25923691

  4. Working Papers: Astronomy and Astrophysics Panel Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Beichman, Charles A.; Canizares, Claude; Cronin, James; Heeschen, David; Houck, James; Hunten, Donald; Mckee, Christopher F.; Noyes, Robert; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1991-01-01

    The papers of the panels appointed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics survey Committee are compiled. These papers were advisory to the survey committee and represent the opinions of the members of each panel in the context of their individual charges. The following subject areas are covered: radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, optical/IR from ground, UV-optical from space, interferometry, high energy from space, particle astrophysics, theory and laboratory astrophysics, solar astronomy, planetary astronomy, computing and data processing, policy opportunities, benefits to the nation from astronomy and astrophysics, status of the profession, and science opportunities.

  5. The Allocation of Federal Expenditures Among States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Maw Lin

    1967-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with the allocation offederal expenditures by states and examines the implications of theseexpenditures on the state by state distribution of incomes. Theallocation of federal expenditures is functionally oriented toward theobjectives for which various government programs are set up. Thegeographical distribution of federal expenditures, therefore, washistorically considered to be a problem incidental to governmentactivity. Because of this, relatively little attention was given tothe question of why some states receive more federal allocation thanothers. In addition, the implications of this pattern of allocationamong the several states have not been intensively investigated.

  6. Passing by the girls? Remittance allocation for educational expenditures and social inequality in Nepal's households 2003–2004.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Ann; Korinek, Kim

    2012-01-01

    We examine the utilization of remittances for expenditures associated with development, specifically children's education. We use household-level data from the Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS II, 2003–04) to separate remittance effects from general household income effects to demonstrate the migration–development relationship reflected in child schooling investment. We find that family-household remittances are spent on education of children, but the expenditures are disproportionately for boys' schooling. Only when girls are members of higher-income households do greater schooling expenditures go to them. This gender-discriminating pattern at the household level contrasts with the call for universal and gender-equal education. PMID:22741164

  7. Neuropathic pain phenotyping by international consensus (NeuroPPIC) for genetic studies: a NeuPSIG systematic review, Delphi survey, and expert panel recommendations.

    PubMed

    van Hecke, Oliver; Kamerman, Peter R; Attal, Nadine; Baron, Ralf; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bennett, David L H; Bennett, Michael I; Bouhassira, Didier; Diatchenko, Luda; Freeman, Roy; Freynhagen, Rainer; Haanpää, Maija; Jensen, Troels S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rice, Andrew S C; Seltzer, Zeʼev; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Yarnitsky, David; Smith, Blair H

    2015-11-01

    For genetic research to contribute more fully to furthering our knowledge of neuropathic pain, we require an agreed, valid, and feasible approach to phenotyping, to allow collaboration and replication in samples of sufficient size. Results from genetic studies on neuropathic pain have been inconsistent and have met with replication difficulties, in part because of differences in phenotypes used for case ascertainment. Because there is no consensus on the nature of these phenotypes, nor on the methods of collecting them, this study aimed to provide guidelines on collecting and reporting phenotypes in cases and controls for genetic studies. Consensus was achieved through a staged approach: (1) systematic literature review to identify all neuropathic pain phenotypes used in previous genetic studies; (2) Delphi survey to identify the most useful neuropathic pain phenotypes and their validity and feasibility; and (3) meeting of experts to reach consensus on the optimal phenotype(s) to be collected from patients with neuropathic pain for genetic studies. A basic "entry level" set of phenotypes was identified for any genetic study of neuropathic pain. This set identifies cases of "possible" neuropathic pain, and controls, and includes: (1) a validated symptom-based questionnaire to determine whether any pain is likely to be neuropathic; (2) body chart or checklist to identify whether the area of pain distribution is neuroanatomically logical; and (3) details of pain history (intensity, duration, any formal diagnosis). This NeuroPPIC "entry level" set of phenotypes can be expanded by more extensive and specific measures, as determined by scientific requirements and resource availability. PMID:26469320

  8. Neuropathic pain phenotyping by international consensus (NeuroPPIC) for genetic studies: a NeuPSIG systematic review, Delphi survey, and expert panel recommendations

    PubMed Central

    van Hecke, Oliver; Kamerman, Peter R.; Attal, Nadine; Baron, Ralf; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bennett, David L.H.; Bennett, Michael I.; Bouhassira, Didier; Diatchenko, Luda; Freeman, Roy; Freynhagen, Rainer; Haanpää, Maija; Jensen, Troels S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Seltzer, Ze'ev; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E.; Yarnitsky, David; Smith, Blair H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For genetic research to contribute more fully to furthering our knowledge of neuropathic pain, we require an agreed, valid, and feasible approach to phenotyping, to allow collaboration and replication in samples of sufficient size. Results from genetic studies on neuropathic pain have been inconsistent and have met with replication difficulties, in part because of differences in phenotypes used for case ascertainment. Because there is no consensus on the nature of these phenotypes, nor on the methods of collecting them, this study aimed to provide guidelines on collecting and reporting phenotypes in cases and controls for genetic studies. Consensus was achieved through a staged approach: (1) systematic literature review to identify all neuropathic pain phenotypes used in previous genetic studies; (2) Delphi survey to identify the most useful neuropathic pain phenotypes and their validity and feasibility; and (3) meeting of experts to reach consensus on the optimal phenotype(s) to be collected from patients with neuropathic pain for genetic studies. A basic “entry level” set of phenotypes was identified for any genetic study of neuropathic pain. This set identifies cases of “possible” neuropathic pain, and controls, and includes: (1) a validated symptom-based questionnaire to determine whether any pain is likely to be neuropathic; (2) body chart or checklist to identify whether the area of pain distribution is neuroanatomically logical; and (3) details of pain history (intensity, duration, any formal diagnosis). This NeuroPPIC “entry level” set of phenotypes can be expanded by more extensive and specific measures, as determined by scientific requirements and resource availability. PMID:26469320

  9. Earnings and Expenditures on Household Services in Married and Cohabiting Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treas, Judith; de Ruijter, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Despite the rise in women's paid employment, little is known about how women and their partners allocate money to outsource domestic tasks, especially in unmarried unions. Tobit analyses of 6,170 married and cohabiting couples in the 1998 Consumer Expenditure Survey test hypotheses that recognize gender inequality between partners, gender typing…

  10. Local and Categorical Inservice Expenditures in New York State 1970-71 and 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, S.; Van Ryn, M.

    In June of 1971 and of 1972, the New York State Department of Education's Division of Teacher Education and Certification, in cooperation with the Department's Information Center, undertook a survey of direct in-service expenditures by local school districts. Seven hundred and one of the state's 735 operating school districts (New York City and…

  11. Expenditure and Employment Data for the Criminal Justice System, 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    Specific data relating to public expenditure and employment for the criminal justice system in the United States are presented in tabular form in this annual survey report. Comprehensive data are supplied in 29 tables for the Federal Government, each of the 50 state governments, city, county, and other local subdivisions of government. Data are…

  12. Outsourcing the Gender Factory: Living Arrangements and Service Expenditures on Female and Male Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ruijter, Esther; Treas, Judith K.; Cohen, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey 1998, this study analyzes how much money different types of households spend for domestic services on "female" and "male" tasks. We test alternative hypotheses based on economic and sociological theories of gender differentiation. Contrary to arguments that marriage lowers the risk to one…

  13. National health expenditures: a global analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Govindaraj, R.; Musgrove, P.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the background research to the World development report 1993: investing in health, an effort was made to estimate public, private and total expenditures on health for all countries of the world. Estimates could be found for public spending for most countries, but for private expenditure in many fewer countries. Regressions were used to predict the missing values of regional and global estimates. These econometric exercises were also used to relate expenditure to measures of health status. In 1990 the world spent an estimated US$ 1.7 trillion (1.7 x 10(12) on health, or $1.9 trillion (1.9 x 10(12)) in dollars adjusted for higher purchasing power in poorer countries. This amount was about 60% public and 40% private in origin. However, as incomes rise, public health expenditure tends to displace private spending and to account for the increasing share of incomes devoted to health. PMID:7923542

  14. Fabrication of prepackaged superalloy honeycomb Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E.; Rosenthal, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    High temperature materials were surveyed, and Inconel 617 and titanium were selected for application to a honeycomb TPS configuration designed to withstand 2000 F. The configuration was analyzed both thermally and structurally. Component and full-sized panels were fabricated and tested to obtain data for comparison with analysis. Results verified the panel design. Twenty five panels were delivered to NASA Langley Research Center for additional evaluation.

  15. 42 CFR 403.754 - Monitoring expenditure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monitoring expenditure level. 403.754 Section 403..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.754 Monitoring expenditure level. (a) Tracking expenditures... between the trigger level and Medicare expenditures for a FFY results in a carry forward that...

  16. 45 CFR 304.25 - Treatment of expenditures; due date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of expenditures; due date. 304.25... HUMAN SERVICES FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.25 Treatment of expenditures; due date. (a) Treatment of expenditures. Expenditures are considered to be made on the date on which the...

  17. 11 CFR 9002.12 - Expenditure report period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expenditure report period. 9002.12 Section 9002... ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.12 Expenditure report period. Expenditure report period means, with... section, as appropriate. (a) In the case of a major party, the expenditure report period begins...

  18. 10 CFR 603.560 - Estimate of project expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimate of project expenditures. 603.560 Section 603.560... Business Evaluation Fixed-Support Or Expenditure-Based Approach § 603.560 Estimate of project expenditures... have confidence in the estimate of the expenditures required to achieve well-defined...

  19. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  20. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  1. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  2. Titanium Honeycomb Panel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-mechanical tests were performed on a titanium honeycomb sandwich panel to experimentally validate the hypersonic wing panel concept and compare test data with analysis. Details of the test article, test fixture development, instrumentation, and test results are presented. After extensive testing to 900 deg. F, non-destructive evaluation of the panel has not detected any significant structural degradation caused by the applied thermal-mechanical loads.

  3. Generalizing Observational Study Results: Applying Propensity Score Methods to Complex Surveys

    PubMed Central

    DuGoff, Eva H; Schuler, Megan; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo provide a tutorial for using propensity score methods with complex survey data. Data SourcesSimulated data and the 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Study DesignUsing simulation, we compared the following methods for estimating the treatment effect: a naïve estimate (ignoring both survey weights and propensity scores), survey weighting, propensity score methods (nearest neighbor matching, weighting, and subclassification), and propensity score methods in combination with survey weighting. Methods are compared in terms of bias and 95 percent confidence interval coverage. In Example 2, we used these methods to estimate the effect on health care spending of having a generalist versus a specialist as a usual source of care. Principal FindingsIn general, combining a propensity score method and survey weighting is necessary to achieve unbiased treatment effect estimates that are generalizable to the original survey target population. ConclusionsPropensity score methods are an essential tool for addressing confounding in observational studies. Ignoring survey weights may lead to results that are not generalizable to the survey target population. This paper clarifies the appropriate inferences for different propensity score methods and suggests guidelines for selecting an appropriate propensity score method based on a researcher’s goal. PMID:23855598

  4. Current Funds Revenues and Expenditures in Institutions of Higher Education: Fiscal Years 1983-1986. OERI Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Education Statistics (ED/OERI), Washington, DC.

    Findings from the Financial Statistics of Institutions of Higher Education Survey (conducted each fall as part of the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) are presented in 13 tables and a summary. Statistics show college and university current funds revenues and expenditures exceeded $100 billion for the first time in the fiscal…

  5. Academic R&D Expenditures Continue Real Growth Into 1977. Science Resources Studies Highlights, December 29, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report contains the findings of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Survey of Scientific and Engineering Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, FY 1977. The survey was mailed to 539 universities and colleges including all graduate-degree-granting institutions and all others that spent $50,000 or more for R&D activities. Estimates made…

  6. Real Growth Rate of Academic R&D Expenditures Slowed to 2% in FY 1981. Science Resources Studies Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report contains the findings of the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Survey of Scientific and Engineering Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, FY 1981. The survey was mailed to 563 universities and colleges, including all institutions that granted a graduate science or engineering (S/E) degree, as well as to academic institutions…

  7. The panel management questionnaire: a tool to measure panel management capability.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Elizabeth Ann; Hessler, Danielle; Dube, Kate; Willard-Grace, Rachel; Gupta, Reena; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Grumbach, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Primary care practices are turning toward team-based strategies such as panel management, in which nonclinicians address routine preventive and chronic disease care tasks for a group of patients. No known validated instruments have been published for measuring panel management implementation. The authors developed the 12-item Panel Management Questionnaire (PMQ) measuring 4 domains. Data were assembled from self-administered cross-sectional surveys of 136 staff and 204 clinicians in 9 county and 5 university adult primary care clinics. Staff and clinician PMQ scores in each clinic were correlated. The clinic-level median PMQ score was positively associated with a composite clinic quality measure. PMID:25785637

  8. Solar reflection panels

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W.; Reshetnik, Michael

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  9. PANEL LIBRARY AND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Library and Editor is a graphical user interface (GUI) builder for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation family. The toolkit creates "widgets" which can be manipulated by the user. Its appearance is similar to that of the X-Windows System. The Panel Library is written in C and is used by programmers writing user-friendly mouse-driven applications for the IRIS. GUIs built using the Panel Library consist of "actuators" and "panels." Actuators are buttons, dials, sliders, or other mouse-driven symbols. Panels are groups of actuators that occupy separate windows on the IRIS workstation. The application user can alter variables in the graphics program, or fire off functions with a click on a button. The evolution of data values can be tracked with meters and strip charts, and dialog boxes with text processing can be built. Panels can be stored as icons when not in use. The Panel Editor is a program used to interactively create and test panel library interfaces in a simple and efficient way. The Panel Editor itself uses a panel library interface, so all actions are mouse driven. Extensive context-sensitive on-line help is provided. Programmers can graphically create and test the user interface without writing a single line of code. Once an interface is judged satisfactory, the Panel Editor will dump it out as a file of C code that can be used in an application. The Panel Library (v9.8) and Editor (v1.1) are written in C-Language (63%) and Scheme, a dialect of LISP, (37%) for Silicon Graphics 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or higher. Approximately 10Mb of disk space is required once compiled. 1.5Mb of main memory is required to execute the panel editor. This program is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format for an IRIS, and includes a copy of XScheme, the public-domain Scheme interpreter used by the Panel Editor. The Panel Library Programmer's Manual is included on the distribution media. The Panel Library and

