Science.gov

Sample records for experiment module extreme

  1. U.S. Participation in the Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiencke, Lawrence

    This is the lead Institution proposal submitted by the University of Chicago (Angela Olinto, PI) for the U.S. Participation in the Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module. We propose to discover the origin of extreme energy cosmic rays, those with energies in excess of 60 EeV, produced by the most powerful cosmic accelerators in the universe. We will use the Extreme-Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) instrument, which is to be attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). JEM-EUSO is being developed by an international collaboration for launch on the Japanese H2 Transfer Vehicle in 2017. This proposal is for the US contribution to the mission which consists of monitoring and calibration with a Global Light System (GLS) of lasers and xenon light sources, data acquisition and analysis software, data archiving, and science results for the first year of the mission. We also propose that NASA make a contribution to the upmass needed to launch JEM-EUSO and attachment point resources. The GLS for JEM-EUSO will be located at 12 sites around the world, supplemented with an aircraft system. The calibrated UV lasers and Xenon flash lamps will generate calibrated optical signatures in the atmosphere within the field of view of JEM-EUSO with similar characteristics to the optical signals of cosmic ray extensive air showers. Throughout its pioneering mission, JEM-EUSO will reconstruct the pointing directions of the lasers and the energy of the lasers and flash lamps to monitor the detector s triggers, and accuracy of energy and direction reconstruction. These are the critical parameters for identifying the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays and for evaluating the scientific performance of this pioneering instrument. Starting in 2014, a prototype of the JEM-EUSO instrument will be flown on a balloon to test its design. We propose to build prototypes of the GLS and use them to test and calibrate the

  2. Trigger and Reconstruction Algorithms for the Japanese Experiment Module- Extreme Universe Space Observatory (JEM-EUSO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Andreev, Valeri; Christl, M. J.; Cline, David B.; Crawford, Hank; Judd, E. G.; Pennypacker, Carl; Watts, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO collaboration intends to study high energy cosmic ray showers using a large downward looking telescope mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station. The telescope focal plane is instrumented with approx.300k pixels operating as a digital camera, taking snapshots at approx. 1MHz rate. We report an investigation of the trigger and reconstruction efficiency of various algorithms based on time and spatial analysis of the pixel images. Our goal is to develop trigger and reconstruction algorithms that will allow the instrument to detect energies low enough to connect smoothly to ground-based observations.

  3. Extreme Modulation Properties of Aromatic Fluorine

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, Michael N; Gakh, Andrei A

    2011-01-01

    Thorough examination of the current literature as well as publicly available databases allowed us to qualify aromatic fluorine as a unique modulator of biological properties of organic compounds. In some rare cases, introduction of fluorine increased biological activity 100,000 times and even higher. We have also identified several examples where aromatic fluorine substantially reduced biological activity. Selected individual cases of extreme modulation are presented and discussed in the paper.

  4. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  5. Extreme Events: The Indian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, K. S.

    2008-05-01

    The geographical situation of India is such that it experiences varied types of climate in different parts of the country and invariably the natural events, extreme and normal, would affect such areas that are prone to them. Cyclones hit the eastern coast, while floods affect mostly northern India, while earthquakes hit any part of the country, particuarly when itbecame evident after the 1967 earthquake of Koyna that the peninsular part toois prone to seismic events. The National Commission on Floods estimated that nearly 40 millionn hectares of land is prone to flooding, which could rise to60 million soon. The cropped area thus affected annually is about 10 millionhectares. On an average 1500 lives are lost during floods annually, while the damage to property could run into billions of dollars. The total loss on account of floods damage to crops is estimated at about Rs 53,000 crores(crore= 100 lakhs), during the period 1953-1998. The other extreme natural event is drought which affects large parts of the country, except the northeast. Both floods and droughts can hit different parts of the country during the same period. The 2001 earthquake that hit Gujarat is perhaps the severest and studies on that event are still in progress. The 2004 tsunami which hit large parts of southeast Asia did not spare India. Its southern coast was battered and many lives were lost. In fact some geogrphic landmarks were lost, while some of the cities have suffered a shift in their position. It was estimated that about 1.2 billion dollars were required ro meet the rehabilitation and relief measures. The seismic zone map of India thus had to be revised more often than before. Apart from these, extreme rainfall has also caused floods in urban areas as in Mumbai in 2005, but this was mostly because of lack of proper drainage system and the existing system proved ineffective. Human hand in such cases is evident. There are systems working to forecast floods, cyclones, and droughts, though

  6. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agostini, Reinaldo J.

    2014-01-01

    Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMB) are ideal systems for biological pretreatment of wastewater, however, optimization is still underway. The Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) allows the simultaneous testing of potential materials, treatments on these and varying inoculums. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the material chosen for its ideal oxygen permeation properties, was treated with 1 sodium hydroxide 0.1 M ether for 18 seconds and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation oxygen plasma (OP) exposure for 1 hour. Preliminary chemistry and visual data indicate promising treatments when using OP and sodium hydroxide as treatments for PDMS fibers; however, due to the biological nature of the experiment, time is a constraint. Sodium hydroxide treatment chemistry data shows nitrification is occurring as urea and ammonia are decreasing and nitrite is increasing. A higher amount of biofilm can also be observed for this particular case. During the final two weeks of the internship x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and acridine orange (AO) cell counts will be employed for treatment effectiveness on the first batch of treatments (ether and sodium hydroxide). These same strategies will be used for the second batch of experiments due in four weeks (2nd week of August).

  7. Parabolic dish module experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    A development test model of the 8-meter Solar Brayton Parabolic Dish Module has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The test model consists of five major subsystems: Sanders ceramic honeycomb solar receiver; LaJet LEC460 solar concentrator; AiRsearch SABC MKIIIA engine, Abacus 8 kW ac inverter; and a Sanders designed and built system controller. Goals of the tests were to integrate subsystem components into a working module, demonstrate the concept, and generate 5 kWe (hybrid) and 4.7 kWe (solar only) input. All subsystem integration goals were successfully achieved, but system performance efficiency was lower than expected. Contributing causes of the lower performance efficiencies have been identified. Modifications needed to restore performance to the required levels and improve the system life cycle cost have been addressed and are the subject of this final report.

  8. Apollo experience report: Lunar module instrumentation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, D. E., III; Woodfill, J. R., IV

    1972-01-01

    The design concepts and philosophies of the lunar module instrumentation subsystem are discussed along with manufacturing and systems integration. The experience gained from the program is discussed, and recommendations are made for making the subsystem more compatible and flexible in system usage. Characteristics of lunar module caution and warning circuits are presented.

  9. On the design of experiments to study extreme field limits

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. S.; Chen, M.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Koga, J. K.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Chen, P.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhny, N. B.; Popov, V. S.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Korn, G.

    2012-12-21

    We propose experiments on the collision of high intensity electromagnetic pulses with electron bunches and on the collision of multiple electromagnetic pulses for studying extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves. The effects of nonlinear QED will be revealed in these laser plasma experiments.

  10. Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments. An experimental research program was conducted on the erosion of particulate surfaces by a jet exhaust. These experiments were scaled to represent the lunar module (LM) during landing. A conical cold-gas nozzle simulating the lunar module nozzle was utilized. The investigation was conducted within a large vacuum chamber by using gravel or glass beads as a simulated soil. The effects of thrust, descent speed, nozzle terminal height, particle size on crater size, and visibility during jet erosion were determined. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031010. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  11. Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Norman S.; Scholl, Harland F.

    1966-01-01

    An experimental research program was conducted on the erosion of particulate surfaces by a jet exhaust. These experiments were scaled to represent the lunar module (LM) during landing. A conical cold-gas nozzle simulating the lunar module nozzle was utilized. The investigation was conducted within a large vacuum chamber by using gravel or glass beads as a simulated soil. The effects of thrust, descent speed, nozzle terminal height, particle size on crater size, and visibility during jet erosion were determined.

  12. Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE) is to investigate, by means of a shuttle-based flight experiment and relevant ground-based testing, the arcing and current collection behavior of materials and geometries likely to be exposed to the LEO plasma on high-voltage space power systems, in order to minimize adverse environmental interactions. An overview of the SAMPIE program is presented in outline and graphical form.

  13. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Modulates the Level of Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoon Hee; Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Ho Sung; Chung, Su Jin; Lim, Cheol Hee; Oh, Keon Woong; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe that extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) may be relevant to changes of major neurotransmitters in rat brain. After the exposure to ELF-MF (60 Hz, 2.0 mT) for 2 or 5 days, we measured the levels of biogenic amines and their metabolites, amino acid neurotransmitters and nitric oxide (NO) in the cortex, striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. The exposure of ELF-MF for 2 or 5 days produced significant differences in norepinephrine and vanillyl mandelic acid in the striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. Significant increases in the levels of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were also observed in the striatum, thalamus or hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased the concentration of dopamine in the thalamus. ELF-MF tended to increase the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters such as glutamine, glycine and γ -aminobutyric acid in the striatum and thalamus, whereas it decreased the levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased NO concentration in the striatum, thalamus and hippocampus. The present study has demonstrated that exposure to ELF-MFs may evoke the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, amino acid and NO in the brain although the extent and property vary with the brain areas. However, the mechanisms remain further to be characterized. PMID:25605992

  14. Experiments on extreme states of matter towards HIF at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Boris; Varentsov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented frontier research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in plasma, nuclear, atomic, hadron and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of extreme state of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale.

  15. Experiments on extreme states of matter towards HIF at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Boris; Varentsov, Dmitry

    2013-11-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented frontier research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in plasma, nuclear, atomic, hadron and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of extreme state of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale.

  16. Extreme ultraviolet spectrograph ATM experiment S082B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoe, J.-D. F.; Brueckner, G. E.; Purcell, J. D.; Tousey, R.

    1977-01-01

    The extreme-ultraviolet double-dispersion photographic spectrograph for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) experiment S082B on Skylab is described. Novel features were the use of a predisperser grating with a ruling whose spacing varied approximately linearly with distance for the purpose of increasing the instrument speed by reducing the astigmatism and a photoelectric servosystem to stabilize to 1 sec of arc the solar image at various near-limb positions. The 970-3940-A range was covered in two sections with effective resolving power of approximately 30,000 from 1100 A to 1970 A. The spatial resolution was 2 x 60 solar sec of arc. During the Skylab mission 6400 exposures were made with the instrument pointed by an astronaut at selected and recorded solar positions.

  17. Progress of plasma wakefield self-modulation experiments at FACET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adli, E.; Berglyd Olsen, V. K.; Lindstrøm, C. A.; Muggli, P.; Reimann, O.; Vieira, J. M.; Amorim, L. D.; Clarke, C. I.; Gessner, S. J.; Green, S. Z.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M. D.; O`Shea, B. D.; Yakimenko, V.; Clayton, C.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Williams, O.

    2016-09-01

    Simulations and theory predict that long electron and positron beams may under favorable conditions self-modulate in plasmas. We report on the progress of experiments studying the self-modulation instability in plasma wakefield experiments at FACET. The experimental results obtained so far, while not being fully conclusive, appear to be consistent with the presence of the self-modulation instability.

  18. The joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment extreme ultraviolet spectrometer: resolving power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendse, F. B.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.; Yentis, D. J.; Hunter, W. R.; Fritz, G. G.; Siegmund, O.; Heidemann, K.; Lenke, R.; Seifert, A.; Barbee, T. W., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    The Joint astrophysical Plasmadynamic EXperiment (J-PEX) is a high-resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer (220-245 Å) used for the study of white dwarf atmospheres. Significant improvements have been achieved in both the normal-incidence gratings and the focal-plane detector since its first successful sounding rocket flight in 2001. The spherical laminar gratings have been replaced by paraboloidal gratings. The substrates of the new gratings have measured slope errors less than 0.35 arcsec. The gratings were recorded holographically and the rulings transferred into the silica substrates by ion etching. This procedure was followed by polymer overcoat to reduce the blaze angle of the groove profile. The detector uses microchannel plates with 6 μm pores and a cross-strip anode, providing 17.9 μm resolution in the dispersion direction. The detector employs a KBr photocathode with a projected efficiency of 0.24 at 256 Å. Using ray tracing simulations, we predict the resolving power expected from the spectrometer during upcoming EUV calibrations with a He II discharge source.

  19. Extreme weather and experience influence reproduction in an endangered bird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichert, Brian E.; Cattau, Christopher E.; Fletcher, Robert J., Jr.; Kendall, William L.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a 14-year time series spanning large variation in climatic conditions and the entirety of a population's breeding range, we estimated the effects of extreme weather conditions (drought) on the state-specific probabilities of breeding and survival of an endangered bird, the Florida Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus). Our analysis accounted for uncertainty in breeding status assignment, a common source of uncertainty that is often ignored when states are based on field observations. Breeding probabilities in adult kites (>1 year of age) decreased during droughts, whereas the probability of breeding in young kites (1 year of age) tended to increase. Individuals attempting to breed showed no evidence of reduced future survival. Although population viability analyses of this species and other species often implicitly assume that all adults will attempt to breed, we find that breeding probabilities were significantly <1 for all 13 estimable years considered. Our results suggest that experience is an important factor determining whether or not individuals attempt to breed during harsh environmental conditions and that reproductive effort may be constrained by an individual's quality and/or despotic behavior among individuals attempting to breed.

  20. Laser space communication experiment: Modulator technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of a contractual program to develop the modulator technology necessary for a 10.6 micron laser communication system using cadmium telluride as the modulator material. The program consisted of the following tasks: (1) The growth of cadmium telluride crystals of sufficient size and purity and with the necessary optical properties for use as laser modulator rods. (2) Develop a low loss antireflection coating for the cadmium telluride rods. (3) Design and build a modulator capable of 300 MHz modulation. (4) Develop a modulator driver capable of a data rate of 300 MBits/sec, 12 W rms output power, and 40 percent efficiency. (5) Assemble and test the modulator system. All design goals were met and the system was built and tested.

  1. Amplitude modulation of quantum-ion-acoustic wavepackets in electron-positron-ion plasmas: Modulational instability, envelope modes, extreme waves

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Ata-ur-; Kerr, Michael Mc Kourakis, Ioannis; El-Taibany, Wael F.; Qamar, A.

    2015-02-15

    A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes.

  2. Development of Japanese experiment module remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsueda, Tatsuo; Kuwao, Fumihiro; Motohasi, Shoichi; Okamura, Ryo

    1994-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), as its contribution to the International Space Station. The JEM consists of the pressurized module (PM), the exposed facility (EF), the experiment logistics module pressurized section (ELM-PS), the experiment logistics module exposed section (ELM-ES) and the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The JEMRMS services for the JEM EF, which is a space experiment platform, consists of the Main Arm (MA), the Small Fine Arm (SFA) and the RMS console. The MA handles the JEM EF payloads, the SFA and the JEM element, such as ELM-ES.

  3. VME Data Acquisition Modules for MINERvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, B.; /fermilab

    2010-01-01

    This document describes two VME modules developed for MINERvA experiment at Fermilab. The Chain ReadOut Controller (CROC) module has four serial data channels and can interface with up to 48 front-ends using standard CAT5e networking cable. The data transmission rate of each channel is 160 Mbit/s. The maximum data transmission rate via VME bus is {approx}18 MB/s. The Chain Readout Interface Module (CRIM) is designed to provide various interface functions for the CROC module. It is compatible with MINOS MTM timing module and can be used to distribute timing signals to four CROC modules. The CRIM module also has a data port compatible with the CROC serial data interface. The data port can be used for diagnostic purpose and can generate triggers from front-end events. The CRIM module is a standard D08(O) interrupter module.

  4. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Modules for Probing Gold Nanoparticle Interfacial Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karunanayake, Akila G.; Gunatilake, Sameera R.; Ameer, Fathima S.; Gadogbe, Manuel; Smith, Laura; Mlsna, Deb; Zhang, Dongmao

    2015-01-01

    Three gold-nanoparticle (AuNP) undergraduate experiment modules that are focused on nanoparticles interfacial phenomena have been developed. Modules 1 and 2 explore the synthesis and characterization of AuNPs of different sizes but with the same total gold mass. These experiments enable students to determine how particle size affects the AuNP…

  5. Experiment module concepts study. Volume 1: Management summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The minimum number of standardized (common) module concepts that will satisfy the experiment program for manned space stations at least cost is investigated. The module interfaces with other elements such as the space shuttle, ground stations, and the experiments themselves are defined. The total experiment module program resource and test requirements are also considered. The minimum number of common module concepts that will satisfy the program at least cost is found to be three, plus a propulsion slice and certain experiment-peculiar integration hardware. The experiment modules rely on the space station for operational, maintenance, and logistic support. They are compatible with both expendable and shuttle launch vehicles, and with servicing by shuttle, tug, or directly from the space station. A total experiment module program cost of approximately $2319M under the study assumptions is indicated. This total is made up of $838M for experiment module development and production, $806M for experiment equipment, and $675M for interface hardware, experiment integration, launch and flight operations, and program management and support.

  6. Single, stretched membrane, structural module experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes tests done on stretched-membrane heliostats used to reflect solar radiation onto a central receiver. The tests were used to validate prior analysis and mathematical models developed to describe module performance. The modules tested were three meters in diameter and had reflective polymer film laminated to the membrane. The frames were supported at three points equally spaced around the ring. Three modules were pneumatically attached with their weight suspended at the bottom support, two were pneumatically attached with their weight suspended from the upper mounts, and one was rigidly attached with its weight suspended at the bottom mount. By varying the membrane tension we could simulate a uniform wind loading normal to the mirror's surface. A video camera 15+ meters away from the mirror recorded the virtual image of a target grid as reflected by the mirrors' surface. The image was digitized and stored on a microcomputer. Using the law of reflection and analytic geometry, we computed the surface slopes of a sampling of points on the surface. The dominant module response was consistent with prior SERI analyses. The simple analytical model is quite adequate for designing and sizing single-membrane modules if the initial imperfections and their amplification are appropriately controlled. To avoid potential problems resulting from the fundamentally n = 2 deformation phenomena, we advise using either relatively stiffer ring frames or more than three support points.

  7. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  8. Analysis of LBM (lithium blanket module) experiments at LOTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanek, J.; Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Haldy, P.A.; Pelloni, S.

    1986-01-01

    A Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) has been designed at General Atomic Company for testing on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The LBM has both realistic fusion blanket materials and configuration and has been designed for detailed experimental analyses of tritium breeding and neutron flux spatial/spectral distributions. It is {approximately}80 cm{sup 3} and the breeding material is Li{sub 2}O. The main objective of the LBM program was to perform a series of experiments by irradiating it using the toroidal neutron source of the TFTR. The comparison between measured and calculated neutron spectra and reaction rates would indicate the accuracy of presently available nuclear data and calculational methods and show the need for future data evaluation and methods development. With a delay in undertaking the deuterium-tritium operation of the Princeton TFTR, it was clear that the LOTUS facility could now provide an extremely valuable resolution of basic technological uncertainties in fusion reactor blanket physics. This resolution has been a major force behind EPRI's fusion program. 6 refs.

  9. BIM experiment module and its flight on MASER 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Per; Löfgren, Oscar; Huijser, Ron; Willemsen, Harry

    2005-08-01

    The Biology In Microgravity (BIM) experiment module was flown in microgravity during 6 minutes on the sounding rocket MASER 10 on May 2, 2005. Swedish Space Corporation, Dutch Space and CCM developed the BIM module under contract from the European Space Agency (ESA). Two cell biology experiments were flown in the BIM module: ACTIN, Role of microgravity on actin metabolism in mammalian cells. Investigator: Prof. Dr. Johannes Boonstra, University of Utrecht (NL). AMUSE, Influence of micrograviy on activation of NF-κB, a principal regulator of inflammation and immunity. Investigator: Prof. Dr. Maikel Peppelenbosch, University of Groningen (NL). The BIM experiments were performed in 48 experiment units containing culture chambers and liquid storage reservoirs with additives, which were added to the culture chambers during the microgravity period of six minutes. Cultures in microgravity and on a 1xg reference centrifuge on-board the module were activated simultaneously with a reference on-ground. The experiment units were prepared hours before launch and were integrated in late access insert systems. The flight system was installed in the module via a hatch. The ground system, with the reference experiment units, was placed in an incubator. During the flight, when microgravity was achieved, all actions were performed to activate and, just before end of microgravity, fixate the experiment samples. The thermal control and the centrifuge worked properly. Due to a hard landing the module was severely damaged, nevertheless almost all experiments could be saved.

  10. Power-Stepped HF Cross Modulation Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S.; Moore, R. C.; Langston, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    High frequency (HF) cross modulation experiments are a well established means for probing the HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere. In this paper, we apply experimental observations of HF cross-modulation to the related problem of ELF/VLF wave generation. HF cross-modulation measurements are used to evaluate the efficiency of ionospheric conductivity modulation during power-stepped modulated HF heating experiments. The results are compared to previously published dependencies of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF peak power. The experiments were performed during the March 2013 campaign at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Observatory. HAARP was operated in a dual-beam transmission format: the first beam heated the ionosphere using sinusoidal amplitude modulation while the second beam broadcast a series of low-power probe pulses. The peak power of the modulating beam was incremented in 1-dB steps. We compare the minimum and maximum cross-modulation effect and the amplitude of the resulting cross-modulation waveform to the expected power-law dependence of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF power.

  11. Microwave frequency modulation for improving polarization transfer in DNP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Mallory; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a driven process that transfers the inherently high electron polarization to surrounding nuclear spins via microwave irradiation at or near the electron Larmor frequency. In a typical DNP experiment, the amplitude and frequency of the applied microwaves are constant. However, by adding time dependence in the form of frequency modulation, the electron excitation bandwidth is increased, thereby increasing the number of electron spins active in the polarization transfer process and improving overall efficiency. Both triangular and sinusoidal modulation show a 3 fold improvement over monochromatic irradiation. In the present study, we compare the nuclear spin polarization after DNP experiments with no modulation of the applied microwaves, triangular and sinusoidal modulation, and modulation schemes derived from the sample's ESR spectrum. We characterize the polarization as a function of the modulation amplitude and frequency and compare the optimal results from each modulation scheme. Working at a field of 3.34 T and at a temperature of 4 K, we show that by using a modulation scheme tailored to the electronic environment of the sample, polarization transfer is improved over other modulation schemes. Small-scale simulations of the spin system are developed to gain further insight into the dynamics of this driven open system. This understanding could enable the design of modulation schemes to achieve even higher polarization transfer efficiencies. With support from NSF (CHE-1410504) and by NIH (U19-A1091173).

  12. Comprehensive Healthcare module: medical and pharmacy students’ shared learning experiences

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chai-Eng; Jaffar, Aida; Tong, Seng-Fah; Hamzah, Majmin Sheikh; Mohamad, Nabishah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Comprehensive Healthcare (CHC) module was developed to introduce pre-clinical medical and pharmacy students to the concept of comprehensive healthcare. This study aims to explore their shared learning experiences within this module. Methodology During this module, medical and pharmacy students conducted visits to patients’ homes and to related community-based organisations in small groups. They were required to write a reflective journal on their experiences regarding working with other professions as part of their module assessment. Highly scored reflective journals written by students from the 2011/2012 academic session were selected for analysis. Their shared learning experiences were identified via thematic analysis. We also analysed students’ feedback regarding the module. Results Analysis of 25 selected reflective journals revealed several important themes: ‘Understanding of impact of illness and its relation to holistic care’, ‘Awareness of the role of various healthcare professions’ and ‘Generic or soft skills for inter-professional collaboration’. Although the primary objective of the module was to expose students to comprehensive healthcare, the students learnt skills required for future collaborative practice from their experiences. Discussion The CHC module provided early clinical exposure to community-based health issues and incorporated some elements of inter-professional education. The students learnt about the roles of other healthcare professions and acquired soft skills required for future collaborative practice during this module. PMID:25327980

  13. Parabolic dish module experiment. Final test report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    A development test model of the 8-meter Solar Brayton Parabolic Dish Module has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The test model consists of five major subsystems: Sanders ceramic honeycomb solar receiver; LaJet LEC460 solar concentrator; AiRsearch SABC MKIIIA engine, Abacus 8 kW ac inverter; and a Sanders designed and built system controller. Goals of the tests were to integrate subsystem components into a working module, demonstrate the concept, and generate 5 kWe (hybrid) and 4.7 kWe (solar only) input. All subsystem integration goals were successfully achieved, but system performance efficiency was lower than expected. Contributing causes of the lower performance efficiencies have been identified. Modifications needed to restore performance to the required levels and improve the system life cycle cost have been addressed and are the subject of this final report.

  14. Apollo experience report: Command module uprighting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A water-landing requirement and two stable flotation attitudes required that a system be developed to ensure that the Apollo command module would always assume an upright flotation attitude. The resolution to the flotation problem and the uprighting concepts, design selection, design changes, development program, qualification, and mission performance are discussed for the uprighting system, which is composed of inflatable bags, compressors, valves, and associated tubing.

  15. SAMPIE (Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment). (Videotape)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    SAMPIE is an in-space technology experiment that flew on STS-62. Its intent is to investigate the potentially damaging effects of space plasma (gases) on different types, sizes, and shapes of solar cells, solar modules, and spacecraft materials.

  16. Experiment module/support module interface specification for the reusable reentry satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Interface Specification (IFS) identifies, defines, and controls the interface between the Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) Vehicle (RRV) Experiment Module (EM) and the Support Module (SM) equipment. Contained in this specification are the physical, functional, and environmental interface requirements for the SM and EM. This specification is tailored to the unique requirements of the EM associated with the Rodent Module. The addenda to this specification contain the requirements for alternate EM's.

  17. Experiment module/support module interface specification for the reusable reentry satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-02-01

    This Interface Specification (IFS) identifies, defines, and controls the interface between the Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) Vehicle (RRV) Experiment Module (EM) and the Support Module (SM) equipment. Contained in this specification are the physical, functional, and environmental interface requirements for the SM and EM. This specification is tailored to the unique requirements of the EM associated with the Rodent Module. The addenda to this specification contain the requirements for alternate EM's.

  18. Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencivenga, F.; Cucini, R.; Capotondi, F.; Battistoni, A.; Mincigrucci, R.; Giangrisostomi, E.; Gessini, A.; Manfredda, M.; Nikolov, I. P.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Svetina, C.; Parisse, P.; Casolari, F.; Danailov, M. B.; Kiskinova, M.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2015-04-01

    Four-wave mixing (FWM) processes, based on third-order nonlinear light-matter interactions, can combine ultrafast time resolution with energy and wavevector selectivity, and enable the exploration of dynamics inaccessible by linear methods. The coherent and multi-wave nature of the FWM approach has been crucial in the development of advanced technologies, such as silicon photonics, subwavelength imaging and quantum communications. All these technologies operate at optical wavelengths, which limits the spatial resolution and does not allow the probing of excitations with energy in the electronvolt range. Extension to shorter wavelengths--that is, the extreme ultraviolet and soft-X-ray ranges--would allow the spatial resolution to be improved and the excitation energy range to be expanded, as well as enabling elemental selectivity to be achieved by exploiting core resonances. So far, FWM applications at such wavelengths have been prevented by the absence of coherent sources of sufficient brightness and of suitable experimental set-ups. Here we show how transient gratings, generated by the interference of coherent extreme-ultraviolet pulses delivered by the FERMI free-electron laser, can be used to stimulate FWM processes at suboptical wavelengths. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the possibility of observing the time evolution of the FWM signal, which shows the dynamics of coherent excitations as molecular vibrations. This result opens the way to FWM with nanometre spatial resolution and elemental selectivity, which, for example, would enable the investigation of charge-transfer dynamics. The theoretical possibility of realizing these applications has already stimulated ongoing developments of free-electron lasers: our results show that FWM at suboptical wavelengths is feasible, and we hope that they will enable advances in present and future photon sources.

  19. Harmonic minimization waveforms for modulated heating experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, G.; Spasojevic, M.; Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-11-01

    Modulated High Frequency (few MHz) heating of the D-region ionosphere under the auroral electrojet is capable of generating extremely low frequency (ELF) radio waves in the few kilohertz range by affecting the conductivity of the D-region. The HF heating is nonlinear and results in the generation of harmonics at integer multiples of the ELF modulation frequency with ∼1% of the total power outside the fundamental when sinusoidal amplitude modulation is applied to the HF carrier. For the purpose of harmonic minimization, we present a modulation scheme designed to create a sinusoidal change in the Hall conductivity at a particular altitude in the ionosphere. The modulation waveform is generated by inverting a numerical HF heating model, starting from the desired conductivity time series, and obtaining the HF power envelope at the bottom of the ionosphere. The inverted envelopes (referred to as inv-sin waveforms) are highly sensitive to the assumed ionospheric density profile and simulations indicate that these waveforms have less harmonic distortion compared to sinusoidal modulation when the actual ionospheric density is similar to or less dense than the one assumed. Experimental results indicate that sinusoidal amplitude modulation may still be preferred since it is more robust to the highly variable ionospheric profile while square wave modulation is more efficient in generation of ELF waves when harmonic distortion is not important. The inv-sin waveforms are more efficient than sinusoidal modulation while still suffering from less harmonic distortion than square wave modulation suggesting a tradeoff between harmonic distortion and ELF generation efficiency.

  20. Developing and Implementing Training Plans. Module Number 8. Work Experience Program Modules. Coordination Techniques Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Jim

    This self-instructional module, the eighth in a series of 16 on techniques for coordinating work experience programs, deals with developing and implementing training plans. Addressed in the module are the purposes and features of a training plan, developing a training plan, and implementing a training plan for each student in the program. The…

  1. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Primary Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremity: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Alektiar, Kaled M. . E-mail: alektiak@mskcc.org; Hong, Linda; Brennan, Murray F.; Della-Biancia, Cesar; Singer, Samuel

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To report preliminary results on using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as an adjuvant treatment in primary soft tissue sarcoma (STS) of the extremity. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and March 2005, 31 adult patients with primary STS of the extremity were treated with surgery and adjuvant IMRT. Tumor size was >10 cm in 74% of patients and grade was high in 77%. Preoperative IMRT was given to 7 patients (50 Gy) and postoperative IMRT (median dose, 63 Gy) was given to 24 patients. Complete gross resection including periosteal stripping or bone resection was required in 10, and neurolysis or nerve resection in 20. The margins were positive or within 1 mm in 17. Complications from surgery and radiation therapy (RT) were assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grading system. Results: Median follow-up time was 23 months. Grade 1 RT dermatitis developed in 71% of patients, Grade 2 in 16%, and Grade 3 in 10%. Infectious wound complications developed in 13% and noninfectious complications in 10%. Two patients (6.4%) developed fractures. Grade 1 neuropathy developed in 28% of patients and Grade 2 in 5%. The rates of Grade 1 and 2 joint stiffness were each 19%. Grade 1 edema was observed in 19% of patients and Grade 2 in 13%. The 2-year local control, distant control, and overall survival were 95%, 65%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusion: Intensity modulated RT appears to provide excellent local control in a difficult group of high-risk patients. The morbidity profile is also favorable, but longer follow-up is needed to confirm the results from this study.

  2. Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE): Technical requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a NASA shuttle space flight experiment scheduled for launch in early 1994. The SAMPIE experiment will investigate plasma interactions of high voltage space power systems in low earth orbit. Solar cell modules, representing several technologies, will be biased to high voltages to characterize both arcing and plasma current collection. Other solar modules, specially modified in accordance with current theories of arcing and breakdown, will demonstrate the possibility of arc suppression. Finally, several test modules will be included to study the basic nature of these interactions. The science and technology goals for the project are defined in the Technical Requirements Document (TRD) which is presented here.

  3. PHz-wide supercontinua of nondispersing subcycle pulses generated by extreme modulational instability.

    PubMed

    Tani, F; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2013-07-19

    Modulational instability (MI) of 500 fs, 5 μJ pulses, propagating in gas-filled hollow-core kagome photonic crystal fiber, is studied numerically and experimentally. By tuning the pressure and launched energy, we control the duration of the pulses emerging as a consequence of MI and hence are able to study two regimes: the classical MI case leading to few-cycle solitons of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation; and an extreme case leading to the formation of nondispersing subcycle pulses (0.5 to 2 fs) with peak intensities of order 10(14) W cm(-2). Insight into the two regimes is obtained using a novel statistical analysis of the soliton parameters. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements show that, when a train of these pulses is generated, strong ionization of the gas occurs. This extreme MI is used to experimentally generate a high energy (>1 μJ) and spectrally broad supercontinuum extending from the deep ultraviolet (320 nm) to the infrared (1300 nm). PMID:23909325

  4. Four wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings

    PubMed Central

    Bencivenga, F.; Cucini, R.; Capotondi, F.; Battistoni, A.; Mincigrucci, R.; Giangrisostomi, E.; Gessini, A.; Manfredda, M.; Nikolov, I. P.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Svetina, C.; Parisse, P.; Casolari, F.; Danailov, M. B.; Kiskinova, M.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2015-01-01

    Four wave mixing (FWM) processes, based on third-order non-linear light-matter interactions, can combine ultrafast time resolution with energy and wavevector selectivity, and enables to explore dynamics inaccessible by linear methods.1-7 The coherent and multi-wave nature of FWM approach has been crucial in the development of cutting edge technologies, such as silicon photonics,8 sub-wavelength imaging9 and quantum communications.10 All these technologies operate with optical wavelengths, which limit the spatial resolution and do not allow probing excitations with energy in the eV range. The extension to shorter wavelengths, that is the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft-x-ray (SXR) range, will allow to improve the spatial resolution and to expand the excitation energy range, as well as to achieve elemental selectivity by exploiting core resonances.5-7,11-14 So far FWM applications at these wavelengths have been prevented by the absence of coherent sources of sufficient brightness and suitable experimental setups. Our results show how transient gratings, generated by the interference of coherent EUV pulses delivered by the FERMI free electron laser (FEL),15 can be used to stimulate FWM processes at sub-optical wavelengths. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the possibility to read the time evolution of the FWM signal, which embodies the dynamics of coherent excitations as molecular vibrations. This result opens the perspective for FWM with nanometer spatial resolution and elemental selectivity, which, for example, would enable the investigation of charge-transfer dynamics.5-7 The theoretical possibility to realize these applications have already stimulated dedicated and ongoing FEL developments;16-20 today our results show that FWM at sub-optical wavelengths is feasible and would be the spark to the further advancements of the present and new sources. PMID:25855456

  5. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, William T.; Adams, Steven F.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cells or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application.

  6. Acoustic containerless processing module for material research. [Space Shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagomarsini, G. C.; Wang, T.

    1979-01-01

    In the Shuttle space processing program, the melt is formed within a container without physically contacting the container walls. The present paper deals with a high-temperature acoustic containerless processing module currently under development for early OSTA Shuttle flights. The manipulation capabilities of this module are expected to meet the requirements of a wide variety of experiments. Some novel techniques in optics and control are discussed.

  7. Pixel multichip module design for a high energy physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Guilherme Cardoso et al.

    2003-11-05

    At Fermilab, a pixel detector multichip module is being developed for the BTeV experiment. The module is composed of three layers. The lowest layer is formed by the readout integrated circuits (ICs). The back of the ICs is in thermal contact with the supporting structure, while the top is flip-chip bump-bonded to the pixel sensor. A low mass flex-circuit interconnect is glued on the top of this assembly, and the readout IC pads are wire-bounded to the circuit. This paper presents recent results on the development of a multichip module prototype and summarizes its performance characteristics.

  8. Role of Antarctic circumpolar wave in modulating the extremes of Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Amita; Mahajan, P. N.; Khaladkar, R. M.; Chipade, M. D.

    2010-07-01

    Sea ice extent (SIE) over different sectors of Antarctica displays intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability. It is reflected in different atmospheric and oceanic parameters, which are characterized as the manifestation of Antarctic circumpolar wave (ACW). Due to its large areal extent, ACW is linked to the global climate. Another global phenomenon, which is instrumental for the well being of vast population of the Asian sub-continent, is the Indian summer monsoon season (June-September). The quantum of all India summer monsoon rainfall (AISMR) received during the season decides the overall economic health of the country with the extremes causing disastrous situation, in either way. In the present study, the cases of the excess monsoon and drought years of the recent decades are considered to determine the possible role played by the ACW in influencing the monsoon rainfall. The correlation analyses, carried out for a period of 26 years from 1980 to 2005, show that the SIE over the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Sea Sector (BASS) during the austral summer (October-December) has an inverse relationship with the AISMR of the following year. Further, it is revealed that the sea surface temperature and the upper tropospheric meridional transport of heat over the southeast Pacific, during the period preceding the monsoon season, show contrasting behavior with respect to the extremes of AISMR. These parameters bring out the role of both the oceanic and the atmospheric modes of the ACW in modulating the AISMR. The study has a potential application in forecasting of the monsoon rainfall a few months in advance.

  9. Validation of extremes within the Perfect-Predictor Experiment of the COST Action VALUE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertig, Elke; Maraun, Douglas; Wibig, Joanna; Vrac, Mathieu; Soares, Pedro; Bartholy, Judith; Pongracz, Rita; Mares, Ileana; Gutierrez, Jose Manuel; Casanueva, Ana; Alzbutas, Robertas

    2016-04-01

    Extreme events are of widespread concern due to their damaging consequences on natural and anthropogenic systems. From science to applications the statistical attributes of rare and infrequent occurrence and low probability become connected with the socio-economic aspect of strong impact. Specific end-user needs regarding information about extreme events depend on the type of application, but as a joining element there is always the request for easily accessible climate change information with a clear description of their uncertainties and limitations. Within the Perfect-Predictor Experiment of the COST Action VALUE extreme indices modelled from a wide range of downscaling methods are compared to reference indices calculated from observational data. The experiment uses reference data from a selection of 86 weather stations representative of the different climates in Europe. Results are presented for temperature and precipitation extremes and include aspects of the marginal distribution as well as spell-length related aspects.

  10. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy to bilateral lower limb extremities concurrently: a planning case study

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Emma Miles, Wesley; Fenton, Paul; Frantzis, Jim

    2014-09-15

    Non-melanomatous skin cancers represent 80% of all newly diagnosed cancers in Australia with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common. A previously healthy 71-year-old woman presented with widespread and tender superficial skin cancers on the lower bilateral limbs. External beam radiation therapy through the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was employed as the treatment modality of choice as this technique provides conformal dose distribution to a three-dimensional treatment volume while reducing toxicity to surrounding tissues. The patient was prescribed a dose of 60 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) with 1.0 cm bolus over the ventral surface of each limb. The beam arrangement consisted of six treatment fields that avoided entry and exit through the contralateral limb. The treatment plans met the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) guidelines and produced highly conformal dosimetric results. Skin toxicity was measured against the National Cancer Institute: Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI: CTCAE) version 3. A well-tolerated treatment was delivered with excellent results given the initial extent of the disease. This case study has demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of IMRT for skin cancers as an alternative to surgery and traditional superficial radiation therapy, utilising a complex PTV of the extremities for patients with similar presentations.

  11. The Leisure Experience. Leisure Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Anthony; And Others

    This module on the leisure experience is intended to give the supervisor or manager an understanding of the nature and scope of the leisure market and key trends and developments. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in three sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a…

  12. Teaching Assembly for Disassembly; An Under-Graduate Module Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandri, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about the experience of teaching Assembly for Disassembly to fourth year architect students within the module of sustainable design. When designing a sustainable building one should take into consideration the fact that the building is going to be demolished in some years; thus the materials should be assembled in such a way so that…

  13. Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minerick, Adrienne R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

  14. ITEL experiment module and its flight on MASER 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, Olle; Broxvall, Maurits; Löth, Kenneth; Andersson, Patrik; Houltz, Ylva

    2005-08-01

    The Interfacial Turbulence in Evaporating Liquids (ITEL) experiment module flew in microgravity during 6 minutes and 1 second on the Sounding Rocket MASER 10 on May 2, 2005. Swedish Space Corporation and Lambda-X, Belgium, developed the ITEL module under contract from the European Space Agency (ESA). The objective of the experiment was to observe cellular convection (Marangoni-Bénard instability) in an evaporating highly volative liquid with a free surface. The experiment module contains the experiment cell. An interferometric optical tomograph, with six viewing directions, measures the 3-dimensional distribution of temperature in the evaporating liquid and a Schlieren optical system visualizes the convective motions and deformations of the liquid surface. After microgravity is achieved, the liquid is injected into the cell and a free liquid surface is established and kept flat. The evaporation rate of the free surface is controlled by regulating the gas pressure and gas flow. The two optical systems worked nominally during the flight and the scientific results are under evaluation.

  15. Modulation depth enhancement of ESEEM experiments using pulse trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrikas, George; Prokopiou, Georgia

    2015-05-01

    We present a new way to increase the modulation amplitude of electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments that are based on electron spin coherence. The method uses a train of N refocusing π -pulses where each one of them redistributes the electron spin coherence among allowed and forbidden EPR transitions. This in turn leads to a significant enhancement of the ESEEM effect, depending on the strength of the hyperfine interaction and the number of applied pulses, N. We derive analytical expressions for a general two-dimensional (2D) scheme which is based on the refocused primary echo and we explore the expected modulation enhancement of various correlation peaks as a function of k (modulation depth parameter) and N. In addition, we inspect two different one-dimensional (1D) versions of the method, namely the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence occurring for t1 =t2, and an extension of the primary echo sequence occurring for t2 = 0 . Our study shows that these methods are particularly useful for detecting weak hyperfine couplings of magnetic nuclei having small gn factors and low natural abundances like 13C and 29 Si. The theoretically predicted features are confirmed by experiments in disordered spin systems.

  16. Modulation depth enhancement of ESEEM experiments using pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Mitrikas, George; Prokopiou, Georgia

    2015-05-01

    We present a new way to increase the modulation amplitude of electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments that are based on electron spin coherence. The method uses a train of N refocusing π-pulses where each one of them redistributes the electron spin coherence among allowed and forbidden EPR transitions. This in turn leads to a significant enhancement of the ESEEM effect, depending on the strength of the hyperfine interaction and the number of applied pulses, N. We derive analytical expressions for a general two-dimensional (2D) scheme which is based on the refocused primary echo and we explore the expected modulation enhancement of various correlation peaks as a function of k (modulation depth parameter) and N. In addition, we inspect two different one-dimensional (1D) versions of the method, namely the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence occurring for t1=t2, and an extension of the primary echo sequence occurring for t2=0. Our study shows that these methods are particularly useful for detecting weak hyperfine couplings of magnetic nuclei having small gn factors and low natural abundances like (13)C and (29)Si. The theoretically predicted features are confirmed by experiments in disordered spin systems. PMID:25838255

  17. A Multi-Model Examination of Climate Extremes in an Idealized Geoengineering Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, C.; Sillmann, J.; Bronaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature and precipitation extremes in an idealized climate engineering experiment are examined as part of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). In GeoMIP experiment G1, an instantaneous quadrupling of CO2 from its preindustrial control value is offset by a reduction in solar irradiance. Significant changes in the probability density functions of anomalies of monthly surface temperature T and precipitation P were found between G1 and control simulations, featuring an extension of the high-T tail over land, of the low-T tail over ocean, and a shift of P to drier conditions. Using daily model output, we analyzed the frequency of extreme events, such as the coldest night (TNn), warmest day (TXx), and maximum 5-day precipitation amount, and duration indicators such as cold and warm spells and consecutive dry days. The strong heating of the northern high latitudes simulated under CO2 quadrupling is much alleviated under G1, but a significant warming remains, particularly for TNn compared to TXx. Rapid responses tied to land-atmosphere surface energy balance and biogeochemical processes lead to regional increases in absorbed solar radiation at the surface, preferentially increasing monthly mean and maximum daily temperatures over Northern Hemisphere land in summer. Conversely, a cooling of the tropical oceans is reflected in both TNn and TXx, causing a marked increase in cold spell duration. Globally, G1 is more effective in reducing changes in temperature extremes compared to precipitation extremes. Compared to changes in mean values under G1, precipitation extremes are reduced more effectively than means; however, the opposite is true of temperature extremes. The results of our study underline that despite the by-design global efficacy of geoengineering, significant regional disparities in climate change persist, particularly with respect to climate extremes

  18. Modulator-Based, High Bandwidth Optical Links for HEP Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, David G.; Drake, G.; Fernando, W. S.; Stanek, R. W.

    2013-10-01

    As a concern with the reliability, bandwidth and mass of future optical links in LHC experiments, we are investigating CW lasers and light modulators as an alternative to VCSELs. These links will be particularly useful if they utilize light modulators which are very small, low power, high bandwidth, and are very radiation hard. We have constructed a test system with 3 such links, each operating at 10 Gb/s. We present the quality of these links (jitter, rise and fall time, BER) and eye mask margins (10GbE) for 3 different types of modulators: LiNbO3-based, InP-based, and Si-based. We present the results of radiation hardness measurements with up to ~1012 protons/cm2 and ~65 krad total ionizing dose (TID), confirming no single event effects (SEE) at 10 Gb/s with either of the 3 types of modulators. These optical links will be an integral part of intelligent tracking systems at various scales from coupled sensors through intra-module and off detector communication. We have used a Si-based photonic transceiver to build a complete 40 Gb/s bi-directional link (10 Gb/s in each of four fibers) for a 100m run and have characterized it to compare with standard VCSEL-based optical links. Some future developments of optical modulator-based high bandwidth optical readout systems, and applications based on both fiber and free space data links, such as local triggering and data readout and trigger-clock distribution, are also discussed.

  19. Self-Recovery Experiments in Extreme Environments Using a Field Programmable Transistor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Arslan, Tughrul; Duong, Vu; Zebulum, Ricardo; Ferguson, Ian; Guo, Xin

    2004-01-01

    Temperature and radiation tolerant electronics, as well as long life survivability are key capabilities required for future NASA missions. Current approaches to electronics for extreme environments focus on component level robustness and hardening. However, current technology can only ensure very limited lifetime in extreme environments. This paper describes novel experiments that allow adaptive in-situ circuit redesign/reconfiguration during operation in extreme temperature and radiation environments. This technology would complement material/device advancements and increase the mission capability to survive harsh environments. The approach is demonstrated on a mixed-signal programmable chip (FPTA-2), which recovers functionality for temperatures until 28 C and with total radiation dose up to 250kRad.

  20. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  1. Sexual Experience Modulates Neuronal Activity in Male Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Can, Adem; Domjan, Michael; Delville, Yvon

    2008-01-01

    After an initial increase, repeated exposure to a particular stimulus or familiarity with an event results in lower immediate early gene expression levels in relevant brain structures. We predicted that similar effects would occur in Japanese quail after repeated sexual experience within brain areas involved in sexual behavior, namely, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), and the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA), an avian homolog of medial amygdala. High experience subjects copulated with a female once on each of 16 consecutive days, whereas low experience subjects were allowed to copulate either once or twice. Control subjects were never exposed to a female. High experience subjects were faster to initiate sexual interaction, performed more cloacal contacts, and completed each cloacal contact faster than low experience subjects. Low experience subjects showed an increase in egr-1 (ZENK) expression, an immediate early gene product used as marker of neural activation in birds, in the areas of interest. In contrast, in high experience animals, egr-1 expression in the POM, BST and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) was not different than the level of expression in unmated controls. These results show that experience modulates the level of immediate early gene expression in the case of sexual behavior. Our results also indicate that immediate early gene expression in specific brain areas is not necessarily related to behavioral output, but depends on the behavioral history of the subjects. PMID:17826778

  2. ITEL Experiment Module and its Flight on MASER9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löth, K.; Schneider, H.; Larsson, B.; Jansson, O.; Houltz, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The ITEL (Interfacial Turbulence in Evaporating Liquid) module is built under contract from the European Space Agency (ESA) and is scheduled to fly onboard a Sounding Rocket (MASER 9) in March 2002. The project is conducted by Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) with Lambda-X as a subcontractor responsible for the optical system. The Principle Investigator is Pierre Colinet from Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). The experiment in ITEL on Maser 9 is part of a research program, which will make use of the International Space Station. The purpose of the flight on Maser 9 is to observe the cellular convection (Marangoni-Bénard instability) which arise when the surface tension varies with temperature yielding thermocapillary instabilities. During the 6 minutes of microgravity of the ITEL experiment, a highly volatile liquid layer (ethyl alcohol) will be evaporated, and the convection phenomena generated by the evaporation process will be visualized. Due to the cooling by latent heat consumption at the level of the evaporating free surface, a temperature gradient is induced perpendicularly to it. The flight experiment module contains one experiment cell, including a gas system for regulation of nitrogen flow over the evaporating surface and an injection unit that is used for injection of liquid into the cell both initially and during surface regulation. The experiment cell is equipped with pressure and flow sensors as well as thermocouples both inside the liquid and at different positions in the cell. Two optical diagnostic systems have been developed around the experiment cell. An interferometric optical tomograph measures the 3-dimensional distribution of temperature in the evaporating liquid and a Schlieren system visualizes the temperature gradients inside the liquid together with the liquid surface deformation. A PC/104 based electronic system is used for management and control of the experiment. The electronic system handles measurements, housekeeping, image

  3. Experience Modulates Vicarious Freezing in Rats: A Model for Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Atsak, Piray; Orre, Marie; Bakker, Petra; Cerliani, Leonardo; Roozendaal, Benno

    2011-01-01

    The study of the neural basis of emotional empathy has received a surge of interest in recent years but mostly employing human neuroimaging. A simpler animal model would pave the way for systematic single cell recordings and invasive manipulations of the brain regions implicated in empathy. Recent evidence has been put forward for the existence of empathy in rodents. In this study, we describe a potential model of empathy in female rats, in which we studied interactions between two rats: a witness observes a demonstrator experiencing a series of footshocks. By comparing the reaction of witnesses with or without previous footshock experience, we examine the role of prior experience as a modulator of empathy. We show that witnesses having previously experienced footshocks, but not naïve ones, display vicarious freezing behavior upon witnessing a cage-mate experiencing footshocks. Strikingly, the demonstrator's behavior was in turn modulated by the behavior of the witness: demonstrators froze more following footshocks if their witness froze more. Previous experiments have shown that rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) when receiving footshocks. Thus, the role of USV in triggering vicarious freezing in our paradigm is examined. We found that experienced witness-demonstrator pairs emitted more USVs than naïve witness-demonstrator pairs, but the number of USVs was correlated with freezing in demonstrators, not in witnesses. Furthermore, playing back the USVs, recorded from witness-demonstrator pairs during the empathy test, did not induce vicarious freezing behavior in experienced witnesses. Thus, our findings confirm that vicarious freezing can be triggered in rats, and moreover it can be modulated by prior experience. Additionally, our result suggests that vicarious freezing is not triggered by USVs per se and it influences back onto the behavior of the demonstrator that had elicited the vicarious freezing in witnesses, introducing a paradigm to study empathy

  4. Postnatal Experience Modulates Functional Properties of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiwei; Tian, Huikai; Lee, Anderson C.; Ma, Minghong

    2012-01-01

    Early experience considerably modulates the organization and function of all sensory systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, deprivation of the sensory inputs via neonatal, unilateral naris closure has been shown to induce structural, molecular, and functional changes from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb and cortex. However, it remains unknown how early experience shapes functional properties of individual olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the primary odor detectors in the nose. To address this question, we examined odorant response properties of mouse OSNs in both the closed and open nostril after four weeks of unilateral naris closure with age-matched untreated animals as control. Using patch-clamp technique on genetically-tagged OSNs with defined odorant receptors (ORs), we found that sensory deprivation increased the sensitivity of MOR23 neurons in the closed side while overexposure caused the opposite effect in the open side. We next analyzed the response properties including rise time, decay time, and adaptation induced by repeated stimulation in MOR23 and M71 neurons. Even though these two types of neurons showed distinct properties in dynamic range and response kinetics, sensory deprivation significantly slowed down the decay phase of odorant-induced transduction events in both types. Using western blotting and antibody staining, we confirmed upregulation of several signaling proteins in the closed side as compared with the open side. This study suggests that early experience modulates functional properties of OSNs, probably via modifying the signal transduction cascade. PMID:22703547

  5. Quantifying uncertainties in projections of climate extremes — a perturbed land surface parameter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Erich; Lawrence, David; Sanderson, Ben

    2010-05-01

    Changes in frequency, intensity and duration of climate extremes have socio-economic impacts that reach far beyond the effects of rising global mean temperatures. We explore changes in climate extremes in response to a doubling of CO2 and corresponding uncertainties using a perturbed physics ensemble. Based on NCAR CCSM 3.5 with a mixed-layer ocean, a 108 member ensemble experiment is performed by perturbing five poorly constrained land surface model parameters individually and in all possible combinations. While the ensemble range of climate sensitivity is found to be substantially smaller than in corresponding atmospheric ensembles, temperature variability changes are highly sensitive to land surface parameter changes. These variability changes have strong implications for the tails of the temperature distribution, the extreme events. Consequently uncertainties of cold and heat extremes induced by poorly constrained land surface parameters are very large. Furthermore, simple land surface parameter perturbations regionally alter the sign of the precipitation response to increased greenhouse gas concentrations. Projections of droughts and heavy rainfall events are highly sensitive to land surface parameters.

  6. Automatized segmentation of photovoltaic modules in IR-images with extreme noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Andreas; Hepp, Johannes; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2016-05-01

    Local electric defects may result in considerable performance losses in solar cells. Infrared thermography is an essential tool to detect these defects on photovoltaic modules. Accordingly, IR-thermography is frequently used in R&D labs of PV manufactures and, furthermore, outdoors in order to identify faulty modules in PV-power plants. Massive amount of data is acquired which needs to be analyzed. An automatized method for detecting solar modules in IR-images would enable a faster and automatized analysis of the data. However, IR-images tend to suffer from rather large noise, which makes an automatized segmentation challenging. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable segmentation algorithm for R&D labs. We propose an algorithm, which detects a solar cell or module within an IR-image with large noise. We tested the algorithm on images of 10 PV-samples characterized by highly sensitive dark lock-in thermography (DLIT). The algorithm proved to be very reliable in detecting correctly the solar module. In our study, we focused on thin film solar cells, however, a transfer of the algorithm to other cell types is straight forward.

  7. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Lawrence W.; Bibyk, Irene K.

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which are artificially biased to high positive and negative direct current (DC) voltages. The two environmental interactions of interest included high voltage arcing from the samples to the space plasma and parasitic current losses. High voltage arcing can cause physical damage to power system materials and shorten expected hardware life. parasitic current losses can reduce power system efficiency because electric currents generated in a power system drain into the surrounding plasma via parasitic resistance. The flight electronics included two programmable high voltage DC power supplies to bias the experiment samples, instruments to measure the surrounding plasma environment in the STS cargo bay, and the on-board data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS provided in-flight experiment control, data storage, and communications through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Hitchhiker flight avionics to the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The DAS and the SAMPIE POCC computer systems were designed for telescience operations; this paper will focus on the experiences of the SAMPIE team regarding telescience development and operations from the GSFC POCC during STS-62. The SAMPIE conceptual development, hardware design, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). SAMPIE was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology. The IN-STEP Program is sponsored by the Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT).

