Inverse modeling of a multistep outflow experiment fordetermining hysteretic hydraulic properties
Faybishenko, B.; Finsterle, S.; Sonnenborg, T.O.
1998-05-01
A new, closed-form hysteretic model of the capillary pressure-saturation and relative permeability-saturation relationship has been implemented into ITOUGH2. The hysteretic capillary pressure function is based on the van Genuchten model, with a modified version of the dependent domain model of Mualem to describe the scanning curves. Hysteresis in the relative permeability relations is considered to be mainly a result of nonwetting fluid entrap- ment. The hysteresis model was used in combination with inverse modeling techniques to examine the potential of a simple drainage- imbibition experiment to determine hysteretic hydraulic properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngo, Viet V.; Gerke, Horst H.; Badorreck, Annika
2014-05-01
The estimability analysis has been proposed to improve the quality of parameter optimization. For field data, wetting and drying processes may complicate optimization of soil hydraulic parameters. The objectives of this study were to apply estimability analysis for improving optimization of soil hydraulic parameters and compare models with and without considering hysteresis. Soil water pressure head data of a field irrigation experiment were used. The one-dimensional vertical water movement in variably-saturated soil was described with the Richards equation using the HYDRUS-1D code. Estimability of the unimodal van Genuchten - Mualem hydraulic model parameters as well as of the hysteretic parameter model of Parker and Lenhard was classified according to a sensitivity coefficient matrix. The matrix was obtained by sequentially calculating effects of initial parameter variations on changes in the simulated pressure head values. Optimization was carried out by means of the Levenberg-Marquardt method as implemented in the HYDRUS-1D code. The parameters α, Ks, θs, and n in the nonhysteretic model were found sensitive and parameter θs and n strongly correlated with parameter n in the nonhysteretic model. When assuming hysteresis, the estimability was highest for αw and decreased with soil depth for Ks and αd, and increased for θs and n. The hysteretic model could approximate the pressure heads in the soil by considering parameters from wetting and drying periods separately as initial estimates. The inverse optimization could be carried out more efficiently with most estimable parameters. Despite the weaknesses of the local optimization algorithm and the inflexibility of the unimodal van Genuchten model, the results suggested that estimability analysis could be considered as a guidance to better define the optimization scenarios and then improved the determination of soil hydraulic parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brancati, Renato; Strano, Salvatore; Timpone, Francesco
2011-10-01
When in use, a tire dissipates energy according to various mechanisms: rolling resistance, viscosity, hysteresis, friction energy, etc. This dissipation of energy contributes to influencing tire temperature, contact conditions and the resulting friction coefficient. This research project deals with viscoelastic and hysteretic mechanisms, and presents an explicit expression of the energy dissipated by tire-road interactions caused by these mechanisms. It is based on the Dahl model with regard to the hysteretic force together with a spring and a frequency variable damping coefficient with regard to the viscoelastic one. The energy expression found in this way can be used in tire thermal models to determine one of the heat flows needed to estimate the contact temperature and to find out the actual friction coefficient to be used in real time tire-road interaction models. Experimental tests were carried out, for longitudinal interaction only, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed expression by identifying the parameters and validating the results.
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves.
Cabaret, J; Béquin, P; Theocharis, G; Andreev, V; Gusev, V E; Tournat, V
2015-07-31
We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters. PMID:26274421
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.
2015-07-01
We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.
Hysteretic effects of dry friction: modelling and experimental studies.
Wojewoda, Jerzy; Stefański, Andrzej; Wiercigroch, Marian; Kapitaniak, Tomasz
2008-03-13
In this paper, the phenomena of hysteretic behaviour of friction force observed during experiments are discussed. On the basis of experimental and theoretical analyses, we argue that such behaviour can be considered as a representation of the system dynamics. According to this approach, a classification of friction models, with respect to their sensitivity on the system motion characteristic, is introduced. General friction modelling of the phenomena accompanying dry friction and a simple yet effective approach to capture the hysteretic effect are proposed. Finally, the experimental results are compared with the numerical simulations for the proposed friction model. PMID:17947206
The hysteretic Hopfield neural network.
Bharitkar, S; Mendel, J M
2000-01-01
A new neuron activation function based on a property found in physical systems--hysteresis--is proposed. We incorporate this neuron activation in a fully connected dynamical system to form the hysteretic Hopfield neural network (HHNN). We then present an analog implementation of this architecture and its associated dynamical equation and energy function.We proceed to prove Lyapunov stability for this new model, and then solve a combinatorial optimization problem (i.e., the N-queen problem) using this network. We demonstrate the advantages of hysteresis by showing increased frequency of convergence to a solution, when the parameters associated with the activation function are varied. PMID:18249816
Scaling Relations Between Laboratory Scale Hysteretic Measurements for a Silty Loam Soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Little, J.; Tindall, J.; Friedel, M.
2006-12-01
Moisture content is a key element of describing flow through unsaturated soils. Many laboratory experiments describe only a moisture retention curve when relating matric suction and moisture content, but that is only half of the picture. To fully characterize the relationship of matric suction and moisture content, the complete hysteretic function should be considered. This submission presents a relationship between soil samples of differing sizes and their hysteretic character. This relationship can be used to extrapolate the hysteretic and hydraulic properties of soils based on laboratory results derived from smaller samples. The applicability of Mualem's Independent Domain Theory (1974) at each scale is also considered.
Stochastic Averaging of Duhem Hysteretic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
YING, Z. G.; ZHU, W. Q.; NI, Y. Q.; KO, J. M.
2002-06-01
The response of Duhem hysteretic system to externally and/or parametrically non-white random excitations is investigated by using the stochastic averaging method. A class of integrable Duhem hysteresis models covering many existing hysteresis models is identified and the potential energy and dissipated energy of Duhem hysteretic component are determined. The Duhem hysteretic system under random excitations is replaced equivalently by a non-hysteretic non-linear random system. The averaged Ito's stochastic differential equation for the total energy is derived and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation associated with the averaged Ito's equation is solved to yield stationary probability density of total energy, from which the statistics of system response can be evaluated. It is observed that the numerical results by using the stochastic averaging method is in good agreement with that from digital simulation.
Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials
Johnson, Paul A; Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Riviere, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal
2010-12-07
Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.
Doughty, Christine
2006-07-17
Numerical models of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2)in brine-bearing formations use characteristic curves to represent theinteractions of non-wetting-phase CO2 and wetting-phase brine. When aproblem includes both injection of CO2 (a drainage process) and itssubsequent post-injection evolution (a combination of drainage andwetting), hysteretic characteristic curves are required to correctlycapture the behavior of the CO2 plume. In the hysteretic formulation,capillary pressure and relative permeability depend not only on thecurrent grid-block saturation, but also on the history of the saturationin the grid block. For a problem that involves only drainage or onlywetting, a non-hysteretic formulation, in which capillary pressure andrelative permeability depend only on the current value of the grid-blocksaturation, is adequate. For the hysteretic formulation to be robustcomputationally, care must be taken to ensure the differentiability ofthe characteristic curves both within and beyond the turning-pointsaturations where transitions between branches of the curves occur. Twoexample problems involving geologic CO2 storage are simulated withTOUGH2, a multiphase, multicomponent code for flow and transport codethrough geological media. Both non-hysteretic and hysteretic formulationsare used, to illustrate the applicability and limitations ofnon-hysteretic methods.The first application considers leakage of CO2from the storage formation to the ground surface, while the secondexamines the role of heterogeneity within the storageformation.
Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos
2016-05-01
We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. We propose that complex structures at magnetic domain walls may be responsible for the hysteretic MR and may also lead to the AHE.
Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos
We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low-temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. We suggest that both hysteretic MR and AHE arise from the formation of complex non-coplanar structures at magnetic domain walls. Current address: Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University.
Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4
Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos
2016-05-11
We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. In conclusion, we propose that complex structures at magnetic domain walls may be responsible for the hysteretic MR and may also lead to the AHE.
Random Response of Linear Hysteretic Damping
Floris, Claudio
2008-07-08
The probabilistic characterization of the response of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with linear hysteretic damping excited by ground motion described by zero mean stationary Gaussian processes is achieved by profiting from a steady-state solution of the motion equation, valid when the excitation is given by the superposition of harmonics. The model of linear hysteretic damping has been introduced to fit damping mechanisms in which the dissipation rate is independent of frequency, and mathematically it is described by the Hilbert transform of the response. Though this model is debated since it violates the principle of causality, its intrinsic simplicity makes it preferable to other models. The steady-state solution of the motion equation proposed in this paper allows a closed form evaluation of the respone mean square value. However, the numerical examples show that this quantity is affected by the mechanism of energy dissipation only when this is large. On the contrary, for a low capacity of dissipation the response mean square value is rather insensitive to the dissipation mechanism.
Assessing catchment connectivity using hysteretic loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens; Goni, Mikel; Campo, Miguel Angel; Gimenez, Rafael; Casali, Javier; Seeger, Manuel
2015-04-01
Sediment connectivity is a concept which can explain the origin, pathways and sinks of sediments within landscapes. This information is valuable for land managers to be able to take appropriate action at the correct place. Hysteresis between sediment and water discharge can give important information about the sources , pathways and conditions of sediment that arrives at the outlet of a catchment. "Hysteresis" happens when the sediment concentration associated with a certain flow rate is different depending on the direction in which the analysis is performed -towards the increase or towards the diminution of the flow. This phenomenon to some extent reflects the way in which the runoff generation processes are conjugated with those of the production and transport of sediments, hence the usefulness of hysteresis as a diagnostic hydrological parameter. However, the complexity of the phenomena and factors which determine hysteresis make its interpretation uncertain or, at the very least, problematic. Many types of hysteretic loops have been described as well as the cause for the shape of the loop, mainly describing the origin of the sediments. In this study, several measures to objectively classify hysteretic loops in an automated way were developed. These were consecutively used to classify several hundreds of loops from several agricultural catchments in Northern Spain. The data set for this study comes from four experimental watersheds in Navarre (Spain), owned and maintained by the Government of Navarre. These experimental watersheds have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz "principal", Op, and Oskotz "woodland", Ow). La Tejería and Latxaga watersheds, located in the Central Western part of Navarre, are roughly similar to each other regarding size (approximately 200 ha), geology (marls and sandstones), soils (fine texture topsoil), climate (humid sub Mediterranean) and land use (80-90% cultivated with winter grain crops
The hysteretic evapotranspiration - vapor pressure deficit relation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Q.; Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.; Yang, D.