  10. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Expenditure on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Maulik P.; Zafonte, Ross D.; Sherman, Laura M.; Davis, Roger B.; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Shenton, Martha E.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuropsychiatric symptoms affect 37% of US adults. These symptoms are often refractory to standard therapies, and patients may consequently opt for complementary and alternative medicine therapies (CAM). We sought to determine the demand for CAM by those with neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to those without neuropsychiatric symptoms as measured by out-of-pocket expenditure. Method We compared CAM expenditure between US adults with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms (n = 23,393) using the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Symptoms included depression, anxiety, insomnia, attention deficits, headaches, excessive sleepiness, and memory loss. CAM was defined per guidelines from the National Institutes of Health as mind-body therapies, biological therapies, manipulation therapies, or alternative medical systems. Expenditure on CAM by those without neuropsychiatric symptoms was compared to those with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results Of the adults surveyed, 37% had ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom and spent $ 14.8 billion out-of-pocket on CAM. Those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom were more likely than those without neuropsychiatric symptoms to spend on CAM (27.4% vs 20.3%, P < .001). Likelihood to spend on CAM increased with number of symptoms (27.2% with ≥ 3 symptoms, P < .001). After adjustment was made for confounders using logistic regression, those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom remained more likely to spend on CAM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% Cl, 1.22–1.48), and the likelihood increased to 1.55 (95% Cl, 1.34–1.79) for ≥ 3 symptoms. Anxiety (OR = 1.40 [95% Cl, 1.22–1.60]) and excessive sleepiness (OR=1.36 [95% Cl, 1.21–1.54]) were the most closely associated with CAM expenditure. Conclusions Those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom had disproportionately higher demand for CAM than those without symptoms. Research regarding safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of CAM is limited; therefore, future research should evaluate

  11. Microgravity Science Research Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Bradley M.; Trinh, Eugene H.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Larson, David; Koss, Matthew; Ostrach, Simon

    2000-01-01

    This document is a transcription of the Microgravity Science Research Panel's discussion about their research and about some of the contributions that they feel have been important to the field during their time with the program. The panel includes Dr. Eugene Trinh, Dr. Lawrence DeLucas, Dr. Charles Bugg, Dr. David Larson, and Dr. Simon Ostrach.

  12. Flexible optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.

  13. The Review Panel Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalczykowski, Linda

    This paper is a practical guide for states planning to implement a review panel to enhance file maintenance in a career information system. It also describes successful methods employed in established review panels in California, Alaska, Washington, Massachusetts, Nebraska, Michigan, and Oregon. The first two brief sections introduce the purpose…

  14. SNP panels/Imputation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants from thirteen countries discussed services that Interbull can perform or recommendations that Interbull can make to promote harmonization and assist member countries in improving their genomic evaluations in regard to SNP panels and imputation. The panel recommended: A mechanism to shar...

  15. Full-scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell{trademark} burner retrofit: Addendum to long-term testing report, September 1994 outage: Examination of corrosion test panel and UT survey in DP&L Unit {number_sign}4

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, S.C.; Kleisley, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    As part of this DOE`s demonstration program, a corrosion test panel was installed on the west sidewall of Dayton Power & Light Unit no.4 at the J. M. Stuart Station (JMSS4) during the burner retrofit outage in November 1991. The test panel consisted of four sections of commercial coatings separated by bare SA213-T2 tubing. During the retrofit outage, a UT survey was performed to document the baseline wall thicknesses of the test panel, as well as several furnace wall areas outside the test panel. The purpose of the UT survey was to generate the baseline data so that the corrosion wastage associated with the operation of Low NO{sub x} Cell Burners (LNCB{trademark} burner) could be quantitatively determined. The corrosion test panel in JMSS4 was examined in April 1993 after the first 15-month operation of the LNCB{trademark} burners. Details of the corrosion analysis and UT data were documented in the Long-Term Testing Report. The second JMSS4 outage following the LNCB{trademark} burner retrofit took place in September 1944. Up to this point, the test panel in JMSS4 had been exposed to the corrosive combustion environment for approximately 31 months under normal boiler operation of JMSS4. This test period excluded the down time for the April 1993 outage. During the September 1994 outage, 70 tube samples of approximately one-foot length were cut from the bottom of the test panel. These samples were evaluated by the Alliance Research Center of B&W using the same metallurgical techniques as those employed for the previous outage. In addition, UT measurements were taken on the same locations of the lower furnace walls in JMSS4 as those during the prior outages. Results of the metallurgical analyses and UT surveys from different exposure times were compared, and the long-term performance of waterwall materials was analyzed. The corrosion data obtained from the long-term field study at JMSS4 after 32 months of LNCB{trademark} burner operation are summarized in this report.

  16. 76 FR 56973 - Elections Regarding Start-Up Expenditures, Corporation Organizational Expenditures, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Wednesday, August 17, 2011 (76 FR 50887) relating to elections to deduct start-up expenditures... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BE77 Elections Regarding Start-Up Expenditures,...

  17. The Roles of Public Higher Education Expenditure and the Privatization of the Higher Education on U.S. States Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curs, Bradley R.; Bhandari, Bornali; Steiger, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Previous empirical literature finds that government expenditure on higher education has a negative, or null, effect on U.S. economic growth rates. This empirical result may be driven by omission of an important variable--the privatization of higher education. Using state-level panel data from 1970 to 2005, this analysis investigates whether the…

  18. Medicine and democracy: The importance of institutional quality in the relationship between health expenditure and health outcomes in the MENA region.

    PubMed

    Bousmah, Marwân-Al-Qays; Ventelou, Bruno; Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Evidence suggests that the effect of health expenditure on health outcomes is highly context-specific and may be driven by other factors. We construct a panel dataset of 18 countries from the Middle East and North Africa region for the period 1995-2012. Panel data models are used to estimate the macro-level determinants of health outcomes. The core finding of the paper is that increasing health expenditure leads to health outcomes improvements only to the extent that the quality of institutions within a country is sufficiently high. The sensitivity of the results is assessed using various measures of health outcomes as well as institutional variables. Overall, it appears that increasing health care expenditure in the MENA region is a necessary but not sufficient condition for health outcomes improvements. PMID:27370915

  19. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  20. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  1. ICFA neutrino panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2015-07-15

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: <<>>In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel’s findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel’s initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  2. The determinants of Chinese provincial government health expenditures: evidence from 2002-2006 data.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jay; Liu, Gordon G

    2012-07-01

    There is great divergence in provincial government health expenditures in China. Real per capita provincial government health expenditures (GHE) over the period 2002-2006 are examined using panel regression analysis. Key determinants of real per capita provincial GHE are real provincial per capita general budget revenue, real provincial per capita transfers from the central government, the proportion of provincial population under age 15, urban employee basic health insurance coverage, and proportion of urban population. Roughly equal and relatively low elasticities of budget revenue and transfers imply that the GHE is a necessity rather than a luxury good, and transfers have yet to become efficient instruments for the fair allocation of health resources by policy makers. Moreover, severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak has increased the GHE, but we find no statistical evidence that provincial GHE have fluctuated according to the public health status. PMID:21560182

  3. High-Need, High-Cost Patients: Who Are They and How Do They Use Health Care? A Population-Based Comparison of Demographics, Health Care Use, and Expenditures.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Susan L; Salzberg, Claudia A; McCarthy, Douglas; Radley, David C; Abrams, Melinda K; Shah, Tanya; Anderson, Gerard F

    2016-08-01

    Issue: Finding ways to improve outcomes and reduce spending for patients with complex and costly care needs requires an understanding of their unique needs and characteristics. Goal: Examine demographics and health care spending and use of services among adults with high needs, defined as people who have three or more chronic diseases and a functional limitation in their ability to care for themselves or perform routine daily tasks. Methods: Analysis of data from the 2009–2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Key findings: High-need adults differed notably from adults with multiple chronic diseases but no functional limitations. They had average annual health care expenditures that were nearly three times higher—and which were more likely to remain high over two years of observation—and out-of-pocket expenses that were more than a third higher, despite their lower incomes. Rates of hospital use for high-need adults were more than twice those for adults with multiple chronic conditions only; high-need adults also visited the doctor more frequently and used more home health care. Costs and use of services also varied widely within the high-need group. Conclusion: These findings suggest that interventions should be targeted and tailored to high-need individuals most likely to benefit. PMID:27571599

  4. 26 CFR 56.4911-8 - Excess lobbying expenditures of affiliated group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... expenditures, lobbying expenditures, and grass roots expenditures of an affiliated group of organizations, and... 4911(a). For any taxable year of the affiliated group, the group's lobbying expenditures, grass roots expenditures, and exempt purpose expenditures are equal to the sum of the lobbying expenditures, grass...

  5. 26 CFR 56.4911-8 - Excess lobbying expenditures of affiliated group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... expenditures, lobbying expenditures, and grass roots expenditures of an affiliated group of organizations, and... 4911(a). For any taxable year of the affiliated group, the group's lobbying expenditures, grass roots expenditures, and exempt purpose expenditures are equal to the sum of the lobbying expenditures, grass...

  6. 26 CFR 56.4911-8 - Excess lobbying expenditures of affiliated group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... expenditures, lobbying expenditures, and grass roots expenditures of an affiliated group of organizations, and... 4911(a). For any taxable year of the affiliated group, the group's lobbying expenditures, grass roots expenditures, and exempt purpose expenditures are equal to the sum of the lobbying expenditures, grass...

  7. 26 CFR 56.4911-8 - Excess lobbying expenditures of affiliated group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... expenditures, lobbying expenditures, and grass roots expenditures of an affiliated group of organizations, and... 4911(a). For any taxable year of the affiliated group, the group's lobbying expenditures, grass roots expenditures, and exempt purpose expenditures are equal to the sum of the lobbying expenditures, grass...

  8. 26 CFR 56.4911-8 - Excess lobbying expenditures of affiliated group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... expenditures, lobbying expenditures, and grass roots expenditures of an affiliated group of organizations, and... 4911(a). For any taxable year of the affiliated group, the group's lobbying expenditures, grass roots expenditures, and exempt purpose expenditures are equal to the sum of the lobbying expenditures, grass...

  9. Health insurance for the poor: impact on catastrophic and out-of-pocket health expenditures in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Galárraga, Omar; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Sesma-Vázquez, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Seguro Popular (SP) in Mexico was to improve the financial protection of the uninsured population against excessive health expenditures. This paper estimates the impact of SP on catastrophic health expenditures (CHE), as well as out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures, from two different sources. First, we use the SP Impact Evaluation Survey (2005–2006), and compare the instrumental variables (IV) results with the experimental benchmark. Then, we use the same IV methods with the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006). We estimate naïve models, assuming exogeneity, and contrast them with IV models that take advantage of the specific SP implementation mechanisms for identification. The IV models estimated included two-stage least squares (2SLS), bivariate probit, and two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI) models. Instrumental variables estimates resulted in comparable estimates against the “gold standard.” Instrumental variables estimates indicate a reduction of 54% in catastrophic expenditures at the national level. SP beneficiaries also had lower expenditures on outpatient and medicine expenditures. The selection-corrected protective effect is found not only in the limited experimental dataset, but also at the national level. PMID:19756796

  10. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  11. Energy consumption and expenditure projections by population group on the basis on the annual energy outlook 2000 forecast.

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D. A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-05-31

    The changes in the patterns of energy use and expenditures by population group are analyzed by using the 1993 and 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Surveys. Historically, these patterns have differed among non-Hispanic White households, non-Hispanic Black households, and Hispanic households. Patterns of energy use and expenditures are influenced by geographic and metropolitan location, the composition of housing stock, economic and demographic status, and the composition of energy use by end-use category. As a consequence, as energy-related factors change across groups, patterns of energy use and expenditures also change. Over time, with changes in the composition of these factors by population group and their variable influences on energy use, the impact on energy use and expenditures has varied across these population groups.

  12. Flutter Research on Skin Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordes, Eldon E.; Tuovila, Weimer J.; Guy, Lawrence D.

    1960-01-01

    Representative experimental results are presented to show the current status of the panel flutter problem. Results are presented for unstiffened rectangular panels and for rectangular panels stiffened by corrugated backing. Flutter boundaries are established for all types of panels when considered on the basis of equivalent isotropic plates. The effects of Mach number, differential pressure, and aerodynamic heating on panel flutter are discussed. A flutter analysis of orthotropic panels is presented in the appendix.

  13. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-3 - Election to deduct or capitalize certain expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... expenditures). (5) Section 179 (election to expense certain depreciable business assets). (6) Section 180...). (10) Section 615 (exploration expenditures). (11) Section 616 (development expenditures)....

  14. POPOVER Review Panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Davito, A.; Baker, C.J.; King, C.J.; Costerus, B.; Nelson, T.; Prokosch, D.; Pastrnak, J.; Grace, P.

    1996-04-10

    The POPOVER series of high explosive (HE) certification tests was conducted at the Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF) in Area 4 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The two primary objectives of POPOVER were to certify that: (1) BEEF meets DOE requirements for explosives facilities and is safe for personnel-occupied operations during testing of large charges of conventional HE. (2) Facility structures and equipment will function as intended when subjected to the effects of these charges. After careful analysis of test results, the POPOVER Review Panel concludes that the POPOVER series met both objectives. Further details on the Review Panel`s conclusions are included in Section 7--Findings and Recommendations.

  15. 75 FR 27000 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on June 3-4, 2010. The hearing... incidence of rape, respectively, based on an anonymous survey by the BJS of youth in a representative...

  16. 76 FR 20711 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Office of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on April 26-27, 2011. The... rape, respectively, based on an anonymous survey by the BJS of inmates in a representative sample of...

  17. DataView: National Health Expenditures, 1994

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Katharine R.; Lazenby, Helen C.; Sivarajan, Lekha; Stewart, Madie W.; Braden, Bradley R.; Cowan, Cathy A.; Donham, Carolyn S.; Long, Anna M.; McDonnell, Patricia A.; Sensenig, Arthur L.; Stiller, Jean M.; Won, Darleen K.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents data on health care spending for the United States, covering expenditures for various types of medical services and products and their sources of funding from 1960 to 1994. Although these statistics for 1994 show the slowest growth in more than three decades, health spending continued to grow faster than the overall economy. The Federal Government continued to fund an increasing share of health care expenditures in 1994, offset by a falling share from out-of-pocket sources. Shares paid by State and local governments and by other private payers including private health insurance remained unchanged from 1993. PMID:10158731

  18. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  19. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  20. Returns on investment in public health: effect of public health expenditures on infant health, 1983-1990.

