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Sample records for experiment fordetermining hysteretic

  1. Inverse modeling of a multistep outflow experiment fordetermining hysteretic hydraulic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, B.; Finsterle, S.; Sonnenborg, T.O.

    1998-05-01

    A new, closed-form hysteretic model of the capillary pressure-saturation and relative permeability-saturation relationship has been implemented into ITOUGH2. The hysteretic capillary pressure function is based on the van Genuchten model, with a modified version of the dependent domain model of Mualem to describe the scanning curves. Hysteresis in the relative permeability relations is considered to be mainly a result of nonwetting fluid entrap- ment. The hysteresis model was used in combination with inverse modeling techniques to examine the potential of a simple drainage- imbibition experiment to determine hysteretic hydraulic properties.

  2. Estimability analysis for optimization of hysteretic soil hydraulic parameters using data of a field irrigation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Viet V.; Gerke, Horst H.; Badorreck, Annika

    2014-05-01

    The estimability analysis has been proposed to improve the quality of parameter optimization. For field data, wetting and drying processes may complicate optimization of soil hydraulic parameters. The objectives of this study were to apply estimability analysis for improving optimization of soil hydraulic parameters and compare models with and without considering hysteresis. Soil water pressure head data of a field irrigation experiment were used. The one-dimensional vertical water movement in variably-saturated soil was described with the Richards equation using the HYDRUS-1D code. Estimability of the unimodal van Genuchten - Mualem hydraulic model parameters as well as of the hysteretic parameter model of Parker and Lenhard was classified according to a sensitivity coefficient matrix. The matrix was obtained by sequentially calculating effects of initial parameter variations on changes in the simulated pressure head values. Optimization was carried out by means of the Levenberg-Marquardt method as implemented in the HYDRUS-1D code. The parameters α, Ks, θs, and n in the nonhysteretic model were found sensitive and parameter θs and n strongly correlated with parameter n in the nonhysteretic model. When assuming hysteresis, the estimability was highest for αw and decreased with soil depth for Ks and αd, and increased for θs and n. The hysteretic model could approximate the pressure heads in the soil by considering parameters from wetting and drying periods separately as initial estimates. The inverse optimization could be carried out more efficiently with most estimable parameters. Despite the weaknesses of the local optimization algorithm and the inflexibility of the unimodal van Genuchten model, the results suggested that estimability analysis could be considered as a guidance to better define the optimization scenarios and then improved the determination of soil hydraulic parameters.

  3. An analytical model of dissipated viscous and hysteretic energy due to interaction forces in a pneumatic tire: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancati, Renato; Strano, Salvatore; Timpone, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    When in use, a tire dissipates energy according to various mechanisms: rolling resistance, viscosity, hysteresis, friction energy, etc. This dissipation of energy contributes to influencing tire temperature, contact conditions and the resulting friction coefficient. This research project deals with viscoelastic and hysteretic mechanisms, and presents an explicit expression of the energy dissipated by tire-road interactions caused by these mechanisms. It is based on the Dahl model with regard to the hysteretic force together with a spring and a frequency variable damping coefficient with regard to the viscoelastic one. The energy expression found in this way can be used in tire thermal models to determine one of the heat flows needed to estimate the contact temperature and to find out the actual friction coefficient to be used in real time tire-road interaction models. Experimental tests were carried out, for longitudinal interaction only, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed expression by identifying the parameters and validating the results.

  4. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, J; Béquin, P; Theocharis, G; Andreev, V; Gusev, V E; Tournat, V

    2015-07-31

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters. PMID:26274421

  5. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.

    2015-07-01

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.

  6. Hysteretic effects of dry friction: modelling and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Wojewoda, Jerzy; Stefański, Andrzej; Wiercigroch, Marian; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2008-03-13

    In this paper, the phenomena of hysteretic behaviour of friction force observed during experiments are discussed. On the basis of experimental and theoretical analyses, we argue that such behaviour can be considered as a representation of the system dynamics. According to this approach, a classification of friction models, with respect to their sensitivity on the system motion characteristic, is introduced. General friction modelling of the phenomena accompanying dry friction and a simple yet effective approach to capture the hysteretic effect are proposed. Finally, the experimental results are compared with the numerical simulations for the proposed friction model. PMID:17947206

  7. The hysteretic Hopfield neural network.

    PubMed

    Bharitkar, S; Mendel, J M

    2000-01-01

    A new neuron activation function based on a property found in physical systems--hysteresis--is proposed. We incorporate this neuron activation in a fully connected dynamical system to form the hysteretic Hopfield neural network (HHNN). We then present an analog implementation of this architecture and its associated dynamical equation and energy function.We proceed to prove Lyapunov stability for this new model, and then solve a combinatorial optimization problem (i.e., the N-queen problem) using this network. We demonstrate the advantages of hysteresis by showing increased frequency of convergence to a solution, when the parameters associated with the activation function are varied. PMID:18249816

  8. Scaling Relations Between Laboratory Scale Hysteretic Measurements for a Silty Loam Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, J.; Tindall, J.; Friedel, M.

    2006-12-01

    Moisture content is a key element of describing flow through unsaturated soils. Many laboratory experiments describe only a moisture retention curve when relating matric suction and moisture content, but that is only half of the picture. To fully characterize the relationship of matric suction and moisture content, the complete hysteretic function should be considered. This submission presents a relationship between soil samples of differing sizes and their hysteretic character. This relationship can be used to extrapolate the hysteretic and hydraulic properties of soils based on laboratory results derived from smaller samples. The applicability of Mualem's Independent Domain Theory (1974) at each scale is also considered.

  9. Stochastic Averaging of Duhem Hysteretic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YING, Z. G.; ZHU, W. Q.; NI, Y. Q.; KO, J. M.

    2002-06-01

    The response of Duhem hysteretic system to externally and/or parametrically non-white random excitations is investigated by using the stochastic averaging method. A class of integrable Duhem hysteresis models covering many existing hysteresis models is identified and the potential energy and dissipated energy of Duhem hysteretic component are determined. The Duhem hysteretic system under random excitations is replaced equivalently by a non-hysteretic non-linear random system. The averaged Ito's stochastic differential equation for the total energy is derived and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation associated with the averaged Ito's equation is solved to yield stationary probability density of total energy, from which the statistics of system response can be evaluated. It is observed that the numerical results by using the stochastic averaging method is in good agreement with that from digital simulation.

  10. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Riviere, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  11. Modeling geologic storage of carbon dioxide: Comparison ofnon-hysteretic and hysteretic characteristic curves

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine

    2006-07-17

    Numerical models of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2)in brine-bearing formations use characteristic curves to represent theinteractions of non-wetting-phase CO2 and wetting-phase brine. When aproblem includes both injection of CO2 (a drainage process) and itssubsequent post-injection evolution (a combination of drainage andwetting), hysteretic characteristic curves are required to correctlycapture the behavior of the CO2 plume. In the hysteretic formulation,capillary pressure and relative permeability depend not only on thecurrent grid-block saturation, but also on the history of the saturationin the grid block. For a problem that involves only drainage or onlywetting, a non-hysteretic formulation, in which capillary pressure andrelative permeability depend only on the current value of the grid-blocksaturation, is adequate. For the hysteretic formulation to be robustcomputationally, care must be taken to ensure the differentiability ofthe characteristic curves both within and beyond the turning-pointsaturations where transitions between branches of the curves occur. Twoexample problems involving geologic CO2 storage are simulated withTOUGH2, a multiphase, multicomponent code for flow and transport codethrough geological media. Both non-hysteretic and hysteretic formulationsare used, to illustrate the applicability and limitations ofnon-hysteretic methods.The first application considers leakage of CO2from the storage formation to the ground surface, while the secondexamines the role of heterogeneity within the storageformation.

  12. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-05-01

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. We propose that complex structures at magnetic domain walls may be responsible for the hysteretic MR and may also lead to the AHE.

  13. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low-temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. We suggest that both hysteretic MR and AHE arise from the formation of complex non-coplanar structures at magnetic domain walls. Current address: Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University.

  14. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-05-11

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. In conclusion, we propose that complex structures at magnetic domain walls may be responsible for the hysteretic MR and may also lead to the AHE.

  15. Random Response of Linear Hysteretic Damping

    SciTech Connect

    Floris, Claudio

    2008-07-08

    The probabilistic characterization of the response of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with linear hysteretic damping excited by ground motion described by zero mean stationary Gaussian processes is achieved by profiting from a steady-state solution of the motion equation, valid when the excitation is given by the superposition of harmonics. The model of linear hysteretic damping has been introduced to fit damping mechanisms in which the dissipation rate is independent of frequency, and mathematically it is described by the Hilbert transform of the response. Though this model is debated since it violates the principle of causality, its intrinsic simplicity makes it preferable to other models. The steady-state solution of the motion equation proposed in this paper allows a closed form evaluation of the respone mean square value. However, the numerical examples show that this quantity is affected by the mechanism of energy dissipation only when this is large. On the contrary, for a low capacity of dissipation the response mean square value is rather insensitive to the dissipation mechanism.

  16. Assessing catchment connectivity using hysteretic loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens; Goni, Mikel; Campo, Miguel Angel; Gimenez, Rafael; Casali, Javier; Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Sediment connectivity is a concept which can explain the origin, pathways and sinks of sediments within landscapes. This information is valuable for land managers to be able to take appropriate action at the correct place. Hysteresis between sediment and water discharge can give important information about the sources , pathways and conditions of sediment that arrives at the outlet of a catchment. "Hysteresis" happens when the sediment concentration associated with a certain flow rate is different depending on the direction in which the analysis is performed -towards the increase or towards the diminution of the flow. This phenomenon to some extent reflects the way in which the runoff generation processes are conjugated with those of the production and transport of sediments, hence the usefulness of hysteresis as a diagnostic hydrological parameter. However, the complexity of the phenomena and factors which determine hysteresis make its interpretation uncertain or, at the very least, problematic. Many types of hysteretic loops have been described as well as the cause for the shape of the loop, mainly describing the origin of the sediments. In this study, several measures to objectively classify hysteretic loops in an automated way were developed. These were consecutively used to classify several hundreds of loops from several agricultural catchments in Northern Spain. The data set for this study comes from four experimental watersheds in Navarre (Spain), owned and maintained by the Government of Navarre. These experimental watersheds have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz "principal", Op, and Oskotz "woodland", Ow). La Tejería and Latxaga watersheds, located in the Central Western part of Navarre, are roughly similar to each other regarding size (approximately 200 ha), geology (marls and sandstones), soils (fine texture topsoil), climate (humid sub Mediterranean) and land use (80-90% cultivated with winter grain crops

  17. The hysteretic evapotranspiration - vapor pressure deficit relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.; Yang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Diurnal hysteresis between evapotranspiration (ET) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was reported in many ecosystems but justification for its onset and magnitude remain incomplete with biotic and abiotic factors invoked as possible explanations. To place these explanations within a mathematical framework, ';rate-dependent' hysteresis originating from a phase angle difference between periodic input and output time series is first considered. Lysimeter evaporation (E) measurements from wet bare soils and model calculations using the Penman equation demonstrate that the E-VPD hysteresis emerges without any biotic effects due to a phase angle difference (or time lag) between net radiation the main driver of E, and VPD. Modulations originating from biotic effects on the ET-VPD hysteresis were then considered. The phase angle difference representation earlier employed was mathematically transformed into a storage problem and applied to the soil-plant system. The transformed system shows that soil moisture storage within the root zone can produce an ET-VPD hysteresis prototypical of those generated by phase-angle differences. To explore the interplay between all the lags in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and phase angle differences among forcing and response variables, a detailed soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) model was developed and applied to a grassland ecosystem. The results of the SPAC model suggest that the hysteresis magnitude depends on the radiation-VPD lag. The soil moisture dry-down simulations also suggest that modeled root water potential and leaf water potential are both better indicators of the hysteresis magnitude than soil moisture, suggesting that plant water status is the main factor regulating the hysteretic relation between ET and VPD. Hence, the genesis and magnitude of the ET-VPD hysteresis are controlled directly by both biotic factors and abiotic factors such as time lag between radiation and VPD originating from boundary layer processes

  18. Magnetic Field Sampling using a Pulsed Hysteretic SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, S. P.; Vlahacos, C. P.; Berkley, A. J.; Gubrud, M. A.; Wellstood, F. C.; Cawthorne, A.

    2004-03-01

    Weak magnetic field detection using a non-hysteretic DC SQUID with Flux-Locked-Loop electronics is typically limited to 1MHz bandwidth or less. However, there is demand for larger bandwidth magnetic field detection for use in the semiconductor industry. We have studied the possibility of using a 4.2K hysteretic trilayer Nb DC SQUID, fabricated by Hypres Inc., with pulsed bias current to increase the bandwidth by an order of magnitude or more. The technique is based on the fast switching of a hysteretic SQUID from the superconducting state to the normal conducting state. By observing the switching of the SQUID, the applied magnetic field at the time of a pulse can be followed. Experimental results show that the technique can be used to follow magnetic fields of up to 60MHz with 5ns pulses. With shorter pulses and better electronics, the technique could further increase the bandwidth by another order of magnitude.

  19. Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Shuying Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei

    2015-05-07

    A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device.

  20. Hysteretic Behavior of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Pier with Fiber Model

    PubMed Central

    Hui-li, Wang; Guang-qi, Feng; Si-feng, Qin

    2014-01-01

    The hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier were researched. The effects of the prestressed tendon ratio, the longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and the stirrup reinforcement ratio on the hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier have been obtained with the fiber model analysis method. The analysis show some results about the prestressed concrete bridge pier. Firstly, greater prestressed tendon ratio and more longitudinal reinforcement can lead to more obvious pier's hysteresis loop “pinching effect,” smaller residual displacement, and lower energy dissipation capacity. Secondly, the greater the stirrup reinforcement ratio is, the greater the hysteresis loop area is. That also means that bridge piers will have better ductility and stronger shear capacity. The results of the research will provide a theoretical basis for the hysteretic behavior analysis of the prestressed concrete pier. PMID:24578635

  1. Hysteretic behavior of prestressed concrete bridge pier with fiber model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-li; Feng, Guang-qi; Qin, Si-feng

    2014-01-01

    The hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier were researched. The effects of the prestressed tendon ratio, the longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and the stirrup reinforcement ratio on the hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier have been obtained with the fiber model analysis method. The analysis show some results about the prestressed concrete bridge pier. Firstly, greater prestressed tendon ratio and more longitudinal reinforcement can lead to more obvious pier's hysteresis loop "pinching effect," smaller residual displacement, and lower energy dissipation capacity. Secondly, the greater the stirrup reinforcement ratio is, the greater the hysteresis loop area is. That also means that bridge piers will have better ductility and stronger shear capacity. The results of the research will provide a theoretical basis for the hysteretic behavior analysis of the prestressed concrete pier. PMID:24578635

  2. Hysteretic behavior of spin-crossover noise driven system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudyma, Iurii; Maksymov, Artur; Dimian, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    The influence of white Gaussian noise on hysteretic behavior of spin-crossover system is analyzed in the framework of stochastic Langevin dynamics. Various stochastic simulations are performed and several important properties of spin-transition in spin-crossover system driven by noise are reproduced. The numerical results are tested against the stationary probability function and the associated dynamic potential obtained from Fokker-Planck equation corresponding to spin-crossover Langevin dynamics. The dependence of light-induced optical hysteresis width and non-hysteretic transition curve slope on the noise intensity is illustrated. The role of low-spin and high-spin phase stabilities in the hysteretic behavior of noise-driven spin-crossover system is discussed.

  3. Hysteretic dynamics of active particles in a periodic orienting field

    PubMed Central

    Romensky, Maksym; Scholz, Dimitri; Lobaskin, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Active motion of living organisms and artificial self-propelling particles has been an area of intense research at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics. Significant progress in understanding these phenomena has been related to the observation that dynamic self-organization in active systems has much in common with ordering in equilibrium condensed matter such as spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. The velocities of active particles may behave similar to magnetic dipoles and develop global alignment, although interactions between the individuals might be completely different. In this work, we show that the dynamics of active particles in external fields can also be described in a way that resembles equilibrium condensed matter. It follows simple general laws, which are independent of the microscopic details of the system. The dynamics is revealed through hysteresis of the mean velocity of active particles subjected to a periodic orienting field. The hysteresis is measured in computer simulations and experiments on unicellular organisms. We find that the ability of the particles to follow the field scales with the ratio of the field variation period to the particles' orientational relaxation time, which, in turn, is related to the particle self-propulsion power and the energy dissipation rate. The collective behaviour of the particles due to aligning interactions manifests itself at low frequencies via increased persistence of the swarm motion when compared with motion of an individual. By contrast, at high field frequencies, the active group fails to develop the alignment and tends to behave like a set of independent individuals even in the presence of interactions. We also report on asymptotic laws for the hysteretic dynamics of active particles, which resemble those in magnetic systems. The generality of the assumptions in the underlying model suggests that the observed laws might apply to a variety of dynamic phenomena from the motion of

  4. Hysteretic dynamics of active particles in a periodic orienting field.

    PubMed

    Romensky, Maksym; Scholz, Dimitri; Lobaskin, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    Active motion of living organisms and artificial self-propelling particles has been an area of intense research at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics. Significant progress in understanding these phenomena has been related to the observation that dynamic self-organization in active systems has much in common with ordering in equilibrium condensed matter such as spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. The velocities of active particles may behave similar to magnetic dipoles and develop global alignment, although interactions between the individuals might be completely different. In this work, we show that the dynamics of active particles in external fields can also be described in a way that resembles equilibrium condensed matter. It follows simple general laws, which are independent of the microscopic details of the system. The dynamics is revealed through hysteresis of the mean velocity of active particles subjected to a periodic orienting field. The hysteresis is measured in computer simulations and experiments on unicellular organisms. We find that the ability of the particles to follow the field scales with the ratio of the field variation period to the particles' orientational relaxation time, which, in turn, is related to the particle self-propulsion power and the energy dissipation rate. The collective behaviour of the particles due to aligning interactions manifests itself at low frequencies via increased persistence of the swarm motion when compared with motion of an individual. By contrast, at high field frequencies, the active group fails to develop the alignment and tends to behave like a set of independent individuals even in the presence of interactions. We also report on asymptotic laws for the hysteretic dynamics of active particles, which resemble those in magnetic systems. The generality of the assumptions in the underlying model suggests that the observed laws might apply to a variety of dynamic phenomena from the motion of

  5. Studying the hysteretic behaviour of unconsolidated sediments using an electroencephalography apparatus: a laboratory study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Jougnot, Damien; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Brandner, Catherine; del Rocio Millán Ruiz, José; Linde, Niklas

    2015-04-01

    In soil science, the hysteretic nature of the water retention curve plays an important role in describing a soil's propensity to retain water and conduct fluid flow. However, hysteresis effects remain difficult to study and to quantify. Geophysical methods provide suitable and non-invasive tools that could be used for this purpose. For example, the degree of water saturation in a soil can be determined by measuring its electrical resistivity, while a water flux through a soil generates a measureable electrical potential difference (streaming potential). The objective of this work is to study the hysteretic behaviour of unconsolidated sediments during repeated drainage and imbibition cycles under well-constrained laboratory conditions. Monitoring was performed using a 32-electrode electroencephalography (EEG) apparatus (Biosemi) coupled with a current injection system. We used a 150 cm high sand-filled column in which we monitored self-potential (SP) signals using 15 electrodes in direct contact with the medium (so-called "naked" electrodes), and 15 electrodes that were inserted in small porous pots that were filled with water of the same conductivity and chloride concentration as the water saturating the sand (so-called "chamber" electrodes). For both electrode types, the electrodes were placed between 5 and 145 cm height with an electrode spacing of 10 cm. Pressure (10 tensiometers) and mass, together with the temperature and the relative humidity in the room, were constantly monitored for the entire duration of the experiments. We performed ten cycles of drainage and imbibition by changing the water level of an external reservoir connected to the column. Each drainage and imbibition cycle took approximately 25 and 17 hours, respectively, for a total duration of the experiment of 24 days. After each imbibition and drainage cycle, we performed complex conductivity measurements by injecting a known electric current at two electrodes using a sine wave with varying

  6. Investigating catchment-scale hysteretic behaviour of nutrients at annual and individual storm time-resolutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Charlotte; Freer, Jim; Johnes, Penny; Collins, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that all water bodies should be maintained at, or raised to, good ecological status, driven by improved integrated catchment management. Therefore, it is necessary to implement cost-effective mitigation strategies to reduce pollution from nutrients and improve overall water quality. If successful mitigation strategies are to be designed then it is imperative that catchment scale responses to environmental and anthropogenic changes are better understood. Against this background, this presentation investigates changes in hysteretic behaviours of nutrients in response to different environmental drivers using high resolution monitoring techniques. Observations of hysteretic behaviour can provide insights into the dominant flow pathways of pollutants. Therefore, monitoring changes in nutrient hysteresis can provide a useful tool for detecting regime differences or changes within and between catchments. In the UK, the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project has been set up to monitor evidence for improving water quality problems arising specifically from diffuse pollution from agriculture using targeted mitigation experiments and high resolution monitoring. This research platform provides an opportunity to compare storm-driven nutrient behaviour between catchments which have differing geologies, as well as how these behaviours evolve on a seasonal and annual basis. The monitoring to date has included a period of drought, directly followed by extreme wet conditions in the UK and therefore offers opportunities to assess the effect of differences in antecedent conditions on monitored nutrient response to rainfall events. The study compares the hysteretic behaviour of nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus species as well as sediment from a number of storm events of varying magnitudes throughout the 2011-2012 monitoring period in the Hampshire Avon catchment as part of the DTC programme. The investigation focuses

  7. Microscopic Theory of Hysteretic Hydrogen Adsorption in Nanoporous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, J.; Wei, S. H.; Kim, Y. H.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding gas adsorption confined in nanoscale pores is a fundamental issue with broad applications in catalysis and gas storage. Recently, hysteretic H{sub 2} adsorption was observed in several nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here, using first-principles calculations and simulated adsorption/desorption isotherms, we present a microscopic theory of the enhanced adsorption hysteresis of H{sub 2} molecules using the MOF Co(1,4-benzenedipyrazolate) [Co(BDP)] as a model system. Using activated H{sub 2} diffusion along the small-pore channels as a dominant equilibration process, we demonstrate that the system shows hysteretic H{sub 2} adsorption under changes of external pressure. For a small increase of temperature, the pressure width of the hysteresis, as well as the adsorption/desorption pressure, dramatically increases. The sensitivity of gas adsorption to temperature changes is explained by the simple thermodynamics of the gas reservoir. Detailed analysis of transient adsorption dynamics reveals that the hysteretic H{sub 2} adsorption is an intrinsic adsorption characteristic in the diffusion-controlled small-pore systems.

  8. Plane stress problems using hysteretic rigid body spring network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christos, Sofianos D.; Vlasis, Koumousis K.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a discrete numerical scheme is presented capable of modeling the hysteretic behavior of 2D structures. Rigid Body Spring Network (RBSN) models that were first proposed by Kawai (Nucl Eng Des 48(1):29-207, 1978) are extended to account for hysteretic elastoplastic behavior. Discretization is based on Voronoi tessellation, as proposed specifically for RBSN models to ensure uniformity. As a result, the structure is discretized into convex polygons that form the discrete rigid bodies of the model. These are connected with three zero length, i.e., single-node springs in the middle of their common facets. The springs follow the smooth hysteretic Bouc-Wen model which efficiently incorporates classical plasticity with no direct reference to a yield surface. Numerical results for both static and dynamic loadings are presented, which validate the proposed simplified spring-mass formulation. In addition, they verify the model's applicability on determining primarily the displacement field and plastic zones compared to the standard elastoplastic finite element method.