2013-12-01
Diurnal hysteresis between evapotranspiration (ET) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was reported in many ecosystems but justification for its onset and magnitude remain incomplete with biotic and abiotic factors invoked as possible explanations. To place these explanations within a mathematical framework, ';rate-dependent' hysteresis originating from a phase angle difference between periodic input and output time series is first considered. Lysimeter evaporation (E) measurements from wet bare soils and model calculations using the Penman equation demonstrate that the E-VPD hysteresis emerges without any biotic effects due to a phase angle difference (or time lag) between net radiation the main driver of E, and VPD. Modulations originating from biotic effects on the ET-VPD hysteresis were then considered. The phase angle difference representation earlier employed was mathematically transformed into a storage problem and applied to the soil-plant system. The transformed system shows that soil moisture storage within the root zone can produce an ET-VPD hysteresis prototypical of those generated by phase-angle differences. To explore the interplay between all the lags in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and phase angle differences among forcing and response variables, a detailed soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) model was developed and applied to a grassland ecosystem. The results of the SPAC model suggest that the hysteresis magnitude depends on the radiation-VPD lag. The soil moisture dry-down simulations also suggest that modeled root water potential and leaf water potential are both better indicators of the hysteresis magnitude than soil moisture, suggesting that plant water status is the main factor regulating the hysteretic relation between ET and VPD. Hence, the genesis and magnitude of the ET-VPD hysteresis are controlled directly by both biotic factors and abiotic factors such as time lag between radiation and VPD originating from boundary layer processes
Magnetic Field Sampling using a Pulsed Hysteretic SQUID
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, S. P.; Vlahacos, C. P.; Berkley, A. J.; Gubrud, M. A.; Wellstood, F. C.; Cawthorne, A.
2004-03-01
Weak magnetic field detection using a non-hysteretic DC SQUID with Flux-Locked-Loop electronics is typically limited to 1MHz bandwidth or less. However, there is demand for larger bandwidth magnetic field detection for use in the semiconductor industry. We have studied the possibility of using a 4.2K hysteretic trilayer Nb DC SQUID, fabricated by Hypres Inc., with pulsed bias current to increase the bandwidth by an order of magnitude or more. The technique is based on the fast switching of a hysteretic SQUID from the superconducting state to the normal conducting state. By observing the switching of the SQUID, the applied magnetic field at the time of a pulse can be followed. Experimental results show that the technique can be used to follow magnetic fields of up to 60MHz with 5ns pulses. With shorter pulses and better electronics, the technique could further increase the bandwidth by another order of magnitude.
Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer
Cao, Shuying Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei
2015-05-07
A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device.
Hysteretic Behavior of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Pier with Fiber Model
Hui-li, Wang; Guang-qi, Feng; Si-feng, Qin
2014-01-01
The hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier were researched. The effects of the prestressed tendon ratio, the longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and the stirrup reinforcement ratio on the hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier have been obtained with the fiber model analysis method. The analysis show some results about the prestressed concrete bridge pier. Firstly, greater prestressed tendon ratio and more longitudinal reinforcement can lead to more obvious pier's hysteresis loop “pinching effect,” smaller residual displacement, and lower energy dissipation capacity. Secondly, the greater the stirrup reinforcement ratio is, the greater the hysteresis loop area is. That also means that bridge piers will have better ductility and stronger shear capacity. The results of the research will provide a theoretical basis for the hysteretic behavior analysis of the prestressed concrete pier. PMID:24578635
Hysteretic behavior of prestressed concrete bridge pier with fiber model.
Wang, Hui-li; Feng, Guang-qi; Qin, Si-feng
2014-01-01
The hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier were researched. The effects of the prestressed tendon ratio, the longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and the stirrup reinforcement ratio on the hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier have been obtained with the fiber model analysis method. The analysis show some results about the prestressed concrete bridge pier. Firstly, greater prestressed tendon ratio and more longitudinal reinforcement can lead to more obvious pier's hysteresis loop "pinching effect," smaller residual displacement, and lower energy dissipation capacity. Secondly, the greater the stirrup reinforcement ratio is, the greater the hysteresis loop area is. That also means that bridge piers will have better ductility and stronger shear capacity. The results of the research will provide a theoretical basis for the hysteretic behavior analysis of the prestressed concrete pier. PMID:24578635
Hysteretic behavior of spin-crossover noise driven system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudyma, Iurii; Maksymov, Artur; Dimian, Mihai
2016-04-01
The influence of white Gaussian noise on hysteretic behavior of spin-crossover system is analyzed in the framework of stochastic Langevin dynamics. Various stochastic simulations are performed and several important properties of spin-transition in spin-crossover system driven by noise are reproduced. The numerical results are tested against the stationary probability function and the associated dynamic potential obtained from Fokker-Planck equation corresponding to spin-crossover Langevin dynamics. The dependence of light-induced optical hysteresis width and non-hysteretic transition curve slope on the noise intensity is illustrated. The role of low-spin and high-spin phase stabilities in the hysteretic behavior of noise-driven spin-crossover system is discussed.
Hysteretic dynamics of active particles in a periodic orienting field
Romensky, Maksym; Scholz, Dimitri; Lobaskin, Vladimir
2015-01-01
Active motion of living organisms and artificial self-propelling particles has been an area of intense research at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics. Significant progress in understanding these phenomena has been related to the observation that dynamic self-organization in active systems has much in common with ordering in equilibrium condensed matter such as spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. The velocities of active particles may behave similar to magnetic dipoles and develop global alignment, although interactions between the individuals might be completely different. In this work, we show that the dynamics of active particles in external fields can also be described in a way that resembles equilibrium condensed matter. It follows simple general laws, which are independent of the microscopic details of the system. The dynamics is revealed through hysteresis of the mean velocity of active particles subjected to a periodic orienting field. The hysteresis is measured in computer simulations and experiments on unicellular organisms. We find that the ability of the particles to follow the field scales with the ratio of the field variation period to the particles' orientational relaxation time, which, in turn, is related to the particle self-propulsion power and the energy dissipation rate. The collective behaviour of the particles due to aligning interactions manifests itself at low frequencies via increased persistence of the swarm motion when compared with motion of an individual. By contrast, at high field frequencies, the active group fails to develop the alignment and tends to behave like a set of independent individuals even in the presence of interactions. We also report on asymptotic laws for the hysteretic dynamics of active particles, which resemble those in magnetic systems. The generality of the assumptions in the underlying model suggests that the observed laws might apply to a variety of dynamic phenomena from the motion of
Hysteretic dynamics of active particles in a periodic orienting field.
Romensky, Maksym; Scholz, Dimitri; Lobaskin, Vladimir
2015-07-01
Active motion of living organisms and artificial self-propelling particles has been an area of intense research at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics. Significant progress in understanding these phenomena has been related to the observation that dynamic self-organization in active systems has much in common with ordering in equilibrium condensed matter such as spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. The velocities of active particles may behave similar to magnetic dipoles and develop global alignment, although interactions between the individuals might be completely different. In this work, we show that the dynamics of active particles in external fields can also be described in a way that resembles equilibrium condensed matter. It follows simple general laws, which are independent of the microscopic details of the system. The dynamics is revealed through hysteresis of the mean velocity of active particles subjected to a periodic orienting field. The hysteresis is measured in computer simulations and experiments on unicellular organisms. We find that the ability of the particles to follow the field scales with the ratio of the field variation period to the particles' orientational relaxation time, which, in turn, is related to the particle self-propulsion power and the energy dissipation rate. The collective behaviour of the particles due to aligning interactions manifests itself at low frequencies via increased persistence of the swarm motion when compared with motion of an individual. By contrast, at high field frequencies, the active group fails to develop the alignment and tends to behave like a set of independent individuals even in the presence of interactions. We also report on asymptotic laws for the hysteretic dynamics of active particles, which resemble those in magnetic systems. The generality of the assumptions in the underlying model suggests that the observed laws might apply to a variety of dynamic phenomena from the motion of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruggeri, Paolo; Jougnot, Damien; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Brandner, Catherine; del Rocio Millán Ruiz, José; Linde, Niklas
2015-04-01
In soil science, the hysteretic nature of the water retention curve plays an important role in describing a soil's propensity to retain water and conduct fluid flow. However, hysteresis effects remain difficult to study and to quantify. Geophysical methods provide suitable and non-invasive tools that could be used for this purpose. For example, the degree of water saturation in a soil can be determined by measuring its electrical resistivity, while a water flux through a soil generates a measureable electrical potential difference (streaming potential). The objective of this work is to study the hysteretic behaviour of unconsolidated sediments during repeated drainage and imbibition cycles under well-constrained laboratory conditions. Monitoring was performed using a 32-electrode electroencephalography (EEG) apparatus (Biosemi) coupled with a current injection system. We used a 150 cm high sand-filled column in which we monitored self-potential (SP) signals using 15 electrodes in direct contact with the medium (so-called "naked" electrodes), and 15 electrodes that were inserted in small porous pots that were filled with water of the same conductivity and chloride concentration as the water saturating the sand (so-called "chamber" electrodes). For both electrode types, the electrodes were placed between 5 and 145 cm height with an electrode spacing of 10 cm. Pressure (10 tensiometers) and mass, together with the temperature and the relative humidity in the room, were constantly monitored for the entire duration of the experiments. We performed ten cycles of drainage and imbibition by changing the water level of an external reservoir connected to the column. Each drainage and imbibition cycle took approximately 25 and 17 hours, respectively, for a total duration of the experiment of 24 days. After each imbibition and drainage cycle, we performed complex conductivity measurements by injecting a known electric current at two electrodes using a sine wave with varying
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lloyd, Charlotte; Freer, Jim; Johnes, Penny; Collins, Adrian
2013-04-01
The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that all water bodies should be maintained at, or raised to, good ecological status, driven by improved integrated catchment management. Therefore, it is necessary to implement cost-effective mitigation strategies to reduce pollution from nutrients and improve overall water quality. If successful mitigation strategies are to be designed then it is imperative that catchment scale responses to environmental and anthropogenic changes are better understood. Against this background, this presentation investigates changes in hysteretic behaviours of nutrients in response to different environmental drivers using high resolution monitoring techniques. Observations of hysteretic behaviour can provide insights into the dominant flow pathways of pollutants. Therefore, monitoring changes in nutrient hysteresis can provide a useful tool for detecting regime differences or changes within and between catchments. In the UK, the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project has been set up to monitor evidence for improving water quality problems arising specifically from diffuse pollution from agriculture using targeted mitigation experiments and high resolution monitoring. This research platform provides an opportunity to compare storm-driven nutrient behaviour between catchments which have differing geologies, as well as how these behaviours evolve on a seasonal and annual basis. The monitoring to date has included a period of drought, directly followed by extreme wet conditions in the UK and therefore offers opportunities to assess the effect of differences in antecedent conditions on monitored nutrient response to rainfall events. The study compares the hysteretic behaviour of nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus species as well as sediment from a number of storm events of varying magnitudes throughout the 2011-2012 monitoring period in the Hampshire Avon catchment as part of the DTC programme. The investigation focuses
Microscopic Theory of Hysteretic Hydrogen Adsorption in Nanoporous Materials
Kang, J.; Wei, S. H.; Kim, Y. H.