    PubMed

    Becker, E R; Principe, K; Adams, E K; Teutsch, S M

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we developed a broad conceptual framework focusing on how public health expenditures impact the nation's health. We then applied this framework to infant health outcomes and, using an eight-year state panel database, empirically analyzed how state public health expenditures, ceteris paribus, impact a state's level of teenage births and the receipt of prenatal care. Two hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis 1 states that over time, public health expenditures and public health activities, ceteris paribus, significantly decrease births to mothers less than 20 years of age. Hypothesis 2 states that over time, public health expenditures and public health activities, ceteris paribus, significantly decrease the number of infants whose mothers received late or no prenatal care. We find support for both hypotheses but observe that the way public health expenditures are measured has an impact on the findings. Other important implications of the study are noted. To our knowledge, this is the first article that has taken an aggregate state perspective over time and applied it to specific measures of infant health. PMID:9718507

  1. How do smokers control their cigarette expenditures?

    PubMed

    White, Victoria M; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2005-08-01

    When faced with high cigarette prices, smokers can potentially control cigarette expenditures by limiting consumption or seeking cheaper cigarettes. The present study examined both these options and whether the use of price-minimizing strategies (the second option) could counteract a further price increase without smokers having to reduce consumption. Data for 5,109 smokers who purchased manufactured cigarettes were from the 2002 cross-sectional, population-based, random-digit-dialed California Tobacco Survey. We used logistic regression to examine which smokers used consumption-limiting or price-minimizing strategies, and multiple linear regression to determine how much price-minimizing strategies reduced the average price paid per pack. Overall, 32.3% of California smokers said they limited consumption and 74.1% used at least one of the five price-minimizing strategies identified: choosing cheaper retail outlets (61.1%), using promotional offers (35.2%), choosing cheaper brands (28.7%), purchasing by the carton (27.7%), and using low-tax or nontaxed sources (6.3%). Different groups of smokers used different strategies. Except for the use of promotional offers, all price-minimizing strategies significantly reduced the price paid per pack. Carton purchasers saved 1.01 US dollars/pack, and those buying from low-tax or nontaxed sources saved 1.23 US dollars/pack. However, pack buyers were reluctant to purchase cartons, mostly because they thought they might smoke too much, or because they considered the upfront cost unaffordable. The average California smoker could potentially save 0.33-0.66 US dollars/pack or 6.00-12.00 US dollars/month by using other price-minimizing strategies. Reducing consumption by 3 cigarettes/day could save a smoker 18.00 US dollars/month. Whereas price-minimizing strategies appeared to save money, cutting consumption could save even more. Thus further substantial tax increases would likely have the desired effect. PMID:16085532

  2. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  3. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    MedlinePlus

    A comprehensive metabolic panel is a group of blood tests. They provide an overall picture of your body's chemical balance and metabolism. Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes ...

  4. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider diagnose ...

  5. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: CMP; Chem 12; Chemistry Panel; Chemistry Screen; SMA 12; SMA 20; SMAC (somewhat outdated ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  6. BMP (Basic Metabolic Panel)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Was this page helpful? Also known as: BMP; Chemistry Panel; Chemistry Screen; Chem 7; SMA 7; SMAC7 (somewhat outdated ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  7. The influence of health expenditures on household impoverishment in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Posenato, Leila Garcia; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation in the proportion of households living below the poverty line in Brazil and the factors associated with their impoverishment. METHODS Income and expenditure data from the Household Budget Survey, which was conducted in Brazil between 2002-2003 (n = 48,470 households) and 2008-2009 (n = 55,970 households) with a national sample, were analyzed. Two cutoff points were used to define poverty. The first cutoff is a per capita monthly income below R$100.00 in 2002-2003 and R$140.00 in 2008-2009, as recommended by the Bolsa Família Program. The second, which is proposed by the World Bank and is adjusted for purchasing power parity, defines poverty as per capita income below US$2.34 and US$3.54 per day in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, respectively. Logistic regression was used to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the impoverishment of households. RESULTS After subtracting health expenditures, there was an increase in households living below the poverty line in Brazil. Using the World Bank poverty line, the increase in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 was 2.6 percentage points (6.8%) and 2.3 percentage points (11.6%), respectively. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the increase was 1.6 (11.9%) and 1.3 (17.3%) percentage points, respectively. Expenditure on prescription drugs primarily contributed to the increase in poor households. According to the World Bank poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation, a household headed by an individual with low education, the presence of children, and the absence of older adults. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation and the presence of children. CONCLUSIONS Health expenditures play an important role in the impoverishment of segments of the Brazilian population, especially among the most disadvantaged. PMID:25372171

  8. Pop-Art Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    James Rosenquist's giant Pop-art panels included realistic renderings of well-known contemporary foods and objects, juxtaposed with famous people in the news--largely from the 1960s, '70s and '80s--and really serve as visual time capsules. In this article, eighth-graders focus on the style of James Rosenquist to create their own Pop-art panel that…

  9. Photovoltaic panel support assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.M.; Underwood, J.C.; Shingleton, J.

    1993-07-20

    A solar energy electrical power source is described comprising in combination at least two flat photovoltaic panels disposed side-by-side in co-planar relation with one another, a pivot shaft extending transversely across the panels, at least two supports spaced apart lengthwise of the pivot shaft, means for connecting the pivot shaft to the at least two supports, attachment means for connecting the at least two panels to the pivot shaft so that the panels can pivot about the longitudinal axis of the shaft, coupling means mechanically coupling all of the panels together so as to form a unified flat array, and selectively operable drive means for mechanically pivoting the unified flat array about the axis; wherein each of the flat photovoltaic panels comprises at least two modules each comprising a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells, the at least two modules being aligned along a line extending at a right angle to the pivot shaft, and the coupling means comprises (a) an elongate member extending parallel to and spaced from the pivot shaft and (b) means for attaching the elongate member to the panels; and further wherein each flat photovoltaic panel comprises a unitary frame consisting of a pair of end frame members extending parallel to the pivot shaft, a pair of side frame members extending between and connected to the end frame members, and a pair of spaced apart cross frame members, with one of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and a first one of each of the end and cross frame members, and the other of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and the second one of each of the end and cross frame members, whereby the gap created by the spaced apart cross frame members allow air to pass between them in order to reduce the sail effect when the solar array is subjected to buffeting winds.

  10. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  11. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  12. Hexagon solar power panel

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Irwin

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel comprises a support upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  13. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  14. Using the Consumer Expenditure Survey to Teach Poverty Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diduch, Amy McCormick

    2012-01-01

    Poverty measurement is often controversial, but good public policy relies crucially on a broadly supported and understood poverty measure. In 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau announced it would begin regular reporting of a new supplemental poverty measure in October 2011. The present article provides background information for a student exercise…

  15. Lightweight composite reflector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.; Mcelroy, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Hexel Corp. has produced additional composite panels, based on JPL designs, that: (1) have increased the panel size from 0.15 to 0.40 meters, (2) have improved the as-manufactured surface precision 3.0 to approx. 1.0 micron RMS, (3) have utilized different numbers of face sheet plys, (4) have improved face sheet fiber orientation, (5) have variations of aluminum honeycomb core cell size, (6) have combined graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) face sheets with E-glass honeycomb cores, and (7) have used standard aluminum core with face sheets composed of combinations of glass, Kevlar, and carbon fibers. Additionally, JPL has identified candidate alternate materials for the facesheets and core, modified the baseline polymer panel matrix material, and developed new concepts for panel composite cores. Dornier designed and fabricated three 0.6 meter Gr/Ep panels, that were evaluated by JPL. Results of both the Hexel and Dornier panel work were used to characterize the state-of-the-art for Gr/Ep mirrors.

  16. Expenditures on Children by Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lino, Mark

    2002-01-01

    From 1960 to 2000, total expenses to rear a rural child to age 18 increased in real terms. Food expenses decreased, but child care and educational expenses increased more. Details are presented on child-rearing expenditures by low-, middle-, and higher-income rural and urban families on housing, food, transportation, clothing, health care, child…

  17. 18 CFR 154.402 - ACA expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false ACA expenditures. 154.402 Section 154.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... adjustment clause (ACA clause). Prior to the start of each fiscal year, the Commission will post on its...

  18. Social welfare expenditures, fiscal year 1976.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, A M; Dales, S R

    1977-01-01

    In 1976, for the second fiscal year in a row, public expenditures for social welfare purposes expanded at an abnormally high rate. Even after adjusting the 16-percent increase in aggregate expenditures for price and population changes, the 8-percent real growth rate proves to be the highest since 1971. The $45 billion rise in social welfare expenditures to a total of $331 billion reflects the effects of both recession and inflation. Benefits for the needy and the unemployed continued to expand at the same time that higher prices triggered cost-of-living adjustments in cash benefit programs and helped swell the cost of furnishing other social welfare services. A further reflection of this growth is the rise in the proportion of the Nation's gross national product devoted to social welfare expenditures from 19.7 percent in 1975 to 20.6 percent in 1976. The latter proportion becomes 27.5 percent when private social welfare spending is included. PMID:403620

  19. Factors potentially influencing aminoglycoside use and expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    DiPiro, J.T.; Kilsdonk, G.F.; Amerson, A.B.; Record, K.E.

    1982-07-01

    Factors that may have influenced aminoglycoside use and expenditure in one hospital were examined. Factors that were evaluated as to their influence on aminoglycoside-use patterns were: (1) formulary status; (2) bacterial susceptibility patterns; (3) identified or perceived differences in toxicity; (4) changes in patient population; (5) price paid by the hospital for aminoglycosides; (6) distribution of newsletters or memoranda; (7) advertising and detailing; and (8) pharmacy policies. For FY 1976-77 to 1979-80, the largest proportion of aminoglycoside expense was for gentamicin. During FY 1980-81, the expenditure for gentamicin decreased and tobramycin accounted for the largest proportion of total expenditure. Monthly gentamicin use decreased 20% during FY 1980-81 from the previous year. Tobramycin use increased from January 1979 to November 1980 and decreased from December 1980 to June 1981. Kanamycin use and amikacin use were fairly constant during the study period. Based on temporal relationships, the following factors appeared to influence aminoglycoside use and expenditure: (1) a study conducted at the institution from June 1977 to June 1979 comparing gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity; (2) a comparative nephrotoxicity study published in a widely circulated medical journal in May 1980; and (3) an intramural newsletter and memorandum distributed in March 1981 encouraging selective aminoglycoside use. The identification of factors that potentially influenced aminoglycoside use can be used to anticipate the future impact of similar events and to devise strategies to influence antimicrobial use.

  20. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  1. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  2. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  3. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  4. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  5. Modeling Imports in a Keynesian Expenditure Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The author discusses several issues that instructors of introductory macroeconomics courses should consider when introducing imports in the Keynesian expenditure model. The analysis suggests that the specification of the import function should partially, if not completely, be the result of a simple discussion about the spending and import…

  6. High Throughput Danio Rerio Energy Expenditure Assay.

    PubMed

    Williams, Savannah Y; Renquist, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish are an important model organism with inherent advantages that have the potential to make zebrafish a widely applied model for the study of energy homeostasis and obesity. The small size of zebrafish allows for assays on embryos to be conducted in a 96- or 384-well plate format, Morpholino and CRISPR based technologies promote ease of genetic manipulation, and drug treatment by bath application is viable. Moreover, zebrafish are ideal for forward genetic screens allowing for novel gene discovery. Given the relative novelty of zebrafish as a model for obesity, it is necessary to develop tools that fully exploit these benefits. Herein, we describe a method to measure energy expenditure in thousands of embryonic zebrafish simultaneously. We have developed a whole animal microplate platform in which we use 96-well plates to isolate individual fish and we assess cumulative NADH2 production using the commercially available cell culture viability reagent alamarBlue. In poikilotherms the relationship between NADH2 production and energy expenditure is tightly linked. This energy expenditure assay creates the potential to rapidly screen pharmacological or genetic manipulations that directly alter energy expenditure or alter the response to an applied drug (e.g. insulin sensitizers). PMID:26863590

  7. Can Education Expenditures Reduce Income Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether devoting more resources to education can positively affect the distribution of income within a country. Finds that public-education expenditures appear to be associated with a subsequent decrease in the level of income inequality. Finding is robust to the inclusion of various control variables and appears to be larger in…

  8. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  9. Resting energy expenditure is not influenced by classical music

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Ebba; Helgegren, Hannah; Slinde, Frode

    2005-01-01

    Obesity shows an increasing prevalence worldwide and a decrease in energy expenditure has been suggested to be one of the risk factors for developing obesity. An increase in resting energy expenditure would have a great impact on total energy expenditure. This study shows that classical music do not influence resting energy expenditure compared to complete silence. Further studies should be performed including other genres of music and other types of stress-inductors than music. PMID:16135245

  10. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they meet... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count...

  11. 18 CFR 154.401 - RD&D expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false RD&D expenditures. 154....401 RD&D expenditures. (a) Requirements. Upon approval by the Commission, a natural gas company may file to recover research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) expenditures in its rates under...

  12. 18 CFR 154.401 - RD&D expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false RD&D expenditures. 154....401 RD&D expenditures. (a) Requirements. Upon approval by the Commission, a natural gas company may file to recover research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) expenditures in its rates under...

  13. 18 CFR 154.401 - RD&D expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false RD&D expenditures. 154....401 RD&D expenditures. (a) Requirements. Upon approval by the Commission, a natural gas company may file to recover research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) expenditures in its rates under...

  14. 18 CFR 154.401 - RD&D expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false RD&D expenditures. 154....401 RD&D expenditures. (a) Requirements. Upon approval by the Commission, a natural gas company may file to recover research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) expenditures in its rates under...

  15. Health care expenditure in Sweden--an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Jönsson, B

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyses health care expenditure in Sweden and compares this with the corresponding expenditure in OECD countries. The definition and measurement problems of health care expenditure are discussed, new figures for the development of health care expenditure are presented and different measures of health care expenditure are provided. We found that health care expenditure has increased by about 20% in constant prices for Sweden between 1980 and 1988, but that health care expenditure as a share of the GDP has dropped during the same period in current prices. Health care expenditure disaggregated on different age groups show for Sweden that in the age group 15-64 years, health care expenditure has not increased in constant prices between 1976 and 1985, but in the oldest age group, health care expenditure has increased considerable during this period. Health care expenditure in Sweden is as high as would be expected, taking into account the degree of economic development and the growth of expenditure during the 80s, and has followed that in comparable OECD countries. However, the relative price is lower, which means that the input of real resources are greater than in other countries. PMID:10115993

  16. Local School Expenditures and Educational Quality: A Correlation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Thomas F.; Krahmer, Edward F.