  9. Principle and validation of modified hysteretic models for magnetorheological dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Chen, Peng; Qian, Li-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers, semi-active actuators for vibration and shock control systems, have attracted increasing attention during the past two decades. However, it is difficult to establish a precise mathematical model for the MR dampers and their control systems due to their intrinsic strong nonlinear hysteretic behavior. A phenomenological model based on the Bouc-Wen model can be used to effectively describe the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the MR dampers, but the structure of the phenomenological model is complex and the Bouc-Wen model is functionally redundant. In this paper, based on the phenomenological model, (1) a normalized phenomenological model is derived through incorporating a ‘normalization’ concept, and (2) a restructured model, also incorporating the ‘normalization’ concept, is proposed and realized. In order to demonstrate this, a multi-islands genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to identify the parameters of the restructured model, the normalized phenomenological model, and the phenomenological model. The performance of the three models for describing and predicting the damping force characteristics of the MR dampers are compared and analyzed using the identified parameters. The research results indicate that, as compared with the phenomenological model and the normalized phenomenological model, (1) the restructured model can not only effectively decrease the number of the model parameters and reduce the complexity of the model, but can also describe the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of MR dampers more accurately, and (2) the meanings of several model parameters of the restructured model are clearer and the initial ranges of the model parameters are more explicit, which is of significance for parameter identification.

  10. Fast, Low-Power, Hysteretic Level-Detector Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arditti, Mordechai

    1993-01-01

    Circuit for detection of preset levels of voltage or current intended to replace standard fast voltage comparator. Hysteretic analog/digital level detector operates at unusually low power with little sacrifice of speed. Comprises low-power analog circuit and complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) digital circuit connected in overall closed feedback loop to decrease rise and fall times, provide hysteresis, and trip-level control. Contains multiple subloops combining linear and digital feedback. Levels of sensed signals and hysteresis level easily adjusted by selection of components to suit specific application.

  11. Global adaptive control for uncertain nonaffine nonlinear hysteretic systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Hua; Huang, Liangpei; Xiao, Dongming; Guo, Yong

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the global output tracking is investigated for a class of uncertain nonlinear hysteretic systems with nonaffine structures. By combining the solution properties of the hysteresis model with the novel backstepping approach, a robust adaptive control algorithm is developed without constructing a hysteresis inverse. The proposed control scheme is further modified to tackle the bounded disturbances by adaptively estimating their bounds. It is rigorously proven that the designed adaptive controllers can guarantee global stability of the closed-loop system. Two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes. PMID:26169122

  12. Hysteretic transitions in the Kuramoto model with inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcini, Alessandro; Olmi, Simona; Navas, Adrian; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    We report finite size numerical investigations and mean field analysis of a Kuramoto model with inertia for fully coupled and diluted systems. In particular, we examine the transition from incoherence to coherence for increasingly large system size and inertia. For sufficiently large inertia the transition is hysteretic and within the hysteretic region clusters of locked oscillators of various sizes and different levels of synchronization coexist. A modification of the mean field theory developed by Tanaka, Lichtenberg, and Oishi allows to derive the synchronization curve associated to each of these clusters. We have also investigated numerically the limits of existence of the coherent and of the incoherent solutions. The minimal coupling required to observe the coherent state is largely independent of the system size and it saturates to a constant value already for moderately large inertia values. The incoherent state is observable up to a critical coupling whose value saturates for large inertia and for finite system sizes, while in the thermodinamic limit this critical value diverges proportionally to the mass. By increasing the inertia the transition becomes more complex, and the synchronization occurs via the emergence of clusters of coherently drifting oscillators. Financial support has been provided by the Italian Ministry of University and Research within the project CRISIS LAB PNR 2011-2013.

  13. A nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupled hysteretic constitutive model for magnetostrictive alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ke; Kou, Yong; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a general hysteretic constitutive law of nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupling for magnetostrictive alloys. The model considered here is thermodynamically motivated and based on the Gibbs free energy function. A nonlinear part of the elastic strain arising from magnetic domain rotation induced by the pre-stress is taken into account. Furthermore, the movement of the domain walls is incorporated to describe hysteresis based on Jiles-Atherton's model. Then a set of closed and analytical expressions of the constitutive law for the magnetostrictive rods and films are obtained, and the parameters appearing in the model can be determined by those measurable experiments in mechanics and physics. Comparing this model with other existing models in this field, the quantitative results show that the relationships obtained here are more effective to describe the effects of the pre-stress or in-plane residual stress and ambient temperature on the magnetization or the magnetostriction hysteresis loops.

  14. Identification of an extended Bouc-Wen model with application to seismic protection through hysteretic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sireteanu, Tudor; Giuclea, M.; Mitu, A. M.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper is proposed an extended Bouc-Wen model for improving its capability to approximate experimental symmetric hysteretic loops. On the basis of the generalized equation there are defined integral and differential conditions that describe the essential geometric properties of a hysteretic curve. Next, a new method based on Genetic Algorithms is developed to identify the Bouc-Wen model parameters from experimental hysteretic loops obtained from periodic loading tests. The performance of presented approach is illustrated for two types of seismic protection devices with hysteretic characteristics: elastomeric base isolators and buckling restrained dissipative braces. The applicability of proposed method is highlighted by using the derived models to analyse by numerical simulation the efficiency of these devices for reducing seismic response of a three stories civil structure.

  15. Hysteretic memory and end plate effects on the response of a flexible cylinder undergoing Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedikli, Ersegun Deniz; Dahl, Jason M.

    2015-11-01

    The response of rigid cylinders undergoing VIV has been observed to be hysteretic with respect to the nominal reduced velocity, as transition of the wake is delayed dependent on whether the flow has been slowed down or sped up. In the present study, a similar behavior is observed for a flexible, tension-dominated cylinder, however the hysteretic behavior is shown to affect the transition between excited modes. The test cylinder has diameter of 6.35 mm, aspect ratio of 40 and mass ratio of 3.76. The dynamic response of the cylinder is measured visually, by tracking 26 dots along the span of the cylinder using two high-speed cameras between the Reynolds number of 1080 and 4660. It is observed that a clear memory effect exists, where the speed at which transition between the first mode and second mode excitation in the cross-flow direction changes dependent on whether the flow is increasing or decreasing in speed. A second series of experiments is conducted to investigate end plate effects on the flexible cylinder. Experiments are conducted with and without an end plate located at the end pivot point on the cylinder. Clear differences are observed between each condition illustrating the strong three-dimensional behavior of vortex shedding behind the flexible cylinder.

  16. Hysteretic behavior and magnetic ordering in CeRuSn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mydosh, J. A.; Strydom, A. M.; Baenitz, M.; Chevalier, B.; Hermes, W.; Pöttgen, R.

    2011-02-01

    We report the thermodynamic and transport properties of the newly synthesized Ce-intermetallic compound CeRuSn. This ternary stannide possesses an unconventional structure with two Ce sites at room temperature which exhibit different valencies. Just below room temperature there are large thermal hysteretic effects in the magnetic susceptibility, in the specific heat, as well as in electronic and heat transport properties suggesting the formation of an incommensurate charge density wave modulation whose q vector changes as a function of temperature. Our measurements indicate that one site displays magnetic Ce3+ behavior while the other is a valence fluctuator. At 2.7 K antiferromagnetic long-range order occurs within one-half of the Ce sites, e.g., the magnetic entropy of the transition is (1)/(2)Rln2. Below TN a series of metamagnetic transitions takes place in rather small fields (~1-2 T), leaving a magnetically fluctuating background. Such behavior is unique among the many Ce-transition-metal compounds.

  17. Stochastic averaging of energy envelope of Preisach hysteretic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Ying, Z. G.; Zhu, W. Q.

    2009-04-01

    A new stochastic averaging technique for analyzing the response of a single-degree-of-freedom Preisach hysteretic system with nonlocal memory under stationary Gaussian stochastic excitation is proposed. An equivalent nonhysteretic nonlinear system with amplitude-envelope-dependent damping and stiffness is firstly obtained from the given system by using the generalized harmonic balance technique. The relationship between the amplitude envelope and the energy envelope is then established, and the equivalent damping and stiffness coefficients are expressed as functions of the energy envelope. The available range of the yielding force of the system is extended and also the strong nonlinear stiffness of the system is incorporated so as to improve the response prediction. Finally, an averaged Itô stochastic differential equation for the energy envelope of the system as one-dimensional diffusion process is derived by using the stochastic averaging method of energy envelope, and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation associated with the averaged Itô equation is solved to obtain stationary probability densities of the energy envelope and amplitude envelope. The approximate solutions are validated by using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  18. Assessing the severity of fatigue crack using acoustics modulated by hysteretic vibration for a cantilever beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingbo; Lin, Yin

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates fatigue crack severity assessment using acoustics modulated by hysteretic vibration for a cantilever beam. In this study, a nonlinear oscillator system is constructed to induce the hysteretic frequency response of the cantilever beam in dynamics, and the hysteretic vibration is then used to modulate the acoustic waves to generate the vibro-acoustic modulation (VAM) effect. Through modulation of hysteretic vibration, the hysteretic response of the VAM can be achieved. The experimental results further validated that the VAM hysteresis phenomenon can be enhanced with the increase of crack severity owing to the change of beam's effective stiffness. Simulations in the proposed physical model explained the reason of enhancement of hysteresis phenomenon. Combined with nonlinear bistable structural model, a fatigue crack severity assessment approach was proposed by evaluating the hysteretic region (e.g., bandwidth or jumping frequency) in the vibration frequency response of the VAM effect. The reported study is valuable in building a monotonic relationship to assess the severity of fatigue crack by a nonlinear acoustics approach.

  19. Modeling geologic storage of carbon dioxide: Comparison ofnon-hysteretic chracteristic curves

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine

    2006-04-28

    TOUGH2 models of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in brine-bearing formations use characteristic curves to represent the interactions of non-wetting-phase CO2 and wetting-phase brine. When a problem includes both injection of CO2 (a drainage process) and its subsequent post-injection evolution (a combination of drainage and wetting), hysteretic characteristic curves are required to correctly capture the behavior of the CO2 plume. In the hysteretic formulation, capillary pressure and relative permeability depend not only on the current grid-block saturation, but also on the history of the saturation in the grid block. For a problem that involves only drainage or only wetting, a nonhysteretic formulation, in which capillary pressure and relative permeability depend only on the current value of the grid-block saturation, is adequate. For the hysteretic formulation to be robust computationally, care must be taken to ensure the differentiability of the characteristic curves both within and beyond the turning-point saturations where transitions between branches of the curves occur. Two example problems involving geologic CO2 storage are simulated using non-hysteretic and hysteretic models, to illustrate the applicability and limitations of non-hysteretic methods: the first considers leakage of CO2 from the storage formation to the ground surface, while the second examines the role of heterogeneity within the storage formation.

  20. Domain switching mechanisms in polycrystalline ferroelectrics with asymmetric hysteretic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Eva-Maria; García, R. Edwin; Key, Thomas S.; Blendell, John E.; Bowman, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to predict the effect of microstructure on the local polarization switching of bulk ferroelectric ceramics. The model shows that a built-in electromechanical field develops in a ferroelectric material as a result of the spatial coupling of the grains and the direct physical coupling between the thermomechanical and electromechanical properties of a bulk ceramic material. The built-in fields that result from the thermomechanically induced grain-grain electromechanical interactions result in the appearance of four microstructural switching mechanisms: (1) simple switching, where the c-axes of ferroelectric domains will align with the direction of the applied macroscopic electric field by starting from the core of each grain; (2) grain boundary induced switching, where the domain's switching response will initiate at grain corners and boundaries as a result of the polarization and stress that is locally generated from the strong anisotropy of the dielectric permittivity and the local piezoelectric contributions to polarization from the surrounding material; (3) negative poling, where abutting ferroelectric domains of opposite polarity actively oppose domain switching by increasing their degree of tetragonality by interacting with the surrounding domains that have already switched to align with the applied electrostatic field. Finally, (4) domain reswitching mechanism is observed at very large applied electric fields, and is characterized by the appearance of polarization domain reversals events in the direction of their originally unswitched state. This mechanism is a consequence of the competition between the macroscopic applied electric field, and the induced electric field that results from the neighboring domains (or grains) interactions. The model shows that these built-in electromechanical fields and mesoscale mechanisms contribute to the asymmetry of the macroscopic hysteretic behavior in poled samples. Furthermore, below a

  1. Hysteretic pinching of human secondary osteons subjected to torsion.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Di Comite, Mariasevera; Mitov, Plamen; Kabo, John Michael

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of bone tissue's ultra- and micro- structure is fundamental to assessment of macroscopic bone mechanics. This paper explores the ultra-structural characteristics of human femoral tissue responsible for energy absorption of secondary osteons under mechanical loading. A novel mathematical interpretation of single osteon mechanics elucidates the behavior of the collagen-apatite interface. Fully calcified single osteon specimens were mechanically tested quasi-statically under cyclic torsional loading about their longitudinal axis. On each hysteretic diagram, all cycles after the initial monotonic cycle appear pinched and share two points. Stiffness degradation and pinching degradation were investigated on the torque versus deflection-angle-per-unit-length diagrams as the number of cycles increases, in relation to the appearance of osteons in cross-section under circularly polarized light microscopy. Material science's Bauschinger effect, originally defined for metals and later extended to structures reinforced with metal bars, is adapted to describe pinching. Material science's prying effect, defined as amplification of eccentric tensile load through lever action, is employed to explain pinching. The presence of the two points shared by all complete cycles is analyzed in terms of the mathematical fixed point theorem. The results allow formulation of the following conjectures: (1) the prying of carbonated apatite crystallites at the interface with the 40 nm long bands of non-calcified collagen fibrils causes pinching; (2) the prying effect increases with the increasing percentage of collagen-apatite elements that form a larger angle with the osteon axis; and (3) micro-cracks increase more in number than in length as the number of cycles increases. PMID:17399724

  2. A proposed model to include a residual NAPL saturation in a hysteretic capillary pressure saturation relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Geel, P. J.; Roy, S. D.

    2002-09-01

    A residual non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) present in the vadose zone can act as a contaminant source for many years as the compounds of concern partition to infiltrating groundwater and air contained in the soil voids. Current pressure-saturation-relative permeability relationships do not include a residual NAPL saturation term in their formulation. This paper presents the results of series of two- and three-phase pressure cell experiments conducted to evaluate the residual NAPL saturation and its impact on the pressure-saturation relationship. A model was proposed to incorporate a residual NAPL saturation term into an existing hysteretic three-phase parametric model developed by Parker and Lenhard [Water Resour. Res. 23(12) (1987) 2187], Lenhard and Parker [Water Resour. Res. 23(12) (1987) 2197] and Lenhard [J. Contam. Hydrol. 9 (1992) 243]. The experimental results indicated that the magnitude of the residual NAPL saturation was a function of the maximum total liquid saturation reached and the water saturation. The proposed model to incorporate a residual NAPL saturation term is similar in form to the entrapment model proposed by Parker and Lenhard, which was based on an expression presented by Land [Soc. Pet. Eng. J. (June 1968) 149].

  3. Multilevel radiative thermal memory realized by the hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO2 film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management.

  4. User's Guide for Hysteretic Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability Functions in iTOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, C.A.

    2009-08-01

    The precursor of TOUGH2, TOUGH, was originally developed with non-hysteretic characteristic curves. Hysteretic capillary pressure functions were implemented in TOUGH in the late 1980s by Niemi and Bodvarsson (1988), and hysteretic capillary pressure and relative permeability functions were added to iTOUGH2 about ten years later by Finsterle et al. (1998). Recently, modifications were made to the iTOUGH2 hysteretic formulation to make it more robust and efficient (Doughty, 2007). Code development is still underway, with the ultimate goal being a hysteretic module that fits into the standard TOUGH2 (Pruess et al., 1991) framework. This document provides a user's guide for the most recent version of the hysteretic code, which runs within iTOUGH2 (Finsterle, 1999a,b,c). The current code differs only slightly from what was presented in Doughty (2007), hence that document provides the basic information on the processes being modeled and how they are conceptualized. This document focuses on a description of the user-specified parameters required to run hysteretic iTOUGH2. In the few instances where the conceptualization differs from that of Doughty (2007), the features described here are the current ones. Sample problems presented in this user's guide use the equation-of-state module ECO2N (Pruess, 2005). The components present in ECO2N are H{sub 2}O, NaCl, and CO{sub 2}. Two fluid phases and one solid phase are considered: an aqueous phase, which primarily consists of liquid H2O and may contain dissolved NaCl and CO{sub 2}; a supercritical phase which primarily consists of CO{sub 2}, but also includes a small amount of gaseous H{sub 2}O; and a solid phase consisting of precipitated NaCl. Details of the ECO2N formulation may be found in Pruess (2005). The aqueous phase is the wetting phase and is denoted ''liquid'', whereas the supercritical phase is the non-wetting phase and is denoted ''gas''. The hysteretic formalism may be applied to other iTOUGH2 equation

  5. Spatial, Hysteretic, and Adaptive Host-Guest Chemistry in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Watson-Crick Sites.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong; Li, Mian; Lin, Xiao-Rong; Chen, Wei; Chen, Guang-Hui; Huang, Xiao-Chun; Li, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Biological and artificial molecules and assemblies capable of supramolecular recognition, especially those with nucleobase pairing, usually rely on autonomous or collective binding to function. Advanced site-specific recognition takes advantage of cooperative spatial effects, as in local folding in protein-DNA binding. Herein, we report a new nucleobase-tagged metal-organic framework (MOF), namely ZnBTCA (BTC=benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyl, A=adenine), in which the exposed Watson-Crick faces of adenine residues are immobilized periodically on the interior crystalline surface. Systematic control experiments demonstrated the cooperation of the open Watson-Crick sites and spatial effects within the nanopores, and thermodynamic and kinetic studies revealed a hysteretic host-guest interaction attributed to mild chemisorption. We further exploited this behavior for adenine-thymine binding within the constrained pores, and a globally adaptive response of the MOF host was observed. PMID:26178173

  6. Stochastic optimal semi-active control of hysteretic systems by using a magneto-rheological damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.; Zhu, W. Q.; Ying, Z. G.

    2006-06-01

    A stochastic optimal semi-active control strategy for stochastically excited hysteretic systems by using a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is proposed. The dynamics of both the hysteretic system and the MR damper is characterized by using the Bouc-Wen hysteretic model. The control force produced by the damper is split into a passive part and a semi-active part. The passive part is combined with the uncontrolled system to form a passively controlled system. Then the system is converted into an equivalent nonlinear non-hysteretic stochastic system, from which a partially averaged Itô stochastic differential equation is derived by using the stochastic averaging method of the energy envelope. For the ergodic control problem, a dynamical programming equation is established based on the stochastic dynamical programming principle and solved to yield the optimal semi-active control law. The fully averaged Itô equation is obtained by substituting the optimal semi-active control force into the partially averaged Itô equation and completing the averaging. Finally, the response of the semi-actively controlled system is obtained from solving the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation associated with the fully averaged Itô equation. The efficacy of the proposed control strategy is illustrated by the numerical results and comparison with clipped LQG control for an example.

  7. COMPARING SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HYSTERETIC TWO- PHASE TRANSIENT FLUID FLOW PHENOMENA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hysteretic model for two-phase permeability (k)-saturation (S)-pressure (P) relations is outlined that accounts for effects of nonwetting fluid entrapment. The model can be employed in unsaturated fluid flow computer codes to predict temporal and spatial fluid distributions. Co...

  8. An investigation on the field strength and loading rate dependences of the hysteretic dynamics of magnetorheological dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Zhangwei; Wang, Linxiang

    2015-02-01

    This paper is an extended study on the model of the hysteretic dynamics of magnetorheological dampers based on a phenomenological phase transition theory (Wang and Kamath in Smart Mater. Struct. 15(6):1725-1733, 2006). It is demonstrated that, by appropriately choosing model parameters, the frequency dependence of the hysteretic dynamics can be captured very well by the model based on phase transition theory. Whilst by introducing an appropriate rescaling coefficient to account for the strength of the magnetized particle chains with various magnetic field strengths, the field strength dependence of the hysteretic dynamics can also be captured very well by the same differential equation with the same set of model parameters. There are in total eight model parameters introduced for capturing the hysteretic dynamics, including its dependence on the loading rate and field strength.

  9. User's Guide for Hysteretic Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability Functions in TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, C. A.

    2013-03-01

    This document provides a user’s guide for the most recent version of the hysteretic code, which runs within iTOUGH2 (Finsterle, 1999a,b,c) or TOUGH2 V2.1 (Pruess et al., 2012). The usage of the hysteretic module is the same in both codes, which for brevity here are both referred to simply as TOUGH2. The current code differs only slightly from what was presented in Doughty (2007), hence that document provides the basic information on the processes being modeled and how they are conceptualized. This document focuses on a description of the user-specified parameters required to run hysteretic TOUGH2. In the few instances where the conceptualization differs from that of Doughty (2007), the features described here are the current ones. Sample problems presented in this user’s guide use the equation-of-state module ECO2N (Pruess, 2005). The components present in ECO2N are H{sub 2}O, NaCl, and CO{sub 2}. Two fluid phases and one solid phase are considered: an aqueous phase, which primarily consists of liquid H{sub 2}O and may contain dissolved NaCl and CO{sub 2}; a supercritical phase which primarily consists of CO{sub 2}, but also includes a small amount of gaseous H{sub 2}O; and a solid phase consisting of precipitated NaCl. Details of the ECO2N formulation may be found in Pruess (2005). The aqueous phase is the wetting phase and is denoted ‘liquid’, whereas the supercritical phase is the non-wetting phase and is denoted ‘gas’. The hysteretic formalism may be applied to other TOUGH2 equation-of-state modules that consider two fluid phases, as long as the liquid phase is the wetting phase and the gas phase is the non-wetting phase.

  10. Vibration control of an MR vehicle suspension system considering both hysteretic behavior and parameter variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Seong, Min-Sang; Ha, Sung-Hoon

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents vibration control responses of a controllable magnetorheological (MR) suspension system considering the two most important characteristics of the system; the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper and the parameter variation of the suspension. In order to achieve this goal, a cylindrical MR damper which is applicable to a middle-sized passenger car is designed and manufactured. After verifying the damping force controllability, the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper is identified using the Preisach hysteresis model. The full-vehicle suspension model is then derived by considering vertical, pitch and roll motions. An H_{\\infty } controller is designed by treating the sprung mass of the vehicle as a parameter variation and integrating it with the hysteretic compensator which produces additional control input. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control system, the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) methodology is adopted by integrating the suspension model with the proposed MR damper. Vibration control responses of the vehicle suspension system such as vertical acceleration are evaluated under both bump and random road conditions.

  11. Using high-resolution water quality monitoring to investigate hysteretic behaviour of nutrients at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C.; Freer, J. E.; Johnes, P.; Collins, A.

    2013-12-01

    Changing climate and a growing population are increasing pressures on the world's water bodies. Maintaining food security has resulted in changes in agricultural practices, leading to adverse impacts on water quality. To address this problem robust evidence is needed to determine which on-farm mitigation strategies are likely to be most effective in reducing pollutant impacts. The introduction of in-situ quasi-continuous monitoring of water quality provides the means to improve the characterisation of pollutant behaviour and gain new understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes occurring within catchments. Here we use a suite of in-situ monitoring sensors to investigate changes in hysteretic patterns of nutrients in response to different environmental drivers. Observations of hysteretic behaviour can provide insights into the dominant transport pathways of pollutants. Therefore, monitoring changes in nutrient hysteresis can provide a useful tool for detecting catchment change. Such data also improves the quantification of pollutant loads and concentration dynamics. In the UK, the Demonstration Test Catchments (DTC) programme has been established to deliver evidence for improvements in water quality arising specifically from the deployment of measures to mitigate diffuse pollution from agriculture using high resolution in-situ monitoring. This research platform provides an opportunity to compare storm-driven nutrient behaviour between catchments which have differing geologies, and determine how these behaviours evolve on a seasonal and annual basis. The monitoring to date has included a period of drought in WY2011, directly followed by extreme wet conditions in the UK in WY2012 and therefore offers opportunities to assess the effect of differences in antecedent conditions on monitored nutrient response to rainfall events. The study compares the hysteretic behaviour of nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus species as well as turbidity from a

  12. Modelling hysteretic behaviour in magnetorheological fluids and dampers using phase-transition theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. X.; Kamath, H.