2010-01-01
Understanding gas adsorption confined in nanoscale pores is a fundamental issue with broad applications in catalysis and gas storage. Recently, hysteretic H{sub 2} adsorption was observed in several nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here, using first-principles calculations and simulated adsorption/desorption isotherms, we present a microscopic theory of the enhanced adsorption hysteresis of H{sub 2} molecules using the MOF Co(1,4-benzenedipyrazolate) [Co(BDP)] as a model system. Using activated H{sub 2} diffusion along the small-pore channels as a dominant equilibration process, we demonstrate that the system shows hysteretic H{sub 2} adsorption under changes of external pressure. For a small increase of temperature, the pressure width of the hysteresis, as well as the adsorption/desorption pressure, dramatically increases. The sensitivity of gas adsorption to temperature changes is explained by the simple thermodynamics of the gas reservoir. Detailed analysis of transient adsorption dynamics reveals that the hysteretic H{sub 2} adsorption is an intrinsic adsorption characteristic in the diffusion-controlled small-pore systems.
Plane stress problems using hysteretic rigid body spring network models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christos, Sofianos D.; Vlasis, Koumousis K.
2016-08-01
In this work, a discrete numerical scheme is presented capable of modeling the hysteretic behavior of 2D structures. Rigid Body Spring Network (RBSN) models that were first proposed by Kawai (Nucl Eng Des 48(1):29-207, 1978) are extended to account for hysteretic elastoplastic behavior. Discretization is based on Voronoi tessellation, as proposed specifically for RBSN models to ensure uniformity. As a result, the structure is discretized into convex polygons that form the discrete rigid bodies of the model. These are connected with three zero length, i.e., single-node springs in the middle of their common facets. The springs follow the smooth hysteretic Bouc-Wen model which efficiently incorporates classical plasticity with no direct reference to a yield surface. Numerical results for both static and dynamic loadings are presented, which validate the proposed simplified spring-mass formulation. In addition, they verify the model's applicability on determining primarily the displacement field and plastic zones compared to the standard elastoplastic finite element method.
Principle and validation of modified hysteretic models for magnetorheological dampers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Xian-Xu; Chen, Peng; Qian, Li-Jun
2015-08-01
Magnetorheological (MR) dampers, semi-active actuators for vibration and shock control systems, have attracted increasing attention during the past two decades. However, it is difficult to establish a precise mathematical model for the MR dampers and their control systems due to their intrinsic strong nonlinear hysteretic behavior. A phenomenological model based on the Bouc-Wen model can be used to effectively describe the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the MR dampers, but the structure of the phenomenological model is complex and the Bouc-Wen model is functionally redundant. In this paper, based on the phenomenological model, (1) a normalized phenomenological model is derived through incorporating a ‘normalization’ concept, and (2) a restructured model, also incorporating the ‘normalization’ concept, is proposed and realized. In order to demonstrate this, a multi-islands genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to identify the parameters of the restructured model, the normalized phenomenological model, and the phenomenological model. The performance of the three models for describing and predicting the damping force characteristics of the MR dampers are compared and analyzed using the identified parameters. The research results indicate that, as compared with the phenomenological model and the normalized phenomenological model, (1) the restructured model can not only effectively decrease the number of the model parameters and reduce the complexity of the model, but can also describe the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of MR dampers more accurately, and (2) the meanings of several model parameters of the restructured model are clearer and the initial ranges of the model parameters are more explicit, which is of significance for parameter identification.
Fast, Low-Power, Hysteretic Level-Detector Circuit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arditti, Mordechai
1993-01-01
Circuit for detection of preset levels of voltage or current intended to replace standard fast voltage comparator. Hysteretic analog/digital level detector operates at unusually low power with little sacrifice of speed. Comprises low-power analog circuit and complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) digital circuit connected in overall closed feedback loop to decrease rise and fall times, provide hysteresis, and trip-level control. Contains multiple subloops combining linear and digital feedback. Levels of sensed signals and hysteresis level easily adjusted by selection of components to suit specific application.
Global adaptive control for uncertain nonaffine nonlinear hysteretic systems.
Liu, Yong-Hua; Huang, Liangpei; Xiao, Dongming; Guo, Yong
2015-09-01
In this paper, the global output tracking is investigated for a class of uncertain nonlinear hysteretic systems with nonaffine structures. By combining the solution properties of the hysteresis model with the novel backstepping approach, a robust adaptive control algorithm is developed without constructing a hysteresis inverse. The proposed control scheme is further modified to tackle the bounded disturbances by adaptively estimating their bounds. It is rigorously proven that the designed adaptive controllers can guarantee global stability of the closed-loop system. Two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes. PMID:26169122
Hysteretic transitions in the Kuramoto model with inertia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torcini, Alessandro; Olmi, Simona; Navas, Adrian; Boccaletti, Stefano
2015-03-01
We report finite size numerical investigations and mean field analysis of a Kuramoto model with inertia for fully coupled and diluted systems. In particular, we examine the transition from incoherence to coherence for increasingly large system size and inertia. For sufficiently large inertia the transition is hysteretic and within the hysteretic region clusters of locked oscillators of various sizes and different levels of synchronization coexist. A modification of the mean field theory developed by Tanaka, Lichtenberg, and Oishi allows to derive the synchronization curve associated to each of these clusters. We have also investigated numerically the limits of existence of the coherent and of the incoherent solutions. The minimal coupling required to observe the coherent state is largely independent of the system size and it saturates to a constant value already for moderately large inertia values. The incoherent state is observable up to a critical coupling whose value saturates for large inertia and for finite system sizes, while in the thermodinamic limit this critical value diverges proportionally to the mass. By increasing the inertia the transition becomes more complex, and the synchronization occurs via the emergence of clusters of coherently drifting oscillators. Financial support has been provided by the Italian Ministry of University and Research within the project CRISIS LAB PNR 2011-2013.
A nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupled hysteretic constitutive model for magnetostrictive alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Ke; Kou, Yong; Zheng, Xiaojing
2012-06-01
This paper presents a general hysteretic constitutive law of nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupling for magnetostrictive alloys. The model considered here is thermodynamically motivated and based on the Gibbs free energy function. A nonlinear part of the elastic strain arising from magnetic domain rotation induced by the pre-stress is taken into account. Furthermore, the movement of the domain walls is incorporated to describe hysteresis based on Jiles-Atherton's model. Then a set of closed and analytical expressions of the constitutive law for the magnetostrictive rods and films are obtained, and the parameters appearing in the model can be determined by those measurable experiments in mechanics and physics. Comparing this model with other existing models in this field, the quantitative results show that the relationships obtained here are more effective to describe the effects of the pre-stress or in-plane residual stress and ambient temperature on the magnetization or the magnetostriction hysteresis loops.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sireteanu, Tudor; Giuclea, M.; Mitu, A. M.
2010-04-01
In this paper is proposed an extended Bouc-Wen model for improving its capability to approximate experimental symmetric hysteretic loops. On the basis of the generalized equation there are defined integral and differential conditions that describe the essential geometric properties of a hysteretic curve. Next, a new method based on Genetic Algorithms is developed to identify the Bouc-Wen model parameters from experimental hysteretic loops obtained from periodic loading tests. The performance of presented approach is illustrated for two types of seismic protection devices with hysteretic characteristics: elastomeric base isolators and buckling restrained dissipative braces. The applicability of proposed method is highlighted by using the derived models to analyse by numerical simulation the efficiency of these devices for reducing seismic response of a three stories civil structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gedikli, Ersegun Deniz; Dahl, Jason M.
2015-11-01
The response of rigid cylinders undergoing VIV has been observed to be hysteretic with respect to the nominal reduced velocity, as transition of the wake is delayed dependent on whether the flow has been slowed down or sped up. In the present study, a similar behavior is observed for a flexible, tension-dominated cylinder, however the hysteretic behavior is shown to affect the transition between excited modes. The test cylinder has diameter of 6.35 mm, aspect ratio of 40 and mass ratio of 3.76. The dynamic response of the cylinder is measured visually, by tracking 26 dots along the span of the cylinder using two high-speed cameras between the Reynolds number of 1080 and 4660. It is observed that a clear memory effect exists, where the speed at which transition between the first mode and second mode excitation in the cross-flow direction changes dependent on whether the flow is increasing or decreasing in speed. A second series of experiments is conducted to investigate end plate effects on the flexible cylinder. Experiments are conducted with and without an end plate located at the end pivot point on the cylinder. Clear differences are observed between each condition illustrating the strong three-dimensional behavior of vortex shedding behind the flexible cylinder.
Hysteretic behavior and magnetic ordering in CeRuSn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mydosh, J. A.; Strydom, A. M.; Baenitz, M.; Chevalier, B.; Hermes, W.; Pöttgen, R.
2011-02-01
We report the thermodynamic and transport properties of the newly synthesized Ce-intermetallic compound CeRuSn. This ternary stannide possesses an unconventional structure with two Ce sites at room temperature which exhibit different valencies. Just below room temperature there are large thermal hysteretic effects in the magnetic susceptibility, in the specific heat, as well as in electronic and heat transport properties suggesting the formation of an incommensurate charge density wave modulation whose q vector changes as a function of temperature. Our measurements indicate that one site displays magnetic Ce3+ behavior while the other is a valence fluctuator. At 2.7 K antiferromagnetic long-range order occurs within one-half of the Ce sites, e.g., the magnetic entropy of the transition is (1)/(2)Rln2. Below TN a series of metamagnetic transitions takes place in rather small fields (~1-2 T), leaving a magnetically fluctuating background. Such behavior is unique among the many Ce-transition-metal compounds.
Stochastic averaging of energy envelope of Preisach hysteretic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Ying, Z. G.; Zhu, W. Q.