  8. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, L.W.; Bibyk, I.K.

    1995-09-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which are artificially biased to high positive and negative direct current (DC) voltages. The two environmental interactions of interest included high voltage arcing from the samples to the space plasma and parasitic current losses. High voltage arcing can cause physical damage to power system materials and shorten expected hardware life. Parasitic current losses can reduce power system efficiency because electric currents generated in a power system drain into the surrounding plasma via parasitic resistance. The flight electronics included two programmable high voltage DC power supplies to bias the experiment samples, instruments to measure the surrounding plasma environment in the STS cargo bay, and the on-board data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS provided in-flight experiment control, data storage, and communications through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Hitchhiker flight avionics to the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The DAS and the SAMPIE POCC computer systems were designed for telescience operations; this paper will focus on the experiences of the SAMPIE team regarding telescience development and operations from the GSFC POCC during STS-62. The SAMPIE conceptual development, hardware design, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). SAMPIE was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology.

  9. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  10. Observational constraints of stellar collapse: Diagnostic probes of nature's extreme matter experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L. Even, Wesley; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Wong, Tsing-Wai

    2014-04-15

    Supernovae are Nature's high-energy, high density laboratory experiments, reaching densities in excess of nuclear densities and temperatures above 10 MeV. Astronomers have built up a suite of diagnostics to study these supernovae. If we can utilize these diagnostics, and tie them together with a theoretical understanding of supernova physics, we can use these cosmic explosions to study the nature of matter at these extreme densities and temperatures. Capitalizing on these diagnostics will require understanding a wide range of additional physics. Here we review the diagnostics and the physics neeeded to use them to learn about the supernova engine, and ultimate nuclear physics.

  11. Gedanken experiments on nearly extremal black holes and the third law

    SciTech Connect

    Chirco, Goffredo; Liberati, Stefano; Sotiriou, Thomas P.

    2010-11-15

    A gedanken experiment in which a black hole is pushed to spin at its maximal rate by tossing into it a test body is considered. After demonstrating that this is kinematically possible for a test body made of reasonable matter, we focus on its implications for black hole thermodynamics and the apparent violation of the third law (unattainability of the extremal black hole). We argue that this is not an actual violation, due to subtleties in the absorption process of the test body by the black hole, which are not captured by the purely kinematic considerations.

  12. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, R. A.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Woods, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. ( Solar Phys., 2010, doi:10.1007/s11207-009-9485-8). In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  13. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  14. EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) in Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Algorithms and Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Woods, T.; Jones, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP) is one of five channels of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The ESP channel design is based on a highly stable diffraction transmission grating and is an advanced version of the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), which has been successfully observing solar irradiance onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) since December 1995. ESP is designed to measure solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) irradiance in four first-order bands of the diffraction grating centered around 19 nm, 25 nm, 30 nm, and 36 nm, and in a soft X-ray band from 0.1 to 7.0 nm in the zeroth-order of the grating. Each band’s detector system converts the photo-current into a count rate (frequency). The count rates are integrated over 0.25-second increments and transmitted to the EVE Science and Operations Center for data processing. An algorithm for converting the measured count rates into solar irradiance and the ESP calibration parameters are described. The ESP pre-flight calibration was performed at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Calibration parameters were used to calculate absolute solar irradiance from the sounding-rocket flight measurements on 14 April 2008. These irradiances for the ESP bands closely match the irradiance determined for two other EUV channels flown simultaneously: EVE’s Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) and SOHO’s Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System/ Solar EUV Monitor (CELIAS/SEM).

  15. Apollo experience report. Guidance and control systems: Orbital rate drive electronics for the Apollo command module and lunar module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. B.; Sollock, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    A brief record of the development and use of the orbital-rate-drive assembly in the Apollo Program is presented. This device was procured as government-furnished equipment and was used on both the lunar module and the command module. Reviews of design, development, procurement, and flight experience are included.

  16. An extreme ultraviolet spectrometer experiment for the Shuttle Get Away Special Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, R. R.; Mccoy, R. P.; Meier, R. R.; Mount, G. H.; Prinz, D. K.; Young, J. M.; Carruthers, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer experiment operated successfully during the STS-7 mission in an experiment to measure the global and diurnal variation of the EUV airglow. The spectrometer is an F 3.5 Wadsworth mount with mechanical collimator, a 75 x 75 mm grating, and a bare microchannel plate detector providing a spectral resolution of 7 X FWHM. Read-out of the signal is through discrete channels or resistive anode techniques. The experiment includes a microcomputer, 20 Mbit tape recorder, and a 28V, 40 Ahr silver-zinc battery. It is the first GAS payload to use an opening door. The spectrometer's 0.1 x 4.2 deg field of view is pointed vertically out of the shuttle bay. During the STS-7 flight data were acquired continuously for a period of 5 hours and 37 minutes, providing spectra of the 570 A to 850 A wavelength region of the airglow. Five diurnal cycles of the 584 A emission of neutral helium and the 834 A emission of ionized atomic oxygen were recorded. The experiment also recorded ion events and pressure pulses associated with thruster firings. The experiment is to fly again on Mission 41-F.

  17. Visual Experience Modulates Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Circuit Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lang; Fontanini, Alfredo; Maffei, Arianna

    2011-01-01

    Persistent reduction in sensory drive in early development results in multiple plastic changes of different cortical synapses. How these experience-dependent modifications affect the spatio-temporal dynamics of signal propagation in neocortical circuits is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that brief visual deprivation significantly affects the propagation of electrical signals in the primary visual cortex. The spatio-temporal spread of circuit activation upon direct stimulation of its input layer (Layer 4) is reduced, as is the activation of L2/3 – the main recipient of the output from L4. Our data suggest that the decrease in spatio-temporal activation of L2/3 depends on reduced L4 output, and is not intrinsically generated within L2/3. The data shown here suggest that changes in the synaptic components of the visual cortical circuit result not only in alteration of local integration of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, but also in a significant decrease in overall circuit activation. Furthermore, our data indicate a differential effect of visual deprivation on L4 and L2/3, suggesting that while feedforward activation of L2/3 is reduced, its activation by long range, within layer inputs is unaltered. Thus, brief visual deprivation induces experience-dependent circuit re-organization by modulating not only circuit excitability, but also the spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation within and between layers. PMID:21743804

  18. Evaluation of restraint system concepts for the Japanese Experiment Module flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.; Backemeyer, Lynn A.

    1995-01-01

    The current International Space Station configuration includes a Japanese Experiment Module which relies on a large manipulator and a smaller dexterous manipulator to operate outside the pressurized environment of the experiment module. The module's flight demonstration is a payload that will be mounted in the aft flight deck on STS-87 to evaluate a prototype of the dexterous manipulator. Since the payload operations entail two 8-hour scenarios on consecutive days, adequate operator restraint at the workstation will be critical to the perceived success or failure of the payload. Simulations in reduced gravity environment on the KC-135A were the only way to evaluate the restraint systems and workstation configuration. Two astronaut and two non-astronaut operators evaluated the Advanced Lower Body Extremities Restraint Test and a foot loop restraint system by performing representative tasks at the workstation in each of the two restraint systems; at the end of each flight they gave their impressions of each system and the workstation. Results indicated that access to the workstation switch panels was difficult and manipulation of the hand controllers forced operators too low for optimal viewing of the aft flight deck monitors. The workstation panel should be angled for better visibility, and infrequently used switches should be on the aft flight deck panel. Pitch angle and placement of the hand controllers should optimize the operator's eye position with respect to the monitors. The lower body restraint was preferred over the foot loops because it allowed operators to maintain a more relaxed posture during long-duration tasks, its height adjustability allowed better viewing of aft flight deck monitors, and it provided better restraint for reacting forces imparted on the operator at the workstation. The foot loops provide adequate restraint for the flight demonstration tasks identified. Since results will impact the design of the workstation, both restraints should be

  19. Students' Design of Experiments: An Inquiry Module on the Conduction of Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzikraniotis, E.; Kallery, M.; Molohidis, A.; Psillos, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines secondary students' design of experiments after engagement in an innovative and inquiry-oriented module on heat transfer. The module consists of an integration of hands-on experiments, simulated experiments and microscopic model simulations, includes a structured series of guided investigative tasks and was implemented for a…

  20. The extreme relativity of perception: A new contextual effect modulates human resolving power.

    PubMed

    Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action. PMID:26854497

  1. Maternal Microbe-Specific Modulation of Inflammatory Response in Extremely Low-Gestational-Age Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Yamamoto, Hidemi; Delaney, Mary L.; DuBois, Andrea M.; Allred, Elizabeth; Leviton, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The fetal response to intrauterine inflammatory stimuli appears to contribute to the onset of preterm labor as well as fetal injury, especially affecting newborns of extremely low gestational age. To investigate the role of placental colonization by specific groups of microorganisms in the development of inflammatory responses present at birth, we analyzed 25 protein biomarkers in dry blood spots obtained from 527 newborns delivered by Caesarean section in the 23rd to 27th gestation weeks. Bacteria were detected in placentas and characterized by culture techniques. Odds ratios for having protein concentrations in the top quartile for gestation age for individual and groups of microorganisms were calculated. Mixed bacterial vaginosis (BV) organisms were associated with a proinflammatory pattern similar to those of infectious facultative anaerobes. Prevotella and Gardnerella species, anaerobic streptococci, peptostreptococci, and genital mycoplasmas each appeared to be associated with a different pattern of elevated blood levels of inflammation-related proteins. Lactobacillus was associated with low odds of an inflammatory response. This study provides evidence that microorganisms colonizing the placenta provoke distinctive newborn inflammatory responses and that Lactobacillus may suppress these responses. PMID:21264056

  2. Electride-like phases at extreme compression: towards bridging the gap between theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, Stanimir

    2015-06-01

    The transformation of materials into electride-like structures under the application of extreme pressure has attracted a lot of interest recently. Theoretical studies have predicted the existence of low-coordinated crystal phases, where the conduction electrons are localized in the interstitial atomic regions, for a number of elements at high density. Most of these works have been limited to static lattice calculations. The pressures where such transformations are projected to occur are accessible in shock-wave experiments, but at elevated temperatures. In this talk I will discuss the temperature dependence of elecride structures, both solids and liquids, as well as the requirements for their accurate simulation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. An extreme ultraviolet Michelson interferometer for experiments at free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hilbert, Vinzenz; Fuchs, Silvio; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Zastrau, Ulf; Blinne, Alexander; Feigl, Torsten; Kämpfer, Tino; Rödel, Christian; Uschmann, Ingo; Wünsche, Martin; Förster, Eckhart

    2013-09-15

    We present a Michelson interferometer for 13.5 nm soft x-ray radiation. It is characterized in a proof-of-principle experiment using synchrotron radiation, where the temporal coherence is measured to be 13 fs. The curvature of the thin-film beam splitter membrane is derived from the observed fringe pattern. The applicability of this Michelson interferometer at intense free-electron lasers is investigated, particularly with respect to radiation damage. This study highlights the potential role of such Michelson interferometers in solid density plasma investigations using, for instance, extreme soft x-ray free-electron lasers. A setup using the Michelson interferometer for pseudo-Nomarski-interferometry is proposed.

  4. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments at DIII-D used an active-coil mock-up to investigate effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from two ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in one ITER equatorial port. The largest and most prevalent observed effect was plasma toroidal rotation slowing across the entire radial profile, up to 60% in H-mode when the mock-up local ripple at the plasma was ˜4 times the local ripple expected in front of ITER TBMs. Analysis showed the slowing to be consistent with non-resonant braking by the mock-up field. There was no evidence of strong electromagnetic braking by resonant harmonics. These results are consistent with the near absence of resonant helical harmonics in the TBM field. Global particle and energy confinement in H-mode decreased by <20% for the maximum mock-up ripple, but <5% at the local ripple expected in ITER. These confinement reductions may be linked with the large velocity reductions. TBM field effects were small in L-mode but increased with plasma beta. The L-H power threshold was unaffected within error bars. The mock-up field increased plasma sensitivity to mode locking by a known n=1 test field (n = toroidal harmonic number). In H-mode the increased locking sensitivity was from TBM torque slowing plasma rotation. At low beta, locked mode tolerance was fully recovered by re-optimizing the conventional DIII-D ``I-coils'' empirical compensation of n=1 errors in the presence of the TBM mock-up field. Empirical error compensation in H-mode should be addressed in future experiments. Global loss of injected neutral beam fast ions was within error bars, but 1 MeV fusion triton loss may have increased. The many DIII-D mock-up results provide important benchmarks for models needed to predict effects of TBMs in ITER.

  5. Field Experience with 3-Sun Mirror Module Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis; Avery, James E.; Huang, H,; Minkin, Leonid M; Fraas, J. X.; Maxey, L Curt; Gehl, Anthony C

    2008-01-01

    JX Crystals 3-sun PV mirror modules have now been operating in four separate systems in the field for up to 2 years. Two post-mounted 2-axis tracking arrays of 12 modules each were installed at the Shanghai Flower Park in April of 2006. Then 672 modules were installed in a 100 kW array on N-S horizontal beam trackers at the Shanghai Flower Port in November of 2006. Finally, sets of 4 modules were installed on azimuth-tracking carousels on buildings at the Oak Ridge National Lab and at the U. of Nevada in Las Vegas in late 2007. All of these modules in each of these systems are still operating at their initial power ratings. No degradation in performance has been observed. The benefit of these 3-sun PV mirror modules is that they use 1/3 of the silicon single-crystal cell material in comparison to traditional planar modules. Since aluminum mirrors are much cheaper than high-purity single-crystal silicon-cells, these modules and systems should be much lower in cost when manufactured in high volume.

  6. Modern optical signal processing experiments demonstrating intensity and pulse-width modulation using an acousto-optic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; McNeill, Mark D.; Moore, Daniel J.

    1997-09-01

    Two experiments are presented to introduce undergraduate students in electrical engineering or physics to modern optical signal processing. Both experiments use an acousto-optic (AO) Bragg cell together with additional electronics to modify the intensity of a laser beam. Specifically, we show how an AO feedback system operating in the Bragg regime can be configured to produce amplitude modulated (AM) and pulse-width modulated optical signals. The basic components of the AO feedback system include a laser, an AO Bragg cell, an electronic AM modulator, a photodetector, an amplifier, and an electronic adder. Except for the laser, the AM modulator, and the Bragg cell, each of these components can be constructed with low cost electronics. A tutorial outlining the principles of acousto-optics is included to provide sufficient understanding of the Bragg cell. The project described in the paper has been used as a demonstration for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students in electrical engineering communications and optics classes.

  7. Low Frequency Modulation of Extreme Temperature Regimes in a Changing Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Robert X.

    2014-11-24

    The project examines long-term changes in extreme temperature episodes (ETE) associated with planetary climate modes (PCMs) in both the real atmospheric and climate model simulations. The focus is on cold air outbreaks (CAOs) and warm waves (WWs) occurring over the continental US during the past 60 winters. No significant long-term trends in either WWs or CAOs are observed over the US. The annual frequency of CAOs is affected by the (i) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the Southeast US and (ii) Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern over the Northwest US. WW frequency is influenced by the (i) NAO over the eastern US and (ii) combined influence of PNA, Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and ENSO over the southern US. The collective influence of PCMs accounts for as much as 50% of the regional variability in ETE frequency. During CAO (WW) events occurring over the southeast US, there are low (high) pressure anomalies at higher atmospheric levels over the southeast US with oppositely-signed pressure anomalies in the lower atmosphere over the central US. These patterns lead to anomalous northerly (for CAOs) or southerly (for WWs) flow into the southeast leading to cold or warm surface air temperature anomalies, respectively. One distinction is that CAOs involve substantial air mass transport while WW formation is more local in nature. The primary differences among event categories are in the origin and nature of the pressure anomaly features linked to ETE onset. In some cases, PCMs help to provide a favorable environment for event onset. Heat budget analyses indicate that latitudinal transport in the lower atmosphere is the main contributor to regional cooling during CAO onset. This is partly offset by adiabatic warming associated with subsiding air. Additional diagnoses reveal that this latitudinal transport is partly due to the remote physical influence of a shallow cold pool of air trapped along the east side of the Rocky Mountains. ETE and PCM behavior is also

  8. Testing experience of photovoltaic modules for a multimegawatt power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Iliceto, A.; Previ, A.; Fleres, S.; Scuto, M.

    1994-12-31

    The planning of the 3,3 MWp photovoltaic power station of Serre (Salerno) required that ENEL performed a complete set of tests, both on the module types proposed by five pv module manufacturers (type test), and during the test sessions at manufacturer`s site on the batches of modules to be shipped to Serre (acceptance tests), and at the assembly line at Serre on the pv panels (on field tests). Type tests on modules were performed by JRC and CONPHOEBUS, module acceptance tests were performed by CONPHOEBUS and CISE, on field tests were performed by CONPHOEBUS. A list of the tests performed, and the most frequent defects encountered during the testing sessions will be shown in this paper. It is important to note that the aim of these notes is not to give a mark to any PV supplier, but only to put in evidence the actual state of the art of photovoltaic industry.

  9. Extremely low level of Ag nanoparticle excretion from mice brain in in vivo experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antsiferova, A.; Buzulukov, Yu; Demin, V.; Kashkarov, P.; Kovalchuk, M.; Petritskaya, E.

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticle accumulation in mice organs as well as the excretion processes from them were studied. The investigation included a one-time oral administration of silver nanoparticles and a series of prolonged oral administrations of the same nanoparticles to study the long-term impact of the nanoparticles. In these experiments, the mice had been fed with colloid silver and in these prolonged experiments, administrations lasted for 2 months. The nanoparticle administration was then cancelled for one month. The elemental composition of tissue samples was studied by Nuclear Physical technique, which allowed us to obtain the masses of the key element, namely silver. It was demonstrated that silver concentrations in tissues were redistributed with time. The main result of this work was the discovery of extremely low level of silver nanoparticle excretion from mice brain (just 6% per month) following the cancellation of NP administration. However, the rates of excretion from blood and liver appeared to be rather high (about 80% per month). Thus, the accumulation effect of silver nanoparticles in the mice brain was observed, which is of great practical importance. It changes the approach to the toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles as a result of the prolonged injection of colloidal silver.

  10. Experiments on screening effect in deuteron fusion reactions at extremely low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targosz-Ślȩczka, N.; Czerski, K.; Huke, A.; Ruprecht, G.; Weissbach, D.; Martin, L.; Kiliç, A. i.; Kaczmarski, M.; Winter, H.

    2013-10-01

    The enhanced electron screening effect in nuclear reactions taking place in dense astrophysical plasmas is extremely important for determination of stellar reaction rates in terrestrial laboratories as well as in prediction of cross sections enhancement in interiors of stars such as White and Brown Dwarfs or Giant Planets. This effect resulting in reduction of the nuclear Coulomb potential by the atomic electrons has been confirmed in many laboratory experiments. Unfortunately, experimental screening energies are much higher than the theoretical predictions and the reason for that remains unknown. Here, we present absorbing results of the experiment studying d + d nuclear reactions in different deuterized metallic targets under ultra high vacuum conditions. The total cross sections and angular distributions of the 2H( d, p)3H and 2H( d, n)3He reactions have been measured using a deuteron beam of energies between 8 and 30 keV provided by the electron cyclotron ion source. The atomic cleanness of the target surface has been secured by combining Ar sputtering of the target and Auger electrons spectroscopy. Due to application of an on-line analysis method, the homogeneity of the implanted deuteron densities could be continuously monitored. We will discuss probable causes of the large discrepancy between theoretical and experimental data.

  11. Modulational Instability in a Layered Kerr Medium: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centurion, Martin; Porter, Mason A.; Pu, Ye; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Psaltis, Demetri

    2006-12-01

    We present the first experimental investigation of modulational instability in a layered Kerr medium. The particularly interesting and appealing feature of our configuration, consisting of alternating glass-air layers, is the piecewise-constant nature of the material properties, which allows a theoretical linear stability analysis leading to a Kronig-Penney equation whose forbidden bands correspond to the modulationally unstable regimes. We find very good quantitative agreement between theoretical, numerical, and experimental diagnostics of the modulational instability. Because of the periodicity in the evolution variable arising from the layered medium, there are multiple instability regions rather than just one as in a uniform medium.

  12. Experience with CPV Module Failures at NREL (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.

    2012-03-01

    The failures and performance issues associated with three years of on-sun testing of CPV modules are discussed. Pictures of various failure mechanisms and performance issues are presented. A wide array of CPV module failures and performance issues have been experienced at NREL. Many of the modules are prototypes and have not been through qualification testing. It is assumed that the qualification test would have captured many of the problems. Internal lens soiling due to condensation is not currently captured by the qualification test. Lens temperature dependence can be built into modeling if CPV is to operate in cold locations.

  13. Matter under extreme conditions experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Barbrel, B.; Brown, S. B.; Chapman, D. A.; Chen, Z.; Curry, C. B.; Fiuza, F.; Gamboa, E.; Gauthier, M.; Gericke, D. O.; Gleason, A.; Goede, S.; Granados, E.; Heimann, P.; Kim, J.; Kraus, D.; MacDonald, M. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Mishra, R.; Ravasio, A.; Roedel, C.; Sperling, P.; Schumaker, W.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Vorberger, J.; Zastrau, U.; Fry, A.; White, W. E.; Hasting, J. B.; Lee, H. J.

    2016-05-01

    The matter in extreme conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a new tool enabling accurate pump–probe measurements for studying the physical properties of matter in the high-energy density (HED) physics regime. This instrument combines the world’s brightest x-ray source, the LCLS x-ray beam, with high-power lasers consisting of two nanosecond Nd:glass laser beams and one short-pulse Ti:sapphire laser. These lasers produce short-lived states of matter with high pressures, high temperatures or high densities with properties that are important for applications in nuclear fusion research, laboratory astrophysics and the development of intense radiation sources. In the first experiments, we have performed highly accurate x-ray diffraction and x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on shock-compressed matter resolving the transition from compressed solid matter to a co-existence regime and into the warm dense matter state. These complex charged-particle systems are dominated by strong correlations and quantum effects. They exist in planetary interiors and laboratory experiments, e.g., during high-power laser interactions with solids or the compression phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions. Applying record peak brightness x-rays resolves the ionic interactions at atomic (Ångstrom) scale lengths and measure the static structure factor, which is a key quantity for determining equation of state data and important transport coefficients. Simultaneously, spectrally resolved measurements of plasmon features provide dynamic structure factor information that yield temperature and density with unprecedented precision at micron-scale resolution in dynamic compression experiments. These studies have demonstrated our ability to measure fundamental thermodynamic properties that determine the state of matter in the HED physics regime.

  14. Mars Greenhouse Experiment Module: An Experiment to Grow Flowers on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCallum, T. K.; Poynter, J. E.; McKay, C. P.

    2000-07-01

    NASA has entered a new phase of in-depth exploration of the planets where robotic exploration of the Solar System is focusing on in-situ missions that pave the way for human exploration. Creating a human presence on Mars will require specialized knowledge and experience concerning the Martian environment and validated technologies that will provide life-supporting consumables. An understanding of the response of terrestrial organisms to the Martian environment with respect to potential deleterious effects on crew health and changes to biological processes will be paramount. In response to these challenges an innovative selfcontained flight experiment is proposed, which is designed to assess the biocompatibility of the Martian environment by germinating seeds and following their growth through to flowering. The experiment, dubbed Mars Greenhouse Experiment Module (Mars GEM), will be accomplished in a sealed pressurized growth chamber or 'Mars Greenhouse'. Seeds will be grown in Martian soil and the Mars Greenhouse will provide ultraviolet-radiation protected, thermal-controlled environment for plant growth that actively controls the CO2 (required nutrient) and O2 (generated by the plants) levels in the chamber. The simple, but visually dramatic, demonstration of the potential to grow a plant in a man-made environment on the surface of Mars should establish a strong connection between current robotic missions and future human habitation on Mars.

  15. Mars Greenhouse Experiment Module: An Experiment to Grow Flowers on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCallum, T. K.; Poynter, J. E.; McKay, C. P.

    2000-01-01

    NASA has entered a new phase of in-depth exploration of the planets where robotic exploration of the Solar System is focusing on in-situ missions that pave the way for human exploration. Creating a human presence on Mars will require specialized knowledge and experience concerning the Martian environment and validated technologies that will provide life-supporting consumables. An understanding of the response of terrestrial organisms to the Martian environment with respect to potential deleterious effects on crew health and changes to biological processes will be paramount. In response to these challenges an innovative selfcontained flight experiment is proposed, which is designed to assess the biocompatibility of the Martian environment by germinating seeds and following their growth through to flowering. The experiment, dubbed Mars Greenhouse Experiment Module (Mars GEM), will be accomplished in a sealed pressurized growth chamber or 'Mars Greenhouse'. Seeds will be grown in Martian soil and the Mars Greenhouse will provide ultraviolet-radiation protected, thermal-controlled environment for plant growth that actively controls the CO2 (required nutrient) and O2 (generated by the plants) levels in the chamber. The simple, but visually dramatic, demonstration of the potential to grow a plant in a man-made environment on the surface of Mars should establish a strong connection between current robotic missions and future human habitation on Mars.

  16. New measurements by the TIMED solar extreme-ultraviolet experiment: Implications for thermospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Bailey, S. M.; Eparvier, F. G.; Gladstone, G. R.; Paxton, L. J.; Woods, T. N.

    2003-04-01

    The Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite, launched in December 2001, is now performing comprehensive new measurements of the solar irradiance spectrum in the extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions. The TIMED solar EUV experiment (SEE) consists of an ultraviolet spectrometer and an X-ray photometer, and performs a full-disk spectral measurement once per orbit. Comparison of TIMED/SEE measurements to contemporaneous satellite observations from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) and a calibration rocket shows that solar irradiance in the XUV spectral range, from about 1 to 25 nm, is significantly more intense than previous observations. SEE solar spectra can be used as inputs to thermosphere/ionosphere models, including photoelectron/airglow models, thermosphere global mean models, and general circulation models. The resulting revisions to predicted photoelectron fluxes, ionization rates, electron density, ion composition, odd-nitrogen composition, and airglow emission rates show improved agreement with observations. We compare predictions to measurements for some of these, including ground based measurements of ionospheric parameters and airglow measurements by the TIMED global ultraviolet imager.

  17. Versatile module for experiments with focussing neutron guides

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.; Pfleiderer, C.; Böni, P.; Brandl, G.; Chacon, A.; Wagner, J. N.; Rahn, M.; Mühlbauer, S.; Georgii, R.

    2014-09-22

    We report the development of a versatile module that permits fast and reliable use of focussing neutron guides under varying scattering angles. A simple procedure for setting up the module and neutron guides is illustrated by typical intensity patterns to highlight operational aspects as well as typical parasitic artefacts. Combining a high-precision alignment table with separate housings for the neutron guides on kinematic mounts, the change-over between neutron guides with different focussing characteristics requires no readjustments of the experimental setup. Exploiting substantial gain factors, we demonstrate the performance of this versatile neutron scattering module in a study of the effects of uniaxial stress on the domain populations in the transverse spin density wave phase of single crystal Cr.

  18. Optical interference fringe reduction in frequency-modulation spectroscopy experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjelme, Dag Roar; Neegard, Steinar; Vartdal, Erling

    1995-08-01

    We show both theoretically and experimentally that interference fringe signals can always be suppressed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, provided that the modulation frequency is of the order of the absorption linewidth or higher. Suppression of optical interference fringes by more than 1 order of magnitude and signal-to-noise ratio enhancement of more than 13 dB is demonstrated by use of a proper choice of laser modulation frequency. A further fringe reduction of 10 dB is possible by adjustment of the local oscillator phase.

  19. IBL modules construction experience and developments for future upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohashi, K.

    2015-04-01

    The first upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector is the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), installed in May 2014 between the beam pipe and the original pixel detector, as the detector element closest to the interaction point. Two different silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D, were used, connected with the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 readout chip via solder bump-bonds. Production quality control tests were set up to verify and rate the performance of the modules before integration onto staves. An overview of module design and construction, the quality control results and production yield will be discussed.

  20. Observing another in pain facilitates vicarious experiences and modulates somatosensory experiences

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbroucke, Sophie; Crombez, Geert; Loeys, Tom; Goubert, Liesbet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether individuals reporting vicarious pain in daily life (e.g., the self-reported vicarious pain group) display vicarious experiences during an experimental paradigm, and also show an improved detection of somatosensory stimuli while observing another in pain. Furthermore, this study investigated the stability of these phenomena. Finally, this study explored the putative modulating role of dispositional empathy and hypervigilance for pain. Methods: Vicarious pain responders (i.e., reporting vicarious pain in daily life; N = 16) and controls (N = 19) were selected from a large sample, and viewed videos depicting pain-related (hands being pricked) and non-pain related scenes, whilst occasionally experiencing vibrotactile stimuli themselves on the left, right or both hands. Participants reported the location at which they felt a somatosensory stimulus. We calculated the number of vicarious errors (i.e., the number of trials in which an illusionary sensation was reported while observing pain-related scenes) and detection accuracy. Thirty-three participants (94.29%) took part in the same experiment 5 months later to investigate the temporal stability of the outcomes. Results: The vicarious pain group reported more vicarious errors compared with controls and this effect proved to be stable over time. Detection was facilitated while observing pain-related scenes compared with non-pain related scenes. Observers' characteristics, i.e., dispositional empathy and hypervigilance for pain, did not modulate the effects. Conclusion: Observing pain facilitates the detection of tactile stimuli, both in vicarious pain responders and controls. Interestingly, vicarious pain responders reported more vicarious errors during the experimental paradigm compared to controls and this effect remained stable over time. PMID:25191251

  1. Apollo experience report: Lunar module display and control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farkas, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The lunar module display and control subsystem equipment is described with emphasis on major problems and their solutions. Included in the discussion of each item is a description of what the item does and how the item is constructed. The development, hardware history, and testing for each item are also presented.

  2. Robust estimate of dynamo thresholds in the von Kármán sodium experiment using the extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faranda, Davide; Bourgoin, Mickaël; Miralles, Sophie; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Bérengère

    2014-08-01

    We apply a new threshold detection method based on the extreme value theory (EVT) to the von Kármán sodium (VKS) experiment data. The VKS experiment is a successful attempt to get a dynamo magnetic field in a laboratory liquid-metal experiment. We first show that the dynamo threshold is associated with a change of the probability density function of the extreme values of the magnetic field. This method does not require the measurement of response functions from applied external perturbations and thus provides a simple threshold estimate. We apply our method to different configurations in the VKS experiment, showing that it yields a robust indication of the dynamo threshold as well as evidence of hysteretic behaviors. Moreover, for the experimental configurations in which a dynamo transition is not observed, the method provides a way to extrapolate an interval of possible threshold values.

  3. [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro].

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, A B; Lukyanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, we investigated protective effects of. extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in combination with the damaging effect of X-ray irradiation, the effect of damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate on DNA in mouse whole blood leukocytes. It was shown that the preliminary exposure of the cells to low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20-min exposure, modulation frequencies of 1 and 16 Hz) caused protective effects decreasing the DNA damage by 20-45%. The efficacy of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation depended on the type of genotoxic agent and increased in a row methyl methanesulfonate--X-rays--hydrogen peroxide. Continuous electromagnetic radiation was ineffective. The mechanisms of protective effects may be connected with an induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation. PMID:26591599

  4. A downscale experiment on the extreme heavy rainfall case over southern China in June 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Chen, G.; Sha, W.; Iwasaki, T.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction Extensive flood over southern China, brings a severe toll to the livelihood of local residents. Mesoscale heavy rainstorms, interacted with other multi-scale systems and structures, have played an important role in triggering and maintaining precipitation in southern China. By understanding the dynamic and physical mechanism, it is of great help to improve the predictability and accuracy for the heavy rainstorms. Thus, the motivation of the present work is to investigate the multi-scale interaction that leads to an intense precipitation case on June 2005 by carrying out the downscale experiments using a non-hydrostatic model (JMA-NHM) model. 2. Model settings In this test run, we employ three domains that focus on southern China (D1), Pearl River Delta (D2) and Guangzhou city (D3), respectively. All domains have 80*80 grids horizontal and 50 layers vertical. Their spatial resolutions are 15km, 4km and 1km. D1 run begins at 00LT on June 18 and drives D2 run after 3 hours; the later then drives D3 run after another 3 hours. 3. Results and discussion The results show that there area two east-west oriented rain belts over the eastern part of southern China during this long-lasting, wide-range heavy frontal rainfall. One is generated over the inland mountain region, the other is located along the windward coastline. Precipitation reaches the peak at early afternoon for the inland belt while the maximum appears in the morning for the coast belt. The extreme rainfall is mainly caused by the activities of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) within the rainband. The MCSs formed at the upstream of the frontal rainband during midnight and then move eastward in the daytime. During this heavy rainfall process, the plentiful moisture content over southern China and monsoon surge lead to the establishment of the moist convective instability. Then the low level jet, shear line and low-level convergence offer beneficial dynamic conditions for the lifting in the

  5. The Student Experience of a Collaborative E-Learning University Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biasutti, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a picture of student experience of a collaborative e-learning module in an asynchronous e-learning environment. A distance learning module on music education worth five credit points for a bachelor online degree for primary school educating teachers was assessed using a self-evaluation questionnaire that…

  6. CENTER DIRECTOR RICHARD SMITH AND OTHER PERSONNEL OBSERVE SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET HO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    CENTER DIRECTOR RICHARD SMITH AND OTHER PERSONNEL OBSERVE SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET HO KSC-383C-2860.02 P-16225,ARCHIVE-03951 Spacelab 1 module and its attached pallet are hoisted out of the payload canister, over the work stands and into the cargo bay of the Columbia.

  7. Apollo experience report: Lunar module electrical power subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campos, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of the electrical power subsystem for the lunar module are discussed. The initial requirements, the concepts used to design the subsystem, and the testing program are explained. Specific problems and the modifications or compromises (or both) imposed for resolution are detailed. The flight performance of the subsystem is described, and recommendations pertaining to power specifications for future space applications are made.

  8. Resistance to Extreme Stresses in the Tardigrada: Experiments on Earth and in Space and Astrobiological Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebecchi, L.; Altiero, T.; Guidetti, R.; Cesari, M.; Rizzo, A. M.; Bertolani, R.

    2010-04-01

    The ability of tardigrades to enter cryptobiosis al-lows them to resist to extreme stresses: very low or high temperatures, chemicals, high pressure, ionizing and UV radiations This has lead to propose tardigrades as suitable model in space research.

  9. INSTALLATION OF SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET INTO THE ORBITER COLUMBIA'S PAYLOAD BAY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    INSTALLATION OF SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET INTO THE ORBITER COLUMBIA'S PAYLOAD BAY KSC-383C-2862.09 P-16229,ARCHIVE-03950 Payload canister rolling into OPF, removal and installed into the Orbiter 102 payload bay.

  10. Space Experiment Module: A new low-cost capability for education payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Theodore C.; Lewis, Ruthan

    1995-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) concept is one of a number of education initiatives being pursued by the NASA Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP) in an effort to increase educational access to space by means of Space Shuttle Small Payloads and associated activities. In the SEM concept, NASA will provide small containers ('modules') which can accommodate small zero-gravity experiments designed and constructed by students. A number, (nominally ten), of the modules will then be flown in an existing Get Away Special (GAS) carrier on the Shuttle for a flight of 5 to 10 days. In addition to the module container, the NASA carrier system will provide small amounts of electrical power and a computer system for controlling the operation of the experiments and recording experiment data. This paper describes the proposed SEM carrier system and program approach.

  11. Optimization of temporal dose modulation: Comparison of theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bewes, J. M.; Suchowerska, N.; Cartwright, L.; Ebert, M. A.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To compare theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of cell survival after exposure to two different temporally modulated radiation dose patterns that deliver the same dose in the same overall time. Methods: The authors derived an analytic expression for the dose protraction factor G in the Lea-Catcheside formalism for cell survival for 'triangle' and 'V' temporal modulation of dose. These temporal dose patterns were used in experimental clonogenic studies of a melanoma cell line (MM576) and a nonsmall-cell lung cancer line (NCI-H460) that have different alpha, beta, and repair parameters. The overall treatment time and total dose were kept constant. Results: The analytic expressions for G for the two temporal modulations are presented as a function of a single variable, the product of the exposure time, and the repair constant, enabling G to be evaluated for any exposure time and for any cell line. G for the triangle delivery pattern is always the larger. For the MM576 cell line, following a large dose of 6 Gy, a larger survival fraction was found for the V delivery pattern. No difference in survival was observed for lower doses or for the NCI-H460 cell line at any dose. These results are predicted by our theory, using published values of alpha, beta, and repair time within the limits of experimental uncertainty. Conclusions: The study provides evidence to confirm that cell lines having large beta values exhibit a response that is sensitive to the pattern of dose delivery when the delivery time is comparable with the repair time. It is recommended that the dose delivery pattern be considered in hypofractionated treatments.

  12. Apollo experience report: Postflight testing of command modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    Various phases of the postflight testing of the command modules used in the Apollo Program are presented. The specific tasks to be accomplished by the task force recovery teams, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, (formerly the Manned Spacecraft Center) and the cognizant contractors/subcontractors are outlined. The means and methods used in postflight testing and how such activities evolved during the Apollo Program and were tailored to meet specific test requirements are described. Action taken to resolve or minimize problems or anomalies discovered during the flight, the postflight test phase, or mission evaluation is discussed.

  13. Apollo experience report: Lunar module landing gear subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the lunar module landing gear subsystem through the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission is presented. The landing gear design evolved from the design requirement, which had to satisfy the structural, mechanical, and landing performance constraints of the vehicle. Extensive analyses and tests were undertaken to verify the design adequacy. Techniques of the landing performance analysis served as a primary tool in developing the subsystem hardware and in determining the adequacy of the landing gear for toppling stability and energy absorption. The successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission provided the first opportunity for a complete flight test of the landing gear under both natural and induced environments.

  14. Hydrodynamic growth experiments with the 3-D, “native-roughness” modulations on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D.; Clark, D. S.; Coppari, F.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W.; Landen, O.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.

    2016-05-01

    Hydrodynamic instability growth experiments with threedimensional (3-D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on plastic (CH) shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The initial capsule outer-surface roughness was similar to the standard specifications (“native roughness”) used in a majority of implosions on NIF. At a convergence ratio of ∼3, the measured tent modulations were close to those predicted by 3-D simulations (within ∼15-20%), while measured 3-D, broadband modulations were ∼3-4 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the increased instability amplitudes due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. These new experiments results have prompted looking for ways to reduce UV light exposure during target fabrication.

  15. Wartime paediatric extremity injuries: experience from the Kabul International Airport Combat support hospital.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Laurent; Bertani, Antoine; Rongiéras, Frédéric; Chaudier, Philippe; Mary, Pierre; Versier, Gilbert

    2015-05-01

    Since the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom, management of Afghan military or civilian casualties including children is a priority of the battlefield medical support. The aim of this study is to describe the features of paediatric wartime extremities injuries and to analyse their management in the Kabul International Airport Combat Support Hospital. A retrospective review was carried out using the French surgical database OPEX (Service de Santé des Armées) from June 2009 to January 2013. Paediatric patients were defined as those younger than 16 years old. Of the 220 injured children operated on, 155 (70%) sustained an extremity injury and were included. The mean age of the children was 9.1 ± 3.8 years. Among these children, 77 sustained combat-related injuries (CRIs) and 78 sustained noncombat-related injuries (NCRIs), with a total of 212 extremities injuries analysed. All CRIs were open injuries, whereas NCRIs were dominated by blunt injuries. Multiple extremities injuries and associated injuries were significantly more frequent in children with CRIs, whose median Injury Severity Score was higher than those with NCRIs. Debridement and irrigation was significantly predominant in the CRIs group, as well as internal fracture fixation in the NCRIs group. There were four deaths, yielding a global mortality rate of 2.6%. This study is the first to analyse specifically paediatric extremities trauma and their management at level 3 of battlefield medical facilities in recent conflicts. Except for severe burns and polytrauma, treatment of paediatric extremities injuries can be readily performed in Combat Support Hospitals by orthopaedic surgeons trained in paediatric trauma. PMID:25811919

  16. Nuclear structure at extremes of stability: Prospects for radioactive beam experiments and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1995-08-11

    In the last few years, our understanding of nuclei at extremes of stability has undergone substantial development and change. It is now thought that there is every likelihood for truly new manifestations of structure at extreme N/Z ratios, unlike anything observed to date. Changes in shell structure, residual interactions, symmetries, collective modes, and the evolution of structure are envisioned. These developing ideas expand the opportunities for nuclear structure studies with radioactive beams and focus attention on the need to develop efficient experimental techniques and improved signatures of structure. These developments are discussed along with an overview of current and future radioactive beam projects in North America.

  17. Observation platform for colloid science experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurk, Michael Andy; Todd, Paul; Vellinger, John C.

    2012-07-01

    The role of gravity in colloid self-assembly is a long-standing subject of inquiry. The International Space Station Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is a potentially powerful tool for implementing the observation of colloids in a high-quality low-gravity environment. The main requirements for making observations of colloid self-assembly include a small-volume, thermally stabilized environment, the addition and removal of small volumes of fluids (colloidal suspensions or reagents), and on-demand access to electrokinetic and/or magnetophoretic body forces. A modular device has been designed in which a custom electronics module is designed to mate with the existing LMM cold plate and LMM controlling power. All control features, electrical power, microscope illuminator, fluid pumps and valves are components of this module. This module lies under, mates with and serves an experiment module which houses the fluid containers that fit under the LMM objective lenses and fluid transfer tubing. Four versions of the experiment module have been designed: a hollow-slide stopped flow cell, a multiwell quiescent module, a magnetization module and an electrokinetic module. Interfaces can be established in the viewing field using the stopped-flow cell, which is also applicable to living systems such as microbial cultures, suspended blood cells, nematodes, etc. Multi-well modules can be equipped with in-line static mixers that allow the investigator to combine pairs of fluids or to re-homogenize settled samples. The maximum dimension of all modules is 16 cm, so the modules can be transported in large numbers on cargo or manned spacecraft to the ISS. A doubly-contained transfer tool can be used to transfer fluids in and out of the experiment module, which is equipped with a fluid coupling that mates to the transfer tool. Experiment-specific versions of these modules can be prepared for approved experimenters within a 1-year period. The research for these devices is supported by NASA

  18. Trading experience modulates anterior insula to reduce the endowment effect.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lester C P; Ye, Karen J; Asai, Kentaro; Ertac, Seda; List, John A; Nusbaum, Howard C; Hortaçsu, Ali

    2016-08-16

    People often demand a greater price when selling goods that they own than they would pay to purchase the same goods-a well-known economic bias called the endowment effect. The endowment effect has been found to be muted among experienced traders, but little is known about how trading experience reduces the endowment effect. We show that when selling, experienced traders exhibit lower right anterior insula activity, but no differences in nucleus accumbens or orbitofrontal activation, compared with inexperienced traders. Furthermore, insula activation mediates the effect of experience on the endowment effect. Similar results are obtained for inexperienced traders who are incentivized to gain trading experience. This finding indicates that frequent trading likely mitigates the endowment effect indirectly by modifying negative affective responses in the context of selling. PMID:27482098

  19. Spin-Echo Modulation Experiments with Soft Gaussian Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Xijia; Freeman, Ray

    An analysis is presented for a homonuclear spin-echo experiment in which refocusing and spin inversion are implemented by simultaneous soft 180° pulses applied to two weakly coupled spins. It is shown that for this experiment, simple pulses of short duration (for example, Gaussian pulses) are preferable to more complex shapes such as BURP pulses or Gaussian cascades, since this limits the generation of undesirable multiple-quantum coherence. An expression is derived for the optimum delay between excitation and detection for the generation of anti-phase magnetization at the two sites. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experiment. The doubly selective spin-echo technique is shown to be useful for the determination of small unresolved spin-spin splittings, and this is illustrated with results from the 400 MHz proton spectrum of strychnine.

  20. CT-detected traumatic small artery extremity injuries: surgery, embolize, or watch? A 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Velez, Erik; Surman, Andrew M; Nanavati, Sujal M; Kumar, Vishal; Lehrman, Evan; Wilson, Mark W; Conrad, Miles B

    2016-02-01

    Advances in computed tomography (CT) angiography have increased the sensitivity and specificity of detecting small branch arterial injuries in the extremities of trauma patients. However, it is unclear whether these patients should undergo surgery, angioembolization, or conservative watchful waiting. We hypothesized that uncomplicated small arterial branch injuries can be managed successfully with watchful waiting. A 10-year retrospective review of extremity CT angiograms with search findings of arterial "active extravasation" or "pseudoaneurysm" was performed at a level 1 county trauma center. Subgroup analysis was performed on those with isolated extremity injury and those with concurrent injuries. A total of 31 patients had CT-detected active extravasation (84 %) or pseudoaneurysm (16 %), 71 % of which were isolated vascular injuries. Of the patients evaluated, 71 % (n = 22) were managed with watchful waiting, 19 % (n = 6) with angioembolization, and 10 % (n = 3) with surgery. Watchful waiting complications included progression to alternative treatment (n = 1) and blood transfusions (n = 2). Complications of surgery included the inability to find active bleeding (n = 1) and postoperative psychosis (n = 1). Complications of angioembolization were limited to a postprocedure blood transfusion (n = 1). Patients with isolated vascular injuries had an average length of stay of 2.9 days, with management averages of the following: 2.7 days with watchful waiting (n = 16), 3.3 days with angioembolization (n = 3), and 3.7 days with surgery (n = 3). CT angiography has greatly increased the reported incidence of traumatic arterial injury in the extremity. We propose that small branch arterial injuries in the extremities can be managed successfully with watchful waiting and do not often require immediate embolization. PMID:26581655

  1. Unconscious Modulation of the Conscious Experience of Voluntary Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linser, Katrin; Goschke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    How does the brain generate our experience of being in control over our actions and their effects? Here, we argue that the perception of events as self-caused emerges from a comparison between anticipated and actual action-effects: if the representation of an event that follows an action is activated before the action, the event is experienced as…

  2. Apollo experience report: Lunar module environmental control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillen, R. J.; Brady, J. C.; Collier, F.

    1972-01-01

    A functional description of the environmental control subsystem is presented. Development, tests, checkout, and flight experiences of the subsystem are discussed; and the design fabrication, and operational difficulties associated with the various components and subassemblies are recorded. Detailed information is related concerning design changes made to, and problems encountered with, the various elements of the subsystem, such as the thermal control water sublimator, the carbon dioxide sensing and control units, and the water section. The problems associated with water sterilization, water/glycol formulation, and materials compatibility are discussed. The corrective actions taken are described with the expection that this information may be of value for future subsystems. Although the main experiences described are problem oriented, the subsystem has generally performed satisfactorily in flight.

  3. The modulation of motor contagion by intrapersonal sensorimotor experience.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James W; Katayama, Orion; Lung, Tiffany; Constable, Merryn D; Elliott, Digby; Lyons, James L; Welsh, Timothy N

    2016-06-15

    Sensorimotor experiences can modify the internal models for action. These modifications can govern the discrepancies between predicted and actual sensory consequences, such as distinguishing self- and other-generated actions. This distinction may also contribute toward the inhibition of movement interference, which is strongly associated with the coupling of observed and executed actions. Therefore, movement interference could be mediated by the sensorimotor experiences underlying the self-other distinction. The present study examined the impact of sensorimotor experiences on involuntary movement interference (motor contagion). Participants were required to complete a motor contagion paradigm in which they executed horizontal arm movements while observing congruent (horizontal) or incongruent (vertical) arm movements of a model. This task was completed before and after a training protocol in which participants executed the same horizontal arm movements in the absence of the model stimuli. Different groups of participants trained with or without vision of their moving limb. Analysis of participants who were predisposed to motor contagion (involuntary movement interference during the observation of incongruent movements) revealed that the no vision group continued to demonstrate contagion at post-training, although the vision group did not. We propose that the vision group were able to integrate the visual afferent information with an internal model for action, which effectively refines the ability to match self-produced afferent and efferent sources of information during response-execution. This enhanced matching allows for a better distinction between self and other, which in turn, mediates the inhibition of motor contagion. PMID:27150073

  4. Interactive Web-based Learning Modules Prior to General Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Alison M.; Nisly, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement and evaluate interactive web-based learning modules prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on inpatient general medicine. Design. Three clinical web-based learning modules were developed for use prior to APPEs in 4 health care systems. The aim of the interactive modules was to strengthen baseline clinical knowledge before the APPE to enable the application of learned material through the delivery of patient care. Assessment. For the primary endpoint, postassessment scores increased overall and for each individual module compared to preassessment scores. Postassessment scores were similar among the health care systems. The survey demonstrated positive student perceptions of this learning experience. Conclusion. Prior to inpatient general medicine APPEs, web-based learning enabled the standardization and assessment of baseline student knowledge across 4 health care systems. PMID:25995515

  5. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Cindy H.; Vagi, Sara J.; Wolkin, Amy F.; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S.

    2016-01-01

    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

  6. Neural representations of unfamiliar objects are modulated by sensorimotor experience.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, Christian; Tettamanti, Marco; Marchetta, Elisa; Della Rosa, Pasquale; Rizzo, Giovanna; Daum, Irene; Cappa, Stefano F

    2013-04-01

    Sensory/functional accounts of semantic memory organization emphasize that object representations in the brain reflect the modalities involved in object knowledge acquisition. The present study aimed to elucidate the impact of different types of object-related sensorimotor experience on the neural representations of novel objects. Sixteen subjects engaged in an object matching task while their brain activity was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), before and after they acquired knowledge about previously unfamiliar objects. In three training sessions subjects learned about object function, actively manipulating only one set of objects (manipulation training objects, MTO), and visually exploring a second set (visual training objects, VTO). A third object set served as control condition and was not part of the training (no training objects, NTO). While training-related activation increases were observed in the fronto-parietal cortex for both VTO and MTO, post training activity in the left inferior/middle frontal gyrus and the left posterior inferior parietal lobule was higher for MTO than VTO and NTO. As revealed by Dynamic Causal Modeling of effective connectivity between the regions with enhanced post training activity, these effects were likely caused, respectively, by a down-regulation of a fronto-parietal tool use network in response to VTO, and by an increased connectivity for MTO. This pattern of findings indicates that the modalities involved in sensorimotor experience influence the formation of neural representations of objects in semantic memory, with manipulation experience specifically yielding higher activity in regions of the fronto-parietal cortex. PMID:22608404

  7. Apollo experience report: Command and service module environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samonski, F. H., Jr.; Tucker, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the design philosophy of the Apollo environmental control system together with the development history of the total system and of selected components within the system. In particular, discussions are presented relative to the development history and to the problems associated with the equipment cooling coldplates, the evaporator and its electronic control system, and the space radiator system used for rejection of the spacecraft thermal loads. Apollo flight experience and operational difficulties associated with the spacecraft water system and the waste management system are discussed in detail to provide definition of the problem and the corrective action taken when applicable.

  8. Numerical experiments on the modulation theory for the nonlinear atomic chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, W.; Herrmann, M.

    2008-02-01

    Modulation theory with periodic travelling waves is a powerful, but not rigorous tool to derive a thermodynamic description for atomic chains with nearest neighbour interactions (FPU chains). This theory is sufficiently complex to deal with strong oscillations on the microscopic scale, and therefore it is capable to describe the creation of temperature and the transport of heat on a macroscopic scale. In this paper we investigate the validity of modulation theory by means of several numerical experiments. We start with a survey on the foundations of modulation theory. In particular, we discuss the hyperbolic scaling, the notion of cold data, microscopic oscillations and Young measures, periodic and modulated travelling waves, and, finally, the resulting macroscopic conservation laws. Afterwards we discuss how the validity of a macroscopic theory may be tested within numerical simulations of the microscopic dynamics. To this end we describe an approach to thermodynamic data exploration which is motivated by the theory of Young measures, and relies on mesoscopic windows in space and time. The last part is devoted to several numerical experiments including examples with periodic boundary conditions and smooth initial data, and macroscopic Riemann problems. We interpret the outcome of these experiments in the framework of thermodynamics, and end up with two conclusions. (1) There are many examples for which modulation theory provides in fact the right thermodynamic description because it can predict both the structure of the microscopic oscillations and their macroscopic evolution correctly. (2) Modulation theory will fail if the oscillations exhibit a more complicate structure.

  9. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Resected Mesothelioma: The Duke Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Edward F. Larrier, Nicole A.; Kelsey, Christopher R.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Ma Jinli; Yoo, Sua; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after extrapleural pneumonectomy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients underwent IMRT after extrapleural pneumonectomy between July 2005 and February 2007 at Duke University Medical Center. The clinical target volume was defined as the entire ipsilateral hemithorax, chest wall incisions, including drain sites, and involved nodal stations. The dose prescribed to the planning target volume was 40-55 Gy (median, 45). Toxicity was graded using the modified Common Toxicity Criteria, and the lung dosimetric parameters from the subgroups with and without pneumonitis were compared. Local control and survival were assessed. Results: The median follow-up after IMRT was 9.5 months. Of the 13 patients, 3 (23%) developed Grade 2 or greater acute pulmonary toxicity (during or within 30 days of IMRT). The median dosimetric parameters for those with and without symptomatic pneumonitis were a mean lung dose (MLD) of 7.9 vs. 7.5 Gy (p = 0.40), percentage of lung volume receiving 20 Gy (V{sub 20}) of 0.2% vs. 2.3% (p = 0.51), and percentage of lung volume receiving 5 Gy (V{sub 20}) of 92% vs. 66% (p = 0.36). One patient died of fatal pulmonary toxicity. This patient received a greater MLD (11.4 vs. 7.6 Gy) and had a greater V{sub 20} (6.9% vs. 1.9%), and V{sub 5} (92% vs. 66%) compared with the median of those without fatal pulmonary toxicity. Local and/or distant failure occurred in 6 patients (46%), and 6 patients (46%) were alive without evidence of recurrence at last follow-up. Conclusions: With limited follow-up, 45-Gy IMRT provides reasonable local control for mesothelioma after extrapleural pneumonectomy. However, treatment-related pulmonary toxicity remains a significant concern. Care should be taken to minimize the dose to the remaining lung to achieve an acceptable therapeutic ratio.