    Twenty-four expenditure variables were correlated with achievement scores on the Iowa Test of Educational Development to find out how various types of expenditures were related to educational quality. The expenditure variables (instructional cost, operating cost less transportation, and total costs) were used as numerators in a fraction. The…

  17. 10 CFR 603.560 - Estimate of project expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Business Evaluation Fixed-Support Or Expenditure-Based Approach § 603.560 Estimate of project expenditures. (a) To use a fixed-support TIA, rather than an expenditure-based TIA, the contracting officer must... than 40% and the contracting officer could set a fixed level of Federal support at $320,000 (40%...

  18. 10 CFR 603.560 - Estimate of project expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Business Evaluation Fixed-Support Or Expenditure-Based Approach § 603.560 Estimate of project expenditures. (a) To use a fixed-support TIA, rather than an expenditure-based TIA, the contracting officer must... than 40% and the contracting officer could set a fixed level of Federal support at $320,000 (40%...

  19. 10 CFR 603.560 - Estimate of project expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Business Evaluation Fixed-Support Or Expenditure-Based Approach § 603.560 Estimate of project expenditures. (a) To use a fixed-support TIA, rather than an expenditure-based TIA, the contracting officer must... than 40% and the contracting officer could set a fixed level of Federal support at $320,000 (40%...

  20. 10 CFR 603.560 - Estimate of project expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Business Evaluation Fixed-Support Or Expenditure-Based Approach § 603.560 Estimate of project expenditures. (a) To use a fixed-support TIA, rather than an expenditure-based TIA, the contracting officer must... than 40% and the contracting officer could set a fixed level of Federal support at $320,000 (40%...

  1. 26 CFR 1.194-1 - Amortization of reforestation expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of reforestation expenditures. 1....194-1 Amortization of reforestation expenditures. (a) In general. Section 194 allows a taxpayer to elect to amortize over an 84-month period, up to $10,000 of reforestation expenditures (as defined...

  2. 26 CFR 53.4945-1 - Taxes on taxable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... foundation manager to the making of a taxable expenditure by a private foundation. This tax is imposed only... authorized to approve, or to exercise discretion in recommending approval of, the making of the expenditure... foundation manager to the making of a taxable expenditure shall consist of any manifestation of approval...

  3. 26 CFR 53.4945-1 - Taxes on taxable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... foundation manager to the making of a taxable expenditure by a private foundation. This tax is imposed only... authorized to approve, or to exercise discretion in recommending approval of, the making of the expenditure... foundation manager to the making of a taxable expenditure shall consist of any manifestation of approval...

  4. 25 CFR 117.14 - Miscellaneous expenditure of surplus funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous expenditure of surplus funds. 117.14... AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.14 Miscellaneous expenditure of surplus funds. Upon application by an...

  5. 29 CFR 452.78 - Expenditures by employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenditures by employers. 452.78 Section 452.78 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.78 Expenditures by employers. (a) As an additional safeguard... as direct expenditures. Thus, for example, campaigning by union stewards on company time with...

  6. 32 CFR 37.1285 - Expenditure-based award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenditure-based award. 37.1285 Section 37.1285... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1285 Expenditure... expenditure-based awards....

  7. 11 CFR 115.6 - Employee contributions or expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee contributions or expenditures. 115.6... contributions or expenditures. Nothing in this part shall prohibit the stockholders, officers, or employees of a... contributions or expenditures from their personal assets....

  8. 42 CFR 457.230 - FFP for State ADP expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures regarding the availability of FFP for ADP expenditures are in 45 CFR part 74, 45 CFR part 95... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP for State ADP expenditures. 457.230 Section 457...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.230 FFP for State ADP expenditures. FFP is available for...

  9. 10 CFR 603.1265 - Expenditures or outlays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expenditures or outlays. 603.1265 Section 603.1265 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1265 Expenditures or outlays. Charges made to the project or program. They may... prepared on a . . . Expenditures are the sum of . . . (a) Cash basis (1) Cash disbursements for...

  10. 44 CFR 206.344 - Limitations on Federal expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... expenditures. 206.344 Section 206.344 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.344 Limitations on Federal expenditures. Except as provided in §§ 206.345 and 206.346, no new expenditures or financial assistance may be made available under authority of the Stafford Act for any...

  11. 26 CFR 53.4945-6 - Expenditures for noncharitable purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenditures for noncharitable purposes. 53... Expenditures § 53.4945-6 Expenditures for noncharitable purposes. (a) In general. Under section 4945(d)(5) the term “taxable expenditure” includes any amount paid or incurred by a private foundation for any...

  12. 12 CFR 34.86 - Additional expenditures and notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional expenditures and notification. 34.86... LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.86 Additional expenditures and notification. (a) Additional expenditures on OREO. For OREO that is a development or improvement project, a national bank...

  13. 17 CFR 256.188 - Research, development, or demonstration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... demonstration expenditures. 256.188 Section 256.188 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... demonstration expenditures. (a) The service company shall utilize this account, where appropriate, for the cost of all expenditures for research, development or demonstration undertaken by or sponsored through...

  14. 48 CFR 47.403-3 - Disallowance of expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disallowance of expenditures. 47.403-3 Section 47.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... expenditures. (a) Agencies shall disallow expenditures for U.S. Government-financed commercial...

  15. 10 CFR 603.1260 - Expenditure-based award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expenditure-based award. 603.1260 Section 603.1260 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1260 Expenditure-based award. A Federal Government assistance award for which... and cooperative agreements are expenditure-based awards....

  16. 42 CFR 403.750 - Estimate of expenditures and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimate of expenditures and adjustments. 403.750...-Benefits, Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.750 Estimate of expenditures and adjustments. (a) Estimates. CMS estimates the level of expenditures for services provided under this subpart before the...

  17. Educational Expenditures in Thailand: Development, Trends, and Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarik, Danuvas

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to investigate the trends of education expenditure policy during the past few decades, as well as the recent allocation and distribution of education expenditure in Thailand. It also focuses on the development of the substance of education policy in Thailand. Political connection with the education expenditure policy is also…

  18. Health care utilization in the elderly Mexican population: Expenditures and determinants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide population aging has been considered one of the most important demographic phenomena, and is frequently referred as a determinant of health costs and expenditures. These costs are an effect either of the aging process itself (social) or because of the increase that comes with older age (individual). Objective To analyze health expenditures and its determinants in a sample of Mexican population, for three dimensions acute morbidity, ambulatory care and hospitalization focusing on different age groups, particularly the elderly. Methods A secondary analysis of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT), 2006 was conducted. A descriptive analysis was performed to establish a health profile by socio-demographic characteristics. Logistic regression models were estimated to determine the relation between acute morbidity, ambulatory care, hospitalization and age group; to establish the determinants of hospitalization among the population 60 years and older; and to determine hospitalization expenditures by age. Results Higher proportion of elderly reporting health problems was found. Average expenditures of hospitalization in households were $240.6 am dlls, whereas in households exclusively with elderly the expenditure was $308.9 am dlls, the highest among the considered age groups. The multivariate analysis showed higher probability of being hospitalized among the elderly, but not for risks for acute morbidity and ambulatory care. Among the elderly, older age, being male or living in a city or in a metro area implied a higher probability of hospitalization during the last year, with chronic diseases playing a key role in hospitalization. Conclusions The conditions associated with age, such as chronic diseases, have higher weight than age itself; therefore, they are responsible for the higher expenditures reported. Conclusions point towards a differentiated use and intensity of health services depending on age. The projected increase in

  19. The effect of economic insecurity on mental health: Recent evidence from Australian panel data.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Nicholas; Tang, K K; Osberg, Lars; Rao, Prasada

    2016-02-01

    This paper estimates the impact of economic insecurity on the mental health of Australian adults. Taking microdata from the 2001-2011 HILDA panel survey, we develop a conceptually diverse set of insecurity measures and explore their relationships with the SF-36 mental health index. By using fixed effects models that control for unobservable heterogeneity we produce estimates that correct for endogeneity more thoroughly than previous works. Our results show that exposure to economic risks has small but consistently detrimental mental health effects. The main contribution of the paper however comes from the breadth of risks that are found to be harmful. Job insecurity, financial dissatisfaction, reductions and volatility in income, an inability to meet standard expenditures and a lack of access to emergency funds all adversely affect health. This suggests that the common element of economic insecurity (rather than idiosyncratic phenomena associated with any specific risk) is likely to be hazardous. Our preferred estimates indicate that a standard deviation shock to economic insecurity lowers an individual's mental health score by about 1.4 percentage points. If applied uniformly across the Australian population such a shock would increase the morbidity rate of mental disorders by about 1.7%. PMID:26826683

  20. Optimization of aircraft interior panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Roper, Willard D.

    1986-01-01

    Eight different graphite composite panels were fabricated using four different resin matrices. The resin matrices included Hercules 71775, a blend of vinylpolystyrpyridine and bismaleimide, H795, a bismaleimide, Cycom 6162, a phenolic, and PSP 6022M, a polystyrylpyridine. Graphite panels were fabricated using fabric or unidirectional tape. This report describes the processes for preparing these panels and some of their mechanical, thermal and flammability properties. Panel properties are compared with state-of-the-art epoxy fiberglass composite panels.

  1. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics To Analyze Housing Decisions, Dynamics, and Effects

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Katherine; Sastry, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    The Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) is the world’s longest running household panel survey. It started in 1968 and has followed the same families—and their descendants—for nearly 50 years. PSID was conducted annually from 1968 through 1997 and has been conducted biennially since 1997. As of 2015, 39 waves of data have been collected. In 2015, interviews were completed with more than 9,000 households and information was collected on about 25,000 household members. PSID has achieved high wave-to-wave response rates throughout most of its history. Since the beginning of the study, detailed information has been collected on family composition, income, assets and debt, public program participation, and housing. At the beginning of the recent housing crisis, PSID began collecting information about mortgage distress and foreclosure activity. PSID currently includes several major supplemental studies. The Child Development Supplement and the Transition into Adulthood Supplement collect detailed information about behavior and outcomes among children and young adults in PSID families, such as educational achievement, health, time use, family formation, and housing-related decisions among young adults. PSID data are publicly available free of charge to researchers; some data available only under contract to qualified researchers allow linkage with various administrative databases and include information such as census tract and block of residence that can be used to describe neighborhood characteristics. PSID data have been widely used to study topics of major interest to Cityscape readers, including housing decisionmaking, housing expenditures and financing, residential mobility and migration, and the effects of neighborhood characteristics on a variety of measures of child and family well-being. This article provides an overview of PSID and its housing- and neighborhood-related measures. We briefly describe studies using PSID on housing-related topics. Finally

  2. Academic Science, R&D Funds, Fiscal Year 1980: Surveys of Science Resources Series. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Statistical data on research and development (R&D) expenditures from the 1980 Survey of Scientific and Engineering Expenditures at Universities and Colleges are presented. Information was obtained from 514 schools and 19 federally funded R&D centers. In order to provide national totals for academic R&D expenditures, estimates were made for the…

  3. Academic Science/Engineering: R&D Funds Fiscal Year 1982. Surveys of Science Resources Series. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report contains statistical data from the Annual Survey of Scientific and Engineering Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, FY 1982. The data represent science and engineering (SE) expenditures for separately budgeted research and development (R&D). The phrase "separately budgeted R&D expenditures" refers to current fund expenditures…

  4. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  5. Panel methods: An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Larry L.

    1990-01-01

    Panel methods are numerical schemes for solving (the Prandtl-Glauert equation) for linear, inviscid, irrotational flow about aircraft flying at subsonic or supersonic speeds. The tools at the panel-method user's disposal are (1) surface panels of source-doublet-vorticity distributions that can represent nearly arbitrary geometry, and (2) extremely versatile boundary condition capabilities that can frequently be used for creative modeling. Panel-method capabilities and limitations, basic concepts common to all panel-method codes, different choices that were made in the implementation of these concepts into working computer programs, and various modeling techniques involving boundary conditions, jump properties, and trailing wakes are discussed. An approach for extending the method to nonlinear transonic flow is also presented. Three appendices supplement the main test. In appendix 1, additional detail is provided on how the basic concepts are implemented into a specific computer program (PANAIR). In appendix 2, it is shown how to evaluate analytically the fundamental surface integral that arises in the expressions for influence-coefficients, and evaluate its jump property. In appendix 3, a simple example is used to illustrate the so-called finite part of the improper integrals.

  6. Nontenure-Track Science Personnel: Opportunities for Independent Research. Higher Education Panel Reports, No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomberg, Irene L.; Atelsek, Frank J.

    The Higher Education Panel of the American Council on Education conducted a survey to determine the size and characteristics of nontenure-track personnel at doctoral-level institutions and the extent to which these personnel are principal investigators in research projects. The survey involved 247 selected Panel institutions that award the Ph.D.…

  7. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-1 Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence..., (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is called the substantial part...

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-1 Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence..., (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is called the substantial part...

  9. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-1 Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence..., (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is called the substantial part...

  10. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-1 Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence..., (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is called the substantial part...

  11. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-1 Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence..., (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is called the substantial part...