2009-04-01
A new stochastic averaging technique for analyzing the response of a single-degree-of-freedom Preisach hysteretic system with nonlocal memory under stationary Gaussian stochastic excitation is proposed. An equivalent nonhysteretic nonlinear system with amplitude-envelope-dependent damping and stiffness is firstly obtained from the given system by using the generalized harmonic balance technique. The relationship between the amplitude envelope and the energy envelope is then established, and the equivalent damping and stiffness coefficients are expressed as functions of the energy envelope. The available range of the yielding force of the system is extended and also the strong nonlinear stiffness of the system is incorporated so as to improve the response prediction. Finally, an averaged Itô stochastic differential equation for the energy envelope of the system as one-dimensional diffusion process is derived by using the stochastic averaging method of energy envelope, and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation associated with the averaged Itô equation is solved to obtain stationary probability densities of the energy envelope and amplitude envelope. The approximate solutions are validated by using the Monte Carlo simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Qingbo; Lin, Yin
2016-05-01
This paper investigates fatigue crack severity assessment using acoustics modulated by hysteretic vibration for a cantilever beam. In this study, a nonlinear oscillator system is constructed to induce the hysteretic frequency response of the cantilever beam in dynamics, and the hysteretic vibration is then used to modulate the acoustic waves to generate the vibro-acoustic modulation (VAM) effect. Through modulation of hysteretic vibration, the hysteretic response of the VAM can be achieved. The experimental results further validated that the VAM hysteresis phenomenon can be enhanced with the increase of crack severity owing to the change of beam's effective stiffness. Simulations in the proposed physical model explained the reason of enhancement of hysteresis phenomenon. Combined with nonlinear bistable structural model, a fatigue crack severity assessment approach was proposed by evaluating the hysteretic region (e.g., bandwidth or jumping frequency) in the vibration frequency response of the VAM effect. The reported study is valuable in building a monotonic relationship to assess the severity of fatigue crack by a nonlinear acoustics approach.
Modeling geologic storage of carbon dioxide: Comparison ofnon-hysteretic chracteristic curves
Doughty, Christine
2006-04-28
TOUGH2 models of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in brine-bearing formations use characteristic curves to represent the interactions of non-wetting-phase CO2 and wetting-phase brine. When a problem includes both injection of CO2 (a drainage process) and its subsequent post-injection evolution (a combination of drainage and wetting), hysteretic characteristic curves are required to correctly capture the behavior of the CO2 plume. In the hysteretic formulation, capillary pressure and relative permeability depend not only on the current grid-block saturation, but also on the history of the saturation in the grid block. For a problem that involves only drainage or only wetting, a nonhysteretic formulation, in which capillary pressure and relative permeability depend only on the current value of the grid-block saturation, is adequate. For the hysteretic formulation to be robust computationally, care must be taken to ensure the differentiability of the characteristic curves both within and beyond the turning-point saturations where transitions between branches of the curves occur. Two example problems involving geologic CO2 storage are simulated using non-hysteretic and hysteretic models, to illustrate the applicability and limitations of non-hysteretic methods: the first considers leakage of CO2 from the storage formation to the ground surface, while the second examines the role of heterogeneity within the storage formation.
Domain switching mechanisms in polycrystalline ferroelectrics with asymmetric hysteretic behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anton, Eva-Maria; García, R. Edwin; Key, Thomas S.; Blendell, John E.; Bowman, Keith J.
2009-01-01
A numerical method is presented to predict the effect of microstructure on the local polarization switching of bulk ferroelectric ceramics. The model shows that a built-in electromechanical field develops in a ferroelectric material as a result of the spatial coupling of the grains and the direct physical coupling between the thermomechanical and electromechanical properties of a bulk ceramic material. The built-in fields that result from the thermomechanically induced grain-grain electromechanical interactions result in the appearance of four microstructural switching mechanisms: (1) simple switching, where the c-axes of ferroelectric domains will align with the direction of the applied macroscopic electric field by starting from the core of each grain; (2) grain boundary induced switching, where the domain's switching response will initiate at grain corners and boundaries as a result of the polarization and stress that is locally generated from the strong anisotropy of the dielectric permittivity and the local piezoelectric contributions to polarization from the surrounding material; (3) negative poling, where abutting ferroelectric domains of opposite polarity actively oppose domain switching by increasing their degree of tetragonality by interacting with the surrounding domains that have already switched to align with the applied electrostatic field. Finally, (4) domain reswitching mechanism is observed at very large applied electric fields, and is characterized by the appearance of polarization domain reversals events in the direction of their originally unswitched state. This mechanism is a consequence of the competition between the macroscopic applied electric field, and the induced electric field that results from the neighboring domains (or grains) interactions. The model shows that these built-in electromechanical fields and mesoscale mechanisms contribute to the asymmetry of the macroscopic hysteretic behavior in poled samples. Furthermore, below a
Hysteretic pinching of human secondary osteons subjected to torsion.
Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Di Comite, Mariasevera; Mitov, Plamen; Kabo, John Michael
2007-01-01
The mechanical behavior of bone tissue's ultra- and micro- structure is fundamental to assessment of macroscopic bone mechanics. This paper explores the ultra-structural characteristics of human femoral tissue responsible for energy absorption of secondary osteons under mechanical loading. A novel mathematical interpretation of single osteon mechanics elucidates the behavior of the collagen-apatite interface. Fully calcified single osteon specimens were mechanically tested quasi-statically under cyclic torsional loading about their longitudinal axis. On each hysteretic diagram, all cycles after the initial monotonic cycle appear pinched and share two points. Stiffness degradation and pinching degradation were investigated on the torque versus deflection-angle-per-unit-length diagrams as the number of cycles increases, in relation to the appearance of osteons in cross-section under circularly polarized light microscopy. Material science's Bauschinger effect, originally defined for metals and later extended to structures reinforced with metal bars, is adapted to describe pinching. Material science's prying effect, defined as amplification of eccentric tensile load through lever action, is employed to explain pinching. The presence of the two points shared by all complete cycles is analyzed in terms of the mathematical fixed point theorem. The results allow formulation of the following conjectures: (1) the prying of carbonated apatite crystallites at the interface with the 40 nm long bands of non-calcified collagen fibrils causes pinching; (2) the prying effect increases with the increasing percentage of collagen-apatite elements that form a larger angle with the osteon axis; and (3) micro-cracks increase more in number than in length as the number of cycles increases. PMID:17399724
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Geel, P. J.; Roy, S. D.
2002-09-01
A residual non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) present in the vadose zone can act as a contaminant source for many years as the compounds of concern partition to infiltrating groundwater and air contained in the soil voids. Current pressure-saturation-relative permeability relationships do not include a residual NAPL saturation term in their formulation. This paper presents the results of series of two- and three-phase pressure cell experiments conducted to evaluate the residual NAPL saturation and its impact on the pressure-saturation relationship. A model was proposed to incorporate a residual NAPL saturation term into an existing hysteretic three-phase parametric model developed by Parker and Lenhard [Water Resour. Res. 23(12) (1987) 2187], Lenhard and Parker [Water Resour. Res. 23(12) (1987) 2197] and Lenhard [J. Contam. Hydrol. 9 (1992) 243]. The experimental results indicated that the magnitude of the residual NAPL saturation was a function of the maximum total liquid saturation reached and the water saturation. The proposed model to incorporate a residual NAPL saturation term is similar in form to the entrapment model proposed by Parker and Lenhard, which was based on an expression presented by Land [Soc. Pet. Eng. J. (June 1968) 149].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo
2016-02-01
Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO2 film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management.
User's Guide for Hysteretic Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability Functions in iTOUGH2
Doughty, C.A.
2009-08-01
The precursor of TOUGH2, TOUGH, was originally developed with non-hysteretic characteristic curves. Hysteretic capillary pressure functions were implemented in TOUGH in the late 1980s by Niemi and Bodvarsson (1988), and hysteretic capillary pressure and relative permeability functions were added to iTOUGH2 about ten years later by Finsterle et al. (1998). Recently, modifications were made to the iTOUGH2 hysteretic formulation to make it more robust and efficient (Doughty, 2007). Code development is still underway, with the ultimate goal being a hysteretic module that fits into the standard TOUGH2 (Pruess et al., 1991) framework. This document provides a user's guide for the most recent version of the hysteretic code, which runs within iTOUGH2 (Finsterle, 1999a,b,c). The current code differs only slightly from what was presented in Doughty (2007), hence that document provides the basic information on the processes being modeled and how they are conceptualized. This document focuses on a description of the user-specified parameters required to run hysteretic iTOUGH2. In the few instances where the conceptualization differs from that of Doughty (2007), the features described here are the current ones. Sample problems presented in this user's guide use the equation-of-state module ECO2N (Pruess, 2005). The components present in ECO2N are H{sub 2}O, NaCl, and CO{sub 2}. Two fluid phases and one solid phase are considered: an aqueous phase, which primarily consists of liquid H2O and may contain dissolved NaCl and CO{sub 2}; a supercritical phase which primarily consists of CO{sub 2}, but also includes a small amount of gaseous H{sub 2}O; and a solid phase consisting of precipitated NaCl. Details of the ECO2N formulation may be found in Pruess (2005). The aqueous phase is the wetting phase and is denoted ''liquid'', whereas the supercritical phase is the non-wetting phase and is denoted ''gas''. The hysteretic formalism may be applied to other iTOUGH2 equation
Cai, Hong; Li, Mian; Lin, Xiao-Rong; Chen, Wei; Chen, Guang-Hui; Huang, Xiao-Chun; Li, Dan
2015-09-01
Biological and artificial molecules and assemblies capable of supramolecular recognition, especially those with nucleobase pairing, usually rely on autonomous or collective binding to function. Advanced site-specific recognition takes advantage of cooperative spatial effects, as in local folding in protein-DNA binding. Herein, we report a new nucleobase-tagged metal-organic framework (MOF), namely ZnBTCA (BTC=benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyl, A=adenine), in which the exposed Watson-Crick faces of adenine residues are immobilized periodically on the interior crystalline surface. Systematic control experiments demonstrated the cooperation of the open Watson-Crick sites and spatial effects within the nanopores, and thermodynamic and kinetic studies revealed a hysteretic host-guest interaction attributed to mild chemisorption. We further exploited this behavior for adenine-thymine binding within the constrained pores, and a globally adaptive response of the MOF host was observed. PMID:26178173
Stochastic optimal semi-active control of hysteretic systems by using a magneto-rheological damper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, H.; Zhu, W. Q.; Ying, Z. G.