  10. Superconducting radio-frequency modules test faciilty operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Degraff, B.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    Fermilab is heavily engaged and making strong technical contributions to the superconducting radio-frequency research and development program (SRF R&D). Four major SRF test areas are being constructed to enable vertical and horizontal cavity testing, as well as cryomodule testing. The existing Fermilab cryogenic infrastructure has been modified to service Fermilab SRF R&D needs. The first stage of the project has been successfully completed, which allows for distribution of cryogens for a single cavity cryomodule using the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at MDB results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. The cryogenic system for a single 9-cell cryomodule is currently operational. The paper describes the status, challenges and operational experience of the initial phase of the project.

  11. Modulations of the experience of self and time.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marc

    2015-12-15

    Empirical findings in the Cognitive Sciences on the relationship between feeling states and subjective time have led to the assumption that time perception entails emotional and interoceptive states. The perception of time would thereafter be embodied; the bodily self, the continuous input from the body is the functional anchor of phenomenal experience and the mental self. Subjective time emerges through the existence of the self across time as an enduring and embodied entity. This relation is prominently disclosed in studies on altered states of consciousness such as in meditative states, under the influence of hallucinogens as well as in many psychiatric and neurological conditions. An increased awareness of oneself coincides with an increased awareness of time. Conversely, a decreased awareness of the self is associated with diminished awareness of time. The body of empirical work within different conceptual frameworks on the intricate relationship between self and time is presented and discussed. PMID:26121958

  12. Extremely Low Loss Phonon-Trapping Cryogenic Acoustic Cavities for Future Physical Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Galliou, Serge; Goryachev, Maxim; Bourquin, Roger; Abbé, Philippe; Aubry, Jean Pierre; Tobar, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Low loss Bulk Acoustic Wave devices are considered from the point of view of the solid state approach as phonon-confining cavities. We demonstrate effective design of such acoustic cavities with phonon-trapping techniques exhibiting extremely high quality factors for trapped longitudinally-polarized phonons of various wavelengths. Quality factors of observed modes exceed 1 billion, with a maximum Q-factor of 8 billion and Q × f product of 1.6 · 1018 at liquid helium temperatures. Such high sensitivities allow analysis of intrinsic material losses in resonant phonon systems. Various mechanisms of phonon losses are discussed and estimated. PMID:23823569

  13. Noninvasive evaluation of the swollen extremity: Experiences with 190 lymphoscintigraphic examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Gloviczki, P.; Calcagno, D.; Schirger, A.; Pairolero, P.C.; Cherry, K.J.; Hallett, J.W.; Wahner, H.W.

    1989-05-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy (LS), performed with technetium 99m-labeled antimony trisulfide colloid, was used as a noninvasive diagnostic examination to evaluate the lymphatic circulation in 190 extremities of 115 patients. Forty-six patients had primary lymphedema, 48 had secondary lymphedema, and 21 patients had other causes of limb swelling. To determine the value of LS in surgical decision making, preoperative and postoperative LS of 16 patients who underwent surgical repair of the lymphatic abnormality were studied separately. Semiquantitative evaluation of the lymphatic drainage and visual interpretation of the image patterns were reliable to differentiate lymphedema from edemas of other origin (sensitivity: 92%, specificity: 100%). Although certain image patterns were characteristic of either primary or secondary lymphedema, LS could not consistently differentiate between the two types. Episodes of cellulitis in lymphedema clearly delayed lymph transport. LS was helpful in patient selection and follow-up after lymphatic surgery, but it did not prove patency of lymphovenous anastomoses. It was diagnostic in the evaluation of lymphangiectasia and was used to document successful surgical treatment of reflux of chyle. LS is safe and reliable and has no side effects. It should replace contrast lymphangiography in the routine evaluation of the swollen extremity.

  14. Analysis of D-Region Absorption via HF Cross-Modulation Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, E. M.; Moore, R. C.

    2010-12-01

    Experimental observations performed near the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are used to implement a new method quantifying the rate of absorption of HF radio waves in the D-region ionosphere. Quantifying the ambient and HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere in the vicinity of ionospheric HF heaters has historically proven to be a difficult task. For example, the electron density in the 60-90 km altitude range is typically too low to employ radio-sounding techniques; LIDAR observations typically require significant temporal averaging, precluding the investigation of physical processes that occur on sub-millisecond time scales; ELF/VLF wave generation experiments typically have difficulty providing reliable spatial resolution and also cannot experimentally distinguish between the spatial distribution of the ionospheric conductivity modulation produced by modulated HF heating and that of the current-driving electric fields associated with the auroral electrojet. Yet, the majority of HF signal absorption occurs in this region of the ionosphere, and the ability to characterize HF absorption in this region benefits a wide range of ionospheric HF heating experiments. The technique described and demonstrated in this paper combines ionosonde-style radio sounding with ELF/VLF cross-modulation experiments to identify the altitude of maximum D-region absorption as a function of HF frequency. Observations are presented and compared with the predictions of a theoretical model, demonstrating excellent agreement between experiment and theory and indicating that the technique may be used successfully in practice. Based on the success of this first experiment, another HF cross-modulation experiment has been performed at HAARP and analyzed theoretically. Pulsed-modulation experiments are used to assess the relative absorption as a function of altitude within the D-region ionosphere, and a method to chart the

  15. EEE - Extreme Energy Events: an astroparticle physics experiment in Italian High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D’Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferrarov, A.; Forster, R.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Maggiora, A.; Maron, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Noferini, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M. P.; Paoletti, R.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project (EEE) is aimed to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) from primary cosmic rays of more than 1018 eV energy detecting the ground secondary muon component using an array of telescopes with high spatial and time resolution. The second goal of the EEE project is to involve High School teachers and students in this advanced research work and to initiate them in scientific culture: to reach both purposes the telescopes are located inside High School buildings and the detector construction, assembling and monitoring - together with data taking and analysis - are done by researchers from scientific institutions in close collaboration with them. At present there are 42 telescopes in just as many High Schools scattered all over Italy, islands included, plus two at CERN and three in INFN units. We report here some preliminary physics results from the first two common data taking periods together with the outreach impact of the project.

  16. An Experiment Investigation of Fully-Modulated, Turbulent Diffusion Flames in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermanson, J. C.; Johari, H.; Usowicz, J. E.; Stocker, D. P.; Nagashima, T.; Obata, S.

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed combustion appears to have the potential to provide for rapid fuel/air mixing, compact and economical combustors, and reduced exhaust emissions. The ultimate objective of this program is to increase the fundamental understanding of the fuel/air mixing and combustion behavior of pulsed, turbulent diffusion flames by conducting experiments in microgravity. In this research the fuel jet is fully-modulated (i.e., completely shut off between pulses) by an externally controlled valve system. This can give rise to drastic modification of the combustion and flow characteristics of flames, leading to enhanced fuel/air mixing mechanisms not operative for the case of acoustically excited or partially-modulated jets. In addition, the fully-modulated injection approach avoids the strong acoustic forcing present in pulsed combustion devices, significantly simplifying the mixing and combustion processes. Relatively little is known of the behavior of turbulent flames in reduced-gravity conditions, even in the absence of pulsing. The goal of this Flight-Definition experiment (PUFF, for PUlsed-Fully Flames) is to establish the behavior of fully-modulated, turbulent diffusion flames under microgravity conditions. Fundamental issues to be addressed in this experiment include the mechanisms responsible for the flame length decrease for fully-modulated, turbulent diffusion flames compared with steady flames, the impact of buoyancy on the mixing and combustion characteristics of these flames, and the characteristics of turbulent flame puffs under fully momentum-dominated conditions.

  17. Perception of Tempo Modulation by Listeners of Different Levels of Educational Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Deborah A.; Gregory, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the similarities and differences in how listeners with different levels of education experience demonstrate perception of tempo modulation in music. Reports that level of education may affect how listeners demonstrate differences and that responses depended on the direction of tempo change. Notes importance of the music education of…

  18. Experience with a Theme-Based Integrated Renal Module for a Second-Year MBBS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafi, Riffat; Quadri, K. H. M.; Ahmed, Waseem; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Iqbal, Mobeen

    2010-01-01

    Integrated learning is the need of the hour. We at Shifa College of Medicine switched to an integrated modular curriculum last year. In the present article, we describe our experience with the renal module in year 2 of a 5-yr undergraduate medical curriculum. A multidisciplinary renal modular team developed the relevant objectives, themes, and…

  19. To the Extremes! A Teacher Research Experience Program in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. In 2007, the National Science Foundation designated PolarTREC as potentially transformative, meaning that the "research results often do not fit within established models or theories and may initially be unexpected or difficult to interpret; their transformative nature and utility might not be recognized until years later." PolarTREC brings U.S. K-12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Teachers spend three to six weeks in remote arctic and Antarctic field camps. Since 2007, over 100 teachers have been placed in field experiences throughout the Arctic and Antarctic and with half of them participating in field experiences in Antarctica. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfil a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Evaluation data collected over the past eight years on program participants shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals and strongly suggests programs that link teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their classrooms. Not surprisingly this has also led to increases in student interest and knowledge about the Polar Regions. In this presentation, we will highlight the best practices of teacher research experiences as well as discuss why it is vital to have teachers and researchers work together to communicate

  20. Extremely Large Gate Modulation in Vertical Graphene/WSe2 Heterojunction Barristor Based on a Novel Transport Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaewoo; Kim, Hyo Seok; Shim, Yoon Su; Kang, Dong-Ho; Park, Hyung-Youl; Lee, Jaehyeong; Jeon, Jaeho; Jung, Seong Jun; Song, Young Jae; Jung, Woo-Shik; Lee, Jaeho; Park, Seongjun; Kim, Jeehwan; Lee, Sungjoo; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-07-01

    A WSe2 -based vertical graphene-transition metal dichalcogenide heterojunction barristor shows an unprecedented on-current increase with decreasing temperature and an extremely high on/off-current ratio of 5 × 10(7) at 180 K (3 × 10(4) at room temperature). These features originate from a trap-assisted tunneling process involving WSe2 defect states aligned near the graphene Dirac point. PMID:27159590

  1. Nursing faculty teaching a module in clinical skills to medical students: a Lebanese experience

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Bahia; Irani, Jihad; Sailian, Silva Dakessian; Gebran, Vicky George; Rizk, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Nursing faculty teaching medical students a module in clinical skills is a relatively new trend. Collaboration in education among medical and nursing professions can improve students’ performance in clinical skills and consequently positively impact the quality of care delivery. In 2011, the Faculty of Medicine in collaboration with the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon, launched a module in clinical skills as part of clinical skills teaching to first-year medical students. The module is prepared and delivered by nursing faculty in a laboratory setting. It consists of informative lectures as well as hands-on clinical practice. The clinical competencies taught are hand-washing, medication administration, intravenous initiation and removal, and nasogastric tube insertion and removal. Around sixty-five medical students attend this module every year. A Likert scale-based questionnaire is used to evaluate their experience. Medical students agree that the module provides adequate opportunities to enhance clinical skills and knowledge and favor cross-professional education between nursing and medical disciplines. Most of the respondents report that this experience prepares them better for clinical rotations while increasing their confidence and decreasing anxiety level. Medical students highly appreciate the nursing faculties’ expertise and perceive them as knowledgeable and resourceful. Nursing faculty participating in medical students’ skills teaching is well perceived, has a positive impact, and shows nurses are proficient teachers to medical students. Cross professional education is an attractive model when it comes to teaching clinical skills in medical school. PMID:25419165

  2. Nursing faculty teaching a module in clinical skills to medical students: a Lebanese experience.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Bahia; Irani, Jihad; Sailian, Silva Dakessian; Gebran, Vicky George; Rizk, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Nursing faculty teaching medical students a module in clinical skills is a relatively new trend. Collaboration in education among medical and nursing professions can improve students' performance in clinical skills and consequently positively impact the quality of care delivery. In 2011, the Faculty of Medicine in collaboration with the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon, launched a module in clinical skills as part of clinical skills teaching to first-year medical students. The module is prepared and delivered by nursing faculty in a laboratory setting. It consists of informative lectures as well as hands-on clinical practice. The clinical competencies taught are hand-washing, medication administration, intravenous initiation and removal, and nasogastric tube insertion and removal. Around sixty-five medical students attend this module every year. A Likert scale-based questionnaire is used to evaluate their experience. Medical students agree that the module provides adequate opportunities to enhance clinical skills and knowledge and favor cross-professional education between nursing and medical disciplines. Most of the respondents report that this experience prepares them better for clinical rotations while increasing their confidence and decreasing anxiety level. Medical students highly appreciate the nursing faculties' expertise and perceive them as knowledgeable and resourceful. Nursing faculty participating in medical students' skills teaching is well perceived, has a positive impact, and shows nurses are proficient teachers to medical students. Cross professional education is an attractive model when it comes to teaching clinical skills in medical school. PMID:25419165

  3. Measurements of electron and proton heating temperatures from extreme-ultraviolet light images at 68 eV in petawatt laser experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Peimin; Zhang, B.; Key, M. H.; Hatchett, S. P.; Barbee, T.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K.; Hey, D.; King, J. A.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Snavely, R. A.; Stephens, R. B.

    2006-11-15

    A 68 eV extreme-ultraviolet light imaging diagnostic measures short pulse isochoric heating by electrons and protons in petawatt laser experiments. Temperatures are deduced from the absolute intensities and comparison with modeling using a radiation hydrodynamics code.

  4. Effect of collisional heat transfer in ICRF power modulation experiment on ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujii, N.; D'Inca, R.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, Vl. V.; Brambilla, M.; Schneider, P.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-12

    ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) heating experiments were performed in D-H plasmas at various H concentrations on ASDEX Upgrade. The rf power was modulated to measure the electron power deposition profile from electron temperature modulation. To minimize the contribution from indirect collisional heating and the effect of radial transport, the rf power was modulated at 50 Hz. However, peaking of electron temperature modulation was still observed around the hydrogen cyclotron resonance indicating collisional heating contribution. Time dependent simulation of the hydrogen distribution function was performed for the discharges, using the full-wave code AORSA (E.F. Jaeger, et al., Phys. Plasmas, Vol. 8, page 1573 (2001)) coupled to the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D (R.W. Harvey, et al., Proc. IAEA (1992)). In the present experimental conditions, it was found that modulation of the collisional heating was comparable to that of direct wave damping. Impact of radial transport was also analyzed and found to appreciably smear out the modulation profile and reduce the phase delay.

  5. Power-Stepped HF Cross-Modulation Experiments: Simulations and Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    High frequency (HF) cross modulation experiments are a well established means for probing the HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere. The interaction between the heating wave and the probing pulse depends on the ambient and modified conditions of the D-region ionosphere. Cross-modulation observations are employed as a measure of the HF-modified refractive index. We employ an optimized version of Fejer's method that we developed during previous experiments. Experiments were performed in March 2013 at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory in Gakona, Alaska. During these experiments, the power of the HF heating signal incrementally increased in order to determine the dependence of cross-modulation on HF power. We found that a simple power law relationship does not hold at high power levels, similar to previous ELF/VLF wave generation experiments. In this paper, we critically compare these experimental observations with the predictions of a numerical ionospheric HF heating model and demonstrate close agreement.

  6. Modulation of extremes in the Atlantic region by modes of climate variability/change: A mechanistic coupled regional model study

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2015-01-09

    During the course of this project, we have accomplished the following: 1) Explored the parameter space of component models to minimize regional model bias 2) Assessed the impact of air-sea interaction on hurricanes, focusing in particular on the role of the oceanic barrier layer 3) Contributed to the activities of the U.S. CLIVAR Hurricane Working Group 4) Assessed the impact of lateral and lower boundary conditions on extreme flooding events in the U.S. Midwest in regional model simulations 5) Analyzed the concurrent impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Meridional Mode on Atlantic Hurricane activity using observations and regional model simulations

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Player Experience in the Design of a Serious Game for Upper Extremity Stroke Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro d'Ornellas, Marcos; Cargnin, Diego João; Cervi Prado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Video games have become a major entertainment industry and one of the most popular leisure forms, ranging from laboratory experiments to a mainstream cultural medium. Indeed, current games are multimodal and multidimensional products, relying on sophisticated features including not only a narrative-driven story but also impressive graphics and detailed settings. All of these elements helped to create a seamless and appealing product that have resulted in a growing number of players and in the number of game genres. Although video games have been used in education, simulation, and training, another application that exploits serious gaming is the exploration of player experience in the context of game research. Recent advances in the natural user interfaces and player experience have brought new perspectives on the in-game assessment of serious games. This paper evaluates the impact of player experience in the design of a serious game for upper extremity stroke rehabilitation. The game combines biofeedback and mirror neurons both in single and multiplayer mode. Results have shown that the game is a feasible solution to integrate serious games into the physical therapy routine. PMID:26262072

  8. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Eparvier, F.; Murillo, M.

    2008-05-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) program. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post- assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built antenna and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Video footage of "The Making of a Satellite", and "All About EVE" is completed for use in the kits. Other EVE EPO includes upcoming professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  9. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; Eparvier, F.; McCaffrey, M.; Murillo, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement MESA) program. For many of the students, this was the only science option available to them due to language limitations. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post-assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The MESA-EVE course won recognition as a Colorado MESA Program of Excellence and is being offered again in 2007-08. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Other EVE EPO includes professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  10. Local perception of infrequent, extreme upland flash flooding: prisoners of experience?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Jonathan; Warburton, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    The United Kingdom has experienced several exceptional summer flash floods in recent years and there is growing concern about the frequency of such events and the preparedness of the population. This paper uses a case study of the upper Ryedale flash flood (2005) and questionnaire and interview data to assess local perceptions of upland flash flooding. Experience of a major flash flood may not be associated with increased flood risk perception. Despite local residents' awareness of a trend towards wetter summers and more frequent heavy rainfall, the poor maintenance of rivers was more frequently thought to be a more significant factor influencing local flood risk than climate change. Such findings have important implications for the potential success of contemporary national flood policies, which have put greater emphasis on public responsibility for responding to flooding. This study recommends, therefore, the use of fresh participatory approaches to redistribute and raise awareness of locally-held flood knowledge. PMID:25583064

  11. Proposal of experimental setup on boiling two-phase flow on-orbit experiments onboard Japanese experiment module "KIBO"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, S.; Sakai, T.; Sawada, K.; Kubota, C.; Wada, Y.; Shinmoto, Y.; Ohta, H.; Asano, H.; Kawanami, O.; Suzuki, K.; Imai, R.; Kawasaki, H.; Fujii, K.; Takayanagi, M.; Yoda, S.

    2011-12-01

    Boiling is one of the efficient modes of heat transfer due to phase change, and is regarded as promising means to be applied for the thermal management systems handling a large amount of waste heat under high heat flux. However, gravity effects on the two-phase flow phenomena and corresponding heat transfer characteristics have not been clarified in detail. The experiments onboard Japanese Experiment Module "KIBO" in International Space Station on boiling two-phase flow under microgravity conditions are proposed to clarify both of heat transfer and flow characteristics under microgravity conditions. To verify the feasibility of ISS experiments on boiling two-phase flow, the Bread Board Model is assembled and its performance and the function of components installed in a test loop are examined.

  12. Scintillation counter and wire chamber front end modules for high energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, Boris; DalMonte, Lou; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    This document describes two front-end modules developed for the proposed MIPP upgrade (P-960) experiment at Fermilab. The scintillation counter module was developed for the Plastic Ball detector time and charge measurements. The module has eight LEMO 00 input connectors terminated with 50 ohms and accepts negative photomultiplier signals in the range 0.25...1000 pC with the maximum input voltage of 4.0 V. Each input has a passive splitter with integration and differentiation times of {approx}20 ns. The integrated portion of the signal is digitized at 26.55 MHz by Analog Devices AD9229 12-bit pipelined 4-channel ADC. The differentiated signal is discriminated for time measurement and sent to one of the four TMC304 inputs. The 4-channel TMC304 chip allows high precision time measurement of rising and falling edges with {approx}100 ps resolution and has internal digital pipeline. The ADC data is also pipelined which allows deadtime-less operation with trigger decision times of {approx}4 {micro}s. The wire chamber module was developed for MIPP EMCal detector charge measurements. The 32-channel digitizer accepts differential analog signals from four 8-channel integrating wire amplifiers. The connection between wire amplifier and digitizer is provided via 26-wire twist-n-flat cable. The wire amplifier integrates input wire current and has sensitivity of 275 mV/pC and the noise level of {approx}0.013 pC. The digitizer uses the same 12-bit AD9229 ADC chip as the scintillator counter module. The wire amplifier has a built-in test pulser with a mask register to provide testing of the individual channels. Both modules are implemented as a 6Ux220 mm VME size board with 48-pin power connector. A custom europack (VME) 21-slot crate is developed for housing these front-end modules.

  13. MAGI-1 modulates AMPA receptor synaptic localization and behavioral plasticity in response to prior experience.

    PubMed

    Emtage, Lesley; Chang, Howard; Tiver, Rebecca; Rongo, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that the efficacy of synaptic connections can be rapidly modified by neural activity, yet how the environment and prior experience modulate such synaptic and behavioral plasticity is only beginning to be understood. Here we show in C. elegans that the broadly conserved scaffolding molecule MAGI-1 is required for the plasticity observed in a glutamatergic circuit. This mechanosensory circuit mediates reversals in locomotion in response to touch stimulation, and the AMPA-type receptor (AMPAR) subunits GLR-1 and GLR-2, which are required for reversal behavior, are localized to ventral cord synapses in this circuit. We find that animals modulate GLR-1 and GLR-2 localization in response to prior mechanosensory stimulation; a specific isoform of MAGI-1 (MAGI-1L) is critical for this modulation. We show that MAGI-1L interacts with AMPARs through the intracellular domain of the GLR-2 subunit, which is required for the modulation of AMPAR synaptic localization by mechanical stimulation. In addition, mutations that prevent the ubiquitination of GLR-1 prevent the decrease in AMPAR localization observed in previously stimulated magi-1 mutants. Finally, we find that previously-stimulated animals later habituate to subsequent mechanostimulation more rapidly compared to animals initially reared without mechanical stimulation; MAGI-1L, GLR-1, and GLR-2 are required for this change in habituation kinetics. Our findings demonstrate that prior experience can cause long-term alterations in both behavioral plasticity and AMPAR localization at synapses in an intact animal, and indicate a new, direct role for MAGI/S-SCAM proteins in modulating AMPAR localization and function in the wake of variable sensory experience. PMID:19242552

  14. Optimal feedback control successfully explains changes in neural modulations during experiments with brain-machine interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Benyamini, Miri; Zacksenhouse, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments with brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) indicate that the extent of neural modulations increased abruptly upon starting to operate the interface, and especially after the monkey stopped moving its hand. In contrast, neural modulations that are correlated with the kinematics of the movement remained relatively unchanged. Here we demonstrate that similar changes are produced by simulated neurons that encode the relevant signals generated by an optimal feedback controller during simulated BMI experiments. The optimal feedback controller relies on state estimation that integrates both visual and proprioceptive feedback with prior estimations from an internal model. The processing required for optimal state estimation and control were conducted in the state-space, and neural recording was simulated by modeling two populations of neurons that encode either only the estimated state or also the control signal. Spike counts were generated as realizations of doubly stochastic Poisson processes with linear tuning curves. The model successfully reconstructs the main features of the kinematics and neural activity during regular reaching movements. Most importantly, the activity of the simulated neurons successfully reproduces the observed changes in neural modulations upon switching to brain control. Further theoretical analysis and simulations indicate that increasing the process noise during normal reaching movement results in similar changes in neural modulations. Thus, we conclude that the observed changes in neural modulations during BMI experiments can be attributed to increasing process noise associated with the imperfect BMI filter, and, more directly, to the resulting increase in the variance of the encoded signals associated with state estimation and the required control signal. PMID:26042002

  15. A Laboratory Experiment for Demonstrating Post-Coronagraph Wave Front Sensing and Control for Extreme Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Bartos, Randall; Rao, Shanti; Samuele, Rocco; Schmidtlin, Edouard

    2006-01-01

    Direct detection of exo-planets from the ground will become a reality with the advent of a new class of extreme-adaptive optics instruments that will come on-line within the next few years. In particular, the Gemini Observatory will be developing the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) that will be used to make direct observations of young exo-planets. One major technical challenge in reaching the requisite high contrast at small angles is the sensing and control of residual wave front errors after the starlight suppression system. This paper will discuss the nature of this problem, and our approach to the sensing and control task. We will describe a laboratory experiment whose purpose is to provide a means of validating our sensing techniques and control algorithms. The experimental demonstration of sensing and control will be described. Finally, we will comment on the applicability of this technique to other similar high-contrast instruments.

  16. Experience-dependent modulation of tonotopic neural responses in human auditory cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J S; Friston, K J; Dolan, R J

    1998-01-01

    Experience-dependent plasticity of receptive fields in the auditory cortex has been demonstrated by electrophysiological experiments in animals. In the present study we used PET neuroimaging to measure regional brain activity in volunteer human subjects during discriminatory classical conditioning of high (8000 Hz) or low (200 Hz) frequency tones by an aversive 100 dB white noise burst. Conditioning-related, frequency-specific modulation of tonotopic neural responses in the auditory cortex was observed. The modulated regions of the auditory cortex positively covaried with activity in the amygdala, basal forebrain and orbitofrontal cortex, and showed context-specific functional interactions with the medial geniculate nucleus. These results accord with animal single-unit data and support neurobiological models of auditory conditioning and value-dependent neural selection. PMID:9608726

  17. Regional modeling sensitivity experiments for interpreting the UK Winter 2013-2014 extreme rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, H.; Vautard, R.; Schaller, N.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    During the winter 2013/2014, the UK saw heavy rainfalls associated with a succession of storms reaching Southern England causing widespread flooding, power cuts and major disruptions to transport. The January precipitation set a record for several rain gauge stations in Southern England. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropogenic climate change, represented by a modification of the sea surface temperature (SST) on the January precipitation. For that, we conducted a sensitivity experiment by running a set of 108 four-months simulations using WRF model with 9 different physics and 12 different SST fields; 9 for the factual world and 99 for the counter-factual world. A spectral nudging technique was used here to ensure a same atmospheric circulation patterns for all the simulations. Therefore, only the thermodynamic effect is considered here. The analysis is focused on January precipitation over the southern England. Results show for 0,5°C SST difference over the Northern Atlantic, the precipitation in the factual simulations is between 0,4 and 8% higher than the precipitation in the counter-factual simulations depending on the physic. A validation test shows that this value is closer to 8% for the "best physic" simulation. It also show a strong spatial variability where in some region the precipitation is higher in the counter-factual world compared the factual world. Finally, a backward trajectories were calculated to evaluate the sensitivity of the moisture sources and air mass trajectories to the SST in the factual and the counter-factual world.

  18. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery system for the Japanese experiment module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, K.; Hirao, M.; Satoh, S.

    The Japanese Space Station Program is now under Phase B study by the National Space Development Agency of Japan in participation with the U.S. Space Station Program. A Japanese Space Station participation will be a dedicated pressurized module to be attached to the U.S. Space Station, and is called Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Astronaut scientists will conduct various experimental operations there. Thus an environment control and life support system is required. Regenerable carbon dioxide removal and collection technique as well as oxygen recovery technique has been studied and investigated for several years. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal subsystem using steam desorbed solid amine and an oxygen recovery subsystem using Sabatier methane cracking have a good possibility for the application to the Japanese Experiment Module. Basic performance characteristics of the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem are presented according to the results of a fundamental performance test program. The trace contaminant removal process is also investigated and discussed. The solvent recovery plant for the regeneration of various industrial solvents, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and so on, utilizes the multi-bed solvent adsorption and steam desorption process, which is very similar to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. Therefore, to develop essential components including adsorption tank (bed), condensor, process controller and energy saving system, the technology obtained from the experience to construct solvent recovery plant can be easily and effectively applicable to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. The energy saving efficiency is evaluated for blower power reduction, steam reduction and waste heat utilization technique. According to the above background, the entire environment control and life support system for the Japanese Experiment Module including the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem is evaluated and proposed.

  19. Hydrodynamic instability experiments with three-dimensional modulations at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Hoover, D. E.; Landen, O. L.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-06-08

    The first hydrodynamic instability growth measurements with three-dimensional (3D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on CH shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng.43, 2841 (2004)]. The initial capsule outer-surface amplitudes were increased approximately four times, compared with the standard specifications, to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, helping to qualify a technique for measuring small 3D modulations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray through-foil radiography based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 15 similar images significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3D simulations. At a convergence ratio of${\\sim}2.4$, the measured modulation levels were${\\sim}3$times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. Several hypotheses are discussed, including increased instability growth due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. Future experiments will be focused on measurements with standard 3D ‘native-roughness’ capsules as well as with deliberately imposed oxygen modulations.

  20. Neutron dosimetry qualification experiments for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Lithium Blanket Module program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, F.Y.; Harker, Y.D.; Anderi, R.A.; Nigg, D.W.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Lithium Blanket module (LBM) program is a first-of-kind neutronics experiment involving a toroidal fusion neutron source. Qualification experiments have been conducted to develop primary measurement techniques and verify dosimetry materials that will be used to characterize the neutron environment inside and on the surfaces of the LBM. The deuterium-tritium simulation experiments utilizing a 14-MeV neutron generator and a fusion blanket mockup facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are described. Results and discussions are presented that identify the quality and limitations of the measured integral reaction data, including the minimum fluence requirement for the TFTR experiment and the use of such data in neutron spectrum adjustment and in predicting integral performance parameters, e.g., tritium production.

  1. Personal experience with narrated events modulates functional connectivity within visual and motor systems during story comprehension.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ho Ming; Mar, Raymond A; Xu, Yisheng; Liu, Siyuan; Wagage, Suraji; Braun, Allen R

    2015-04-01

    Past experience of everyday life activities, which forms the basis of our knowledge about the world, greatly affects how we understand stories. Yet, little is known about how this influence is instantiated in the human brain. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how past experience facilitates functional connectivity during the comprehension of stories rich in perceptual and motor details. We found that comprehenders' past experience with the scenes and actions described in the narratives selectively modulated functional connectivity between lower- and higher-level areas within the neural systems for visual and motor processing, respectively. These intramodal interactions may play an important role in integrating personal knowledge about a narrated situation with an evolving discourse representation. This study provides empirical evidence consistent with the idea that regions related to visual and motor processing are involved in the reenactment of experience as proposed by theories of embodied cognition. PMID:25545633

  2. Design and characterization of a W-band system for modulated DNP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Mallory L.; Zhu, Lihuang; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic-field and microwave-frequency modulated DNP experiments have been shown to yield improved enhancements over conventional DNP techniques, and even to shorten polarization build-up times. The resulting increase in signal-to-noise ratios can lead to significantly shorter acquisition times in signal-limited multi-dimensional NMR experiments and pave the way to the study of even smaller sample volumes. In this paper we describe the design and performance of a broadband system for microwave frequency- and amplitude-modulated DNP that has been engineered to minimize both microwave and thermal losses during operation at liquid helium temperatures. The system incorporates a flexible source that can generate arbitrary waveforms at 94 GHz with a bandwidth greater than 1 GHz, as well as a probe that efficiently transmits the millimeter waves from room temperature outside the magnet to a cryogenic environment inside the magnet. Using a thin-walled brass tube as an overmoded waveguide to transmit a hybrid HE11 mode, it is possible to limit the losses to 1 dB across a 2 GHz bandwidth. The loss is dominated by the presence of a quartz window used to isolate the waveguide pipe. This performance is comparable to systems with corrugated waveguide or quasi-optical components. The overall excitation bandwidth of the probe is seen to be primarily determined by the final antenna or resonator used to excite the sample and its coupling to the NMR RF coil. Understanding the instrumental limitations imposed on any modulation scheme is key to understanding the observed DNP results and potentially identifying the underlying mechanisms. We demonstrate the utility of our design with a set of triangular frequency-modulated DNP experiments.

  3. Design and characterization of a W-band system for modulated DNP experiments.

    PubMed

    Guy, Mallory L; Zhu, Lihuang; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic-field and microwave-frequency modulated DNP experiments have been shown to yield improved enhancements over conventional DNP techniques, and even to shorten polarization build-up times. The resulting increase in signal-to-noise ratios can lead to significantly shorter acquisition times in signal-limited multi-dimensional NMR experiments and pave the way to the study of even smaller sample volumes. In this paper we describe the design and performance of a broadband system for microwave frequency- and amplitude-modulated DNP that has been engineered to minimize both microwave and thermal losses during operation at liquid helium temperatures. The system incorporates a flexible source that can generate arbitrary waveforms at 94GHz with a bandwidth greater than 1GHz, as well as a probe that efficiently transmits the millimeter waves from room temperature outside the magnet to a cryogenic environment inside the magnet. Using a thin-walled brass tube as an overmoded waveguide to transmit a hybrid HE11 mode, it is possible to limit the losses to 1dB across a 2GHz bandwidth. The loss is dominated by the presence of a quartz window used to isolate the waveguide pipe. This performance is comparable to systems with corrugated waveguide or quasi-optical components. The overall excitation bandwidth of the probe is seen to be primarily determined by the final antenna or resonator used to excite the sample and its coupling to the NMR RF coil. Understanding the instrumental limitations imposed on any modulation scheme is key to understanding the observed DNP results and potentially identifying the underlying mechanisms. We demonstrate the utility of our design with a set of triangular frequency-modulated DNP experiments. PMID:26524649

  4. Superior thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary. Extremely low thermal conductivity and modulated carrier concentration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, D.; Zhao, L. -D.; Tong, X.; Li, W.; Wu, L.; Tan, Q.; Pei, Y.; Huang, L.; Li, J. -F.; Zhu, Y.; et al

    2015-05-19

    Lead chalcogenides have exhibited their irreplaceable role as thermoelectric materials at the medium temperature range, owing to highly degenerate electronic bands and intrinsically low thermal conductivities. PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary has been paid extensive attentions due to the even lower thermal conductivity which originates largely from the coexistence of both alloying and phase-separated precipitations. To investigate the competition between alloying and phase separation and its pronounced effect on the thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS, we systematically studied Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed), 3 at% Na- doped (PbTe)1-x(PbS)x samples with x=10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observationsmore » and theoretical calculations. Corresponding to the lowest lattice thermal conductivity as a result of the balance between point defect- and precipitates- scattering, the highest figure of merit ZT~2.3 was obtained at 923 K when PbS phase fraction x is at 20%. The consistently lower lattice thermal conductivities in SPSed samples compared with corresponding ingots, resulting from the powdering and follow-up consolidation processes, also contribute to the observed superior ZT. Notably, the onset of carrier concentration modulation ~600 K due to excessive Na’s diffusion and re-dissolution leads to the observed saturations of electrical transport properties, which is believed equally crucial to the outstanding thermoelectric performance of SPSed PbTe-PbS samples.« less

  5. Superior thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary. Extremely low thermal conductivity and modulated carrier concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Zhao, L. -D.; Tong, X.; Li, W.; Wu, L.; Tan, Q.; Pei, Y.; Huang, L.; Li, J. -F.; Zhu, Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; He, J.

    2015-05-19

    Lead chalcogenides have exhibited their irreplaceable role as thermoelectric materials at the medium temperature range, owing to highly degenerate electronic bands and intrinsically low thermal conductivities. PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary has been paid extensive attentions due to the even lower thermal conductivity which originates largely from the coexistence of both alloying and phase-separated precipitations. To investigate the competition between alloying and phase separation and its pronounced effect on the thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS, we systematically studied Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed), 3 at% Na- doped (PbTe)1-x(PbS)x samples with x=10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations and theoretical calculations. Corresponding to the lowest lattice thermal conductivity as a result of the balance between point defect- and precipitates- scattering, the highest figure of merit ZT~2.3 was obtained at 923 K when PbS phase fraction x is at 20%. The consistently lower lattice thermal conductivities in SPSed samples compared with corresponding ingots, resulting from the powdering and follow-up consolidation processes, also contribute to the observed superior ZT. Notably, the onset of carrier concentration modulation ~600 K due to excessive Na’s diffusion and re-dissolution leads to the observed saturations of electrical transport properties, which is believed equally crucial to the outstanding thermoelectric performance of SPSed PbTe-PbS samples.

  6. Soft X-ray irradiance measured by the Solar Aspect Monitor on the Solar Dynamic Observatory Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. Y.; Bailey, S. M.; Jones, A.; Woodraska, D.; Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.

    2016-04-01

    The Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM) is a pinhole camera on the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. SAM projects the solar disk onto the CCD through a metallic filter designed to allow only solar photons shortward of 7 nm to pass. Contamination from energetic particles and out-of-band irradiance is, however, significant in the SAM observations. We present a technique for isolating the 0.01-7 nm integrated irradiance from the SAM signal to produce the first results of broadband irradiance for the time period from May 2010 to May 2014. The results of this analysis agree with a similar data product from EVE's EUV SpectroPhotometer to within 25%. We compare our results with measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer Solar X-ray Photometer and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Solar EUV Experiment at similar levels of solar activity. We show that the full-disk SAM broadband results compared well to the other measurements of the 0.01-7 nm irradiance. We also explore SAM's capability toward resolving spatial contribution from regions of solar disk in irradiance and demonstrate this feature with a case study of several strong flares that erupted from active regions on 11 March 2011.

  7. Breeding on the extreme edge: Modulation of the adrenocortical response to acute stress in two High Arctic passerines

    PubMed Central

    Meddle, Simone L.; Romero, L. Michael; Landys, Meta M.; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Wingfield, John C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arctic weather in spring is unpredictable and can also be extreme, so Arctic‐breeding birds must be flexible in their breeding to deal with such variability. Unpredictability in weather conditions will only intensify with climate change and this in turn could affect reproductive capability of migratory birds. Adjustments to coping strategies are therefore crucial, so here we examined the plasticity of the adrenocorticotropic stress response in two Arctic songbird species—the snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) and Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus)—breeding in northwest Greenland. Across the breeding season, the stress response was strongest at arrival and least robust during molt in male snow buntings. Snow bunting females had higher baseline but similar stress‐induced corticosterone levels compared to males. Modification of the stress response was not due to adrenal insensitivity, but likely regulated at the anterior pituitary gland. Compared to independent nestlings and adult snow buntings, parental‐dependent chicks had a more robust stress response. For Lapland longspurs, baseline corticosterone was highest at arrival in both male and females, and arriving males displayed a higher stress response compared to arriving females. Comparison of male corticosterone profiles collected at arrival in Greenland (76°N) and Alaska (67–71°N;) reveal that both species have higher stress responses at the more northern location. Flexibility in the stress response may be typical for birds nesting at the leading edges of their range and this ability will become more relevant as global climate change results in major shifts of breeding habitat and phenology for migratory birds. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 266–275, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. J. Exp. Zool. published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25757443

  8. Variable Coding and Modulation Experiment Using NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, Joseph A.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Evans, Michael A.; Tollis, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Space Communication and Navigation Testbed on the International Space Station provides a unique opportunity to evaluate advanced communication techniques in an operational system. The experimental nature of the Testbed allows for rapid demonstrations while using flight hardware in a deployed system within NASA's networks. One example is variable coding and modulation, which is a method to increase data-throughput in a communication link. This paper describes recent flight testing with variable coding and modulation over S-band using a direct-to-earth link between the SCaN Testbed and the Glenn Research Center. The testing leverages the established Digital Video Broadcasting Second Generation (DVB-S2) standard to provide various modulation and coding options. The experiment was conducted in a challenging environment due to the multipath and shadowing caused by the International Space Station structure. Performance of the variable coding and modulation system is evaluated and compared to the capacity of the link, as well as standard NASA waveforms.

  9. Module Equipped with a Life-Support System for Space Experiments with Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones Unguiculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, E. A.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Guryeva, T. S.; Mednikova, E. I.

    2008-06-01

    A successful experiment with 12 Mongolian gerbils was performed during the 12-day flight of Russian automatic spacecraft Foton-M3 (September 14-26, 2007). Foton-M3 was not equipped with an air supply system. Due to this, a self-contained "CONTOUR" module equipped with its own Life-Support System, was developed. The cage for animals was equipped with yellow LEDs. The day/night cycle was 12:12 hours. In addition, the module was equipped with a digital video recorder located on the outside surface in front of a transparent window. In space flight, the animals were provided with food bars made of natural products and contained about 20% of water. This moisture met gerbils requirements in water; therefore, the module was not equipped with a water supply system. In the module, the environmental parameters were as follows: p02 = 143-156 (mean 150) mm Hg, pC02 - not more than 0.76 (mean 0.64) mm Hg, temperature = 23-28 (mean 26.7) °C, and RH = 29% at the beginning and 57% at the end of flight (mean 39%). Throughout the entire flight video recording of the animals was performed continuously during the daytime.

  10. An expert system to advise astronauts during experiments: The protocol manager module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymann-Haber, Guido; Colombano, Silvano P.; Groleau, Nicolas; Rosenthal, Don; Szolovits, Peter; Young, Laurence R.

    1990-01-01

    Perhaps the scarcest resource for manned flight experiments - on Spacelab or on the Space Station Freedom - will continue to be crew time. To maximize the efficiency of the crew and to make use of their abilities to work as scientist collaborators as well as equipment operators, normally requires more training in a wide variety of disciplines than is practical. The successful application of on-board expert systems, as envisioned by the Principal Investigator in a Box program, should alleviate the training bottleneck and provide the astronaut with the guidance and coaching needed to permit him or her to operate an experiment according to the desires and knowledge of the PI, despite changes in conditions. The Protocol Manager module of the system is discussed. The Protocol Manager receives experiment data that has been summarized and categorized by the other modules. The Protocol Manager acts on the data in real-time, by employing expert system techniques. Its recommendations are based on heuristics provided by the Principal Investigator in charge of the experiment. This prototype was developed on a Macintosh II by employing CLIPS, a forward-chaining rule-based system, and HyperCard as an object-oriented user interface builder.

  11. Art in time and space: context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing time.

    PubMed

    Brieber, David; Nadal, Marcos; Leder, Helmut; Rosenberg, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior. PMID:24892829

  12. Art in Time and Space: Context Modulates the Relation between Art Experience and Viewing Time

    PubMed Central

    Brieber, David; Nadal, Marcos; Leder, Helmut; Rosenberg, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior. PMID:24892829

  13. How extreme are extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  14. Experiences with Extreme Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrell, Linda; Krishna, Bhagavathy; Velaga, Natasha; Vejandla, Pavan; Satharla, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    Agile methodologies have become increasingly popular among software developers as evidenced by industrial participation at related conferences. The popularity of agile practices over traditional techniques partly stems from the fact that these practices provide for more customer involvement and better accommodate rapidly changing requirements,…

  15. Triaxial modulation of the acceleration induced in the lower extremity during whole-body vibration training: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cook, David P; Mileva, Katya N; James, Darren C; Zaidell, Lisa N; Goss, Victor G; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify vibration transmissibility through the lower extremity during exercise on a whole-body vibration (WBV) platform. Six healthy adults completed 20 trials of 30-second static squat exercise at 30 or 40 degrees of knee flexion angle on a WBV platform working at combinations of 5 frequencies (VF: 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz) and 2 amplitudes (VA: low, 1.5 mm or high, 3 mm). Accelerations induced by the platform were recorded simultaneously at the shank and the thigh using triaxial accelerometers positioned at the segmental center of mass. Root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration amplitude and transmission ratios between the platform and the leg segments were calculated and compared between the experimental conditions. An alpha level of 0.05 was set to establish significance. Shank vertical acceleration was greatest at the lower VF (p = 0.028), higher VA (p = 0.028), and deeper squat (p = 0.048). Thigh vertical acceleration was not affected by depth of squat (p = 0.25), but it was greatest at higher VA (p = 0.046) and lower VF (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral shank acceleration was greatest at higher VF and deeper squat (both p = 0.046) and at higher VA (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral thigh acceleration was positively related to both VF (p = 0.046) and VA (p = 0.028) but was not affected by knee angle (p = 0.46). Anterior-posterior shank acceleration was higher at deeper squat (p = 0.046) and at lower VF and higher VA (both p = 0.028). Anterior-posterior thigh acceleration was related positively to the VA (p = 0.028), inversely to the VF (p = 0.028), and not dependent on knee angle (p = 0.75). Identification of specific vibration parameters and posture, which underpin WBV training efficacy, will enable coaches and athletes to design WBV training programs to specifically target shank or thigh muscles for enhanced performance. PMID:20040893

  16. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments Using the International Space Station (ISS) Light Microscopy Module (LMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurk, Michael A. (Andy)

    2015-01-01

    Techshot, Inc., has developed an observation platform for the LMM on the ISS that will enable biomedical and biotechnology experiments. The LMM Dynamic Stage consists of an electronics module and the first two of a planned suite of experiment modules. Specimens and reagent solutions can be injected into a small, hollow microscope slide-the heart of the innovation-via a combination of small reservoirs, pumps, and valves. A life science experiment module allows investigators to load up to two different fluids for on-orbit, real-time image cytometry. Fluids can be changed to initiate a process, fix biological samples, or retrieve suspended cells. A colloid science experiment module conducts microparticle and nanoparticle tests for investigation of colloid self-assembly phenomena. This module includes a hollow glass slide and heating elements for the creation of a thermal gradient from one end of the slide to the other. The electronics module supports both experiment modules and contains a unique illuminator/condenser for bright and dark field and phase contrast illumination, power supplies for two piezoelectric pumps, and controller boards for pumps and valves. This observation platform safely contains internal fluids and will greatly accelerate the research and development (R&D) cycle of numerous experiments, products, and services aboard the ISS.

  17. Muscles of the Lower Extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Muscular System » Muscle Groups » Lower Extremity Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  18. ENERGY MODULATION OF THE ELECTRONS BY THE LASER FIELD IN THEWIGGLER MAGNET: ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, A.A.; Holldack, K.

    2006-08-20

    Energy modulation of the electron beam after the interactionwith the laser field in the wiggler magnet can be calculated usinginterference of the laser field and the field of spontaneous emission inthe far field region of wiggler radiation. Quite often this approachgives a deeper insight on the process than traditional calculations wherethe effect of the laser field on the electron energy is integrated alongthe electron trajectory in the wiggler. We demonstrate it by showing theagreement between the analytical model and the experiment involvingwiggler scan measurements with large detuning from the FEL resonanceproducing more than one order of magnitude variations in the amplitude ofthe energy modulation. The high sensitivity was achieved using the THzradiation from a sub-mm dip in the electron density that energy modulatedelectrons leave behind while propagating along the storage ring lattice.All measurements were performed at the BESSY-II electron storagering.

  19. Experience Modulates the Reproductive Response to Heat Stress in C. elegans via Multiple Physiological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Devin Y.; Aprison, Erin Z.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Natural environments are considerably more variable than laboratory settings and often involve transient exposure to stressful conditions. To fully understand how organisms have evolved to respond to any given stress, prior experience must therefore be considered. We investigated the effects of individual and ancestral experience on C. elegans reproduction. We documented ways in which cultivation at 15°C or 25°C affects developmental time, lifetime fecundity, and reproductive performance after severe heat stress that exceeds the fertile range of the organism but is compatible with survival and future fecundity. We found that experience modulates multiple aspects of reproductive physiology, including the male and female germ lines and the interaction between them. These responses vary in their environmental sensitivity, suggesting the existence of complex mechanisms for coping with unpredictable and stressful environments. PMID:26713620

  20. A computer program for an analysis of the relative motion of a space station and a free flying experiment module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the relative motion of a free flying experiment module in the vicinity of a space station under the perturbative effects of drag and earth oblateness was made. A listing of a computer program developed for determining the relative motion of a module utilizing the Cowell procedure is presented, as well as instructions for its use.

  1. Teaching Concepts to Young Children Through Cultural Cooking Experiences. Bilingual/Bicultural Child Development Associate Pilot Project: Module XIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa R.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) module, the fourteenth in a series of 16, suggests ways concepts can be taught by involving preschool children in carefully planned classroom cooking activities. Designed for bilingual/bicultural preschool teacher trainees, the module provides tips on food preparation as a learning experience. Required…

  2. Influence of land-atmosphere feedbacks on climate extreme indices in a multi-model experiment under present and future conditions (GLACE-CMIP5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ruth; Pitman, Andy; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Extreme events can be directly influenced by land surface-atmosphere interactions. It is important to investigate how extreme events might change in the future and the role these interactions play in amplifying extremes. The data from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiments (Seneviratne et al., 2013) provide a unique opportunity to examine the influence of soil moisture on extremes in transient climate simulations from a range of climate models. The extreme indices we use are defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and contain a range of indices based on daily minimum and maximum temperature as well as daily precipitation. The ETCCDI indices are available from observational datasets, reanalysis and as well as CMIP5 runs. Hence, these indices are widely used and can be compared to other sources. In this paper, we analyze the effects of land surface feedbacks on the extremes and their trends in the different global climate models. Seneviratne, S. I., et al. (2013). Impact of soil moisture-climate feedbacks on CMIP5 projections: First results from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment. GRL, 40(19), 5212-5217. doi:10.1002/grl.50956

  3. Combustion Module-2 Preparations Completed for SPACEHAB Mission Including the Addition of a New Major Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Ann P.

    2001-01-01

    The Combustion Module-1 (CM-1) was a large, state-of-the-art space shuttle Spacelab facility that was designed, built, and operated on STS-83 and STS-94 by a team from the NASA Glenn Research Center composed of civil servants and local support contractors (Analex and Zin Technologies). CM-1 accomplished the incredible task of providing a safe environment to support flammable and toxic gases while providing a suite of diagnostics for science measurements more extensive than any prior shuttle experiment (or anything since). Finally, CM-1 proved that multiple science investigations can be accommodated in one facility, a crucial step for Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility developed for the International Space Station. However, the story does not end with CM-1. In 1998, CM-2 was authorized to take the CM-1 accomplishments a big step further by completing three major steps: Converting the entire experiment to operate in a SPACEHAB module. Conducting an extensive hardware refurbishment and upgrading diagnostics (e.g., cameras, gas chromatograph, and numerous sensors). Adding a new, completely different combustion experiment.

  4. All About EVE: Education and Public Outreach for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) of the NASA Solar Dynamic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    With the aim of meeting NASA goals for education and public outreach as well as support education reform efforts including the National Science Education Standards, a suite of education materials and strategies have been developed by the Cooperative Institute for Environmental Sciences (CIRES) with the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), which is an instrument aboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. This paper will examine the education materials that have been developed for teachers in the classroom and scientists who are conducting outreach, including handouts, a website on space weather for teachers, a slideshow presentation about the overall Solar Dynamic Observatory mission, and a DVD with videos explaining the construction and goals of the EVE instrument, a tour of LASP, and an overview of space science careers. The results and potential transferability of a pilot project developed through this effort that engaged English Second Language learners in a semester-long course on space weather that incorporated the used of a Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) Monitor will be highlighted.

  5. Density modulation experiment to determine transport coefficients on Joint-TEXT Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Zhuang, G; Gao, L; Gentle, K W; Chen, J; Shi, P; Liu, Y; Li, Q; Wang, Z J

    2015-02-01

    Density modulation experiments have been conducted on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) Tokamak Ohmic discharge to investigate particle transport based on a model with constant diffusion plus inward convection. Like the HCN interferometer, the newly developed three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system (POLARIS) is used to measure the perturbed density. The comparison of results between the HCN interferometer and POLARIS is given. The consistent results indicate the validity of the analysis scheme. At lower densities, the typical particle confinement time τp is found to increase with electron density, while it saturates at higher densities. PMID:25725842

  6. Density modulation experiment to determine transport coefficients on Joint-TEXT Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Zhuang, G.; Gao, L. Chen, J.; Shi, P.; Liu, Y.; Li, Q.; Wang, Z. J.; Gentle, K. W.

    2015-02-15

    Density modulation experiments have been conducted on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) Tokamak Ohmic discharge to investigate particle transport based on a model with constant diffusion plus inward convection. Like the HCN interferometer, the newly developed three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system (POLARIS) is used to measure the perturbed density. The comparison of results between the HCN interferometer and POLARIS is given. The consistent results indicate the validity of the analysis scheme. At lower densities, the typical particle confinement time τ{sub p} is found to increase with electron density, while it saturates at higher densities.

  7. STS-47 MS Davis and MS Jemison conduct LBNP experiment in the SLJ module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    At the aft end of the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module, STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis (foreground) readies Rack 9 Automatic Blood Pressure System (ABPS) controls as MS Mae C. Jemison, inside the cylindrical fabric lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device, waits for the LBNP experiment to begin. LBNP device is sealed around Jemison's waist. It is attached to the SLJ floor and has a controller that operates a pump to change the pressure inside. Davis will monitor Jemison's pulse rate, blood pressure, and cardiac dimensions and functions.

  8. APE: the Active Phasing Experiment to test new control system and phasing technology for a European Extremely Large Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Constanza, A.; Brast, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Esteves, R.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Koenig, E.; Kolb, J.; Nylund, M.; Noethe, L.; Surdej, I.; Courteville, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Montoya, L.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Dohlen, K.; Ferrari, M.; Langlois, M.

    2005-08-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope will be composed of one or two giant segmented mirrors (up to 100 m of diameter) and of several large monolithic mirrors (up to 8 m in diameter). To limit the aberrations due to misalignments and defective surface quality it is necessary to have a proper active optics system. This active optics system must include a phasing system to limit the degradation of the PSF due to misphasing of the segmented mirrors. We will present the lastest design and development of the Active Phasing Experiment that will be tested in laboratory and on-sky connected to a VLT at Paranal in Chile. It includes an active segmented mirror, a static piston plate to simulate a secondary segmented mirror and of four phasing wavefront sensors to measure the piston, tip and tilt of the segments and the aberrations of the VLT. The four phasing sensors are the Diffraction Image Phase Sensing Instrument developed by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Pyramid Phasing Sensor developed by Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, the Shack-Hartmann Phasing Sensor developed by the European Southern Observatory and the Zernike Unit for Segment phasing developed by Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. A reference measurement of the segmented mirror is made by an internal metrology developed by Fogale Nanotech. The control system of Active Phasing Experiment will perform the phasing of the segments, the guiding of the VLT and the active optics of the VLT. These activities are included in the Framework Programme 6 of the European Union.