    2006-12-01

    A dynamical mathematical model is proposed to model the hysteretic behaviour of magnetorheological fluids and dampers using phase-transition theory. To construct the model involving hysteresis, the magnetorheological fluids are assumed to be switchable between different phases upon the application of a shear strain rate, with one solid-like phase and two fluid-like phases. The Landau theory for phase transition is employed to model the dynamics of the phase transition in the fluids. The proposed model is able to capture hysteresis loops, and is rate dependent (frequency dependent). A comparison between predicted and experimental behaviour of the damper is presented, and perfect agreement is obtained.

  13. Hysteretic depinning and dynamical melting for magnetically interacting vortices in disordered layered superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C. J.; Reichhardt, C.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2001-10-01

    We examine the depinning transitions and the temperature versus driving force phase diagram for magnetically interacting pancake vortices in layered superconductors. For strong disorder the initial depinning is plastic followed by a sharp hysteretic transition to a three-dimensional ordered state for increasing driving force. Our results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for driven anisotropic charge-density wave systems. We also show that a temperature induced peak effect in the critical current occurs due to the onset of plasticity between the layers.

  14. Superfluidity and mean-field energy loops: Hysteretic behavior in Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Erich J.

    2002-12-01

    We present a theory of hysteretic phenomena in Bose gases, using superfluidity in one-dimensional rings and in optical lattices as primary examples. Through this study we are able to give a physical interpretation of swallow-tail loops recently found by many authors in the mean-field energy structure of trapped atomic gases. These loops are a generic sign of hysteresis, and in the present context are an indication of superfluidity. We have also calculated the rate of decay of metastable current-carrying states due to quantum fluctuations.

  15. Hysteretic mode exchange in the wake of two circular cylinders in tandem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaka, Yuji; Kon, Seiji; Schouveiler, Lionel; Le Gal, Patrice

    2006-08-01

    Our experimental study is devoted to the analysis of the flow past two tandem circular cylinders near the vortex shedding threshold. A recent bidimensional numerical analysis of this flow [Mizushima and Suehiro, Phys. Fluids 17, 104107 (2005)] has predicted that the bifurcation diagram should become complex in the vicinity of the instability threshold. Subcritical and saddle node bifurcations that lead to hysteretic exchanges between two different modes of vortex shedding were detected for particular distances of separation of the cylinders. We present here visualizations and velocity measurements of this flow in a water channel that prove the robustness of the complexity of the bifurcation diagram in real flows.

  16. Spatially Extended Avalanches in a Hysteretic Capillary Condensation System: Superfluid {sup {bold 4}}He in Nuclepore

    SciTech Connect

    Lilly, M.P.; Wootters, A.H.; Hallock, R.B.

    1996-11-01

    Capacitive studies of hysteretic capillary condensation of superfluid {sup 4}He in Nuclepore have shown that the initial draining of the pores occurs over a small range of the chemical potential with avalanches present as groups of pores drain. In the work reported here, the avalanches in this system are shown to be nonlocal events which involve pores distributed at low density across the entire sample. The nonlocal avalanche behavior is shown to be enabled by the presence of a superfluid film connection among the pores. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. Propagation of flexural waves in inhomogeneous plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear acoustic black holes.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua

    2015-08-01

    Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping. PMID:25937493

  18. Numerical Calculation of Nonlinear Seismic Pulse Propagation in a Hysteretic Elastic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosik, Dan

    2007-04-01

    The stress-strain relation for materials such as soil and sand exhibit hysteretic elastic behavior and are modeled using the Preisach-Mayergoyz method for a numerical calculation of a propagating seismic pulse. The source pulse is taken to be the result of pressure applied to the inner surface of a cylindrical cavity in order to simulate a two dimensional dynamite source. The nonlinear differential equation of motion that is solved includes traditional nonlinear elasticity terms appropriate to materials with atomic elasticity and the dominant anelastic terms appropriate to consolidated materials that exhibit hysteretic elastic behavior. For parameters characteristic of sand at the Earth's surface, a comparison of nonlinear to linear seismic pulse propagation gives a nonlinear pulse with a much larger amplitude and slower propagation speed than a corresponding linear pulse. These results have important implications for the detailed behavior of strong seismic waves moving in soft sediments, their dominant frequencies, amplitudes, and methods by which they may be attenuated will depend on getting the detailed pulse structure right.

  19. An Accretion Disk-outflow Model for Hysteretic State Transition in X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinwu

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a model of the advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) with magnetically driven outflows to explain the hysteretic state transition observed in X-ray binaries (XRBs). The transition from a thin disk to an ADAF occurs when the mass accretion rate is below a critical value. The critical mass accretion rate for the ADAF can be estimated by equating the equilibration timescale to the accretion timescale of the ADAF, which is sensitive to its radial velocity. The radial velocity of thin disks is very small, which leads to the advection of the external field in thin disks becoming very inefficient. ADAFs are present in the low/hard states of XRBs, and their radial velocity is large compared with the thin disk. The external field can be dragged inward efficiently by the ADAF, so a strong large-scale magnetic field threading the ADAF can be formed, which may accelerate a fraction of gas in the ADAF into the outflows. Such outflows may carry away a large amount of angular momentum from the ADAF, which significantly increases the radial velocity of the ADAF. This leads to a high critical mass accretion rate, below which an ADAF with magnetic outflows can survive. Our calculations show that the critical luminosity of the ADAF with magnetic outflows can be one order of magnitude higher than that for a conventional ADAF, if the ratio of gas to magnetic pressure β ∼ 4 in the disk. This can naturally explain the hysteretic state transition observed in XRBs.

  20. First passage times in M2[X ]|G |1 |R queue with hysteretic overload control policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechinkin, Alexander V.; Razumchik, Rostislav R.; Zaryadov, Ivan S.

    2016-06-01

    One of the reported approaches towards the solution of overload problem in networks of SIP servers is the implementation of multi-level hysteretic control of arrivals in SIP servers. Each level, being the parameter of the policy, specifies operation mode of SIP server i.e. it implicitly indicates what SIP server must do with the arriving packets. The choice of parameters' values is not guided by standards and is usually left for the network owner. In general, all operation modes of the considered policy can be grouped into two groups: normal mode (when all arriving packets are accepted) and congested mode (when part or all arriving packets are being dropped). Such grouping may serve as the criteria for choosing parameters' values of the policy: pick those values which minimize SIP server sojourn time in congested mode. In this short note we propose some analytical results which facilitate the solution of stated minimization problem. The considered mathematical model of SIP server is the queueing system M2[X ]|G |1 |R with batch arrivals and bi-level hysteretic control policy, which specifies three operation modes: normal (customers both flows are accepted), overload (only customers from one flow are accepted), discard (customers from both flows are blocked/lost)). The switching between modes can occur only on service completions. Analytical method allowing computation of stationary sojourn times in different operation modes (as well as first passage times between modes) is presented in brief. Numerical example is given.

  1. Hysteretic behavior of special shaped columns composed of steel and reinforced concrete (SRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zongping; Xu, Jinjun; Xue, Jianyang

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a series of experimental investigations on seventeen specimens of steel reinforced concrete special shaped (SRCSS) columns under low cyclic reversed loading using parallel crosshead equipment. Nine T-shaped SRC columns, four L-shaped SRC columns and four +-shaped SRC columns were tested to examine the effects of shape steel configuration, loading angle, axial compressive ratio and shear-span ratio on the behavior (strength, stiffness, energy dissipation, ductility, etc.) of SRCSS column specimens. The failure modes and hysteretic performance of all the specimens were obtained in the tests. Test results demonstrate that the shear-span ratio is the main parameter affecting the failure modes of SRCSS columns. The specimens with small shear-span ratio are prone to shear failure, and the primary failure planes in SRCSS columns are parallel to the loading direction. As a result, there is a symmetry between positive and negative loading directions in the hysteretic curves of the SRCSS columns. The majority of displacement ductility coefficients for all the specimens are over 3.0, so that the SRCSS columns demonstrate a better deformation capacity. In addition, the equivalent viscous damping coefficients of all the specimens are greater than 0.2, indicating that the seismic behavior of SRCSS columns is adequate. Finally, the superposition theory was used to calculate the limits of axial compressive ratio for the specimens, and it is found that the test axial compressive ratio is close to or smaller than the calculated axial compressive ratio limit.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Hysteretic Live Load Effect in a Soil-Steel Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobótka, Maciej

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation of hysteretic live load effect in a soil-steel bridge. The effect was originally identified experimentally by Machelski [1], [2]. The truck was crossing the bridge one way and the other in the full-scale test performed. At the same time, displacements and stress in the shell were measured. The major conclusion from the research was that the measured quantities formed hysteretic loops. A numerical simulation of that effect is addressed in the present work. The analysis was performed using Flac finite difference code. The methodology of solving the mechanical problems implemented in Flac enables us to solve the problem concerning a sequence of load and non-linear mechanical behaviour of the structure. The numerical model incorporates linear elastic constitutive relations for the soil backfill, for the steel shell and the sheet piles, being a flexible substructure for the shell. Contact zone between the shell and the soil backfill is assumed to reflect elastic-plastic constitutive model. Maximum shear stress in contact zone is limited by the Coulomb condition. The plastic flow rule is described by dilation angle ψ = 0. The obtained results of numerical analysis are in fair agreement with the experimental evidence. The primary finding from the performed simulation is that the slip in the interface can be considered an explanation of the hysteresis occurrence in the charts of displacement and stress in the shell.

  3. Modeling of the hysteretic phenomena in RHEED intensity variation versus temperature for GaAs and InAs surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nemcsics, Akos; Takacs, Jenoe

    2011-01-15

    This paper describes a study of the reflection high energy electron diffraction intensity change against temperature for GaAs and InAs surfaces. The reflection high energy electron diffraction intensity variation against temperature shows different hysteretic characters for the two materials. To date, the explanations for these phenomena were also different for the two substances. Here, we put forward an explanation for these hysteretic phenomena in general terms, applicable to both materials by using the hyperbolic model of hysteresis for coupled systems. Experimental results presented in the paper are in good agreement with the model predictions, supporting the proposed common explanation.

  4. INDIRECT INTELLIGENT SLIDING MODE CONTROL OF A SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY ACTUATED FLEXIBLE BEAM USING HYSTERETIC RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORKS

    PubMed Central

    Hannen, Jennifer C.; Crews, John H.; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an indirect intelligent sliding mode controller (IISMC) for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators, specifically a flexible beam deflected by a single offset SMA tendon. The controller manipulates applied voltage, which alters SMA tendon temperature to track reference bending angles. A hysteretic recurrent neural network (HRNN) captures the nonlinear, hysteretic relationship between SMA temperature and bending angle. The variable structure control strategy provides robustness to model uncertainties and parameter variations, while effectively compensating for system nonlinearities, achieving superior tracking compared to an optimized PI controller. PMID:22962538

  5. On Response of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom Oscillator with Constant Hysteretic Damping Under Arbitrary Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Goutam

    2016-05-01

    The simple constant hysteretic damping model is known to be non-causal although it is used often in diverse branches of engineering. In this paper the response of a single degree of freedom oscillator having linear hysteretic damping under arbitrary force excitation has been studied after deriving the impulse response function of the system. Some shortcomings of the results available in literature have been pointed out. It has been shown that the damping model can be practically used for calculating the response of a physical system when the damping is small and the force has small duration.

  6. Modeling the nonlinear hysteretic response in DAE experiments of Berea sandstone: A case-study

    SciTech Connect

    Pecorari, Claudio

    2015-03-31

    Dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) allows probing the instantaneous state of a material while the latter slowly and periodically is changed by an external, dynamic source. In DAE investigations of geo-materials, hysteresis of the material's modulus defect displays intriguing features which have not yet been interpreted in terms of any specific mechanism occurring at atomic or mesoscale. Here, experimental results on dry Berea sandstone, which is the rock type best investigated by means of a DAE technique, are analyzed in terms of three rheological models providing simplified representations of mechanisms involving dislocations interacting with point defects which are distributed along the dislocations' core or glide planes, and microcracks with finite stiffness in compression. Constitutive relations linking macroscopic strain and stress are derived. From the latter, the modulus defect associated to each mechanism is recovered. These models are employed to construct a composite one which is capable of reproducing several of the main features observed in the experimental data. The limitations of the present approach and, possibly, of the current implementation of DAE are discussed.

  7. Modeling the nonlinear hysteretic response in DAE experiments of Berea sandstone: A case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecorari, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) allows probing the instantaneous state of a material while the latter slowly and periodically is changed by an external, dynamic source. In DAE investigations of geo-materials, hysteresis of the material's modulus defect displays intriguing features which have not yet been interpreted in terms of any specific mechanism occurring at atomic or mesoscale. Here, experimental results on dry Berea sandstone, which is the rock type best investigated by means of a DAE technique, are analyzed in terms of three rheological models providing simplified representations of mechanisms involving dislocations interacting with point defects which are distributed along the dislocations' core or glide planes, and microcracks with finite stiffness in compression. Constitutive relations linking macroscopic strain and stress are derived. From the latter, the modulus defect associated to each mechanism is recovered. These models are employed to construct a composite one which is capable of reproducing several of the main features observed in the experimental data. The limitations of the present approach and, possibly, of the current implementation of DAE are discussed.

  8. Analysis and modification of Volterra/Wiener neural networks for the adaptive identification of non-linear hysteretic dynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, J.-S.; Smyth, A. W.; Kosmatopoulos, E. B.

    2004-08-01

    This study attempts to demystify a powerful neural network approach for modelling non-linear hysteretic systems and in turn to streamline its architecture to achieve better computational efficiency. The recently developed neural network modelling approach, the Volterra/Wiener neural network (VWNN), demonstrated its usefulness in identifying the restoring forces for hysteretic systems in an off-line or even in an adaptive (on-line) mode, however, the mechanism of how and why it works has not been thoroughly explored especially in terms of a physical interpretation. Artificial neural network are often treated as "black box" modelling tools, in contrast, here the authors carry out a detailed analysis in terms of problem formulation and network architecture to explore the inner workings of this neural network. Based on the understanding of the dynamics of hysteretic systems, some simplifications and modifications are made to the original VWNN in predicting accelerations of hysteretic systems under arbitrary force excitations. Through further examination of the algorithm related to the VWNN applications, the efficiency of the previously published approach is improved by reducing the number of the hidden nodes without affecting the modelling accuracy of the network. One training example is presented to illustrate the application of the VWNN; and another is provided to demonstrate that the VWNN is able to yield a unique set of weights when the values of the controlling design parameters are fixed. The practical issue of how to choose the values of these important parameters is discussed to aid engineering applications.

  9. Exploring the tip-sample interaction regimes in the presence of hysteretic forces in the tapping mode atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korayem, M. H.; Eghbal, M. M.; Ebrahimi, N.

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the tip-sample interaction regimes in the presence of hysteretic forces are investigated using atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode. For this purpose, two samples that cause the formation of hysteretic forces, namely, silicon (stiff sample) with an adsorbed water film and polyethylene (compliant sample), are used. Also, for deriving the equation of motion of the microcantilever, the continuous beam model is used, and for determining the contact forces, depending on the sample under investigation, the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov and Johnson-Kendall-Roberts contact mechanics models are used. The results indicate that the hysteretic interaction forces generate high-periodic and irregular responses at certain tip-sample separation distances. In fact, at these distances, a family of steady-state attractors is found that can be observed in one branch on the minimum tip-sample separation curves and in two separate branches on the average force curves. The reason for this occurrence might be the alternate formation of a liquid column between the probe tip and the sample (in the presence of ambient moisture), and for the compliant sample, the reason might be the alternate formation of an adhesion neck. In this article, the role of hysteretic forces in producing the hysteresis of the amplitude-separation curves is also explored.

  10. Hysteretic Spin Crossover in Two-Dimensional (2D) Hofmann-Type Coordination Polymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Lu; Su, Yu-Jun; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek; Ni, Zhao-Ping; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2015-09-01

    Three new two-dimensional (2D) Hofmann-type coordination polymers with general formula [Fe(3-NH2py)2M(CN)4] (3-NH2py = 3-aminopyridine, M = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3)) have been synthesized. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that they exhibited cooperative spin crossover (SCO) with remarkable hysteretic behaviors. Their hysteresis widths are 25, 37, and 30 K for 1-3, respectively. The single-crystal structure of 1 suggest that the pseudo-octahedral Fe sites are equatorially bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) to form 2D grids and axially coordinated by 3-NH2py ligands. The intermolecular interactions between layers (the offset face-to-face π···π interactions, hydrogen bonds, and weak N(amino)···Ni(II) contacts) together with the covalent bonds bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) units are responsible to the significant cooperativity. PMID:26258593

  11. Ground state search, hysteretic behaviour, and reversal mechanism of skyrmionic textures in confined helimagnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beg, Marijan; Carey, Rebecca; Wang, Weiwei; Cortés-Ortuño, David; Vousden, Mark; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Albert, Maximilian; Chernyshenko, Dmitri; Hovorka, Ondrej; Stamps, Robert L.; Fangohr, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic skyrmions have the potential to provide solutions for low-power, high-density data storage and processing. One of the major challenges in developing skyrmion-based devices is the skyrmions’ magnetic stability in confined helimagnetic nanostructures. Through a systematic study of equilibrium states, using a full three-dimensional micromagnetic model including demagnetisation effects, we demonstrate that skyrmionic textures are the lowest energy states in helimagnetic thin film nanostructures at zero external magnetic field and in absence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy. We also report the regions of metastability for non-ground state equilibrium configurations. We show that bistable skyrmionic textures undergo hysteretic behaviour between two energetically equivalent skyrmionic states with different core orientation, even in absence of both magnetocrystalline and demagnetisation-based shape anisotropies, suggesting the existence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-based shape anisotropy. Finally, we show that the skyrmionic texture core reversal dynamics is facilitated by the Bloch point occurrence and propagation.

  12. Resonance magnetoelectric effect without a bias field in a piezoelectric langatate-hysteretic ferromagnet monolithic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdin, D. A.; Fetisov, L. Y.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Chashin, D. V.; Ekonomov, N. A.

    2014-09-01

    The frequency, field, temperature, and amplitude characteristics of the direct magnetoelectric effect are studied in a planar monolithic structure consisting of a piezoelectric langatate crystal and a layer of electrolytic nickel. A relation between the magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of the structure is demonstrated, which explains the effects observed in structures with hysteretic layers. At the planar acoustic resonance frequency of the structure (about 70 kHz), the effect amounting to 23 V/(Oe cm) in the absence of a bias field is discovered. In the temperature interval 150-400 K, the amount of the effect changes nearly twofold, the resonance frequency changes by about 1%, and the Q factor on cooling rises to about 8 × 103. The field sensitivity of the structure is on the order of 1 V/Oe, which makes it possible to detect magnetic fields with an amplitude down to ˜10-6 Oe.

  13. Ground state search, hysteretic behaviour, and reversal mechanism of skyrmionic textures in confined helimagnetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Beg, Marijan; Carey, Rebecca; Wang, Weiwei; Cortés-Ortuño, David; Vousden, Mark; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Albert, Maximilian; Chernyshenko, Dmitri; Hovorka, Ondrej; Stamps, Robert L; Fangohr, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions have the potential to provide solutions for low-power, high-density data storage and processing. One of the major challenges in developing skyrmion-based devices is the skyrmions' magnetic stability in confined helimagnetic nanostructures. Through a systematic study of equilibrium states, using a full three-dimensional micromagnetic model including demagnetisation effects, we demonstrate that skyrmionic textures are the lowest energy states in helimagnetic thin film nanostructures at zero external magnetic field and in absence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy. We also report the regions of metastability for non-ground state equilibrium configurations. We show that bistable skyrmionic textures undergo hysteretic behaviour between two energetically equivalent skyrmionic states with different core orientation, even in absence of both magnetocrystalline and demagnetisation-based shape anisotropies, suggesting the existence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-based shape anisotropy. Finally, we show that the skyrmionic texture core reversal dynamics is facilitated by the Bloch point occurrence and propagation. PMID:26601904

  14. Hysteretic DC electrowetting by field-induced nano-structurations on polystyrene films.

    PubMed

    Sawane, Yogesh B; Datar, Suwarna; Ogale, Satishchandra B; Banpurkar, Arun G

    2015-04-01

    Electrowetting (EW) offers executive wetting control of conductive liquids on several polymer surfaces. We report a peculiar electrowetting response for aqueous drops on a polystyrene (PS) dielectric surface in the presence of silicone oil. After the first direct current (DC) voltage cycle, the droplet failed to regain Young's angle, yielding contact angle hysteresis, which is close to a value found in ambient air. We conjecture that the hysteretic EW response appears from in situ surface modification using electric field induced water-ion contact with PS surface inducing nano-structuration by electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) instability. Atomic force microscopy confirms the formation of nano-structuration on the electrowetted surface. The effects of molecular weight, applied electric field, water conductivity and pH on nano-structuration are studied. Finally, the EW based nano-structuration on PS surface is used for the enhanced loading of aqueous dyes on hydrophobic surfaces. PMID:25690856

  15. Ground state search, hysteretic behaviour, and reversal mechanism of skyrmionic textures in confined helimagnetic nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Beg, Marijan; Carey, Rebecca; Wang, Weiwei; Cortés-Ortuño, David; Vousden, Mark; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Albert, Maximilian; Chernyshenko, Dmitri; Hovorka, Ondrej; Stamps, Robert L.; Fangohr, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions have the potential to provide solutions for low-power, high-density data storage and processing. One of the major challenges in developing skyrmion-based devices is the skyrmions’ magnetic stability in confined helimagnetic nanostructures. Through a systematic study of equilibrium states, using a full three-dimensional micromagnetic model including demagnetisation effects, we demonstrate that skyrmionic textures are the lowest energy states in helimagnetic thin film nanostructures at zero external magnetic field and in absence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy. We also report the regions of metastability for non-ground state equilibrium configurations. We show that bistable skyrmionic textures undergo hysteretic behaviour between two energetically equivalent skyrmionic states with different core orientation, even in absence of both magnetocrystalline and demagnetisation-based shape anisotropies, suggesting the existence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-based shape anisotropy. Finally, we show that the skyrmionic texture core reversal dynamics is facilitated by the Bloch point occurrence and propagation. PMID:26601904

  16. Hybrid models of hysteresis for mixed hysteretic loops in heterogeneous magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimian, M.; Andrei, P.; Grayson, M.

    2014-05-01

    The mixed hysteresis behavior of counter-clockwise and clockwise loops has recently attracted the attention of the magnetics community, due to several experimental findings in inhomogeneous and hetero-structure magnetic systems. Various hybrid models are proposed here to address this behavior based on the superposition of standard hysteresis models and their newly developed clockwise variants. A special attention is also devoted to Bouc-Wen model, a typical clockwise often used by applied mechanics community, and to its relevance for mixed hysteresis. These clockwise and hybrid models have been implemented in an open-access academic software and their performance is illustrated by examples of hysteretic loops, first order reversal curves and diagrams simulated in this framework.

  17. Hysteretic configurations in a rotating U-tube with capped ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidman, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of air trapped above the liquid columns in a U-tube rotating about an axis offset from the axis of symmetry is investigated. This extends the work of Denardo, Barber, Folley and Wright (Am. J. Phys., 57, 1989) who investigated the same problem for an open-ended U-tube for which no air is trapped. They found that, owing to a combination of gravitational, centrifugal and constraint forces on the liquid, the position of the liquid-air interfaces can be hysteretic as the angular velocity is varied. The existence and strength of the hysteresis loop depends on the dimensionless offset parameter δ and the dimensionless initial liquid height γ . Associated with the hysteresis is an instability in which the liquid jumps from one equilibrium state to another, herein defined as configuration I and configuration II. With the ends of the U-tube capped, the stable liquid configurations depend on two additional parameters defined for a stationary U-tube: α , the initial ratio of trapped air to liquid volume in each U-tube column and β , the normalized pressure of air trapped above the liquid in each column. In this study β is taken at the constant value corresponding to atmospheric pressure and, based on a previous study, we adopt Boyle’s law for determining the expansion/compression of air in a rotating U-tube. A parametric study varying α shows that a critical value occurs marking the threshold between hysteretic and nonhysteretic states. A parametric study of the effect of δ is also presented.