2006-06-01
A stochastic optimal semi-active control strategy for stochastically excited hysteretic systems by using a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is proposed. The dynamics of both the hysteretic system and the MR damper is characterized by using the Bouc-Wen hysteretic model. The control force produced by the damper is split into a passive part and a semi-active part. The passive part is combined with the uncontrolled system to form a passively controlled system. Then the system is converted into an equivalent nonlinear non-hysteretic stochastic system, from which a partially averaged Itô stochastic differential equation is derived by using the stochastic averaging method of the energy envelope. For the ergodic control problem, a dynamical programming equation is established based on the stochastic dynamical programming principle and solved to yield the optimal semi-active control law. The fully averaged Itô equation is obtained by substituting the optimal semi-active control force into the partially averaged Itô equation and completing the averaging. Finally, the response of the semi-actively controlled system is obtained from solving the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation associated with the fully averaged Itô equation. The efficacy of the proposed control strategy is illustrated by the numerical results and comparison with clipped LQG control for an example.
COMPARING SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HYSTERETIC TWO- PHASE TRANSIENT FLUID FLOW PHENOMENA
A hysteretic model for two-phase permeability (k)-saturation (S)-pressure (P) relations is outlined that accounts for effects of nonwetting fluid entrapment. The model can be employed in unsaturated fluid flow computer codes to predict temporal and spatial fluid distributions. Co...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Zhangwei; Wang, Linxiang
2015-02-01
This paper is an extended study on the model of the hysteretic dynamics of magnetorheological dampers based on a phenomenological phase transition theory (Wang and Kamath in Smart Mater. Struct. 15(6):1725-1733, 2006). It is demonstrated that, by appropriately choosing model parameters, the frequency dependence of the hysteretic dynamics can be captured very well by the model based on phase transition theory. Whilst by introducing an appropriate rescaling coefficient to account for the strength of the magnetized particle chains with various magnetic field strengths, the field strength dependence of the hysteretic dynamics can also be captured very well by the same differential equation with the same set of model parameters. There are in total eight model parameters introduced for capturing the hysteretic dynamics, including its dependence on the loading rate and field strength.
User's Guide for Hysteretic Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability Functions in TOUGH2
Doughty, C. A.
2013-03-01
This document provides a user’s guide for the most recent version of the hysteretic code, which runs within iTOUGH2 (Finsterle, 1999a,b,c) or TOUGH2 V2.1 (Pruess et al., 2012). The usage of the hysteretic module is the same in both codes, which for brevity here are both referred to simply as TOUGH2. The current code differs only slightly from what was presented in Doughty (2007), hence that document provides the basic information on the processes being modeled and how they are conceptualized. This document focuses on a description of the user-specified parameters required to run hysteretic TOUGH2. In the few instances where the conceptualization differs from that of Doughty (2007), the features described here are the current ones. Sample problems presented in this user’s guide use the equation-of-state module ECO2N (Pruess, 2005). The components present in ECO2N are H{sub 2}O, NaCl, and CO{sub 2}. Two fluid phases and one solid phase are considered: an aqueous phase, which primarily consists of liquid H{sub 2}O and may contain dissolved NaCl and CO{sub 2}; a supercritical phase which primarily consists of CO{sub 2}, but also includes a small amount of gaseous H{sub 2}O; and a solid phase consisting of precipitated NaCl. Details of the ECO2N formulation may be found in Pruess (2005). The aqueous phase is the wetting phase and is denoted ‘liquid’, whereas the supercritical phase is the non-wetting phase and is denoted ‘gas’. The hysteretic formalism may be applied to other TOUGH2 equation-of-state modules that consider two fluid phases, as long as the liquid phase is the wetting phase and the gas phase is the non-wetting phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Seung-Bok; Seong, Min-Sang; Ha, Sung-Hoon
2009-12-01
This paper presents vibration control responses of a controllable magnetorheological (MR) suspension system considering the two most important characteristics of the system; the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper and the parameter variation of the suspension. In order to achieve this goal, a cylindrical MR damper which is applicable to a middle-sized passenger car is designed and manufactured. After verifying the damping force controllability, the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper is identified using the Preisach hysteresis model. The full-vehicle suspension model is then derived by considering vertical, pitch and roll motions. An H_{\\infty } controller is designed by treating the sprung mass of the vehicle as a parameter variation and integrating it with the hysteretic compensator which produces additional control input. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control system, the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) methodology is adopted by integrating the suspension model with the proposed MR damper. Vibration control responses of the vehicle suspension system such as vertical acceleration are evaluated under both bump and random road conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lloyd, C.; Freer, J. E.; Johnes, P.; Collins, A.
2013-12-01
Changing climate and a growing population are increasing pressures on the world's water bodies. Maintaining food security has resulted in changes in agricultural practices, leading to adverse impacts on water quality. To address this problem robust evidence is needed to determine which on-farm mitigation strategies are likely to be most effective in reducing pollutant impacts. The introduction of in-situ quasi-continuous monitoring of water quality provides the means to improve the characterisation of pollutant behaviour and gain new understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes occurring within catchments. Here we use a suite of in-situ monitoring sensors to investigate changes in hysteretic patterns of nutrients in response to different environmental drivers. Observations of hysteretic behaviour can provide insights into the dominant transport pathways of pollutants. Therefore, monitoring changes in nutrient hysteresis can provide a useful tool for detecting catchment change. Such data also improves the quantification of pollutant loads and concentration dynamics. In the UK, the Demonstration Test Catchments (DTC) programme has been established to deliver evidence for improvements in water quality arising specifically from the deployment of measures to mitigate diffuse pollution from agriculture using high resolution in-situ monitoring. This research platform provides an opportunity to compare storm-driven nutrient behaviour between catchments which have differing geologies, and determine how these behaviours evolve on a seasonal and annual basis. The monitoring to date has included a period of drought in WY2011, directly followed by extreme wet conditions in the UK in WY2012 and therefore offers opportunities to assess the effect of differences in antecedent conditions on monitored nutrient response to rainfall events. The study compares the hysteretic behaviour of nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus species as well as turbidity from a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, L. X.; Kamath, H.
2006-12-01
A dynamical mathematical model is proposed to model the hysteretic behaviour of magnetorheological fluids and dampers using phase-transition theory. To construct the model involving hysteresis, the magnetorheological fluids are assumed to be switchable between different phases upon the application of a shear strain rate, with one solid-like phase and two fluid-like phases. The Landau theory for phase transition is employed to model the dynamics of the phase transition in the fluids. The proposed model is able to capture hysteresis loops, and is rate dependent (frequency dependent). A comparison between predicted and experimental behaviour of the damper is presented, and perfect agreement is obtained.
Olson, C. J.; Reichhardt, C.; Vinokur, V. M.
2001-10-01
We examine the depinning transitions and the temperature versus driving force phase diagram for magnetically interacting pancake vortices in layered superconductors. For strong disorder the initial depinning is plastic followed by a sharp hysteretic transition to a three-dimensional ordered state for increasing driving force. Our results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for driven anisotropic charge-density wave systems. We also show that a temperature induced peak effect in the critical current occurs due to the onset of plasticity between the layers.
Superfluidity and mean-field energy loops: Hysteretic behavior in Bose-Einstein condensates
Mueller, Erich J.
2002-12-01
We present a theory of hysteretic phenomena in Bose gases, using superfluidity in one-dimensional rings and in optical lattices as primary examples. Through this study we are able to give a physical interpretation of swallow-tail loops recently found by many authors in the mean-field energy structure of trapped atomic gases. These loops are a generic sign of hysteresis, and in the present context are an indication of superfluidity. We have also calculated the rate of decay of metastable current-carrying states due to quantum fluctuations.
Hysteretic mode exchange in the wake of two circular cylinders in tandem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tasaka, Yuji; Kon, Seiji; Schouveiler, Lionel; Le Gal, Patrice
2006-08-01
Our experimental study is devoted to the analysis of the flow past two tandem circular cylinders near the vortex shedding threshold. A recent bidimensional numerical analysis of this flow [Mizushima and Suehiro, Phys. Fluids 17, 104107 (2005)] has predicted that the bifurcation diagram should become complex in the vicinity of the instability threshold. Subcritical and saddle node bifurcations that lead to hysteretic exchanges between two different modes of vortex shedding were detected for particular distances of separation of the cylinders. We present here visualizations and velocity measurements of this flow in a water channel that prove the robustness of the complexity of the bifurcation diagram in real flows.
Lilly, M.P.; Wootters, A.H.; Hallock, R.B.
1996-11-01
Capacitive studies of hysteretic capillary condensation of superfluid {sup 4}He in Nuclepore have shown that the initial draining of the pores occurs over a small range of the chemical potential with avalanches present as groups of pores drain. In the work reported here, the avalanches in this system are shown to be nonlocal events which involve pores distributed at low density across the entire sample. The nonlocal avalanche behavior is shown to be enabled by the presence of a superfluid film connection among the pores. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua
2015-08-01
Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping. PMID:25937493
Numerical Calculation of Nonlinear Seismic Pulse Propagation in a Hysteretic Elastic Material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosik, Dan
2007-04-01
The stress-strain relation for materials such as soil and sand exhibit hysteretic elastic behavior and are modeled using the Preisach-Mayergoyz method for a numerical calculation of a propagating seismic pulse. The source pulse is taken to be the result of pressure applied to the inner surface of a cylindrical cavity in order to simulate a two dimensional dynamite source. The nonlinear differential equation of motion that is solved includes traditional nonlinear elasticity terms appropriate to materials with atomic elasticity and the dominant anelastic terms appropriate to consolidated materials that exhibit hysteretic elastic behavior. For parameters characteristic of sand at the Earth's surface, a comparison of nonlinear to linear seismic pulse propagation gives a nonlinear pulse with a much larger amplitude and slower propagation speed than a corresponding linear pulse. These results have important implications for the detailed behavior of strong seismic waves moving in soft sediments, their dominant frequencies, amplitudes, and methods by which they may be attenuated will depend on getting the detailed pulse structure right.
An Accretion Disk-outflow Model for Hysteretic State Transition in X-Ray Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Xinwu
2016-01-01
We suggest a model of the advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) with magnetically driven outflows to explain the hysteretic state transition observed in X-ray binaries (XRBs). The transition from a thin disk to an ADAF occurs when the mass accretion rate is below a critical value. The critical mass accretion rate for the ADAF can be estimated by equating the equilibration timescale to the accretion timescale of the ADAF, which is sensitive to its radial velocity. The radial velocity of thin disks is very small, which leads to the advection of the external field in thin disks becoming very inefficient. ADAFs are present in the low/hard states of XRBs, and their radial velocity is large compared with the thin disk. The external field can be dragged inward efficiently by the ADAF, so a strong large-scale magnetic field threading the ADAF can be formed, which may accelerate a fraction of gas in the ADAF into the outflows. Such outflows may carry away a large amount of angular momentum from the ADAF, which significantly increases the radial velocity of the ADAF. This leads to a high critical mass accretion rate, below which an ADAF with magnetic outflows can survive. Our calculations show that the critical luminosity of the ADAF with magnetic outflows can be one order of magnitude higher than that for a conventional ADAF, if the ratio of gas to magnetic pressure β ∼ 4 in the disk. This can naturally explain the hysteretic state transition observed in XRBs.