  9. Cropland responses to extreme winter temperature events: results from a manipulation experiment in north-eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simon, G.; Alberti, G.; Delle Vedove, G.; Peressotti, A.; Zaldei, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2011-12-01

    In the last years, several studies has focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to climate warming. Most of them have been conducted on natural ecosystems (forests or grasslands), but few have considered intensively managed ecosystems such as croplands despite of their global extension. In particular, extreme events, such as temperature changes outside the growing season (winter) when soil is not covered by plants, can have a strong impact on soil respiration, residues decomposition, yield and overall net biome production (NBP). In this study, we investigated the response of soil respiration (total and heterotrophic), aboveground NPP, yield and NBP on a soybean crop (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) due to a manipulated warmer or cooler winter. The experiment was carried out in Beano (46°00' N 13°01'E, Italy). Soil albedo and soil temperature were manipulated by covering soil surface during late winter with a layer of inert ceramized silica gravel. We tested three treatments with three replicates each: cooling (Co; white gravel), warming (W; black gravel), mix (M; black and white 4:1 gravel) and control (C; bare soil). An automated soil respiration system measured continuously total soil CO2 efflux across all the year and heterotrophic respiration after sowing in root exclusion subplots. Additionally, soil temperature profiles (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 cm depth), soil water content (between 5 and 10 cm depth) were monitored in each plot. After sowing, soybean phenological phases were periodically assessed and final yield was measured in each plot. Preliminary results showed a significant change in upper soil temperature between gravel application and canopy closure (maximum of + 5.8 °C and - 6.8 °C in the warming and cooling treatments, respectively). However, warming had only a transient effect on soil respiration (increase) before sowing. Thereafter, as soon as fresh organic matter availability decreased, soil respiration rate decreased and annual budget was not

  10. Cropland responses to extreme winter temperature events: results from a manipulation experiment in north-eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simon, G.; Alberti, G.; Delle Vedove, G.; Peressotti, A.; Zaldei, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the last years, several studies has focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to climate warming. Most of them have been conducted on natural ecosystems (forests or grasslands), but few have considered intensively managed ecosystems such as croplands despite of their global extension. In particular, extreme events, such as temperature changes outside the growing season (winter) when soil is not covered by plants, can have a strong impact on soil respiration, residues decomposition, yield and overall net biome production (NBP). In this study, we investigated the response of soil respiration (total and heterotrophic), aboveground NPP, yield and NBP on a soybean crop (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) due to a manipulated warmer or cooler winter. The experiment was carried out in Beano (46°00' N 13°01'E, Italy). Soil albedo and soil temperature were manipulated by covering soil surface during late winter with a layer of inert ceramized silica gravel. We tested three treatments with three replicates each: cooling (Co; white gravel), warming (W; black gravel), mix (M; black and white 4:1 gravel) and control (C; bare soil). An automated soil respiration system measured continuously total soil CO2 efflux across all the year and heterotrophic respiration after sowing in root exclusion subplots. Additionally, soil temperature profiles (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 cm depth), soil water content (between 5 and 10 cm depth) were monitored in each plot. After sowing, soybean phenological phases were periodically assessed and final yield was measured in each plot. Results showed a significant change in upper soil temperature between gravel application and canopy closure (maximum of + 5.8 °C and - 6.8 °C in the warming and cooling treatments, respectively). However, warming had only a transient effect on soil respiration (increase) before sowing. Thereafter, as soon as fresh organic matter availability decreased, soil respiration rate decreased and annual budget was not significantly different

  11. Somatosensory Experiences with Action Modulate Alpha and Beta Power during Subsequent Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Lorna C.; Marshall, Peter J.; Bouquet, Cedric A.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    How does prior experience with action change how we perceive a similar action performed by someone else? Previous research has examined the role of sensorimotor and visual experiences in action mirroring during subsequent observation, but the contribution of somatosensory experiences to this effect has not been adequately examined. The current study tests whether prior somatosensory stimulation experienced during action production modulates brain activity during observation of similar actions being performed by others. Specifically, changes in alpha- and beta-range oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during observation of reaching actions were examined in relation to the observer’s own prior experience of somatosensory stimulation while carrying out similar actions. Analyses revealed that alpha power over central electrodes was significantly decreased during observation of an action expected to result in somatosensory stimulation. Conversely, beta power was increased when an observed action was expected to result in somatosensory stimulation. These results suggest that somatosensory experiences may uniquely contribute to the way in which we process others people’s actions. PMID:23994217

  12. Holistic face perception is modulated by experience-dependent perceptual grouping.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Entenman, Robert J; Fleming, Justin T

    2016-07-01

    What role do general-purpose, experience-sensitive perceptual mechanisms play in producing characteristic features of face perception? We previously demonstrated that different-colored, misaligned framing backgrounds, designed to disrupt perceptual grouping of face parts appearing upon them, disrupt holistic face perception. In the current experiments, a similar part-judgment task with composite faces was performed: face parts appeared in either misaligned, different-colored rectangles or aligned, same-colored rectangles. To investigate whether experience can shape impacts of perceptual grouping on holistic face perception, a pre-task fostered the perception of either (a) the misaligned, differently colored rectangle frames as parts of a single, multicolored polygon or (b) the aligned, same-colored rectangle frames as a single square shape. Faces appearing in the misaligned, differently colored rectangles were processed more holistically by those in the polygon-, compared with the square-, pre-task group. Holistic effects for faces appearing in aligned, same-colored rectangles showed the opposite pattern. Experiment 2, which included a pre-task condition fostering the perception of the aligned, same-colored frames as pairs of independent rectangles, provided converging evidence that experience can modulate impacts of perceptual grouping on holistic face perception. These results are surprising given the proposed impenetrability of holistic face perception and provide insights into the elusive mechanisms underlying holistic perception. PMID:27029482

  13. Design of a high throughput electronics module for high energy physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Jie; Liu, Zhen-An; Zhao, Jing-Zhou; Liu, Zhao

    2016-06-01

    High-energy physics experiments enable us to explore and understand particle properties and interactions. An increase in luminosity in the accelerator, which allows us to study particles in higher energy ranges, demands faster data transmission and processing. Aimed at this, a high throughput uTCA-compliant electronics module, based on the latest FPGAs, has been designed. It contains 48 10.0 Gb/s optical fiber input channels and 24 10.0 Gb/s optical fiber output channels, supporting up to 480 Gb/s input bandwidth and 240 Gb/s output bandwidth. It complies with the uTCA standards, providing high speed data exchange capability and functioning as a compact and key module in a trigger and DAQ system for a large experiment. A reliable 10.0 Gb/s data transmission among two boards has been verified and one functionality that merges 6 1.6 Gb/s data channels into one single 10.0 Gb/s channel has been achieved. The hardware, firmware and software together with a performance evaluation are given in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11435013, 11461141011)

  14. Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) and therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF) systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Corallo, Claudio; Volpi, Nila; Franci, Daniela; Vannoni, Daniela; Leoncini, Roberto; Landi, Giacomo; Guarna, Massimo; Montella, Antonio; Albanese, Antonietta; Battisti, Emilio; Fioravanti, Antonella; Nuti, Ranuccio; Giordano, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, characterized by matrix degradation and changes in chondrocyte morphology and metabolism. Literature reported that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can produce benefits in OA patients, even if EMFs mechanism of action is debated. Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes isolated from femoral heads were cultured in vitro in bidimensional (2-D) flasks and in three-dimensional (3-D) alginate beads to mimic closely cartilage environment in vivo. Cells were exposed 30 min/day for 2 weeks to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) with fixed frequency (100 Hz) and to therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic field (TAMMEF) with variable frequencies, intensities, and waveforms. Cell viability was measured at days 7 and 14, while healthy-cell density, heavily vacuolized (hv) cell density, and cluster density were measured by light microscopy only for 3-D cultures after treatments. Cell morphology was observed for 2-D and 3-D cultures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chondrocyte exposure to TAMMEF enhances cell viability at days 7 and 14 compared to ELF. Light microscopy analysis showed that TAMMEF enhances healthy-cell density, reduces hv-cell density and clustering, compared to ELF. Furthermore, TEM analysis showed different morphology for 2-D (fibroblast-like) and 3-D (rounded shape) cultures, confirming light microscopy results. In conclusion, EMFs are effective and safe for OA chondrocytes. TAMMEF can positively interfere with OA chondrocytes representing an innovative non-pharmacological approach to treat OA. PMID:23263545

  15. The Extreme Conditions Beamline at PETRA III, DESY: Possibilities to conduct time resolved monochromatic diffraction experiments in dynamic and laser heated DAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liermann, H.-P.; Morgenroth, W.; Ehnes, A.; Berghäuser, A.; Winkler, B.; Franz, H.; Weckert, E.

    2010-03-01

    We present plans for the new Extreme Conditions Beamline at PETRA III, DESY, Germany. The beamline is being designed and built with the specific goal to explore time resolved high-pressure and -temperature x-ray diffraction experiments in the dynamic and laser heated diamond anvil cell. Within we discuss the conceptual design of the optical components and experimental setup to conduct monochromatic high-pressure powder diffraction experiments in the sub-second time regime.

  16. High-power, micro-integrated diode laser modules at 767 and 780 nm for portable quantum gas experiments.

    PubMed

    Schiemangk, Max; Lampmann, Kai; Dinkelaker, Aline; Kohfeldt, Anja; Krutzik, Markus; Kürbis, Christian; Sahm, Alexander; Spießberger, Stefan; Wicht, Andreas; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther; Peters, Achim

    2015-06-10

    We present micro-integrated diode laser modules operating at wavelengths of 767 and 780 nm for cold quantum gas experiments on potassium and rubidium. The master-oscillator-power-amplifier concept provides both narrow linewidth emission and high optical output power. With a linewidth (10 μs) below 1 MHz and an output power of up to 3 W, these modules are specifically suited for quantum optics experiments and feature the robustness required for operation at a drop tower or on-board a sounding rocket. This technology development hence paves the way toward precision quantum optics experiments in space. PMID:26192832

  17. MODULES FOR EXPERIMENTS IN STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS (MESA): PLANETS, OSCILLATIONS, ROTATION, AND MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, Bill; Cantiello, Matteo; Bildsten, Lars; Arras, Phil; Brown, Edward F.; Dotter, Aaron; Mankovich, Christopher; Montgomery, M. H.; Stello, Dennis; Timmes, F. X.; Townsend, Richard

    2013-09-15

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open source software package Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), and its one-dimensional stellar evolution module, MESA star. Improvements in MESA star's ability to model the evolution of giant planets now extends its applicability down to masses as low as one-tenth that of Jupiter. The dramatic improvement in asteroseismology enabled by the space-based Kepler and CoRoT missions motivates our full coupling of the ADIPLS adiabatic pulsation code with MESA star. This also motivates a numerical recasting of the Ledoux criterion that is more easily implemented when many nuclei are present at non-negligible abundances. This impacts the way in which MESA star calculates semi-convective and thermohaline mixing. We exhibit the evolution of 3-8 M{sub Sun} stars through the end of core He burning, the onset of He thermal pulses, and arrival on the white dwarf cooling sequence. We implement diffusion of angular momentum and chemical abundances that enable calculations of rotating-star models, which we compare thoroughly with earlier work. We introduce a new treatment of radiation-dominated envelopes that allows the uninterrupted evolution of massive stars to core collapse. This enables the generation of new sets of supernovae, long gamma-ray burst, and pair-instability progenitor models. We substantially modify the way in which MESA star solves the fully coupled stellar structure and composition equations, and we show how this has improved the scaling of MESA's calculational speed on multi-core processors. Updates to the modules for equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, and atmospheric boundary conditions are also provided. We describe the MESA Software Development Kit that packages all the required components needed to form a unified, maintained, and well-validated build environment for MESA. We also highlight a few tools developed by the community for rapid visualization of MESA star results.

  18. Environmental Experience Modulates Ischemia-Induced Amyloidogenesis and Enhances Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined whether ischemia-induced amyloidogenesis could be modulated by environmental “experience,” and whether this modulation is associated with improved cognitive functioning. Rats were subjected to either global ischemia or sham surgery and then were randomly assigned to either enriched environment housing (EE) or socially paired housing (controls). After 14 days of differential environmental housing, the rats were tested in the water maze. Our results show decreased C-terminal fragments of the β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) and decreased amyloid beta (Aβ) load in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. In addition, Aβ oligomerization was significantly decreased in the ischemic EE animals compared to the ischemic control rats. Further, significantly increased levels of neprilysin, but not insulin-degrading enzyme, amyloid-degrading enzymes, were seen in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. Behavioral analyses showed that ischemic EE rats performed significantly better on the memory task compared to the ischemic control group. These results suggest that use of multi-sensory environmental enrichment following cerebral ischemia may reduce the accumulation of Aβ peptide in the more pathologic oligomeric form, and consequently may enhance functional recovery. PMID:19271963

  19. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: The preliminary report of Cleveland Clinic experience

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, Heath B. . E-mail: hmackley@alumni.upenn.edu; Reddy, Chandana A. M.S.; Lee, S.-Y.; Harnisch, Gayle A.; Mayberg, Marc R.; Hamrahian, Amir H.; Suh, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is being increasingly used for the treatment of pituitary adenomas. However, there have been few published data on the short- and long-term outcomes of this treatment. This is the initial report of Cleveland Clinic's experience. Methods and Materials: Between February 1998 and December 2003, 34 patients with pituitary adenomas were treated with IMRT. A retrospective chart review was conducted for data analysis. Results: With a median follow-up of 42.5 months, the treatment has proven to be well tolerated, with performance status remaining stable in 90% of patients. Radiographic local control was 89%, and among patients with secretory tumors, 100% had a biochemical response. Only 1 patient required salvage surgery for progressive disease, giving a clinical progression free survival of 97%. The only patient who received more than 46 Gy experienced optic neuropathy 8 months after radiation. Smaller tumor volume significantly correlated with subjective improvements in nonvisual neurologic complaints (p = 0.03), and larger tumor volume significantly correlated with subjective worsening of visual symptoms (p = 0.05). New hormonal supplementation was required for 40% of patients. Younger patients were significantly more likely to require hormonal supplementation (p 0.03). Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary adenomas over the short term. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine if IMRT confers any advantage with respect to either tumor control or toxicity over conventional radiation modalities.

  20. Preliminary results from the flight of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1994-01-01

    SAMPIE, the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment, flew in the Space Shuttle Columbia payload bay as part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) mission on STS-62, March, 1994. SAMPIE biased samples of solar arrays and space power materials to varying potentials with respect to the surrounding space plasma, and recorded the plasma currents collected and the arcs which occurred, along with a set of plasma diagnostics data. A large set of high quality data was obtained on the behavior of solar arrays and space power materials in the space environment. This paper is the first report on the data SAMPIE telemetered to the ground during the mission. It will be seen that the flight data promise to help determine arcing thresholds, snapover potentials, and floating potentials for arrays and spacecraft in LEO.

  1. Preliminary results from the flight of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE)

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.C.; Hillard, G.B.

    1994-09-01

    SAMPIE, the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment, flew in the Space Shuttle Columbia payload bay as part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) mission on STS-62, March, 1994. SAMPIE biased samples of solar arrays and space power materials to varying potentials with respect to the surrounding space plasma, and recorded the plasma currents collected and the arcs which occurred, along with a set of plasma diagnostics data. A large set of high quality data was obtained on the behavior of solar arrays and space power materials in the space environment. This paper is the first report on the data SAMPIE telemetered to the ground during the mission. It will be seen that the flight data promise to help determine arcing thresholds, snapover potentials, and floating potentials for arrays and spacecraft in LEO.S

  2. Towards convection-resolving, global atmospheric simulations with the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS): an extreme scaling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzeller, D.; Duda, M. G.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is a novel set of earth-system simulation components and consists of an atmospheric model, an ocean model and a land-ice model. Its distinct features are the use of unstructured Voronoi meshes and C-grid discretisation to address shortcomings of global models on regular grids and of limited area models nested in a forcing data set, with respect to parallel scalability, numerical accuracy and physical consistency. This makes MPAS a promising tool for conducting climate-related impact studies of, for example, land use changes in a consistent approach. Here, we present an in-depth evaluation of MPAS with regards to technical aspects of performing model runs and scalability for three medium-size meshes on four different High Performance Computing sites with different architectures and compilers. We uncover model limitations and identify new aspects for the model optimisation that are introduced by the use of unstructured Voronoi meshes. We further demonstrate the model performance of MPAS in terms of its capability to reproduce the dynamics of the West African Monsoon and its associated precipitation. Comparing 11 month runs for two meshes with observations and a Weather Research & Forecasting tool (WRF) reference model, we show that MPAS can reproduce the atmospheric dynamics on global and local scales, but that further optimisation is required to address a precipitation excess for this region. Finally, we conduct extreme scaling tests on a global 3 km mesh with more than 65 million horizontal grid cells on up to half a million cores. We discuss necessary modifications of the model code to improve its parallel performance in general and specific to the HPC environment. We confirm good scaling (70 % parallel efficiency or better) of the MPAS model and provide numbers on the computational requirements for experiments with the 3 km mesh. In doing so, we show that global, convection-resolving atmospheric simulations with MPAS

  3. Gas-grain simulation experiment module conceptual design and gas-grain simulation facility breadboard development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamel, James M.; Petach, Michael; Gat, Nahum; Kropp, Jack; Luong, Christina; Wolff, Michael

    1993-01-01

    This report delineates the Option portion of the Phase A Gas-Grain Simulation Facility study. The conceptual design of a Gas-Grain Simulation Experiment Module (GGSEM) for Space Shuttle Middeck is discussed. In addition, a laboratory breadboard was developed during this study to develop a key function for the GGSEM and the GGSF, specifically, a solid particle cloud generating device. The breadboard design and test results are discussed and recommendations for further studies are included. The GGSEM is intended to fly on board a low earth orbit (LEO), manned platform. It will be used to perform a subset of the experiments planned for the GGSF for Space Station Freedom, as it can partially accommodate a number of the science experiments. The outcome of the experiments performed will provide an increased understanding of the operational requirements for the GGSF. The GGSEM will also act as a platform to accomplish technology development and proof-of-principle experiments for GGSF hardware, and to verify concepts and designs of hardware for GGSF. The GGSEM will allow assembled subsystems to be tested to verify facility level operation. The technology development that can be accommodated by the GGSEM includes: GGSF sample generation techniques, GGSF on-line diagnostics techniques, sample collection techniques, performance of various types of sensors for environmental monitoring, and some off-line diagnostics. Advantages and disadvantages of several LEO platforms available for GGSEM applications are identified and discussed. Several of the anticipated GGSF experiments require the deagglomeration and dispensing of dry solid particles into an experiment chamber. During the GGSF Phase A study, various techniques and devices available for the solid particle aerosol generator were reviewed. As a result of this review, solid particle deagglomeration and dispensing were identified as key undeveloped technologies in the GGSF design. A laboratory breadboard version of a solid

  4. Fish navigation of large dams emerges from their modulation of flow field experience

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, R. Andrew; Politano, Marcela; Garvin, Justin W.; Nestler, John M.; Hay, Duncan; Anderson, James J.; Weber, Larry J.; Dimperio, Eric; Smith, David L.; Timko, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Navigating obstacles is innate to fish in rivers, but fragmentation of the world’s rivers by more than 50,000 large dams threatens many of the fish migrations these waterways support. One limitation to mitigating the impacts of dams on fish is that we have a poor understanding of why some fish enter routes engineered for their safe travel around the dam but others pass through more dangerous routes. To understand fish movement through hydropower dam environments, we combine a computational fluid dynamics model of the flow field at a dam and a behavioral model in which simulated fish adjust swim orientation and speed to modulate their experience to water acceleration and pressure (depth). We fit the model to data on the passage of juvenile Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) at seven dams in the Columbia/Snake River system. Our findings from reproducing observed fish movement and passage patterns across 47 flow field conditions sampled over 14 y emphasize the role of experience and perception in the decision making of animals that can inform opportunities and limitations in living resources management and engineering design. PMID:24706826

  5. Fish navigation of large dams emerges from their modulation of flow field experience.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, R Andrew; Politano, Marcela; Garvin, Justin W; Nestler, John M; Hay, Duncan; Anderson, James J; Weber, Larry J; Dimperio, Eric; Smith, David L; Timko, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Navigating obstacles is innate to fish in rivers, but fragmentation of the world's rivers by more than 50,000 large dams threatens many of the fish migrations these waterways support. One limitation to mitigating the impacts of dams on fish is that we have a poor understanding of why some fish enter routes engineered for their safe travel around the dam but others pass through more dangerous routes. To understand fish movement through hydropower dam environments, we combine a computational fluid dynamics model of the flow field at a dam and a behavioral model in which simulated fish adjust swim orientation and speed to modulate their experience to water acceleration and pressure (depth). We fit the model to data on the passage of juvenile Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) at seven dams in the Columbia/Snake River system. Our findings from reproducing observed fish movement and passage patterns across 47 flow field conditions sampled over 14 y emphasize the role of experience and perception in the decision making of animals that can inform opportunities and limitations in living resources management and engineering design. PMID:24706826

  6. Physics teachers' action-research experience with a teaching module on ``Force''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baimba, Andrew

    1992-12-01

    Eight physics teachers from three research schools working in collaboration with the author developed, tried, and evaluated a teaching module on “Force”. The module was designed for students in a non-western society, for whom there is no cultural term that explicitly defines the concept. This paper describes illustrative examples of the trials and evaluation exercise of the module. It concludes with a summary of the effects the teachers' interaction with the module had on their professional development.

  7. Plant experiments with light-emitting diode module in Svet space greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Iliyana; Ivanova, Tania; Naydenov, Yordan; Dandolov, Ivan; Stefanov, Detelin

    Light is necessary for photosynthesis and shoot orientation in the space plant growth facilities. Light modules (LM) must provide sufficient photosynthetic photon flux for optimal efficiency of photosynthetic processes and also meet the constraints for power, volume and mass. A new LM for SVET Space Greenhouse using Cree R XLamp R 7090 XR light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is developed. Three types of monochromic LEDs emitting in the red, green, and blue region of the spectrum are used. The new LM contains 36 LED spots - 30 LED spots with one red, green and blue LED and 6 LED spots with three red LEDs. DMX programming device controls the LED spots and can set 231 levels of light intensity thus achieving Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) in the range 0-400 µmol.m-2 .s-1 and different percentages of the red, green and blue light, depending on the experimental objectives. Two one-month experiments with "salad-type" plants - lettuce and chicory were carried at 400 µmol.m-2 .s-1 PPFD (high light - HL) and 220 µmol.m-2 .s-1 PPFD (low light - LL) and composition 70% red, 20% green and 10% blue light. In vivo modulated chlorophyll fluorescence was measured by a PAM fluorometer on leaf discs and the following parameters: effective quantum yield of Photosystem II (ΦP SII ) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were calculated. Both lettuce and chicory plants grown at LL express higher photochemical activity of Photosystem II (PSII) than HL grown plants, evaluated by the actual PSII quantum yield, ΦP SII . The calculated steady state NPQ values did not differ significantly in lettuce and chicory. The rapid phase of the NPQ increase was accelerated in all studied LL leaves. In conclusion low light conditions ensured more effective functioning of PSII than HL when lettuce and chicory plants were grown at 70% red, 20% green and 10% blue light composition.

  8. Plant experiments with light-emitting diode module in Svet space greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania; Naydenov, Yordan; Dandolov, Ivan; Stefanov, Detelin

    2010-10-01

    Light is necessary for photosynthesis and shoot orientation in the space plant growth facilities. Light modules (LM) must provide sufficient photosynthetic photon flux for optimal efficiency of photosynthetic processes and also meet the constraints for power, volume and mass. A new LM for Svet space greenhouse using Cree® XLamp® 7090 XR light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was developed. Monochromic LEDs emitting in the red, green, and blue regions of the spectrum were used. The LED-LM contains 36 LED spots - 30 LED spots with one red, green and blue LED and 6 LED spots with three red LEDs. Digital Multiplex Control Unit controls the LED spots and can set 231 levels of light intensity thus achieving Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) in the range 0-400 μmol m -2 s -1 and different percentages of the red, green and blue light, depending on the experimental objectives. Two one-month experiments with plants - lettuce and radicchio were carried out at 400 μmol m -2 s -1 PPFD (high light - HL) and 220 μmol m -2 s -1 PPFD (low light - LL) and 70% red, 20% green and 10% blue light composition. To evaluate the efficiency of photosynthesis, in vivo modulated chlorophyll fluorescence was measured by Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometer on leaf discs and the following parameters: effective quantum yield of Photosystem II ( ΦPSII) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were calculated. Both lettuce and radicchio plants grown at LL express higher photochemical activity of Photosystem II (PSII) than HL grown plants, evaluated by ΦPSII. Accelerated rise in NPQ in both LL grown plants was observed, while steady state NPQ values were higher in LL grown lettuce plants and did not differ in LL and HL grown radicchio plants. The extent of photoinhibition process in both plants was evaluated by changes in malonedialdehyde (MDA) concentration, peroxidase (POX) activity and hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) content. Accumulation of high levels of MDA and increased POX activity

  9. Evaluation of extremity pain in children using technetium-99m MDP bone scan: A general hospital experience

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Rothschild, P.A.; Kernek, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three-phase bone scan in detection of significant pathology i.e., osteomyelitis (OM), septic joint, cellulitis, etc., in children with symptoms of extremity pain. A total of 100 consecutive patients (age 9 days - 16 yrs, 63 boys and 37 girls) were studied. The authors reviewed their scans, x-rays and hospital records. The final diagnoses were based on the findings of needle aspiration, surgical drainage, biopsy, culture, and on the therapeutic response. In 87%, sufficiently long clinical follow-up was available to confirm the final diagnoses. In the remaining 13%, the symptoms resolved quickly and follow-up was not felt necessary. The scan was essential in pinpointing the lesions in pts with referred or nonlocalizing extremity pain. The +ve and -ve predictive values of the scan and OM were 89% and 96% respectively. One spiral fracture was misinterpreted as diffuse OM. One ''Subacute epiphyseal OM'' was not detected. In two cases, cellulitis and septic joint obscured underlying OM. Prior antibotic therapy resulted in one equivocal scan. Although less sensitive (29%) in early OM, radiographs play an important complimentary role. Bone scans detected underlying pathology for extremity pain in 61% of all pts studied.

  10. Molecular Correlates of Cortical Network Modulation by Long-Term Sensory Experience in the Adult Rat Barrel Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallès, Astrid; Granic, Ivica; De Weerd, Peter; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of cortical network connectivity is crucial for an adaptive response to experience. In the rat barrel cortex, long-term sensory stimulation induces cortical network modifications and neuronal response changes of which the molecular basis is unknown. Here, we show that long-term somatosensory stimulation by enriched environment…

  11. Enhancing Hispanic Minority Undergraduates' Botany Laboratory Experiences: Implementation of an Inquiry-Based Plant Tissue Culture Module Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Navas, Vivian; Diffoot, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Early involvement of students in hands-on research experiences are known to demystify research and promote the pursuit of careers in science. But in large enrollment departments such opportunities for undergraduates to participate in research are rare. To counteract such lack of opportunities, inquiry-based laboratory module in plant tissue…

  12. OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE-MINUTE SOLAR OSCILLATIONS IN THE CORONA USING THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER (ESP) ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT (SDO/EVE)

    SciTech Connect

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Woods, T.

    2011-09-01

    We report on the detection of oscillations in the corona in the frequency range corresponding to five-minute acoustic modes of the Sun. The oscillations have been observed using soft X-ray measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP) of the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The ESP zeroth-order channel observes the Sun as a star without spatial resolution in the wavelength range of 0.1-7.0 nm (the energy range is 0.18-12.4 keV). The amplitude spectrum of the oscillations calculated from six-day time series shows a significant increase in the frequency range of 2-4 mHz. We interpret this increase as a response of the corona to solar acoustic (p) modes and attempt to identify p-mode frequencies among the strongest peaks. Due to strong variability of the amplitudes and frequencies of the five-minute oscillations in the corona, we study how the spectrum from two adjacent six-day time series combined together affects the number of peaks associated with the p-mode frequencies and their amplitudes. This study shows that five-minute oscillations of the Sun can be observed in the corona in variations of the soft X-ray emission. Further investigations of these oscillations may improve our understanding of the interaction of the oscillation modes with the solar atmosphere, and the interior-corona coupling, in general.

  13. Broadband Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy of Molecular Ions for Use in the Jila Electron Edm Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresh, Daniel N.; Cossel, Kevin C.; Cornell, Eric A.; Ye, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The JILA electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) experiment will use a low-lying, metastable ^3Δ_1 state in trapped molecular ions of HfF^+ or ThF^+. Prior to this work, the low-lying states of these molecules had been investigated by PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy. However, there were no detailed studies of the electronic structure. The recently developed technique of frequency comb velocity modulation spectroscopy (VMS) provides broad-bandwidth, high-resolution, ion-sensitive spectroscopy, allowing the acquisition of 150 cm^{-1} of continuous spectra in 30 minutes over 1500 simultaneous channels. By supplementing this technique with cw-laser VMS, we have investigated the electronic structure of HfF^+ in the frequency range of 9950 to 14600 cm^{-1}, accurately fitting and assigning 16 rovibronic transitions involving 8 different electronic states including the X^1Σ^+ and a^3Δ_1 states. In addition, an observed ^3Π_{0+} state with coupling to both the X and a states has been used in the actual eEDM experiment to coherently transfer population from the rovibronic ground state of HfF^+ to the eEDM science state. Furthermore, we report on current efforts of applying frequency comb VMS at 700 - 900 nm to the study of ThF^+, which has a lower energy ^3Δ_1 state and a greater effective electric field, and will provide increased sensitivity for a measurement of the eEDM. A. E. Leanhardt et. al., Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 270, 1-25 (2011). B. J. Barker, I. O. Antonov, M. C. Heaven, K. A. Peterson, Journal of Chemical Physics 136, 104305 (2012). L. C. Sinclair, K. C. Cossel, T. Coffey, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, Physical Review Letters 107, 093002 (2011). K.C. Cossel et. al., Chemical Physics Letters 546, 1-11 (2012).

  14. Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy-The National Cancer Centre Singapore Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tham, Ivan Weng-Keong; Hee, Siew Wan; Yeo, Richard Ming-Chert; Salleh, Patemah; Lee, James; Tan, Terence Wee-Kiat; Fong, Kam Weng; Chua, Eu Tiong; Wee, Joseph Tien-Seng

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and acute toxicity of our early experience with treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: A review was conducted on case records of 195 patients with histologically proven, nonmetastatic NPC treated with IMRT between 2002 and 2005. MRI of the head and neck was fused with CT simulation images. All plans had target volumes at three dose levels, with a prescribed dose of 70 Gy to the gross disease, in 2.0-2.12 Gy/fraction over 33-35 fractions. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was offered to Stage III/IV patients. Results: Median patient age was 52 years, and 69% were male. Median follow-up was 36.5 months. One hundred and twenty-three patients had Stage III/IV disease (63%); 50 (26%) had T4 disease. One hundred and eighty-eight (96%) had complete response; 7 (4%) had partial response. Of the complete responders, 10 (5.3%) had local recurrence, giving a 3-year local recurrence-free survival estimate of 93.1% and a 3-year disease-free survival of 82.1%. Fifty-one patients (26%) had at least one Grade 3 toxicity. Conclusions: Results from our series are comparable to those reported by other centers. Acute toxicity is common. Local failure or persistent disease, especially in patients with bulky T4 disease, are issues that must be addressed in future trials.

  15. Clinical implementation of dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy: Dosimetric aspects and initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, S. S.; Krishnamurthy, K.; Davis, C. A.; Ravichandran, R.; Kannadhasan, S.; Biunkumar, J. P.; El Ghamrawy, Kamal

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the initial experience of quality assurance (QA) tests performed on the millennium multi-leaf collimator (mMLC) for clinical implementation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using sliding window technique. The various QA tests verified the mechanical and dosimetric stability of the mMLC of linear accelerator when operated in dynamic mode (dMLC). The mechanical QA tests also verified the positional accuracy and kinetic properties of the dMLC. The stability of dMLC was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using radiographic film and Omnipro IMRT software. The output stability, variation in output for different sweeping gap widths, and dosimetric leaf separation were measured. Dose delivery with IMRT was verified against the dose computed by the treatment planning system (TPS). Monitor units (MUs) calculated by the planning system for the IMRT were cross-checked with independent commercial dose management software. Visual inspection and qualitative analysis showed that the leaf positioning accuracy was well within the acceptable limits. Dosimetric QA tests confirmed the dosimetric stability of the mMLC in dynamic mode. The verification of MUs using commercial software confirmed the reliability of the IMRT planning system for dose computation. The dosimetric measurements validated the fractional dose delivery. PMID:19893693

  16. Compact narrow linewidth diode laser modules for precision quantum optics experiments on board of sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohfeldt, Anja; Kürbis, Christian; Luvsandamdin, Erdenetsetseg; Schiemangk, Max; Wicht, Andreas; Peters, Achim; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2016-04-01

    We have realized a laser platform based on GaAs diode lasers that allows for an operation in mobile exper-imental setups in harsh environments, such as on sounding rockets. The platform comes in two versions: a master-oscillator-power-amplifier and an extended cavity diode laser. Our very robust micro-optical bench has a footprint of 80 x 25 mm2. It strictly omits any movable parts. Master-oscillator-power-amplifier systems based on distributed feedback master oscillators for 767 nm and 780 nm narrow linewidth emission have been implemented by now. A continuous wave optical output power of > 1 W with a power conversion efficiency of > 25% could be achieved. The continuous tuning range of these lasers is on the order of 100 GHz, the linewidth at 10 μs is about 1 MHz. For applications demanding a narrower linewidth we have developed an extended cavity diode laser that achieves a linewidth of 100 kHz at 10 μs. These lasers achieve a continuous spectral tuning range of about 50 GHz and an continuous wave optical power up to 30 mW. The modules have been successfully vibration tested up to 29 gRMS along all three axes and passed 1500 g shocks, again along all 3 axes. Both, master-oscillator-power-amplifiers and extended cavity diode lasers, have been employed in sounding rocket experiments.

  17. Modulation of Intestinal Functions Following Mycotoxin Ingestion: Meta-Analysis of Published Experiments in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Bertrand; Applegate, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can cause serious health problems in animals, and may result in severe economic losses. Deleterious effects of these feed contaminants in animals are well documented, ranging from growth impairment, decreased resistance to pathogens, hepato- and nephrotoxicity to death. By contrast, data with regard to their impact on intestinal functions are more limited. However, intestinal cells are the first cells to be exposed to mycotoxins, and often at higher concentrations than other tissues. In addition, mycotoxins specifically target high protein turnover- and activated-cells, which are predominant in gut epithelium. Therefore, intestinal investigations have gained significant interest over the last decade, and some publications have demonstrated that mycotoxins are able to compromise several key functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including decreased surface area available for nutrient absorption, modulation of nutrient transporters, or loss of barrier function. In addition some mycotoxins facilitate persistence of intestinal pathogens and potentiate intestinal inflammation. By contrast, the effect of these fungal metabolites on the intestinal microbiota is largely unknown. This review focuses on mycotoxins which are of concern in terms of occurrence and toxicity, namely: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins. Results from nearly 100 published experiments (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) were analyzed with a special attention to the doses used. PMID:23430606

  18. Shuttle Payload Ground Command and Control: An Experiment Implementation Combustion Module-2 Software Development, STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, David Andrew

    2003-01-01

    This presentation covers the design of a command and control architecture developed by the author for the Combustion Module-2 microgravity experiment, which flew aboard the STS-107 Shuttle mission, The design was implemented to satisfy a hybrid network that utilized TCP/IP for both the onboard segment and ground segment, with an intermediary unreliable transport for the space to ground segment. With the infusion of Internet networking technologies into Space Shuttle, Space Station, and spacecraft avionics systems, comes the need for robust methodologies for ground command and control. Considerations of high bit error links, and unreliable transport over intermittent links must be considered in such systems. Internet protocols applied to these systems, coupled with the appropriate application layer protections, can provide adequate communication architectures for command and control. However, there are inherent limitations and additional complexities added by the use of Internet protocols that must be considered during the design. This presentation will discuss the rationale for the: framework and protocol algorithms developed by the author. A summary of design considerations, implantation issues, and learned lessons will be will be presented. A summary of mission results using this communications architecture will be presented. Additionally, areas of further needed investigation will be identified.

  19. Analysis and trends of precipitation lapse rate and extreme indices over north Sikkim eastern Himalayas under CMIP5ESM-2M RCPs experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishal; Goyal, Manish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws attention to highlight the spatial and temporal variability in precipitation lapse rate (PLR) and precipitation extreme indices (PEIs) through the mesoscale characterization of Teesta river catchment, which corresponds to north Sikkim eastern Himalayas. A PLR rate is an important variable for the snowmelt runoff models. In a mountainous region, the PLR could be varied from lower elevation parts to high elevation parts. In this study, a PLR was computed by accounting elevation differences, which varies from around 1500 m to 7000 m. A precipitation variability and extremity were analysed using multiple mathematical functions viz. quantile regression, spatial mean, spatial standard deviation, Mann-Kendall test and Sen's estimation. For this reason, a daily precipitation, in the historical (years 1980-2005) as measured/observed gridded points and projected experiments for the 21st century (years 2006-2100) simulated by CMIP5 ESM-2 M model (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 Earth System Model 2) employing three different radiative forcing scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways), utilized for the research work. The outcomes of this study suggest that a PLR is significantly varied from lower elevation to high elevation parts. The PEI based analysis showed that the extreme high intensity events have been increased significantly, especially after 2040s. The PEI based observations also showed that the numbers of wet days are increased for all the RCPs. The quantile regression plots showed significant increments in the upper and lower quantiles of the various extreme indices. The Mann-Kendall test and Sen's estimation tests clearly indicated significant changing patterns in the frequency and intensity of the precipitation indices across all the sub-basins and RCP scenario in an intra-decadal time series domain. The RCP8.5 showed extremity of the projected outcomes.

  20. Fertilizing ROSES through the STEM: Interdisciplinary Modules as Pre-service Research Experiences for Secondary STEM Educators (IMPRESS-Ed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavic, Michael; Wiita, P. J.; Benoit, M.; Magee, N.

    2013-01-01

    IMPRESS-Ed is a program designed to provide authentic summer research experiences in the space, earth, and atmospheric sciences for pre-service K-12 educators at Long Island University (LIU) and The College of New Jersey (TCNJ). In 2011 and 2012, the program involved five students and took place over eight weeks with recruitment occurring during the preceding academic year. The program was divided into two modules: A common core module and an individual mentored research experience. The common module consisted of three units focusing on data-driven pedagogical approaches in astrophysics, tectonophysics, and atmospheric science, respectively. The common module also featured training sessions in observational astronomy, and use of a 3D geowall and state of the art planetarium. Participants in the program are also offered the opportunity to utilize the available TCNJ facilities with their future students. The individual mentored research module matched student interests with potential projects. All five students demonstrated strong gains in earth and space science literacy compared to a baseline measurement. Each student also reported gaining confidence to incorporate data and research-driven instruction in the space and earth sciences into the K-12 STEM classroom setting. All five research projects were also quite successful: several of the students plan to continue research during the academic year and two students are presenting research findings as first authors here at AAS. Other research results are likely to be presented at this year's American Geophysical Union meeting.

  1. Two-colour pump–probe experiments with a twin-pulse-seed extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Allaria, E.; Bencivenga, F.; Borghes, R.; Capotondi, F.; Castronovo, D.; Charalambous, P.; Cinquegrana, P.; Danailov, M. B.; De Ninno, G.; Demidovich, A.; Di Mitri, S.; Diviacco, B.; Fausti, D.; Fawley, W. M.; Ferrari, E.; Froehlich, L.; Gauthier, D.; Gessini, A.; Giannessi, L.; Ivanov, R.; Kiskinova, M.; Kurdi, G.; Mahieu, B.; Mahne, N.; Nikolov, I.; Masciovecchio, C.; Pedersoli, E.; Penco, G.; Raimondi, L.; Serpico, C.; Sigalotti, P.; Spampinati, S.; Spezzani, C.; Svetina, C.; Trovò, M.; Zangrando, M.

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the dynamics of matter driven to extreme non-equilibrium states by an intense ultrashort X-ray pulse is becoming reality, thanks to the advent of free-electron laser technology that allows development of different schemes for probing the response at variable time delay with a second pulse. Here we report the generation of two-colour extreme ultraviolet pulses of controlled wavelengths, intensity and timing by seeding of high-gain harmonic generation free-electron laser with multiple independent laser pulses. The potential of this new scheme is demonstrated by the time evolution of a titanium-grating diffraction pattern, tuning the two coherent pulses to the titanium M-resonance and varying their intensities. This reveals that an intense pulse induces abrupt pattern changes on a time scale shorter than hydrodynamic expansion and ablation. This result exemplifies the essential capabilities of the jitter-free multiple-colour free-electron laser pulse sequences to study evolving states of matter with element sensitivity. PMID:24048228

  2. New Conceptual Design of a Test Module Assembly for Tritium Permeation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    O'hira, S.; Luo, G.-N.; Nakamura, H.; Shu, W.M.; Kitamura, K.; Nishi, M.

    2005-07-15

    A new conceptual design of a tritium permeation test module assembly was developed, for simulation of tritium permeation in the real plasma facing components and validation of the models and codes for evaluation of the tritium permeation. The assembly was designed for tests using powerful ion sources, which has a capability to simulate condition relevant to that of the ITER divertor. The heat load test of the prototype module has been performed using an electron beam to verify thermal and mechanical behavior of the bonded structure and to assess its structural integrity under the cyclic heat loads. Then, the first tests using tritium ion beam generated by the TPE apparatus at TSTA/LANL with the prototype module was performed and procedure to measure tritium permeated was established. Considerations for tests using the target module with defects generated by neutron irradiation or accelerated ion beam irradiation will be also taken in the new module design.

  3. Sentinel lymph-node biopsy for melanoma of the trunk and extremities: the McGill experience

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Francine; Loutfi, Antoine; Shibata, Henry; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of sentinel lymph-node (SLN) biopsy for melanoma of the trunk and extremities. Design Case series review. Setting Royal Victoria Hospital, a Canadian university hospital. Patients Thirty-six patients (18 women and 18 men) seen between October 1996 and December 1998 with melanoma 1 mm or more in thickness with clinically negative lymph-node basins. Follow-up was 396 days. Interventions SLN biopsy. Technetium-99m filtered sulfur colloid (0.5 mCi) was injected intradermally around the melanoma or the excision scar 10 to 15 minutes before the surgical skin preparation. The identification of the SLN(s) was done with a hand-held gamma probe. Local anesthesia was used mostly for inguinal SLN biopsy whereas general anesthesia was usually required for axillary SLN biopsy. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was used only for trunk melanomas. Outcome measures Morbidity, successful identification of the sentinel node and locoregional recurrence. Results The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 53.4 years (range from 22–76 yr). The melanomas were distributed between the lower extremities (20 patients), upper extremities (8 patients) and trunk (8 patients). The mean Breslow thickness was 2.35 mm (range from 1–8 mm). Lymphoscintigraphy accurately localized the lymph-node drainage basin for trunk melanomas. In 1 patient the SLN could not be identified because the radiocolloid failed to migrate (failure rate 2.8%). The average number of SLNs removed was 1.97. Eight patients (22%) had sentinel nodes positive for malignant disease. The postoperative complication rate was 8.5%. Seven of 8 patients with positive SLNs underwent a complete node dissection (1 patient refused). Of the completion dissections only 2 patients had positive non-SLNs. All patients with positive nodes received interferon alpha-2b as adjuvant treatment. At follow-up, 34 patients are alive with no evidence of disease, 1 patient with a positive SLN is alive with distant

  4. Treatment of lower extremity injuries due to antipersonnel mines: blast resuscitation and victim assistance team experiences in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Parr, Reagan R; Providence, Bertram C; Burkhalter, William E; Smith, Allan C

    2003-07-01

    The two teams comprising the fiscal year 2001 Blast Resuscitation and Victim Assistance mission had the opportunity to learn from and practice mine injury treatment principles with experienced local and international war surgeons in Cambodia. Treatment principles were modifications of International Committee of the Red Cross recommendations. A total of 14 acute lower extremity mine injuries were treated. Surgery generally consisted of an open amputation or thorough irrigation and debridement using equipment readily available in any U.S. military field hospital. The surgical techniques will be described in detail. Delayed primary closure occurred 5 days later followed by prosthesis fitting (for amputees) in an International Committee of the Red Cross facility 12 weeks later. Other options and techniques will be discussed with an emphasis on applicability to U.S. military field surgery. PMID:12901462

  5. In-Flight Performance of the Polarization Modulator in the CLASP Rocket Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Giono, Gabriel; Beabout, Dyana L.; Beabout, Brent L.; Nakayama, Satoshi; Tajima, Takao

    2016-01-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU), a motor system to rotate a waveplate continuously. In polarization measurements, the continuous rotating waveplate is an important element as well as a polarization analyzer to record the incident polarization in a time series of camera exposures. The control logic of PMU was originally developed for the next Japanese solar observation satellite SOLAR-C by the SOLAR-C working group. We applied this PMU for the Chromospheric Lyman-alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP). CLASP is a sounding rocket experiment to observe the linear polarization of the Lyman-alpha emission (121.6 nm vacuum ultraviolet) from the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun with a high polarization sensitivity of 0.1 % for the first time and investigate their vector magnetic field by the Hanle effect. The driver circuit was developed to optimize the rotation for the CLASP waveplate (12.5 rotations per minute). Rotation non-uniformity of the waveplate causes error in the polarization degree (i.e. scale error) and crosstalk between Stokes components. We confirmed that PMU has superior rotation uniformity in the ground test and the scale error and crosstalk of Stokes Q and U are less than 0.01 %. After PMU was attached to the CLASP instrument, we performed vibration tests and confirmed all PMU functions performance including rotation uniformity did not change. CLASP was successfully launched on September 3, 2015, and PMU functioned well as designed. PMU achieved a good rotation uniformity, and the high precision polarization measurement of CLASP was successfully achieved.

  6. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA): Binaries, Pulsations, and Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, Bill; Marchant, Pablo; Schwab, Josiah; Bauer, Evan B.; Bildsten, Lars; Cantiello, Matteo; Dessart, Luc; Farmer, R.; Hu, H.; Langer, N.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Townsley, Dean M.; Timmes, F. X.

    2015-09-01

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open-source software instrument Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). MESA can now simultaneously evolve an interacting pair of differentially rotating stars undergoing transfer and loss of mass and angular momentum, greatly enhancing the prior ability to model binary evolution. New MESA capabilities in fully coupled calculation of nuclear networks with hundreds of isotopes now allow MESA to accurately simulate the advanced burning stages needed to construct supernova progenitor models. Implicit hydrodynamics with shocks can now be treated with MESA, enabling modeling of the entire massive star lifecycle, from pre-main-sequence evolution to the onset of core collapse and nucleosynthesis from the resulting explosion. Coupling of the GYRE non-adiabatic pulsation instrument with MESA allows for new explorations of the instability strips for massive stars while also accelerating the astrophysical use of asteroseismology data. We improve the treatment of mass accretion, giving more accurate and robust near-surface profiles. A new MESA capability to calculate weak reaction rates “on-the-fly” from input nuclear data allows better simulation of accretion induced collapse of massive white dwarfs and the fate of some massive stars. We discuss the ongoing challenge of chemical diffusion in the strongly coupled plasma regime, and exhibit improvements in MESA that now allow for the simulation of radiative levitation of heavy elements in hot stars. We close by noting that the MESA software infrastructure provides bit-for-bit consistency for all results across all the supported platforms, a profound enabling capability for accelerating MESA's development.

  7. Effects of linguistic experience on the ability to benefit from temporal and spectral masker modulation

    PubMed Central

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Masked speech perception can often be improved by modulating the masker temporally and/or spectrally. These effects tend to be larger in normal-hearing listeners than hearing-impaired listeners, and effects of temporal modulation are larger in adults than young children [Hall et al. (2012). Ear Hear. 33, 340–348]. Initial reports indicate non-native adult speakers of the target language also have a reduced ability to benefit from temporal masker modulation [Stuart et al. (2010). J. Am. Acad. Aud. 21, 239–248]. The present study further investigated the effect of masker modulation on English speech recognition in normal-hearing adults who are non-native speakers of English. Sentence recognition was assessed in a steady-state baseline masker condition and in three modulated masker conditions, characterized by spectral, temporal, or spectro-temporal modulation. Thresholds for non-natives were poorer than those of native English speakers in all conditions, particularly in the presence of a modulated masker. The group differences were consistent across maskers when assessed in percent correct, suggesting that a single factor may limit the performance of non-native listeners similarly in all conditions. PMID:24606272

  8. 'Do you remember the first time?' Host plant preference in a moth is modulated by experiences during larval feeding and adult mating.

    PubMed

    Proffit, Magali; Khallaf, Mohammed A; Carrasco, David; Larsson, Mattias C; Anderson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In insects, like in other animals, experience-based modulation of preference, a form of phenotypic plasticity, is common in heterogeneous environments. However, the role of multiple fitness-relevant experiences on insect preference remains largely unexplored. For the multivoltine polyphagous moth Spodoptera littoralis we investigated effects of larval and adult experiences on subsequent reproductive behaviours. We demonstrate, for the first time in male and female insects, that mating experience on a plant modulates plant preference in subsequent reproductive behaviours, whereas exposure to the plant alone or plant together with sex pheromone does not affect this preference. When including larval feeding experiences, we found that both larval rearing and adult mating experiences modulate host plant preference. These findings represent the first evidence that host plant preferences in polyphagous insects are determined by a combination of innate preferences modulated by sensory feedback triggered by multiple rewarding experiences throughout their lifetime. PMID:25735877

  9. Exploring thermal and mechanical properties of selected transition elements under extreme conditions: Experiments at high pressures and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav

    Transition metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, and Au) are essential building units of many materials and have important industrial applications. Therefore, it is important to understand their thermal and physical behavior when they are subjected to extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. This dissertation presents: • An improved experimental technique to use lasers for the measurement of thermal conductivity of materials under conditions of very high pressure (P, up to 50 GPa) and temperature (T up to 2500 K). • An experimental study of the phase relationship and physical properties of selected transition metals, which revealed new and unexpected physical effects of thermal conductivity in Zr, and Hf under high P-T.. • New phase diagrams created for Hf, Ti and Zr from experimental data. • P-T dependence of the lattice parameters in α-hafnium. Contrary to prior reports, the α-ω phase transition in hafnium has a negative dT/dP slope. • New data on thermodynamic and physical properties of several transition metals and their respective high P-T phase diagrams. • First complete thermodynamic database for solid phases of 13 common transition metals was created. This database has: All the thermochemical data on these elements in their standard state (mostly available and compiled); All the equations of state (EoS) formulated from pressure-volume-temperature data (measured as a part of this study and from literature); Complete thermodynamic data for selected elements from standard to extreme conditions. The thermodynamic database provided by this study can be used with available thermodynamic software to calculate all thermophysical properties and phase diagrams at high P-T conditions. For readers who do not have access to this software, tabulated values of all thermodynamic and volume data for the 13 metals at high P-T are included in the APPENDIX. In the APPENDIX, a description of several other high-pressure studies of selected

  10. Apollo experience report: Command and service module controls and displays subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. B.; Swint, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the command and service module controls and displays subsystem is presented. The subsystem is described, and operational requirements, component history, problems and solutions, and conclusions and recommendations for the subsystem are included.

  11. Ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions from the West Coast experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Short gravity-capillary waves, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean waves. These short waves are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale wave probe. Modulation transfer functions (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean wave periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the wave-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by waves of typical ocean wave period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water waves should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean waves by the ocean wave frequency.

  12. RF Power and Magnetic Field Modulation Experiments with Simple Mirror Geometry in the Central Cell of Hanbit Device

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.G.; Bak, J.G.; Jhang, H.G.; Kim, S.S.

    2005-01-15

    The radio frequency (RF) stabilization effects to investigate the characteristics of the interchange instability by RF power and magnetic field modulation experiments were performed near {omega}/{omega}{sub i} {approx} = 1 and with low beta ({approx} 0.1%) plasmas in the central cell of the Hanbit mirror device. Temporal behaviors of the interchange mode were measured and analyzed when the interchange mode was triggered by sudden changes of the RF power and magnetic field intensity.

  13. Detection of an underwater target through modulated lidar experiments at grazing incidence in a deep wave basin.

    PubMed

    Pellen, Fabrice; Jezequel, Vincent; Zion, Guy; Jeune, Bernard Le

    2012-11-01

    The effectiveness of a pulsed radiofrequency modulated lidar and associated processing for underwater target detection at grazing incidence was experimentally assessed in a wave basin 50 m long and 20 m deep, under different conditions of swell produced within this facility to benefit from a controlled interface. This paper reports our experiments and offline data processing results, and describes significant improvements in the probability of detection that demonstrate the interest of using such a technique in this context. PMID:23128721

  14. PHITS simulations of the Protective curtain experiment onboard the Service module of ISS: Comparison with absorbed doses measured with TLDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploc, Ondřej; Sihver, Lembit; Kartashov, Dmitry; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Tolochek, Raisa

    2013-12-01

    "Protective curtain" was the physical experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) aimed on radiation measurement of the dose - reducing effect of the additional shielding made of hygienic water-soaked wipes and towels placed on the wall in the crew cabin of the Service module Zvezda. The measurements were performed with 12 detector packages composed of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) placed at the Protective curtain, so that they created pairs of shielded and unshielded detectors.

  15. Wavelength locking of single emitters and multi-emitter modules: simulation and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanson, Dan; Rappaport, Noam; Peleg, Ophir; Berk, Yuri; Dahan, Nir; Klumel, Genady; Baskin, Ilya; Levy, Moshe

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength-stabilized high-brightness single emitters are commonly used in fiber-coupled laser diode modules for pumping Yb-doped lasers at 976 nm, and Nd-doped ones at 808 nm. We investigate the spectral behavior of single emitters under wavelength-selective feedback from a volume Bragg (or hologram) grating (VBG) in a multi-emitter module. By integrating a full VBG model as a multi-layer thin film structure with commercial raytracing software, we simulated wavelength locking conditions as a function of beam divergence and angular alignment tolerances. Good correlation between the simulated VBG feedback strength and experimentally measured locking ranges, in both VBG misalignment angle and laser temperature, is demonstrated. The challenges of assembling multi-emitter modules based on beam-stacked optical architectures are specifically addressed, where the wavelength locking conditions must be achieved simultaneously with high fiber coupling efficiency for each emitter in the module. It is shown that angular misorientation between fast and slow-axis collimating optics can have a dramatic effect on the spectral and power performance of the module. We report the development of our NEON-S wavelength-stabilized fiber laser pump module, which uses a VBG to provide wavelength-selective optical feedback in the collimated portion of the beam. Powered by our purpose-developed high-brightness single emitters, the module delivers 47 W output at 11 A from an 0.15 NA fiber and a 0.3 nm linewidth at 976 nm. Preliminary wavelength-locking results at 808 nm are also presented.