  12. Economic impact of chikungunya epidemic: out-of-pocket health expenditures during the 2007 outbreak in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, K; George, B; Anish, T S; Rajasi, R S; Teena, M J; Sujina, C M

    2013-01-01

    The southern state of Kerala, India was seriously affected by a chikungunya epidemic in 2007. As this outbreak was the first of its kind, the morbidity incurred by the epidemic was a challenge to the state's public health system. A cross sectional survey was conducted in five districts of Kerala that were seriously affected by the epidemic, using a two-stage cluster sampling technique to select households, and the patients were identified using a syndromic case definition. We calculated the direct health expenditure of families and checked whether it exceed the margins of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). The median (IQR) total out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure in the study population was USD7.4 (16.7). The OOP health expenditure did not show any significant association with increasing per-capita monthly income.The major share (47.4%) of the costs was utilized for buying medicines, but costs for transportation (17.2%), consultations (16.6%), and diagnoses (9.9%) also contributed significantly to the total OOP health expenditure. The OOP health expenditure was high in private sector facilities, especially in tertiary care hospitals. For more than 15% of the respondents, the OOP was more than double their average monthly family income. The chikungunya outbreak of 2007 had significantly contributed to the OOP expenditure of the affected community in Kerala.The OOP health expenditure incurred was high, irrespective of the level of income. Governments should attempt to ensure comprehensive financial protection by covering the costs of care, along with loss of productivity. PMID:23682438

  13. Effect of User Charges on Secondary Level Surgical Care Utilization and Out-of-Pocket Expenditures in Haryana State, India

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Deepak; Prinja, Shankar; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Generation of resources for providing health care services is an important issue in developing countries. User charges in the form of Surgical Package Program (SPP) were introduced in all district hospitals of Haryana to address this problem. We evaluate the effect of this SPP program on surgical care utilization and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures. Methods Data on 25437 surgeries, from July 2006 to June 2013 in 3 districts of Haryana state, was analyzed using interrupted time series analysis to assess the impact of SPP on utilization of services. Adjustment was made for presence of any autocorrelation and seasonality effects. A cross sectional survey was undertaken among 180 patients in District hospital, Panchkula during June 2013 to assess the extent of out of pocket (OOP) expenditure incurred, financial risk protection and methods to cope with OOP expenditure. Catastrophic health expenditure, estimated as any expenditure in excess of 10% of the household consumption expenditure, was used to assess the extent of financial risk protection. Results User charges had a negative effect on the number of surgeries in public sector district hospitals in all the 3 districts. The mean out-of-pocket expenditure incurred by the patients was Rs.4564 (USD 74.6). The prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was 5.6%. A higher proportion among the poorest 20% population coped through borrowing money (47.2%), while majority (86.1%) of those belonging to richest quintile paid from their monthly income or savings, or had insurance. Conclusion There is a need to increase the public financing for curative services and it should be based on the needs of population. Any form of user charge in public sector hospitals should be removed. PMID:25938670

  14. Origami of thick panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  15. Oven wall panel construction

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  16. The convergence of health care expenditure in the US states.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zijun

    2009-01-01

    In response to rising health care costs, many have called for more effective regional health policy coordination. In this paper, we address the issue by examining the degree of convergence in per capita health care expenditure and its nine components across the US states from 1980 to 2004. The major finding is the moderate evidence of convergence in total health care expenditure and the diverse performance of the expenditure components regarding convergence. We also find hospital care to be responsible for the bulk of cross-state convergence in total expenditure. The expenditure on prescription drugs is the most important diverging factor. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed. PMID:18273915

  17. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  18. Engaging inner city middle school students in development of an energy expenditure food label.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Carol J; Mcneal, Catherine J; Coppin, John David; Shimek, Christine; Field, Lindsey; Murano, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Using food labels can be an important component of maintaining healthy weight, but young adolescents are unlikely to have the requisite skills to make use of food labeling information. Our objectives were to determine knowledge about calories and comprehension and use of the Nutrition Facts Panel among a group of inner city African-American and Hispanic middle school students, and to engage the students in refining a Calorie Converter energy expenditure food label. We used quantitative and qualitative methods including questionnaires, focus groups, and hands-on graphic design activities. Correctly defining the word "calorie" was associated with correct answers to three of four questions requiring interpretation of the Nutrition Facts Panel [χ(2)(1, 138, p < .05) = 4.56, 4.14, and 5.61.] We incorporated students' design and content modifications for the Calorie Converter label, and the majority indicated that the energy expenditure label would influence their food selection practices. PMID:25898219

  19. Analysis of Panel Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Cheng

    2003-02-01

    Panel data models have become increasingly popular among applied researchers due to their heightened capacity for capturing the complexity of human behavior, as compared to cross-sectional or time series data models. This second edition represents a substantial revision of the highly successful first edition (1986). Recent advances in panel data research are presented in an accessible manner and are carefully integrated with the older material. The thorough discussion of theory and the judicious use of empirical examples make this book useful to graduate students and advanced researchers in economics, business, sociology and political science.

  20. PRSEUS Acoustic Panel Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolette, Velicki; Yovanof, Nicolette P.; Baraja, Jaime; Mathur, Gopal; Thrash, Patrick; Pickell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the development of a novel structural concept, Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), that addresses the demanding fuselage loading requirements for the Hybrid Wing or Blended Wing Body (BWB) airplane configuration with regards to acoustic response. A PRSEUS panel was designed and fabricated and provided to NASA-LaRC for acoustic response testing in the Structural Acoustics Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility). Preliminary assessments of the sound transmission characteristics of a PRSEUS panel subjected to a representative Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) operating environment were completed for the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program.

  1. Entry Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Daniel J.; Rummler, Donald R.; Bersch, Charlie; Dixon, Sidney C.

    1993-01-01

    The Entry Systems Panel was chaired by Don Rummler, LaRC and Dan Rasky, ARC. As requested, each panel participant prior to the workshop prepared and delivered presentations to: (1) identify technology needs; (2) assess current programs; (3) identify technology gaps; and (4) identify highest payoff areas R&D. Participants presented background on the entry systems R&D efforts and operations experiences for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. These participants represented NASA Centers involved in research (Ames Research Center), development (Johnson Space Center) and operations (Kennedy Space Center) and the Shuttle Orbiter prime contractor. The presentations lead to the discovery of several lessons learned.

  2. Panel 3 - characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Erck, R.A.; Erdemir, A.; Janghsing Hsieh; Lee, R.H.; Xian Zheng Pan; Deming Shu; Feldman, A.; Glass, J.T.; Kleimer, R.; Lawton, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The task of this panel was to identify and prioritize needs in the area of characterization of diamond and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films for use in the transportation industry. Until recent advances in production of inexpensive films of diamonds and DLC, it was not feasible that these materials could be mass produced. The Characterization Panel is restricting itself to identifying needs in areas that would be most useful to manufacturers and users in producing and utilizing diamond and DLC coatings in industry. These characterization needs include in-situ monitoring during growth, relation of structure to performance, and standards and definitions.

  3. Research and Development in State Government Agencies. Fiscal Years 1972 and 1973. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Eleanor; And Others

    A survey to elicit data on R&D expenditures of state government agencies for fiscal years 1972 and 1973 is covered in this document. In 1973 total R&D expenditures by all sectors of the economy were $30,427 million. The R&D expenditures of State government agencies amounted to 0.9 percent of this total. Expenditures of state government agencies to…

  4. Assessing Assessment: An In-depth Status Report on the Higher Education Assessment Movement in 1990. The First Report of a National Survey. Higher Education Panel Report Number 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Reid; And Others

    This study examined the prevalence amd progression toward generally accepted goals of comprehensive student assessment programs (CSAP) using data from the Higher Education Panel's stratified sample of 455 colleges and universities, of which 357 responded for a usable response rate of nearly 80%. The data indicated that about one-third of the…

  5. Health expenditure and finance: who gets what?

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, J.; McIntyre, D.; Bloom, G.; Brijlal, P.

    1999-01-01

    The methods used in South Africa's first comprehensive review of health finance and expenditure are outlined. Special measures were adopted to make the process acceptable to all concerned during a period of profound political transition. The estimation of indicators of access to public sector resources for districts sorted by per capita income allowed the health care problems of disadvantaged communities to be highlighted. PMID:10083715

  6. Relative financial burden of health care expenditures.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kevin J; Powell, M Paige; Probst, Janice C

    2010-01-01

    Out-of-pocket health expenditures potentially have a large impact on patients, particularly those with low incomes, leading to reduced utilization of health services and even bankruptcy. This analysis examines the burden of out-of-pocket spending, relative to total income, across several demographic groups. Rural residents had a higher relative burden than urban residents, as did women and Whites. Important policy implications are discussed. PMID:20391250

  7. State energy price and expenditure report, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-28

    The average price paid for energy in the United States in 1986 was $7.19 per million Btu, down significantly from the 1985 average of $8.42 per million Btu. While total energy consumption increased slightly to 74.3 quadrillion Btu from 1985 to 1986, expenditures fell from $445 billion to $381 billion. Energy expenditures per capita in 1986 were $1578, down significantly from the 1985 rate. In 1986, consumers used only 94 percent as much energy per person as they had in 1970, but they spent 3.9 times as much money per person on energy as they had in 1970. By state, energy expenditures per capita in 1986 ranged from the lowest rate of $1277 in New York to the highest of $3108 in Alaska. Of the major energy sources, electricity registered the highest price per million Btu ($19.00), followed by petroleum ($5.63), natural gas ($3.97), coal ($1.62), and nuclear fuel ($0.70). The price of electricity is relatively high because of significant costs for converting energy from various forms (e.g., fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, hydroelectric energy, and geothermal energy) into electricity, and additional, somewhat smaller costs for transmitting and distributing electricity to end users. In addition, electricity is a premium form of energy because of its flexibility and clean nature at energy consumers' sites.

  8. Social welfare expenditures, 1950-75.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, A M; Dales, S R

    1976-01-01

    This article takes both a short-term and a long-term look at trends in social welfare expenditures under public programs. For fiscal year 1975, inflation and the recession were the key to developments. Inflation ate up more than half the 20 percent ($47 billion increase--the largest in the history of the series--partly as the result of antirecession measures. After adjustment for population and price changes, the real increase in per capita constant dollars was 7.1 percent--not large by recent measures but still significant when compared with the average annual increaseof 5.9 percent recorded since 1950. Public social welfare expenditures capped a decade of unusual growth in 1975 to absorb one-fith of the Nation's output of goods and services, after consuming only 9-12 percent between 1950 and 1965. Private social welfare expenditures of $108 billion accounted for less than 8 percent of the 1975 gross national product. PMID:828773

  9. The effect of recessions on gambling expenditures.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Csilla; Paap, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This article examines the influence of the business cycle on expenditures of three major types of legalized gambling activities: Casino gambling, lottery, and pari-mutuel wagering. Empirical results are obtained using monthly aggregated US per capita consumption time series for the period 1959.01-2010.08. Among the three gambling activities only lottery consumption appears to be recession-proof. This series is characterized by a vast and solid growth that exceeds the growth in income and the growth in other gambling sectors. Casino gambling expenditures show a positive growth during expansions and no growth during recessions. Hence, the loss in income during recessions affects casino gambling. However, income shocks which are not directly related to the business cycle do not influence casino gambling expenditures. Pari-mutuel wagering displays an overall negative trend and its average growth rate is smaller than the growth in income, especially during recessions. The findings of this article provide important implications for the gambling industry and for local governments. PMID:22143980

  10. Detail east panel of east truss showing rollling panels and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail east panel of east truss showing rollling panels and counter weights. View south - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 42. Interior detail, parlor, paneled chimney breast. This paneling likely ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Interior detail, parlor, paneled chimney breast. This paneling likely dates from the house's phase I construction spanning from 1728 into the 1730's. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 78. DETAIL OF COMMUNICATIONS PANEL ON LAUNCH ANALYST PANEL SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. DETAIL OF COMMUNICATIONS PANEL ON LAUNCH ANALYST PANEL SHOWING 20 CHANNEL-SELECTION SWITCHES, ROTARY DIAL, HEADSET, AND FOOT PEDAL - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. The Panel Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the views of panel members at a symposium on the place of inorganic chemistry in the undergraduate curriculum. Suggests one semester of intermediate inorganic chemistry, followed by a year of physical chemistry and a semester of advanced inorganic chemistry as a reasonable prescription for the modern undergraduate curriculum. (Author/JN)

  14. Panel Discussion III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, F.; Batten, A.; Budding, E.; Devinney, E.; Eggleton, P.; Hatzes, A.; Hubeny, I.; Kley, W.; Lammer, H.; Linnell, A.; Trimble, V.; Wilson, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    I. Hubeny Does anyone from the panel have a theme question to start with today? V. Trimble It's another one-liner: From an active galaxy meeting many years ago when people talked about spiral structure. I was reminded by Dr. Rucinski's talk of Lodewijk Woltjer's remark: ``The larger our ignorance, the stronger the magnetic field.''

  15. Stepped inlet optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

  16. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  17. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

    1996-01-01

    Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg. This paper will address the construction details for the GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh panel configurations. These are ultimately sized to provide 75 Watts and 119 Watts respectively for smallsats or may be used as modular building blocks for larger systems. GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh coupons have been fabricated and tested to successfully demonstrate critical performance parameters and results are also provided here.