First passage times in M2[X ]|G |1 |R queue with hysteretic overload control policy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pechinkin, Alexander V.; Razumchik, Rostislav R.; Zaryadov, Ivan S.
2016-06-01
One of the reported approaches towards the solution of overload problem in networks of SIP servers is the implementation of multi-level hysteretic control of arrivals in SIP servers. Each level, being the parameter of the policy, specifies operation mode of SIP server i.e. it implicitly indicates what SIP server must do with the arriving packets. The choice of parameters' values is not guided by standards and is usually left for the network owner. In general, all operation modes of the considered policy can be grouped into two groups: normal mode (when all arriving packets are accepted) and congested mode (when part or all arriving packets are being dropped). Such grouping may serve as the criteria for choosing parameters' values of the policy: pick those values which minimize SIP server sojourn time in congested mode. In this short note we propose some analytical results which facilitate the solution of stated minimization problem. The considered mathematical model of SIP server is the queueing system M2[X ]|G |1 |R with batch arrivals and bi-level hysteretic control policy, which specifies three operation modes: normal (customers both flows are accepted), overload (only customers from one flow are accepted), discard (customers from both flows are blocked/lost)). The switching between modes can occur only on service completions. Analytical method allowing computation of stationary sojourn times in different operation modes (as well as first passage times between modes) is presented in brief. Numerical example is given.
Hysteretic behavior of special shaped columns composed of steel and reinforced concrete (SRC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zongping; Xu, Jinjun; Xue, Jianyang
2015-06-01
This paper describes a series of experimental investigations on seventeen specimens of steel reinforced concrete special shaped (SRCSS) columns under low cyclic reversed loading using parallel crosshead equipment. Nine T-shaped SRC columns, four L-shaped SRC columns and four +-shaped SRC columns were tested to examine the effects of shape steel configuration, loading angle, axial compressive ratio and shear-span ratio on the behavior (strength, stiffness, energy dissipation, ductility, etc.) of SRCSS column specimens. The failure modes and hysteretic performance of all the specimens were obtained in the tests. Test results demonstrate that the shear-span ratio is the main parameter affecting the failure modes of SRCSS columns. The specimens with small shear-span ratio are prone to shear failure, and the primary failure planes in SRCSS columns are parallel to the loading direction. As a result, there is a symmetry between positive and negative loading directions in the hysteretic curves of the SRCSS columns. The majority of displacement ductility coefficients for all the specimens are over 3.0, so that the SRCSS columns demonstrate a better deformation capacity. In addition, the equivalent viscous damping coefficients of all the specimens are greater than 0.2, indicating that the seismic behavior of SRCSS columns is adequate. Finally, the superposition theory was used to calculate the limits of axial compressive ratio for the specimens, and it is found that the test axial compressive ratio is close to or smaller than the calculated axial compressive ratio limit.
Numerical Simulation of Hysteretic Live Load Effect in a Soil-Steel Bridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobótka, Maciej
2014-03-01
The paper presents numerical simulation of hysteretic live load effect in a soil-steel bridge. The effect was originally identified experimentally by Machelski [1], [2]. The truck was crossing the bridge one way and the other in the full-scale test performed. At the same time, displacements and stress in the shell were measured. The major conclusion from the research was that the measured quantities formed hysteretic loops. A numerical simulation of that effect is addressed in the present work. The analysis was performed using Flac finite difference code. The methodology of solving the mechanical problems implemented in Flac enables us to solve the problem concerning a sequence of load and non-linear mechanical behaviour of the structure. The numerical model incorporates linear elastic constitutive relations for the soil backfill, for the steel shell and the sheet piles, being a flexible substructure for the shell. Contact zone between the shell and the soil backfill is assumed to reflect elastic-plastic constitutive model. Maximum shear stress in contact zone is limited by the Coulomb condition. The plastic flow rule is described by dilation angle ψ = 0. The obtained results of numerical analysis are in fair agreement with the experimental evidence. The primary finding from the performed simulation is that the slip in the interface can be considered an explanation of the hysteresis occurrence in the charts of displacement and stress in the shell.
Nemcsics, Akos; Takacs, Jenoe
2011-01-15
This paper describes a study of the reflection high energy electron diffraction intensity change against temperature for GaAs and InAs surfaces. The reflection high energy electron diffraction intensity variation against temperature shows different hysteretic characters for the two materials. To date, the explanations for these phenomena were also different for the two substances. Here, we put forward an explanation for these hysteretic phenomena in general terms, applicable to both materials by using the hyperbolic model of hysteresis for coupled systems. Experimental results presented in the paper are in good agreement with the model predictions, supporting the proposed common explanation.
Hannen, Jennifer C.; Crews, John H.; Buckner, Gregory D.
2012-01-01
This paper introduces an indirect intelligent sliding mode controller (IISMC) for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators, specifically a flexible beam deflected by a single offset SMA tendon. The controller manipulates applied voltage, which alters SMA tendon temperature to track reference bending angles. A hysteretic recurrent neural network (HRNN) captures the nonlinear, hysteretic relationship between SMA temperature and bending angle. The variable structure control strategy provides robustness to model uncertainties and parameter variations, while effectively compensating for system nonlinearities, achieving superior tracking compared to an optimized PI controller. PMID:22962538
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Goutam
2016-05-01
The simple constant hysteretic damping model is known to be non-causal although it is used often in diverse branches of engineering. In this paper the response of a single degree of freedom oscillator having linear hysteretic damping under arbitrary force excitation has been studied after deriving the impulse response function of the system. Some shortcomings of the results available in literature have been pointed out. It has been shown that the damping model can be practically used for calculating the response of a physical system when the damping is small and the force has small duration.
Modeling the nonlinear hysteretic response in DAE experiments of Berea sandstone: A case-study
Pecorari, Claudio
2015-03-31
Dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) allows probing the instantaneous state of a material while the latter slowly and periodically is changed by an external, dynamic source. In DAE investigations of geo-materials, hysteresis of the material's modulus defect displays intriguing features which have not yet been interpreted in terms of any specific mechanism occurring at atomic or mesoscale. Here, experimental results on dry Berea sandstone, which is the rock type best investigated by means of a DAE technique, are analyzed in terms of three rheological models providing simplified representations of mechanisms involving dislocations interacting with point defects which are distributed along the dislocations' core or glide planes, and microcracks with finite stiffness in compression. Constitutive relations linking macroscopic strain and stress are derived. From the latter, the modulus defect associated to each mechanism is recovered. These models are employed to construct a composite one which is capable of reproducing several of the main features observed in the experimental data. The limitations of the present approach and, possibly, of the current implementation of DAE are discussed.
Modeling the nonlinear hysteretic response in DAE experiments of Berea sandstone: A case-study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pecorari, Claudio
2015-03-01
Dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) allows probing the instantaneous state of a material while the latter slowly and periodically is changed by an external, dynamic source. In DAE investigations of geo-materials, hysteresis of the material's modulus defect displays intriguing features which have not yet been interpreted in terms of any specific mechanism occurring at atomic or mesoscale. Here, experimental results on dry Berea sandstone, which is the rock type best investigated by means of a DAE technique, are analyzed in terms of three rheological models providing simplified representations of mechanisms involving dislocations interacting with point defects which are distributed along the dislocations' core or glide planes, and microcracks with finite stiffness in compression. Constitutive relations linking macroscopic strain and stress are derived. From the latter, the modulus defect associated to each mechanism is recovered. These models are employed to construct a composite one which is capable of reproducing several of the main features observed in the experimental data. The limitations of the present approach and, possibly, of the current implementation of DAE are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, J.-S.; Smyth, A. W.; Kosmatopoulos, E. B.
2004-08-01
This study attempts to demystify a powerful neural network approach for modelling non-linear hysteretic systems and in turn to streamline its architecture to achieve better computational efficiency. The recently developed neural network modelling approach, the Volterra/Wiener neural network (VWNN), demonstrated its usefulness in identifying the restoring forces for hysteretic systems in an off-line or even in an adaptive (on-line) mode, however, the mechanism of how and why it works has not been thoroughly explored especially in terms of a physical interpretation. Artificial neural network are often treated as "black box" modelling tools, in contrast, here the authors carry out a detailed analysis in terms of problem formulation and network architecture to explore the inner workings of this neural network. Based on the understanding of the dynamics of hysteretic systems, some simplifications and modifications are made to the original VWNN in predicting accelerations of hysteretic systems under arbitrary force excitations. Through further examination of the algorithm related to the VWNN applications, the efficiency of the previously published approach is improved by reducing the number of the hidden nodes without affecting the modelling accuracy of the network. One training example is presented to illustrate the application of the VWNN; and another is provided to demonstrate that the VWNN is able to yield a unique set of weights when the values of the controlling design parameters are fixed. The practical issue of how to choose the values of these important parameters is discussed to aid engineering applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korayem, M. H.; Eghbal, M. M.; Ebrahimi, N.
2011-07-01
In this article, the tip-sample interaction regimes in the presence of hysteretic forces are investigated using atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode. For this purpose, two samples that cause the formation of hysteretic forces, namely, silicon (stiff sample) with an adsorbed water film and polyethylene (compliant sample), are used. Also, for deriving the equation of motion of the microcantilever, the continuous beam model is used, and for determining the contact forces, depending on the sample under investigation, the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov and Johnson-Kendall-Roberts contact mechanics models are used. The results indicate that the hysteretic interaction forces generate high-periodic and irregular responses at certain tip-sample separation distances. In fact, at these distances, a family of steady-state attractors is found that can be observed in one branch on the minimum tip-sample separation curves and in two separate branches on the average force curves. The reason for this occurrence might be the alternate formation of a liquid column between the probe tip and the sample (in the presence of ambient moisture), and for the compliant sample, the reason might be the alternate formation of an adhesion neck. In this article, the role of hysteretic forces in producing the hysteresis of the amplitude-separation curves is also explored.
Hysteretic Spin Crossover in Two-Dimensional (2D) Hofmann-Type Coordination Polymers.