  16. Experience-Based Quality Control of Clinical Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Kevin L.; Brame, R. Scott; Low, Daniel A.; Mutic, Sasa

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To incorporate a quality control tool, according to previous planning experience and patient-specific anatomic information, into the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan generation process and to determine whether the tool improved treatment plan quality. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study of 42 IMRT plans demonstrated a correlation between the fraction of organs at risk (OARs) overlapping the planning target volume and the mean dose. This yielded a model, predicted dose = prescription dose (0.2 + 0.8 [1 - exp(-3 overlapping planning target volume/volume of OAR)]), that predicted the achievable mean doses according to the planning target volume overlap/volume of OAR and the prescription dose. The model was incorporated into the planning process by way of a user-executable script that reported the predicted dose for any OAR. The script was introduced to clinicians engaged in IMRT planning and deployed thereafter. The script's effect was evaluated by tracking {delta} = (mean dose-predicted dose)/predicted dose, the fraction by which the mean dose exceeded the model. Results: All OARs under investigation (rectum and bladder in prostate cancer; parotid glands, esophagus, and larynx in head-and-neck cancer) exhibited both smaller {delta} and reduced variability after script implementation. These effects were substantial for the parotid glands, for which the previous {delta} = 0.28 {+-} 0.24 was reduced to {delta} = 0.13 {+-} 0.10. The clinical relevance was most evident in the subset of cases in which the parotid glands were potentially salvageable (predicted dose <30 Gy). Before script implementation, an average of 30.1 Gy was delivered to the salvageable cases, with an average predicted dose of 20.3 Gy. After implementation, an average of 18.7 Gy was delivered to salvageable cases, with an average predicted dose of 17.2 Gy. In the prostate cases, the rectum model excess was reduced from {delta} = 0.28 {+-} 0.20 to {delta} = 0.07 {+-} 0

  17. Initial experience with an extremely soft bare platinum coil, ED coil-10 Extra Soft, for endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kei; Morioka, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The ED coil-10 Extra Soft (EDC-10 ES) is an extremely soft coil with excellent operability for embolization of cerebral aneurysms and is frequently used as a ‘finishing coil’. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this coil. Methods Clinical data were analyzed retrospectively for 92 consecutive aneurysms for which at least one EDC-10 ES was used. Follow-up angiography at 6 months was available for 69 aneurysms. Initial and follow-up outcomes were evaluated using three-category occlusion grading. Factors that affect the packing density were also investigated. Results Of the 92 aneurysms, 63 (68.5%) were classified as complete occlusion, 11 (12.0%) as having a neck remnant and 18 (19.6%) with dome filling immediately after the embolization procedure. The mean±SD packing density was 29.5±10.6%. Periprocedural complications were observed in three cases (3.3%). At 6 months the rate of completely occluded cases increased to 78.3% (54/69) and those for neck remnant and dome filling decreased to 11.8% (8/69) and 10.1% (7/69), respectively. Recanalization occurred in six aneurysms and one aneurysm was retreated during the follow-up period, giving an overall recurrence rate of 10.0% (7/70). Linear regression analysis showed a significant association of packing density with the percentage EDC-10 ES volume (p<0.001) and with the maximum aneurysm size (p<0.001). Conclusions Use of the EDC-10 ES permits safe and effective embolization of a cerebral aneurysm and contributes to a reduction in the rate of recanalization. PMID:23190564

  18. Design and test of an extremely high resolution Timing Counter for the MEG II experiment: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gerone, M.; Gatti, F.; Ootani, W.; Uchiyama, Y.; Nishimura, M.; Shirabe, S.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rossella, M.

    2014-02-01

    The design and tests of Timing Counter elements for the upgrade of the MEG experiment, MEG II, are presented. The detector is based on several small plates of scintillator with a Silicon PhotoMultipliers dual-side readout. The optimisation of the single counter elements (SiPMs, scintillators, geometry) is described. Moreover, the results obtained with a first prototype tested at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) are presented.

  19. Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    2013-03-01

    In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence

  20. Rapid prototyping, astronaut training, and experiment control and supervision: distributed virtual worlds for COLUMBUS, the European Space Laboratory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Eckhard; Rossmann, Juergen

    2002-02-01

    In 2004, the European COLUMBUS Module is to be attached to the International Space Station. On the way to the successful planning, deployment and operation of the module, computer generated and animated models are being used to optimize performance. Under contract of the German Space Agency DLR, it has become IRF's task to provide a Projective Virtual Reality System to provide a virtual world built after the planned layout of the COLUMBUS module let astronauts and experimentators practice operational procedures and the handling of experiments. The key features of the system currently being realized comprise the possibility for distributed multi-user access to the virtual lab and the visualization of real-world experiment data. Through the capabilities to share the virtual world, cooperative operations can be practiced easily, but also trainers and trainees can work together more effectively sharing the virtual environment. The capability to visualize real-world data will be used to introduce measured data of experiments into the virtual world online in order to realistically interact with the science-reference model hardware: The user's actions in the virtual world are translated into corresponding changes of the inputs of the science reference model hardware; the measured data is than in turn fed back into the virtual world. During the operation of COLUMBUS, the capabilities for distributed access and the capabilities to visualize measured data through the use of metaphors and augmentations of the virtual world may be used to provide virtual access to the COLUMBUS module, e.g. via Internet. Currently, finishing touches are being put to the system. In November 2001 the virtual world shall be operational, so that besides the design and the key ideas, first experimental results can be presented.

  1. ATLAS pixel IBL modules construction experience and developments for future upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiello, A.

    2015-10-01

    The first upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector is the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), installed in May 2014 in the core of ATLAS. Two different silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D, are used. Sensors are connected with the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 read-out chip via solder bump-bonds. Production quality control tests were set up to verify and rate the performance of the modules before integration into staves. An overview of module design and construction, the quality control results and production yield will be discussed, as well as future developments foreseen for future detector upgrades.

  2. "Systems Education Experiences: Transforming high school science education through unique partnerships, inquiry based modules, and ocean systems studies"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, C.; Orellana, M. V.; Baliga, N. S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in experimental practice, accompanying computational techniques and systems thinking, have advanced biological inquiry. However, current scientific practices do not typically resemble the science taught in schools. As a result, students are missing out on significant opportunities to develop the critical thinking that is needed both in science and many professions. As a potential solution to this ongoing problem in science education, we are using current scientific practices to create classroom activities, packaged in easy-to-use curriculum modules, which promote conceptual development of standards based instructional outcomes. By bringing together students, teachers, researchers, engineers, and programmers we bring needed systems thinking and engaging inquiry experiences to schools throughout Washington State and the nation. Teachers are trained and continuously supported as they learn needed content and methods to bring this new science into their classrooms. Current research on ocean acidification, changing biogeochemical cycles, and the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of ocean systems studies have been translated through our newest curriculum module. Developing this module presented a significant challenge due to the urgency and importance of instilling understanding in high school students as they prepare to make decisions on the highly charged political, economic, and scientific issues of climate change and ocean acidification. Challenges have been overcome through partnerships and through infusing the habits of sustainability, high level thinking, systems modeling, scientific design, and communication. The Next Generation Standards have opened the door for nationwide dissemination of the module as we embark enabling students to think, understand, and contribute to scientific research.

  3. D0 Decomissioning : Storage of Depleted Uranium Modules Inside D0 Calorimeters after the Termination of D0 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael; /Fermilab

    2011-09-21

    Dzero liquid Argon calorimeters contain hadronic modules made of depleted uranium plates. After the termination of DO detector's operation, liquid Argon will be transferred back to Argon storage Dewar, and all three calorimeters will be warmed up. At this point, there is no intention to disassemble the calorimeters. The depleted uranium modules will stay inside the cryostats. Depleted uranium is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. It is slightly radioactive, emits alpha, beta and gamma radiation. External radiation hazards are minimal. Alpha radiation has no external exposure hazards, as dead layers of skin stop it; beta radiation might have effects only when there is a direct contact with skin; and gamma rays are negligible - levels are extremely low. Depleted uranium is a pyrophoric material. Small particles (such as shavings, powder etc.) may ignite with presence of Oxygen (air). Also, in presence of air and moisture it can oxidize. Depleted uranium can absorb moisture and keep oxidizing later, even after air and moisture are excluded. Uranium oxide can powder and flake off. This powder is also pyrographic. Uranium oxide may create health problems if inhaled. Since uranium oxide is water soluble, it may enter the bloodstream and cause toxic effects.

  4. On the design of experiments for the study of extreme field limits in the ultra-relativistic interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Z.; Hayashi, Yukio; Kando, Masaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Koga, James K.; Kondo, Kiminori; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Zhidkov, Alexei G.; Chen, Pisin; Neely, David; Kato, Yoshiaki; Narozhny, Nikolay B.; Korn, Georg

    2011-06-01

    The critical electric field of quantum electrodynamics, called also the Schwinger field, is so strong that it produces electron-positron pairs from vacuum, converting the energy of light into matter. Since the dawn of quantum electrodynamics, there has been a dream on how to reach it on Earth. With the rise of laser technology this field has become feasible through the construction of extremely high power lasers or/and with the sophisticated use of nonlinear processes in relativistic plasmas. This is one of the most attractive motivations for extremely high power laser development, i.e. producing matter from vacuum by pure light in fundamental process of quantum electrodynamics in the nonperturbative regime. Recently it has been realized that a laser with intensity well below the Schwinger limit can create an avalanche of electron-positron pairs similar to a discharge before attaining the Schwinger field. It has also been realized that the Schwinger limit can be reached using an appropriate configuration of laser beams. In experiments on the collision of laser light and high intensity electromagnetic pulses generated by relativistic flying mirrors, with electron bunches produced by a conventional accelerator and with laser wake field accelerated electrons the studying of extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves is proposed. The regimes of dominant radiation reaction, which completely changes the electromagnetic wave-matter interaction, will be revealed. This will result in a new powerful source of high brightness gamma-rays. A possibility of the demonstration of the electronpositron pair creation in vacuum via multi-photon processes can be realized. This will allow modeling under terrestrial laboratory conditions neutron star magnetospheres, cosmological gamma ray bursts and the Leptonic Era of the Universe.

  5. Librarian-Faculty Collaboration on a Library Research Assignment and Module for College Experience Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Anne; Barbier, Pat

    2013-01-01

    A librarian and faculty member collaborated on creating a library research module for students in the faculty member's college success classes to help them learn the fundamentals of information literacy. Using the assignment "My Ideal Job," the students met four or more times with the librarian in a computer classroom to learn how…

  6. Library Research and Computer Search Module, Revised Edition. National College of Education: Field Experience Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coll. of Education, Evanston, IL.

    This self-instructional library module is the textbook used in a 4-hour library instruction course for field-based students of the National College of Education. The field program involves instruction sessions in local libraries, instructor-assisted online reference searching, and document delivery to field-based students working on a…

  7. Apollo program soil mechanics experiment. [interaction of the lunar module with the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The soil mechanics investigation was conducted to obtain information relating to the landing interaction of the lunar module (LM) with the lunar surface, and lunar soil erosion caused by the spacecraft engine exhaust. Results obtained by study of LM landing performance on each Apollo mission are summarized.

  8. Composition modulation in GaInNAs quantum wells: Comparison of experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, M.; González, D.; Hopkinson, M.; Gutiérrez, M.; Navaretti, P.; Liu, H. Y.; García, R.

    2005-04-01

    Composition modulation observed in GaInNAs quantum wells imposes an important handicap to their potential application within optical components, particularly as the indium and nitrogen contents are increased to reach longer wavelengths. In this paper, we compare our experimental results of phase separation in GaInNAs quantum wells grown at different temperatures with recent theoretical models of spinodal decomposition from the literature. This comparison has shown that the regular solution approximation, which explains the higher composition modulation compared to GaInAs samples, provides a more appropriate explanation of GaInNAs decomposition than the usual delta lattice-parameter approximation. Transmission electron microscopy shows no composition modulation contrasts with the chemical sensitive 002 dark field reflection and a strong increase in the intensity of the strain contrasts observed with 220 bright field reflection as the growth temperature increases from 360to460°C. These observations can be explained by an uncoupling between N and In composition profiles forming separate In-rich and N-rich regions according to the regular solution approximation model. We therefore believe that the compositional fluctuations in GaInNAs are not only due to GaInAs decomposition, but that an uncoupled modulation of the III and V elements is also present.

  9. Apollo experience report. Guidance and control systems: Command and service module stabilization and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littleton, O. P.

    1974-01-01

    The concepts, design, development, testing, and flight results of the command and service module stabilization and control system are discussed. The period of time covered was from November 1961 to December 1972. Also included are a functional description of the system, a discussion of the major problems, and recommendations for future programs.

  10. Simple Carotid-Sparing Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Technique and Preliminary Experience for T1-2 Glottic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, David I.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Barker, Jerry L.; Mason, Bryan M.S.; Garcia, John A. C.; Lewin, Jan S.; Holsinger, F. Christopher; Stasney, C. Richard; Frank, Steven J.; Schwartz, David L.; Morrison, William H.; Garden, Adam S.; Ang, K. Kian

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetry and feasibility of carotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for early glottic cancer and to report preliminary clinical experience. Methods and Materials: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine radiotherapy (DICOM-RT) datasets from 6 T1-2 conventionally treated glottic cancer patients were used to create both conventional IMRT plans. We developed a simplified IMRT planning algorithm with three fields and limited segments. Conventional and IMRT plans were compared using generalized equivalent uniform dose and dose-volume parameters for in-field carotid arteries, target volumes, and organs at risk. We have treated 11 patients with this simplified IMRT technique. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy consistently reduced radiation dose to the carotid arteries (p < 0.05) while maintaining the clinical target volume coverage. With conventional planning, median carotid V35, V50, and V63 were 100%, 100%, and 69.0%, respectively. With IMRT planning these decreased to 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively (p < 0.01). Radiation planning and treatment times were similar for conventional radiotherapy and IMRT. Treatment results have been excellent thus far. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduced unnecessary radiation dose to the carotid arteries compared with conventional lateral fields while maintaining clinical target volume coverage. Further experience and longer follow-up will be required to demonstrate outcomes for cancer control and carotid artery effects.

  11. Relaxation mechanisms affecting magneto-optical resonances in an extremely thin cell: Experiment and theory for the cesium D1 line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzinsh, M.; Berzins, A.; Ferber, R.; Gahbauer, F.; Kalnins, U.; Kalvans, L.; Rundans, R.; Sarkisyan, D.

    2015-02-01

    We have measured magneto-optical signals obtained by exciting the D1 line of cesium atoms confined to an extremely thin cell (ETC), whose walls are separated by less than 1 μ m , and developed an improved theoretical model to describe these signals with experimental precision. The theoretical model was based on the optical Bloch equations and included all neighboring hyperfine transitions, the mixing of the magnetic sublevels in an external magnetic field, and the Doppler effect, as in previous studies. However, in order to model the extreme conditions in the ETC more realistically, the model was extended to include a unified treatment of transit relaxation and wall collisions with relaxation rates that were obtained directly from the thermal velocities of the atoms and the length scales involved. Furthermore, the interactions of the atoms with different regions of the laser beam were modeled separately to account for the varying laser beam intensity over the beam profile as well as saturation effects that become important near the center of the beam at the relatively high laser intensities used during the experiments in order to obtain measurable signals. The model described the experimentally measured signals for laser intensities for magnetic fields up to 55 G and laser intensities up to 1 W/cm2 with excellent agreement.

  12. X-ray diffraction experiments on the Materials in Extreme Conditions (MEC) LCLS x-ray FEL beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Raymond; Fratanduono, Dayne; Wicks, June; Duffy, Tom; Lee, Hae Ja; Granados, Eduardo; Heimann, Philip; Gleason, Arianna; Bolme, Cynthia; Swift, Damian; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon; Collins, Rip

    2015-06-01

    The experiments described here were conducted on the MEC beamline hutch at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source. A 10 ns 527 nm laser pulse was used to shock compress 60-100 μm thick NaCl and Graphite samples. LCLS x-rays (40 fs, 8 keV), scattered off the shocked sample, were recorded on several pixel array detectors positioned downstream. The diffracted x-ray pattern allows us to determine changes in crystal structure at Mbar pressures and over nanosecond timescales. In this talk we detail the experimental setup, the current capabilities of the MEC laser and the considerations for optimizing the target design. We will describe the wave interactions within the shock-compressed target and the use of a 1D hydrocode to describe the pressure, temperature and density conditions within the target assembly as a function of time and Lagrangian position. We present observations of the B1-B2 phase transition in NaCl and subsequent back transformation during release to ambient pressure, and compare these findings to gas gun and static data. We also present results from a preliminary study of the shock-induced graphite to diamond transformation.

  13. Analysis of pre-flight modulator voltage calibration data for the Voyager plasma science experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastov, Ognen

    1988-01-01

    The Voyager Plasma Science (PLS) modulator calibration (MVM) data analysis was undertaken in order to check the correctness of the fast A/D converter formulas that connect low voltage monitor signals (MV) with digital outputs (DN), to determine the proportionality constants between the actual modulator grid potential (V) and the monitor voltage (MV), and to establish an algorithm to link the digitized readouts (DN) with the actual grid potential (V). The analysis results are surprising in that the derived conversion constants deviate by fairly significant amounts from their nominal values. However, it must be kept in mind that the test results which were used for analysis may be very imprecise. Even if it is assumed that the test result errors are very large, they do no appear to be capable to account for all discrepancies between the theoretical expectations and the results of the analysis. Measurements with the flight spare instrument appear to be the only means of investigating these effects further.

  14. Measuring polarization of interstellar dust: a modulator for the PILOT experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salatino, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Iacoangeli, A.; Masi, S.; Pimentão, J.; Bernard, J.-P.

    Precise measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (CMBP) require improved knowledge of its foregrounds, in order to remove them from the cosmological signal. Among the foregrounds, the polarization from interstellar dust dominates at frequencies higher than 100 GHz. One way to measure the linear polarization of interstellar dust requires a rotating Half Wave Plate (HWP), at cryogenic temperatures, followed by a fixed polarizer. We present the design of a cryogenic polarization modulator in which the rotation of the cold birefringent crystal is driven by a DC motor running at room temperature, and the control of its position is assured by a system of optical fibers. The modulator is optimized to be implemented in PILOT, a stratospheric balloon which in the near future will study the interstellar medium in two bands around 545 and 1250 GHz. Mechanical, optical and cryogenic tests are also discussed.

  15. Fertilizing ROSES through the STEM: Interdisciplinary Modules as Pre-service Research Experiences for Secondary STEM Educators (IMPRESS-Ed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, N. B.; Kavic, M.; Benoit, M. H.; Wiita, P.

    2011-12-01

    IMPRESS-Ed is a program designed to provide authentic summer research experiences in the space, earth, and atmospheric sciences for pre-service K-12 educators at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ). In 2011, the program involved five students and took place over eight weeks with recruitment occurring during the preceding academic year. The program was divided into two modules: A common core module and an individual mentored research experience. The common module consisted of three units focusing on data-driven pedagogical approaches in astrophysics, tectonophysics, and atmospheric science, respectively. The common module also featured training sessions in observational astronomy, and use of a 3D geowall and state of the art planetarium. Participants in the program are also offered the opportunity to utilize the available TCNJ facilities with their future students. Given that a large number of graduates from the TCNJ take positions in local New Jersey schools, the opportunity to make use of these facilities at a future time would be of great significance to them and their future students. The individual mentored research module matched student interests with potential projects. Research led by M.H. Benoit analyzed gravity data from the NASA-GRACE mission to find lithospheric density contrasts beneath the eastern US. A student working with N.B. Magee used data from NASA satellites CALIPSO, CloudSat, and AQUA-MODIS to study the dynamics of convective cloud tops. Research projects led by M. Kavic performed simulations to investigate the possibility of detecting superconducting cosmic strings using radio observations and also designed and constructed a radio interferometer based on the NASA's Radio-Jove program. P. Wiita supervised a research project studying star-forming regions of active galaxies through analysis of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and GALEX. The research program was also incorporated into the framework of the TCNJ Mentored Undergraduate Summer

  16. Atomic orientation driven by broadly-frequency-modulated radiation: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, G.; Biancalana, V.; Dancheva, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate magnetic resonances driven in thermal vapor of alkali-metal atoms by laser radiation broadly modulated at a frequency resonant with the Zeeman splitting. A model accounting for both hyperfine and Zeeman pumping is developed, and its results are compared with experimental measurements performed at relatively weak pump irradiance. The interplay between the two pumping processes generates intriguing interaction conditions, often overlooked by simplified models.

  17. Apollo experience report the command and service module milestone review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brendle, H. L.; York, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sequence of the command and service module milestone review process is given, and the Customer Acceptance Readiness Review and Flight Readiness Review plans are presented. Contents of the System Summary Acceptance Documents for the two formal spacecraft reviews are detailed, and supplemental data required for presentation to the review boards are listed. Typical forms, correspondence, supporting documentation, and minutes of a board meeting are included.

  18. Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Flare Observations and Findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Eparvier, Francis; Jones, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    There have been more than six thousand flares observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) since it launched in February 2010. The SDO mission is ideal for studying flares with 24/7 operations from its geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and with some 7000 TeraBytes of data taken so far. These data include more than 100,000,000 images of coronal full-disk images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Dopplergrams and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and over 15,000,000 spectra of the solar EUV irradiance from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). This presentation will focus primarily on the EVE flare observations and a couple key flare findings involving both AIA and EVE observations. One of these findings includes the discovery of the EUV late phase that occur in about 15% of flares. The EUV late phase is the brightening of warm coronal emissions in the EUV that starts much later after the main X-ray bright phase, lasts up to several hours, and can emit more total energy than the EUV radiation during the X-ray phase. The combination of EVE and AIA observations have revealed that the cause for the EUV late phase is a second set of post-flare coronal loops that form much higher than the primary post-flare loops near the source of the flare. This second set of loops is much longer and thus has a much slower cooling rate; consequently, the radiation from these loops appears much later after the main X-ray flare phase. Another key finding is that the EVE solar EUV irradiance observations in cool coronal emissions have dimming during and following eruptive flare events, which is often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Furthermore, the magnitude of the EVE coronal dimming is consistent with the amount of mass lost, as observed near the flaring region by AIA. This result could be important for space weather operations because EVE’s near-realtime data products of its on-disk (Earth-facing) flare observations may provide an

  19. Materials Science Experiment Module Accommodation within the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, D. B.; Jayroe, R. R.; McCarley, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility designed to accommodate two Experiment Modules (EM) simultaneously on board the International Space Station (ISS). One of these EMs will be the NASA/ESA EM being, developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency. The other EM position will be occupied by various multi-user EMs that will be exchanged in-orbit to accommodate a variety of materials science investigations. This paper discusses the resources, services, and allocations available to the EMs and briefly describes performance capabilities of the EMs currently planned for flight.

  20. Experience in judging intent to harm modulates parahippocampal activity: an fMRI study with experienced CCTV operators.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Karin; McAleer, Phil; Neary, Catherine; Gillard, Julia; Pollick, Frank E

    2014-08-01

    Does visual experience in judging intent to harm change our brain responses? And if it does, what are the mechanisms affected? We addressed these questions by studying the abilities of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) operators, who must identify the presence of hostile intentions using only visual cues in complex scenes. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess which brain processes are modulated by CCTV experience. To this end we scanned 15 CCTV operators and 15 age and gender matched novices while they watched CCTV videos of 16 sec, and asked them to report whether each clip would end in violence or not. We carried out four separate whole-brain analyses including 3 model-based analyses and one analysis of intersubject correlation to examine differences between the two groups. The three model analyses were based on 1) experimentally pre-defined clip activity labels of fight, confrontation, playful, and neutral behaviour, 2) participants' reports of violent outcomes during the scan, and 3) visual saliency within each clip, as pre-assessed using eye-tracking. The analyses identified greater activation in the right superior frontal gyrus for operators than novices when viewing playful behaviour, and reduced activity for operators in comparison with novices in the occipital and temporal regions, irrespective of the type of clips viewed. However, in the parahippocampal gyrus, all three model-based analyses consistently showed reduced activity for experienced CCTV operators. Activity in the anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus (uncus) was found to increase with years of CCTV experience. The intersubject correlation analysis revealed a further effect of experience, with CCTV operators showing correlated activity in fewer brain regions (superior and middle temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and the ventral striatum) than novices. Our results indicate that long visual experience in action observation, aimed to predict harmful behaviour

  1. Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions. PMID:25035801

  2. Spin and charge modulations in a single-hole-doped Hubbard ladder: Verification with optical lattice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zheng; Weng, Zheng-Yu; Ho, Tin-Lun

    2016-03-01

    We show that pronounced modulations in spin and charge densities can be induced by the insertion of a single hole in an otherwise half-filled two-leg Hubbard ladder. Accompanied with these modulations is a loosely bound structure of the doped charge with a spin-1/2, in contrast to the tightly bound case where such modulations are absent. These behaviors are caused by the interference of the Berry phases associated with a string of flipped spins (or "phase strings") left behind as a hole travels through a spin bath with a short-range antiferromagnetic order. The key role of the phase strings is also reflected in how the system responds to increasing spin polarization and the on-site repulsion, addition of a second hole, and increasing asymmetry between intra- and interchain hopping. Remarkably, all these properties persist down to ladders as short as ˜10 sites, as the smoking gun of the phase-string effect. They can therefore be studied in cold-atom experiments using the recently developed fermion microscope.

  3. Apollo experience report: Command and service module electrical power distribution on subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munford, R. E.; Hendrix, B.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the design philosophy and development of the Apollo command and service modules electrical power distribution subsystem, a brief history of the evolution of the total system, and some of the more significant components within the system are discussed. The electrical power distribution primarily consisted of individual control units, interconnecting units, and associated protective devices. Because each unit within the system operated more or less independently of other units, the discussion of the subsystem proceeds generally in descending order of complexity; the discussion begins with the total system, progresses to the individual units of the system, and concludes with the components within the units.

  4. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems; lunar module mission programer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the concept, operational requirements, design, and development of the lunar module mission programer is presented, followed by a review of component and subsystem performance during design-feasibility, design-verification, and qualification tests performed in the laboratory. The system was further proved on the unmanned Apollo 5 mission. Several anomalies were detected, and satisfactory solutions were found. These problems are defined and examined, and the corrective action taken is discussed. Suggestions are given for procedural changes to be used if future guidance and control systems of this type are to be developed.

  5. Apollo experience report: Development of guidance targeting techniques for the command module and launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yencharis, J. D.; Wiley, R. F.; Davis, R. S.; Holmes, Q. A.; Zeiler, K. T.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the guidance targeting techniques for the Apollo command module and launch vehicle is discussed for four types of maneuvers: (1) translunar injection, (2) translunar midcourse, (3) lunar orbit insertion, and (4) return to earth. The development of real-time targeting programs for these maneuvers and the targeting procedures represented are discussed. The material is intended to convey historically the development of the targeting techniques required to meet the defined target objectives and to illustrate the solutions to problems encountered during that development.

  6. Areas Recruited during Action Understanding Are Not Modulated by Auditory or Sign Language Experience.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuxing; Chen, Quanjing; Lingnau, Angelika; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    The observation of other people's actions recruits a network of areas including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). These regions have been shown to be activated through both visual and auditory inputs. Intriguingly, previous studies found no engagement of IFG and IPL for deaf participants during non-linguistic action observation, leading to the proposal that auditory experience or sign language usage might shape the functionality of these areas. To understand which variables induce plastic changes in areas recruited during the processing of other people's actions, we examined the effects of tasks (action understanding and passive viewing) and effectors (arm actions vs. leg actions), as well as sign language experience in a group of 12 congenitally deaf signers and 13 hearing participants. In Experiment 1, we found a stronger activation during an action recognition task in comparison to a low-level visual control task in IFG, IPL and pMTG in both deaf signers and hearing individuals, but no effect of auditory or sign language experience. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of the first experiment using a passive viewing task. Together, our results provide robust evidence demonstrating that the response obtained in IFG, IPL, and pMTG during action recognition and passive viewing is not affected by auditory or sign language experience, adding further support for the supra-modal nature of these regions. PMID:27014025

  7. Areas Recruited during Action Understanding Are Not Modulated by Auditory or Sign Language Experience

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuxing; Chen, Quanjing; Lingnau, Angelika; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    The observation of other people’s actions recruits a network of areas including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). These regions have been shown to be activated through both visual and auditory inputs. Intriguingly, previous studies found no engagement of IFG and IPL for deaf participants during non-linguistic action observation, leading to the proposal that auditory experience or sign language usage might shape the functionality of these areas. To understand which variables induce plastic changes in areas recruited during the processing of other people’s actions, we examined the effects of tasks (action understanding and passive viewing) and effectors (arm actions vs. leg actions), as well as sign language experience in a group of 12 congenitally deaf signers and 13 hearing participants. In Experiment 1, we found a stronger activation during an action recognition task in comparison to a low-level visual control task in IFG, IPL and pMTG in both deaf signers and hearing individuals, but no effect of auditory or sign language experience. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of the first experiment using a passive viewing task. Together, our results provide robust evidence demonstrating that the response obtained in IFG, IPL, and pMTG during action recognition and passive viewing is not affected by auditory or sign language experience, adding further support for the supra-modal nature of these regions. PMID:27014025

  8. Exogenous features versus prior experiences modulate different subregions of the right IPL during episodic memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Sze Chai; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The fractionation view holds that distinct cognitive operations are mediated by subregions of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Within IPL, we hypothesised that retrieval-related activity in different parts of the right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG) may be modulated differentially by information acquired via different combinations of attention signals at encoding. We had two groups of participants watch a 42-min TV episode and, after a 24-hr delay, perform a temporal-order judgment task during fMRI. Each retrieval trial comprised three images presented sequentially, requiring participants to judge the temporal order between the first and last images while ignoring the second image (“distractor”). We manipulated the bottom-up factor by presenting distractors that were extracted from either an event-boundary or a non-boundary of the movie. The top-down factor was manipulated by instructing one group perform a segmentation task reporting the event-boundaries at encoding, while the other group watched the movie passively. Across groups, we found that the stimulus-related factor modulated retrieval activation in the anterior rSMG (areas PFt and PFop), whereas the goal-related influence of prior segmentation interacted with this effect in the middle rSMG (area PF), demonstrating IPL segregation during retrieval as a function of prior bottom-up vs. top-down attention signals. PMID:26057929

  9. Experiments in cross-language medical information retrieval using a mixing translation module.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan D; Garcelon, Nicolas; Burgun, Anita; Le Beux, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Given the ever-increasing scale and diversity of medical literature widely published in English on the Internet, improving the performance of information retrieval by cross-language is an urgent research objective. Cross-language medical information retrieval (CLMIR) consists of providing a query in one language and searching medical document collections in one or more different languages. Our users of CLMIR are users who are able to read biomedical texts in English, but have difficulty formulating English queries. This paper proposes a French/English CLMIR system as a mixing model for supporting the retrieval of English medical documents. Methods fall into the category of query translation approach in which we use a hybrid machine translation that combines a pattern-based module with a rule-based translator and includes three steps from pre- to- post-translation. In parallel to this hybrid machine translation, we use multilingual UMLS Methasaurus as a complementary translator. The results show that using a mixing translation module outperforms machine translation-based method and thesaurus-based method used separately. PMID:15360952

  10. Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Jeff; Larsen, Jon

    2013-11-01

    Acknowledgements; 1. Extreme environments: what, where, how; 2. Properties of dense and classical plasmas; 3. Laser energy absorption in matter; 4. Hydrodynamic motion; 5. Shocks; 6. Equation of state; 7. Ionization; 8. Thermal energy transport; 9. Radiation energy transport; 10. Magnetohydrodynamics; 11. Considerations for constructing radiation-hydrodynamics computer codes; 12. Numerical simulations; Appendix: units and constants, glossary of symbols; References; Bibliography; Index.

  11. Force modulating dynamic disorder: a physical model of catch-slip bond transitions in receptor-ligand forced dissociation experiments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Ou-Yang, Zhong-can

    2006-11-01

    Recent experiments found that some adhesive receptor-ligand complexes have counterintuitive catch-slip transition behaviors: the mean lifetimes of these complexes first increase (catch) with initial application of a small external force, and then decrease (slip) when the force is beyond some threshold. In this work we suggest that the forced dissociation of these complexes might be a typical rate process with dynamic disorder. The one-dimensional force modulating Agmon-Hopfield model is used to describe the transitions in the single-bond P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1-P-selectin forced dissociation experiments, which were respectively performed in the constant force [Marshall, Nature (Landon) 423, 190 (2003)] and the ramping force [Evans, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 98, 11281 (2004)] modes. We find that, an external force can not only accelerate the bond dissociation, but also modulate the complex from the lower-energy barrier to the higher one; the catch-slip bond transition can arise from a particular energy barrier shape. The agreement between our calculation and the experimental data is satisfactory. PMID:17279936

  12. Effects of Tempo, Musical Experience, and Listening Modes on Tempo Modulation Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Deborah A.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the effects of tempo direction, listening mode, and level of musical experience on speed and accuracy in tempo change among 160 music majors and nonmajors. Finds that music majors more accurately detected tempo changes than did nonmajors. (CFR)

  13. Development and Evaluation of Sequential Control Educational Materials with Module Structure for Engineering Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamori, Sakae; Chida, Kazunori; Noguchi, Takafumi; Arai, Makoto; Koshimizu, Makoto

    We have developed educational materials to learn about sequential control technology for engineering students. The educational materials have use-friendly characteristics and high-visibility. The characteristics are based on Keller's ARCS model of motivation. At the end of experiments, a questionnaire about these educational materials was administered to the students. The analysis of the questionnaire showed that most students achieved a good understanding and were very interested in experiments of sequential control.

  14. Simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer: A local center's experience

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Shixiu . E-mail: wushixiu@medmail.com.cn; Xie Congying; Jin Xiance; Zhang Ping

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, toxicity, and clinical efficacy of simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy boost technique for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Method and Materials: Seventy-five patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy boost technique. Daily fraction of 2.5 Gy and 2.0 Gy were prescribed to the gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical tumor volume (CTV) to a total dose of 70 Gy and 56 Gy, respectively, in 38 days. In 24 of these patients, GTV was boosted to 80 Gy. Quantitative {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate salivary scintigraphy was performed by assessing excretion uptake and excretion index of parotid glands. Results: In dosimetry, the mean doses delivered to the GTV, CTV1, and CTV2 were 68.1 Gy, 58.7 Gy, and 54.3 Gy, respectively. An average of 1% of the GTV and 3% of the CTV received less than 90% and 95% of the prescribed dose, respectively, whereas the mean doses delivered to the organ at risk were kept below tolerance limits. The mean doses to the ipsilateral and contralateral parotids were 31.1 Gy and 21.9 Gy, respectively. {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate salivary scintigraphy showed excretion index and uptake index decreased by 44.6% and 28.3%, respectively, in ipsilateral parotid (p < 0.05), whereas no significant decline in contralateral parotid was observed. Acute toxicities were well tolerated, except for the relatively high incidence of severe mucositis. No Grade 4 side effect occurred. With a median follow-up of 23.8 months (range, 10-39 months), the 2-year local progression-free, local-regional progression-free, and distant metastasis-free survival were 97.26%, 87.21%, and 82.03%, respectively. The 2-year overall survival was 86.81%. Conclusions: Simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy yielded superior dose distribution over conventional radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and could be delivered with acceptable toxicity and risky organ sparing. Dose

  15. Beam Steering Experiment with Two Cascaded Ferroelectric Liquid-Crystal Spatial Light Modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engström, David; Hård, Sverker; Rudquist, Per; D'Havé, Koen; Matuszczyk, Tomasz; Skeren, Marek; Löfving, Björn

    2004-03-01

    The design, construction, and evaluation of a laser beam steerer that uses two binary ferroelectric liquid-crystal (FLC) spatial light modulators (SLMs) operated in conjunction are presented. The system is characterized by having few components and is in principle lossless. Experimentally, a throughput of ~20% was achieved. The simple system design was achieved because of the high tilt angle FLC material used in the SLMs, which were specifically designed and manufactured for this study. By coherently imaging the first SLM onto the second SLM, pixel by pixel, we obtained an effective four-level phase structure with a phase step of 90°. An appropriate alignment procedure is presented. The beam steering performance of the system is reported and analyzed.

  16. Stabilizing and Modulating Color by Copigmentation: Insights from Theory and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Trouillas, Patrick; Sancho-García, Juan C; De Freitas, Victor; Gierschner, Johannes; Otyepka, Michal; Dangles, Olivier

    2016-05-11

    Natural anthocyanin pigments/dyes and phenolic copigments/co-dyes form noncovalent complexes, which stabilize and modulate (in particular blue, violet, and red) colors in flowers, berries, and food products derived from them (including wines, jams, purees, and syrups). This noncovalent association and their electronic and optical implications constitute the copigmentation phenomenon. Over the past decade, experimental and theoretical studies have enabled a molecular understanding of copigmentation. This review revisits this phenomenon to provide a comprehensive description of the nature of binding (the dispersion and electrostatic components of π-π stacking, the hydrophobic effect, and possible hydrogen-bonding between pigment and copigment) and of spectral modifications occurring in copigmentation complexes, in which charge transfer plays an important role. Particular attention is paid to applications of copigmentation in food chemistry. PMID:26959943

  17. Investigation of lower hybrid physics through power modulation experiments on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R. R.; Porkolab, M.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an attractive tool for off-axis current profile control in magnetically confined tokamak plasmas and burning plasmas (ITER), because of its high current drive efficiency. The LHCD system on Alcator C-Mod operates at 4.6 GHz, with ~ 1 MW of coupled power, and can produce a wide range of launched parallel refractive index (n||) spectra. A 32 chord, perpendicularly viewing hard x-ray camera has been used to measure the spatial and energy distribution of fast electrons generated by lower hybrid (LH) waves. Square-wave modulation of LH power on a time scale much faster than the current relaxation time does not significantly alter the poloidal magnetic field inside the plasma and thus allows for realistic modeling and consistent plasma conditions for different n|| spectra. Inverted hard x-ray profiles show clear changes in LH-driven fast electron location with differing n||. Boxcar binning of hard x-rays during LH power modulation allows for ~ 1 ms time resolution which is sufficient to resolve the build-up, steady-state, and slowing-down phases of fast electrons. Ray-tracing/Fokker-Planck modeling in combination with a synthetic hard x-ray diagnostic shows quantitative agreement with the x-ray data for high n|| cases. The time histories of hollow x-ray profiles have been used to measure off-axis fast electron transport in the outer half of the plasma, which is found to be small on a slowing down time scale.

  18. Untargeted metabolite profiling reveals that nitric oxide bioynthesis is an endogenous modulator of carotenoid biosynthesis in Deinococcus radiodurans and is required for extreme ionizing radiation resistance.

    PubMed

    Hansler, Alex; Chen, Qiuying; Ma, Yuliang; Gross, Steven S

    2016-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans (Drad) is the most radioresistant organism known. Although mechanisms that underlie the extreme radioresistance of Drad are incompletely defined, resistance to UV irradiation-induced killing was found to be greatly attenuated in an NO synthase (NOS) knockout strain of Drad (Δnos). We now show that endogenous NO production is also critical for protection of Drad against γ-irradiation (3000 Gy), a result of accelerated growth recovery, not protection against killing. NO-donor treatment rescued radiosensitization in Δnos Drad but did not influence radiosensitivity in wild type Drad. To discover molecular mechanisms by which endogenous NO confers radioresistance, metabolite profiling studies were performed. Untargeted LC-MS-based metabolite profiling in Drad quantified relative abundances of 1425 molecules and levels of 294 of these were altered by >5-fold (p < 0.01). Unexpectedly, these studies identified a dramatic perturbation in carotenoid biosynthetic intermediates in Δnos Drad, including a reciprocal switch in the pathway end-products from deoxydeinoxanthin to deinoxanthin. NO supplementation rescued these nos deletion-associated changes in carotenoid biosynthesis, and fully-restored radioresistance to wildtype levels. Because carotenoids were shown to be important contributors to radioprotection in Drad, our findings suggest that endogenously-produced NO serves to maintain a spectrum of carotenoids critical for Drad's ability to withstand radiation insult. PMID:26550929

  19. Development of A Physical Windkessel Module to Re-Create In-Vivo Vascular Flow Impedance for In-Vitro Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Ethan O.; Taylor, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create and characterize a physical Windkessel module that can provide realistic and predictable vascular impedances for in-vitro flow experiments used for computational fluid dynamics validation, and other investigations of the cardiovascular system and medical devices. Methods We developed practical design and manufacturing methods for constructing flow resistance and capacitance units. Using these units we assembled a Windkessel impedance module and defined its corresponding analytical model incorporating an inductance to account for fluid momentum. We tested various resistance units and Windkessel modules using a flow system, and compared experimental measurements to analytical predictions of pressure, flow, and impedance. Results The resistance modules exhibited stable resistance values over wide ranges of flow rates. The resistance value variations of any particular resistor are typically within 5% across the range of flow that it is expected to accommodate under physiologic flow conditions. In the Windkessel impedance modules, the measured flow and pressure waveforms agreed very favorably with the analytical calculations for four different flow conditions used to test each module. The shapes and magnitudes of the impedance modulus and phase agree well between experiment and theoretical values, and also with those measured in-vivo in previous studies. Conclusions The Windkessel impedance module we developed can be used as a practical tool to provide realistic vascular impedance for in-vitro cardiovascular studies. Upon proper characterization of the impedance module, its analytical model can accurately predict its measured behavior under different flow conditions. PMID:26316899

  20. Historical influence of irrigation on climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    Land irrigation is an essential practice sustaining global food production and many regional economies. During the last decades, irrigation amounts have been growing rapidly. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that land irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. However, a thorough understanding of the impact of irrigation on extreme climatic conditions, such as heat waves, droughts or intense precipitation, is currently still lacking. In this context, we aim to assess the historical influence of irrigation on the occurrence of climate extremes. To this end, two simulations are conducted over the period 1910-2010 with a state-of-the-art global climate model (the Community Earth System Model, CESM): a control simulation including all major anthropogenic and natural external forcings except for irrigation and a second experiment with transient irrigation enabled. The two simulations are evaluated for their ability to represent (i) hot, dry and wet extremes using the HadEX2 and ERA-Interim datasets as a reference, and (ii) latent heat fluxes using LandFlux-EVAL. Assuming a linear combination of climatic responses to different forcings, the difference between both experiments approximates the influence of irrigation. We will analyse the impact of irrigation on a number of climate indices reflecting the intensity and duration of heat waves. Thereby, particular attention is given to the role of soil moisture changes in modulating climate extremes. Furthermore, the contribution of individual biogeophysical processes to the total impact of irrigation on hot extremes is quantified by application of a surface energy balance decomposition technique to the 90th and 99th percentile surface temperature changes.

  1. CALWATER-2 An Experiment Exploring the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D. R.; Dettinger, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Spackman, J.; Waliser, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States are: 1) Atmospheric rivers (ARs), which deliver much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and 2) Aerosols--from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents--which can modulate western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. A set of science investigations, called CalWater 2, have been proposed over the next several years to fill these gaps including a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data over regions offshore of California and in the eastern Pacific for an intensive observing period between December 2014 and March 2015. DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and NOAA are coordinating on deployment of airborne and ship-borne facilities for this period, including a DOE-sponsored study called ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment) that was proposed in the context of CalWater 2. A broad 5-year vision of an interagency effort to address these science gaps will be presented, and informal input into this planning is being solicited through this presentation, including consideration of potential synergistic connections to other relevant activities. The CalWater 2 white paper was prepared by a team of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists

  2. Laser-plasma experiments to study super high-energy phenomena during extreme compression of the Earth's magnetosphere by Coronal Mass Ejections*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Yu P.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Antonov, V. M.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Melekhov, A. V.; Posukh, V. G.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.

    2016-03-01

    Problem of the global and even catastrophic modification of the Earth's magnetosphere (into Artificial one) by impulsive and huge plasma ejecta, was proposed for the first time during our study of possible after-effects of high-energy explosions against asteroids at near-Earth space. Later, a similar problem of extreme compression of the Earth's magnetopause from its usual Rmp ≈ 10RE up to new stand-off distance Rm * ∼ 3RE, by plasma of giant Coronal Mass Ejections (CME, with effective energy E0 ∼1028 J), was considered for its simulations by Laser-Produced Plasma (LPP) at KI-1 facility of ILP, that were done initially without “Solar Wind” (in AMEX experiment). Here we present the first results of the “full” laboratory simulations of the CME-problem with the up-stream impact of LPP (with E0 ∼ 1 kJ) onto classical terrella-model of “stationary” magnetopause (with Rmp ≈ 17 cm), formed near compact dipole in a flow of background H+-plasma, imitated Solar Wind. As a result, we have observed for the first time a two-fold compression of magnetopause size, accompanied by very strong and near expected value of dipole magnetic field's compression up to the factor 7÷8 ≈ (Rmp/Rm *)3 inside of magnetopause. Our data allow to predict a global CME-effect at E0∼1029J.

  3. Design and Fabrication of TES Detector Modules for the TIME-Pilot [CII] Intensity Mapping Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunacek, J.; Bock, J.; Bradford, C. M.; Bumble, B.; Chang, T.-C.; Cheng, Y.-T.; Cooray, A.; Crites, A.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Gong, Y.; Kenyon, M.; Koch, P.; Li, C.-T.; O'Brient, R.; Shirokoff, E.; Shiu, C.; Staniszewski, Z.; Uzgil, B.; Zemcov, M.

    2016-08-01

    We are developing a series of close-packed modular detector arrays for TIME-Pilot, a new mm-wavelength grating spectrometer array that will map the intensity fluctuations of the redshifted 157.7 \\upmu m emission line of singly ionized carbon ([CII]) from redshift z ˜ 5 to 9. TIME-Pilot's two banks of 16 parallel-plate waveguide spectrometers (one bank per polarization) will have a spectral range of 183-326 GHz and a resolving power of R ˜ 100. The spectrometers use a curved diffraction grating to disperse and focus the light on a series of output arcs, each sampled by 60 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers with gold micro-mesh absorbers. These low-noise detectors will be operated from a 250 mK base temperature and are designed to have a background-limited NEP of {˜ }10^{-17} mathrm {W}/mathrm {Hz}^{1/2}. This proceeding presents an overview of the detector design in the context of the TIME-Pilot instrument. Additionally, a prototype detector module produced at the Microdevices Laboratory at JPL is shown.

  4. Fast Ion Effects During Test Blanket Module Simulation Experiments in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G J; Ellis, R; Gorelenkova, M; Heidbrink, W W; Kurki-Suonio, T; Nazikian, R; Salmi, A; Schaffer, M J; Shinohara, K; Snipes, J A; Spong, D A; Koskela, T

    2011-06-03

    Fast beam-ion losses were studied in DIII-D in the presence of a scaled mockup of two Test Blanket Modules (TBM) for ITER. Heating of the protective tiles on the front of the TBM surface was found when neutral beams were injected and the TBM fields were engaged. The fast-ion core confinement was not significantly affected. Different orbit-following codes predict the formation of a hot spot on the TBM surface arising from beam-ions deposited near the edge of the plasma. The codes are in good agreement with each other on the total power deposited at the hot spot predicting an increase in power with decreasing separation between the plasma edge and the TBM surface. A thermal analysis of the heat flow through the tiles shows that the simulated power can account for the measured tile temperature rise. The thermal analysis, however, is very sensitive to the details of the localization of the hot spot which is predicted to be different among the various codes.

  5. Design and Fabrication of TES Detector Modules for the TIME-Pilot [CII] Intensity Mapping Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunacek, J.; Bock, J.; Bradford, C. M.; Bumble, B.; Chang, T.-C.; Cheng, Y.-T.; Cooray, A.; Crites, A.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Gong, Y.; Kenyon, M.; Koch, P.; Li, C.-T.; O'Brient, R.; Shirokoff, E.; Shiu, C.; Staniszewski, Z.; Uzgil, B.; Zemcov, M.

    2015-11-01

    We are developing a series of close-packed modular detector arrays for TIME-Pilot, a new mm-wavelength grating spectrometer array that will map the intensity fluctuations of the redshifted 157.7 \\upmu m emission line of singly ionized carbon ([CII]) from redshift z ˜ 5 to 9. TIME-Pilot's two banks of 16 parallel-plate waveguide spectrometers (one bank per polarization) will have a spectral range of 183-326 GHz and a resolving power of R ˜ 100 . The spectrometers use a curved diffraction grating to disperse and focus the light on a series of output arcs, each sampled by 60 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers with gold micro-mesh absorbers. These low-noise detectors will be operated from a 250 mK base temperature and are designed to have a background-limited NEP of {˜ }10^{-17} W/Hz^{1/2} . This proceeding presents an overview of the detector design in the context of the TIME-Pilot instrument. Additionally, a prototype detector module produced at the Microdevices Laboratory at JPL is shown.

  6. Startling Sweet Temptations: Hedonic Chocolate Deprivation Modulates Experience, Eating Behavior, and Eyeblink Startle

    PubMed Central

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M.; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed. PMID:24416437

  7. Startling sweet temptations: hedonic chocolate deprivation modulates experience, eating behavior, and eyeblink startle.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed. PMID:24416437

  8. Modulation of isochronous movements in a flexible environment: links between motion and auditory experience.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Riccardo; Del Tongo, Claudia; Cohen, Erez James; Dalle Mura, Gabriele; Tognetti, Alessandro; Minciacchi, Diego

    2014-06-01

    The ability to perform isochronous movements while listening to a rhythmic auditory stimulus requires a flexible process that integrates timing information with movement. Here, we explored how non-temporal and temporal characteristics of an auditory stimulus (presence, interval occupancy, and tempo) affect motor performance. These characteristics were chosen on the basis of their ability to modulate the precision and accuracy of synchronized movements. Subjects have participated in sessions in which they performed sets of repeated isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions under various conditions. The conditions were chosen on the basis of the defined characteristics. Kinematic parameters were evaluated during each session, and temporal parameters were analyzed. In order to study the effects of the auditory stimulus, we have minimized all other sensory information that could interfere with its perception or affect the performance of repeated isochronous movements. The present study shows that the distinct characteristics of an auditory stimulus significantly influence isochronous movements by altering their duration. Results provide evidence for an adaptable control of timing in the audio-motor coupling for isochronous movements. This flexibility would make plausible the use of different encoding strategies to adapt audio-motor coupling for specific tasks. PMID:24652281

  9. The perception of speech modulation cues in lexical tones is guided by early language-specific experience

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Laurianne; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Liu, Huei-Mei; Li, Lu-Yang; Hu, You-Hsin; Lorenzi, Christian; Bertoncini, Josiane

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies showed that infants reorganize their perception of speech sounds according to their native language categories during their first year of life. Still, information is lacking about the contribution of basic auditory mechanisms to this process. This study aimed to evaluate when native language experience starts to noticeably affect the perceptual processing of basic acoustic cues [i.e., frequency-modulation (FM) and amplitude-modulation information] known to be crucial for speech perception in adults. The discrimination of a lexical-tone contrast (rising versus low) was assessed in 6- and 10-month-old infants learning either French or Mandarin using a visual habituation paradigm. The lexical tones were presented in two conditions designed to either keep intact or to severely degrade the FM and fine spectral cues needed to accurately perceive voice-pitch trajectory. A third condition was designed to assess the discrimination of the same voice-pitch trajectories using click trains containing only the FM cues related to the fundamental-frequency (F0) in French- and Mandarin-learning 10-month-old infants. Results showed that the younger infants of both language groups and the Mandarin-learning 10-month-olds discriminated the intact lexical-tone contrast while French-learning 10-month-olds failed. However, only the French 10-month-olds discriminated degraded lexical tones when FM, and thus voice-pitch cues were reduced. Moreover, Mandarin-learning 10-month-olds were found to discriminate the pitch trajectories as presented in click trains better than French infants. Altogether, these results reveal that the perceptual reorganization occurring during the first year of life for lexical tones is coupled with changes in the auditory ability to use speech modulation cues. PMID:26379605

  10. The perception of speech modulation cues in lexical tones is guided by early language-specific experience.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laurianne; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Liu, Huei-Mei; Li, Lu-Yang; Hu, You-Hsin; Lorenzi, Christian; Bertoncini, Josiane

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies showed that infants reorganize their perception of speech sounds according to their native language categories during their first year of life. Still, information is lacking about the contribution of basic auditory mechanisms to this process. This study aimed to evaluate when native language experience starts to noticeably affect the perceptual processing of basic acoustic cues [i.e., frequency-modulation (FM) and amplitude-modulation information] known to be crucial for speech perception in adults. The discrimination of a lexical-tone contrast (rising versus low) was assessed in 6- and 10-month-old infants learning either French or Mandarin using a visual habituation paradigm. The lexical tones were presented in two conditions designed to either keep intact or to severely degrade the FM and fine spectral cues needed to accurately perceive voice-pitch trajectory. A third condition was designed to assess the discrimination of the same voice-pitch trajectories using click trains containing only the FM cues related to the fundamental-frequency (F0) in French- and Mandarin-learning 10-month-old infants. Results showed that the younger infants of both language groups and the Mandarin-learning 10-month-olds discriminated the intact lexical-tone contrast while French-learning 10-month-olds failed. However, only the French 10-month-olds discriminated degraded lexical tones when FM, and thus voice-pitch cues were reduced. Moreover, Mandarin-learning 10-month-olds were found to discriminate the pitch trajectories as presented in click trains better than French infants. Altogether, these results reveal that the perceptual reorganization occurring during the first year of life for lexical tones is coupled with changes in the auditory ability to use speech modulation cues. PMID:26379605

  11. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME): Using a Multiplexed Miniature Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Solution for Rapid Process Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunn, Griffin; Wheeler, Raymond; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele; Richards, Jeffrey; Coutts, Janelle; Koss, Lawrence; Spencer, Lashelle.; Johnsey, Marissa; Ellis, Ronald

    Bioreactor research, even today, is mostly limited to continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs). These are not an option for microgravity applications due to the lack of a gravity gradient to drive aeration as described by the Archimedes principle. This has led to testing of Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMBs) for microgravity applications, including possible use for wastewater treatment systems for the International Space Station (ISS). Bioreactors and filtration systems for treating wastewater could avoid the need for harsh pretreatment chemicals and improve overall water recovery. However, the construction of these reactors is difficult and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) versions do not exist in small sizes. We have used 1-L modular HFMBs in the past, but the need to perform rapid testing has led us to consider even smaller systems. To address this, we designed and built 125-mL, rectangular reactors, which we have called the Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) system. A polycarbonate rack of four square modules was developed with each module containing removable hollow fibers. Each FAME reactor is self-contained and can be easily plumbed with peristaltic and syringe pumps for continuous recycling of fluids and feeding, as well as fitted with sensors for monitoring pH, dissolved oxygen, and gas measurements similar to their larger counterparts. The first application tested in the FAME racks allowed analysis of over a dozen fiber surface treatments and three inoculation sources to achieve rapid reactor startup and biofilm attachment (based on carbon oxidation and nitrification of wastewater). With these miniature FAME reactors, data for this multi-factorial test were collected in duplicate over a six-month period; this greatly compressed time period required for gathering data needed to study and improve bioreactor performance.