  18. Current Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2003-04. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-352

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This report presents current expenditures for public elementary and secondary education for school year 2003-04 (or fiscal year 2004). This data is from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Common Core of Data (CCD), National Public Education Financial Survey (NPEFS) and School District Finance Survey (F-33). The data for these…

  19. European healthcare policies for controlling drug expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ess, Silvia M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Szucs, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, expenditures on pharmaceuticals - as well as total health expenditures - have grown faster than the gross national product in all European countries. The aim of this paper was to review policies that European governments apply to reduce or at least slow down public expenditure on pharmaceutical products. Such policies can target the industry, the wholesalers and retailers, prescribers, and patients. The objectives of pharmaceutical policies are multidimensional and must take into account issues relating to public health, public expenditure and industrial incentives. Both price levels and consumption patterns determine the level of total drug expenditure in a particular country, and both factors vary greatly across countries. Licensing and pricing policies intend to influence the supply side. Three types of pricing policies can be recognised: product price control, reference pricing and profit control. Profit control is mainly used in the UK. Reference pricing systems were first used in Germany and The Netherlands and are being considered in other countries. Product price control is still the most common method for establishing the price of drugs. For the aim of fiscal consolidation, price-freeze and price-cut measures have been frequently used in the 1980s and 1990s. They have affected all types of schemes. For drug wholesalers and retailers, most governments have defined profit margins. The differences in price levels as well as the introduction of a Single European Pharmaceutical Market has led to the phenomenon of parallel imports among member countries of the European Union. This may be facilitated by larger and more powerful wholesalers and the vertical integration between wholesalers and retailers. To control costs, the use of generic drugs is encouraged in most countries, but only few countries allow pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for proprietary brands. Various interventions are used to reduce the patients' demand for drugs by

  20. Novel methodology for pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    PubMed Central

    Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective The value appreciation of new drugs across countries today features a disruption that is making the historical data that are used for forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure poorly reliable. Forecasting methods rarely addressed uncertainty. The objective of this project was to propose a methodology to perform pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting that integrates expected policy changes and uncertainty (developed for the European Commission as the ‘EU Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast’; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Methods 1) Identification of all pharmaceuticals going off-patent and new branded medicinal products over a 5-year forecasting period in seven European Union (EU) Member States. 2) Development of a model to estimate direct and indirect impacts (based on health policies and clinical experts) on savings of generics and biosimilars. Inputs were originator sales value, patent expiry date, time to launch after marketing authorization, price discount, penetration rate, time to peak sales, and impact on brand price. 3) Development of a model for new drugs, which estimated sales progression in a competitive environment. Clinical expected benefits as well as commercial potential were assessed for each product by clinical experts. Inputs were development phase, marketing authorization dates, orphan condition, market size, and competitors. 4) Separate analysis of the budget impact of products going off-patent and new drugs according to several perspectives, distribution chains, and outcomes. 5) Addressing uncertainty surrounding estimations via deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results This methodology has proven to be effective by 1) identifying the main parameters impacting the variations in pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting across countries: generics discounts and penetration, brand price after patent loss, reimbursement rate, the penetration of biosimilars and

  1. Out-of-Pocket Expenditure on Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qun; Fu, Alex Z.; Brenner, Stephan; Kalmus, Olivier; Banda, Hastings Thomas; De Allegri, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) the disease burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) is rising considerably. Given weaknesses in existing financial arrangements across SSA, expenditure on CNCDs is often borne directly by patients through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. This study explored patterns and determinants of OOP expenditure on CNCDs in Malawi. We used data from the first round of a longitudinal household health survey conducted in 2012 on a sample of 1199 households in three rural districts in Malawi. We used a two-part model to analyze determinants of OOP expenditure on CNCDs. 475 respondents reported at least one CNCD. More than 60% of the 298 individuals who reported seeking care incurred OOP expenditure. The amount of OOP expenditure on CNCDs comprised 22% of their monthly per capita household expenditure. The poorer the household, the higher proportion of their monthly per capita household expenditure was spent on CNCDs. Higher severity of disease was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of incurring OOP expenditure. Use of formal care was negatively associated with the possibility of incurring OOP expenditure. The following factors were positively associated with the amount of OOP expenditure: being female, Alomwe and household head, longer duration of disease, CNCDs targeted through active screening programs, higher socio-economic status, household head being literate, using formal care, and fewer household members living with a CNCD within a household. Our study showed that, in spite of a context where care for CNCDs should in principle be available free of charge at point of use, OOP payments impose a considerable financial burden on rural households, especially among the poorest. This suggests the existence of important gaps in financial protection in the current coverage policy. PMID:25584960

  2. Report of Industry Panel Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Simon; Gier, Jochen; Heitland, Greg; Povinelli, Louis; Sharma, Om; VandeWall, Allen

    2006-01-01

    A final report is presented from the industry panel group. The contents include: 1) General comments; 2) Positive progress since Minnowbrook IV; 3) Industry panel outcome; 4) Prioritized turbine projects; 5) Prioritized compressor projects; and 6) Miscellaneous.

  3. LCD Panels: The Electronic Wonder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Glenn

    1994-01-01

    Describes Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels and their use in the classroom. Topics discussed include active versus passive matrix panels; the number of pixels; projectors, including transmissive or reflective overhead projectors; costs; and vendors that supply LCDs. (LRW)

  4. Determinants of Medical and Health Care Expenditure Growth for Urban Residents in China: A Systematic Review Article

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, Xiaolong; CAI, Qiong; WANG, Jin; LIU, Yun

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, medical and health care consumption has risen, making health risk an important determinant of household spending and welfare. We aimed to examine the determinants of medical and health care expenditure to help policy-makers in the improvement of China’s health care system, benefiting the country, society and every household. This paper employs panel data from China’s provinces from 2001 to 2011 with all possible economic variations and studies the determinants of medical and healthcare expenditure for urban residents. CPI (consumer price index) of medical services and the resident consumption level of urban residents have positive influence on medical and health care expenditures for urban residents, while the local medical budget, the number of health institutions, the incidence of infectious diseases, the year-end population and the savings of urban residents will not have effect on medical and health care expenditure for urban residents. This paper proposed three relevant policy suggestions for Chinese governments based on the findings of the research. PMID:26171351

  5. Determinants of Medical and Health Care Expenditure Growth for Urban Residents in China: A Systematic Review Article.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Cai, Qiong; Wang, Jin; Liu, Yun

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, medical and health care consumption has risen, making health risk an important determinant of household spending and welfare. We aimed to examine the determinants of medical and health care expenditure to help policy-makers in the improvement of China's health care system, benefiting the country, society and every household. This paper employs panel data from China's provinces from 2001 to 2011 with all possible economic variations and studies the determinants of medical and healthcare expenditure for urban residents. CPI (consumer price index) of medical services and the resident consumption level of urban residents have positive influence on medical and health care expenditures for urban residents, while the local medical budget, the number of health institutions, the incidence of infectious diseases, the year-end population and the savings of urban residents will not have effect on medical and health care expenditure for urban residents. This paper proposed three relevant policy suggestions for Chinese governments based on the findings of the research. PMID:26171351

  6. Review of the magnetic fusion program by the 1986 ERAB Fusion Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    1987-09-01

    The 1986 ERAB Fusion Panel finds that fusion energy continues to be an attractive energy source with great potential for the future, and that the magnetic fusion program continues to make substantial technical progress. In addition, fusion research advances plasma physics, a sophisticated and useful branch of applied science, as well as technologies important to industry and defense. These factors fully justify the substantial expenditures by the Department of Energy in fusion research and development (R&D). The Panel endorses the overall program direction, strategy, and plans, and recognizes the importance and timeliness of proceeding with a burning plasma experiment, such as the proposed Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) experiment.

  7. Prestressed Thermal-Protection Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Panels held securely with minimum of mounting hardware. Each panel held in place by single screw that pulls it into flat shape from its original shallow-dish shape. Shape and prestressing make panel stiff: resists vibration and withstands large mechanical loads. Panel shape and mounting arrangement not limited to thermal-protection systems but also used on aircraft, building walls, or wherever large surfaces must be covered with stiff, flat sheets easily removed for maintenance.

  8. MedlinePlus: Metabolic Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spanish Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Metabolic Panel updates by email What's this? GO GO National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Metabolic Panel is the National Heart, Lung, ...

  9. Payload advisory panel recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III

    1991-01-01

    The Payload Advisory Panel proposes a restructured Earth Observing System (EOS) mission to address high-priority science and environmental policy issues in Earth System Science. These issues have been identified through studies conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES). The restructured EOS defers efforts to improve the understanding of the middle and upper stratosphere and solid earth geophysics. The strategy of the mission combines high priority new measurements with continuation of critical data sets begun by missions which precede EOS. Collaborative arrangements with international partners are an essential part of the program and additional arrangements are posed. The need for continuity in Earth observations and the urgency of environmental questions require launch of some EOS elements as soon as possible. They further require maintenance of the EOS objective of obtaining consistent 15-year measurement records.

  10. Examining geographic and socio-economic differences in outpatient and inpatient consumer expenditures for treating HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Ibe, Ogochukwu; Torpey, Kwasi; Dada, Stephanie; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Sanwo, Olusola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The expenditures on treatment of HIV/AIDS to households were examined to quantify the magnitude of the economic burden of HIV/AIDS to different population groups in Nigeria. The information will also provide a basis for increased action towards a reduction of the economic burden on many households when accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods A household survey was administered in three states, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom and Anambra, from the South-East, North-East and South-South zones of Nigeria, respectively. A pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a minimum sample of 1200 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Data were collected on the medical and non-medical expenditures that patients incurred to treat HIV/AIDS for their last treatment episode within three months of the interview date. The expenditures were for outpatient visits (OPV) and inpatient stays (IPS). The incidence of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) on ART treatment services was computed for OPV and IPS. Data were disaggregated by socio-economic status (SES) and geographic location of the households. Results The average OPV expenditures incurred by patients per OPV for HIV/AIDS treatment was US$6.1 with variations across SES and urban-rural residence. More than 95% of the surveyed households spent money on transportation to a treatment facility and over 70% spent money on food for OPV. For medical expenditures, the urbanites paid more than rural dwellers. Many patients incurred CHE during outpatient and inpatient visits. Compared to urban dwellers, rural dwellers incurred more CHE for outpatient (p=0.02) and inpatient visits (p=0.002). Conclusions Treatment expenditures were quite high, inequitable and catastrophic in some instances, hence further jeopardizing the welfare of the households and the PLHIV. Strategically locating fully functional treatment centres to make them more accessible to PLHIV will largely reduce expenditures for travel

  11. Clinical Space Medicine Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

  12. Interactive Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernius, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Quo Vadis? Here is the opportunity to ask panel members your questions: seek a forecast of current trends, where are we going as a collection of physicists in a wide variety of employment settings? What is the likelihood of remaining cohesive as those schooled in the fundamentals of physics? How might we better foster collaboration, with the disparate agendas of academia, government and commerce? Come with your questions, and share in this unique opportunity to quiz the experts.

  13. Household out-of-pocket medical expenditures and national health insurance in Taiwan: income and regional inequality

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tu-Bin; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2005-01-01

    Background Unequal geographical distribution of medical care resources and insufficient healthcare coverage have been two long-standing problems with Taiwan's public health system. The implementation of National Health Insurance (NHI) attempted to mitigate the inequality in health care use. This study examines the degree to which Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) has reduced out-of-pocket medical expenditures in households in different regions and varying levels of income. Methods Data used in this study were drawn from the 1994 and 1996 Surveys of Family Income and Expenditure. We pooled the data from 1994 and 1996 and included a year dummy variable (NHI), equal to 1 if the household data came from 1996 in order to assess the impact of NHI on household out-of-pocket medical care expenditures shortly after its implementation in 1995. Results An individual who was older, female, married, unemployed, better educated, richer, head of a larger family household, or living in the central and eastern areas was more likely to have greater household out-of-pocket medical expenditures. NHI was found to have effectively reduced household out-of-pocket medical expenditures by 23.08%, particularly for more affluent households. With the implementation of NHI, lower and middle income quintiles had smaller decreases in out-of-pocket medical expenditure. NHI was also found to have reduced household out-of-pocket medical expenditures more for households in eastern Taiwan. Conclusion Although NHI was established to create free medical care for all, further effort is needed to reduce the medical costs for certain disadvantaged groups, particularly the poor and aborigines, if equality is to be achieved. PMID:16137336

  14. 75 FR 20809 - Hydrographic Services Review Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hydrographic Services Review Panel AGENCY: National Ocean... Additional Membership Solicitation for Hydrographic Services Review Panel. SUMMARY: The National Oceanic and... Services Review Panel (the Panel), a Federal advisory committee. NOAA is extending the previous...

  15. Heat pipe thermal conditioning panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Loose, J. D.; Mccoy, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal control of electronic hardware and experiments on future space vehicles is critical to proper functioning and long life. Thermal conditioning panels (cold plates) are a baseline control technique in current conceptual studies. Heat generating components mounted on the panels are typically cooled by fluid flowing through integral channels within the panel. However, replacing the pumped fluid coolant loop within the panel with heat pipes offers attractive advantages in weight, reliability, and installation. This report describes the development and fabrication of two large 0.76 x 0.76 m heat pipe thermal conditioning panels to verify performance and establish the design concept.

  16. National health expenditures projections through 2030

    PubMed Central

    Burner, Sally T.; Waldo, Daniel R.; McKusick, David R.

    1992-01-01

    If current laws and practices continue, health expenditures in the United States will reach $1.7 trillion by the year 2000, an amount equal to 18.1 percent of the Nation's gross domestic product (GDP). By the year 2030, as America's baby boomers enter their seventies and eighties, health spending will top $16 trillion, or 32 percent of GDP. The projections presented here incorporate the assumptions and conclusions of the Medicare trustees in their 1992 report to Congress on the status of Medicare, and the 1992 President's budget estimates of Medicaid outlays. PMID:10124432

  17. DataView: National Health Expenditures, 1995

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Katharine R.; Lazenby, Helen C.; Braden, Bradley R.; Cowan, Cathy A.; McDonnell, Patricia A.; Sivarajan, Lekha; Stiller, Jean M.; Won, Darleen K.; Donham, Carolyn S.; Long, Anna M.; Stewart, Madie W.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents data on health care spending for the United States, covering expenditures for various types of medical services and products and their sources of funding from 1960 to 1995. In 1995, $988.5 billion was spent to purchase health care in the United States, up 5.5 percent from 1994. Growth in spending between 1993 and 1995 was the slowest in more than three decades, primarily because of slow growth in private health insurance and out-of-pocket spending. As a result, the share of health spending funded by private sources fell, reflecting the influence of increased enrollment in managed care plans. PMID:10165031

  18. World military expenditures and arms transfers, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The report, the twentieth in the series issued by the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, is intended to serve as a convenient reference on military expenditures, arms transfers, armed forces, and related economic data for 144 countries over the 1978-1988 decade. It provides comprehensive, up-to-date, and accurate data, accompanied by pertinent analyses and highlights. The issue includes two essays, one on chemical weapons proliferation and US efforts to control it, and another on diversification of sources for Third World arms imports.

  19. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  20. Evaluating the redistributive impact of public health expenditure using an insurance value approach.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Amedeo; Mangiavacchi, Lucia; Moral-Arce, Ignacio; Adiego-Estella, Marta; Blanco-Moreno, Angela

    2013-10-01

    This article analyses the redistributive impact of public health expenditure in Spain using an insurance value approach to compute individual and household's value of health services non-cash benefit. We model the intensity of use of different health care services using a count data framework on a nationally representative health care survey and then predict probabilities on the 2006 Spanish EU-SILC sample. This allows us to extend disposable income with the expected monetary value of public health services and to compare it with strictly cash income. Since non-cash income due to public health services is associated with health needs, we use needs-adjusted equivalence scales to perform distributional analysis and poverty/inequality comparisons. The results show that public health expenditure in Spain acts progressively on income distribution, and that health in-kind benefits, once considered as part of disposable income, can be extremely effective in reducing poverty and inequality. PMID:22948513

  1. The Motives of Intergenerational Transfer to the Elderly Parents in China: Consequences of High Medical Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Lixing

    2014-01-01

    The support for the elderly is facing big challenges with the problem of population aging. Transfers from adult children could partly insure elderly parents against low income and high medical expenditure. There are two main motives for transfers in the literature, namely altruism and exchange. Using data from a new household survey of people aged 45 and above in China, we estimate the transfer derivatives with the adjustment of medical expenditure in elderly parents’ income. We find a large negative impact of adjusted income on transfers at the lower end of income distribution, which is consistent with the altruistic motive. Evidence on the exchange motive is found only for sons, but not for daughters. In addition, there is evidence on the “exchange-for-service” motive, which interprets transfer as a payment to parents’ family services, such as taking care of grandchildren. PMID:23681718

  2. Large thermal protection system panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  3. Development of Quiet Honeycomb Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Klos, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Sandwich honeycomb composite panels are lightweight and strong, and, therefore, provide a reasonable alternative to the aluminum ring framelstringer architecture currently used for most aircraft airframes. The drawback to honeycomb panels is that they radiate noise into the aircraft cabin very efficiently provoking the need for additional sound treatment which adds weight and reduces the material's cost advantage. A series of honeycomb panels were made which incorporated different design strategies aimed at reducing the honeycomb panels' radiation efficiency while at the same time maintaining its strength. The majority of the desi gns were centered around the concept of creatin g areas of reduced stiffness in the panel by adding voids and recesses to the core. The effort culminated with a reinforced./recessed panel which had 6 dB higher transmission loss than the baseline solid core panel while maintaining comparable strength.