Liu, Wei; Wang, Lu; Su, Yu-Jun; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek; Ni, Zhao-Ping; Tong, Ming-Liang
2015-09-01
Three new two-dimensional (2D) Hofmann-type coordination polymers with general formula [Fe(3-NH2py)2M(CN)4] (3-NH2py = 3-aminopyridine, M = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3)) have been synthesized. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that they exhibited cooperative spin crossover (SCO) with remarkable hysteretic behaviors. Their hysteresis widths are 25, 37, and 30 K for 1-3, respectively. The single-crystal structure of 1 suggest that the pseudo-octahedral Fe sites are equatorially bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) to form 2D grids and axially coordinated by 3-NH2py ligands. The intermolecular interactions between layers (the offset face-to-face π···π interactions, hydrogen bonds, and weak N(amino)···Ni(II) contacts) together with the covalent bonds bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) units are responsible to the significant cooperativity. PMID:26258593
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beg, Marijan; Carey, Rebecca; Wang, Weiwei; Cortés-Ortuño, David; Vousden, Mark; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Albert, Maximilian; Chernyshenko, Dmitri; Hovorka, Ondrej; Stamps, Robert L.; Fangohr, Hans
2015-11-01
Magnetic skyrmions have the potential to provide solutions for low-power, high-density data storage and processing. One of the major challenges in developing skyrmion-based devices is the skyrmions’ magnetic stability in confined helimagnetic nanostructures. Through a systematic study of equilibrium states, using a full three-dimensional micromagnetic model including demagnetisation effects, we demonstrate that skyrmionic textures are the lowest energy states in helimagnetic thin film nanostructures at zero external magnetic field and in absence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy. We also report the regions of metastability for non-ground state equilibrium configurations. We show that bistable skyrmionic textures undergo hysteretic behaviour between two energetically equivalent skyrmionic states with different core orientation, even in absence of both magnetocrystalline and demagnetisation-based shape anisotropies, suggesting the existence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-based shape anisotropy. Finally, we show that the skyrmionic texture core reversal dynamics is facilitated by the Bloch point occurrence and propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burdin, D. A.; Fetisov, L. Y.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Chashin, D. V.; Ekonomov, N. A.
2014-09-01
The frequency, field, temperature, and amplitude characteristics of the direct magnetoelectric effect are studied in a planar monolithic structure consisting of a piezoelectric langatate crystal and a layer of electrolytic nickel. A relation between the magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of the structure is demonstrated, which explains the effects observed in structures with hysteretic layers. At the planar acoustic resonance frequency of the structure (about 70 kHz), the effect amounting to 23 V/(Oe cm) in the absence of a bias field is discovered. In the temperature interval 150-400 K, the amount of the effect changes nearly twofold, the resonance frequency changes by about 1%, and the Q factor on cooling rises to about 8 × 103. The field sensitivity of the structure is on the order of 1 V/Oe, which makes it possible to detect magnetic fields with an amplitude down to ˜10-6 Oe.
Beg, Marijan; Carey, Rebecca; Wang, Weiwei; Cortés-Ortuño, David; Vousden, Mark; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Albert, Maximilian; Chernyshenko, Dmitri; Hovorka, Ondrej; Stamps, Robert L; Fangohr, Hans
2015-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions have the potential to provide solutions for low-power, high-density data storage and processing. One of the major challenges in developing skyrmion-based devices is the skyrmions' magnetic stability in confined helimagnetic nanostructures. Through a systematic study of equilibrium states, using a full three-dimensional micromagnetic model including demagnetisation effects, we demonstrate that skyrmionic textures are the lowest energy states in helimagnetic thin film nanostructures at zero external magnetic field and in absence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy. We also report the regions of metastability for non-ground state equilibrium configurations. We show that bistable skyrmionic textures undergo hysteretic behaviour between two energetically equivalent skyrmionic states with different core orientation, even in absence of both magnetocrystalline and demagnetisation-based shape anisotropies, suggesting the existence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-based shape anisotropy. Finally, we show that the skyrmionic texture core reversal dynamics is facilitated by the Bloch point occurrence and propagation. PMID:26601904
Hysteretic DC electrowetting by field-induced nano-structurations on polystyrene films.
Sawane, Yogesh B; Datar, Suwarna; Ogale, Satishchandra B; Banpurkar, Arun G
2015-04-01
Electrowetting (EW) offers executive wetting control of conductive liquids on several polymer surfaces. We report a peculiar electrowetting response for aqueous drops on a polystyrene (PS) dielectric surface in the presence of silicone oil. After the first direct current (DC) voltage cycle, the droplet failed to regain Young's angle, yielding contact angle hysteresis, which is close to a value found in ambient air. We conjecture that the hysteretic EW response appears from in situ surface modification using electric field induced water-ion contact with PS surface inducing nano-structuration by electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) instability. Atomic force microscopy confirms the formation of nano-structuration on the electrowetted surface. The effects of molecular weight, applied electric field, water conductivity and pH on nano-structuration are studied. Finally, the EW based nano-structuration on PS surface is used for the enhanced loading of aqueous dyes on hydrophobic surfaces. PMID:25690856
Beg, Marijan; Carey, Rebecca; Wang, Weiwei; Cortés-Ortuño, David; Vousden, Mark; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Albert, Maximilian; Chernyshenko, Dmitri; Hovorka, Ondrej; Stamps, Robert L.; Fangohr, Hans
2015-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions have the potential to provide solutions for low-power, high-density data storage and processing. One of the major challenges in developing skyrmion-based devices is the skyrmions’ magnetic stability in confined helimagnetic nanostructures. Through a systematic study of equilibrium states, using a full three-dimensional micromagnetic model including demagnetisation effects, we demonstrate that skyrmionic textures are the lowest energy states in helimagnetic thin film nanostructures at zero external magnetic field and in absence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy. We also report the regions of metastability for non-ground state equilibrium configurations. We show that bistable skyrmionic textures undergo hysteretic behaviour between two energetically equivalent skyrmionic states with different core orientation, even in absence of both magnetocrystalline and demagnetisation-based shape anisotropies, suggesting the existence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-based shape anisotropy. Finally, we show that the skyrmionic texture core reversal dynamics is facilitated by the Bloch point occurrence and propagation. PMID:26601904
Hybrid models of hysteresis for mixed hysteretic loops in heterogeneous magnetic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimian, M.; Andrei, P.; Grayson, M.
2014-05-01
The mixed hysteresis behavior of counter-clockwise and clockwise loops has recently attracted the attention of the magnetics community, due to several experimental findings in inhomogeneous and hetero-structure magnetic systems. Various hybrid models are proposed here to address this behavior based on the superposition of standard hysteresis models and their newly developed clockwise variants. A special attention is also devoted to Bouc-Wen model, a typical clockwise often used by applied mechanics community, and to its relevance for mixed hysteresis. These clockwise and hybrid models have been implemented in an open-access academic software and their performance is illustrated by examples of hysteretic loops, first order reversal curves and diagrams simulated in this framework.
Hysteretic configurations in a rotating U-tube with capped ends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidman, P. D.
2015-06-01
The effect of air trapped above the liquid columns in a U-tube rotating about an axis offset from the axis of symmetry is investigated. This extends the work of Denardo, Barber, Folley and Wright (Am. J. Phys., 57, 1989) who investigated the same problem for an open-ended U-tube for which no air is trapped. They found that, owing to a combination of gravitational, centrifugal and constraint forces on the liquid, the position of the liquid-air interfaces can be hysteretic as the angular velocity is varied. The existence and strength of the hysteresis loop depends on the dimensionless offset parameter δ and the dimensionless initial liquid height γ . Associated with the hysteresis is an instability in which the liquid jumps from one equilibrium state to another, herein defined as configuration I and configuration II. With the ends of the U-tube capped, the stable liquid configurations depend on two additional parameters defined for a stationary U-tube: α , the initial ratio of trapped air to liquid volume in each U-tube column and β , the normalized pressure of air trapped above the liquid in each column. In this study β is taken at the constant value corresponding to atmospheric pressure and, based on a previous study, we adopt Boyle’s law for determining the expansion/compression of air in a rotating U-tube. A parametric study varying α shows that a critical value occurs marking the threshold between hysteretic and nonhysteretic states. A parametric study of the effect of δ is also presented.
Dynamics of hysteretic resistive-SQUIDs: Catastrophe and confusion in the quest for the Kelvin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomasson, Susanne Lyn
We have designed and constructed a primary thermometry system which is capable of operating at milliKelvin temperatures. Our system is composed of thin-film Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs); the thermometer is a thin-film resistive-SQUID, whose signal is coupled to, and amplified by, a dc-SQUID on the same integrated circuit chip. The dc-SQUID is configured in a direct-readout flux-locked loop (FLL) which maintained a bandwidth in excess of 1 MHz with a white noise level less than 1.5 muphi√Hz over the temperature range of operation: from 4.2 K down to 1.4 K. The resistive-SQUID is composed of a Josephson junction shunted by a resistor and inductor in series, which when current-biased above the critical current is driven to oscillate at a frequency proportional to the voltage across the junction. Thermal voltage fluctuations in the junction shunt resistor, due to Johnson noise, give rise to a broadening of the central frequency peak. This device operates as a primary thermometer because all the parameters connecting the temperature with the frequency spectrum are derived from the frequency measurement itself. The resistive-SQUID was designed to operate in the hysteretic regime where the parameter betaL ≡ 2piLIc/phi 0 is greater than unity. We incorporated an integrated on-chip critical current (Ic) control line over the Josephson junction so that beta L could be changed in-situ. The central frequency and variance were measured over a range of temperatures. We observed that the central frequency as a function of bias current did not follow the simple resistively-shunted junction model. For a set frequency, we observed quasiperiodic noise peaks as a function of betaL, with a noise floor consistent with thermal noise. In addition, we measured an increase in noise with decreasing temperature. Numerical simulations of the hysteretic resistive-SQUID equation of motion enabled a more accurate understanding of the device behavior. These simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villegas, Javier E.; Visani, Cristina; Metaxas, Peter J.; Collaudin, Aurelie; Calvet, Baptiste; Bernard, Rozenn; Briatico, Javier; Deranlot, Cyrile; Bouzehouane, Karim
2011-03-01
The magneto-transport of a hybrid heterostructure combining a YBaCu O7 - δ thin film and a Co/Pt superlattice shows an unusual hysteretic behavior. Depending on the angle between the external applied field and the film plane, and on the magnetic history, either a increase or a decrease of the mixed-state resistance is observed. The combination of magneto-transport, magnetic force microscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements allows us to correlate these effects to the magnetic domain structures in the Co/Pt superlattice. We unequivocally prove that the hysteretic magneto-transport is induced by the stray magnetic fields from tunable magnetic domain structures, which may induce vortices or produce vortex pinning, leading to the increase/decrease of the mixed-state resistance. Work supported by French ANR ``Superhybrids-II'' and RTRA ``Supraspin'' grants.