  12. Apollo experience report: Mission planning for lunar module descent and ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, F. V.

    1972-01-01

    The premission planning, the real-time situation, and the postflight analysis for the Apollo 11 lunar descent and ascent are described. A comparison between premission planning and actual results is included. A navigation correction capability, developed from Apollo 11 postflight analysis was used successfully on Apollo 12 to provide the first pinpoint landing. An experience summary, which illustrates typical problems encountered by the mission planners, is also included.

  13. KSC technician installs rows of experiment racks in IML-1 spacelab module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) technician installs rows of experiment racks in the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) in the KSC Operations and Checkout (O and C) Bldg. The IML-1 is scheduled to fly on STS-42 in early 1992, and will turn the shuttle into a laboratory dedicated to investigating the effects of microgravity on materials and life processes. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-91P-169.

  14. Gyrotron anode modulation of the Electron Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ECRH) from dc to 50 kHz on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.W.; Heefner, J.W.; Rupert, R.R.

    1985-11-11

    This paper describes control of gyrotron microwave energy output by modulation of gyrotron anode voltage. At present, Electron Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ECRH) uses five gyrotrons on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) for plasma heating. One is in the 10 kG region of each end plug, one at the 5 kG region of each end plug, and one is used for central-cell heating. Also described are the design and operation of the anode modulation system. The operating advantages of gyrotron anode modulation include power balance, independent control of each gyrotron, an ability to modulate microwave output power up to 50 kHz, and gyrotron tuning. The performance results of anode modulation will be discussed. 9 figs.

  15. Second language experience modulates word retrieval effort in bilinguals: evidence from pupillometry

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual speakers often have less language experience compared to monolinguals as a result of speaking two languages and/or a later age of acquisition of the second language. This may result in weaker and less precise phonological representations of words in memory, which may cause greater retrieval effort during spoken word recognition. To gauge retrieval effort, the present study compared the effects of word frequency, neighborhood density (ND), and level of English experience by testing monolingual English speakers and native Spanish speakers who differed in their age of acquisition of English (early/late). In the experimental paradigm, participants heard English words and matched them to one of four pictures while the pupil size, an indication of cognitive effort, was recorded. Overall, both frequency and ND effects could be observed in the pupil response, indicating that lower frequency and higher ND were associated with greater retrieval effort. Bilingual speakers showed an overall delayed pupil response and a larger ND effect compared to the monolingual speakers. The frequency effect was the same in early bilinguals and monolinguals but was larger in late bilinguals. Within the group of bilingual speakers, higher English proficiency was associated with an earlier pupil response in addition to a smaller frequency and ND effect. These results suggest that greater retrieval effort associated with bilingualism may be a consequence of reduced language experience rather than constitute a categorical bilingual disadvantage. Future avenues for the use of pupillometry in the field of spoken word recognition are discussed. PMID:24600428

  16. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  17. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    PubMed Central

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  18. BOLIVAR-tool for analysis and simulation of metocean extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatoukhin, Leonid; Boukhanovsky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Metocean extreme events are caused by the combination of multivariate and multiscale processes which depend from each other in different scales (due to short-term, synoptic, annual, year-to-year variability). There is no simple method for their estimation with controllable tolerance. Thus, the extreme analysis in practice is sometimes reduced to the exploration of various methods and models in respect to decreasing the uncertainty of estimates. Therefore, a researcher needs the multifaceted computational tools which cover the various branches of extreme analysis. BOLIVAR is the multi-functional computational software for the researches and engineers who explore the extreme environmental conditions to design and build offshore structures and floating objects. It contains a set of computational modules of various methods for extreme analysis, and a set of modules for the stochastic and hydrodynamic simulation of metocean processes. In this sense BOLIVAR is a Problem Solving Environment (PSE). The BOLIVAR is designed for extreme events analysis and contains a set of computational modules of IDM, AMS, POT, MENU, and SINTEF methods, and a set of modules for stochastic simulation of metocean processes in various scales. The BOLIVAR is the tool to simplify the resource-consuming computational experiments to explore the metocean extremes in univariate and multivariate cases. There are field ARMA models for short-term variability, spatial-temporal random pulse model for synoptic variability (storms and calms alteration), cyclostationare model of annual and year-to-year variability. The combination of above mentioned modules and data sources allows to estimate: omnidirectional and directional extremes (with T-years return periods); multivariate extremes (the set of parameters) and evaluation of their impacts to marine structures and floating objects; extremes of spatial-temporal fields (including the trajectory of T-years storms). An employment of concurrent methods for

  19. Experience Modulates the Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Gene and Protein Expression in the Hippocampus: Impaired Plasticity in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sewal, Angila S.; Patzke, Holger; Perez, Evelyn J.; Park, Pul; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Fletcher, Bonnie R.; Long, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) treatment has attracted considerable attention in the emerging area of cognitive neuroepigenetics. The possibility that ongoing cognitive experience importantly regulates the cell biological effects of HDACi administration, however, has not been systematically examined. In an initial experiment addressing this issue, we tested whether water maze training influences the gene expression response to acute systemic HDACi administration in the young adult rat hippocampus. Training powerfully modulated the response to HDACi treatment, increasing the total number of genes regulated to nearly 3000, including many not typically linked to neural plasticity, compared with <300 following HDACi administration alone. Although water maze training itself also regulated nearly 1800 genes, the specific mRNAs, gene networks, and biological pathways involved were largely distinct when the same experience was provided together with HDACi administration. Next, we tested whether the synaptic protein response to HDACi treatment is similarly dependent on recent cognitive experience, and whether this plasticity is altered in aged rats with memory impairment. Whereas synaptic protein labeling in the young hippocampus was selectively increased when HDACi administration was provided in conjunction with water maze training, combined treatment had no effect on synaptic proteins in the aged hippocampus. Our findings indicate that ongoing experience potently regulates the molecular consequences of HDACi treatment and that the interaction of recent cognitive experience with histone acetylation dynamics is disrupted in the aged hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The possibility that interventions targeting epigenetic regulation could be effective in treating a range of neurodegenerative disorders has attracted considerable interest. Here we demonstrate in the rat hippocampus that ongoing experience powerfully modifies the molecular

  20. Validation of CESAR Thermal-hydraulic Module of ASTEC V1.2 Code on BETHSY Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregoures, Nicolas; Bandini, Giacomino; Foucher, Laurent; Fleurot, Joëlle; Meloni, Paride

    The ASTEC V1 system code is being jointly developed by the French Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) and the German Gesellschaft für Anlagen und ReaktorSicherheit (GRS) to address severe accident sequences in a nuclear power plant. Thermal-hydraulics in primary and secondary system is addressed by the CESAR module. The aim of this paper is to present the validation of the CESAR module, from the ASTEC V1.2 version, on the basis of well instrumented and qualified integral experiments carried out in the BETHSY facility (CEA, France), which simulates a French 900 MWe PWR reactor. Three tests have been thoroughly investigated with CESAR: the loss of coolant 9.1b test (OECD ISP N° 27), the loss of feedwater 5.2e test, and the multiple steam generator tube rupture 4.3b test. In the present paper, the results of the code for the three analyzed tests are presented in comparison with the experimental data. The thermal-hydraulic behavior of the BETHSY facility during the transient phase is well reproduced by CESAR: the occurrence of major events and the time evolution of main thermal-hydraulic parameters of both primary and secondary circuits are well predicted.

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of Science Objectives, Instrument Design, Data Products, and Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Hock, R.; Jones, A. R.; Woodraska, D.; Judge, D.; Didkovsky, L.; Lean, J.; Mariska, J.; Warren, H.; McMullin, D.; Chamberlin, P.; Berthiaume, G.; Bailey, S.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; Sojka, J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Viereck, R.

    2010-01-01

    The highly variable solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the major energy input to the Earth's upper atmosphere, strongly impacting the geospace environment, affecting satellite operations, communications, and navigation. The Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1 to 105 nm with unprecedented spectral resolution (0.1 nm), temporal cadence (ten seconds), and accuracy (20%). EVE includes several irradiance instruments: The Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS)-A is a grazingincidence spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 5 to 37 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution, and the MEGS-B is a normal-incidence, dual-pass spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 35 to 105 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution. To provide MEGS in-flight calibration, the EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) measures the solar EUV irradiance in broadbands between 0.1 and 39 nm, and a MEGS-Photometer measures the Sun s bright hydrogen emission at 121.6 nm. The EVE data products include a near real-time space-weather product (Level 0C), which provides the solar EUV irradiance in specific bands and also spectra in 0.1-nm intervals with a cadence of one minute and with a time delay of less than 15 minutes. The EVE higher-level products are Level 2 with the solar EUV irradiance at higher time cadence (0.25 seconds for photometers and ten seconds for spectrographs) and Level 3 with averages of the solar irradiance over a day and over each one-hour period. The EVE team also plans to advance existing models of solar EUV irradiance and to operationally use the EVE measurements in models of Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere. Improved understanding of the evolution of solar flares and extending the various models to incorporate solar flare events are high priorities for the EVE team.

  2. Clinical experience of volumetric modulated arc therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma after extrapleural pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tomoki; Doi, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Takeo; Imano, Nobuki; Katsuta, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Shigeo; Kenjo, Masahiro; Ozawa, Shuichi; Murakami, Yuji; Nagata, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). A total of 15 patients who received VMAT after EPP were enrolled. All patients were males, and the median age was 67 years (Stage IB in two, II in six, and III in seven patients). The clinical target volume (CTV) included the entire preoperative ipsilateral hemithorax and involved nodal stations. The CTV was generally expanded by 10–15 mm beyond the planning target volume (PTV). The dose prescription was designed to cover 95% of the PTV with 54 Gy in 30 fractions. The median follow-up period was 11 months. Treatment-related toxicities were evaluated by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) ver. 4. One-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 55.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 25.6–85.8%], 29.3% (95% CI: 5.3–53.3%), and 43.1% (95% CI: 17.1–69.0%), respectively. According to the histological analysis, the one-year LC rate was significantly worse in patients with non-epithelial type (biphasic and sarcomatoid types) than in patients with epithelial type [epithelial type: 83.3% (95% CI, 53.5–100%), non-epithelial type: 0% (95% CI, 0%), P = 0.0011]. Grade 3 pneumonitis after VMAT was observed in three patients (20.0%); however, no patients died of pulmonary toxicity. VMAT appears to be relatively safe for patients with MPM after EPP because of the low pulmonary dose. PMID:25599996

  3. Dynamic behaviors of semiconductor lasers under strong sinusoidal current modulation; Modeling and experiments at 1. 3. mu. m

    SciTech Connect

    Hemery, E. ); Chusseau, L.; Lourtioz, J.M. )

    1990-04-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the dynamic behaviors of semiconductor lasers under strong sinusoidal modulation is presented. The theoretical analysis is based on rate-equations including gain-compression effects. General criteria are established to predict the existence of irregular behaviors. Experiments are performed on a single-mode buried-heterostructure InGaAsP laser at 1.3 {mu}m. An original method is proposed to evaluate the parameters entering the rate equations. Fully optical measurements are used. The nonlinear gain coefficient and the electrical response of the packaged laser are simultaneously determined from small-signal characteristics. Time-domain measurements show the three behaviors achieved with the studied laser, i.e., simple periodic, periodic with multiple spikes, and period doubling.

  4. Design and Development of High Voltage Direct Current (DC) Sources for the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibyk, Irene K.; Wald, Lawrence W.

    1995-01-01

    Two programmable, high voltage DC power supplies were developed as part of the flight electronics for the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE). SAMPIE's primary objectives were to study and characterize the high voltage arcing and parasitic current losses of various solar cells and metal samples within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO). High voltage arcing can cause large discontinuous changes in spacecraft potential which lead to damage of the power system materials and significant Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Parasitic currents cause a change in floating potential which lead to reduced power efficiency. These primary SAMPIE objectives were accomplished by applying artificial biases across test samples over a voltage range from -600 VDC to +300 VDC. This paper chronicles the design, final development, and test of the two programmable high voltage sources for SAMPIE. The technical challenges to the design for these power supplies included vacuum, space plasma effects, thermal protection, Shuttle vibrations and accelerations.

  5. Radsensor: Optical Dielectric-Modulation Sensing of Ionizing Radiation for Diagnostics for Weapons Physics Ignition Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, M; Lee, H; Larson, M; Delgado, G; Thielen, P

    2000-08-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate and develop a novel class of high speed single transient ionizing radiation detector technologies that will enable critical diagnostics for the Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (such as ignition and other experiments) that is currently lacking. The goal is to achieve temporal resolution in the {approx}100 fs to 1 ps range, provide adequate fidelity to accurately measure DT burn histories, and extrapolate these to probable impact on nuclear weapon phenomena. This detector concept will be capable of femtosecond temporal response, good sensitivity (single x-ray photons), and can be fabricated into imaging arrays.

  6. Experience-Based Probabilities Modulate Expectations in a Gender-Coded Artificial Language.

    PubMed

    Öttl, Anton; Behne, Dawn M

    2016-01-01

    The current study combines artificial language learning with visual world eyetracking to investigate acquisition of representations associating spoken words and visual referents using morphologically complex pseudowords. Pseudowords were constructed to consistently encode referential gender by means of suffixation for a set of imaginary figures that could be either male or female. During training, the frequency of exposure to pseudowords and their imaginary figure referents were manipulated such that a given word and its referent would be more likely to occur in either the masculine form or the feminine form, or both forms would be equally likely. Results show that these experience-based probabilities affect the formation of new representations to the extent that participants were faster at recognizing a referent whose gender was consistent with the induced expectation than a referent whose gender was inconsistent with this expectation. Disambiguating gender information available from the suffix did not mask the induced expectations. Eyetracking data provide additional evidence that such expectations surface during online lexical processing. Taken together, these findings indicate that experience-based information is accessible during the earliest stages of processing, and are consistent with the view that language comprehension depends on the activation of perceptual memory traces. PMID:27602009

  7. Experience-Based Probabilities Modulate Expectations in a Gender-Coded Artificial Language

    PubMed Central

    Öttl, Anton; Behne, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study combines artificial language learning with visual world eyetracking to investigate acquisition of representations associating spoken words and visual referents using morphologically complex pseudowords. Pseudowords were constructed to consistently encode referential gender by means of suffixation for a set of imaginary figures that could be either male or female. During training, the frequency of exposure to pseudowords and their imaginary figure referents were manipulated such that a given word and its referent would be more likely to occur in either the masculine form or the feminine form, or both forms would be equally likely. Results show that these experience-based probabilities affect the formation of new representations to the extent that participants were faster at recognizing a referent whose gender was consistent with the induced expectation than a referent whose gender was inconsistent with this expectation. Disambiguating gender information available from the suffix did not mask the induced expectations. Eyetracking data provide additional evidence that such expectations surface during online lexical processing. Taken together, these findings indicate that experience-based information is accessible during the earliest stages of processing, and are consistent with the view that language comprehension depends on the activation of perceptual memory traces. PMID:27602009

  8. Solar-cycle modulation of event rates in the chlorine solar neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Press, William H.

    1991-04-01

    The time dependence of the event rates in the Homestake chlorine solar neutrino experiment are reexamined using new Ar-37 production data covering the period from late 1986 to mid-1989. The data span almost two complete solar cycles. A careful statistical analysis using nonparametric rank-order statistics is used to calculate quantitative significance levels that do not depend on experimental errors. The results show that the Ar-37 production rate in the experiment is anticorrelated with solar activity for approximately 1977-1989. The shape of the Ar-37 production rate is different from the inverted sunspot activity curve. The Ar-37 production rate is better descrbed by a skewed sawtooth function than by the sunspot number. The best-fitting sawtooth function with sunspot period has a slow rise and a rapid decline. The Ar-37 maximum occurs about 12.5 yr after the solar sunspot minimum, while minimum Ar-37 production is more nearly simultaneous with the sunspot maximum.

  9. Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan

    2006-04-01

    The assessment of risks posed by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, earthquakes, tsunamis or cyclones, is often based on short-term historical records that may not reflect the full range or magnitude of events possible. As human populations grow, especially in hazard-prone areas, methods for accurately assessing natural hazard risks are becoming increasingly important. In Extreme Events Jonathan Nott describes the many methods used to reconstruct such hazards from natural long-term records. He demonstrates how long-term (multi-century to millennial) records are essential in gaining a realistic understanding of the variability of natural hazards, and how short-term historical records can often misrepresent the likely risks associated with natural hazards. This book will form a useful resource for students taking courses covering natural hazards and risk assessment. It will also be valuable for urban planners, policy makers and non-specialists as a guide to understanding and reconstructing long-term records of natural hazards. Explains mechanisms that cause extreme events and discusses their prehistoric records Describes how to reconstruct long-term records of natural hazards in order to make accurate risk assessments Demonstrates that natural hazards can follow cycles over time and do not occur randomly

  10. Musical experience modulates categorical perception of lexical tones in native Chinese speakers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Han; Ma, Xiaohui; Zhang, Linjun; Liu, Youyi; Zhang, Yang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Although musical training has been shown to facilitate both native and non-native phonetic perception, it remains unclear whether and how musical experience affects native speakers’ categorical perception (CP) of speech at the suprasegmental level. Using both identification and discrimination tasks, this study compared Chinese-speaking musicians and non-musicians in their CP of a lexical tone continuum (from the high level tone, Tone1 to the high falling tone, Tone4). While the identification functions showed similar steepness and boundary location between the two subject groups, the discrimination results revealed superior performance in the musicians for discriminating within-category stimuli pairs but not for between-category stimuli. These findings suggest that musical training can enhance sensitivity to subtle pitch differences between within-category sounds in the presence of robust mental representations in service of CP of lexical tonal contrasts. PMID:25918511

  11. Prenatal choline availability modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and neurogenic responses to enriching experiences in adult female rats

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Melissa J.; Gibson, Erin M.; Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Mellott, Tiffany J.; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    Increased dietary intake of choline early in life improves performance of adult rats on memory tasks and prevents their age-related memory decline. Because neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus also declines with age, we investigated whether prenatal choline availability affects hippocampal neurogenesis in adult Sprague–Dawley rats and modifies their neurogenic response to environmental stimulation. On embryonic days (ED) 12−17, pregnant rats ate a choline-supplemented (SUP-5 g/kg), choline sufficient (SFF-1.1 g/kg), or choline-free (DEF) semisynthetic diet. Adult offspring either remained in standard housing or were given 21 daily visits to explore a maze. On the last ten exploration days, all rats received daily injections of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 100 mg/kg). The number of BrdU+ cells was significantly greater in the dentate gyrus in SUP rats compared to SFF or DEF rats. While maze experience increased the number of BrdU+ cells in SFF rats to the level seen in the SUP rats, this enriching experience did not alter cell proliferation in DEF rats. Similar patterns of cell proliferation were obtained with immunohistochemical staining for neuronal marker doublecortin, confirming that diet and exploration affected hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were increased in SUP rats as compared to SFF and DEF animals. We conclude that prenatal choline intake has enduring effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, possibly via up-regulation of BDNF levels, and suggest that these alterations of neurogenesis may contribute to the mechanism of life-long changes in cognitive function governed by the availability of choline during gestation. PMID:17445242

  12. Measuring Interfractional and Intrafractional Motion With Cone Beam Computed Tomography and an Optical Localization System for Lower Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients Treated With Preoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dickie, Colleen I.; Parent, Amy L.; Chung, Peter W.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Craig, Tim; Griffin, Anthony M.; Panzarella, Tony; Ferguson, Peter C.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; Sharpe, Michael B.; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate inter- and intrafractional motion and rotational error for lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma patients by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and an optical localization system. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one immobilized patients received CBCT image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Setup deviations of >3 mm from the planned isocenter were corrected. A second CBCT acquired before treatment delivery was registered to the planning CT to estimate interfractional setup error retrospectively. Interfractional error and rotational error were calculated in the left-right (LR), superoinferior (SI), and anteroposterior (AP) dimensions. Intrafractional motion was assessed by calculating the maximum relative displacement of optical localization system reflective markers placed on the patient's surface, combined with pre- and postfraction CBCT performed for 17 of the 31 patients once per week. The overall systematic error (SE) and random error (RE) were calculated for the interfractional and intrafractional motion for planning target volume margin calculation. Results: The standard deviation (SD) of the interfractional RE was 1.9 mm LR, 2.1 mm SI, and 1.8 mm AP, and the SE SD was 0.6 mm, 1.2 mm, and 0.7 mm in each dimension, respectively. The overall rotation (inter- and intrafractional) had an RE SD of 0.8{sup o} LR, 1.7{sup o} SI, and 0.7{sup o} AP and an SE SD of 1.1{sup o} LR, 1.3{sup o} SI, and 0.3{sup o} AP. The SD of the overall intrafractional RE was 1.6 mm LR, 1.6 mm SI, and 1.4 mm AP, and the SE SD was 0.7 mm AP, 0.6 mm SI, and 0.6 mm AP. Conclusions: A uniform 5-mm planning target volume margin was quantified for lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma patients and has been implemented clinically for image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

  13. Extending the direct laser modulation bandwidth by exploiting the photon-photon resonance: modeling, simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, M.; Laakso, A.; Viheriala, J.; Kamp, M.; Bardella, P.; Eisenstein, G.

    2013-03-01

    The direct laser modulation bandwidth can be extended substantially by introducing a supplementary photon-photon resonance (PPR) at a higher frequency than the carrier-photon resonance (CPR). The paper presents a modified rate equation model that takes into account the PPR by treating the longitudinal confinement factor as a dynamic variable. The conditions required for obtaining a strong PPR and an enhancement of the small-signal modulation bandwidth are analyzed and experimental results confirming the model are presented. Since the small-signal modulation bandwidth may not be indicative of the large-signal modulation capability, particularly in case of a small-signal modulation response with substantial variations across the bandwidth, we have also analyzed the influence of the PPR-enhanced small-signal modulation response shape on the large-signal modulation capability as well as the methods that can be employed to flatten the small-signal modulation transfer function between the CPR and PPR.

  14. Auditory-visual aversive stimuli modulate the conscious experience of fear.

    PubMed

    Taffou, Marine; Guerchouche, Rachid; Drettakis, George; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    In a natural environment, affective information is perceived via multiple senses, mostly audition and vision. However, the impact of multisensory information on affect remains relatively undiscovered. In this study, we investigated whether the auditory-visual presentation of aversive stimuli influences the experience of fear. We used the advantages of virtual reality to manipulate multisensory presentation and to display potentially fearful dog stimuli embedded in a natural context. We manipulated the affective reactions evoked by the dog stimuli by recruiting two groups of participants: dog-fearful and non-fearful participants. The sensitivity to dog fear was assessed psychometrically by a questionnaire and also at behavioral and subjective levels using a Behavioral Avoidance Test (BAT). Participants navigated in virtual environments, in which they encountered virtual dog stimuli presented through the auditory channel, the visual channel or both. They were asked to report their fear using Subjective Units of Distress. We compared the fear for unimodal (visual or auditory) and bimodal (auditory-visual) dog stimuli. Dog-fearful participants as well as non-fearful participants reported more fear in response to bimodal audiovisual compared to unimodal presentation of dog stimuli. These results suggest that fear is more intense when the affective information is processed via multiple sensory pathways, which might be due to a cross-modal potentiation. Our findings have implications for the field of virtual reality-based therapy of phobias. Therapies could be refined and improved by implicating and manipulating the multisensory presentation of the feared situations. PMID:24319928

  15. Pro-social behavior in rats is modulated by social experience.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Rodgers, David A; Bernardez Sarria, Maria Sol; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, helping is preferentially provided to members of one's own group. Yet, it remains unclear how social experience shapes pro-social motivation. We found that rats helped trapped strangers by releasing them from a restrainer, just as they did cagemates. However, rats did not help strangers of a different strain, unless previously housed with the trapped rat. Moreover, pair-housing with one rat of a different strain prompted rats to help strangers of that strain, evidence that rats expand pro-social motivation from one individual to phenotypically similar others. To test if genetic relatedness alone can motivate helping, rats were fostered from birth with another strain and were not exposed to their own strain. As adults, fostered rats helped strangers of the fostering strain but not rats of their own strain. Thus, strain familiarity, even to one's own strain, is required for the expression of pro-social behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01385.001. PMID:24424411

  16. Pro-social behavior in rats is modulated by social experience

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Rodgers, David A; Bernardez Sarria, Maria Sol; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, helping is preferentially provided to members of one’s own group. Yet, it remains unclear how social experience shapes pro-social motivation. We found that rats helped trapped strangers by releasing them from a restrainer, just as they did cagemates. However, rats did not help strangers of a different strain, unless previously housed with the trapped rat. Moreover, pair-housing with one rat of a different strain prompted rats to help strangers of that strain, evidence that rats expand pro-social motivation from one individual to phenotypically similar others. To test if genetic relatedness alone can motivate helping, rats were fostered from birth with another strain and were not exposed to their own strain. As adults, fostered rats helped strangers of the fostering strain but not rats of their own strain. Thus, strain familiarity, even to one’s own strain, is required for the expression of pro-social behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01385.001 PMID:24424411

  17. Towards convection-resolving, global atmospheric simulations with the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) v3.1: an extreme scaling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzeller, D.; Duda, M. G.; Kunstmann, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is a novel set of Earth system simulation components and consists of an atmospheric model, an ocean model and a land-ice model. Its distinct features are the use of unstructured Voronoi meshes and C-grid discretisation to address shortcomings of global models on regular grids and the use of limited area models nested in a forcing data set, with respect to parallel scalability, numerical accuracy and physical consistency. This concept allows one to include the feedback of regional land use information on weather and climate at local and global scales in a consistent way, which is impossible to achieve with traditional limited area modelling approaches. Here, we present an in-depth evaluation of MPAS with regards to technical aspects of performing model runs and scalability for three medium-size meshes on four different high-performance computing (HPC) sites with different architectures and compilers. We uncover model limitations and identify new aspects for the model optimisation that are introduced by the use of unstructured Voronoi meshes. We further demonstrate the model performance of MPAS in terms of its capability to reproduce the dynamics of the West African monsoon (WAM) and its associated precipitation in a pilot study. Constrained by available computational resources, we compare 11-month runs for two meshes with observations and a reference simulation from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We show that MPAS can reproduce the atmospheric dynamics on global and local scales in this experiment, but identify a precipitation excess for the West African region. Finally, we conduct extreme scaling tests on a global 3 km mesh with more than 65 million horizontal grid cells on up to half a million cores. We discuss necessary modifications of the model code to improve its parallel performance in general and specific to the HPC environment. We confirm good scaling (70 % parallel efficiency or better) of

  18. [Juvenile experience and learning modulate the functional maturation of the brain: relevance for the genesis and therapy of mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Braun, K; Bogerts, B

    2000-11-01

    This article summarizes experimental data that indicate how juvenile experience and learning events modulate the functional maturation of the brain, shaping thereby the neuronal substrate for the development of intellectual and socio-emotional abilities. The fact that early experience occurs during early postnatal brain development, i.e. phases of elevated neuronal and synaptic plasticity, results in an "imprinting" of synaptic connectivity and neural circuitry in the infant brain. Results from experimental research in animal models support the hypothesis that impoverished intellectual stimulation and disturbance of the socio-emotional environment during early childhood may disturb the formation of functional brain pathways, in particular of the limbic circuits, which play a major role in emotion and learning. Such defective brain systems, representing neurofunctional "scars" in the brain, may be the neuronal basis of a variety of mental disorders and clinical symptoms caused by early stressful psychosocial environment. Ultimately, the goal will be to apply the knowledge gained to the development of biological and psychosocial intervention strategies by utilizing remaining plasticity of the adult human brain aimed at promoting human health, decreasing susceptibility and increasing resistance to disease. PMID:11130142

  19. Social Experience Is Sufficient to Modulate Sleep Need of Drosophila without Increasing Wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Lone, Shahnaz Rahman; Potdar, Sheetal; Srivastava, Manishi; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Organisms quickly learn about their surroundings and display synaptic plasticity which is thought to be critical for their survival. For example, fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster exposed to highly enriched social environment are found to show increased synaptic connections and a corresponding increase in sleep. Here we asked if social environment comprising a pair of same-sex individuals could enhance sleep in the participating individuals. To study this, we maintained individuals of D. melanogaster in same-sex pairs for a period of 1 to 4 days, and after separation, monitored sleep of the previously socialized and solitary individuals under similar conditions. Males maintained in pairs for 3 or more days were found to sleep significantly more during daytime and showed a tendency to fall asleep sooner as compared to solitary controls (both measures together are henceforth referred to as "sleep-enhancement"). This sleep phenotype is not strain-specific as it is observed in males from three different "wild type" strains of D. melanogaster. Previous studies on social interaction mediated sleep-enhancement presumed 'waking experience' during the interaction to be the primary underlying cause; however, we found sleep-enhancement to occur without any significant increase in wakefulness. Furthermore, while sleep-enhancement due to group-wise social interaction requires Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) positive neurons; PDF positive and CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) positive circadian clock neurons and the core circadian clock genes are not required for sleep-enhancement to occur when males interact in pairs. Pair-wise social interaction mediated sleep-enhancement requires dopamine and olfactory signaling, while visual and gustatory signaling systems seem to be dispensable. These results suggest that socialization alone (without any change in wakefulness) is sufficient to cause sleep-enhancement in fruit fly D. melanogaster males, and that its neuronal control is context

  20. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  1. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  2. Extreme Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezalek, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Can one learn to lead on the flying trapeze? That's the question prompted by the exotic variations on the theme of experiential learning. By taking employees or executives (or both) out of their work element and putting them through an experience together, training professionals try to create learning that is more meaningful than PowerPoint…

  3. Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) Optics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Roy; Christl, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A demonstration part will be manufactured in Japan on one of the large Toshiba machines with a diameter of 2.5 meters. This will be a flat PMMA disk that is cut between 0.5 and 1.25 meters radius. The cut should demonstrate manufacturing the most difficult parts of the 2.5 meter Fresnel pattern and the blazed grating on the diffractive surface. Optical simulations, validated with the subscale prototype, will be used to determine the limits on manufacturing errors (tolerances) that will result in optics that meet EUSO s requirements. There will be limits on surface roughness (or errors at high spatial frequency); radial and azimuthal slope errors (at lower spatial frequencies) and plunge cut depth errors in the blazed grating. The demonstration part will be measured to determine whether it was made within the allowable tolerances.

  4. Extensive Frequency Comb Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy of ThF^+ for Use in the Jila Electron Edm Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresh, Dan; Cossel, Kevin; Ye, Jun; Cornell, Eric

    2014-06-01

    The metastable ^3Δ_1 state in trapped HfF^+ is being used for an ongoing measurement of the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) ThF^+, which has a larger effective electric field and a longer-lived ^3Δ_1 state, offers increased sensitivity for an eEDM measurement. Recently, the Heaven group has spectroscopically studied the low-lying states of ThF^+. However, to date there is no detailed information available about technically-accessible laser transitions in the near-infrared region of the spectrum, which are necessary for state preparation and detection in an eEDM experiment. By applying the technique of frequency comb velocity modulation spectroscopy (VMS) to ThF^+ we can acquire 150 cm-1 of continuous, ion-sensitive spectra with 150 MHz resolution in 25 minutes. Here, we report on extensive broadband, high-resolution survey spectroscopy of ThF^+ in the near-IR where we have observed and accurately fit several rovibronic transitions. In addition, we have observed and characterized numerous rovibronic transitions from an unknown thoriated species of molecular ions. H. Loh, K. C. Cossel, M. C. Grau, K.-K. Ni, E. R. Meyer, J. L. Bohn, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, Science 342, 1220 (2013). B. J. Barker, I. O. Antonov, M. C. Heaven, K. A. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104305 (2012). L. C. Sinclair, K. C. Cossel, T. Coffey, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, PRL 107, 093002 (2011).

  5. Attentional control and inferences of agency: Working memory load differentially modulates goal-based and prime-based agency experiences.

    PubMed

    Renes, Robert A; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Aarts, Henk

    2015-12-15

    Previous research indicates that people can infer self-agency, the experience of causing outcomes as a result of one's own actions, in situations where information about action-outcomes is pre-activated through goal-setting or priming. We argue that goal-based agency inferences rely on attentional control that processes information about matches and mismatches between intended and actual outcomes. Prime-based inferences follow an automatic cognitive accessibility process that relies on matches between primed and actual information about outcomes. We tested an improved task for a better examination of goal-based vs. primed-based agency inferences, and examined the moderating effect of working memory load on both types of inferences. Findings of four studies showed that goal-based, but not prime-based agency inferences dwindled under working memory load. These findings suggest that goal-based (vs. primed-based) agency inferences indeed rely on attentional control, thus rendering goal-based agency inferences especially prone to conditions that modulate goal-directed control processes. PMID:26497069

  6. Time Modulation of the K-Shell Electron Capture Decay Rates of H-like Heavy Ions at GSI Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. N.; Kienle, P.

    2009-08-07

    According to experimental data at GSI, the rates of the number of daughter ions, produced by the nuclear K shell electron capture decays of the H-like heavy ions with one electron in the K shell, such as {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+}, {sup 142}Pm{sup 60+}, and {sup 122}I{sup 52+}, are modulated in time with periods T{sub EC} of the order of a few seconds, obeying an A scaling T{sub EC}=A/20 s, where A is the mass number of the mother nuclei, and with amplitudes a{sub d}{sup EC}approx0.21. We show that these data can be explained in terms of the interference of two massive neutrino mass eigenstates. The appearance of the interference term is due to overlap of massive neutrino mass eigenstate energies and of the wave functions of the daughter ions in two-body decay channels, caused by the energy and momentum uncertainties introduced by time differential detection of the daughter ions in GSI experiments.

  7. Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dugrain, Vincent; Reichel, Jakob; Rosenbusch, Peter

    2014-08-15

    We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

  8. Plate Tectonic Modulation of Microbial Productivity in the Deep Ocean-A Keck-supported Proto-NEPTUNE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, J. R.; Keck Team

    2003-12-01

    Deformation and volcanic activity in a plate tectonic framework must result in fluid, and therefore nutrient, fluxes within the upper oceanic crust, and between the oceanic crust and the deep ocean. These fluxes support microbial activity of many types, but the linkages are difficult to define and the magnitude of the overall process is extremely difficult to characterize and quantify because of the episodic behavior of the processes involved. Solving this problem requires long-term commitment of instrumental arrays designed to simultaneously identify and measure interactions between the seafloor and the overlying ocean. Although largely operating in a plate tectonically dominated regime on earth, similar geo-biochemical processes may be active on any number of planets at some time following accretion. Understanding the interactions here on earth may inform exploration for life on other bodies in our solar system and beyond. As an initial step toward exploring these linked phenomena, three adjacent plate boundaries along the northern edge of the Juan de Fuca Plate, were instrumented in the summer of 2003 with support from the Keck Foundation and the NSF. The intent is to initiate a proto-NEPTUNE suite of experiments designed to define the basic relationships involved microbial productivity resulting from plate boundary deformation. Although deployed in an autonomous mode now, the instruments and the approaches involved will transition to the Regional Cabled Observatory planned for the NE Pacific within five years. The principal focus of this initial deployment was on a vigorously active ridge crest hydrothermal system overlying a known magma chamber. In the summer of 2003, a permanent installation of 8 seismometers, 7 seven-short period instruments and one broad band sensor, was completed at the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge on the Endeavour Segment. The seismic array is complemented by a suite of temperature, fluid flow, and pressure measuring devices, as

  9. Multibeam inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for whole breast irradiation: a single center experience in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinli; Mei, Xin; Chen, Jiayi; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaomao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To present the clinical experience in our cancer center with multibeam inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for early stage breast cancer (BC) patients with whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods We retrospectively analyzed 622 patients with Stage 0 to III BC treated from 2008 to 2011 with wide local excision and WBI, using an inverse IMRT technique. All of the patients were prescribed a total dose of 50 Gy to the whole breast in 2-Gy fractions, followed by a tumor bed boost of 10 Gy in 5 fractions using an electron beam. Results Of all of the patients, 132 (21.2%) received whole breast plus regional lymph node (RLN) irradiation. 438 of 622 patients had records of acute skin toxicity based on common terminology criteria (CTC) for adverse events. Two hundred eighty (64%) patients had Grade 0/1 toxicity, 153 (35%) had Grade 2 and only 4 patients experienced grade 3 toxicity. Seventy patients (16%) had moist desquamation. Univariate analysis revealed that breast planning target volume was the only predictive factor for Grade ≥2 acute dermatitis (P = 0.002). After 4 years, 170 patients reported cosmetic results by self-assessment, of whom 151 (89%) patients reported good/excellent cosmetic results, and 17 (11%) patients reported fair assessments. For invasive cancer, the four-year rate of freedom from locoregional recurrence survival was 98.3%. Regarding carcinoma in situ, no patients experienced recurrence. Conclusion BC patients who underwent conservative surgery followed by inverse IMRT plan exhibited acceptable acute toxicities and clinical outcomes. Longer follow-up is needed. PMID:26393681

  10. Single-Isocenter Frameless Intensity-Modulated Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Simultaneous Treatment of Multiple Brain Metastases: Clinical Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Sameer K.; Lawson, Joshua D.; Simpson, Daniel R.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To describe our clinical experience using a unique single-isocenter technique for frameless intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IM-SRS) to treat multiple brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients with a median of 5 metastases (range, 2-13) underwent optically guided frameless IM-SRS using a single, centrally located isocenter. Median prescription dose was 18 Gy (range, 14-25). Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical examination occurred every 2-4 months. Results: Median follow-up for all patients was 3.3 months (range, 0.2-21.3), with 20 of 26 patients (77%) followed up until their death. For the remaining 6 patients alive at the time of analysis, median follow-up was 14.6 months (range, 9.3-18.0). Total treatment time ranged from 9.0 to 38.9 minutes (median, 21.0). Actuarial 6- and 12-month overall survivals were 50% (95% confidence interval [C.I.], 31-70%) and 38% (95% C.I., 19-56%), respectively. Actuarial 6- and 12-month local control (LC) rates were 97% (95% C.I., 93-100%) and 83% (95% C.I., 71-96%), respectively. Tumors {<=}1.5 cm had a better 6-month LC than those >1.5 cm (98% vs. 90%, p = 0.008). New intracranial metastatic disease occurring outside of the treatment volume was observed in 7 patients. Grade {>=}3 toxicity occurred in 2 patients (8%). Conclusion: Frameless IM-SRS using a single-isocenter approach for treating multiple intracranial metastases can produce clinical outcomes that compare favorably with those of conventional SRS in a much shorter treatment time (<40 minutes). Given its faster treatment time, this technique is appealing to both patients and personnel in busy clinics.

  11. Adaptive Planning in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancers: Single-Institution Experience and Clinical Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Peter H.; Chen, Chin-Cheng; Ahn, Andrew I.; Hong, Linda; Scripes, Paola G.; Shen Jin; Lee, Chen-Chiao; Miller, Ekeni; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Anatomic changes and positional variability during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer can lead to clinically significant dosimetric changes. We report our single-institution experience using an adaptive protocol and correlate these changes with anatomic and positional changes during treatment. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head and neck IMRT patients underwent serial computed tomography (CT) scans during their radiation course. After undergoing the planning CT scan, patients underwent planned rescans at 11, 22, and 33 fractions; a total of 89 scans with 129 unique CT plan combinations were thus analyzed. Positional variability and anatomic changes during treatment were correlated with changes in dosimetric parameters to target and avoidance structures between planning CT and subsequent scans. Results: A total of 15/23 patients (65%) benefited from adaptive planning, either due to inadequate dose to gross disease or to increased dose to organs at risk. Significant differences in primary and nodal targets (planning target volume, gross tumor volume, and clinical tumor volume), parotid, and spinal cord dosimetric parameters were noted throughout the treatment. Correlations were established between these dosimetric changes and weight loss, fraction number, multiple skin separations, and change in position of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine. Conclusions: Variations in patient positioning and anatomy changes during IMRT for head and neck cancer can affect dosimetric parameters and have wide-ranging clinical implications. The interplay between random positional variability and gradual anatomic changes requires careful clinical monitoring and frequent use of CT- based image-guided radiation therapy, which should determine variations necessitating new plans.

  12. Development of an Organic Rankine-Cycle power module for a small community solar thermal power experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiceniuk, T.

    1985-01-01

    An organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power module was developed for use in a multimodule solar power plant to be built and operated in a small community. Many successful components and subsystems, including the reciever, power conversion subsystem, energy transport subsystem, and control subsystem, were tested. Tests were performed on a complete power module using a test bed concentrator in place of the proposed concentrator. All major single-module program functional objectives were met and the multimodule operation presented no apparent problems. The hermetically sealed, self-contained, ORC power conversion unit subsequently successfully completed a 300-hour endurance run with no evidence of wear or operating problems.

  13. Survalytics: An Open-Source Cloud-Integrated Experience Sampling, Survey, and Analytics and Metadata Collection Module for Android Operating System Apps

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background We describe here Survalytics, a software module designed to address two broad areas of need. The first area is in the domain of surveys and app analytics: developers of mobile apps in both academic and commercial environments require information about their users, as well as how the apps are being used, to understand who their users are and how to optimally approach app development. The second area of need is in the field of ecological momentary assessment, also referred to as experience sampling: researchers in a wide variety of fields, spanning from the social sciences to psychology to clinical medicine, would like to be able to capture daily or even more frequent data from research subjects while in their natural environment. Objective Survalytics is an open-source solution for the collection of survey responses as well as arbitrary analytic metadata from users of Android operating system apps. Methods Surveys may be administered in any combination of one-time questions and ongoing questions. The module may be deployed as a stand-alone app for experience sampling purposes or as an add-on to existing apps. The module takes advantage of free-tier NoSQL cloud database management offered by the Amazon Web Services DynamoDB platform to package a secure, flexible, extensible data collection module. DynamoDB is capable of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant storage of personal health information. Results The provided example app may be used without modification for a basic experience sampling project, and we provide example questions for daily collection of blood glucose data from study subjects. Conclusions The module will help researchers in a wide variety of fields rapidly develop tailor-made Android apps for a variety of data collection purposes. PMID:27261155

  14. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for the treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda, Fernando F. de; Puri, Dev R.; Zhung, Joanne; Narayana, Ashwatha; Wolden, Suzanne; Hunt, Margie; Stambuk, Hilda; Pfister, David; Kraus, Dennis; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin; Lee, Nancy Y. . E-mail: leen2@mskcc.org

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To review the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's experience in using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and June 2004, 50 patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the oropharynx underwent IMRT at our institution. There were 40 men and 10 women with a median age of 56 years (range, 28-78 years). The disease was Stage I in 1 patient (2%), Stage II in 3 patients (6%), Stage III in 7 (14%), and Stage IV in 39 (78%). Forty-eight patients (96%) received definitive treatment, and 2 (4%) were treated in the postoperative adjuvant setting. Concurrent chemotherapy was used in 43 patients (86%). Patients were treated using three different IMRT approaches: 76% dose painting, 18% concomitant boost with IMRT in both am and pm deliveries, and 6% concomitant boost with IMRT only in pm delivery. Regardless of the approach, the average prescription dose to the gross tumor planning target volume was 70 Gy, while the average dose delivered to the subclinical volume was 59.4 Gy in the dose painting group and 54 Gy in the concomitant boost group. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tubes (PEGs) were placed before the beginning of treatment in 84% of the patients. Acute and late toxicity were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Toxicity was also evaluated using subjective criteria such as the presence of esophageal stricture, and the need for PEG usage. The local progression-free, regional progression-free, and distant metastases-free rates, and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Three patients had persistent locoregional disease after treatment. The 2-year estimates of local progression-free, regional progression-free, distant metastases-free, and overall survival were 98%, 88%, 84%, and 98%, respectively. The worst acute mucositis experienced was Grade 1

  15. Rising sea levels will reduce extreme temperature variations in tide-dominated reef habitats

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Ryan Joseph; Pivan, Xavier; Falter, James; Symonds, Graham; Gruber, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Temperatures within shallow reefs often differ substantially from those in the surrounding ocean; therefore, predicting future patterns of thermal stresses and bleaching at the scale of reefs depends on accurately predicting reef heat budgets. We present a new framework for quantifying how tidal and solar heating cycles interact with reef morphology to control diurnal temperature extremes within shallow, tidally forced reefs. Using data from northwestern Australia, we construct a heat budget model to investigate how frequency differences between the dominant lunar semidiurnal tide and diurnal solar cycle drive ~15-day modulations in diurnal temperature extremes. The model is extended to show how reefs with tidal amplitudes comparable to their depth, relative to mean sea level, tend to experience the largest temperature extremes globally. As a consequence, we reveal how even a modest sea level rise can substantially reduce temperature extremes within tide-dominated reefs, thereby partially offsetting the local effects of future ocean warming. PMID:27540589

  16. Rising sea levels will reduce extreme temperature variations in tide-dominated reef habitats.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Ryan Joseph; Pivan, Xavier; Falter, James; Symonds, Graham; Gruber, Renee

    2016-08-01

    Temperatures within shallow reefs often differ substantially from those in the surrounding ocean; therefore, predicting future patterns of thermal stresses and bleaching at the scale of reefs depends on accurately predicting reef heat budgets. We present a new framework for quantifying how tidal and solar heating cycles interact with reef morphology to control diurnal temperature extremes within shallow, tidally forced reefs. Using data from northwestern Australia, we construct a heat budget model to investigate how frequency differences between the dominant lunar semidiurnal tide and diurnal solar cycle drive ~15-day modulations in diurnal temperature extremes. The model is extended to show how reefs with tidal amplitudes comparable to their depth, relative to mean sea level, tend to experience the largest temperature extremes globally. As a consequence, we reveal how even a modest sea level rise can substantially reduce temperature extremes within tide-dominated reefs, thereby partially offsetting the local effects of future ocean warming. PMID:27540589

  17. On the role of the Jeffreys' sheltering mechanism in sustaining extreme water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanangeli, Jean-Paul; Kharif, Christian; Touboul, Julien

    2006-08-01

    The effect of the wind on sustaining extreme water waves is investigated experimentally and numerically. A series of experiments conducted in the Large Air-Sea Interactions Facility (LASIF) showed that a wind blowing over a strongly nonlinear short wave group due to the linear focusing of a modulated wave train may increase the life time of the extreme wave event. The experiments suggested that the air flow separation that occurs on the leeward side of the steep crests may sustain longer the maximum of modulation of the focusing-defocusing cycle. Based on a Boundary-Integral Equation Method and a pressure distribution over the steep crests given by the Jeffreys' sheltering theory, similar numerical simulations have confirmed the experimental results. To cite this article: J.-P. Giovanangeli et al., C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

  18. Column CO2 Measurements with Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Lidar System During the ASCENDS 2014 Summer Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Lin, B.; Harrison, F. W.; Dobler, J. T.; Kooi, S. A.; Campbell, J. F.; Obland, M. D.; Browell, E. V.; Yang, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ASCENDS 2014 flight campaign results of an intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) lidar system operating at 1.57 µm for measurements of column CO2 over a wide variety of geographic regions. The 2007 National Research Council's Decadal Survey of Earth Science and Applications from Space recommended Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as a mid-term, Tier II, space mission to address global sources, sinks, and transport of atmospheric CO2. As part of the development of a capability for the NASA ASCENDS mission, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Exelis, Inc. have been collaborating to develop, demonstrate and mature the IM-CW lidar approach for measuring atmospheric column CO2 mixing ratios from a space platform using the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar technique with preferential weighting of the CO2 measurements to the mid to lower troposphere. The Multi-Functional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), a system developed as a technology demonstrator for the ASCENDS mission, has been used to demonstrate high precision column CO2 retrievals from various aircraft platforms. The MFLL operates using a novel IM-CW IPDA approach to make simultaneous CO2 and O2 column measurements in the 1.57-micron and 1.26-micron spectral regions, respectively, to derive the column-average CO2 dry-air mixing ratios. Measurements from the 2014 summer field experiment focused on advancing CO2 & O2 measurement technologies under day and night conditions in realistic environments, assessing CO2 emissions over large metropolitan areas, observing and evaluating CO2 drawdown and diurnal trends over large agricultural regions, obtaining reflectance data and CO2 & O2 measurements over rough ocean surfaces with high surface wind speeds (~10 m/s), and carrying out CO2 & O2 intercomparisons with OCO-2 and GOSAT over the western United States. Initial results from MFLL for the aforementioned flight campaign

  19. Modulational effects in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Satogata, T.

    1997-12-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed.

  20. HOME for STEPS. Homemaking Opportunity Modules for Education for Use with Surviving Today's Experiences and Problems Successfully. Compiled from Competency Based Modules Based on V-TECS Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV. Dept. of Home Economics.

    Designed to accompany Surviving Today's Experiences and Problems Successfully (STEPS) for 9th and 10th grade home economics courses, this volume consists of individualized learning packages dealing with four areas: management/family economics, human development, housing, and foods/nutrition. The book is divided into four parts. First, the…

  1. Attention, working memory, and phenomenal experience of WM content: memory levels determined by different types of top-down modulation

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Jane; Jacobs, Christianne; Silvanto, Juha

    2015-01-01

    What is the role of top-down attentional modulation in consciously accessing working memory (WM) content? In influential WM models, information can exist in different states, determined by allocation of attention; placing the original memory representation in the center of focused attention gives rise to conscious access. Here we discuss various lines of evidence indicating that such attentional modulation is not sufficient for memory content to be phenomenally experienced. We propose that, in addition to attentional modulation of the memory representation, another type of top-down modulation is required: suppression of all incoming visual information, via inhibition of early visual cortex. In this view, there are three distinct memory levels, as a function of the top-down control associated with them: (1) Nonattended, nonconscious associated with no attentional modulation; (2) attended, phenomenally nonconscious memory, associated with attentional enhancement of the actual memory trace; (3) attended, phenomenally conscious memory content, associated with enhancement of the memory trace and top-down suppression of all incoming visual input. PMID:26539145

  2. [The use of caspofungin in extremely low birth weight preterm infants based on clinical trials and reports considering the own experience (case report).

    PubMed

    Stempniewicz, Krzysztof; Walas, Wojciech; Gregorek-Pełka, Edyta; Kamińska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, despite of significant progress in the treatment of premature infants with extremely low body weight, still a significant problem remains severe, treatment-resistant generalized infections among which the percentage of fungal infections is increasing. The invasive candidiasis, especially caused by non-albicans species of Candida, are of particular importance. In the case of resistance on fluconazole and amphotericin B the use of echinocandin drug may be a useful choice. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in neonates and children, as well as the case reports and clinical trials on the use of caspofungin in neonates, including the premature infants. We describe also the premature neonate with low birth weight and a generalized infection caused by Candida glabrata, where, despite of the treatment based on the sensitivity of the fungus it did not achieve clinical improvement and sterilization of cultures. It was not until the lead-in of caspofungin in dose 2 mg/kg/day allowed to cure the patient. There was a transient increase in the activity of aminotransferases and level of bilirubin as a complication of treatment. At the end of application of caspofungin the liver functions have been slowly normalized. Caspofungin appeared to be effective in the treatment of systemic fungal C. glabrata in premature neonate with extremely low birth weight. Echinocandins, including caspofungin, appear to be a promising alternative to previously used agents in the treatment of invasive Candida infections in newborns. However, the further randomized trials on the use of caspofungin in preterm neonates, regarding long term follow-up, should be undertaken. PMID:25182262

  3. Introduction of Team-Based Learning (TBL) at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College: Experience with the Ectoparasites Module

    PubMed Central

    Nyindo, Mramba; Kitau, Jovin; Lisasi, Esther; Kapanda, Gibson; Matowo, Johnston; Francis, Patrick; Bartlett, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Contemporary teaching in sub-Saharan African medical schools is largely through didactic and problem-based approaches. These schools face challenges from burgeoning student numbers, severe faculty shortages, faculty without instruction in teaching methods, and severe infrastructure inadequacies. Team-based learning (TBL) is a pedagogy which may be attractive because it spares faculty time. TBL was piloted in a module on ectoparasites at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMU Co). Methods TBL orientation began 6 weeks before starting the module. Students were issued background readings and individual and group readiness assessment tests, followed by module application, discussion, and evaluation. At completion, student perceptions of TBL were assessed using a 5-point Likert scale evaluating 6 domains, with a score of 5 being most favorable. Strength of consensus measures (sCns) were applied. Final examination scores were compiled for 2011 (didactic) and 2012 (TBL). Results 158 students participated in the module. The mean student scores across the 6 domains ranged from 4.2–4.5, with a high degree of consensus (range 85–90%). The final examination scores improved between 2011 and 2012 Conclusions KCMU Co student perceptions of TBL were very positive, and final exam grades improved. These observations suggest future promise for TBL applications at KCMU Co and potentially other schools. PMID:24491164

  4. A direct sensitivity comparison between flow-modulated comprehensive 2D and 1D GC in untargeted and targeted MS-based experiments.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, Peter Q; Franchina, Flavio A; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Cacciola, Francesco; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-09-01

    The present contribution is focused on the measurement of the analytical sensitivity attained in untargeted/targeted MS/MS experiments, performed using flow-modulator comprehensive 2D and 1D GC. The comprehensive 2D experiment was performed by diverting part of the high flow (circa 80%) to flush the accumulation loop (about 28 mL/min) to waste, to reduce the gas flow entering the ion source. 1D analyses were performed through: (i) unmodulated and (ii) single column applications. An equivalent temperature program was applied in the modulated and unmodulated analyses, while a faster one was employed in the single column one. In all application types, the (same) triple quadrupole instrument was operated in the full-scan and multiple reaction monitoring modes. A genuine sweet orange oil and the same sample spiked with 20 phytosanitary compounds were employed to reach the research objective. The results highlight the problems related to the flow modulation-MS combination. Specifically, it was found that sensitivity was on average three to four times higher in unmodulated and optimized single-column applications. PMID:23868497

  5. Lower extremity muscle perforator flaps for lower extremity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2004-10-01

    A true muscle perforator flap is distinguished by the requisite intramuscular dissection of its musculocutaneous perforator to capture the same musculocutaneous territory but with total exclusion of the muscle, and thereby results in minimal functional impairment. Adhering to this definition, several lower extremity donor sites now are available, each with specific attributes especially useful for consideration in the treatment of lower extremity defects. In this author's experience over the past two decades, 20 lower extremity muscle perforator flaps using multiple donor sites proved advantageous for lower extremity coverage problems as either a local pedicled flap or as a microsurgical tissue transfer. Significant complications occurred in 30 percent of flaps (six of 20) in that further intervention was required. Venous insufficiency and bulkiness were found to be the major inherent shortcomings. However, giant flaps, lengthy and large-caliber vascular pedicles, and the possibility for combined flaps were important assets. The choice of a lower extremity muscle perforator flap for lower extremity reconstruction limited the surgical intervention and morbidity to a single body region. PMID:15457022

  6. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Blaj, G.; Carini, G.; Carron, S.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.; Hasi, J.; Herrmann, S.; Kenney, C.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  7. Management of the complications of traditional bone setting for upper extremity fractures: the experiences of a French Forward Surgical Team in Chad.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, L; Bertani, A; Chaudier, P; Charpail, C; Rongiéras, F; Chauvin, F

    2014-04-01

    The practice of traditional bone setting (TBS) in sub-Saharan Africa often leads to severe complications after upper extremity fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the management of these complications by a French Forward Surgical Team deployed in Chad. An observational, prospective study was conducted over a six-month period between 2010 and 2011. During this period 28 patients were included. There were 20 males and 8 females with a mean age of 30.6 years (range 5-65 years). Thirteen patients (47%) had mal-union of their fracture, nine had non-union (32%), three children (10.5%) presented gangrene and three patients (10.5%) suffered from other complications. Fifteen (54%) patients did not undergo a corrective procedure either because it was not indicated or because they declined. Only 13 (46%) patients were operated on. Twelve of these patients were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 2.4 months. All of them were satisfied with conventional treatment. The infection seemed to be under control in every septic patient. Bone union could not be evaluated in most patients because of the short follow-up. Management of TBS complications is always challenging, even in a deployed Western medical treatment facility. Surgical expectations should be low because of the severity of the sequelae and the uncertainty of patient follow-up. Prevention remains the best treatment. PMID:24679676

  8. Experience from the in-flight calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) fixed head star trackers (FHSTs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Since the original post-launch calibration of the FHSTs (Fixed Head Star Trackers) on EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer) and UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite), the Flight Dynamics task has continued to analyze the FHST performance. The algorithm used for inflight alignment of spacecraft sensors is described and the equations for the errors in the relative alignment for the simple 2 star tracker case are shown. Simulated data and real data are used to compute the covariance of the relative alignment errors. Several methods for correcting the alignment are compared and results analyzed. The specific problems seen on orbit with UARS and EUVE are then discussed. UARS has experienced anomalous tracker performance on an FHST resulting in continuous variation in apparent tracker alignment. On EUVE, the FHST residuals from the attitude determination algorithm showed a dependence on the direction of roll during survey mode. This dependence is traced back to time tagging errors and the original post launch alignment is found to be in error due to the impact of the time tagging errors on the alignment algorithm. The methods used by the FDF (Flight Dynamics Facility) to correct for these problems is described.