  4. Attitudes toward Education Expenditures in Japan: Comparisons with Social Security and Welfare Services Expenditures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakazawa, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines people's attitudes toward public spending on education in Japan. It is well known that Japan has the smallest public education expenditure relative to GDP among the OECD countries, and this may yield unequal opportunities in education. The tax burden in Japan is small compared to those in OECD countries, and there may be no…

  5. The Fiscal Survey of States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

    This document presents aggregate and individual data on the states' general fund receipts, expenditures, and balances. Findings, focusing on the period from fiscal 1993 to fiscal 1995, are based on a survey completed by Governors' state budget officers throughout the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. Six chapters, following the preface and…

  6. Catastrophic household expenditure for health care in a low-income society: a study from Nouna District, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Flessa, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent of catastrophic household health care expenditure and determine the factors responsible for it in Nouna District, Burkina Faso. METHODS: We used the Nouna Health District Household Survey to collect data on 800 households during 2000-01 for our analysis. The determinants of household catastrophic expenditure were identified by multivariate logistic regression method. FINDINGS: Even at very low levels of health care utilization and modest amount of health expenditure, 6-15% of total households in Nouna District incurred catastrophic health expenditure. The key determinants of catastrophic health expenditure were economic status, household health care utilization especially for modern medical care, illness episodes in an adult household member and presence of a member with chronic illness. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the poorest members of the community incurred catastrophic health expenses. Setting only one threshold/cut-off value to determine catastrophic health expenses may result in inaccurate estimation leading to misinterpretation of important factors. Our findings have important policy implications and can be used to ensure better access to health services and a higher degree of financial protection for low-income groups against the economic impact of illness. PMID:16501711

  7. Heterogeneity in the effect of public health insurance on catastrophic out-of-pocket health expenditures: the case of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Grogger, Jeffrey; Arnold, Tamara; León, Ana Sofía; Ome, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    Low- and middle-income countries increasingly provide broad-based public health coverage to their residents. One of the goals of such programmes is to reduce the extent to which beneficiaries incur catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditures on health care. A recent field experiment showed that on average Mexico's new public insurance programme reduced such expenditures in rural areas. Our reanalysis of that data, augmented with administrative data on health infrastructure, shows that this effect depends strongly on the type of health facility to which the beneficiary has access. A second analysis, based on data from Mexico's National Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (abbreviated ENIGH for its name in Spanish), substantiates those findings. It shows that catastrophic expenditures have fallen sharply for rural households with access to well-staffed facilities, but that they have fallen little if at all for rural households with access to poorly staffed facilities. Our analysis of the ENIGH also shows that Mexico's public health insurance programme has sharply reduced catastrophic spending among urban households. Considering that most Mexicans live either in urban areas or in rural areas with access to well-staffed facilities, our results show that the public health insurance programme has been largely successful in achieving one of its key goals. At the same time, our results show how difficult it can be to provide effective protection against catastrophic health expenditures for residents of remote rural areas. PMID:24924422

  8. Acutely Decreased Thermoregulatory Energy Expenditure or Decreased Activity Energy Expenditure Both Acutely Reduce Food Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Thaler, Joshua P.; Meek, Thomas H.; Tylee, Tracy; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wisse, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1) increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2) exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21°C to 28°C) rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40±1%) and dark cycle energy expenditure (15±3%) at normal ambient temperature (21°C). Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65±7%), thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14±2% at 21°C; 21±4% at 28°C), while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9±0.1 g) in mice housed at 28°C, but during the light cycle (0.3±0.1 g) in mice housed at 21°C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R2 = 0.51, p<0.01). We conclude that acutely decreased energy expenditure decreases food intake suggesting that energy intake is regulated by metabolic signals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure. PMID:22936977

  9. Funding Survey. SY 89/90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Catherine M.

    This two-part report presents the results of a budget and funding sources survey of South Carolina library media center programs. In Part 1, survey results are presented for demographic information, staffing information, funding sources, funding amounts from specific sources, allocation of resources, and categories of expenditures. In Part 2, the…

  10. Effect of ethanol on energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Suter, P M; Jéquier, E; Schutz, Y

    1994-04-01

    The thermogenic response induced by ethanol ingestion in humans has not been extensively studied. This study was designed to determine the thermic effect of ethanol added to a normal diet in healthy nonalcoholic subjects, using indirect calorimetry measurements over a 24-h period in a respiration chamber. The thermic effect of ethanol was also measured when ethanol was ingested in the fasting state, using a ventilated hood system during a 5-h period. Six subjects ingested 95.6 +/- 1.8 (SE) g ethanol in 1 day partitioned over three meals; there was a 5.5 +/- 1.2% increase in 24-h energy expenditure compared with a control day in which all conditions were identical except that no ethanol was consumed. The calculated ethanol-induced thermogenesis (EIT) was 22.5 +/- 4.7% of the ethanol energy ingested. Ingestion of 31.9 +/- 0.6 g ethanol in the fasting state led to a 7.4 +/- 0.6% increase in energy expenditure over baseline values, and the calculated EIT was 17.1 +/- 2.2%. It is concluded that in healthy nonalcoholic adults ethanol elicits a thermogenic response equal to approximately 20% of the ethanol energy. Thus the concept of the apparently inefficient utilization of ethanol energy is supported by these results which show that only approximately 80% of the ethanol energy is used as metabolizable energy for biochemical processes in healthy nonalcoholic moderate ethanol consumers. PMID:8184963

  11. Energy Expenditure and Caloric Balance After Burn

    PubMed Central

    Hart, David W.; Wolf, Steven E.; Herndon, David N.; Chinkes, David L.; Lal, Sophia O.; Obeng, Michael K.; Beauford, Robert B.; Mlcak RT, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Objective Resting energy expenditure (REE) is commonly measured in critical illness to determine caloric “demands” and thus nutritive needs. Summary Background Data The purpose of this study was to 1) determine whether REE is associated with clinical outcomes and 2) determine whether an optimal caloric delivery rate based on REE exists to offset erosion of lean mass after burn. Methods From 1995 to 2001, REE was measured by indirect calorimetry in 250 survivors of 10 to 99%TBSA burns. Caloric intake and REE were correlated with muscle protein catabolism, length of stay, ventilator dependence, sepsis, and mortality. From 1998 to 2000, 42 patients (>60%TBSA burns) received continuous enteral nutrition at a spectrum of caloric balance between 1.0x REE kcal/d –1.8x REE kcal/d. Serial body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lean mass, fat mass, morbidity, and mortality were determined. Results REE/predicted basal metabolic rate correlated directly with burn size, sepsis, ventilator dependence, and muscle protein catabolism (P < .05). Declining REE correlated with mortality (P < .05). 2) Erosion of lean body mass was not attenuated by increased caloric balance, however, fat mass increased with caloric supply (P < .05). Conclusion In surviving burned patients, caloric delivery beyond 1.2 × REE results in increased fat mass without changes in lean body mass. Declining energy expenditure appears to be a harbinger of mortality in severely burned patients. PMID:11753055

  12. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a 5-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASAs safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are "one deep." The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting "brain drain" could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning.

  13. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) activities during 2002. The format of the report has been modified to capture a long-term perspective. Section II is new and highlights the Panel's view of NASA's safety progress during the year. Section III contains the pivotal safety issues facing NASA in the coming year. Section IV includes the program area findings and recommendations. The Panel has been asked by the Administrator to perform several special studies this year, and the resulting white papers appear in Appendix C. The year has been filled with significant achievements for NASA in both successful Space Shuttle operations and International Space Station (ISS) construction. Throughout the year, safety has been first and foremost in spite of many changes throughout the Agency. The relocation of the Orbiter Major Modifications (OMMs) from California to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) appears very successful. The transition of responsibilities for program management of the Space Shuttle and ISS programs from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to NASA Headquarters went smoothly. The decision to extend the life of the Space Shuttle as the primary NASA vehicle for access to space is viewed by the Panel as a prudent one. With the appropriate investments in safety improvements, in maintenance, in preserving appropriate inventories of spare parts, and in infrastructure, the Space Shuttle can provide safe and reliable support for the ISS for the foreseeable future. Indications of an aging Space Shuttle fleet occurred on more than one occasion this year. Several flaws went undetected in the early prelaunch tests and inspections. In all but one case, the problems were found prior to launch. These incidents were all handled properly and with safety as the guiding principle. Indeed, launches were postponed until the problems were fully understood and mitigating action could be taken. These incidents do, however, indicate the need to analyze the

  14. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of the Panel's activities are presented in a set of findings and recommendations. Highlighted here are both improvements in NASA's safety and reliability activities and specific areas where additional gains might be realized. One area of particular concern involves the curtailment or elimination of Space Shuttle safety and reliability enhancements. Several findings and recommendations address this area of concern, reflecting the opinion that safety and reliability enhancements are essential to the continued successful operation of the Space Shuttle. It is recommended that a comprehensive and continuing program of safety and reliability improvements in all areas of Space Shuttle hardware/software be considered an inherent component of ongoing Space Shuttle operations.

  15. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  16. Microsphere Insulation Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohling, R.; Allen, M.; Baumgartner, R.

    2006-01-01

    Microsphere insulation panels (MIPs) have been developed as lightweight, longlasting replacements for the foam and vacuum-jacketed systems heretofore used for thermally insulating cryogenic vessels and transfer ducts. The microsphere core material of a typical MIP consists of hollow glass bubbles, which have a combination of advantageous mechanical, chemical, and thermal-insulation properties heretofore available only separately in different materials. In particular, a core filling of glass microspheres has high crush strength and low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum.

  17. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOEpatents

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Brown, Malcolm P.; Stancel, Robert

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  18. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert

    2013-03-19

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  19. The effect of the National Essential Medicines Policy on health expenditures and service delivery in Chinese township health centres: evidence from a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Guoxiang; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Guo, Bin; Fu, Wenqi; Hao, Yanhua; Cui, Yu; Huang, Weidong; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The government of China has introduced a National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) in the new round of health system reform. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether the NEMP can play a role in curbing the rise of medical expenditures without disrupting the availability of healthcare services at township hospitals in China. Design This study adopted a pre–post treatment-control study design. A difference-in-differences method and fixed-effects model for panel data were employed to estimate the effect of the NEMP. Setting Chongqing, Jiangsu and Henan Province, in China, in 2009 and 2010. Participants 296 township health centres. Outcome measures Outcomes for health expenditures were average outpatient drug expenses per visit, average inpatient drug expenses per discharged patient, average outpatient expenses per visit and average inpatient expenses per discharged patient. Outcomes for care delivery were the numbers of visits per certified doctor per day and the numbers of hospitalised patients per certified doctor per day. Results The township health centres that were enrolled in the NEMP reported 26% (p<0.01) lower drug expenditures for inpatient care. An 11% (p<0.05) decrease in average inpatient expenditures per discharged patient was found following the implementation of the NEMP. The impacts of the NEMP on average outpatient expenditures and outpatient drug expenditures were not statistically significant at the 5% level. No statistically significant associations were found between the NEMP and reduction in quantity of health service delivery. Conclusions The NEMP was significant in its effect in reducing inpatient medication and health service expenditures. This study shows no evidence that the quantity of healthcare service declined significantly after introduction of the NEMP over the study period, which suggests that if appropriate matching policies are introduced, the side effects of the NEMP can be counteracted to some degree

  20. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  1. 44 CFR 206.66 - Limitation on expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Limitation on expenditures... Limitation on expenditures. Total assistance provided in any given emergency declaration may not exceed $5... safety; and (c) Necessary assistance will not otherwise be provided on a timely basis....

  2. 25 CFR 214.13 - Diligence; annual expenditures; mining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diligence; annual expenditures; mining records. 214.13... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.13 Diligence; annual expenditures; mining records. (a) Lessees shall exercise diligence in the conduct of prospecting and...

  3. 10 CFR 603.1260 - Expenditure-based award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expenditure-based award. 603.1260 Section 603.1260 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1260 Expenditure-based award. A Federal Government assistance award for which the amounts of interim payments or...

  4. 32 CFR 37.1285 - Expenditure-based award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expenditure-based award. 37.1285 Section 37.1285 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1285 Expenditure-based award. A Federal Government contract...

  5. 32 CFR 37.1285 - Expenditure-based award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Expenditure-based award. 37.1285 Section 37.1285 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1285 Expenditure-based award. A Federal Government contract...

  6. 10 CFR 603.1260 - Expenditure-based award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expenditure-based award. 603.1260 Section 603.1260 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1260 Expenditure-based award. A Federal Government assistance award for which the amounts of interim payments or...

  7. 18 CFR 367.54 - Expenditures on leased property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expenditures on leased property. 367.54 Section 367.54 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.54 Expenditures on leased property. (a) The cost...

  8. 18 CFR 367.54 - Expenditures on leased property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expenditures on leased property. 367.54 Section 367.54 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.54 Expenditures on leased property. (a) The cost...

  9. 18 CFR 367.54 - Expenditures on leased property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expenditures on leased property. 367.54 Section 367.54 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.54 Expenditures on leased property. (a) The cost...

  10. The Youth Budget: Expenditures, Equity and Efficiency. Final Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Conservation of Human Resources Project.