  18. Dynamics of hysteretic resistive-SQUIDs: Catastrophe and confusion in the quest for the Kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, Susanne Lyn

    We have designed and constructed a primary thermometry system which is capable of operating at milliKelvin temperatures. Our system is composed of thin-film Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs); the thermometer is a thin-film resistive-SQUID, whose signal is coupled to, and amplified by, a dc-SQUID on the same integrated circuit chip. The dc-SQUID is configured in a direct-readout flux-locked loop (FLL) which maintained a bandwidth in excess of 1 MHz with a white noise level less than 1.5 muphi√Hz over the temperature range of operation: from 4.2 K down to 1.4 K. The resistive-SQUID is composed of a Josephson junction shunted by a resistor and inductor in series, which when current-biased above the critical current is driven to oscillate at a frequency proportional to the voltage across the junction. Thermal voltage fluctuations in the junction shunt resistor, due to Johnson noise, give rise to a broadening of the central frequency peak. This device operates as a primary thermometer because all the parameters connecting the temperature with the frequency spectrum are derived from the frequency measurement itself. The resistive-SQUID was designed to operate in the hysteretic regime where the parameter betaL ≡ 2piLIc/phi 0 is greater than unity. We incorporated an integrated on-chip critical current (Ic) control line over the Josephson junction so that beta L could be changed in-situ. The central frequency and variance were measured over a range of temperatures. We observed that the central frequency as a function of bias current did not follow the simple resistively-shunted junction model. For a set frequency, we observed quasiperiodic noise peaks as a function of betaL, with a noise floor consistent with thermal noise. In addition, we measured an increase in noise with decreasing temperature. Numerical simulations of the hysteretic resistive-SQUID equation of motion enabled a more accurate understanding of the device behavior. These simulations

  19. Hysteretic magneto-transport of a High- Tc superconducting/ferromagnetic multilayer with tunable magnetic domain structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas, Javier E.; Visani, Cristina; Metaxas, Peter J.; Collaudin, Aurelie; Calvet, Baptiste; Bernard, Rozenn; Briatico, Javier; Deranlot, Cyrile; Bouzehouane, Karim

    2011-03-01

    The magneto-transport of a hybrid heterostructure combining a YBaCu O7 - δ thin film and a Co/Pt superlattice shows an unusual hysteretic behavior. Depending on the angle between the external applied field and the film plane, and on the magnetic history, either a increase or a decrease of the mixed-state resistance is observed. The combination of magneto-transport, magnetic force microscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements allows us to correlate these effects to the magnetic domain structures in the Co/Pt superlattice. We unequivocally prove that the hysteretic magneto-transport is induced by the stray magnetic fields from tunable magnetic domain structures, which may induce vortices or produce vortex pinning, leading to the increase/decrease of the mixed-state resistance. Work supported by French ANR ``Superhybrids-II'' and RTRA ``Supraspin'' grants.

  20. Synthesis of nanorod-FeP@C composites with hysteretic lithiation in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Chunde; Liang, Jianwen; Zuo, Jian; Yang, Qing

    2015-06-14

    Nanorod-FeP@C composites are synthesized via a one-pot solution reaction of ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2) with excess triphenylphosphine (PPh3) in sealed vacuum tubes at 390 °C, in which PPh3 is used as both the phosphorus source and solvent in the reaction. The structure and lithium storage performance of the as-prepared nanorod-FeP@C composites are intensively characterized, and it is interesting that the composites exhibit an increased capacity during cycling serving as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Meanwhile, mechanism investigations reveal that the capacity increase of the composites results from a hysteretic lithiation of the nanostructured FeP phase due to the coating of the carbon shell in the composites. Meanwhile, cyclic stability investigation shows that the composites have a very good cyclic stability that shows potential for the composites with a long lifespan as a promising kind of anode material. PMID:25966368

  1. Attenuation due to hysteretic damage in the free vibration of a beam

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, Daniel A.; Pecorari, Claudio

    2014-02-18

    We present an asymptotic analysis of nonlinear free vibration of a beam with a damage plane represented by nonlinear hysteretic bending and shear springs. The perturbation parameter is the product of the ratio of the nonlinear to linear parts of the stiffness times the amplitude of the free vibration. The loss of energy and ensuing attenuation due to hysteresis is accounted for by reducing the amplitude of vibration after each cycle by an amount such that the loss in total system energy equals the work done to traverse the hysteresis loop. A new Fourier representation for each cycle of the hysteresis and the deflection solution is used for this purpose and leads to higher harmonics, an evolving complex stiffness and corrected natural frequency that are linked to the attenuation. The frequency increases to its linear value from an initially reduced value. The damage parameter, frequency shift and fundamental amplitudes are presented as functions of the initial damage parameter and time (cycles of vibration). The amplitudes of several of the higher harmonics are also presented as functions of time. Many of the results exhibit sufficient sensitivity with respect to the damage parameter that they should be able to be used to characterize the damage.

  2. Impact of Capacitive Effect and Ion Migration on the Hysteretic Behavior of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Yang, Mengjin; Zheng, Xiaojia; Wu, Congcong; Li, Wenle; Yan, Yongke; Bisquert, Juan; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Zhu, Kai; Priya, Shashank

    2015-12-01

    In the past five years, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on organometal halide perovskite have exhibited extraordinary photovoltaic (PV) performance. However, the PV measurements of PSCs have been widely recognized to depend on voltage scanning condition (hysteretic current density-voltage [J-V] behavior), as well as on voltage treatment history. In this study, we find that varied PSC responses are attributable to two causes. First, capacitive effect associated with electrode polarization provides a slow transient non-steady-state photocurrent that modifies the J-V response. Second, modification of interfacial barriers induced by ion migration can modulate charge-collection efficiency so that it causes a pseudo-steady-state photocurrent, which changes according to previous voltage conditioning. Both phenomena are strongly influenced by ions accumulating at outer interfaces, but their electrical and PV effects are different. The time scale for decay of capacitive current is on the order of seconds, whereas the slow redistribution of mobile ions requires several minutes. PMID:26550850

  3. Scale-dependent coupling of hysteretic capillary pressure, trapping, and fluid mobilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doster, F.; Celia, M. A.; Nordbotten, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Many applications of multiphase flow in porous media, including CO2-storage and enhanced oil recovery, require mathematical models that span a large range of length scales. In the context of numerical simulations, practical grid sizes are often on the order of tens of meters, thereby de facto defining a coarse model scale. Under particular conditions, it is possible to approximate the sub-grid-scale distribution of the fluid saturation within a grid cell; that reconstructed saturation can then be used to compute effective properties at the coarse scale. If both the density difference between the fluids and the vertical extend of the grid cell are large, and buoyant segregation within the cell on a sufficiently shorte time scale, then the phase pressure distributions are essentially hydrostatic and the saturation profile can be reconstructed from the inferred capillary pressures. However, the saturation reconstruction may not be unique because the parameters and parameter functions of classical formulations of two-phase flow in porous media - the relative permeability functions, the capillary pressure -saturation relationship, and the residual saturations - show path dependence, i.e. their values depend not only on the state variables but also on their drainage and imbibition histories. In this study we focus on capillary pressure hysteresis and trapping and show that the contribution of hysteresis to effective quantities is dependent on the vertical length scale. By studying the transition from the two extreme cases - the homogeneous saturation distribution for small vertical extents and the completely segregated distribution for large extents - we identify how hysteretic capillary pressure at the local scale induces hysteresis in all coarse-scale quantities for medium vertical extents and finally vanishes for large vertical extents. Our results allow for more accurate vertically integrated modeling while improving our understanding of the coupling of capillary

  4. Fast product formation and slow product release are important features in a hysteretic reaction mechanism of glutathione transferase T2-2.

    PubMed

    Jemth, P; Mannervik, B

    1999-08-01

    The reaction mechanism of rat glutathione transferase T2-2 has been studied using pre-steady-state and steady-state kinetics. Several parts of the catalytic cycle including binding of substrates, product formation, and product release were investigated. Under saturating conditions, a two-step product release was found to be rate limiting in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions between the nucleophilic substrate glutathione and either of the two electrophilic substrates 1-menaphthyl sulfate and 4-nitrobenzyl chloride. The rate constant for pre-steady-state product formation on rat glutathione transferase T2-2 has an observed pK(a) value of 5.7 apparently due to ionization of the sulfhydryl group of glutathione. This rate constant is approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than k(cat) at pH values of >6. It can be predicted from the pH dependence that product formation would be the sole rate-limiting step at pH values of <3. A hysteretic mechanism of rGST T2-2 is proposed based on a slow conformational transition detected in pre-steady-state displacement experiments. PMID:10433705

  5. Interactions Between Mineral Surfaces, Substrates, Enzymes, and Microbes Result in Hysteretic Temperature Sensitivities and Microbial Carbon Use Efficiencies and Weaker Predicted Carbon-Climate Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.

    2014-12-01

    We hypothesize that the large observed variability in decomposition temperature sensitivity and carbon use efficiency arises from interactions between temperature, microbial biogeochemistry, and mineral surface sorptive reactions. To test this hypothesis, we developed a numerical model that integrates the Dynamic Energy Budget concept for microbial physiology, microbial trait-based community structure and competition, process-specific thermodynamically ­­based temperature sensitivity, a non-linear mineral sorption isotherm, and enzyme dynamics. We show, because mineral surfaces interact with substrates, enzymes, and microbes, both temperature sensitivity and microbial carbon use efficiency are hysteretic and highly variable. Further, by mimicking the traditional approach to interpreting soil incubation observations, we demonstrate that the conventional labile and recalcitrant substrate characterization for temperature sensitivity is flawed. In a 4 K temperature perturbation experiment, our fully dynamic model predicted more variable but weaker carbon-climate feedbacks than did the static temperature sensitivity and carbon use efficiency model when forced with yearly, daily, and hourly variable temperatures. These results imply that current earth system models likely over-estimate the response of soil carbon stocks to global warming.

  6. Hyperfine-induced hysteretic funnel structure in spin blockaded tunneling current of coupled vertical quantum dots at low magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, A.; Wicha, A.; Harack, B.; Coish, W. A.; Hilke, M.; Yu, G.; Payette, C.; Gupta, J. A.; Austing, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    We outline the properties of the hyperfine-induced funnel structure observed in the two-electron spin blockade region of a weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Hysteretic steps in the leakage current occur due to dynamic nuclear polarization when either the bias voltage or the magnetic field is swept up and down. When the bias voltage is swept, an intriguing ˜3 mT wide cusp near 0 T appears in the down-sweep position, and when the magnetic field is swept, the current at 0 T can be switched from "low" to "high" as the bias is increased.

  7. Hyperfine-induced hysteretic funnel structure in spin blockaded tunneling current of coupled vertical quantum dots at low magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, A.; Wicha, A.; Harack, B.; Coish, W. A.; Hilke, M.; Yu, G.; Gupta, J. A.; Payette, C.; Austing, D. G.

    2013-12-04

    We outline the properties of the hyperfine-induced funnel structure observed in the two-electron spin blockade region of a weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Hysteretic steps in the leakage current occur due to dynamic nuclear polarization when either the bias voltage or the magnetic field is swept up and down. When the bias voltage is swept, an intriguing ∼3 mT wide cusp near 0 T appears in the down-sweep position, and when the magnetic field is swept, the current at 0 T can be switched from 'low' to 'high' as the bias is increased.

  8. Ceramic problems/challenges in high temperature oxide superconductors - Hysteretic force measurements as a new analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P. E. D.; Ratto, J. J.; Housley, R. M.; Porter, J. R.; Marshall, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is presented for analyzing high-temperature oxide superconductors using hysteretic magnetic force/distance measurements. Emphasis is placed on developing low weight, highly robust superconducting materials for space applications. Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu superconductors are prepared and characterized by standard techniques. It is found that standard techniques such as XRD, SEM, and TEM are insufficient to completely characterize superconductors. The magnetic properties of the superconductors are studied with the new technique, based on measuring the force between a magnet and the superconductor as a function of their separation.

  9. Finite-element simulations of hysteretic alternating current losses in a magnetically coated superconducting tubular wire subject to an oscillating transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genenko, Y. A.; Rauh, H.; Kurdi, S.

    2015-06-01

    Numerical simulations of hysteretic ac losses in a tubular superconductor/paramagnet heterostructure subject to an oscillating transverse magnetic field are performed within the quasistatic approach, calling upon the COMSOL finite-element software package and exploiting magnetostatic-electrostatic analogues. It is shown that one-sided magnetic shielding of a thin, type-II superconducting tube by a coaxial paramagnetic support results in a slight increase of hysteretic ac losses as compared to those for a vacuum environment, when the support is placed inside; a spectacular shielding effect with a possible reduction of hysteretic ac losses by orders of magnitude, however, ensues, depending on the magnetic permeability and the amplitude of the applied magnetic field, when the support is placed outside.

  10. Numerical Calculation of Anelastic Seismic Pulse Propagation in a Hysteretic Elastic Material Along a Horizontal Surface Boundary of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosik, Dan

    2009-11-01

    The stress-strain relation for materials such as soil and sand exhibit hysteretic elastic behavior and are modeled using the Preisach-Mayergoyz method for a numerical calculation of a propagating seismic pulse. The source pulse is taken to be the result of pressure applied to the inner surface of a cylindrical cavity in order to simulate a two dimensional dynamite source. The anelastic differential equation of motion that is solved does not include traditional nonlinear elasticity terms appropriate to materials with atomic elasticity, but contains the dominant anelastic terms appropriate to consolidated materials that exhibit hysteretic elastic behavior. For parameters characteristic of sand at the Earth's surface, a comparison of anelastic to linear seismic pulse propagation gives an anelastic pulse with much slower propagation speed than a corresponding linear pulse with evidence of dispersion in the pulse. The simulated ground roll that results shows dramatic differences between the anelastic and linear cases. These results have important implications for the detailed behavior of strong seismic waves moving in soft sediments. Their dominant frequencies, amplitudes, and methods by which they may be attenuated will depend on getting the detailed pulse structure and its propagation correct.