  9. The ECORS-Truc Vert'08 nearshore field experiment: presentation of a three-dimensional morphologic system in a macro-tidal environment during consecutive extreme storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senechal, Nadia; Abadie, Stéphane; Gallagher, Edith; Macmahan, Jamie; Masselink, Gerd; Michallet, Hervé; Reniers, Ad; Ruessink, Gerben; Russell, Paul; Sous, Damien; Turner, Ian; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Bonneton, Philippe; Bujan, Stéphane; Capo, Sylvain; Certain, Raphael; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Garlan, Thierry

    2011-12-01

    A large multi-institutional nearshore field experiment was conducted at Truc Vert, on the Atlantic coast of France in early 2008. Truc Vert'08 was designed to measure beach change on a long, sandy stretch of coast without engineering works with emphasis on large winter waves (offshore significant wave height up to 8 m), a three-dimensional morphology, and macro-tidal conditions. Nearshore wave transformation, circulation and bathymetric changes involve coupled processes at many spatial and temporal scales thus implying the need to improve our knowledge for the full spectrum of scales to achieve a comprehensive view of the natural system. This experiment is unique when compared with existing experiments because of the simultaneous investigation of processes at different scales, both spatially (from ripples to sand banks) and temporally (from single swash events to several spring-neap tidal cycles, including a major storm event). The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the experiment by providing detailed presentation of the instrument layout and snapshots of preliminary results.

  10. Experience Drives Synchronization: The phase and Amplitude Dynamics of Neural Oscillations to Musical Chords Are Differentially Modulated by Musical Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bailey, Christopher J.; Brattico, Elvira; Gjedde, Albert; Palva, J. Matias; Palva, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Musical expertise is associated with structural and functional changes in the brain that underlie facilitated auditory perception. We investigated whether the phase locking (PL) and amplitude modulations (AM) of neuronal oscillations in response to musical chords are correlated with musical expertise and whether they reflect the prototypicality of chords in Western tonal music. To this aim, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while musicians and non-musicians were presented with common prototypical major and minor chords, and with uncommon, non-prototypical dissonant and mistuned chords, while watching a silenced movie. We then analyzed the PL and AM of ongoing oscillations in the theta (4–8 Hz) alpha (8–14 Hz), beta- (14–30 Hz) and gamma- (30–80 Hz) bands to these chords. We found that musical expertise was associated with strengthened PL of ongoing oscillations to chords over a wide frequency range during the first 300 ms from stimulus onset, as opposed to increased alpha-band AM to chords over temporal MEG channels. In musicians, the gamma-band PL was strongest to non-prototypical compared to other chords, while in non-musicians PL was strongest to minor chords. In both musicians and non-musicians the long-latency (> 200 ms) gamma-band PL was also sensitive to chord identity, and particularly to the amplitude modulations (beats) of the dissonant chord. These findings suggest that musical expertise modulates oscillation PL to musical chords and that the strength of these modulations is dependent on chord prototypicality. PMID:26291324

  11. Test results of an organic Rankine-cycle power module for a small community solar thermal power experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    The organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power conversion assembly was tested. Qualification testing of the electrical transport subsystem was also completed. Test objectives were to verify compatibility of all system elements with emphasis on control of the power conversion assembly, to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the components, and to validate operating procedures. After 34 hours of power generation under a wide range of conditions, the net module efficiency exceeded 18% after accounting for all parasitic losses.

  12. Experience Drives Synchronization: The phase and Amplitude Dynamics of Neural Oscillations to Musical Chords Are Differentially Modulated by Musical Expertise.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bailey, Christopher J; Brattico, Elvira; Gjedde, Albert; Palva, J Matias; Palva, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Musical expertise is associated with structural and functional changes in the brain that underlie facilitated auditory perception. We investigated whether the phase locking (PL) and amplitude modulations (AM) of neuronal oscillations in response to musical chords are correlated with musical expertise and whether they reflect the prototypicality of chords in Western tonal music. To this aim, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while musicians and non-musicians were presented with common prototypical major and minor chords, and with uncommon, non-prototypical dissonant and mistuned chords, while watching a silenced movie. We then analyzed the PL and AM of ongoing oscillations in the theta (4-8 Hz) alpha (8-14 Hz), beta- (14-30 Hz) and gamma- (30-80 Hz) bands to these chords. We found that musical expertise was associated with strengthened PL of ongoing oscillations to chords over a wide frequency range during the first 300 ms from stimulus onset, as opposed to increased alpha-band AM to chords over temporal MEG channels. In musicians, the gamma-band PL was strongest to non-prototypical compared to other chords, while in non-musicians PL was strongest to minor chords. In both musicians and non-musicians the long-latency (> 200 ms) gamma-band PL was also sensitive to chord identity, and particularly to the amplitude modulations (beats) of the dissonant chord. These findings suggest that musical expertise modulates oscillation PL to musical chords and that the strength of these modulations is dependent on chord prototypicality. PMID:26291324

  13. Clinical Experience With Image-Guided Radiotherapy in an Accelerated Partial Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Charles E.; Tallhamer, Michael M.S.; Johnson, Tim; Hunter, Kari C.M.D.; Howell, Kathryn; Kercher, Jane; Widener, Jodi; Kaske, Terese; Paul, Devchand; Sedlacek, Scot; Carter, Dennis L.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of fiducial markers for the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in an accelerated partial breast intensity modulated radiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients consented to an institutional review board approved protocol of accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy with fiducial marker placement and treatment with IGRT. Patients (1 patient with bilateral breast cancer; 20 total breasts) underwent ultrasound guided implantation of three 1.2- x 3-mm gold markers placed around the surgical cavity. For each patient, table shifts (inferior/superior, right/left lateral, and anterior/posterior) and minimum, maximum, mean error with standard deviation were recorded for each of the 10 BID treatments. The dose contribution of daily orthogonal films was also examined. Results: All IGRT patients underwent successful marker placement. In all, 200 IGRT treatment sessions were performed. The average vector displacement was 4 mm (range, 2-7 mm). The average superior/inferior shift was 2 mm (range, 0-5 mm), the average lateral shift was 2 mm (range, 1-4 mm), and the average anterior/posterior shift was 3 mm (range, 1 5 mm). Conclusions: This study shows that the use of IGRT can be successfully used in an accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy protocol. The authors believe that this technique has increased daily treatment accuracy and permitted reduction in the margin added to the clinical target volume to form the planning target volume.

  14. Energetic changes caused by antigenic module insertion in a virus-like particle revealed by experiment and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Tang, Ronghong; Bai, Shu; Connors, Natalie K; Lua, Linda H L; Chuan, Yap P; Middelberg, Anton P J; Sun, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The success of recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) for human papillomavirus and hepatitis B demonstrates the potential of VLPs as safe and efficacious vaccines. With new modular designs emerging, the effects of antigen module insertion on the self-assembly and structural integrity of VLPs should be clarified so as to better enabling improved design. Previous work has revealed insights into the molecular energetics of a VLP subunit, capsomere, comparing energetics within various solution conditions known to drive or inhibit self-assembly. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method were performed to examine the molecular interactions and energetics in a modular capsomere of a murine polyomavirus (MPV) VLP designed to protect against influenza. Insertion of an influenza antigenic module is found to lower the binding energy within the capsomere, and a more active state is observed in Assembly Buffer as compared with that in Stabilization Buffer, which has been experimentally validated through measurements using differential scanning calorimetry. Further in-depth analysis based on free-energy decomposition indicates that destabilized binding can be attributed to electrostatic interaction induced by the chosen antigen module. These results provide molecular insights into the conformational stability of capsomeres and their abilities to be exploited for antigen presentation, and are expected to be beneficial for the biomolecular engineering of VLP vaccines. PMID:25215874

  15. The Southeast Asia Regional Climate Downscaling (SEACLID) / CORDEX Southeast Asia Project and The Results of Its Sensitivity Experiments of RegCM4 Cumulus and Ocean Fluxes Parameterization Schemes on Temperature and Extremes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Cruz, Faye; Narisma, Gemma; Dado, Julie; Van, Tan-Phan; Ngo-Duc, Thanh; Trinh-Tuan, Long; Nguyen-Xuan, Thanh; Santisirisomboon, Jerasorn; Singhruck, Patama; Gunawan, Dodo; Aldrian, Edvin

    2015-04-01

    choice of the ocean scheme can also affect the model's temperature bias, but not as much as the cumulus parameterization. For extremes, 14 indices for both rainfall and temperature were estimated. To measure the degree of similarity of the 18 experiments in both phase and shape, a statistical omega index was used. Results showed relatively higher similarities among the experiments over the mainland Asia compared to those over the Maritime continents for both seasonal and inter-annual variabilities. The extreme rainfall indices had a lower omega than those of temperature. Observed daily rainfall and temperature data at 123 meteorological stations over the SEA region were also used to validate the simulated extreme rainfall and temperature indices. Results showed higher correlations between simulated extremes and the observed ones over the mainland Asia continent compared to those over the Maritime Continent, suggesting an inappropriate quality of the extreme indices simulated by RegCM4 over the later region. Our analysis also pointed out the regions within SEA at which simulated extreme indices were more sensitive to cumulus parameterizations and ocean fluxes treatment. These results thereby highlight the need to choose the appropriate configuration for RegCM4, particularly for the SEA region, before downscaling global climate projections.

  16. Temporal Aperture Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The two types of modulation techniques useful to X-ray imaging are reviewed. The use of optimum coded temporal aperature modulation is shown, in certain cases, to offer an advantage over a spatial aperture modulator. Example applications of a diffuse anisotropic X-ray background experiment and a wide field of view hard X-ray imager are discussed.

  17. Cognitive modulation of pain and predictive coding. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo A.

    2014-09-01

    Pain is a phenomenologically complex experience whose sensory and psychological dimensions are deeply intertwined. In their perspective article, Fabbro and Crescentini [1] review the physiological and neural mechanisms underlying nociception and its cognitive modulation within the broader concept of suffering, which includes psychological pain [2] in its culturally mediated and existentially nuanced forms. The tight link between affective and cognitive processes, on the one hand, and pain, on the other, is illustrated by examining in turn the placebo effect, empathy for other people's afflictions, clinical depression, and the role that mindfulness-based practices may play in alleviating suffering.

  18. First Experiences in Intensity Modulated Radiation Surgery at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery: A Dosimetric Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José M.; Celis-López, Miguel A.

    2003-09-01

    The National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Mexico City has acquired a Novalis® shaped beam radiosurgery unit. The institute is pioneer in the use of new technologies for neuroscience. The Novalis® unit allows the use of conformal beam radiosurgery/therapy and the more advanced modality of conformal therapy: Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). In the present work we present the first cases of treatments that use the IMRT technique and show its ability to protect organs at risk, such as brainstem and optical vias.

  19. X-ray spectroscopic measurements of areal density and modulations of compressed shells in implosion experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Yaakobi, B.; Marshall, F. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2000-11-01

    The compressed shell integrity of imploded spherical targets has been studied using the 60-beam, 30-kJ UV OMEGA laser system. The shell integrity is measured by imaging the core emission at different x-ray energies. Time-integrated images of the titanium-doped targets have been obtained using a pinhole array with filters below and above the K-edge energy of titanium and recorded on DEF film. The optical depth ratio between such images reflects the nonuniformity of the cold or absorbing part of the shell. The nonuniformity in emission of pure-CH targets reflects integrity of the hot or emitting part of the shell. Using Fourier transforms of the images, signal modulations have been distinguished from noise. The modulations in shell areal density have been measured to be about 20% to 50% for 20- and 24-μm shell thicknesses and for square and shaped pulses, with nonuniformities peaked at l˜5 of the compressed shell.

  20. The importance of the anterior longitudinal ligament in lumbar disc arthroplasty: 36-Month follow-up experience in extreme lateral total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Luis; Oliveira, Leonardo; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Pimenta, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Current total disc replacement (TDR) for lumbar spine requires an anterior approach for implantation but presents inherent limitations, including risks to the abdominal structures, as well as resection of the anterior longitudinal ligament. By approaching the spine laterally, it is possible to preserve the stabilizing ligaments, which are a natural restraint to excessive rotations and translations, and thereby help to minimize facet stresses. This less invasive approach also offers a biomechanical advantage of placement of the device over the ring apophysis bilaterally; importantly, it also offers a greater opportunity for safer revision surgery, if necessary, by avoiding scarring of the anterior vasculature. We present the clinical and radiologic results of a lateral TDR device from a prospective single-center study. Methods A new metal-on-metal TDR device designed for implantation through a true lateral, retroperitoneal, transpsoatic approach (extreme lateral interbody fusion) was implanted in 36 patients with discography-confirmed 1- or 2-level degenerative disc disease. Clinical (pain and function) and radiographic (range of motion) outcome assessments were prospectively collected preoperatively, postoperatively, and serially up to a minimum of 36 months’ follow-up. Results Between December 2005 and December 2006, 36 surgeries were performed in 16 men and 20 women (mean age, 42.6 years). These included 15 single-level TDR procedures at L3-4 or L4-5, 3 2-level TDR procedures spanning L3-4 and L4-5, and 18 hybrid procedures (anterior lumbar interbody fusion) at L5-S1 and TDR at L4-5 (17) or L3-4 (1). Operative time averaged 130 minutes, with mean blood loss of 60 mL and no intraoperative complications. Postoperative X-rays showed good device placement, with restoration of disc height, foraminal volume, and sagittal balance. All patients were up and walking within 12 hours of surgery, and all but 9 were discharged the next day (7 of those 9 were

  1. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  2. Attentional processes in low-socioeconomic status bilingual children: are they modulated by the amount of bilingual experience?

    PubMed

    Ladas, Aristea I; Carroll, Daniel J; Vivas, Ana B

    2015-01-01

    Recent research indicates that bilingual children are more proficient in resolving cognitive conflict than monolinguals. However, the replicability of such findings has been questioned, with poor control of participants' socioeconomic status (SES) as a possible confounding factor. Two experiments are reported here, in which the main attentional functions and pragmatic ability of 54 bilingual and 56 monolingual low-SES children were assessed (Experiment 1: 6- to 12-year-olds; Experiment 2: 6- to 8-year-olds). A language-switching task was also employed, to measure bilingual proficiency. Overall, the monolingual and bilingual groups did not differ significantly in any of the tasks employed, although the ability to resolve conflict was related to children's level of bilingual experience. PMID:25571905

  3. CUMAS: a seafloor multi-sensor module for volcanic hazard monitoring - First long-term experiment and performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Guardato, S.; Vassallo, M.; Stabile, T. A.; Elia, L.; Beranzoli, L.

    2009-12-01

    A seafloor multi-sensor module with real-time data transmission, named CUMAS (Cabled Underwater Module for Acquisition of Seismological data), has been deployed in January 2008 in the Gulf of Pozzuoli, in the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy), which is one of the most active volcanic areas in the world. The sensors installed in CUMAS were selected to monitor a set of signals related to the local seismicity as well as the ground uplift and subsidence of the seafloor that are related to the bradyseismic phenomenon. In particular, together with a broad-band three-component seismometer and a low-frequency hydrophone, a seafloor water-pressure sensor is used to assess the feasibility of measurements of the slow vertical movement of the seafloor (bradyseism). Further sensors are acquired by two embedded Linux computers, namely tilt and heading sensors for the measure of the actual module orientation on the seafloor, and status sensors that monitor the state of health of the vessel (e.g., internal temperature, power absorption, water intrusion). The underwater acquisition systems are linked to a support infrastructure, a floating buoy (elastic beacon), through an electro-mechanical cable with an Ethernet line. The buoy provides the needed power supply thanks to batteries charged by solar panels and a wind- generator. A Wi-Fi antenna on the buoy is used to transmit the seafloor data from the sea surface to the land acquisition centre in the city of Naples. A meteorological station is also mounted on the buoy, to allow the correlation of the air and seafloor data. CUMAS, although based on commercial sensors, relies on an original system for the centralized management of a wide set of geophysical and physical oceanographic sensors, that handles the continuous data acquisition and real-time data transmission. After the installation in the Gulf of Pozzuoli at about 100 m w.d., and after a test period, CUMAS uninterruptedly operated from May 2008 to June 2009, thus

  4. Urology residents experience comparable workload profiles when performing live porcine nephrectomies and robotic surgery virtual reality training modules.

    PubMed

    Mouraviev, Vladimir; Klein, Martina; Schommer, Eric; Thiel, David D; Samavedi, Srinivas; Kumar, Anup; Leveillee, Raymond J; Thomas, Raju; Pow-Sang, Julio M; Su, Li-Ming; Mui, Engy; Smith, Roger; Patel, Vipul

    2016-03-01

    In pursuit of improving the quality of residents' education, the Southeastern Section of the American Urological Association (SES AUA) hosts an annual robotic training course for its residents. The workshop involves performing a robotic live porcine nephrectomy as well as virtual reality robotic training modules. The aim of this study was to evaluate workload levels of urology residents when performing a live porcine nephrectomy and the virtual reality robotic surgery training modules employed during this workshop. Twenty-one residents from 14 SES AUA programs participated in 2015. On the first-day residents were taught with didactic lectures by faculty. On the second day, trainees were divided into two groups. Half were asked to perform training modules of the Mimic da Vinci-Trainer (MdVT, Mimic Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA, USA) for 4 h, while the other half performed nephrectomy procedures on a live porcine model using the da Vinci Si robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). After the first 4 h the groups changed places for another 4-h session. All trainees were asked to complete the NASA-TLX 1-page questionnaire following both the MdVT simulation and live animal model sessions. A significant interface and TLX interaction was observed. The interface by TLX interaction was further analyzed to determine whether the scores of each of the six TLX scales varied across the two interfaces. The means of the TLX scores observed at the two interfaces were similar. The only significant difference was observed for frustration, which was significantly higher at the simulation than the animal model, t (20) = 4.12, p = 0.001. This could be due to trainees' familiarity with live anatomical structures over skill set simulations which remain a real challenge to novice surgeons. Another reason might be that the simulator provides performance metrics for specific performance traits as well as composite scores for entire exercises. Novice trainees experienced

  5. Synergy between fast-ion transport by core MHD and test blanket module fields in DIII-D experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Austin, M. E.; Collins, C. S.; Gray, T.; Grierson, B. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Lanctot, M.; Pace, D. C.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Mclean, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Fast-ion transport caused by the combination of MHD and a mock-up test-blanket module (TBM) coil is measured in the DIII-D tokamak. The primary diagnostic is an infrared camera that measures the heat flux on the tiles surrounding the coil. The combined effects of the TBM and four other potential sources of transport are studied: neoclassical tearing modes, Alfén eigenmodes, sawteeth, and applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields for the control of edge localized modes. A definitive synergistic effect is observed at sawtooth crashes where, in the presence of the TBM, the localized heat flux at a burst increases from 0.36+/- 0.27 to 2.6+/- 0.5 MW m-2.

  6. Mechanical properties of compositionally-modulated Au--Ni thin films: nanoindentation and micro-cantilever beam deflection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.P.; Nix, W.D. )

    1994-12-01

    The mechanical properties of compositionally-modulated Au--Ni films were investigated by sub-micrometer depth-sensing indentation and by deflection of micrometer-scale cantilever beams. Films prepared by sputter deposition with composition wavelengths between 0.9 and 4.0 nm were investigated. Strength was found to be high and invariant with composition wavelength. Experimental and data analysis methods were developed to provide more accurate and precise measurements of elastic stiffness. Large enhancements in stiffness (the supermodulus effect'') were [ital not] observed. Rather, relatively small but significant minima were observed at a composition wavelength of about 1.6 nm by both techniques. These variations were found to be strongly correlated with variations in the average lattice parameter normal to the plane of the film. Both structural and mechanical property variations are consistent with a simple model in which the film consists of bulk-like Au and Ni layers with interfaces of constant thickness.

  7. Synergy between fast-ion transport by core MHD and test blanket module fields in DIII-D experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Austin, M. E.; Collins, C. S.; Gray, T.; Grierson, B. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Lanctot, M.; Pace, D. C.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Mclean, A. G.

    2015-07-21

    We measured fast-ion transport caused by the combination of MHD and a mock-up test-blanket module (TBM) coil in the DIII-D tokamak. The primary diagnostic is an infrared camera that measures the heat flux on the tiles surrounding the coil. The combined effects of the TBM and four other potential sources of transport are studied: neoclassical tearing modes, Alfvén eigenmodes, sawteeth, and applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields for the control of edge localized modes. A definitive synergistic effect is observed at sawtooth crashes where, in the presence of the TBM, the localized heat flux at a burst increases from 0.36±0.27 to 2.6±0.5 MW/m-2.

  8. Quantum stream cipher by the Yuen 2000 protocol: Design and experiment by an intensity-modulation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Hirota, Osamu; Sohma, Masaki; Fuse, Masaru; Kato, Kentaro

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the Yuen 2000 (so-called Y-00)-protocol, which can realize a randomized stream cipher with high bit rate (Gbit/s) for long distances (several hundreds km). The randomized stream cipher with randomization by quantum noise based on the Y-00 protocol is called a quantum stream cipher in this paper, and it may have security against known plaintext attacks which has no analog with any conventional symmetric key ciphers. We present a simple cryptanalysis based on an attacker's heterodyne measurement and a quantum unambiguous measurement to make clear the strength of the Y-00 protocol in real communication. In addition, we give a design for the implementation of an intensity-modulation scheme and report an experimental demonstration of 1 Gbit/s quantum stream cipher through a 20-km-long transmission line.

  9. Synergy between fast-ion transport by core MHD and test blanket module fields in DIII-D experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Austin, M. E.; Collins, C. S.; Gray, T.; Grierson, B. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Lanctot, M.; Pace, D. C.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Mclean, A. G.

    2015-07-21

    We measured fast-ion transport caused by the combination of MHD and a mock-up test-blanket module (TBM) coil in the DIII-D tokamak. The primary diagnostic is an infrared camera that measures the heat flux on the tiles surrounding the coil. The combined effects of the TBM and four other potential sources of transport are studied: neoclassical tearing modes, Alfvén eigenmodes, sawteeth, and applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields for the control of edge localized modes. A definitive synergistic effect is observed at sawtooth crashes where, in the presence of the TBM, the localized heat flux at a burst increases from 0.36±0.27 tomore » 2.6±0.5 MW/m-2.« less

  10. The Failure Patterns of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy-University of Iowa Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Min . E-mail: min-yao@uiowa.edu; Chang, Kristi; Funk, Gerry F.; Lu Heming; Tan Huaming; Wacha, Judith C; Dornfeld, Kenneth J.; Buatti, John M.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: Determine the failure patterns of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between May 2001 and July 2005, 55 patients with oral cavity SCC were treated with IMRT for curative intent. Forty-nine received postoperative IMRT, 5 definitive IMRT, and 1 neoadjuvant. Three target volumes were defined (clinical target CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3). The failure patterns were determined by coregistration or comparison of the treatment planning computed tomography to the images obtained at the time of recurrence. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 17.1 months (range, 0.27-59.3 months). The median follow-up for living patients was 23.9 months (range, 9.3-59.3 months). Nine patients had locoregional failures: 4 local failures only, 2 regional failures only, and 3 had both local and regional failures. Five patients failed distantly; of these, 3 also had locoregional failures. The 2-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, local recurrence-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, and distant disease-free survival was 68%, 74%, 85%, 82%, and 89%, respectively. The median time from treatment completion to locoregional recurrence was 4.1 months (range, 3.0-12.1 months). Except for 1 patient who failed in contralateral lower neck outside the radiation field, all failed in areas that had received a high dose of radiation. The locoregional control is strongly correlated with extracapsular extension. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated RT is effective for oral cavity SCC. Most failures are in-field failures. Further clinical studies are necessary to improve the outcomes of patients with high-risk features, particularly for those with extracapsular extension.

  11. Evolutions from extremality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    We examine the evolution of extremal spherically symmetric black holes, developing both general theory as well as the specific cases of (charged) null dust and massless scalar field spacetimes. As matter accretes onto extremal marginally trapped tubes, they generically evolve to become nonextremal, with the initial extremal horizon bifurcating into inner and outer nonextremal horizons. At the start of this process arbitrarily slow matter accretion can cause a geometrically invariant measure of horizon growth to jump from zero to infinity. We also consider dynamical horizons that are extremal throughout their evolution and see that such spacetimes contain two extremal black hole horizons: an inner isolated one and an outer dynamical one. We compare these extremal dynamical horizons with the dynamical extreme event horizon spacetimes of Murata, Reall and Tanahashi.

  12. Recent experience modulates forebrain gene-expression in response to mate-choice cues in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Sockman, Keith W; Gentner, Timothy Q; Ball, Gregory F

    2002-12-01

    Mate-choice decisions can be experience dependent, but we know little about how the brain processes stimuli that release such decisions. Female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) prefer males with long-bout songs over males with short-bout songs, and show higher expression of the immediate early gene (IEG) ZENK in the auditory forebrain when exposed to long-bout songs than when exposed to short-bout songs. We exposed female starlings to a short-day photoperiod for one of three durations and then, on an increased photophase, exposed them to one week of long-bout or short-bout song experience. We then examined their IEG response to novel long-bout versus novel short-bout songs by quantifying ZENK protein in two song-processing areas: the caudo-medial hyperstriatum ventrale and the caudo-medial neostriatum. ZENK expression in both areas increased with tenure on short-day photoperiods, suggesting that short days sensitize females to song. The ZENK response bias toward long-bout songs was greater in females with long-bout experience than in females with short-bout experience, indicating that the forebrain response bias toward a preferred trait depends on recent experience with that category of trait. This surprising level of neuroplasticity is immediately relevant to the natural history and fitness of the organism, and may underlie a mechanism for optimizing mate-choice criteria amidst locally variable distributions of secondary sexual characteristics. PMID:12495492

  13. Recent experience modulates forebrain gene-expression in response to mate-choice cues in European starlings.

    PubMed Central

    Sockman, Keith W; Gentner, Timothy Q; Ball, Gregory F

    2002-01-01

    Mate-choice decisions can be experience dependent, but we know little about how the brain processes stimuli that release such decisions. Female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) prefer males with long-bout songs over males with short-bout songs, and show higher expression of the immediate early gene (IEG) ZENK in the auditory forebrain when exposed to long-bout songs than when exposed to short-bout songs. We exposed female starlings to a short-day photoperiod for one of three durations and then, on an increased photophase, exposed them to one week of long-bout or short-bout song experience. We then examined their IEG response to novel long-bout versus novel short-bout songs by quantifying ZENK protein in two song-processing areas: the caudo-medial hyperstriatum ventrale and the caudo-medial neostriatum. ZENK expression in both areas increased with tenure on short-day photoperiods, suggesting that short days sensitize females to song. The ZENK response bias toward long-bout songs was greater in females with long-bout experience than in females with short-bout experience, indicating that the forebrain response bias toward a preferred trait depends on recent experience with that category of trait. This surprising level of neuroplasticity is immediately relevant to the natural history and fitness of the organism, and may underlie a mechanism for optimizing mate-choice criteria amidst locally variable distributions of secondary sexual characteristics. PMID:12495492

  14. Natural experience modulates the processing of older adult faces in young adults and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias) across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual's face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual's specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and older adult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1) and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2) who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus older adult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for older adult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with older adult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces. PMID:23460867

  15. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model

    PubMed Central

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A.; Braun, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects’ choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects’ choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain. PMID:27124723

  16. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model.

    PubMed

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A; Braun, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects' choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects' choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain. PMID:27124723

  17. Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment

    SciTech Connect

    St. Clair, S.B.; Sudderth, E.; Fischer, M.L.; Torn, M.S.; Stuart, S.; Salve, R.; Eggett, D.; Ackerly, D.

    2009-03-15

    Variability in the magnitude and timing of precipitation is predicted to change under future climate scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to understand how variation in precipitation patterns consisting of soil moisture pulses mixed with intermittent dry down events influence ecosystem gas fluxes. We characterized the effects of precipitation amount and timing, N availability, and plant community composition on whole ecosystem and leaf gas exchange in a California annual grassland mesocosm study system that allowed precise control of soil moisture conditions. Ecosystem CO2 and fluxes increased significantly with greater precipitation and were positively correlated with soil moisture. A repeated 10 day dry down period following 11 days of variable precipitation inputs strongly depressed net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) across a range of season precipitation totals, and plant community types. Ecosystem respiration (Re), evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf level photosynthesis (Amax) showed greatest sensitivity to dry down periods in low precipitation plots. Nitrogen additions significantly increased NEE, Re and Amax, particularly as water availability was increased. These results demonstrate that N availability and intermittent periods of soil moisture deficit (across a wide range of cumulative season precipitation totals) strongly modulate ecosystem gas exchange.

  18. Whole Abdominopelvic Radiotherapy Using Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy in the Palliative Treatment of Chemotherapy-Resistant Ovarian Cancer With Bulky Peritoneal Disease: A Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    De Meerleer, Gert; Vandecasteele, Katrien; Ost, Piet; Delrue, Louke; Denys, Hannelore; Makar, Amin; Speleers, Bruno; Van Belle, Simon; Van den Broecke, Rudy; Fonteyne, Valerie; De Neve, Wilfried

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review our experience with whole abdominopelvic radiotherapy (WAPRT) using intensity-modulated arc therapy in the palliative treatment of chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer with bulky peritoneal disease. Methods and Materials: Between April 2002 and April 2008, 13 patients were treated with WAPRT using intensity-modulated arc therapy. We prescribed a dose of 33 Gy to be delivered in 22 fractions of 1.5 Gy to the abdomen and pelvis. All patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage III or IV ovarian cancer at the initial diagnosis. At referral, the median age was 61 years, and the patients had been heavily pretreated with surgery and chemotherapy. All patients had symptoms from their disease, including gastrointestinal obstruction or subobstruction in 6, minor gastrointestinal symptoms in 2, pain in 4, ascites in 1, and vaginal bleeding in 2. A complete symptom or biochemical response required complete resolution of the patient's symptoms or cancer antigen-125 level. A partial response required {>=}50% resolution of these parameters. The actuarial survival was calculated from the start of radiotherapy. Results: The median overall survival was 21 weeks, with a 6-month overall survival rate of 45%. The 9 patients who completed treatment obtained a complete symptom response, except for ascites (partial response). The median and mean response duration (all symptoms grouped) was 24 and 37 weeks, respectively. Of the 6 patients presenting with obstruction or subobstruction, 4 obtained a complete symptom response (median duration, 16 weeks). Conclusion: WAPRT delivered using intensity-modulated arc therapy offers important palliation in the case of peritoneal metastatic ovarian cancer. WAPRT resolved intestinal obstruction for a substantial period.

  19. Apodized 2f/1f wavelength modulation spectroscopy method for calibration-free trace detection of carbon monoxide in the near-infrared region: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh Salati, Seyedali; Khorsandi, Alireza

    2014-09-01

    We introduce the basics of an apodized 2f/1f wavelength modulation method for the spectroscopy of the R(9) transition line in the first overtone band of carbon monoxide (12C16O) in near-infrared (NIR) region around 2.33 μm. Performance of the method is investigated for high gas concentrations beyond the optically thin limit to generalize common 2f/1f wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) reported by Rieker et al. (Appl Opt 48:5546, [28]). Numerical simulations are performed based on real experimental parameters associated with a NIR spectrometer designed in our laboratory. The results primarily show a more linear response and less error than occurred in the common WMS-2f/1f method for an optically thick sample. It is also theoretically shown that the apodized method enables sharpening the spectrum without peak displacement compared to the common WMS-2f/1f method. The validity of the method is verified experimentally by the trace detection of an air-broadened R(9) CO absorption line centered at 4,294.637 cm-1 at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The effect of a so-called scaling k-factor on the sharpening of WMS-2f/1f signal is investigated through trace simulation and detection of CO and methane (CH4) lines in the scanning range of a distributed feedback laser. The obtained results show very good agreement between simulation and experiment.

  20. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  1. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  2. Long-term clinical outcomes of focal impulse and rotor modulation for treatment of atrial fibrillation: A multicenter experience

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Eric; Share, Michael; Tung, Roderick; Benharash, Peyman; Sharma, Parikshit; Koneru, Jayanthi; Mandapati, Ravi; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND New approaches to ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) include focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM). Studies of this technology with short-term follow-up have shown favorable outcomes. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to characterize the long-term results of FIRM ablation in a cohort of patients treated at 2 academic medical centers. METHODS All FIRM-guided ablation procedures (n = 43) at UCLA Medical Center and Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center performed between January 2012 and October 2013 were included for analysis. During AF, FIRM software constructed phase maps from unipolar atrial electrograms to identify putative AF sources. These sites were targeted for ablation, along with pulmonary vein isolation in 77% of patients. RESULTS AF was paroxysmal in 56%, and 67% had prior AF ablation. All patients had rotors identified (mean 2.6 ± 1.2 per patient, 77% in LA). Prespecified acute procedural end-point was achieved in 47% of patients (n = 20): AF termination in 4, organization in 7, >10% slowing of AF cycle length in 9. Acute complications occurred in 4 patients (9.3%). At 18 ± 7 months of follow-up, 37% were free from documented recurrent AF after a 3-month blanking period; 21% were free from documented atrial tachyarrhythmias and off antiarrhythmic drugs. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any significant predictors of AF recurrence, including pattern of AF, acute procedural success, or prior failed ablation. CONCLUSION Long-term clinical results after FIRM ablation in this cohort of patients showed poor efficacy, different from previously published studies. Randomized studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and clinical utility of this ablation approach for treating AF. PMID:26498260

  3. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, Hugo; Despres, Philippe; Fortin, Bernard; Filion, Edith; Donath, David; Soulieres, Denis; Guertin, Louis; Ayad, Tarek; Christopoulos, Apostolos; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness and rate of complications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Between February 2005 and November 2008, 25 patients with an unknown primary cancer underwent IMRT, with a median radiation dose of 70 Gy. The bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa were included in the target volume. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, except for 1 patient who had adenosquamous differentiation. They were all treated with curative intent. Of the 25 included patients, 20 were men and 5 were women, with a median age of 54 years. Of these patients, 3 had Stage III, 18 had Stage IVa, and 4 had Stage IVb. Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) received platinum-based chemotherapy in a combined-modality setting. Neck dissection was reserved for residual disease after definitive IMRT. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: With a median follow-up of 38 months, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates were all 100% at 3 years. No occurrence of primary cancer was observed during the follow-up period. The reported rates of xerostomia reduced with the interval from the completion of treatment. Nine patients (36%) reported Grade 2 or greater xerostomia at 6 months, and only 2 (8%) of them reported the same grade of salivary function toxicity after 24 months of follow-up. Conclusion: In our institution, IMRT for unknown primary cancer has provided good overall and disease-free survival in all the patients with an acceptable rate of complications. IMRT allowed us to address the bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa with minimal late salivary function toxicity. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for more advanced disease led to good clinical results with reasonable toxicities.

  4. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy of Pelvic Lymph Nodes in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Planning Procedures and Early Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Muren, Ludvig Paul Wasbo, Ellen; Helle, Svein Inge; Hysing, Liv Bolstad; Karlsdottir, Asa; Odland, Odd Harald; Valen, Harald; Ekerold, Randi; Johannessen, Dag Clement

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: We present planning and early clinical outcomes of a study of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for locally advanced prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 43 patients initially treated with an IMRT plan delivering 50 Gy to the prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes, followed by a conformal radiotherapy (CRT) plan delivering 20 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles, were studied. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data for the added plans were compared with dose-volume histogram data for the sum of two CRT plans for 15 cases. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity, based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system, was recorded weekly throughout treatment as well as 3 to 18 months after treatment and are presented. Results: Treatment with IMRT both reduced normal tissue doses and increased the minimum target doses. Intestine volumes receiving more than 40 and 50 Gy were significantly reduced (e.g., at 50 Gy, from 81 to 19 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.026), as were bladder volumes above 40, 50, and 60 Gy, rectum volumes above 30, 50, and 60 Gy, and hip joint muscle volumes above 20, 30, and 40 Gy. During treatment, Grade 2 GI toxicity was reported by 12 of 43 patients (28%), and Grade 2 to 4 GU toxicity was also observed among 12 patients (28%). With 6 to 18 months of follow-up, 2 patients (5%) experienced Grade 2 GI effects and 7 patients (16%) experienced Grade 2 GU effects. Conclusions: Use of IMRT for pelvic irradiation in prostate cancer reduces normal tissue doses, improves target coverage, and has a promising toxicity profile.

  5. Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Three-Dimensional or Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy? A Single Institution’s Experience

    PubMed Central

    Katsoulakis, Evangelia; Riaz, Nadeem; Hu, Man; Morris, Luc; Sherman, Eric; McBride, Sean; Lee, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Compare outcomes of hypopharyngeal carcinoma that received conventional radiotherapy versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Study Design Retrospective single-institution trial. Methods Between April 1990 and May 2011, 100 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent curative radiotherapy (RT) at our institution: 50 with IMRT and 50 with conventional RT. The median age was 63 years. There were 12 T1, 22 T2, 37 T3, and 28 T4 patients. The majority of patients (82%) had nodal disease: 54% N2 and 8% N3. The majority of patients (83%) received chemotherapy. Of the patients who received chemotherapy, 84% received a platinum-based regimen. The median RT dose was 7,000 cGy. The majority of patients (62%) had prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. Toxicities were reviewed. Local control (LC), locoregional control (LRC), freedom from distant metastasis (FFM) rates, functional larynx preservation (LP), laryngectomy-free survival (LFS), and overall-survival (OS) curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to test prognostic variables. Results With a median follow up of 48.4 months, the 3/5-year LC, LRC, FFM, LP, LFS and OS rates were 74%/69%, 77%/74%, 70%/66%, 51%/29%, 49.6%/31.8%, and 49%/34%, respectively. The median OS was 2.9 years. The 3-year LC rate for IMRT was 77% versus 81% for conventional RT (P = .91); 3-year LRC for IMRT was 85% versus 76% for conventional RT (P = .32). There was no increased local failure with IMRT. There was no difference in the rate of stricture with IMRT (32%) versus conventional RT (25.3%) (P = .86). Conclusions IMRT achieved comparable LC and LRC rates to conventional RT. PMID:26597398

  6. Experience with combination of nimotuzumab and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Rui-ping; Ying, Hong-mei; Kong, Fang-fang; Du, Cheng-run; Huang, Shuang; Zhou, Jun-jun; Hu, Chao-su

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using nimotuzumab in combination with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the primary treatment of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods Between December 2009 and December 2013, 38 newly diagnosed patients with stage III–IV nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with IMRT and nimotuzumab concomitantly. The distribution of disease was stage III in 20 (52.6%), stage IV A in 9 (23.7%), and stage IV B in 9 (23.7%). All the patients received at least two cycles of cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by nimotuzumab 200 mg/week concurrently with IMRT. Acute and late radiation-related toxicities were graded according to the Acute and Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Results With a median follow-up of 39.7 months (range, 13.3–66.5 months), the estimated 3-year local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, progression failure-free survival, and overall survival rates were 92.8%, 92.9%, 89.5%, 78.7%, and 87.5%, respectively. The median cycle for nimotuzumab addition was 6 weeks. Grade 3 radiation-induced mucositis accounted for 36.8% of treated people. No skin rash and infusion reaction were observed, distinctly from what is reported in cetuximab-treated patients. Conclusion Nimotuzumab plus IMRT showed promising outcomes in terms of locoregional control and survival, without increasing the incidence of radiation-related toxicities for patients. PMID:26604795

  7. Using ESSEA Modules, Local Event Studies and Personal Learning Experiences in an Earth Systems Science Course for Preservice Middle School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slattery, W.; Brown, D.

    2008-12-01

    Most science courses, including courses that provide preparation for pre-service K-12 teachers are only taught from a deductive big picture perspective. This method is fine for most abstract learners, but pre- service classroom educators that are being prepared to teach in middle school classrooms will be faced with the challenge of building science content knowledge in students that are concrete learners. For these K-12 students a better pedagogical practice is to use local real-world familiar places, issues and personal experience to connect student learning with more abstract concepts. To make it more likely that teachers have the requisite skills and pedagogical content knowledge to build K- 12 student science concept knowledge and science process skills we have integrated ESSEA modules that connect worldwide issues such as global climate change with local event studies chosen by learners. Some recent examples include how such local events such as landfill fires and suburban sprawl impact the local area's air, land, water and life. Course participants are able to choose a more personal route to understanding how their habits impact the global environment by participating in a three week learning experience called the Lifestyle Project. This experience asks students to incrementally reduce their use of heating or air-conditioning, the amount of waste going to landfills, to conserve electricity, drive less and eat less energy intensively. Pre-post content assessments indicate that students in this course scored significantly higher on post course content assessments and reported that by engaging in personal experience to global scale learning experiences they have a new appreciation for how personal choices impact the global environment and how to use local artifacts and issues to enhance K-12 student learning.

  8. Materials Response under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S; McNaney, J M

    2005-10-06

    Solid state experiments at extreme pressures, 10-100 GPa (0.1-1 Mbar) and strain rates (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} s{sup -1}) are being developed on high-energy laser facilities. The goal is an experimental capability to test constitutive models for high-pressure, solid-state strength for a variety of materials. Relevant constitutive models are discussed, and our progress in developing a quasi-isentropic, ramped-pressure, shockless drive is given. Designs to test the constitutive models with experiments measuring perturbation growth due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid-state samples are presented.

  9. Development of Science Data-Handling Unit (SHU) for Global Lightning and Sprite Measurements (GLIMS) Onboard Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masayuki; Sato, Mitsuteru; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Makoto; Ushio, Tomoo

    A project to observe lightning and sprites from the International Space Station (ISS), with altitude of 407 km and inclination of 51.6°, is planned for 2012. GLIMS (global lightning and sprite measurements) is an instrument designed for this project, and it includes a CMOS camera, photomultipliers, a VLF receiver, and a VHF interferometer. This is the first project for simultaneous measurements of lightning, sprites, and radiowaves from lightning simultaneously. The sensors used for GLIMS were developed based on previous satellite projects. However, for this project, the sensors used needed to be synchronized, and controlled through the Japanese experiment module (JEM) interface. A science data-handling unit (SHU) was newly developed for this purpose; it included a function for suppressing data traffic using a high-speed lossless compression code (HIREW).

  10. Pigment composition and concentrations within the plant (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) component of the STS-89 C.E.B.A.S. Mini-Module spaceflight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voeste, D.; Levine, L. H.; Levine, H. G.; Blum, V.; Wheeler, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) Mini-Module, a Space Shuttle middeck locker payload which supports a variety of aquatic inhabitants (fish, snails, plants and bacteria) in an enclosed 8.6 L chamber, was tested for its biological stability in microgravity. The aquatic plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., was critical for the vitality and functioning of this artificial mini-ecosystem. Its photosynthetic pigment concentrations were of interest due to their light harvesting and protective functions. "Post-flight" chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations within Ceratophyllum apical segments were directly related to the quantities of light received in the experiments, with microgravity exposure (STS-89) failing to account for any significant deviation from ground control studies. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  11. Visualisation of enantiomers via insertion of a BIRD module in X-H correlation experiments in chiral liquid crystal solvent.

    PubMed

    Ziani, L; Courtieu, J; Merlet, D

    2006-11-01

    Several 13C-1H NMR techniques are derived simplifying the visualisation of enantiomers in chiral ordering solvents. They proceed through various heteronuclear 2D experiments where a bilinear rotation decoupling sequence (BIRD) is inserted in the middle of the t1 evolution period. In this way, the small couplings are refocused while the large couplings are preserved. The methods allow extracting precise values of one-bond carbon-proton residual dipolar couplings for each enantiomer out of unresolved proton-coupled 13C or carbon-coupled 1H spectra. Illustrative examples are analysed and discussed using various pulse sequences. PMID:16905346

  12. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharynx cancer: Update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience

    SciTech Connect

    Wolden, Suzanne L. . E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org; Chen, William C.; Pfister, David G.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Berry, Sean L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) significantly improves radiation dose distribution over three-dimensional planning for nasopharynx cancer and reported positive early clinical results. We now evaluate whether IMRT has resulted in improved outcomes for a larger cohort of patients with longer follow-up. Methods and Materials: Since 1998, all 74 patients with newly diagnosed, nonmetastatic nasopharynx cancer were treated with IMRT using accelerated fractionation to 70 Gy; 59 received a hyperfractionated concomitant boost, and more recently 15 received once-daily treatment with dose painting. With the exception of Stage I disease (n = 5) and patient preference (n = 1), 69 patients received concurrent and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy similar to that in the Intergroup 0099 trial. Results: Patient characteristics: median age 45; 32% Asian; 72% male; 65% World Health Organization III; 6% Stage I, 16% Stage II, 30% Stage III, 47% Stage IV. Median follow-up is 35 months. The 3-year actuarial rate of local control is 91%, and regional control is 93%; freedom from distant metastases, progression-free survival, and overall survival at 3 years are 78%, 67%, and 83%, respectively. There was 100% local control for Stage T1/T2 disease, compared to 83% for T3/T4 disease (p = 0.01). Six patients failed at the primary site, with median time to local tumor progression 16 months; 5 were exclusively within the 70 Gy volume, and 1 was both within and outside the target volume. There is a trend for improved local control with IMRT when compared to local control of 79% for 35 patients treated before 1998 with three-dimensional planning and chemotherapy (p 0.11). Six months posttherapy, 21%, 13%, 15%, and 0% of patients with follow-up audiograms (n = 24 patients) had Grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 sensorineural hearing loss, respectively. For patients with >1 year follow-up (n = 59), rates of long-term xerostomia were as follows: 26% none

  13. Extremity x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder ... term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through ...

  14. The BOSS and BIOMEX space experiments on the EXPOSE-R2 mission: Endurance of the desert cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis under simulated space vacuum, Martian atmosphere, UVC radiation and temperature extremes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqué, Mickael; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Rettberg, Petra; Billi, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    The proposed space experiments BOSS (Biofilm Organisms Surfing Space) and BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars experiment) will take place on the space exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 on the International Space Station (ISS), which is set to be launched in 2014. In BOSS the hypothesis to be tested is that microorganisms grown as biofilms, hence embedded in self-produced extracellular polymeric substances, are more tolerant to space and Martian conditions compared to their planktonic counterparts. Various microbial biofilms have been developed including those obtained from the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis isolated from hot and cold deserts. The prime objective of BIOMEX is to evaluate to what extent biomolecules are resistant to, and can maintain their stability under, space and Mars-like conditions; therefore a variety of pigments and cell components are under investigation to establish a biosignature data base; e.g. a Raman spectral library to be used for extraterrestrial life biosignatures. The secondary objective of BIOMEX is to investigate the endurance of extremophiles, focusing on their interactions with Lunar and Martian mineral analogues. Ground-based studies are currently being carried out in the framework of EVTs (Experiment Verification Tests) by exposing selected organisms to space and Martian simulations. Results on a desert strain of Chroococcidiopsis obtained from the first set of EVT, e.g. space vacuum, Mars atmosphere, UVC radiation, temperature cycles and extremes, suggested that dried biofilms exhibited an enhanced survival compared to planktonic lifestyle. Moreover the protection provided by a Martian mineral analogue (S-MRS) to the sub-cellular integrities of Chroococcidiopsis against UVC radiation supports the endurance of this cyanobacterium under extraterrestrial conditions and its relevance in the development of life detection strategies.

  15. TFTR lithium blanket module program. Final design report. Volume VII. LBM instrumentation and Program of Experiments and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Y.D.; Tsang, F.Y.; Jassby, D.L.

    1983-07-01

    The Program of Experiments and Analysis comprises 3 spheres of activity: (1) measurements of neutron fluence and flux spectra inside and around the LBM, and of tritium production in the LBM central zone; (2) neutronic-code modeling and analysis of the TFTR/LBM system to predict the quantities measured in (1); (3) comparisons of the predicted and measured quantities, and improvements of the code modeling and analysis and the experimental techniques, in order to resolve any discrepancy between prediction and measurement. The measurement techniques are discussed. Section 5 of this volume discusses the strategy for carrying out the measurement program, for making comparisons with the neutronics code predictions, and for resolving discrepancies.

  16. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  17. Extremely short pulses via resonantly induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeonychev, Y. V.; Polovinkin, V. A.; Kocharovskaya, O.

    2011-07-01

    We study a novel method to produce extremely short pulses of radiation in a resonant medium via induced transparency by means of adiabatic periodic modulation of atomic transition frequencies by far-off-resonant laser field, which causes linear Stark splitting of atomic energy levels resulting in partial transparency of an optically deep medium and drastic spectral modification of an incident resonant radiation. We find the regimes where the output spectrum corresponds to extremely short pulses and discuss several possible experimental realizations of generation of attosecond pulses in Li2+ ions and femtosecond pulses in atomic hydrogen with commercially available facilities.

  18. Auditory pre-experience modulates classification of affect intensity: evidence for the evaluation of call salience by a non-human mammal, the bat Megaderma lyra

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Immediate responses towards emotional utterances in humans are determined by the acoustic structure and perceived relevance, i.e. salience, of the stimuli, and are controlled via a central feedback taking into account acoustic pre-experience. The present study explores whether the evaluation of stimulus salience in the acoustic communication of emotions is specifically human or has precursors in mammals. We created different pre-experiences by habituating bats (Megaderma lyra) to stimuli based on aggression, and response, calls from high or low intensity level agonistic interactions, respectively. Then we presented a test stimulus of opposite affect intensity of the same call type. We compared the modulation of response behaviour by affect intensity between the reciprocal experiments. Results For aggression call stimuli, the bats responded to the dishabituation stimuli independent of affect intensity, emphasising the attention-grabbing function of this call type. For response call stimuli, the bats responded to a high affect intensity test stimulus after experiencing stimuli of low affect intensity, but transferred habituation to a low affect intensity test stimulus after experiencing stimuli of high affect intensity. This transfer of habituation was not due to over-habituation as the bats responded to a frequency-shifted control stimulus. A direct comparison confirmed the asymmetric response behaviour in the reciprocal experiments. Conclusions Thus, the present study provides not only evidence for a discrimination of affect intensity, but also for an evaluation of stimulus salience, suggesting that basic assessment mechanisms involved in the perception of emotion are an ancestral trait in mammals. PMID:24341839

  19. Sweet preference modified by early experience in mice and the related molecular modulations on the peripheral pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Li; Chen, Meng-Ling; Liu, Si-Si; Li, Guo-Liang; Gu, Tian-Yuan; Liang, Pei; Qin, Yu-Mei; Zhan, Yue-Hua; Quan, Ying; Zhang, Gen-Hua

    2013-09-01

    The sweet taste is of immense interest to scientists and has been intensively studied during the last two decades. However, the sweet preference modification and the related mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we try to establish a mice model with manipulated sweet taste preference and explore the involved possible molecular mechanisms. The animals were exposed to acesulfame-K via maternal milk during lactation and the sweet preference tests were carried out when they grew to adulthood. Our results showed that the preference thresholds for sweet taste were increased in adults by early acesulfame-K exposure and the preference ratios for sweet tastants at low or preferred concentrations were decreased. Moreover, by means of qRT-PCR and Western blot, we observed the increased expression of leptin receptor Ob-Rb and downregulation of Gα-gustducin protein in the soft palate. Thereby, the sweet taste sensitivity may be modified by early sweetener experience during lactation. Along the peripheral sweet sensory pathway, the sweet regulator receptors Ob-Rb, CB1 and components of sweet transduction signal Gα-gustducin and T1R2 in both the soft palate and tongue may be cooperatively involved in the plastic development of sweet taste. PMID:23606220

  20. A Compact Dual-Crystal Modulated Birefringence-Measurement System for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Das, Kamal K.; Anna, Shelley L.; McKinley, Gareth H.