    The federal government's financial commitment to children and youth since the mid-1960's is examined. Data were obtained from U.S. Bureau of Census reports and from relevant government agencies. The report focuses on trends in federal expenditures for youth, public expenditures for youth in Houston and New York City, equity in the distribution of…

  11. 11 CFR 9004.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating...-commercial travel, as defined in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(v), on aircraft, and travel on other means of... government entity an amount equal to the applicable rate set forth in 11 CFR 100.93(e). (ii) (iii) If...

  12. 11 CFR 9004.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating...-commercial travel, as defined in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(v), on aircraft, and travel on other means of... government entity an amount equal to the applicable rate set forth in 11 CFR 100.93(e). (ii) (iii) If...

  13. 11 CFR 9004.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating...-commercial travel, as defined in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(v), on aircraft, and travel on other means of... government entity an amount equal to the applicable rate set forth in 11 CFR 100.93(e). (ii) (iii) If...

  14. 11 CFR 9004.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating...-commercial travel, as defined in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(v), on aircraft, and travel on other means of... government entity an amount equal to the applicable rate set forth in 11 CFR 100.93(e). (ii) (iii) If...

  15. 26 CFR 1.263A-11 - Accumulated production expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulated production expenditures. 1.263A-11 Section 1.263A-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-11 Accumulated production expenditures. (a) General rule. Accumulated...

  16. 26 CFR 53.4955-1 - Tax on political expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax on political expenditures. 53.4955-1... Tax on political expenditures. (a) Relationship between section 4955 excise taxes and substantive... section 501(c)(3) only if it does not participate or intervene in any political campaign on behalf of...

  17. 26 CFR 53.4955-1 - Tax on political expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on political expenditures. 53.4955-1... Tax on political expenditures. (a) Relationship between section 4955 excise taxes and substantive... section 501(c)(3) only if it does not participate or intervene in any political campaign on behalf of...

  18. 26 CFR 53.4955-1 - Tax on political expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on political expenditures. 53.4955-1... Tax on political expenditures. (a) Relationship between section 4955 excise taxes and substantive... section 501(c)(3) only if it does not participate or intervene in any political campaign on behalf of...

  19. 26 CFR 53.4955-1 - Tax on political expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax on political expenditures. 53.4955-1... Tax on political expenditures. (a) Relationship between section 4955 excise taxes and substantive... section 501(c)(3) only if it does not participate or intervene in any political campaign on behalf of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.46-5 - Qualified progress expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... progress expenditures. The share of qualified progress expenditures of each partner, shareholder, trust... construction to corporation X is $500,000. The contract price is $550,000. Corporation Y makes a $110,000.... Twenty percent of the contract price is $110,000. The percentage of completion limitation for each...

  1. 26 CFR 53.4955-1 - Tax on political expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on political expenditures. 53.4955-1... Tax on political expenditures. (a) Relationship between section 4955 excise taxes and substantive... section 501(c)(3) only if it does not participate or intervene in any political campaign on behalf of...

  2. 34 CFR 200.60 - Expenditures for professional development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expenditures for professional development. 200.60... Paraprofessionals § 200.60 Expenditures for professional development. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2... professional development activities to ensure that teachers and paraprofessionals meet the requirements...

  3. 26 CFR 1.616-1 - Development expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Development expenditures. 1.616-1 Section 1.616-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.616-1 Development expenditures. (a) General rule. Section... taxpayer for the development of a mine or other natural deposit (other than an oil or gas...

  4. 26 CFR 1.616-1 - Development expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Development expenditures. 1.616-1 Section 1.616-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.616-1 Development expenditures. (a) General rule. Section... taxpayer for the development of a mine or other natural deposit (other than an oil or gas...

  5. 10 CFR 420.18 - Expenditure prohibitions and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expenditure prohibitions and limitations. 420.18 Section 420.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION STATE ENERGY PROGRAM Formula Grant Procedures § 420.18 Expenditure prohibitions and limitations. (a) No financial assistance provided to a State under this subpart shall be used: (1)...

  6. Estimating Energy Expenditure with the RT3 Triaxial Accelerometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddison, Ralph; Jiang, Yannan; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Rodgers, Anthony; Rush, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The RT3 is a relatively new triaxial accelerometer that has replaced the TriTrac. The aim of this study was to validate the RT3 against doubly labeled water (DLW) in a free-living, mixed weight sample of adults. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured over a 15-day period using DLW. Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was estimated by…

  7. Predicting Significant Reductions in Instructional Expenditures by School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Patrick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses survival analysis to investigate the symptoms of fiscal distress that can lead to significant reductions in instructional expenditures by independent public school districts in the United States. We hypothesize that the likelihood of significant reductions in instructional expenditures is positively correlated with revenue…

  8. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section 35.66 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure...

  9. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section 35.66 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure...

  10. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section 35.66 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure...

  11. 34 CFR 200.60 - Expenditures for professional development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... professional development activities to ensure that teachers and paraprofessionals meet the requirements of... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Expenditures for professional development. 200.60... Paraprofessionals § 200.60 Expenditures for professional development. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph...

  12. 34 CFR 200.60 - Expenditures for professional development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... professional development activities to ensure that teachers and paraprofessionals meet the requirements of... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenditures for professional development. 200.60... Paraprofessionals § 200.60 Expenditures for professional development. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph...

  13. 34 CFR 200.60 - Expenditures for professional development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... professional development activities to ensure that teachers and paraprofessionals meet the requirements of... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Expenditures for professional development. 200.60... Paraprofessionals § 200.60 Expenditures for professional development. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph...

  14. 34 CFR 200.60 - Expenditures for professional development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... professional development activities to ensure that teachers and paraprofessionals meet the requirements of... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Expenditures for professional development. 200.60... Paraprofessionals § 200.60 Expenditures for professional development. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph...

  15. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time...

  16. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time...

  17. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time...

  18. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time...

  19. 18 CFR 367.54 - Expenditures on leased property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expenditures on leased property. 367.54 Section 367.54 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.54 Expenditures on leased property. (a) The cost...

  20. 42 CFR 457.740 - State expenditures and statistical reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State expenditures and statistical reports. 457.740... Strategic Planning, Reporting, and Evaluation § 457.740 State expenditures and statistical reports. (a... and statistical data no later than 30 days after the end of each quarter of the Federal fiscal year....

  1. 26 CFR 53.4945-1 - Taxes on taxable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... agreed to an expenditure “knowing” that it is a taxable expenditure only if: (a) He has actual knowledge... particular fact or particular rule is relevant in determining whether he had actual knowledge of such fact or... relevant in determining whether he has actual knowledge of such facts. (iv) Willful. A foundation...

  2. 26 CFR 53.4945-1 - Taxes on taxable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... agreed to an expenditure “knowing” that it is a taxable expenditure only if: (a) He has actual knowledge... particular fact or particular rule is relevant in determining whether he had actual knowledge of such fact or... relevant in determining whether he has actual knowledge of such facts. (iv) Willful. A foundation...

  3. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  4. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  5. 26 CFR 1.615-1 - Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pre-1970 exploration expenditures. 1.615-1 Section 1.615-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-1 Pre-1970 exploration expenditures. (a) General rule. Section 615 prescribes...

  6. 26 CFR 1.617-3 - Recapture of exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Recapture of exploration expenditures. 1.617-3 Section 1.617-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.617-3 Recapture of exploration expenditures. (a) In general. (1)(i) Except...

  7. 26 CFR 1.617-1 - Exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Exploration expenditures. 1.617-1 Section 1.617-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.617-1 Exploration expenditures. (a) General rule. Section 617 prescribes rules for the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.615-1 - Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-1 Pre-1970 exploration expenditures... the development stage of the mine or other natural deposit. Such expenditures hereinafter in the... mine or other natural deposit will be deemed to begin at the time when, in consideration of all...

  9. Tax Increment Financing and Education Expenditures: The Case of Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to directly examine the relationship between tax increment financing (TIF) and education expenditures, using the state of Iowa as a case study. I find that greater use of TIF is associated with reduced education expenditures. I also find little evidence to support the commonly held proposition that school spending increases…

  10. 26 CFR 53.4945-1 - Taxes on taxable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....4945-1 Taxes on taxable expenditures. (a) Imposition of initial taxes—(1) Tax on private foundation... 4945(d)) of a private foundation. This tax is to be paid by the private foundation and is at the rate... foundation manager to the making of a taxable expenditure by a private foundation. This tax is imposed...

  11. 26 CFR 1.528-6 - Expenditure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Expenditure test. 1.528-6 Section 1.528-6...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Homeowners Associations § 1.528-6 Expenditure test. (a) In general. An... association property as well as other property, an allocation shall be made between the two uses on...

  12. Enhancing Enterprise Expenditure on VET: Policy Goals and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Smith, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Increasing enterprises' expenditure on their employees' vocational education and training (VET) is of concern for governments in many countries. This article identifies and discusses policy goals for increased enterprise expenditure on VET and elaborates options for achieving these goals. Throughout, measures that attempt to mandate and regulate…

  13. Health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, R; Chellaraj, G; Murray, C J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline. PMID:9015869

  14. 42 CFR 403.754 - Monitoring expenditure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Monitoring expenditure level. 403.754 Section 403.754 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.754 Monitoring expenditure level. (a) Tracking...

  15. 42 CFR 403.754 - Monitoring expenditure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Monitoring expenditure level. 403.754 Section 403.754 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.754 Monitoring expenditure level. (a) Tracking...

  16. 42 CFR 403.754 - Monitoring expenditure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Monitoring expenditure level. 403.754 Section 403.754 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.754 Monitoring expenditure level. (a) Tracking...

  17. 42 CFR 403.754 - Monitoring expenditure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Monitoring expenditure level. 403.754 Section 403.754 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.754 Monitoring expenditure level. (a) Tracking...

  18. 11 CFR 110.10 - Expenditures by candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS § 110.10 Expenditures by candidates. Except as provided in 11 CFR parts 9001, et seq. and 9031, et... 11 CFR 100.33. ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expenditures by candidates. 110.10 Section...

  19. 11 CFR 110.8 - Presidential candidate expenditure limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section shall be increased in accordance with 11 CFR 110.17. (3) Voting age population is defined at 11 CFR 110.18. (b) The expenditure limitations shall not be considered violated if, after the date of the... expenditure limitation under 11 CFR 9035.1. (d)(1) If an individual is a candidate for more than one...

  20. 32 CFR 37.1290 - Expenditures or outlays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenditures or outlays. 37.1290 Section 37.1290 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1290 Expenditures...

  1. 24 CFR 203.364 - Mortgagee's liability for property expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgagee's liability for property expenditures. 203.364 Section 203.364 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Mortgagee's liability for property expenditures. Where the Secretary acquires a property and thereafter...

  2. 36 CFR 262.4 - Audit of expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audit of expenditures. 262.4 Section 262.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAW ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Rewards and Payments § 262.4 Audit of expenditures. The Chief of the...

  3. 25 CFR 700.473 - Administrative expenditures of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative expenditures of the Commission. 700.473 Section 700.473 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Discretionary Funds § 700.473 Administrative expenditures of the Commission....

  4. 44 CFR 206.66 - Limitation on expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on expenditures. 206.66 Section 206.66 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Limitation on expenditures. Total assistance provided in any given emergency declaration may not exceed...

  5. 34 CFR 303.127 - Assurance regarding expenditure of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assurance regarding expenditure of funds. 303.127 Section 303.127 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Assurance regarding expenditure of funds. The statement must include an assurance satisfactory to...

  6. 11 CFR 9033.3 - Expenditure limitation certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... committee(s) have knowingly and substantially exceeded the expenditure limitations at 11 CFR part 9035 prior... and substantially exceeded the expenditure limitations at 11 CFR part 9035. (c) A final determination... candidate of its initial determination, in accordance with the procedures outlined in 11 CFR 9033.10(b)....

  7. Parental Involvement, Instructional Expenditures, Family Socioeconomic Attributes, and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpala, Comfort O.; Okpala, Amon O.; Smith, Frederick E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the influence of parent involvement, parent socioeconomic status, and instructional supplies expenditures on the mathematics achievement of fourth graders in a low-income North Carolina county. Data analysis indicated that instructional supplies expenditures per pupil and parental volunteer hours were not statistically significant in…

  8. 26 CFR 1.528-6 - Expenditure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Expenditure test. 1.528-6 Section 1.528-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Homeowners Associations § 1.528-6 Expenditure test. (a) In general....

  9. Teachers, Salaries, and School District Expenditures. Report No. 1588-FF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Arthur J.

    This report investigates the relationship between total school district expenditures and expenditures on teachers in order to assess how increased budgets for public education might be spent. Specifically, it examines the budget share going to teachers as it is reflected in the ratio of teachers to pupils, the salary schedule, and the distribution…

  10. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  11. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  12. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  13. Municipal Overburden: Its Influence on Education Expenditures in Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazer, Harvey E.; McCarty, Therese A.

    The study reported in this document found no evidence for the minicipal overburden (m/o) hypothesis of urban school finance. The theory asserts that there is a causal relationship between high levels of non-school municipal expenditure or tax rates and low levels of school spending. Demand for expenditure on education in a sample of school…

  14. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  15. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.

    1998-12-08

    A microgap flat panel display is disclosed which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y ``pixel`` strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a ``pixel`` in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel. 6 figs.

  16. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.

    1998-01-01

    A microgap flat panel display which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y "pixel" strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a "pixel" in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel.

  17. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  18. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  19. Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The technology involved in designing and fabricating a heat pipe thermal conditioning panel to satisfy a broad range of thermal control system requirements on NASA spacecraft is discussed. The design specifications were developed for a 30 by 30 inch heat pipe panel. The fundamental constraint was a maximum of 15 gradient from source to sink at 300 watts input and a flux density of 2 watts per square inch. The results of the performance tests conducted on the panel are analyzed.

  20. National health expenditures, 1986-2000

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Patterns of spending for health during 1986 and beyond reflect a mixture of adherence to and change from historical trends. From a level of $458 billion in 1986—10.9 percent of the GNP—national health expenditures are projected to reach $1.5 trillion by the year 2000—15.0 percent of the GNP. This article presents a provisional estimate of spending in 1986 and projections of spending (under the assumption of current law) through the year 2000. Also discussed are the effects of the demographic composition of the population on spending for health, and how spending would increase in the future simply as a result of the evolution of that composition. PMID:10312184