  11. Hysteretic nonlinear elasticity of Berea sandstone at low-vibrational strain revealed by dynamic acousto-elastic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, G.; RivièRe, J.; Le Bas, P.-Y.; Johnson, P. A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Through changes in wave speed of ultrasonic pulses traversing the sample, we measure variations in the elasticity of dry Berea sandstone as a function of the applied low-frequency (LF) axial strain (varied from 10-7 to 10-5). The approach, termed dynamic acousto-elasticity, is the dynamic analog of static acousto-elasticity where the wave speed is measured as a function of the applied static load. Dynamic acousto-elasticity uses low-frequency vibrational loading of smaller strain amplitude, typically below 10-4, and it includes inertial effects. At strain amplitudes around 10-6, compression and tension produce a material softening of the material. In contrast, a quasi-static compression inducing a strain between 10-4 and 10-3 leads to a material stiffening. At 10-5 strain amplitude, elaborate <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> signatures of modulus strain are observed. The measurements provide the first direct experimental evidence of <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> nonlinear (wave amplitude dependent) elasticity in a sandstone at low dynamic strains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3916563','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3916563"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for <span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> Substrate Channeling in the Proline Dehydrogenase and Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate Dehydrogenase Coupled Reaction of Proline Utilization A (PutA)*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moxley, Michael A.; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Krishnan, Navasona; Tanner, John J.; Becker, Donald F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>PutA (proline utilization A) is a large bifunctional flavoenzyme with proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) domains that catalyze the oxidation of l-proline to l-glutamate in two successive reactions. In the PRODH active site, proline undergoes a two-electron oxidation to Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxlylate, and the FAD cofactor is reduced. In the P5CDH active site, l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde (the hydrolyzed form of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate) undergoes a two-electron oxidation in which a hydride is transferred to NAD+-producing NADH and glutamate. Here we report the first kinetic model for the overall PRODH-P5CDH reaction of a PutA enzyme. Global analysis of steady-state and transient kinetic data for the PRODH, P5CDH, and coupled PRODH-P5CDH reactions was used to test various models describing the conversion of proline to glutamate by Escherichia coli PutA. The coupled PRODH-P5CDH activity of PutA is best described by a mechanism in which the intermediate is not released into the bulk medium, i.e., substrate channeling. Unexpectedly, single-turnover kinetic <span class="hlt">experiments</span> of the coupled PRODH-P5CDH reaction revealed that the rate of NADH formation is 20-fold slower than the steady-state turnover number for the overall reaction, implying that catalytic cycling speeds up throughput. We show that the limiting rate constant observed for NADH formation in the first turnover increases by almost 40-fold after multiple turnovers, achieving half of the steady-state value after 15 turnovers. These results suggest that EcPutA achieves an activated channeling state during the approach to steady state and is thus a new example of a <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> enzyme. Potential underlying causes of activation of channeling are discussed. PMID:24352662</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/752074','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/752074"><span id="translatedtitle">On the continuum-scale simulation of gravity-driven fingers with <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> Richards equation: Trucation error induced numerical artifacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>ELIASSI,MEHDI; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.</p> <p>2000-03-08</p> <p>The authors consider the ability of the numerical solution of Richards equation to model gravity-driven fingers. Although gravity-driven fingers can be easily simulated using a partial downwind averaging method, they find the fingers are purely artificial, generated by the combined effects of truncation error induced oscillations and capillary hysteresis. Since Richards equation can only yield a monotonic solution for standard constitutive relations and constant flux boundary conditions, it is not the valid governing equation to model gravity-driven fingers, and therefore is also suspect for unsaturated flow in initially dry, highly nonlinear, and <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> media where these fingers occur. However, analysis of truncation error at the wetting front for the partial downwind method suggests the required mathematical behavior of a more comprehensive and physically based modeling approach for this region of parameter space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMag...92.3680D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMag...92.3680D"><span id="translatedtitle">Hygromorphic behaviour of cellular material: <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> swelling and shrinkage of wood probed by phase contrast X-ray tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Derome, Dominique; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Patera, Alessandra; Guyer, Robert; Carmeliet, Jan</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Wood is a hygromorphic material, meaning it responds to changes in environmental humidity by changing its geometry. Its cellular biological structure swells during wetting and shrinks during drying. The origin of the moisture-induced deformation lies at the sub-cellular scale. The cell wall can be considered a composite material with stiff cellulose fibrils acting as reinforcement embedded in a hemicellulose/lignin matrix. The bulk of the cellulose fibrils, forming 50% of the cell wall, are oriented longitudinally, forming long-pitched helices. Both components of cell wall matrix are displaying swelling. Moisture sorption and, to a lesser degree, swelling/shrinkage are known to be <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span>. We quantify the affine strains during the swelling and shrinkage using high resolution images obtained by phase contrast synchrotron X-ray tomography of wood samples of different porosities. The reversibility of the swelling/shrinkage is found for samples with controlled moisture sorption history. The deformation is more <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> for high than for low density samples. Swelling/shrinkage due to ad/desorption of water vapour displays also a non-affine component. The reversibility of the swelling/shrinkage indicates that the material has a structural capacity to show a persistent cellular geometry for a given moisture state and a structural composition that allows for moisture-induced transitional states. A collection of qualitative observations of small subsets of cells during swelling/shrinkage is further studied by simulating the observed behaviour. An anisotropic swelling coefficient of the cell wall is found to emerge and its origin is linked to the anisotropy of the cellulose fibrils arrangement in cell wall layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21246951','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21246951"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of the <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior of the magnetoresistance of granular HTSCs: The universal nature of the width of the magnetoresistance hysteresis loop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Balaev, D. A. Dubrovskii, A. A.; Shaikhutdinov, K. A.; Popkov, S. I.; Gokhfeld, D. M.; Gokhfeld, Yu. S.; Petrov, M. I.</p> <p>2009-02-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior of the magnetoresistance R(H) of granular high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) of the Y-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O, and La-Sr-Cu-O classical systems is investigated for transport current densities lower and higher than the critical density (at H = 0). All systems exhibit universal behavior of the width of the magnetoresistance hysteresis loop: independence of transport current under identical external conditions. This means that flux trapping in HTSC grains is the main mechanism controlling the <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior of the magnetoresistance of granular HTSCs, while pinning of Josephson vortices in the intragranular medium makes no appreciable contribution to the formation of magnetoresistance hysteresis (when transport current flows through the sample). Experimental data on relaxation of residual resistance after the action of a magnetic field also confirm this conclusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/328266','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/328266"><span id="translatedtitle">A micromechanical modelling of the <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior in thermally induced martensitic phase transitions: Application to Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Agouram, S.; Bensalah, M.O.; Ghazali, A.</p> <p>1998-12-11</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys (SMAs) in thermally induced martensitic phase transition is dealt with. The problem is studied by means of a kinematic analysis where the internal variables describing the material`s microstructure are regarded as implicit functions of the applied thermomechanical loading parameters ({Sigma}{sub ij}, {Tau}). On the other hand, a thermodynamic approach is used in which the local balance formalism is based on the thermoelastic equilibrium concept. Considering that thermoelastic equilibrium temperatures between phases, in the forward and reverse transformation, are dependent on the location in the transformation path enables the <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior to be determined. Hence, a set of non-linear equations is deduced simulating the complete and partial cycles. Results obtained in this way, in the thermally induced phase transition with no applied stress, are in good agreement with experimental observations performed on Cu-based SMAs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MSSP...60...90G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MSSP...60...90G"><span id="translatedtitle">Piezoelectric sensing and non-parametric statistical signal processing for health monitoring of <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> dampers used in seismic-resistant structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gallego, A.; Benavent-Climent, A.; Romo-Melo, L.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The paper proposes a new application of non-parametric statistical processing of signals recorded from vibration tests for damage detection and evaluation on I-section steel segments. The steel segments investigated constitute the energy dissipating part of a new type of <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> damper that is used for passive control of buildings and civil engineering structures subjected to earthquake-type dynamic loadings. Two I-section steel segments with different levels of damage were instrumented with piezoceramic sensors and subjected to controlled white noise random vibrations. The signals recorded during the tests were processed using two non-parametric methods (the power spectral density method and the frequency response function method) that had never previously been applied to <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> dampers. The appropriateness of these methods for quantifying the level of damage on the I-shape steel segments is validated experimentally. Based on the results of the random vibrations, the paper proposes a new index that predicts the level of damage and the proximity of failure of the <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> damper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25843420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25843420"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic and <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior of ATP hydrolysis of the highly stable dimeric ATP synthase of Polytomella sp.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villavicencio-Queijeiro, Alexa; Pardo, Juan Pablo; González-Halphen, Diego</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The F1FO-ATP synthase of the colorless alga Polytomella sp. exhibits a robust peripheral arm constituted by nine atypical subunits only present in chlorophycean algae. The isolated dimeric enzyme exhibits a latent ATP hydrolytic activity which can be activated by some detergents. To date, the kinetic behavior of the algal ATPase has not been studied. Here we show that while the soluble F1 sector exhibits Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the dimer exhibits a more complex behavior. The kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) were obtained for both the F1 sector and the dimeric enzyme as isolated or activated by detergent, and this activation was also seen on the enzyme reconstituted in liposomes. Unlike other ATP synthases, the algal dimer hydrolyzes ATP on a wide range of pH and temperature. The enzyme was inhibited by oligomycin, DCCD and Mg-ADP, although oligomycin induced a peculiar inhibition pattern that can be attributed to structural differences in the algal subunit-c. The hydrolytic activity was temperature-dependent and exhibited activation energy of 4 kcal/mol. The enzyme also exhibited a <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior with a lag phase strongly dependent on temperature but not on pH, that may be related to a possible regulatory role in vivo. PMID:25843420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26979270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26979270"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> memory in pH-response of water contact angle on poly(acrylic acid) brushes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yadav, Vivek; Harkin, Adrienne V; Robertson, Megan L; Conrad, Jacinta C</p> <p>2016-04-13</p> <p>We investigated the pH-dependent response of flat polyacid brushes of varying length and dispersity in the extended brush regime. Our model system consisted of poly(acrylic acid) brushes, which change from hydrophobic and neutral at low pH to hydrophilic and negatively charged at high pH, synthesized on silicon substrates using a grafting-from approach at constant grafting density. We observed three trends in the pH-response: first, the dry brush thickness increased as the pH was increased for brushes above a critical length, and this effect was magnified as the dispersity increased; second, the water contact angle measured at low pH was larger for brushes of greater dispersity; and third, brushes of sufficient dispersity exhibited <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> memory behavior in the pH-dependence of the contact angle, in which the contact angle upon increasing and decreasing pH differed. As a consequence, the pKa of the brushes measured upon increasing pH was consistently higher than that measured upon decreasing pH. The observed pH response is consistent with proposed changes in the conformation and charge distribution of the polyelectrolyte brushes that depend on the direction of pH change and the dispersity of the brushes. PMID:26979270</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1020.1195G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1020.1195G"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of Deterioration Behavior of <span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> Loops in Nonlinear Static Procedure Analysis of Concrete Structures with Shear Walls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghodrati Amiri, G.; Amidi, S.; Khorasani, M.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>In the recent years, scientists developed the seismic rehabilitation of structures and their view points were changed from sufficient strength to the performance of structures (Performance Base Design) to prepare a safe design. Nonlinear Static Procedure analysis (NSP) or pushover analysis is a new method that is chosen for its speed and simplicity in calculations. "Seismic Rehabilitation Code for Existing Buildings" and FEMA 356 considered this method. Result of this analysis is a target displacement that is the base of the performance and rehabilitation procedure of the structures. Exact recognition of that displacement could develop the workability of pushover analysis. In these days, Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis (NDP) is only method can exactly apply the seismic ground motions. In this case because it consumes time, costs very high and is more difficult than other methods, is not applicable as much as NSP. A coefficient used in NSP for determining the target displacement is C2 (Stiffness and Strength Degradations Coefficient) and is applicable for correcting the errors due to eliminating the stiffness and strength degradations in <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> loops. In this study it has been tried to analysis three concrete frames with shear walls by several accelerations that scaled according to FEMA 273 and FEMA 356. These structures were designed with Iranian 2800 standard (vers.3). Finally after the analyzing by pushover method and comparison results with dynamic analysis, calculated C2 was comprised with values in rehabilitation codes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21148888','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21148888"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of Deterioration Behavior of <span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> Loops in Nonlinear Static Procedure Analysis of Concrete Structures with Shear Walls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ghodrati Amiri, G.; Amidi, S.; Khorasani, M.</p> <p>2008-07-08</p> <p>In the recent years, scientists developed the seismic rehabilitation of structures and their view points were changed from sufficient strength to the performance of structures (Performance Base Design) to prepare a safe design. Nonlinear Static Procedure analysis (NSP) or pushover analysis is a new method that is chosen for its speed and simplicity in calculations. 'Seismic Rehabilitation Code for Existing Buildings' and FEMA 356 considered this method. Result of this analysis is a target displacement that is the base of the performance and rehabilitation procedure of the structures. Exact recognition of that displacement could develop the workability of pushover analysis. In these days, Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis (NDP) is only method can exactly apply the seismic ground motions. In this case because it consumes time, costs very high and is more difficult than other methods, is not applicable as much as NSP. A coefficient used in NSP for determining the target displacement is C2 (Stiffness and Strength Degradations Coefficient) and is applicable for correcting the errors due to eliminating the stiffness and strength degradations in <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> loops. In this study it has been tried to analysis three concrete frames with shear walls by several accelerations that scaled according to FEMA 273 and FEMA 356. These structures were designed with Iranian 2800 standard (vers.3). Finally after the analyzing by pushover method and comparison results with dynamic analysis, calculated C2 was comprised with values in rehabilitation codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007APS..MARB41012B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007APS..MARB41012B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> melting and freezing of nanoscale indium islands using local thermal cycling for phase-change memory nodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brintlinger, Todd; Hussain Baloch, Kamal; Qi, Yi; Cullen, William G.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Cumings, John</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) operating in dark-field mode, the melting and freezing transition in nanoscale (approximately 20-200nm diameter) metal islands can be imaged at video rates (33ms/frame). The metal, typically indium, islands are thermally evaporated on one side of a 100nm thick SiN membrane. Local thermal gradients produced by Joule heating of lithographically defined electrodes on the opposite side of the membrane show a <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> effect in the melting/freezing of the metal islands. Read and write cycles are accomplished with 5-10 microW power, while a quiescent power of 80-100 microW is required to keep an island near its melting point. The hysteresis indicates a finite nucleation energy during freezing of individual islands. While TEM is not a practical readout mechanism, the behavior suggests a type of phase-change memory node on an inherently nanometer scale. Results for all the aforementioned will be shown, including micrographs, video, and related discussion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JSV...127..331N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JSV...127..331N"><span id="translatedtitle">An Itô-based general approximation method for random vibration of <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> systems, part I: Gaussian analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noori, M.; Davoodi, H.; Saffar, A.</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>The cumulant-neglect closure scheme independently developed by Ibrahim and Lin is extended for determining the stationary and non-stationary response of non-linear systems with hysteric restoring force characteristics. The method is applied to the analysis of a hysteresis and model with strength and/or stiffness degradation capabilities. This model has been studied in the past by Baber and Wen for the analysis of hysterically degrading systems using equivalent linearization. The same model has also been used for stochastic seismic performance evaluation of reinforced concrete buildings. Response statistics obtained for the model by using this closure scheme are compared with results of equivalent linearization via Monte Carlo simulation. The study performed, for a wide range of degradation parameters and input power spectral density levels, shows that the Gaussian responses obtained by this approach are identical with the linearized results. This general approximation technique, however, can provide information on higher order statistics for <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> systems. These non-Gaussian statistics have not been made available so far by the existing approximation techniques. In this paper the Gaussian statistics are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMM...117..529K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMM...117..529K"><span id="translatedtitle">The formation of <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> magnetic properties in amorphous alloys of various classes upon thermomagmetic treatment in a transverse magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kekalo, I. B.; Mogil'nikov, P. S.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, we have studied the effects of the thermomagnetic treatment in a transverse magnetic field (TMaT⊥) on the permeability of the amorphous alloy Co69Fe3.7Cr3.8Si12.5B11 with such a low saturation magnetostriction ( λ s 10-7) that, in the ribbons of this alloy rolled into a toroid, a sharp longitudinal magnetic texture is observed ( K sq > 0.90). It has been revealed that the permeability μ4 ( H = 4 mOe, f = 1 kHz) as a function of the annealing temperature or time of holding at a temperature is described by a curve with a maximum. This maximum is observed at a coefficient of the squareness of the hysteresis loop K sq,m in the range of 0.2 ≤ K sq,m ≤ 0.4. The regimes of the TMaT have been determined that provide optimum values of the permeability μ4 (15000) without a loss of the ductile state of the ribbons of this alloy. Based on the example of an iron-based alloy of composition Fe57Co31Si2.9B9.1 with λs = 35 × 10-6, it has been shown that the formation of the <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> magnetic properties upon the TMaT⊥ depends substantially on the magnitude of the magnetostriction and the Curie temperature of the amorphous alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..12.3455M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..12.3455M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of water repellency of organic growing media used in Horticulture and consequences on <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behaviours of the water retention curve</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michel, Jean-Charles; Qi, Guifang; Charpentier, Sylvain; Boivin, Pascal</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Most of growing media used in horticulture (particularly peat substrates) shows hysteresis phenomena during desiccation and rehydration cycles, which greatly affects their hydraulic properties. The origins of these properties have often been related to one or several of the specific mechanisms such as the non-geometrical uniformity of the pores (also called ‘ink bottle' effect), presence of trapped air, shrinkage-swelling phenomena, and changes in water repellency. However, recent results showed that changes in wettability during desiccation and rehydration could be considered as one of the main factors leading to <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behaviour in these materials with high organic matter contents (Naasz et al., 2008). The general objective was to estimate the evolutions of changes in water repellency on the water retention properties and associated hysteresis phenomena in relation to the intensity and the number of drying/wetting cycles. For this, simultaneous shrinkage/swelling and water retention curves were obtained using method previously developed for soil shrinkage analysis by Boivin (2006) that we have adapted for growing media and to their physical behaviours during rewetting. The <span class="hlt">experiment</span> was performed in a climatic chamber at 20°C. A cylinder with the growing medium tested was placed on a porous ceramic disk which is used to control the pressure and to full/empty water of the sample. The whole of the device was then placed on a balance to record the water loss/storage with time; whereas linear displacement transducers were used to measure the changes in sample height and diameter upon drying and wetting in the axial and radial directions. Ceramic cups (2 cm long and 0.21 cm diameter) connected to pressure transducers were inserted in the middle of the samples to record the water pressure head. In parallell, contact angles were measured by direct droplet method at different steps during the drying/rewetting cycles. First results obtained on weakly decomposed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhRvB..66b4516Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhRvB..66b4516Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of the <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> force between a superconductor and a magnet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qin, M. J.; Li, G.; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.; Brandt, E. H.</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>The magnetic levitation forces exerted on a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) disk by a cylindrical permanent magnet (PM) are calculated from first principles for superconductors with finite thickness. The current j(ρ,z) and field B(ρ,z) profiles in the HTS in the nonuniform magnetic field generated by the PM are derived. The levitation force depends nonlinearly on the critical current density jc and on the thickness of the HTS. The flux creep is described by a current-voltage law E(j)=Ec(j/jc)n, from which we show that the levitation force depends on the speed at which the PM approaches or recedes from the HTS, which accounts for the experimentally observed force creep phenomenon. The stiffness of the system is derived by calculating minor force loops. The numerical results reproduce many of the features observed in <span class="hlt">experiments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871022"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> and intermittent regimes in the subcritical bifurcation of a quasi-one-dimensional system of interacting particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dessup, Tommy; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we study the effects of white Gaussian additive thermal noise on a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. We consider a quasi-one-dimensional system of particles that are transversally confined, with short-range (non-Coulombic) interactions and periodic boundary conditions in the longitudinal direction. In such systems, there is a structural transition from a linear order to a staggered row, called the zigzag transition. There is a finite range of transverse confinement stiffnesses for which the stable configuration at zero temperature is a localized zigzag pattern surrounded by aligned particles, which evidences the subcriticality of the bifurcation. We show that these configurations remain stable for a wide temperature range. At zero temperature, the transition between a straight line and such localized zigzag patterns is <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span>. We have studied the influence of thermal noise on the hysteresis loop. Its description is more difficult than at T=0 K since thermally activated jumps between the two configurations always occur and the system cannot stay forever in a unique metastable state. Two different regimes have to be considered according to the temperature value with respect to a critical temperature T_{c}(τ_{obs}) that depends on the observation time τ_{obs}. An hysteresis loop is still observed at low temperature, with a width that decreases as the temperature increases toward T_{c}(τ_{obs}). In contrast, for T>T_{c}(τ_{obs}) the memory of the initial condition is lost by stochastic jumps between the configurations. The study of the mean residence times in each configuration gives a unique opportunity to precisely determine the barrier height that separates the two configurations, without knowing the complete energy landscape of this many-body system. We also show how to reconstruct the hysteresis loop that would exist at T=0 K from high-temperature simulations. PMID:26871022</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SuScT..29c4008V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SuScT..29c4008V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> losses for MgB2 tapes under the operating conditions of a generator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vargas-Llanos, Carlos Roberto; Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Sanz, Santiago; Trillaud, Frederic; Grilli, Francesco</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> losses in the MgB2 wound superconducting coils of a 550 kW synchronous hybrid scaled generator were estimated as part of the European project SUPRAPOWER led by the Spanish Fundación Tecnalia Research & Innovation. Particular interest was given to the losses caused by the magnetic flux ripples in the rotor coils originating from the conventional stator during nominal operation. To compute these losses, a 2D finite element analysis was conducted and Maxwell’s equations written in the H-formulation were solved considering the nonlinear material properties of the conductor materials. The modeled tapes are made of multiple MgB2 filaments embedded in a Ni matrix and soldered to a high purity copper strip and insulated with Dacron braid. Three geometrical models of single tape cross sections of decreasing complexity were studied: (1) the first model reproduced closely the actual cross section obtained from tape micrographs. (2) The second model was obtained from the computed elasto-plastic deformation of a round Ni wire. (3) The third model was based on a simplified cross section with the superconducting filaments bundled in a single elliptical bulky structure. The last geometry allowed the validation of the modeling technique by comparing numerical losses with results from well-established analytical expressions. Additionally, the following cases of filament transpositions of the multi-filamentary tape were studied: no transposition, partial and full transposition; thereby improving understanding of the relevance of the tape fabrication process on the magnitude of the determination of ac losses. Finally, choosing the right level of geometrical detail, the following operational regimes of the machine and its impact on individual superconducting tape losses in the rotor were studied: bias-dc current, ramping current under ramping background field and magnetic flux ripples under dc background current and field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..93a2105D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..93a2105D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> and intermittent regimes in the subcritical bifurcation of a quasi-one-dimensional system of interacting particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dessup, Tommy; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we study the effects of white Gaussian additive thermal noise on a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. We consider a quasi-one-dimensional system of particles that are transversally confined, with short-range (non-Coulombic) interactions and periodic boundary conditions in the longitudinal direction. In such systems, there is a structural transition from a linear order to a staggered row, called the zigzag transition. There is a finite range of transverse confinement stiffnesses for which the stable configuration at zero temperature is a localized zigzag pattern surrounded by aligned particles, which evidences the subcriticality of the bifurcation. We show that these configurations remain stable for a wide temperature range. At zero temperature, the transition between a straight line and such localized zigzag patterns is <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span>. We have studied the influence of thermal noise on the hysteresis loop. Its description is more difficult than at T =0 K since thermally activated jumps between the two configurations always occur and the system cannot stay forever in a unique metastable state. Two different regimes have to be considered according to the temperature value with respect to a critical temperature Tc(τobs) that depends on the observation time τobs. An hysteresis loop is still observed at low temperature, with a width that decreases as the temperature increases toward Tc(τobs) . In contrast, for T >Tc(τobs) the memory of the initial condition is lost by stochastic jumps between the configurations. The study of the mean residence times in each configuration gives a unique opportunity to precisely determine the barrier height that separates the two configurations, without knowing the complete energy landscape of this many-body system. We also show how to reconstruct the hysteresis loop that would exist at T =0 K from high-temperature simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012PhDT........14U&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012PhDT........14U&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Selective All-Wet Metallization of Silicon for <span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> Power Microswitches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uncuer, Muhammet</p> <p></p> <p> electroless Au-to-Au contact from the source to the drain has been characterized. It has been found that the current-voltage (Ids-Vds) curves show ohmic characteristics with modest contact resistance of 5 kΩ. Moreover, the fabricated devices display over-damped behavior with a switching time of around 80 µs and squeeze-film damping of 0.0023 N-s/m². Lifetime/reliability <span class="hlt">experiments</span> have shown promising results (exceeding 2000 stable hot cycling with a current load of 1 mA); however more improvement is necessary for an eventual marketable product. What is more, intentional stress-imbalance is induced on the fabricated micro-structures to determine thin-film stresses for the electroless Cu (tensile stress of 45 MPa for 100 nm thick film) and Au/Cu (tensile stress of 56 MPa for 100 nm thick film) for the material characterization purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyB..486..101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyB..486..101B"><span id="translatedtitle">On the identification of Hammerstein systems in the presence of an input <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> nonlinearity with nonlocal memory: Piezoelectric actuators - an experimental case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butcher, Mark; Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The identification problem of the linear dynamic part of piezo based actuators is addressed in this paper, exploiting the use of binary signals, specifically the pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS). Due to the presence of nonlocal memory <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior in piezoelectric active materials, the dependence of the identification results on this strongly nonlinear effect is analyzed and useful guidelines for the design of the PRBS stimulating signal are derived. Moreover, some properties of hysteresis like cancellation and congruency are experimentally analyzed and their effects on the identification process are discussed. Finally, the use of a hysteresis compensation strategy in the identification process is evaluated and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMEP54A..03J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMEP54A..03J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Collisions, Cannibals, and the Memory of Long-lost Bed Forms: The <span class="hlt">Hyster(et)ical</span> Story Revealed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Sandy river-bed morphology often lags changes in water discharge, producing hysteresis in the relation between discharge and bed-form geometry. While this effect is well known, its origins are not. In this talk we present experimental and field results that reveal these origins. We show that the primary mechanism of bed form growth in a rising flood is merger induced by collisions, which occur due to a dispersion in migration rates. At the start of a flood the bed forms are small and transport rate is high, so growth is rapid. Conversely, on the falling limb of a flood the bed forms are large while the transport rate is small. If the flood recedes rapidly enough, the large bed forms cease migrating and small, secondary bed forms emerge on their backs. These smaller features cannibalize the original, relict structures which slowly diffuse away. (We do not distinguish between ripples and dunes, the data do not indicate any reason to do so, and we therefore recuse ourselves from discussing that tiring topic.). The timescale of decay is much larger than growth, leaving a memory of peak-flood conditions that may persist until the next flood. Thus, the timescales of both growth (Tg) and decay (Td) are related to a simple bed form turnover time - the time to displace a bed form's volume by transport - however, the turnover time is different for growth vs. decay. This reveals three different regimes for the response of bed forms to a flood: (1) a slow flood with a timescale Tf > Td > Tg is quasi-steady, i.e., bed forms grow and shrink with no lag between morphology and flow; (2) an intermediate flood with Td > Tf > Tg exhibits quasi-steady growth, but decay lags the flow; and (3) a fast flood with Td > Tg > Tf produces a lag between morphology and flow over the entire hydrograph. Regimes 2 and 3 produce <span class="hlt">hysteretical</span> behavior, with 3 being the most extreme. We discuss the implications of these results for: predicting stage-discharge relations, anticipating and understanding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27415365','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27415365"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> Faraday waves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Périnet, Nicolas; Falcón, Claudio; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We report on the numerical and theoretical study of the subcritical bifurcation of parametrically amplified waves appearing at the interface between two immiscible incompressible fluids when the layer of the lower fluid is very shallow. As a critical control parameter is surpassed, small amplitude surface waves bifurcate subcritically toward highly nonlinear ones with twice their amplitude. We relate this hysteresis with the change of shear stress using a simple stress balance, in agreement with numerical results. PMID:27415365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1093723','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1093723"><span id="translatedtitle">Low Temperature <span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> Behavior of the Interpenetrating 3-D Network Structured [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Fe(CN)6] Magnet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haque, F.; Del barco, Enrique; Fishman, Randy Scott; Miller, Joel S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The low temperature <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior between 40 mK and 4.8 K was obtained for [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Fe(CN)6]. The unusual constricted <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior reported for isomorphous [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] was not observed. Instead, the [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3-[Fe(CN)6] exhibits a single hysteresis loop and a temperature dependence of the coercivity atypical for a ferrimagnetic ordering transition. The coercive field, constant below ~0.3 K (1.06 kOe), shows a rapid initial decrease below 1 K, to continue decreasing at a slower rate up to at least 4.8 K. In contrast to [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] which has antiferromagnetic coupling of the ferrimagnetic lattices, due to the reduced spin on the [FeIII(CN)6]3-, [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Fe(CN)6] ferromagnetic coupling of the ferrimagnetic lattices dominates for [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Fe(CN)6].