Synthesis of nanorod-FeP@C composites with hysteretic lithiation in lithium-ion batteries.
Jiang, Jun; Wang, Chunde; Liang, Jianwen; Zuo, Jian; Yang, Qing
2015-06-14
Nanorod-FeP@C composites are synthesized via a one-pot solution reaction of ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2) with excess triphenylphosphine (PPh3) in sealed vacuum tubes at 390 °C, in which PPh3 is used as both the phosphorus source and solvent in the reaction. The structure and lithium storage performance of the as-prepared nanorod-FeP@C composites are intensively characterized, and it is interesting that the composites exhibit an increased capacity during cycling serving as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Meanwhile, mechanism investigations reveal that the capacity increase of the composites results from a hysteretic lithiation of the nanostructured FeP phase due to the coating of the carbon shell in the composites. Meanwhile, cyclic stability investigation shows that the composites have a very good cyclic stability that shows potential for the composites with a long lifespan as a promising kind of anode material. PMID:25966368
Attenuation due to hysteretic damage in the free vibration of a beam
Mendelsohn, Daniel A.; Pecorari, Claudio
2014-02-18
We present an asymptotic analysis of nonlinear free vibration of a beam with a damage plane represented by nonlinear hysteretic bending and shear springs. The perturbation parameter is the product of the ratio of the nonlinear to linear parts of the stiffness times the amplitude of the free vibration. The loss of energy and ensuing attenuation due to hysteresis is accounted for by reducing the amplitude of vibration after each cycle by an amount such that the loss in total system energy equals the work done to traverse the hysteresis loop. A new Fourier representation for each cycle of the hysteresis and the deflection solution is used for this purpose and leads to higher harmonics, an evolving complex stiffness and corrected natural frequency that are linked to the attenuation. The frequency increases to its linear value from an initially reduced value. The damage parameter, frequency shift and fundamental amplitudes are presented as functions of the initial damage parameter and time (cycles of vibration). The amplitudes of several of the higher harmonics are also presented as functions of time. Many of the results exhibit sufficient sensitivity with respect to the damage parameter that they should be able to be used to characterize the damage.
Impact of Capacitive Effect and Ion Migration on the Hysteretic Behavior of Perovskite Solar Cells.
Chen, Bo; Yang, Mengjin; Zheng, Xiaojia; Wu, Congcong; Li, Wenle; Yan, Yongke; Bisquert, Juan; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Zhu, Kai; Priya, Shashank
2015-12-01
In the past five years, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on organometal halide perovskite have exhibited extraordinary photovoltaic (PV) performance. However, the PV measurements of PSCs have been widely recognized to depend on voltage scanning condition (hysteretic current density-voltage [J-V] behavior), as well as on voltage treatment history. In this study, we find that varied PSC responses are attributable to two causes. First, capacitive effect associated with electrode polarization provides a slow transient non-steady-state photocurrent that modifies the J-V response. Second, modification of interfacial barriers induced by ion migration can modulate charge-collection efficiency so that it causes a pseudo-steady-state photocurrent, which changes according to previous voltage conditioning. Both phenomena are strongly influenced by ions accumulating at outer interfaces, but their electrical and PV effects are different. The time scale for decay of capacitive current is on the order of seconds, whereas the slow redistribution of mobile ions requires several minutes. PMID:26550850
Scale-dependent coupling of hysteretic capillary pressure, trapping, and fluid mobilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doster, F.; Celia, M. A.; Nordbotten, J. M.
2012-12-01
Many applications of multiphase flow in porous media, including CO2-storage and enhanced oil recovery, require mathematical models that span a large range of length scales. In the context of numerical simulations, practical grid sizes are often on the order of tens of meters, thereby de facto defining a coarse model scale. Under particular conditions, it is possible to approximate the sub-grid-scale distribution of the fluid saturation within a grid cell; that reconstructed saturation can then be used to compute effective properties at the coarse scale. If both the density difference between the fluids and the vertical extend of the grid cell are large, and buoyant segregation within the cell on a sufficiently shorte time scale, then the phase pressure distributions are essentially hydrostatic and the saturation profile can be reconstructed from the inferred capillary pressures. However, the saturation reconstruction may not be unique because the parameters and parameter functions of classical formulations of two-phase flow in porous media - the relative permeability functions, the capillary pressure -saturation relationship, and the residual saturations - show path dependence, i.e. their values depend not only on the state variables but also on their drainage and imbibition histories. In this study we focus on capillary pressure hysteresis and trapping and show that the contribution of hysteresis to effective quantities is dependent on the vertical length scale. By studying the transition from the two extreme cases - the homogeneous saturation distribution for small vertical extents and the completely segregated distribution for large extents - we identify how hysteretic capillary pressure at the local scale induces hysteresis in all coarse-scale quantities for medium vertical extents and finally vanishes for large vertical extents. Our results allow for more accurate vertically integrated modeling while improving our understanding of the coupling of capillary
Jemth, P; Mannervik, B
1999-08-01
The reaction mechanism of rat glutathione transferase T2-2 has been studied using pre-steady-state and steady-state kinetics. Several parts of the catalytic cycle including binding of substrates, product formation, and product release were investigated. Under saturating conditions, a two-step product release was found to be rate limiting in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions between the nucleophilic substrate glutathione and either of the two electrophilic substrates 1-menaphthyl sulfate and 4-nitrobenzyl chloride. The rate constant for pre-steady-state product formation on rat glutathione transferase T2-2 has an observed pK(a) value of 5.7 apparently due to ionization of the sulfhydryl group of glutathione. This rate constant is approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than k(cat) at pH values of >6. It can be predicted from the pH dependence that product formation would be the sole rate-limiting step at pH values of <3. A hysteretic mechanism of rGST T2-2 is proposed based on a slow conformational transition detected in pre-steady-state displacement experiments. PMID:10433705
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.
2014-12-01
We hypothesize that the large observed variability in decomposition temperature sensitivity and carbon use efficiency arises from interactions between temperature, microbial biogeochemistry, and mineral surface sorptive reactions. To test this hypothesis, we developed a numerical model that integrates the Dynamic Energy Budget concept for microbial physiology, microbial trait-based community structure and competition, process-specific thermodynamically based temperature sensitivity, a non-linear mineral sorption isotherm, and enzyme dynamics. We show, because mineral surfaces interact with substrates, enzymes, and microbes, both temperature sensitivity and microbial carbon use efficiency are hysteretic and highly variable. Further, by mimicking the traditional approach to interpreting soil incubation observations, we demonstrate that the conventional labile and recalcitrant substrate characterization for temperature sensitivity is flawed. In a 4 K temperature perturbation experiment, our fully dynamic model predicted more variable but weaker carbon-climate feedbacks than did the static temperature sensitivity and carbon use efficiency model when forced with yearly, daily, and hourly variable temperatures. These results imply that current earth system models likely over-estimate the response of soil carbon stocks to global warming.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leary, A.; Wicha, A.; Harack, B.; Coish, W. A.; Hilke, M.; Yu, G.; Payette, C.; Gupta, J. A.; Austing, D. G.
2013-12-01
We outline the properties of the hyperfine-induced funnel structure observed in the two-electron spin blockade region of a weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Hysteretic steps in the leakage current occur due to dynamic nuclear polarization when either the bias voltage or the magnetic field is swept up and down. When the bias voltage is swept, an intriguing ˜3 mT wide cusp near 0 T appears in the down-sweep position, and when the magnetic field is swept, the current at 0 T can be switched from "low" to "high" as the bias is increased.
Leary, A.; Wicha, A.; Harack, B.; Coish, W. A.; Hilke, M.; Yu, G.; Gupta, J. A.; Payette, C.; Austing, D. G.
2013-12-04
We outline the properties of the hyperfine-induced funnel structure observed in the two-electron spin blockade region of a weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Hysteretic steps in the leakage current occur due to dynamic nuclear polarization when either the bias voltage or the magnetic field is swept up and down. When the bias voltage is swept, an intriguing ∼3 mT wide cusp near 0 T appears in the down-sweep position, and when the magnetic field is swept, the current at 0 T can be switched from 'low' to 'high' as the bias is increased.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, P. E. D.; Ratto, J. J.; Housley, R. M.; Porter, J. R.; Marshall, D. B.
1989-01-01
A technique is presented for analyzing high-temperature oxide superconductors using hysteretic magnetic force/distance measurements. Emphasis is placed on developing low weight, highly robust superconducting materials for space applications. Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu superconductors are prepared and characterized by standard techniques. It is found that standard techniques such as XRD, SEM, and TEM are insufficient to completely characterize superconductors. The magnetic properties of the superconductors are studied with the new technique, based on measuring the force between a magnet and the superconductor as a function of their separation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genenko, Y. A.; Rauh, H.; Kurdi, S.
2015-06-01
Numerical simulations of hysteretic ac losses in a tubular superconductor/paramagnet heterostructure subject to an oscillating transverse magnetic field are performed within the quasistatic approach, calling upon the COMSOL finite-element software package and exploiting magnetostatic-electrostatic analogues. It is shown that one-sided magnetic shielding of a thin, type-II superconducting tube by a coaxial paramagnetic support results in a slight increase of hysteretic ac losses as compared to those for a vacuum environment, when the support is placed inside; a spectacular shielding effect with a possible reduction of hysteretic ac losses by orders of magnitude, however, ensues, depending on the magnetic permeability and the amplitude of the applied magnetic field, when the support is placed outside.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosik, Dan
2009-11-01
The stress-strain relation for materials such as soil and sand exhibit hysteretic elastic behavior and are modeled using the Preisach-Mayergoyz method for a numerical calculation of a propagating seismic pulse. The source pulse is taken to be the result of pressure applied to the inner surface of a cylindrical cavity in order to simulate a two dimensional dynamite source. The anelastic differential equation of motion that is solved does not include traditional nonlinear elasticity terms appropriate to materials with atomic elasticity, but contains the dominant anelastic terms appropriate to consolidated materials that exhibit hysteretic elastic behavior. For parameters characteristic of sand at the Earth's surface, a comparison of anelastic to linear seismic pulse propagation gives an anelastic pulse with much slower propagation speed than a corresponding linear pulse with evidence of dispersion in the pulse. The simulated ground roll that results shows dramatic differences between the anelastic and linear cases. These results have important implications for the detailed behavior of strong seismic waves moving in soft sediments. Their dominant frequencies, amplitudes, and methods by which they may be attenuated will depend on getting the detailed pulse structure and its propagation correct.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renaud, G.; RivièRe, J.; Le Bas, P.-Y.; Johnson, P. A.
2013-02-01