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9404035M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9404035M"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiaxial behavior of foams - <span class="hlt">Experiments</span> and modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maheo, Laurent; Guérard, Sandra; Rio, Gérard; Donnard, Adrien; Viot, Philippe</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Cellular materials are strongly related to pressure level inside the material. It is therefore important to use <span class="hlt">experiments</span> which can highlight (i) the pressure-volume behavior, (ii) the shear-shape behavior for different pressure level. Authors propose to use hydrostatic compressive, shear and combined pressure-shear tests to determine cellular materials behavior. Finite Element Modeling must take into account these behavior specificities. Authors chose to use a behavior law with a Hyperelastic, a Viscous and a <span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> contributions. Specific developments has been performed on the Hyperelastic one by separating the spherical and the deviatoric part to take into account volume change and shape change characteristics of cellular materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26573215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26573215"><span id="translatedtitle">A polymorphism-dependent T(1/2) shift of 100 K in a <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> spin-crossover complex related to differences in intermolecular weak CH···X hydrogen bonds (X = S vs. S and N).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hagiwara, Hiroaki; Okada, Shohei</p> <p>2016-01-14</p> <p>A neutral mononuclear iron(II) complex with a 1,2,3-triazole-containing tetradentate ligand has been obtained as two solvent-free polymorphs. Both polymorphs show <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> spin crossover with a polymorphism-dependent T(1/2) shift of 100 K that spans room temperature due to differences in intermolecular weak CH···X hydrogen-bonding interactions (X = S vs. S and N). PMID:26573215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Cryo...37...49C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Cryo...37...49C"><span id="translatedtitle">Second VAMAS a.c. loss measurement intercomparison: magnetization measurement of low-frequency (<span class="hlt">hysteretic</span>) a.c. loss in NbTi multifilamentary strands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collings, E. W.; Sumption, M. D.; Itoh, K.; Wada, H.; Tachikawa, K.</p> <p></p> <p>The results of the 2 nd VAMAS measurement intercomparison program on low-frequency (<span class="hlt">hysteretic</span>) a.c. loss are presented and discussed. Two sets of multifilamentary NbTi strands (Set No. 1: copper matrix, fil. diams 0.5, 1, 3, and 12 μm; Set No. 2: cupronickel matrix, fil. diams 0.4, 0.5, and 1 μm) were subjected to interlaboratory testing. In an initial series of tests, samples in various forms (e.g. wire bundles, coils) were measured mostly by vibrating-sample- and SQUID magnetometry. Considerable scatter was noted especially in the small-filament-diameter a.c.-loss data. In a study of measurement accuracy, a supplementary series of tests compared the results of VSM measurement of a given pair of copper-matrix samples. In the light of all the results, factors contributing to a.c. loss error are discussed and recommendations are made concerning the specification of future a.c.-loss measurement intercomparisons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...112j4103P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...112j4103P"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-ZnO interface quality on the <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> properties of a metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pintilie, I.; Pasuk, I.; Ibanescu, G. A.; Negrea, R.; Chirila, C.; Vasile, E.; Pintilie, L.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> properties of metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structures based on Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PZT) and ZnO films were studied with respect of the quality of the PZT-ZnO interface. The films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on platinized silicon (Pt/Si) substrate and on single crystal, (001) oriented SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The structural analysis has revealed that the PZT-ZnO stack grown on single crystal STO is epitaxial, while the structure grown on Pt/Si has columnar texture. The temperature change of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis direction, from clockwise at low temperatures to counter clockwise at high temperatures, was observed at around 300 K in the case of the MFS structure grown by PLD on Pt/Si substrate. This temperature is lower than the one reported for the case of the PZT-ZnO structure grown by sol-gel on Pt/Si substrate (Pintilie et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 012903 (2010)). In the fully epitaxial structures the C-V hysteresis is counter clockwise even at 100 K. These findings strongly points out that the quality of the PZT-ZnO interface is essential for having a C-V hysteresis of ferroelectric nature, with negligible influence from the part of the interface states and with a memory window of about 5 V at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SeScT..30d5011L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SeScT..30d5011L"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative analysis and prediction of experimental observations on quasi-static <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> metal-ferroelectric-metal-insulator-semiconductor FET and its dynamic behaviour based on Landau theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yang; Lian, Yong; Samudra, Ganesh S.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Due to internal voltage amplification induced by the negative capacitance of ferroelectrics, the metal-ferroelectric-metal-insulator-semiconductor (MFMIS) FET has been widely investigated to explore its potential application in low power devices. Based on Landau theory and stability criterion, a simulation program is implemented and MFMIS structure is quantitatively analyzed. The results show that it can be appropriately designed for both integrated circuits and memory devices by tuning capacitances contributed by MOSFET dielectric stack and ferroelectrics. Our simulation results on electrical characteristics of ferroelectric devices agree well with both quasi-static and dynamic experimental observations. The influence of the ferroelectric/dielectric layer thickness and area as well as temperature on <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> polarization-electric field characteristic of a ferroelectric are successfully explained. For a C-V loop sweeping over the gate voltage in MFMIS, possible asymmetry in the accessible negative capacitance region is also interpreted. Moreover, experimentally observed reduction in the equivalent capacitance of the ferroelectric-dielectric bilayer at high frequency is confirmed by Landau-Khalatnikov theory based simulation. Our work provides a more complete and explicit analytical treatment to understand the effect of negative capacitance of a ferroelectric on device performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3935188','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3935188"><span id="translatedtitle">Positive exchange-bias and giant vertical <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> shift in La0.3Sr0.7FeO3/SrRuO3 bilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rana, Rakesh; Pandey, Parul; Singh, R. P.; Rana, D. S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The exchange-bias effects in the mosaic epitaxial bilayers of the itinerant ferromagnet (FM) SrRuO3 and the antiferromagnetic (AFM) charge-ordered La0.3Sr0.7FeO3 were investigated. An uncharacteristic low-field positive exchange bias, a cooling-field driven reversal of positive to negative exchange-bias and a layer thickness optimised unusual vertical magnetization shift were all novel facets of exchange bias realized for the first time in magnetic oxides. The successive magnetic training induces a transition from positive to negative exchange bias regime with changes in domain configurations. These observations are well corroborated by the <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> loop asymmetries which display the modifications in the AFM spin correlations. These exotic features emphasize the key role of i) mosaic disorder induced subtle interplay of competing AFM-superexchange and FM double exchange at the exchange biased interface and, ii) training induced irrecoverable alterations in the AFM spin structure. PMID:24569516</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/542922','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/542922"><span id="translatedtitle">An experimental investigation of the role of pore fluids on the nonlinear <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior of Berea sandstone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tutuncu, A.N.; Sharma, M.M.; Podio, A.L.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Uniaxial stress cycling <span class="hlt">experiments</span> were conducted on dry, brine saturated and hexadecane saturated Berea sandstone samples to observe the hysteresis in stress-strain diagrams and to understand the influence of different fluids on the strain amplitude dependence of elastic moduli and attenuation. Cycling <span class="hlt">experiments</span> were also conducted with sandstone samples saturated with CTAB, a cationic surfactant that renders the mineral surfaces hydrophobic. Hexadecane and CTAB was selected to investigate the relative contributions of adhesion hysteresis and stick-slip sliding on attenuation in sedimentary granular rocks. Young`s moduli and Poisson`s ratios obtained from the cycling tests show a significant dependence on strain amplitude on dry as well as water and hexadecane saturated samples. Bow-tie shaped diagrams are obtained when loading and unloading tangent moduli are plotted against strain. The type of fluid in the pore space and at the grain contacts has a large influence on the rock stiffness and hysteresis observed in the stress-strain diagrams but very little effect on the magnitude of attenuation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280603','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280603"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> behavior of Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} spin-transition microparticles vs. the environment: A huge reversible component resolved by first order reversal curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian; Laisney, Jérôme; Boillot, Marie-Laure</p> <p>2014-01-20</p> <p>We discuss the influence of the embedding matrix on the thermal <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior of spin transition microparticles of Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} by using a series of experimental first order reversal curves (FORCs). The shape of FORCs supports the hypothesis considering additional interactions between the spin-transition microparticles and the embedding matrix, which compares to a negative pressure on the particles. A mean-field approach based on negative variable external pressures, together with a cut off/switch on of particles-matrix interactions accounts for the experimental features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1090229','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1090229"><span id="translatedtitle">2169 steel waveform <span class="hlt">experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact <span class="hlt">experiments</span> on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These <span class="hlt">experiments</span> provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this <span class="hlt">experiment</span> set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe <U+F061> - <U+F065> phase transition. Releases were non-<span class="hlt">hysteretic</span>, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.507b2008H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.507b2008H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> Dependence of Magnetic Flux Density on Primary AC Current in Flat-Type Inductive Fault Current Limiter with YBCO Thin Film Discs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harada, Masayuki; Yokomizu, Yasunobu; Matsumura, Toshiro</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on a flat-type inductive superconducting FCL (FIS-FCL) consisting of a pancake coil and a YBCO thin layer disc. AC current injection <span class="hlt">experiments</span> and magnetic field analysis were carried out for two kinds of FIS-FCL, single-disc model and double-discs model. In the former, the pancake coil was putted on the YBCO disc. In the latter, the pancake coil was sandwiched with two YBCO discs. The double-discs model cancels out the magnetic flux density more effectively than the single-disc model. In the double-discs model, the superconducting state period is longer than in the single-disc model. Thus, it may be concluded that the double-discs model is considered to be suitable for FIS-FCL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91r4105Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91r4105Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> phase transition sequence in 0.67 Pb (M g1 /3N b2 /3)O3-0.33 PbTi O3 single crystal driven by electric field and temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Limei; Lu, Xiaoyan; Shang, Hengshan; Xi, Zengzhe; Wang, Ruixue; Wang, Junjun; Zheng, Peng; Cao, Wenwu</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Domain pattern variations with temperature were studied by polarizing light microscopy for the morphotropic phase boundary composition 0.67 Pb (M g1 /3N b2 /3)O3-0.33 PbTi O3 (PMN-0.33PT) single crystal. At room temperature, the monoclinic MA phase is the dominant phase in the unpoled crystal, which coexists with a small fraction of the tetragonal (T) phase. The orientation of spontaneous polarization was calculated to be ˜4 .8° away from the pseudocubic <111> C in the {001} C plane family. Under an electric field of 6 kV/cm along [011] C, a single domain orthorhombic (O) phase was induced but partially switched back to MA a few hours after the removal of the E field. It was found that the temperature induced phase transition sequence of the [011] C poled PMN-0.33PT single crystal is strongly <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span>. On heating, the phase transition sequence is as follows: coexistence of O phase and MA→rhombohedral →monoclinic MC→cubic (C ) . On cooling, the phase transition sequence is given by C →T →MA . The complete set of dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants for the [011] C poled PMN-0.33PT single crystal was measured, which showed the strong feature of the single domain O phase with high shear (d15=2321 pC /N ,d24=1941 pC /N ) and low longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients (d33=165 pC /N ) .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26905293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26905293"><span id="translatedtitle">The uncoupled ATPase activity of the ABC transporter BtuC2D2 leads to a <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> conformational change, conformational memory, and improved activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Livnat-Levanon, Nurit; I Gilson, Amy; Ben-Tal, Nir; Lewinson, Oded</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABC transporters comprise a large and ubiquitous family of proteins. From bacteria to man they translocate solutes at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Unlike other enzymes that use ATP as an energy source, ABC transporters are notorious for having high levels of basal ATPase activity: they hydrolyze ATP also in the absence of their substrate. It is unknown what are the effects of such prolonged and constant activity on the stability and function of ABC transporters or any other enzyme. Here we report that prolonged ATP hydrolysis is beneficial to the ABC transporter BtuC2D2. Using ATPase assays, surface plasmon resonance interaction <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, and transport assays we observe that the constantly active transporter remains stable and functional for much longer than the idle one. Remarkably, during extended activity the transporter undergoes a slow conformational change (hysteresis) and gradually attains a hyperactive state in which it is more active than it was to begin with. This phenomenon is different from stabilization of enzymes by ligand binding: the hyperactive state is only reached through ATP hydrolysis, and not ATP binding. BtuC2D2 displays a strong conformational memory for this excited state, and takes hours to return to its basal state after catalysis terminates. PMID:26905293</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4765350','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4765350"><span id="translatedtitle">The uncoupled ATPase activity of the ABC transporter BtuC2D2 leads to a <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> conformational change, conformational memory, and improved activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Livnat-Levanon, Nurit; I. Gilson, Amy; Ben-Tal, Nir; Lewinson, Oded</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABC transporters comprise a large and ubiquitous family of proteins. From bacteria to man they translocate solutes at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Unlike other enzymes that use ATP as an energy source, ABC transporters are notorious for having high levels of basal ATPase activity: they hydrolyze ATP also in the absence of their substrate. It is unknown what are the effects of such prolonged and constant activity on the stability and function of ABC transporters or any other enzyme. Here we report that prolonged ATP hydrolysis is beneficial to the ABC transporter BtuC2D2. Using ATPase assays, surface plasmon resonance interaction <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, and transport assays we observe that the constantly active transporter remains stable and functional for much longer than the idle one. Remarkably, during extended activity the transporter undergoes a slow conformational change (hysteresis) and gradually attains a hyperactive state in which it is more active than it was to begin with. This phenomenon is different from stabilization of enzymes by ligand binding: the hyperactive state is only reached through ATP hydrolysis, and not ATP binding. BtuC2D2 displays a strong conformational memory for this excited state, and takes hours to return to its basal state after catalysis terminates. PMID:26905293</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NJPh...16h3001F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NJPh...16h3001F"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust estimate of dynamo thresholds in the von Kármán sodium <span class="hlt">experiment</span> using the extreme value theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faranda, Davide; Bourgoin, Mickaël; Miralles, Sophie; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Bérengère</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We apply a new threshold detection method based on the extreme value theory (EVT) to the von Kármán sodium (VKS) <span class="hlt">experiment</span> data. The VKS <span class="hlt">experiment</span> is a successful attempt to get a dynamo magnetic field in a laboratory liquid-metal <span class="hlt">experiment</span>. We first show that the dynamo threshold is associated with a change of the probability density function of the extreme values of the magnetic field. This method does not require the measurement of response functions from applied external perturbations and thus provides a simple threshold estimate. We apply our method to different configurations in the VKS <span class="hlt">experiment</span>, showing that it yields a robust indication of the dynamo threshold as well as evidence of <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behaviors. Moreover, for the experimental configurations in which a dynamo transition is not observed, the method provides a way to extrapolate an interval of possible threshold values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22403204','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22403204"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing quantum and classical turbulence analogy in von Kármán liquid helium, nitrogen, and water <span class="hlt">experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saint-Michel, B.; Herbert, E.; Salort, J.; Castaing, B.; Chevillard, L.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Lehner, Th.</p> <p>2014-12-15</p> <p>We report measurements of the dissipation in the Superfluid helium high REynold number von Kármán flow <span class="hlt">experiment</span> for different forcing conditions. Statistically steady flows are reached; they display a <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> behavior similar to what has been observed in a 1:4 scale water <span class="hlt">experiment</span>. Our macroscopical measurements indicate no noticeable difference between classical and superfluid flows, thereby providing evidence of the same dissipation scaling laws in the two phases. A detailed study of the evolution of the hysteresis cycle with the Reynolds number supports the idea that the stability of the steady states of classical turbulence in this closed flow is partly governed by the dissipative scales. It also supports the idea that the normal and the superfluid components at these temperatures (1.6 K) are locked down to the dissipative length scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP51D..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP51D..02P"><span id="translatedtitle">Submarine sand volcanos: <span class="hlt">experiments</span> and numerical modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Philippe, P.; Ngoma, J.; Delenne, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Fluid overpressure at the bottom of a soil layer may generate fracturation in preferential paths for a cohesive material. But the case of sandy soils is rather different: a significant internal flow is allowed within the material and can potentially induce hydro-mechanical instabilities whose most common example is fluidization. Many works have been devoted to fluidization but very few have the issue of initiation and development of a fluidized zone inside a granular bed, prior entire fluidization of the medium. In this contribution, we report experimental results and numerical simulations on a model system of immersed sand volcanos generated by a localized upward spring of liquid, injected at constant flow-rate at the bottom of a granular layer. Such a localized state of fluidization is relevant for some industrial processes (spouted bed, maintenance of navigable waterways,…) and for several geological issues (kimberlite volcano conduits, fluid venting, oil recovery in sandy soil, More precisely, what is presented here is a comparison between <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, carried out by direct visualization throughout the medium, and numerical simulations, based on DEM modelling of the grains coupled to resolution of NS equations in the liquid phase (LBM). There is a very good agreement between the experimental phenomenology and the simulation results. When the flow-rate is increased, three regimes are successively observed: static bed, fluidized cavity that does not extend to the top of the layer, and finally fluidization over the entire height of layer that creates a fluidized chimney. A very strong <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> effect is present here with an extended range of stability for fluidized cavities when flow-rate is decreased back. This can be interpreted in terms force chains and arches. The influences of grain diameter, layer height and injection width are studied and interpreted using a model previously developed by Zoueshtiagh [1]. Finally, growing rate of the fluidized zone and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..955.1181H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..955.1181H"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing Ramp Compression Wave <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayes, D. B.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Isentropic compression of a solid to 100's of GPa by a ramped, planar compression wave allows measurement of material properties at high strain and at modest temperature. Introduction of a measurement plane disturbs the flow, requiring special analysis techniques. If the measurement interface is windowed, the unsteady nature of the wave in the window requires special treatment. When the flow is hyperbolic the equations of motion can be integrated backward in space in the sample to a region undisturbed by the interface interactions, fully accounting for the untoward interactions. For more complex materials like <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> elastic/plastic solids or phase changing material, hybrid analysis techniques are required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychology+AND+experiment&pg=2&id=EJ621864','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychology+AND+experiment&pg=2&id=EJ621864"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychology <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A goal of the Psych<span class="hlt">Experiments</span> project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the Psych<span class="hlt">Experiments</span> site now hosts 39 <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=programmable+AND+calculator&pg=4&id=EJ121592','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=programmable+AND+calculator&pg=4&id=EJ121592"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulated <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Snadden, R. B.; Runquist, O.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Presents an <span class="hlt">experiment</span> in which a programmable calculator is employed as a data generating system for simulated laboratory <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. The example used as an illustration is a simulated conductimetric titration of an aqueous solution of HC1 with an aqueous solution of NaOH. (Author/EB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ashton&pg=3&id=EJ186312','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ashton&pg=3&id=EJ186312"><span id="translatedtitle">Language <span class="hlt">Experience</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bugh, Marylou</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language <span class="hlt">experience</span> developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language <span class="hlt">experience</span>-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6126934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6126934"><span id="translatedtitle">TRIO <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>The TRIO <span class="hlt">experiment</span> is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> was successfully recovered. The results of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=proton&pg=7&id=EJ157437','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=proton&pg=7&id=EJ157437"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpretive <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>DeHaan, Frank, Ed.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Describes an interpretative <span class="hlt">experiment</span> involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gas+AND+exchange&pg=2&id=EJ185734','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gas+AND+exchange&pg=2&id=EJ185734"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Experience</span> Industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Laslett, R. L.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The author, a tertiary chemistry teacher, spent a period of six weeks in a research project with an industrial firm. Describes his <span class="hlt">experience</span>, the benefits and insight he gained from such an exchange. (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010idac.book..335V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010idac.book..335V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Experiment</span> Databases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik</p> <p></p> <p>Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning <span class="hlt">experiments</span> are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these <span class="hlt">experiments</span> might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of <span class="hlt">experiment</span> databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which <span class="hlt">experiments</span> can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing <span class="hlt">experiment</span> database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.5048M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.5048M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mariana Nicoara, Floare</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. The <span class="hlt">experiment</span> stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such <span class="hlt">experiments</span>: The life cycle of the plants (long-term <span class="hlt">experiment</span>, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our <span class="hlt">experiment</span> was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration <span class="hlt">experiment</span> with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The <span class="hlt">experiment</span> is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244355','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244355"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Experiment</span> 2042</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dash, Zora V.; Dennis, Bert R.; Dreesen, Donald S.; Fehler, Michael C.; House, Leigh S.; Walter, Fritz; Zyvoloski, George A.</p> <p>1984-09-10</p> <p><span class="hlt">Experiment</span> 2042, an injection test in EE-3, was conducted from May 15, 1984 through May 19, 1984. During this four day test ~2 million gallons of water were injected with a maximum injection rate of ~10BPM at 6000 psi. It was planned as a pumping test of the lower zone of well EE-3 (the open hole region from 11,400 ft to 11,648 ft) to test the reservoir characteristics and fracture-seismic system first created during <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> 2025. However early in the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> it became apparent that there was some sort connection between the lower zone and the upper "low pressure" zone in EE-3 (from the casing shoe at 10374 ft to about 10900 ft). Available information ruled out a packer failure or other direct connection between these zones so the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> was continued as planned. Although not a major goal of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span>, it was hoped that fractures would propagate from EE-3 to EE-2, so hydraulic communication could be established between the two wells, however this did not occur.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21410815','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21410815"><span id="translatedtitle">Neutrino <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKeown, R. D.</p> <p>2010-08-04</p> <p>Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation <span class="hlt">experiments</span> as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation <span class="hlt">experiments</span> aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10110043','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10110043"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> response calculation for superconductors in demagnetizing geometries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koo, L.S.; Telschow, K.L.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>A method has been outlined for calculating the flux front profile for a superconducting sample in either a uniform or nonuniform applied magnetic field possessing azimuthal symmetry. This technique relies upon finding a surface with zero vector potential. This surface is determined by simple integration of its derivative with respect to the external field, found by resolving a linear integral equation of the first kind. Measurement induced voltages and the entire hysteresis loop response can be found by extension of the ZFC magnetization response with increasing external field. Other experimentally measured quantities relating to the critical state can be calculated directly from the hysteresis loop if the time dependence of the external field is known. The technique shown in this report for solving the critical state model in the Bean approximation can be extended to field-dependent critical currents and other azimuthally symmetrical external fields. This work is presently in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/321014','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/321014"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the effects of torsional stress on <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> magnetization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sablik, M.J.; Jiles, D.C.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Opposite torques applied axially to a polycrystalline ferromagnetic rod result in tensile and compressive stresses acting perpendicularly at the rod surface at 45{degree} to the rod axis. These stresses affect the magnetization of the rod when a magnetic field is applied parallel to the rod axis. It is shown how one can formulate the magnetomechanical hysteresis model so as to treat this special case of biaxial stress and take into account the effect of opposite torques on the magnetic properties of the rod. Variation of hysteresis parameters such as coercive field, remanent flux density, differential permeability at the coercive field, and hysteresis loss as a function of applied torque are determined from the model. In the model, the torque is applied first and then the field is cycled to give hysteresis loops. It is found that the torque dependence of the magnetic properties is different, depending on what is chosen for H{sub max}, the maximum value of the applied magnetic field H. The best parameter to use for tracking the torque is found to be H{sub c} at saturation or near saturation, since that parameter shows an almost linear decrease with the applied torque.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012TSICE..47..310M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012TSICE..47..310M"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of Backlash Type <span class="hlt">Hysteretic</span> Systems Based on Particle Filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masuda, Tetsuya; Sugie, Toshiharu</p> <p></p> <p>This paper considers the system identification problem for hysteresis systems. This problem plays an important role in achieving better control performance, because many actuators have hysteresis property. This paper proposes a method to identify linear dynamical systems having input hysteresis property of backlash type. The method is based on particle filter, which is known for its applicability to a wide class of nonlinear systems. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in detail. Furthermore, experimental validation is performed for a DC servo motor system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JMMM..242.1234I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JMMM..242.1234I"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced characterization of <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> materials by object-oriented software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ionita, V.; Gavrila, H.</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>A new object-oriented software, which is dedicated for the characterization of magnetic materials, including the hysteresis effect, is presented. The product allows the development and utilization of an information base, containing experimental and numerical data related to the magnetic material behaviour. The materials may be modelled with different hysteresis models (Preisach, Jiles-Atherton, etc.).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvE..94b2201P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvE..94b2201P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasensitive <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> force sensing with parametric nonlinear oscillators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papariello, Luca; Zilberberg, Oded; Eichler, Alexander; Chitra, R.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We propose a method for linear detection of weak forces using parametrically driven nonlinear resonators. The method is based on a peculiar feature in the response of the resonator to a near resonant periodic external force. This feature stems from a complex interplay among the parametric drive, external force, and nonlinearities. For weak parametric drive, the response exhibits the standard Duffing-like single jump hysteresis. For stronger drive amplitudes, we find a qualitatively new double jump hysteresis which arises from stable solutions generated by the cubic Duffing nonlinearity. The additional jump exists only if the external force is present and the frequency at which it occurs depends linearly on the amplitude of the external force, permitting a straightforward ultrasensitive detection of weak forces. With state-of-the-art nanomechanical resonators, our scheme should permit force detection in the attonewton range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MARZ23010L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MARZ23010L"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconducting-to-Normal State Switching <span class="hlt">Experiments</span> using Graphene-based Josephson Junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lambert, Joseph; Carabello, Steven; Ramos, Roberto</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>We report results of ongoing superconductor-to-normal state switching <span class="hlt">experiments</span> using graphene-based Josephson junctions. These devices consist of a single-layer graphene flake contacted by two superconducting parallel leads separated by a few hundred nanometers. Through the proximity effect, the superconducting state is induced in the graphene region below the leads and the Josephson supercurrent is mediated through the normal graphene region by multiple Andreev reflections. The Josephson effect has been firmly demonstrated in these devices, where supercurrents in the <span class="hlt">hysteretic</span> current-voltage characteristic, Shapiro steps, the Fraunhofer-like diffraction pattern in the critical current versus external magnetic field, and the current-phase relationship have been observed. We report on work in progress, in measuring I-V characteristics, thermal activation and microwave resonant activation in graphene-based junctions, at various temperatures below 1 Kelvin. We modulate the density of charge carriers using a back-gate voltage, which tunes the critical current. This provides another knob for studying these state switching properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900016849','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900016849"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil <span class="hlt">experiment</span> with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil <span class="hlt">experiment</span> without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1743e0001A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1743e0001A"><span id="translatedtitle">XMASS <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abe, Ko</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>XMASS is a single phase liquid xenon scintillator detector. The project is designed for multi purposes, dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and 7Be/pp solar neutrino. As the first step of project, XMASS-I detector with 832kg sensitive volume started operation from Dec. 2010. In this paper, recent obtained physics results from commissioning data, refurbishment of detector and future step of <span class="hlt">experiment</span> are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000024741&hterms=sf6&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsf6','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000024741&hterms=sf6&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsf6"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>MM II defined a series of <span class="hlt">experiments</span> to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the <span class="hlt">experiments</span> for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport <span class="hlt">experiments</span> are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040853"><span id="translatedtitle">SANE <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>H. Baghdasaryan, SANE Collaboration</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (SANE) is a measurement of parallel and near-perpendicular double spin asymmetries in an inclusive electron scattering. The main goal of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> was to measure A{sub {parallel}} and A{sub 80} and extract the spin asymmetries of the proton A{sub 1}{sup p}, A{sub 2}{sup p} and spin structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 2}{sup p}. Using the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's polarized electron beam and the University of Virginia's polarized frozen ammonia ({sup 14}NH{sub 3}) target in Hall C, the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> ran in 2009, collecting data in a Q{sup 2} region from 2.5 to 6.5 GeV{sup 2} and between Bjorken x of 0.3 to 0.8. Particle detection was accomplished using the Big Electron Telescope Array (BETA), a novel non-magnetic detector. This talk will address the progress of the analysis designed to extract the proton spin asymmetries and structure functions. Preliminary results will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000024742&hterms=tie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtie','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000024742&hterms=tie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtie"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry <span class="hlt">experiment</span> are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-7026014&hterms=sleep+quality&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsleep%2Bquality','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-7026014&hterms=sleep+quality&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsleep%2Bquality"><span id="translatedtitle">Sleep Monitoring <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> - Skylab <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> M133</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>This 1970 photograph shows equipment for the Skylab's Sleep Monitoring <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (M133), a medical evaluation designed to objectively determine the amount and quality of crewmembers' inflight sleep. The <span class="hlt">experiment</span> monitored and recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrooculographic (EOG) activity during astronauts' sleep periods. One of the astronauts was selected for this <span class="hlt">experiment</span> and wore a fitted cap during his sleep periods. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and <span class="hlt">experiments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=holographic&pg=3&id=EJ401349','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=holographic&pg=3&id=EJ401349"><span id="translatedtitle">Notes on <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Physics Education, 1989</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Described are three physics <span class="hlt">experiments</span>: (1) "Holographic Prism"; (2) "Teaching about Energy with the Gravicar"; and (3) "The Coherer." In each <span class="hlt">experiment</span>, a brief description of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> devised is provided with diagrams and references. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Radioactivity&pg=5&id=EJ309004','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Radioactivity&pg=5&id=EJ309004"><span id="translatedtitle">Notes on <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Physics Education, 1984</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes: (1) <span class="hlt">experiments</span> using a simple phonocardiograph; (2) radioactivity <span class="hlt">experiments</span> involving a VELA used as a ratemeter; (3) a 25cm continuously operating Foucault pendulum; and (4) camera control of <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. Descriptions of equipment needed are provided when applicable. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ia&pg=4&id=EJ924422','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ia&pg=4&id=EJ924422"><span id="translatedtitle">The User <span class="hlt">Experience</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Aaron</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>User <span class="hlt">experience</span> (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user <span class="hlt">experience</span> and discusses the design of user <span class="hlt">experiences</span> in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user <span class="hlt">experience</span> design: (1)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820011409&hterms=Bowden&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DBowden','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820011409&hterms=Bowden&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DBowden"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural Assembly Demonstration <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (SADE) <span class="hlt">experiment</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The Structural Assembly Demonstration <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> concept is to erect a hybrid deployed/assembled structure as an early space <span class="hlt">experiment</span> in large space structures technology. The basic objectives can be broken down into three generic areas: (1) by performing assembly tasks both in space and in neutral buoyancy simulation, a mathematical basis will be found for the validity conditions of neutral buoyancy, thus enhancing the utility of water as a medium for simulation of weightlessness; (2) a data base will be established describing the capabilities and limitations of EVA crewmembers, including effects of such things as hardware size and crew restraints; and (3) <span class="hlt">experience</span> of the M.I.T. Space Systems Lab in neutral buoyancy simulation of large space structures assembly indicates that the assembly procedure may create the largest loads that a structure will <span class="hlt">experience</span> during its lifetime. Data obtained from the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> will help establish an accurate loading model to aid designers of future space structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0300101&hterms=biomedical&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dbiomedical','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0300101&hterms=biomedical&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dbiomedical"><span id="translatedtitle">Commercial Biomedical <span class="hlt">Experiments</span> Payload</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Experiments</span> to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical <span class="hlt">experiments</span> CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate <span class="hlt">experiments</span> including cancer research, commercial <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, and student hands-on <span class="hlt">experiments</span> from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA <span class="hlt">experiment</span>) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The <span class="hlt">experiments</span> are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0300085&hterms=biomedical&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbiomedical','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0300085&hterms=biomedical&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbiomedical"><span id="translatedtitle">Commercial Biomedical <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Experiments</span> to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical <span class="hlt">Experiments</span> (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate <span class="hlt">experiments</span> including cancer research, commercial <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, and student hands-on <span class="hlt">experiments</span> from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The <span class="hlt">experiments</span> are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930019515','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930019515"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive Structures Flight <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin, Maurice</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight <span class="hlt">experiments</span>; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression <span class="hlt">Experiment</span>; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992feti.procQ....M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992feti.procQ....M"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive structures flight <span class="hlt">experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, Maurice</p> <p></p> <p>The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight <span class="hlt">experiments</span>; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression <span class="hlt">Experiment</span>; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730013034&hterms=biologic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbiologic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730013034&hterms=biologic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbiologic"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomedical <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. Part A: Biostack <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Reinholz, E.; Scheuermann, W.; Ruether, W.; Graul, E. H.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.; Cuer, P.; Kaiser, R.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The biostack <span class="hlt">experiment</span> is described which was designed to study the biologic effects of individual heavy nuclei of galactic cosmic radiation during space flight outside the magnetosphere of the earth. Specifically, the biostack <span class="hlt">experiment</span> was designed to promote research on the effects of high energy/high Z particles of galactic cosmic radiation on a broad spectrum of biologic systems, from the molecular to the highly organized and developed forms of life. The <span class="hlt">experiment</span> was considered unique and scientifically meritorious because of its potential yield of information - currently unavailable on earth - on the interaction of biologic systems with the heavy particles of galactic cosmic radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=delusion&pg=5&id=EJ192169','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=delusion&pg=5&id=EJ192169"><span id="translatedtitle">Literature or <span class="hlt">Experience</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robinson, Dennis</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Shows that the need to choose between literature-centered or <span class="hlt">experience</span>-centered English instruction is a delusion, because instruction in literature also adds to the child's <span class="hlt">experience</span> of language. (RL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atmospheric+AND+pressure&pg=3&id=EJ270249','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atmospheric+AND+pressure&pg=3&id=EJ270249"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Experiments</span> and Calculations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Siddons, J. C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Discusses several science <span class="hlt">experiments</span>/activities and their associated measurements. These include a simple projectile activity, cartesian diver (used to measure altitude and atmospheric pressure), <span class="hlt">experiment</span> demonstrating atmospheric pressure, and activities using a stroboscope, and electrometer. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150020824','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150020824"><span id="translatedtitle">Observing System Simulation <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prive, Nikki</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This presentation gives an overview of Observing System Simulation <span class="hlt">Experiments</span> (OSSEs). The components of an OSSE are described, along with discussion of the process for validating, calibrating, and performing <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. a.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conductivity&pg=7&id=EJ023092','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conductivity&pg=7&id=EJ023092"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Experiments</span> in Magnetohydrodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rayner, J. P.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Describes three student <span class="hlt">experiments</span> in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In these <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, it was found that the electrical conductivity of the local water supply was sufficient to demonstrate effectively some of the features of MHD flowmeters, generators, and pumps. (LC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009143','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009143"><span id="translatedtitle">STEP <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> Requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A plan to develop a space technology <span class="hlt">experiments</span> platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which <span class="hlt">experiment</span> proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their <span class="hlt">experiment</span> concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and <span class="hlt">experiment</span> concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential <span class="hlt">experiment</span> requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam <span class="hlt">experiment</span>; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process <span class="hlt">experiment</span>; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=refractive&pg=5&id=EJ293757','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=refractive&pg=5&id=EJ293757"><span id="translatedtitle">Notes on <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Physics Education, 1984</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes apparatus needed and instructions for conducting four <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. <span class="hlt">Experiments</span> focus on light waves, measurement of contact resistance, demonstration of longitudinal waves, and a simple method of measuring the refractive indices of transparent plates and liquids. (JM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physics+AND+rainbows&pg=2&id=EJ298645','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physics+AND+rainbows&pg=2&id=EJ298645"><span id="translatedtitle">More <span class="hlt">Experiments</span> and Calculations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Siddons, J. C.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes two <span class="hlt">experiments</span> that illustrate basic ideas but would be difficult to carry out. Also presents activities and <span class="hlt">experiments</span> on rainbow cups, electrical charges, electrophorus calculation, pulse electrometer, a skidding car, and on the Oersted effect. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900008646','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900008646"><span id="translatedtitle">The ITALSAT <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Paraboni, A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Some information is given on the ITALSAT millimetric waves propagation <span class="hlt">experiment</span>, which is to be conducted with the ITALSAT satellite, whose launch is foreseen for the middle of 1990. The purpose of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> is one of <span class="hlt">experimenting</span> with advanced technologies and techniques employing the 20/30 GHz bands in wideband telecommunications. Among the most qualified features of this system are the multispot antenna and the exchange function performed directly onboard. Details of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4844768','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4844768"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> Factory: Standardizing Behavioral <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sochat, Vanessa V.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Enkavi, A. Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G.; Poldrack, Russell A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. A large, accessible repository of <span class="hlt">experiments</span> for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. The modular infrastructure includes <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based <span class="hlt">experiments</span> on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms. PMID:27199843</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199843','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199843"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> Factory: Standardizing Behavioral <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sochat, Vanessa V; Eisenberg, Ian W; Enkavi, A Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G; Poldrack, Russell A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. A large, accessible repository of <span class="hlt">experiments</span> for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. The modular infrastructure includes <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based <span class="hlt">experiments</span> on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms. PMID:27199843</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=videos+AND+human+AND+experiments&pg=4&id=EJ437399','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=videos+AND+human+AND+experiments&pg=4&id=EJ437399"><span id="translatedtitle">The Concerned Observer <span class="hlt">Experiment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rabiger, Michael</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Describes a classroom <span class="hlt">experiment</span>--the "concerned observer" <span class="hlt">experiment</span>--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the <span class="hlt">experiment</span>'s three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740006473','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740006473"><span id="translatedtitle">NASTRAN: Users' <span class="hlt">experiences</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The proceedings of a conference on NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) to analyze the <span class="hlt">experiences</span> of users of the program are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) statics and buckling, (2) vibrations and dynamics, (3) substructing, (4) new capability, (5) user's <span class="hlt">experience</span>, and (6) system <span class="hlt">experience</span>. Specific applications of NASTRAN to spacecraft, aircraft, nuclear power plants, and materials tests are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=phase+AND+matching&pg=7&id=ED385728','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=phase+AND+matching&pg=7&id=ED385728"><span id="translatedtitle">Rethinking Work <span class="hlt">Experience</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miller, Andrew; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This book on work <span class="hlt">experience</span> programs in the United Kingdom begins with "History and Policy Context" (Ian Jamieson, Andrew Miller), which reviews the development of work <span class="hlt">experience</span> in the United Kingdom, considers the current policy framework, and poses possible future scenarios. "The Concept of Work <span class="hlt">Experience</span>" (A. G. Watts) explores the concept…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750036624&hterms=aves&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Daves','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750036624&hterms=aves&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Daves"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric variability <span class="hlt">experiment</span> /AVE II/ pilot <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turner, R. E.; Scroggins, J. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The Atmospheric Variability <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (AVE II) was conducted in May 1974. Rawinsonde releases were made at 54 upper-air stations in two thirds of the eastern U.S. at 3-hr intervals for a 24-hr period. Radar data were obtained from 11 stations located near the center of the observational area, and as many data as possible were collected from the Nimbus 5, NOAA 2, ATS-3, and DMSP satellites. The present paper provides an overview of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> and describes how the user community can obtain copies of the data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARX30011R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARX30011R"><span id="translatedtitle">Popper's Thought <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> Reinvestigated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Karl Popper posed an interesting thought <span class="hlt">experiment</span> in 1934. With it, he meant to question the completeness of quantum mechanics. He claimed that the notion of quantum entanglement leads to absurd scenarios that cannot be true in real life and that an implementation of his thought <span class="hlt">experiment</span> would not give the results that QM predicts. Unfortunately for Popper, it has taken until recently to perform <span class="hlt">experiments</span> that test his claims. The results of the <span class="hlt">experiments</span> do not refute QM as Popper predicted, but neither do they confirm what Popper claimed QM predicted. Kim and Shih implemented Popper's thought <span class="hlt">experiment</span> in the lab. The results of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> are not clear and have instigated many interpretations of the results. The results show some correlation between entangled photons, but not in the way that Popper thought, nor in the way a simple application of QM might predict. A ghost-imaging <span class="hlt">experiment</span> by Strekalov, et al. sheds light on the physics behind Popper's thought <span class="hlt">experiment</span>, but does not try to directly test it. I will build the physics of Popper's thought <span class="hlt">experiment</span> from the ground up and show how the results of both of these <span class="hlt">experiments</span> agree with each other and the theory of QM, but disprove Popper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1934613','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1934613"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Experience</span> of Emotion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Experiences</span> of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these <span class="hlt">experiences</span> feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an <span class="hlt">experience</span> of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of <span class="hlt">experience</span>. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the <span class="hlt">experience</span> of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such <span class="hlt">experiences</span> in the economy of the mind and behavior. PMID:17002554</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7280578','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7280578"><span id="translatedtitle">Mystical <span class="hlt">experience</span> and schizophrenia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buckley, P</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Autobiographical accounts of acute mystical <span class="hlt">experience</span> and schizophrenia are compared in order to examine the similarities between the two states. The appearance of a powerful sense of noesis, heightening of perception, feelings of communion with the "divine," and exultation may be common to both. The disruption of thought seen in the acute psychoses is not a component of the accounts of mystical <span class="hlt">experience</span> reviewed by the author, and auditory hallucinations are less common than visual hallucinations in the mystical state. The ease with which elements of the acute mystical <span class="hlt">experience</span> can be induced in possession cults or in an experimental situation suggests that the capacity for such an altered state <span class="hlt">experience</span> may be latently present in many people. It is postulated that there is a limited repertoire of response within the nervous system for altered state <span class="hlt">experiences</span> such as acute psychosis and mystical <span class="hlt">experience</span>, even though the precipitants and etiology may be quite different. PMID:7280578</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720007969','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720007969"><span id="translatedtitle">Gyroscope relativity <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Decher, R.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>A gyroscope test of general relativity theory is proposed. The basic ideas and hardware concepts conceived by the investigators to implement the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> are discussed. The goal is to measure the extremely small relativistic precession of gyroscopes in an earth-orbiting satellite. The <span class="hlt">experiment</span> hardware (cryogenic gyroscopes, a telescope and superconducting circuits) is enclosed in a liquid helium dewar. The <span class="hlt">experiment</span> will operate in orbit for about one year.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910000186&hterms=animal+cells&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Danimal%2Bcells','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910000186&hterms=animal+cells&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Danimal%2Bcells"><span id="translatedtitle">Microgravity <span class="hlt">Experiments</span> On Animals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Paper describes <span class="hlt">experiments</span> on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological <span class="hlt">experiments</span> performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, <span class="hlt">experiments</span> focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MPLA...22.1893R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MPLA...22.1893R"><span id="translatedtitle">Berkeley CMB <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richards, P. L.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes the status of four CMB cosmology <span class="hlt">experiments</span> which are currently being developed by the Berkeley group. These include the APEXSZ and South Pole Telescope searches for clusters of galaxies using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and the Polar Bear and EBEX CMB polarization anisotropy <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. These <span class="hlt">experiments</span> exploit new detector technologies with Superconducting TES bolometers and frequency domain output multiplexing, which has been developed at Berkeley.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1666h0004W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1666h0004W"><span id="translatedtitle">Future reactor <span class="hlt">experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wen, Liangjian</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The non-zero neutrino mixing angle θ13 has been discovered and precisely measured by the current generation short-baseline reactor neutrino <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. It opens the gate of measuring the leptonic CP-violating phase and enables the neutrino mass ordering. The JUNO and RENO-50 proposals aim at resolving the neutrino mass ordering using reactors. The <span class="hlt">experiment</span> design, physics sensitivity, technical challenges as well as the progresses of those two proposed <span class="hlt">experiments</span> are reviewed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490646','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490646"><span id="translatedtitle">Future reactor <span class="hlt">experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wen, Liangjian</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>The non-zero neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} has been discovered and precisely measured by the current generation short-baseline reactor neutrino <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. It opens the gate of measuring the leptonic CP-violating phase and enables the neutrino mass ordering. The JUNO and RENO-50 proposals aim at resolving the neutrino mass ordering using reactors. The <span class="hlt">experiment</span> design, physics sensitivity, technical challenges as well as the progresses of those two proposed <span class="hlt">experiments</span> are reviewed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900004167','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900004167"><span id="translatedtitle">LDR structural <span class="hlt">experiment</span> definition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Russell, R. A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight <span class="hlt">experiment</span> for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an <span class="hlt">experiment</span> definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first <span class="hlt">experiment</span> are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second <span class="hlt">experiment</span>. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third <span class="hlt">experiment</span>. <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to <span class="hlt">experiment</span> one. <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770026887&hterms=biomed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dbiomed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770026887&hterms=biomed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dbiomed"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Experiment</span> support system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shannon, A. V.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> Support System is a switchboard system with displays and controls. It routes electrical power to <span class="hlt">experiments</span> M092, M093, and M171 equipment; gaseous nitrogen to the Blood Pressure Measurement System; receives biomedical data from all related equipment; routes the conditioned data signals to the Airlock Module Telemetry System and also displays (in digital or analog from) portions of that data which the crewmen must see to complete the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> successfully. The <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> Support System is interfaced to the M131 control panel to transfer conditioned data to the Airlock Module Telemetry System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=luminescence&id=EJ123386','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=luminescence&id=EJ123386"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemiluminescence: An Illuminating <span class="hlt">Experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Describes an <span class="hlt">experiment</span> in which luminescence is observed during a reaction between sodium borohydride and trisbipyridalruthenium (III). Includes a discussion of the theory of chemiluminescence. (MLH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910048767&hterms=flight+sequence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dflight%2Bsequence','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910048767&hterms=flight+sequence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dflight%2Bsequence"><span id="translatedtitle">Consort 3 flight <span class="hlt">experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The third sounding rocket payload in the Consort program was launched from the White Sands Missile Range on May 16, 1990. It carried 12 <span class="hlt">experiments</span> designed to investigate materials processes in low gravity. All of the <span class="hlt">experiments</span> were reflights from the Consort 2 payload that was launched on November 1989 but failed to achieve microgravity because of a malfunction in the launch vehicle. Four national Centers for the Commercial Development of Space participated in the mission. The payload included five <span class="hlt">experiments</span> and two accelerometer systems that flew on Consort 1 and seven new <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, designed and developed since Consort 1. <span class="hlt">Experiments</span> from Consort 1 incorporated hardware modifications and changes in experimental parameters based on mission results. The new <span class="hlt">experiments</span> covered a variety of polymeric and biological investigations. A new power distribution and control system designed to provide discrete, computer-supervised, <span class="hlt">experiment</span> power monitoring and control was flight qualified on Consort 3. Consort 3 featured very late access (3-5 h before launch vs 27-30 h for Consort 1) for installation of sensitive biological specimens. The integrated payload and mission sequence of events are described. Changes in the Consort 1 <span class="hlt">experiments</span> are defined and the objectives, methods, and expectations for new <span class="hlt">experiments</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24294729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24294729"><span id="translatedtitle">[Near death <span class="hlt">experiences</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rubia Vila, Francisco José</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Near Death <span class="hlt">Experiences</span> are those accounted by people who after being clinically dead return to life spontaneously or after reanimation. These <span class="hlt">experiences</span> have been used traditionally to support the belief in the existence of the soul and of life after death. However, today neuroscience tries to explain these <span class="hlt">experiences</span> from the scientific point of view, i.e. explaining them based on their brain substrates. Their resemblance to mystic <span class="hlt">experiences</span> and to altered states of consciousness seems to indicate that they may be produced by hyperactivity of limbic structures caused by anoxia or hypercapnia. PMID:24294729</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900015849','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900015849"><span id="translatedtitle">SEDS <span class="hlt">experiment</span> design definition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.; Oldson, John C.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The Small Expendable-tether Deployment System (SEDS) was developed to design, build, integrate, fly, and safely deploy and release an expendable tether. A suitable concept for an on-orbit test of SEDS was developed. The following tasks were performed: (1) Define <span class="hlt">experiment</span> objectives and requirements; (2) Define <span class="hlt">experiment</span> concepts to reach those objectives; (3) Support NASA in <span class="hlt">experiment</span> concept selection and definition; (4) Perform analyses and tests of SEDS hardware; (5) Refine the selected SEDS <span class="hlt">experiment</span> concept; and (6) Support interactive SEDS system definition process. Results and conclusions are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23493966','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23493966"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring sensory neuroscience through <span class="hlt">experience</span> and <span class="hlt">experiment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wyttenbach, Robert A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Many phenomena that we take for granted are illusions - color and motion on a TV or computer monitor, for example, or the impression of space in a stereo music recording. Even the stable image that we perceive when looking directly at the real world is illusory. One of the important lessons from sensory neuroscience is that our perception of the world is constructed rather than received. Sensory illusions effectively capture student interest, but how do you then move on to substantive discussion of neuroscience? This article illustrates several illusions, attempts to connect them to neuroscience, and shows how students can explore and <span class="hlt">experiment</span> with them. Even when (as is often the case) there is no agreed-upon mechanistic explanation for an illusion, students can form hypotheses and test them by manipulating stimuli and measuring their effects. In effect, students can <span class="hlt">experiment</span> with illusions using themselves as subjects. PMID:23493966</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=music+AND+cognition&id=EJ742881','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=music+AND+cognition&id=EJ742881"><span id="translatedtitle">Varieties of Musical <span class="hlt">Experience</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious <span class="hlt">experiences</span>. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or <span class="hlt">experience</span> is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760015136','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760015136"><span id="translatedtitle">MSFC Skylab corollary <span class="hlt">experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The evolution of the development and integration of Skylab <span class="hlt">experiments</span> from initial concepts through mission operations is documented. All <span class="hlt">experiment</span> systems are covered as well as management controls which were developed and exercised to assure acceptable operational capability and optimize data acquisition for final scientific results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/759009','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/759009"><span id="translatedtitle">THE PHENIX <span class="hlt">EXPERIMENT</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>READ,K.F. FOR THE PHENIX COLLABORATIO.</p> <p>1999-01-09</p> <p>The PHENIX <span class="hlt">experiment</span> at RHIC is currently under construction with data collection planned to start in 1999. The heavy ion and spin physics goals of PHENIX are described. The authors discuss the <span class="hlt">experiment</span>'s capabilities to address these physics goals. Highlights of the present status of construction and installation are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=boyles+AND+law&pg=2&id=EJ285866','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=boyles+AND+law&pg=2&id=EJ285866"><span id="translatedtitle">Boyle's Law <span class="hlt">Experiment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hermens, Richard A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Suggests that ideal <span class="hlt">experiments</span> fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law <span class="hlt">experiment</span> that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/962661','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/962661"><span id="translatedtitle">Franklin: User <span class="hlt">Experiences</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun; Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas</p> <p>2008-05-07</p> <p>The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user <span class="hlt">experiences</span> from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user <span class="hlt">experiences</span> are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=liquid+AND+nitrogen&id=EJ827419','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=liquid+AND+nitrogen&id=EJ827419"><span id="translatedtitle">The Jumping Ring <span class="hlt">Experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The jumping ring <span class="hlt">experiment</span> has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=holograms&pg=3&id=EJ328657','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=holograms&pg=3&id=EJ328657"><span id="translatedtitle">Notes on <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Physics Education, 1985</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Describes: (1) two <span class="hlt">experiments</span> using a laser (resonant cavity for light and pinhole camera effect with a hologram); (2) optical differaction patterns displayed by microcomputer; and (3) automating the Hall effect (with comments on apparatus needed and computer program used); and (4) an elegant <span class="hlt">experiment</span> in mechanical equilibrium. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED040633.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED040633.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Programmed French: An <span class="hlt">Experiment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Breton, Lucien</p> <p></p> <p>An <span class="hlt">experiment</span> in programed language instruction based on the "Basic French" method of T. Mueller and H. Niedzielski is reviewed in this paper. Seventy-two civil servants participated in the program which provided for 60 hours of taped instruction. <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> description, objectives, modifications, and a review of the structuring of lessons 1-20…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780013622','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780013622"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasat land <span class="hlt">experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Estes, J. E.; Barath, F.; Bryant, N.; Cannon, P. J.; Elachi, C.; Goetz, A.; Krishen, K.; Macdonald, H. C.; Marmelstein, A.; Miller, L. J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>An overview of the Seasat land <span class="hlt">experiments</span> is presented. The potential roles for active microwave imaging systems on board satellites were reviewed with particular emphasis on the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Recommendations were made concerning the type of <span class="hlt">experiments</span> that could most profitably be conducted over land with the Seasat SAR system capabilities available.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=silicon&pg=4&id=EJ748504','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=silicon&pg=4&id=EJ748504"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-World <span class="hlt">Experiences</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Borja, Rhea R.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world <span class="hlt">experience</span> and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the <span class="hlt">experiences</span> of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740025748','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740025748"><span id="translatedtitle">Corn blight watch <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The corn blight problem is briefly described how the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span>. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=apnea+AND+diving&id=EJ214953','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=apnea+AND+diving&id=EJ214953"><span id="translatedtitle">Human Simulated Diving <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bruce, David S.; Speck, Dexter F.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This report details several simulated divinq <span class="hlt">experiments</span> on the human. These are suitable for undergraduate or graduate laboratories in human or environmental physiology. The <span class="hlt">experiment</span> demonstrates that a diving reflex is precipitated by both facial cooling and apnea. (Author/RE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=language+AND+projects&pg=7&id=EJ822296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=language+AND+projects&pg=7&id=EJ822296"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond the Practicum <span class="hlt">Experience</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Williams, Jessica</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The practicum is an important part of most TESL programmes; however, many novice teachers seek practical <span class="hlt">experiences</span> beyond the practicum as part of their preparation for entering the profession. Collaborative projects between language learners and pre-service language teachers can offer such valuable practical <span class="hlt">experiences</span> for both groups. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED091400.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED091400.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Duplicate Construction <span class="hlt">Experiment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bridgeman, Brent</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">experiment</span> was designed to assess the ability of item writers to construct truly parallel tests based on a "duplicate-construction <span class="hlt">experiment</span>" in which Cronbach argues that if the universe description and sampling are ideally refined, the two independently constructed tests will be entirely equivalent, and that within the limits of item…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED029629.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED029629.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Academic <span class="hlt">Experience</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chickering, Arthur W.</p> <p></p> <p>This report shows the results of a questionnaire on academic <span class="hlt">experiences</span>, administered to students at four different colleges. Included in the term "academic <span class="hlt">experiences</span>" are such factors as mental activities in class and in studying for class, the role of the teacher, motivation for studying, feelings about courses, and patterns of work. Two main…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Light+AND+pollution&pg=3&id=EJ224287','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Light+AND+pollution&pg=3&id=EJ224287"><span id="translatedtitle">Notes on <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Physics Education, 1980</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Describes briefly three <span class="hlt">experiments</span>, which are presented by three physics teachers to share their ideas with other teachers and readers. These <span class="hlt">experiments</span> are: (1) a simple hazemeter for window pollution assessment; (2) the speed of light; and (3) the ball-bearing electric motor. (HM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=experiment&pg=2&id=EJ1049058','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=experiment&pg=2&id=EJ1049058"><span id="translatedtitle">Ball Collision <span class="hlt">Experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cross, R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Experiments</span> are described on collisions between two billiard balls and between a bat and a ball. The <span class="hlt">experiments</span> are designed to extend a student's understanding of collision events and could be used either as a classroom demonstration or for a student project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=experiment&pg=4&id=EJ1080569','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=experiment&pg=4&id=EJ1080569"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Poggendorff <span class="hlt">Experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Coelho, Ricardo Lopes; Silva, P. A. S.; Borges, Paulo de Faria</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Poggendorff showed experimentally, in the middle of the 19th century, that the weight of an Atwood machine is reduced when it is brought to motion. His <span class="hlt">experiment</span> has been revisited from time to time, making use of instrumentation that reflects the technological development of the moment. In this paper, the evolution of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> is briefly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930075324&hterms=Yams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DYams','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930075324&hterms=Yams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DYams"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonparametric identification <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yam, Yeung</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The following constitutes a summary of this paper: on-orbit identification methodology starts with nonparametric techniques for a priori system identification; development of the nonparametric identification and model determination <span class="hlt">experiment</span> software has been completed; the validation <span class="hlt">experiments</span> to be performed on the JPL Control and Identification Technology Validation Laboratory have been designed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1080011.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1080011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Play as <span class="hlt">Experience</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Henricks, Thomas S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the <span class="hlt">experience</span> it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this <span class="hlt">experience</span> in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maslow&pg=2&id=EJ893538','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maslow&pg=2&id=EJ893538"><span id="translatedtitle">Peak <span class="hlt">Experience</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak <span class="hlt">Experiences</span> (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak <span class="hlt">experiences</span> in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1295660','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1295660"><span id="translatedtitle">Near-death <span class="hlt">experiences</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blackmore, S J</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Reactions to claims of near-death <span class="hlt">experiences</span> (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the <span class="hlt">experiences</span> as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thinking+AND+Magic&pg=6&id=ED048276','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thinking+AND+Magic&pg=6&id=ED048276"><span id="translatedtitle">The Shared <span class="hlt">Experience</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>MacKinlay, Eileen</p> <p></p> <p>The writing of students at colleges of education about their teaching <span class="hlt">experiences</span> and the writing done for them by children in infant and junior schools comprise this account of attempts to answer such questions as "What makes children want to write?" and "What is the relation between a writer's <span class="hlt">experience</span> and imagination?" Excerpts from college…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cosmetics&pg=6&id=EJ872610','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cosmetics&pg=6&id=EJ872610"><span id="translatedtitle">Shusterman on Somatic <span class="hlt">Experience</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maattanen, Pentti</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic <span class="hlt">experience</span>. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in <span class="hlt">experience</span>. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Henry+AND+failure&pg=3&id=ED380046','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Henry+AND+failure&pg=3&id=ED380046"><span id="translatedtitle">The Student <span class="hlt">Experience</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Haselgrove, Susanne, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This collection of papers discusses the <span class="hlt">experience</span> of students in the United Kingdom's new, mass higher education system. The papers are viewed as dispatches from the "front line" rather than conventional analyses by education researchers. The organization of the papers mirrors the stages of students' <span class="hlt">experience</span> of higher education--getting in,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=athletes+AND+academic+AND+performance&pg=3&id=EJ868446','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=athletes+AND+academic+AND+performance&pg=3&id=EJ868446"><span id="translatedtitle">The Student Athlete <span class="hlt">Experience</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gayles, Joy Gaston</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Prior to the 1980s, the literature on the <span class="hlt">experiences</span> of collegiate student athletes was rather scarce. Since that time the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic performance and the overall <span class="hlt">experience</span> of student athletes on college campuses. As such, the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=glass+AND+engineering&pg=3&id=EJ260525','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=glass+AND+engineering&pg=3&id=EJ260525"><span id="translatedtitle">A Column Dispersion <span class="hlt">Experiment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Corapcioglu, M. Y.; Koroglu, F.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Crushed glass and a Rhodamine B solution are used in a one-dimensional optically scanned column <span class="hlt">experiment</span> to study the dispersion phenomenon in porous media. Results indicate that the described model gave satisfactory results and that the dispersion process in this <span class="hlt">experiment</span> is basically convective. (DC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=granting+AND+credit&pg=4&id=EJ256628','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=granting+AND+credit&pg=4&id=EJ256628"><span id="translatedtitle">Life <span class="hlt">Experience</span> Deserves Credit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Snider, John C.; McGee, Leo</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Institutions granting credit for life <span class="hlt">experience</span> are faced with obstacles related to the complex, sensitive, threatening, and ambitious nature of the procedure. A three-step process for implementation of a plan for developing credit for life <span class="hlt">experiences</span> is provided, along with a dissenting opinion. (MLW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900005292','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900005292"><span id="translatedtitle">Extravehicular activity welding <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Watson, J. Kevin</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The In-Space Technology <span class="hlt">Experiments</span> Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight <span class="hlt">experiment</span> to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to <span class="hlt">experiment</span> design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> through flight and postflight analysis are given.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhS.235..135P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhS.235..135P"><span id="translatedtitle">Hadron production <span class="hlt">experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Popov, Boris A.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The HARP and NA61/SHINE hadroproduction <span class="hlt">experiments</span> as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. HARP measurements have already been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE <span class="hlt">experiments</span> and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. First measurements released recently by the NA61/SHINE <span class="hlt">experiment</span> are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K <span class="hlt">experiment</span>. Both HARP and NA61/SHINE <span class="hlt">experiments</span> provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760057710&hterms=Education+Rural&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEducation%2BRural','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760057710&hterms=Education+Rural&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEducation%2BRural"><span id="translatedtitle">Health education telecommunications <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whalen, A. A.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The Health/Education Telecommunications <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> (HET) was conducted jointly by NASA and HEW on NASA's ATS-6 communications satellite. This <span class="hlt">experiment</span> actually consisted of six <span class="hlt">experiments</span> testing health and education applications of a communication spacecraft producing a broadcast of color television directly from space to over 120 low-cost receivers located in remote rural areas throughout the U.S. (including Alaska). The <span class="hlt">experiments</span> were conducted over the period from 2 July 1974 to 20 May 1975 and operated on an almost daily basis. The overall telecommunications system to support these <span class="hlt">experiments</span> consisted of many elements: The ATS-6 spacecraft; five different types of earth stations consisting of 120 video receive terminals, 51 telephony tranceivers and eight video originating terminals of three different types. Actual performance of the equipment as measured in the field was shown to equal or exceed predicted values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017608','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017608"><span id="translatedtitle">USML-1 Glovebox <span class="hlt">experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Naumann, Robert J.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This report covers the development of and results from three <span class="hlt">experiments</span> that were flown in the Materials Science Glovebox on USML-1: Marangoni convection in Closed Containers (MCCC), Double Float Zone (DFZ), and Fiber Pulling in Microgravity (FPM). The Glovebox provided a convenient, low cost method for doing simple 'try and see' <span class="hlt">experiments</span> that could test new concepts or elucidate microgravity phenomena. Since the Glovebox provided essentially one (or possibly two levels of confinement, many of the stringent verification and test requirements on the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> apparatus could be relaxed and a streamlined test and verification plan for flight qualification could be implemented. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">experiments</span> were contained in their own carrying cases whose external configurations could be identified early in the integration sequence for stowage considerations while delivery of the actual <span class="hlt">experiment</span> apparatus could be postponed until only a few months before flight. This minimized the time fluids must be contained and reduced the possibility of corrosive reactions that could ruin the <span class="hlt">experiment</span>. In many respects, this exercise was as much about developing a simpler, cheaper way of doing crew-assisted science as it was about the actual scientific accomplishments of the individual <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. The Marangoni Convection in Closed Containers <span class="hlt">experiment</span> was designed to study the effects of a void space in a simulated Bridgman crystal growth configuration and to determine if surface tension driven convective flows that may result from thermal gradients along any free surfaces could affect the solidification process. The Fiber Pulling in Microgravity <span class="hlt">experiment</span> sought to separate the role of gravity drainage from capillarity effects in the break-up of slender cylindrical liquid columns. The Stability of a Double Float Zone <span class="hlt">experiment</span> explored the feasibility of a quasi-containerless process in which a solidifying material is suspended by two liquid bridges of its own melt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880014442','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880014442"><span id="translatedtitle">LDR structural <span class="hlt">experiment</span> definition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight <span class="hlt">experiment</span> for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on <span class="hlt">experiment</span> definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based <span class="hlt">experiments</span> to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic <span class="hlt">experiment</span> configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first <span class="hlt">experiment</span> are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second <span class="hlt">experiment</span>. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third <span class="hlt">experiment</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/803388','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/803388"><span id="translatedtitle">Russian Grouting <span class="hlt">Experience</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Langton, C.A.</p> <p>2002-10-15</p> <p>The final report on Russian Grouting <span class="hlt">experience</span> provided an opportunity for international cooperation and access to Russian grouting/waste form <span class="hlt">experience</span>. the data on radiolytic gas generation from grout mixtures was already used in evaluation of the source of hydrogen and methane generation detected in the sampling ports around the SRS high-level waste tanks in 2002. The concept of venting the radiolytic gases from a waste form by adding porous aggregate is being considered for future cement-based TRU waste forms at SRS. The objectives of this work were to document the Russian <span class="hlt">experience</span> on grouting for waste forms and tank closures or other decommissioning applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810022007','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810022007"><span id="translatedtitle">Industrial application <span class="hlt">experiment</span> series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bluhm, S. A.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Two procurements within the Industrial Application <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> Series of the Thermal Power Systems Project are discussed. The first procurement, initiated in April 1980, resulted in an award to the Applied Concepts Corporation for the Capital Concrete <span class="hlt">Experiment</span>: two Fresnel concentrating collectors will be evaluated in single-unit installations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site and at Capitol Concrete Products, Topeka, Kansas. The second procurement, initiated in March 1981, is titled, "Thermal System Engineering <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> B." The objective of the procurement is the rapid deployment of developed parabolic dish collectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhyEd..51a5007S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhyEd..51a5007S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The three eggs <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Şahin Bülbül, Mustafa</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The three eggs <span class="hlt">experiment</span> concerns 37 pre-service science teachers’ predictions about the impact shapes of three uncooked eggs dropped from different heights. This <span class="hlt">experiment</span> looks at energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy, where the smaller parts of the egg shell spread far from the center of the impact. This <span class="hlt">experience</span> encouraged the pre-service science teachers to use their familiar models, such as a fried egg, omelet, puddle, dropping or explosions, to explain their predictions. These models from everyday life presented can be used as a tool to explain unfamiliar phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/759022','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/759022"><span id="translatedtitle">THERMAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM <span class="hlt">EXPERIMENT</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>KRAJEWSKI,R.F.; ANDREWS,J.W.; WEI,G.</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>A laboratory <span class="hlt">experiment</span> has been conducted which tests for the effects of distribution system purging on system Delivery Effectiveness (DE) as defined in ASHRAE 152P. The <span class="hlt">experiment</span> is described in its configuration, instrumentation, and data acquisition system. Data gathered in the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> is given and discussed. The results show that purging of the distribution system alone does not offer any improvement of the system DE. Additional supporting tests were conducted regarding experimental simulations of buffer zones and bare pipe and are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1241598','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1241598"><span id="translatedtitle">Fracturing <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> 2016</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, Donald W.; Keppler, H.; Kuriyagawa, Michio; Murphy, Hugh D.; Walter, Fritz</p> <p>1982-09-27</p> <p><span class="hlt">Experiment</span> 2016 was conducted on June 20 and 21, 1982. This <span class="hlt">experiment</span> represented our third attempt at a fracture connection between the bottom of hole EE-2, and the openhole section of EE-3. The primary objective of <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> 2016 was to hydraulically connect holes EE-2 and EE-3, utilizing a greater amount of injected fluid--1.3 million gallons were pumped into EE-2--and somewhat higher injection rates up to 35 BPM (as compared to 30 BPM during Expt. 2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvL.116v4301L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvL.116v4301L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Drexhage's <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> for Sound</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Langguth, Lutz; Fleury, Romain; Alò, Andrea; Koenderink, A. Femius</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Drexhage's seminal observation that spontaneous emission rates of fluorophores vary with distance from a mirror uncovered the fundamental notion that a source's environment determines radiative linewidths and shifts. Further, this observation established a powerful tool to determine fluorescence quantum yields. We present the direct analogue for sound. We demonstrate that a Chinese gong at a hard wall <span class="hlt">experiences</span> radiative corrections to linewidth and line shift, and extract its intrinsic radiation efficiency. Beyond acoustics, our <span class="hlt">experiment</span> opens new ideas to extend the Drexhage <span class="hlt">experiment</span> to metamaterials, nanoantennas, and multipolar transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27314719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27314719"><span id="translatedtitle">Drexhage's <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> for Sound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langguth, Lutz; Fleury, Romain; Alù, Andrea; Koenderink, A Femius</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Drexhage's seminal observation that spontaneous emission rates of fluorophores vary with distance from a mirror uncovered the fundamental notion that a source's environment determines radiative linewidths and shifts. Further, this observation established a powerful tool to determine fluorescence quantum yields. We present the direct analogue for sound. We demonstrate that a Chinese gong at a hard wall <span class="hlt">experiences</span> radiative corrections to linewidth and line shift, and extract its intrinsic radiation efficiency. Beyond acoustics, our <span class="hlt">experiment</span> opens new ideas to extend the Drexhage <span class="hlt">experiment</span> to metamaterials, nanoantennas, and multipolar transitions. PMID:27314719</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018297','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018297"><span id="translatedtitle">ROCSAT-1 telecommunication <span class="hlt">experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chang, J. F.; Taur, R. R.; Chu, T. H.; Li, H. S.; Su, Y. T.; Kiang, Y. W.; Su, S. L.; Shih, M. P.; Lin, H. D.; Chung, C. D.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This paper addresses a telecommunication payload project approved by the R.O.C. NSPO's ROCSAT-1 space program. This project will enable several innovative <span class="hlt">experiments</span> via the low-earth-orbit satellite ROCSAT-1, including multipath fading channel characterization, ionospheric scintillation measurement, real-time voice communications, and CDMA data communications. A unified L/S-band transponder payload is proposed for conducting these <span class="hlt">experiments</span> in an efficient way. The results of these <span class="hlt">experiments</span> would provide the evolving mobile communication communities with fruitful information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ph+AND+value&pg=6&id=EJ160942','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ph+AND+value&pg=6&id=EJ160942"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Experimenting</span> with Detergents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Gail; Phillips, Donald B.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Lists materials and procedures for <span class="hlt">experimenting</span> with detergents. Included are methods for determination of the densities of dry detergents, ph values of detergent solutions, and a discussion of the ability of detergents to remove iodine stains from cloth. (CS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=leadership+AND+volunteer&pg=7&id=EJ725914','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=leadership+AND+volunteer&pg=7&id=EJ725914"><span id="translatedtitle">The Value of <span class="hlt">Experience</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weiss, Stefanie C.; Gomperts, John S.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Older volunteers are helping urban students in developing the confidence and skills to succeed. Older adults, with their life <span class="hlt">experience</span> and strong commitment to social service, can make a special contribution in underfunded and understaffed urban schools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JpLjR-qwYUs','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JpLjR-qwYUs"><span id="translatedtitle">Packed Bed Reactor <span class="hlt">Experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=POLAROID&pg=2&id=EJ336611','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=POLAROID&pg=2&id=EJ336611"><span id="translatedtitle">Notes on <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Physics Education, 1986</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Describes (1) computer graphics for the coefficient of restitution; (2) an <span class="hlt">experiment</span> on the optical processing of images; and (3) a simple, coherent optical system for character recognition using Polaroid (Type 665) negative film. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730025103&hterms=celestial+mechanics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528celestial%2Bmechanics%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730025103&hterms=celestial+mechanics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528celestial%2Bmechanics%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Celestial mechanics <span class="hlt">experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lorell, J.; Anderson, J. D.; Jordan, J. F.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Shapiro, I. I.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The efforts and accomplishments of the CME Team are summarized. The objectives and <span class="hlt">experiment</span> status, gravity field of Mars, test of general relativity, and the generation of normal points are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flow+AND+electric&pg=4&id=EJ375467','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flow+AND+electric&pg=4&id=EJ375467"><span id="translatedtitle">Notes on <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Physics Education, 1988</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Describes three <span class="hlt">experiments</span>: (1) "Liquid Flow from Orifices"; (2) "Microcomputer-Controlled Investigation of Battery Discharge and Recovery"; and (3) "Measurement of the Speed of Sound." Drawings and diagrams accompany each. (RT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ohm&pg=2&id=EJ371000','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ohm&pg=2&id=EJ371000"><span id="translatedtitle">Notes on <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Physics Education, 1988</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Describes four physics <span class="hlt">experiments</span> including "Investigation of Box Resonances Using a Micro"; "A Direct Reading Wattmeter, DC or AC"; "Exercises in the Application of Ohm's Law"; and "Hysteresis on Gas Discharges." Discusses procedures, instrumentation, and analysis in each example. (CW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800024540','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800024540"><span id="translatedtitle">The monsoon <span class="hlt">experiment</span> MONEX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Das, P. K.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The effects of monsoons in different parts of the world on the Earth's atmosphere were studied by MONEX, India's Monsoon <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> program. Data were gathered from meteorological satellites, sounding rockets, aircraft, land and shipborne stations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=geiger&pg=3&id=EJ394198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=geiger&pg=3&id=EJ394198"><span id="translatedtitle">Notes on <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Physics Education, 1989</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Introduced are two <span class="hlt">experiments</span>: radon detection method shows real data using vacuum cleaner, soft toilet paper, and Geiger-Muller tube; critical potentials measurement describes the operation of Teltron tube with VELA. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=artificial+AND+selection&pg=2&id=EJ389673','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=artificial+AND+selection&pg=2&id=EJ389673"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Experimenting</span> with Apostatic Selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allen, J. A.; Cooper, J. M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Reviewed is some of the experimental evidence for apostatic selection from work with artificial prey. Guidelines for further <span class="hlt">experiments</span> are suggested including experimental design, analysis, variables, and selection in the wild. (Author/CW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018301','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018301"><span id="translatedtitle">ACTS mobile SATCOM <span class="hlt">experiments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abbe, Brian S.; Frye, Robert E.; Jedrey, Thomas C.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Over the last decade, the demand for reliable mobile satellite communications (satcom) for voice, data, and video applications has increased dramatically. As consumer demand grows, the current spectrum allocation at L-band could become saturated. For this reason, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) mobile terminal (AMT) and are evaluating the feasibility of K/Ka-band (20/30 GHz) mobile satcom to meet these growing needs. U.S. industry and government, acting as co-partners, will evaluate K/Ka-band mobile satcom and develop new technologies by conducting a series of applications-oriented <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. The ACTS and the AMT testbed will be used to conduct these mobile satcom <span class="hlt">experiments</span>. The goals of the ACTS Mobile <span class="hlt">Experiments</span> Program and the individual <span class="hlt">experiment</span> configurations and objectives are further presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cricket&pg=5&id=EJ046108','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cricket&pg=5&id=EJ046108"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Experiments</span> in Animal Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Polt, James M.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Describes <span class="hlt">experiments</span> in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c74olQ0V4B4','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c74olQ0V4B4"><span id="translatedtitle">CCF <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> #1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Images from CCF camera during <span class="hlt">Experiment</span> #1, or EU#1, square groove geometry operations. The free surface, or gas/liquid interface, assumes a curved shape under subcritical flow conditions as its m...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=organic+AND+carbon&pg=5&id=EJ126527','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=organic+AND+carbon&pg=5&id=EJ126527"><span id="translatedtitle">Dihalocarbene Insertion <span class="hlt">Experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goh, S. H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an <span class="hlt">experiment</span> that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770023343&hterms=experiment+laboratory+Physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dexperiment%2Blaboratory%2BPhysics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770023343&hterms=experiment+laboratory+Physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dexperiment%2Blaboratory%2BPhysics"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Experiments</span> on atmospheric processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vaughan, W. W.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Spacelab technology is examined as applied to the observation of the earth's weather patterns, composition, thermodynamics, and kinematics. An atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and a geophysical fluid flow cell are individually outlined as planned payload <span class="hlt">experiment</span> efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760020749','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760020749"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrophoresis <span class="hlt">experiment</span> for space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The Apollo 16 electrophoresis <span class="hlt">experiment</span> was analyzed, demonstrating that the separation of the two different-size monodisperse latexes did indeed take place, but that the separation was obscured by the pronounced electroosmotic flow of the liquid medium. The results of this <span class="hlt">experiment</span>, however, were dramatic since it is impossible to carry out a similar separation on earth. It can be stated unequivocally from this <span class="hlt">experiment</span> that any electrophoretic separation will be enhanced under microgravity conditions. The only question is the degree of this enhancement, which can be expected to vary from one experimental technique to another. The low-electroosmotic-mobility coating (Z6040-MC) developed under this program was found to be suitable for a free-fluid electrophoretic separation such as the <span class="hlt">experiment</span> designed for the ASTP flight. The problem with this coating, however, is that its permanency is limited because of the slow desorption of the methylcellulose from the coated surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=potassium&pg=5&id=EJ201999','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=potassium&pg=5&id=EJ201999"><span id="translatedtitle">Notes on <span class="hlt">Experiments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Physics Education, 1979</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Explains how to demonstrate the following: the hysteresis effect and the existence of domains in Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate); diffraction <span class="hlt">experiments</span> using a slide with multiple slits; and an analogue technique for learning terminal velocity. (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=potassium&pg=5&id=EJ185939','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=potassium&pg=5&id=EJ185939"><span id="translatedtitle">A Colorful <span class="hlt">Experiment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hunter, C. Bruce</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">experiment</span>, mixing solutions of potassium iodide and lead nitrate to give a bright yellow lead iodide precipitate, often leads students into other topics such as making paint from the precipitate. (BB)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>