    1999-01-01

    A compact modulated birefringence-measurement system has been developed for use in microgravity fluid physics applications with non-Newtonian fluids such as polymer solutions. This instrument uses a dual-crystal transverse electro-optical modulator capable of modulation frequencies in excess of 100 MHz. The two crystals are modulated 180 deg. out of phase from each other, The theoretical framework governing the development of this instrument using the Mueller-Stokes polarization matrices is discussed. Several ground-based experiments are performed to compare this system with the theoretical results. Results from this transverse electro-optical modulator-based birefringence-measurement system agree well with the theory. The instrument is also very stable and robust, making it suitable for the extreme acceleration environment to be encountered in a NASA Black Brandt sounding rocket.

  1. Laboratory Investigations of the Extreme Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pisin

    2003-08-06

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in our understanding of the extreme universe, which in turn points to even deeper questions to be further addressed. History has shown that the symbiosis between direct observations and laboratory investigation is instrumental in the progress of astrophysics. Current frontier astrophysical phenomena related to particle astrophysics and cosmology typically involve one or more of the following conditions: (1) extremely high energy events; (2) very high density, high temperature processes; (3) super strong field environments. Laboratory experiments using high intensity lasers and particle beams can calibrate astrophysical observation or detection processes, investigate the underlying dynamics of astrophysical phenomena, and probe into fundamental physics in extreme limits. We give examples of possible laboratory experiments that investigate into the extreme universe.

  2. Long-Term Clinical Outcome of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The MD Anderson Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Zhiqin; Yang Kunyu; Komaki, Ritsuko; Wei Xiong; Tucker, Susan L.; Zhuang Yan; Martel, Mary K.; Vedam, Sastray; Balter, Peter; Zhu Guangying; Gomez, Daniel; Lu, Charles; Mohan, Radhe; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In 2007, we published our initial experience in treating inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The current report is an update of that experience with long-term follow-up. Methods and Materials: Patients in this retrospective review were 165 patients who began definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, for newly diagnosed, pathologically confirmed NSCLC to a dose of {>=}60 Gy from 2005 to 2006. Early and late toxicities assessed included treatment-related pneumonitis (TRP), pulmonary fibrosis, esophagitis, and esophageal stricture, scored mainly according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Other variables monitored were radiation-associated dermatitis and changes in body weight and Karnofsky performance status. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compute survival and freedom from radiation-related acute and late toxicities as a function of time. Results: Most patients (89%) had Stage III to IV disease. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy given in 33 fractions (range, 60-76 Gy, 1.8-2.3 Gy per fraction). Median overall survival time was 1.8 years; the 2-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 46% and 30%. Rates of Grade {>=}3 maximum TRP (TRP{sub max}) were 11% at 6 months and 14% at 12 months. At 18 months, 86% of patients had developed Grade {>=}1 maximum pulmonary fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}) and 7% Grade {>=}2 pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}. The median times to maximum esophagitis (esophagitis{sub max}) were 3 weeks (range, 1-13 weeks) for Grade 2 and 6 weeks (range, 3-13 weeks) for Grade 3. A higher percentage of patients who experienced Grade 3 esophagitis{sub max} later developed Grade 2 to 3 esophageal stricture. Conclusions: In our experience, using IMRT to treat NSCLC leads to low rates of pulmonary and esophageal toxicity, and favorable clinical outcomes in terms of survival.

  3. Prospect for extreme field science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.

    2009-11-01

    The kind of laser extreme light infrastructure (ELI) provides will usher in a class of experiments we have only dreamed of for years. The characteristics that ELI brings in include: the highest intensity ever, large fluence, and relatively high repetition rate. A personal view of the author on the prospect of harnessing this unprecedented opportunity for advancing science of extreme fields is presented. The first characteristic of ELI, its intensity, will allow us to access, as many have stressed already, extreme fields that hover around the Schwinger field or at the very least the neighboring fields in which vacuum begins to behave as a nonlinear medium. In this sense, we are seriously probing the “material” property of vacuum and thus the property that theory of relativity itself described and will entail. We will probe both special theory and general theory of relativity in regimes that have been never tested so far. We may see a glimpse into the reach of relativity or even its breakdown in some extreme regimes. We will learn Einstein and may even go beyond Einstein, if our journey is led. Laser-driven acceleration both by the laser field itself and by the wakefield that is triggered in a plasma is huge. Energies, if not luminosity, we can access, may be unprecedented going far beyond TeV. The nice thing about ELI is that it has relatively high repetition rate and average fluence as compared with other extreme lasers. This high fluence can be a key element that leads to applications to high energy physics, such as gamma-gamma collider driver experiment, and some gamma ray experiments that may be relevant in the frontier of photo-nuclear physics, and atomic energy applications. Needless to say, high fluence is one of most important features that industrial and medical applications may need. If we are lucky, we may see a door opens at the frontier of novel physics that may not be available by any other means. Finally, as the last lecture of this workshop the

  4. Modulation of auroral electrojet currents using dual HF beams with ELF phase offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The modulation of naturally occuring ionospheric currents with high power radio waves in the high frequency (HF, 3-10 MHz) band is a well known technique for generation of extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves. We use the heating facility of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) to investigate the effect of using dual HF beams with an ELF/VLF phase offset between the modulation waveforms. Experiments with offset HF beams confirm the model of independent ELF/VLF sources. Experiments with co-located HF beams exhibit interaction between the first and second harmonics of the modulated tones when square and sine wave modulation waveforms are employed. Using ELF/VLF phase offsets for co-loacted beams is also shown to be a potential diagnostic for the D-region ionospheric profile.

  5. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  6. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  7. Carbon tetrachloride under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Pravica, Michael; Sneed, Daniel; Wang, Yonggang; Smith, Quinlan; Subrahmanyam, Garimella

    2014-05-21

    We report on three experiments on carbon tetrachloride subjected to extreme conditions. In the first experiment, Raman spectra of CCl4 were acquired up to 28 GPa. Evidence was observed for at least two new phases of CCl4 above 14 GPa (phase VI) and above 22 GPa (phase VII). Decompression of the sample showed no evidence of pressure-induced decomposition. In the second experiment, a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study was performed up to 30 GPa verifying phase V and potential phases above 14 (VI) and 22 GPa (VII), respectively. In the third study, we examined irradiated CCl4 using synchrotron infrared spectroscopy to reduce fluorescent contamination. Some sort of carbon allotrope appears as a byproduct suggesting the following reaction with hard x-rays: CCl4+ hν → C + 2Cl2. PMID:24852546

  8. Carbon tetrachloride under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pravica, Michael Sneed, Daniel; Wang, Yonggang; Smith, Quinlan; Subrahmanyam, Garimella

    2014-05-21

    We report on three experiments on carbon tetrachloride subjected to extreme conditions. In the first experiment, Raman spectra of CCl{sub 4} were acquired up to 28 GPa. Evidence was observed for at least two new phases of CCl{sub 4} above 14 GPa (phase VI) and above 22 GPa (phase VII). Decompression of the sample showed no evidence of pressure-induced decomposition. In the second experiment, a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study was performed up to 30 GPa verifying phase V and potential phases above 14 (VI) and 22 GPa (VII), respectively. In the third study, we examined irradiated CCl{sub 4} using synchrotron infrared spectroscopy to reduce fluorescent contamination. Some sort of carbon allotrope appears as a byproduct suggesting the following reaction with hard x-rays: CCl{sub 4}+ hν → C + 2Cl{sub 2}.

  9. Survival of extreme opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Huang, Ding-wei

    2009-12-01

    We study the survival of extreme opinions in various processes of consensus formation. All the opinions are treated equally and subjected to the same rules of changing. We investigate three typical models to reach a consensus in each case: (A) personal influence, (B) influence from surroundings, and (C) influence to surroundings. Starting with uniformly distributed random opinions, our calculated results show that the extreme opinions can survive in both models (A) and (B), but not in model (C). We obtain a conclusion that both personal influence and passive adaptation to the environment are not sufficient enough to eradicate all the extreme opinions. Only the active persuasion to change the surroundings eliminates the extreme opinions completely.

  10. Improving extreme value statistics.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Ashivni

    2014-11-01

    The rate of convergence in extreme value statistics is nonuniversal and can be arbitrarily slow. Further, the relative error can be unbounded in the tail of the approximation, leading to difficulty in extrapolating the extreme value fit beyond the available data. We introduce the T method, and show that by using simple nonlinear transformations the extreme value approximation can be rendered rapidly convergent in the bulk, and asymptotic in the tail, thus fixing both issues. The transformations are often parametrized by just one parameter, which can be estimated numerically. The classical extreme value method is shown to be a special case of the proposed method. We demonstrate that vastly improved results can be obtained with almost no extra cost. PMID:25493780

  11. Extreme environments and exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  12. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007644.htm Hardware removal - extremity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help ...

  13. Growth and electrical characterization of Al0.24Ga0.76As/AlxGa1-xAs/Al0.24Ga0.76As modulation-doped quantum wells with extremely low x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Watson, John D.; Mondal, Sumit; Deng, Nianpei; Csáthy, Gabor A.; Manfra, Michael J.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the growth and electrical characterization of modulation-doped Al0.24Ga0.76As/AlxGa1-xAs/Al0.24Ga0.76As quantum wells with mole fractions as low as x = 0.00057. Such structures will permit detailed studies of the impact of alloy disorder in the fractional quantum Hall regime. At zero magnetic field, we extract an alloy scattering rate of 24 ns-1 per%Al. Additionally, we find that for x as low as 0.00057 in the quantum well, alloy scattering becomes the dominant mobility-limiting scattering mechanism in ultra-high purity two-dimensional electron gases typically used to study the fragile ν = 5/2 and ν = 12/5 fractional quantum Hall states.

  14. Extremely low losses 14xx single mode laser diode leading to 550-mW output power module with 0-75°C case temperature and 10-W consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burie, J.-R.; Garabedian, P.; Starck, C.; Pagnod-Rossiaux, P.; Bettiati, M.; Do Nascimento, M.; Reygrobellet, J.-N.; Bertreux, J.-C.; Laruelle, F.

    2012-03-01

    High power 14xx laser pumps are more and more required for eye safe industrial, medical, safety and defense applications as well as for increased telecom network capability (e.g. for 100 Gb Ethernet). However, this need of high power requires to control the overall power consumption in a range in line with systems requirements. In this respect, 3S PHOTONICS has developed a 14xx nm single mode laser diode with record internal losses of 1.5 cm-1 compared to the 2.7 cm-1 reported up to now. These lasers are based on p/nBH technology and use the asymmetric waveguide concept to reduce internal losses. The record loss value, coupled to an internal efficiency higher than 0.8, allows realization lasers of 3 mm length with external efficiency higher than 0.5 W.A-1 at 25°C in AR/HR coating configuration. Modules using direct coupling technology were realized. High coupling efficiency is obtained thanks to the 8° x 14° far field pattern of the diode. Output power of 550 mW at 1.8 A is thus obtained, with or without FBG stabilization, with maximum output power above 700mW. Thanks to the lasers' length, voltage at this current level is below 1.9 V, which gives a reduced thermal load. Thus, the overall modules electrical consumption remains lower than 10 W at case temperatures ranging from 0°C to 75°C. The 3 mm length also guaranties high reliability of these laser diodes.

  15. Viper fangs: functional limitations of extreme teeth.

    PubMed

    Cundall, David

    2009-01-01

    The fangs of vipers are extremely long, rotating, hollow teeth. Analysis of video records of more than 750 strikes recorded at 60 or 250 frames per second for 285 individuals representing 86 species in 31 genera shows that vipers reposition fangs after initial contact with prey in more than a third of the strikes. Repositioning resulted when fangs missed prey entirely or hit prey regions that did not permit adequate penetration. The prevalence of repositioning, even among species that normally release prey, suggests strong selective pressure for rapid neuromotor response to fang placement error. The rapidity of repositioning suggests the existence of (a) fine-scale sensory detection of fang penetration depth, (b) rapid modulation of contraction of antagonistic muscles, and (c) possibly neurological modifications to shorten transmission time between sensory input and motor output. Extreme fang length has apparently coevolved with extreme functions. PMID:19025501

  16. Constructive polarization modulation for coherent population trapping clock

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Peter Danet, Jean-Marie; Holleville, David; Clercq, Emeric de; Guérandel, Stéphane

    2014-12-08

    We propose a constructive polarization modulation scheme for atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). In this scheme, the polarization of a bichromatic laser beam is modulated between two opposite circular polarizations to avoid trapping the atomic populations in the extreme Zeeman sublevels. We show that if an appropriate phase modulation between the two optical components of the bichromatic laser is applied synchronously, the two CPT dark states which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations add constructively. Measured CPT resonance contrasts up to 20% in one-pulse CPT and 12% in two-pulse Ramsey-CPT experiments are reported, demonstrating the potential of this scheme for applications to high performance atomic clocks.

  17. The C.E.B.A. Mini Module on the STS-107 Mission: Data of Ground Experiments and Preliminary Results of the third Spaceflight of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.; Bungart, S.

    evaluated. It turned out that in the male sex the gonopodial development is an excellent parameter in combination with defined morphological changes in the testis as the onset of meiosis. In females the formation of oocytes and the start of vitellogenesis allow a safe definition of puberty. In both sexes the sexual maturation is accompanied my marked morphological changes of the GnRH system and the GtH cells in the pituitary gland. The male sexual behavior was recorded in a comprehensive quantitative ethogram so that possible alterations can be easily detected. In the field of embryology all possible "marker organs" were selected which enable a direct correlation of developmental stage and duration of gestation. The most important of those are eye and skin pigmentation, eye development, circulatory system, pericardial sac and otoliths. The axial skeleton development has been found to be extremely suitable to study the biomineralization process in chronology which will be used to detect possible alterations during the time of space flight. The lecture will present the latest results of ground experiments in embryology and skeleton research as well as the first results of the STS-107 spaceflifht including system performance data. Moreover, the possible further development of the C.E.B.A.S. and the utizitation of its basic biotechnology for the construction of aquatic modules für bioregenerative life support systems will be discussed.

  18. Upper extremity injuries in golf.

    PubMed

    Bayes, Matthew C; Wadsworth, L Tyler

    2009-04-01

    Golf is an asymmetric sport with unique patterns of injury depending upon the skill level. Higher handicap players typically experience injuries that result from swing mechanics, whereas lower handicap and professional players have overuse as the major cause of their injuries. The majority of shoulder injuries affecting golfers occur in the nondominant shoulder. Common shoulder injuries include subacromial impingement, rotator cuff pathology, glenohumeral instability, and arthritis involving the acromioclavicular and/or glenohumeral joints. Lead arm elbow pain resulting from lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow) is the leading upper extremity injury in amateur golfers. Tendon injury is the most common problem seen in the wrist and forearm of the golfer. Rehabilitation emphasizing improvement in core muscle streng is important in the treatment of golf injury. Emerging treatments for tendinopathy include topical nitrates, ultrasound-guided injection of therapeutic substances, and eccentric rehabilitation. There is evidence supporting physiotherapy, and swing modification directed by a teaching professional, for treatment of upper extremity golf injuries. This article focuses on upper extremity injuries in golf, including a discussion of the epidemiology, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of injuries occurring in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand. PMID:20048492

  19. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert D.; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism. PMID:21461047

  20. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  1. Electronics for Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  2. Effect of Increasing Experience on Dosimetric and Clinical Outcomes in the Management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Pretesh R.; Yoo, Sua; Broadwater, Gloria; Marks, Lawrence B.; Miles, Edward F.; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Harpole, David; Kelsey, Chris R.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of increasing experience with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods and Materials: The records of all patients who received IMRT following EPP at Duke University Medical Center between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Target volumes included the preoperative extent of the pleural space, chest wall incisions, involved nodal stations, and a boost to close/positive surgical margins if applicable. Patients were typically treated with 9-11 beams with gantry angles, collimator rotations, and beam apertures manually fixed to avoid the contalateral lung and to optimize target coverage. Toxicity was graded retrospectively using National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria version 4.0. Target coverage and contralateral lung irradiation were evaluated over time by using linear regression. Local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Thirty patients received IMRT following EPP; 21 patients also received systemic chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 15 months. The median dose prescribed to the entire ipsilateral hemithorax was 45 Gy (range, 40-50.4 Gy) with a boost of 8-25 Gy in 9 patients. Median survival was 23.2 months. Two-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 47%, 34%, and 50%, respectively. Increasing experience planning MPM cases was associated with improved coverage of planning target volumes (P=.04). Similarly, mean lung dose (P<.01) and lung V5 (volume receiving 5 Gy or more; P<.01) values decreased with increasing experience. Lung toxicity developed after IMRT in 4 (13%) patients at a median of 2.2 months after RT (three grade 3-4 and one grade 5). Lung toxicity developed in 4 of the initial 15 patients vs none of the last 15 patients treated. Conclusions: With increasing experience, target volume coverage improved and dose to the

  3. Comment on 'Time modulation of K-shell electron capture decay rates of H-like heavy ions at GSI experiments.'

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H. J.; Physics; Weizmann Inst. of Science; Tel Aviv Univ.

    2010-04-16

    A Comment on the Letter by A.N. Ivanov and P. Kienle, Physical Review Letters volume 103, Issue 6, 062502 (2009). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply to experimental data at GSI, the rates of the number of daughter ions, produced by the nuclear K shell electron capture decays of the H-like heavy ions with one electron in the K shell, such as {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+}, {sup 142}Pm{sup 60+}, and {sup 122}I{sup 52+}, are modulated in time with periods T{sub EC} of the order of a few seconds, obeying an A scaling T{sub EX}=A/20 s, where A is the mass number of the mother nuclei, and with amplitudes a{sub d {sup EC}}{approx}0.21. We show that these data can be explained in terms of the interference of two massive neutrino mass eigenstates. The appearance of the interference term is due to overlap of massive neutrino mass eigenstate energies and of the wave functions of the daughter ions in two-body decay channels, caused by the energy and momentum uncertainties introduced by time differential detection of the daughter ions in GSI experiments.

  4. Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Inoperable Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sura, Sonal; Gupta, Vishal; Yorke, Ellen; Jackson, Andrew; Amols, Howard; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced treatment delivery technique that can improve the therapeutic dose ratio. Its use in the treatment of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been well studied. This report reviews our experience with IMRT for patients with inoperable NSCLC. Methods and Materials We performed a retrospective review of fifty-five patients with stage I–IIIB inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT at our institution between 2001–2005. The study endpoints were toxicity, local control, and overall survival. Results With a median follow-up of 26 months, the 2-year local control and overall survival rates for stage I/II patients were 50% and 55% respectively. For the stage III patients, 2-year local control and overall survival rates were 58% and 58% respectively with median survival time of 25 months. Six patients (11%) experienced grade 3 acute pulmonary toxicity. There were no acute treatment-related deaths. Two patients (4%) had grade 3 or worse late treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Conclusions IMRT treatment resulted in promising outcomes for inoperable NSCLC patients. PMID:18343515

  5. Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M T Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-12-17

    Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4-6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer. PMID:26641312

  6. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. PMID:26900120

  7. Extremal entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Leif Ove; Hauge, Andreas; Myrheim, Jan; Sollid, Per Øyvind

    2015-02-01

    We present a study of extremal entanglement witnesses on a bipartite composite quantum system. We define the cone of witnesses as the dual of the set of separable density matrices, thus TrΩρ≥0 when Ω is a witness and ρ is a pure product state, ρ=ψψ† with ψ=ϕ⊗χ. The set of witnesses of unit trace is a compact convex set, uniquely defined by its extremal points. The expectation value f(ϕ,χ)=TrΩρ as a function of vectors ϕ and χ is a positive semidefinite biquadratic form. Every zero of f(ϕ,χ) imposes strong real-linear constraints on f and Ω. The real and symmetric Hessian matrix at the zero must be positive semidefinite. Its eigenvectors with zero eigenvalue, if such exist, we call Hessian zeros. A zero of f(ϕ,χ) is quadratic if it has no Hessian zeros, otherwise it is quartic. We call a witness quadratic if it has only quadratic zeros, and quartic if it has at least one quartic zero. A main result we prove is that a witness is extremal if and only if no other witness has the same, or a larger, set of zeros and Hessian zeros. A quadratic extremal witness has a minimum number of isolated zeros depending on dimensions. If a witness is not extremal, then the constraints defined by its zeros and Hessian zeros determine all directions in which we may search for witnesses having more zeros or Hessian zeros. A finite number of iterated searches in random directions, by numerical methods, leads to an extremal witness which is nearly always quadratic and has the minimum number of zeros. We discuss briefly some topics related to extremal witnesses, in particular the relation between the facial structures of the dual sets of witnesses and separable states. We discuss the relation between extremality and optimality of witnesses, and a conjecture of separability of the so-called structural physical approximation (SPA) of an optimal witness. Finally, we discuss how to treat the entanglement witnesses on a complex Hilbert space as a subset of the

  8. Extreme black hole holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Thomas Edward

    The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c˜1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin-½ field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the

  9. Forecaster's dilemma: Extreme events and forecast evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Sebastian; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Ravazzolo, Francesco; Gneiting, Tilmann

    2015-04-01

    In discussions of the quality of forecasts in the media and public, attention often focuses on the predictive performance in the case of extreme events. Intuitively, accurate predictions on the subset of extreme events seem to suggest better predictive ability. However, it can be demonstrated that restricting conventional forecast verification methods to subsets of observations might have unexpected and undesired effects and may discredit even the most skillful forecasters. Hand-picking extreme events is incompatible with the theoretical assumptions of established forecast verification methods, thus confronting forecasters with what we refer to as the forecaster's dilemma. For probabilistic forecasts, weighted proper scoring rules provide suitable alternatives for forecast evaluation with an emphasis on extreme events. Using theoretical arguments, simulation experiments and a case study on probabilistic forecasts of wind speed over Germany, we illustrate the forecaster's dilemma and the use of weighted proper scoring rules.

  10. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Allen, J. S.; Mortillaro, C.; Ducceschi, C.; Rawlings, P.; Stocco, K.; Tobola, K.; Olendzenski, L.; Angermiller, L.

    2001-03-01

    A JSC-SCH team has produced an astrobiology exhibit and education module to augment the 'Microbes!' traveling exhibit. The astrobiology section focuses on life in extreme environments and considers the possibility of extraterrestrrial life.

  11. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six-inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. The experimental results for those component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  12. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. Thermal, mechanical, and structural considerations leading to the design of the tray hardware are discussed. In general, changes in the retested component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials, multilayer optical interference filters, and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  13. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  14. Going to Extremes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project which gave students a chance to explore the idea of using "extreme" materials in a sculpture. While the process was, at times, challenging and stressful for teacher and student alike, the results proved that, with proper planning, even young students can independently demonstrate multiple solutions…

  15. Climate Extremes and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  16. Optimization using Extremal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan

    2001-03-01

    We explore a new heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to NP-hard optimization problems which we have recently introduced [see ``Nature's Way of Optimizing," Artificial Intelligence 119, 275-286 (2000) and cond-mat/0010337]. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively replaces extremely undesirable elements of a single sub-optimal solution with new, random ones. Large fluctuations ensue that efficiently explore many local optima. With only one adjustable parameter, its performance has proved competitive with more elaborate methods, especially near phase transitions which are believed to contain the hardest instances. In particular, extremal optimization is superior to simulated annealing in the partitioning of sparse graphs, it finds the overlap of all ground-states at the phase transition of the 3-coloring problem, and it provides independent confirmation for the ground-state energy of spin glasses, previously obtained with elaborate genetic algorithms.

  17. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of children and Adolescents - a single institution's experience and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sterzing, Florian; Stoiber, Eva M; Nill, Simeon; Bauer, Harald; Huber, Peter; Debus, Jürgen; Münter, Marc W

    2009-01-01

    Background While IMRT is widely used in treating complex oncological cases in adults, it is not commonly used in pediatric radiation oncology for a variety of reasons. This report evaluates our 9 year experience using stereotactic-guided, inverse planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in children and adolescents in the context of the current literature. Methods Between 1999 and 2008 thirty-one children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.2 years (1.5 - 20.5) were treated with IMRT in our department. This heterogeneous group of patients consisted of 20 different tumor entities, with Ewing's sarcoma being the largest (5 patients), followed by juvenile nasopharyngeal fibroma, esthesioneuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma (3 patients each). In addition a review of the available literature reporting on technology, quality, toxicity, outcome and concerns of IMRT was performed. Results With IMRT individualized dose distributions and excellent sparing of organs at risk were obtained in the most challenging cases. This was achieved at the cost of an increased volume of normal tissue receiving low radiation doses. Local control was achieved in 21 patients. 5 patients died due to progressive distant metastases. No severe acute or chronic toxicity was observed. Conclusion IMRT in the treatment of children and adolescents is feasible and was applied safely within the last 9 years at our institution. Several reports in literature show the excellent possibilities of IMRT in selective sparing of organs at risk and achieving local control. In selected cases the quality of IMRT plans increases the therapeutic ratio and outweighs the risk of potentially increased rates of secondary malignancies by the augmented low dose exposure. PMID:19775449

  18. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Complex-Shaped Meningioma of the Skull Base: Long-Term Experience of a Single Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie . E-mail: Stefanie_Milker-Zabel@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Zabel-du Bois, Angelika; Huber, Peter; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Debus, Juergen

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: We analyzed our long-term experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with complex-shaped meningioma of the skull base. Patients and Methods: Between January 1998 and December 2004, 94 patients with complex-shaped meningioma were treated using IMRT at our institution. Tumor distribution was: World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 1 in 54.3%, WHO Grade 2 in 9.6%, and WHO Grade 3 in 4.2%. In 31.9% of patients, the clinical and radiologic characteristics of the tumor were consistent with the diagnosis of meningioma. Twenty-six patients received radiotherapy as primary treatment and 14 patients postoperative for residual disease. Fifty-four patients were treated after local recurrence. Median target volume was 81.4 mL, median total dose was 57.6 Gy given in 32 fractions. Results: Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Overall local control was 93.6%. Sixty-nine patients had stable disease based on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whereas 19 had a tumor volume reduction after IMRT. Six patients showed local tumor progression on MRI 22.3 months' median after IMRT. Three patients died from non-treatment-related conditions after IMRT. In 39.8% of the patients, preexisting neurologic deficits improved. Worsening of preexisting neurologic symptoms was seen in 4 patients and 2 patients developed new clinical symptoms from local tumor progression. Transient side effects such as headache were seen in 7 patients. Treatment-induced loss of vision was seen in 1 of 53 reirradiated patients with a Grade 3 meningioma 9 months after retreatment with IMRT. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that IMRT is an effective and safe treatment modality for long-term local control of complex-shaped and otherwise difficult to treat meningioma.

  19. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer: An Update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Setton, Jeremy; Caria, Nicola; Romanyshyn, Jonathan; Koutcher, Lawrence; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Rowan, Nicholas; Sherman, Eric J.; Fury, Matthew G.; Pfister, David G.; Wong, Richard J.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang; Schupak, Karen D.; Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Rao, Shyam D.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To update the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and April 2009, 442 patients with histologically confirmed OPC underwent IMRT at our center. There were 379 men and 63 women with a median age of 57 years (range, 27-91). The disease was Stage I in 2%, Stage II in 4%, Stage III in 21%, and Stage IV in 73% of patients. The primary tumor subsite was tonsil in 50%, base of tongue in 46%, pharyngeal wall in 3%, and soft palate in 2%. The median prescription dose to the planning target volume of the gross tumor was 70 Gy for definitive (n = 412) cases and 66 Gy for postoperative cases (n = 30). A total 404 patients (91%) received chemotherapy, including 389 (88%) who received concurrent chemotherapy, the majority of which was platinum-based. Results: Median follow-up among surviving patients was 36.8 months (range, 3-135). The 3-year cumulative incidence of local failure, regional failure, and distant metastasis was 5.4%, 5.6%, and 12.5%, respectively. The 3-year OS rate was 84.9%. The incidence of late dysphagia and late xerostomia {>=}Grade 2 was 11% and 29%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of IMRT in achieving excellent locoregional control and low rates of xerostomia. According to our knowledge, this study is the largest report of patients treated with IMRT for OPC.

  20. Commissioning and quality assurance for intensity modulated radiotherapy with dynamic multileaf collimator: experience of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

    PubMed

    Venencia, Carlos Daniel; Besa, Pelayo

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present our experience in the commissioning and quality assurance (QA) for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC), sliding window technique. Using Varian equipment solution, the connectivity and operation between all IMRT chain components was checked. Then the following test were done: stability of leaf positioning and leaf speed, sensitivity to treatment interruptions (acceleration and deceleration), evaluation of standard field patterns, stability of dMLC output, segmental dose accuracy check, average leaf transmission, dosimetric leaf separation, effects of lateral disequilibrium between adjacent leaves in dose profiles and multiple carriage field verification. Standard patterns were generated for verification: uniform field, pyramid, hole, wedge, peaks and chair. Weekly QA Protocol include: sweeping gap output, Garden Fence Test (narrow bands, 2 mm wide, of exposure spaced at 2-cm intervals) and segmental dose accuracy check. Monthly QA include: sweeping gap output at multiple gantry and collimator angle, sweeping gap output off-axis, Picket Fence Test (eight consecutive movements of a 5-cm wide rectangular field spaced at 5-cm intervals), stability of leaf speed and leaf motor current test (PWM test). Patient QA procedure consists of an absolute dose measurement for all treatments fields in the treatment condition, analysis of actual leaf position versus planned leaf position (dynalog files) for each treatment field, film relative dose determination for each field, film relative dose determination for the plan (all treatment fields) in two axial planes and patient positioning verification with orthogonal films. The tests performed showed acceptable result. After more than one year of IMRT treatment the routine QA machine checks confirm the precision and stability of the IMRT system. PMID:15753938

  1. The valence of the long-lasting emotional experiences with various handlers modulates discrimination and generalization of individual humans in sheep.

    PubMed

    Destrez, A; Coulon, M; Deiss, V; Delval, E; Boissy, A; Boivin, X

    2013-11-01

    humans and tended to generalize their aversive experiences with one handler to all humans. In contrast, gently treated lambs seemed to discriminate familiar humans from unfamiliar humans. Different management styles could modulate farm generalization to humans in farm animals. PMID:24045468

  2. THE EXTREME HOSTS OF EXTREME SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, James D.; Quimby, Robert; Ofek, Eran; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Sullivan, Mark; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Howell, D. Andrew; Nugent, Peter; Seibert, Mark; Overzier, Roderik; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2011-01-20

    We use GALEX ultraviolet (UV) and optical integrated photometry of the hosts of 17 luminous supernovae (LSNe, having peak M{sub V} < -21) and compare them to a sample of 26, 000 galaxies from a cross-match between the SDSS DR4 spectral catalog and GALEX interim release 1.1. We place the LSN hosts on the galaxy NUV - r versus M{sub r} color-magnitude diagram (CMD) with the larger sample to illustrate how extreme they are. The LSN hosts appear to favor low-density regions of the galaxy CMD falling on the blue edge of the blue cloud toward the low-luminosity end. From the UV-optical photometry, we estimate the star formation history of the LSN hosts. The hosts have moderately low star formation rates (SFRs) and low stellar masses (M{sub *}) resulting in high specific star formation rates (sSFR). Compared with the larger sample, the LSN hosts occupy low-density regions of a diagram plotting sSFR versus M{sub *} in the area having higher sSFR and lower M{sub *}. This preference for low M{sub *}, high sSFR hosts implies that the LSNe are produced by an effect having to do with their local environment. The correlation of mass with metallicity suggests that perhaps wind-driven mass loss is the factor that prevents LSNe from arising in higher-mass, higher-metallicity hosts. The massive progenitors of the LSNe (>100 M{sub sun}), by appearing in low-SFR hosts, are potential tests for theories of the initial mass function that limit the maximum mass of a star based on the SFR.

  3. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  4. Rehabilitation in extremity fractures.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, E

    1975-03-01

    General principles in the rehabilitation of a patient with an extremity fracture include: treat the patient, not the x-ray; move all joints not immobilized; prevent disuse atrophy; use gravity to assist in mobilizing a joint; stabilize proximal joints to avoid reverse action of biarticular muscles; permit early protected weight bearing until adequate joint mobility is achieved; appropriately instruct the patient in a home program, and avoid all stretching. PMID:1114932

  5. Penetrating extremity trauma.

    PubMed

    Ivatury, Rao R; Anand, Rahul; Ordonez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Penetrating extremity trauma (PET) usually becomes less important when present along with multiple truncal injuries. The middle eastern wars documented the terrible mortality and morbidity resulting from PET. Even in civilian trauma, PET can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. There are now well-established principles in the evaluation and management of vascular, bony, soft tissue, and neurologic lesions that will lead to a reduction of the poor outcomes. This review will summarize some of these recent concepts. PMID:25413177

  6. On extreme geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Extreme geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. Geomagnetic field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the geomagnetic disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of extreme storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to extreme storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.

  7. Acclimatization and tolerance to extreme altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    During the last ten years, two major experiments have elucidated the factors determining acclimatization and tolerance to extreme altitude (over 7000 m). These were the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest, and the low pressure chamber simulation, Operation Everest II. Extreme hyperventilation is one of the most important responses to extreme altitude. Its chief value is that it allows the climber to maintain an alveolar PO2 which keeps the arterial PO2 above dangerously low levels. Even so, there is evidence of residual impairment of central nervous system function after ascents to extreme altitude, and maximal oxygen consumption falls precipitously above 7000 m. The term 'acclimatization' is probably not appropriate for altitudes above 8000 m, because the body steadily deteriorates at these altitudes. Tolerance to extreme altitude is critically dependent on barometric pressure, and even seasonal changes in pressure probably affect climbing performance near the summit of Mt Everest. Supplementary oxygen always improves exercise tolerance at extreme altitudes, and rescue oxygen should be available on climbing expeditions to 8000 m peaks.

  8. Skeletal fluorosis in immobilized extremities.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, J B

    1975-11-01

    The effect of immobilization on skeletal fluorosis was studied in growing rabbits. One hind leg was immobilized by an external fixation device extending below the wrist joint and above the knee joint, the extremity being in a straight position after severance of the sciatic nerve. The animals, aged 7 weeks at the beginning of the experiment, were given 10 mg of fluoride per kg body weight and day during 12 weeks. In the tibiae, development of the skeletal fluorosis was more irregular than that observed in previous studies of normally active animals, being most excessive in the mobile bone. The immobilization effect was most profound in the femora as the cortical thickness and the femur score were significantly higher than those in the mobile femora. It was suggested that an altered muscular activity was the reason for the observed changes. PMID:1189918

  9. Extreme conditions over Europe and North America: role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Msadek, Rym; Delworth, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is the result and possibly the source of marked modulations of the climate over many areas of the globe. For instance, the relatively warm and dry climate of North America throughout the 30-yr interval of 1931-60, during which the Dust Bowl and the 1950's drought occurred, has been linked to the concomitant warm phase of the AMV. During this period relative warm and wet conditions prevailed over Europe. After 1960, the Atlantic began to cool, and for almost three decades the North American climate turned wetter and cooler whereas Europe experienced cooler and dryer conditions. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period suggested by longer proxy (~60-80yr) does not allow to firmly conclude on the causal effect of the AMV. We use a model approach to isolate the causal role of the AMV on the occurrence of extreme events over Europe and North America. We present experiments based on two GFDL global climate models, a low resolution version, CM2.1 and a higher resolution model for the atmospheric component, FLOR. In both model experiments sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic sector are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (100 members for CM2.1 and 50 for FLOR) that we run for 20 years. We find that a positive phase of the AMV increases the frequency of occurrence of drought over North America and of extremely cold/warm conditions over Northern/Central Europe during winter/summer. Interestingly, we find that the AMV impacts on these extreme conditions are modulated by the Pacific response to the AMV itself. Members that develop a weak Pacific response show more extreme events over Europe whereas those that develop a strong Pacific response show more extreme events over North America.

  10. Methods for Improving Long-Range Wireless Communication Between Extreme Terrain Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Paul; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    Axel is an extreme terrain, two-wheeled rover designed to traverse rocky surface and sub-surface landscapes in order to conduct remote science experiments in hard-to-reach locations. The rover's design meets many requirements for a mobile research platform capable of reaching water seeps on Martian cliff sides. Axel was developed by the Mobility and Robotic Systems section at the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Unique design criteria associated with extreme terrain mobility led to a unique rover solution, consisting of a central module, which provides long-term energy storage and space for large-scale science payloads, and two detachable Axels that can detach and explore extreme terrain locations that are inaccessible to conventional rovers. The envisioned mission could involve a four-wheeled configuration of Axel called 'DuAxel' that is able to traverse the benign, flattened terrain of a landing site and approach the edge of the targeted crater or cave where it would deploy anchoring legs and detach one of the Axel rovers [1]. A tether provides a secure link between the Axel rover and the central module, acting as an anchor to allow Axel to descend along steep crater walls to collect data from the scientifically relevant sites along the water seeps or crater ledges. After completing its scientific mission Axel would hoist itself up to the central module and dock autonomously (using its on-board stereo cameras), allowing the once-again recombined DuAxel to travel to another location to repeat data collection.

  11. Linac-based extracranial radiosurgery with Elekta volumetric modulated arc therapy and an anatomy-based treatment planning system: Feasibility and initial experience.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Savino; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesù, Cinzia; Ianiro, Anna; Viola, Pietro; Craus, Maurizio; Valentini, Vincenzo; Piermattei, Angelo; Morganti, Alessio G

    2016-01-01

    We reported our initial experience in using Elekta volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and an anatomy-based treatment planning system (TPS) for single high-dose radiosurgery (SRS-VMAT) of liver metastases. This study included a cohort of 12 patients treated with a 26-Gy single fraction. Single-arc VMAT plans were generated with Ergo++ TPS. The prescription isodose surface (IDS) was selected to fulfill the 2 following criteria: 95% of planning target volume (PTV) reached 100% of the prescription dose and 99% of PTV reached a minimum of 90% of prescription dose. A 1-mm multileaf collimator (MLC) block margin was added around the PTV. For a comparison of dose distributions with literature data, several conformity indexes (conformity index [CI], conformation number [CN], and gradient index [GI]) were calculated. Treatment efficiency and pretreatment dosimetric verification were assessed. Early clinical data were also reported. Our results reported that target and organ-at-risk objectives were met for all patients. Mean and maximum doses to PTVs were on average 112.9% and 121.5% of prescribed dose, respectively. A very high degree of dose conformity was obtained, with CI, CN, and GI average values equal to 1.29, 0.80, and 3.63, respectively. The beam-on-time was on average 9.3 minutes, i.e., 0.36min/Gy. The mean number of monitor units was 3162, i.e., 121.6MU/Gy. Pretreatment verification (3%-3mm) showed an optimal agreement with calculated values; mean γ value was 0.27 and 98.2% of measured points resulted with γ < 1. With a median follow-up of 16 months complete response was observed in 12/14 (86%) lesions; partial response was observed in 2/14 (14%) lesions. No radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) was observed in any patients as well no duodenal ulceration or esophagitis or gastric hemorrhage. In conclusion, this analysis demonstrated the feasibility and the appropriateness of high-dose single-fraction SRS-VMAT in liver metastases performed with Elekta VMAT

  12. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  13. Functional Recovery of Analog Circuits at Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Neff, Joseph; Katkoori, Srinivas

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new reconfigurable analog array (RAA) architecture and integrated circuit (IC) used to map analog circuits that can adapt to extreme temperatures under programmable control. Algorithm-driven adaptation takes place on the RAA IC. The algorithms are implemented in a separate Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) IC, co-located with the RAA in the extreme temperature environment. The experiments demonstrate circuit adaptation over a wide temperature range, from extremely low temperature of -180 C to high 120 C.

  14. Performance verification of the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small explorer (GEMS) x-ray polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Black, J. Kevin; Kitaguchi, Takao; Hayato, Asami; Hill, Joanne E.; Jahoda, Keith; Tamagawa, Toru; Kaneko, Kenta; Takeuchi, Yoko; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Marlowe, Hannah; Griffiths, Scott; Kaaret, Philip E.; Kenward, David; Khalid, Syed

    2014-07-01

    Polarimetry is a powerful tool for astrophysical observations that has yet to be exploited in the X-ray band. For satellite-borne and sounding rocket experiments, we have developed a photoelectric gas polarimeter to measure X-ray polarization in the 2-10 keV range utilizing a time projection chamber (TPC) and advanced micro-pattern gas electron multiplier (GEM) techniques. We carried out performance verification of a flight equivalent unit (1/4 model) which was planned to be launched on the NASA Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) satellite. The test was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facility in April 2013. The polarimeter was irradiated with linearly-polarized monochromatic X-rays between 2.3 and 10.0 keV and scanned with a collimated beam at 5 different detector positions. After a systematic investigation of the detector response, a modulation factor >=35% above 4 keV was obtained with the expected polarization angle. At energies below 4 keV where the photoelectron track becomes short, diffusion in the region between the GEM and readout strips leaves an asymmetric photoelectron image. A correction method retrieves an expected modulation angle, and the expected modulation factor, ~20% at 2.7 keV. Folding the measured values of modulation through an instrument model gives sensitivity, parameterized by minimum detectable polarization (MDP), nearly identical to that assumed at the preliminary design review (PDR).

  15. Performance Verification of the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer GEMS X-Ray Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Black, J. Kevin; Kitaguchi, Takao; Hayato, Asami; Hill, Joanne E.; Jahoda, Keith; Tamagawa, Toru; Kanako, Kenta; Takeuchi, Yoko; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Kenward, David

    2014-01-01

    olarimetry is a powerful tool for astrophysical observations that has yet to be exploited in the X-ray band. For satellite-borne and sounding rocket experiments, we have developed a photoelectric gas polarimeter to measure X-ray polarization in the 2-10 keV range utilizing a time projection chamber (TPC) and advanced micro-pattern gas electron multiplier (GEM) techniques. We carried out performance verification of a flight equivalent unit (1/4 model) which was planned to be launched on the NASA Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) satellite. The test was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facility in April 2013. The polarimeter was irradiated with linearly-polarized monochromatic X-rays between 2.3 and 10.0 keV and scanned with a collimated beam at 5 different detector positions. After a systematic investigation of the detector response, a modulation factor greater than or equal to 35% above 4 keV was obtained with the expected polarization angle. At energies below 4 keV where the photoelectron track becomes short, diffusion in the region between the GEM and readout strips leaves an asymmetric photoelectron image. A correction method retrieves an expected modulation angle, and the expected modulation factor, approximately 20% at 2.7 keV. Folding the measured values of modulation through an instrument model gives sensitivity, parameterized by minimum detectable polarization (MDP), nearly identical to that assumed at the preliminary design review (PDR).

  16. Imaging performance and test of extreme ultraviolet telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Cui, Tiangang; Chen, Bo

    2009-08-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope (EUT) is composed of a set of four individual normal incidence multilayer-coated telescopes that obtained selected spectrum bandpass (131 A-304 A) of the solar atmosphere. Before the launch, it is necessary to calibrate the imaging performance of EUT. We build a test system for EUT by two ways. Resolution test was performed using 1951 Standard Air Force High Resolution Test target, and the optical resolution limits down to 0.96arc-second at 404.7nm. A pinhole as a target placed on the focal point of a collimator is illuminated mercury lump. The intensity distribution is obtained by knife-edge scanning with low noise photon-counting detector. The slope of the knife-edge scan is equal to the value of the line spread function (LSF). Based on these measurement, we calculate the e modulation transfer function, which is highly closed to the simulation result of zemax. The experiment result indicates that the test system works well. For further work, the working wavelength test will be done with the help of those experiment results.

  17. Metagenomics of extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Cowan, D A; Ramond, J-B; Makhalanyane, T P; De Maayer, P

    2015-06-01

    Whether they are exposed to extremes of heat or cold, or buried deep beneath the Earth's surface, microorganisms have an uncanny ability to survive under these conditions. This ability to survive has fascinated scientists for nearly a century, but the recent development of metagenomics and 'omics' tools has allowed us to make huge leaps in understanding the remarkable complexity and versatility of extremophile communities. Here, in the context of the recently developed metagenomic tools, we discuss recent research on the community composition, adaptive strategies and biological functions of extremophiles. PMID:26048196

  18. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  19. Mineralogy under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Jinfu

    2012-02-07

    We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature extreme conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.

  20. Medical Terminology: Prefixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (prefixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to prefixes, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an…

  1. Solar extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “extreme events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for extreme solar events.

  2. "Triangular" extremal dilatonic dyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Khramtsov, Mikhail; Orlov, Dmitri

    2015-04-01

    Explicit dyonic solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory are known only for three particular values of the dilaton coupling constant: a = 0 , 1 ,√{ 3}. However, numerical evidence was presented on existence of dyons admitting an extremal limit in theories with more general sequence of dilaton couplings a =√{ n (n + 1) / 2 } labeled by an integer n. Apart from the lower members n = 0 , 1 , 2, this family of theories does not have motivation from supergravity/string theory, and analytical origin of the above sequence remained unclear so far. We fill the gap showing that this formula follows from analyticity of the dilaton function at the AdS2 ×S2 event horizon of the extremal dyonic black hole, with n being the leading dilaton power in the Taylor expansion. We also derive generalization of this rule for asymptotically anti-de Sitter dyonic black holes with spherical, planar and hyperbolic topology of the horizon.

  3. Evolution of near-extremal black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Taylor-Robinson, M. M.

    1997-06-01

    Near-extreme black holes can lose their charge and decay by the emission of massive Bogomol'ni-Prasad-Sommerfield charged particles. We calculate the greybody factors for low-energy charged and neutral scalar emission from four- and five-dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordström black holes. We use the corresponding emission rates to obtain ratios of the rates of loss of excess energy by charged and neutral emission, which are moduli independent, depending only on the integral charges and the horizon potentials. We consider scattering experiments, finding that evolution towards a state in which the integral charges are equal is favored, but neutral emission will dominate the decay back to extremality except when one charge is much greater than the others. The implications of our results for the agreement between black hole and D-brane emission rates and for the information loss puzzle are then discussed.

  4. Transcriptome and Network Changes in Climbers at Extreme Altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guojie; Zhou, Bing; Yi, Xin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hang; Xu, Xiaohong; Shen, Feng; Qu, Ning; Wang, Yading; Gao, Guoyi; San, A.; JiangBai, LuoSang; Sang, Hua; Fang, Xiangdong; Kristiansen, Karsten; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jun; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Wang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Extreme altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are largely unknown. To obtain a more complete picture of the transcriptional regulatory landscape and networks involved in extreme altitude response, we followed four climbers on an expedition up Mount Xixiabangma (8,012 m), and collected blood samples at four stages during the climb for mRNA and miRNA expression assays. By analyzing dynamic changes of gene networks in response to extreme altitudes, we uncovered a highly modular network with 7 modules of various functions that changed in response to extreme altitudes. The erythrocyte differentiation module is the most prominently up-regulated, reflecting increased erythrocyte differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells, probably at the expense of differentiation into other cell lineages. These changes are accompanied by coordinated down-regulation of general translation. Network topology and flow analyses also uncovered regulators known to modulate hypoxia responses and erythrocyte development, as well as unknown regulators, such as the OCT4 gene, an important regulator in stem cells and assumed to only function in stem cells. We predicted computationally and validated experimentally that increased OCT4 expression at extreme altitude can directly elevate the expression of hemoglobin genes. Our approach established a new framework for analyzing the transcriptional regulatory network from a very limited number of samples. PMID:22393366

  5. Addressing Extremes within the WCRP - GEWEX Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oevelen, P. J.; Stewart, R.; Detemmerman, V.

    2008-12-01

    For large international coordination programs such as the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) as part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) it is difficult to strike a good balance between enabling as much international involvement as is possible and desirable and the achievability of the objectives. WCRP has decided that "Extremes Research" is one of several areas where it would like to see its efforts strengthened and scientific research pushed forward. The foci that are being selected should be phrased such that they are practical and achievable within a time span of 1 to 3 years. Preferably these foci build upon the expertise from cross WCRP activities and are not restricted to single core project activities. In this presentation an overview will be given of the various activities within GEWEX that are related to extremes and which ones would be most ideal to be addressed as WCRP foci from a GEWEX perspective. The rationale and context of extreme research will be presented as well links to other national and international programs. "Extremes Research" as a topic is attractive since it has a high societal relevance and impact. However, numerous definitions of extremes exist and they are being used in widely varying contexts making it not always clear of what exactly is being addressed. This presentation will give an outlook on what can be expected research wise in the near future based upon the outcomes of the Extremes Workshop organised last June in Vancouver in the context of the Coordinated Energy and water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) as part of GEWEX. In particular it will be shown how these activities, which will only address certain types of extremes, can be linked to adaptation and mitigation efforts taking place in other organisations and by national and international bodies.

  6. Voltage balancing: Long-term experience with the 250 V supercapacitor module of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle HY-LIGHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kötz, R.; Sauter, J.-C.; Ruch, P.; Dietrich, P.; Büchi, F. N.; Magne, P. A.; Varenne, P.

    On the occasion of the "Challenge Bibendum" 2004 in Shanghai, the hybrid fuel cell-supercapacitor vehicle HY-LIGHT, a joint project of Conception et Développement Michelin and the Paul Scherrer Institut, was presented to the public. The drive train of this vehicle comprises a 30 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and a 250 V supercapacitor (SC) module for energy recuperation and boost power during short acceleration and start-up processes. The supercapacitor module was deliberately constructed without continuous voltage balancing units. The performance of the supercapacitor module was monitored over the 2 years of operation particularly with respect to voltage balancing of the large number of SC cells connected in series. During the investigated period of 19 months and about 7000 km driving, the voltage imbalance within the supercapacitor module proved negligible. The maximum deviation between best and worst SC was always below 120 mV and the capacitor with the highest voltage never exceeded the nominal voltage by more than 40 mV.

  7. Towards a Whole-School Approach to the Pastoral Care Module in a Postgraduate Certificate of Education Programme: A South African Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeman, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the potential of adopting a whole-school approach to the pastoral care module in a Postgraduate Certificate of Education Programme to ensure that all newly qualified teachers practice effective pastoral care in their classrooms and promote the learners' academic engagement and performance. A non-experimental survey…

  8. Upper Extremity Problems in Doner Kebab Masters

    PubMed Central

    Taspinar, Ozgur; Kepekci, Muge; Ozaras, Nihal; Aydin, Teoman; Guler, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Doner kebab is a food specific to Turkey; it is a cone-shaped meat placed vertically on a high stand. The doner kebab chefs stand against the meat and cut it by using both of their upper extremities. This work style may lead to recurrent trauma and correspondingly the upper extremity problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the upper extremity disorders of doner chefs. [Subjects and Methods] Doner kebab chefs were selected as the study group, and volunteers who were not doner kebab chefs and didn’t exert intense effort with upper extremities their business lives were selected as the control group. A survey form was prepared to obtain data about the participants’ ages, working experience (years), daily work hours, work at a second job, diseases, drug usage, and any musculoskeletal (lasting at least 1 week) complaint in last 6 months. [Results] A total of 164 individuals participated in the study, 82 doner chefs and 82 volunteers. In 20.6% of the study group and 15.6% of the control group, an upper extremity musculoskeletal system disorder was detected. Lateral epicondylitis was more frequently statistically significant in the work group. [Conclusion] Hand pain and lateral epicondylitis are more frequent in doner chefs than in other forms of business. PMID:25276030

  9. Extreme Scale Computational Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2009-11-01

    We live in extraordinary times. With increasingly sophisticated observatories opening up new vistas on the universe, astrophysics is becoming more complex and data-driven. The success in understanding astrophysical systems that are inherently multi-physical, nonlinear systems demands realism in our models of the phenomena. We cannot hope to advance the realism of these models to match the expected sophistication of future observations without extreme-scale computation. Just one example is the advent of gravitational wave astronomy. Detectors like LIGO are about to make the first ever detection of gravitational waves. The gravitational waves are produced during violent events such as the merger of two black holes. The detection of these waves or ripples in the fabric of spacetime is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. I will discuss the computational and theoretical challenges ahead in our new understanding of physics and astronomy where gravity exhibits its strongest grip on our spacetime.

  10. Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation Extremes via Bivariate Extreme Value Theory (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce methodology from statistical extreme value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation extremes. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most extreme precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most extreme events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of extreme precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation extremes along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation extremes in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of extremal correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between extreme precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale extreme precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of extreme precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between extreme precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced extreme precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.

  11. Physical manifestation of extreme events in random lasers.

    PubMed

    Uppu, Ravitej; Mujumdar, Sushil

    2015-11-01

    We report our studies on exponentially-tempered Lévy sums that explain coherent random lasers based on nonresonant feedback. We investigate the hierarchy in the sums and identify the contribution of the extremes over a wide range of excitation energies and disorder strengths. Subsequently, we carry out experiments in which the physical manifestation of these extremes is revealed. At the appropriate gain and disorder, the extremes manifest as the sharp ultranarrow modes in the spectrum. At stronger excitation and disorder, the peaks disappear due to the reduced rarity of the extremes, compounded by the decreased magnitude effected by the tempering. PMID:26512515

  12. NREL Determines Better Testing Methods for Photovoltaic Module Durability (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    NREL discoveries will enable manufacturers to produce more robust photovoltaic modules. Over the past decade, some photovoltaic (PV) modules have experienced power losses because of the system voltage stress that modules experience in fielded arrays. This is partly because qualification tests and standards do not adequately evaluate the durability of modules that undergo the long-term effects of high voltage. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tried various testing methods and stress levels to demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. The results of these accelerated tests, along with outdoor testing, were used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to more accurately evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. NREL was able to determine stress factors, levels, and methods for testing based on the stresses experienced by modules in the field. These results, in combination with those in the literature, suggest that constant stress with humidity and system voltage is more damaging than stress applied intermittently or with periods of recovery comprising hot and dry conditions or alternating bias in between. NREL has determined some module constructions to be extremely durable to PID. These findings will help the manufacturers of PV materials and components produce more durable products that better satisfy their customers. NREL determined that there is rapid degradation of some PV modules under system voltage stress and evaluated degradation rates in the field to develop more accurate accelerated testing methods. PV module manufacturers will be better able to choose robust materials and durable designs and guarantee sturdier, longer-lasting products. As PV modules become more durable, and thus more efficient over the long term, the risks and the cost of PV power will be reduced.

  13. Development of a 150-GHz MMIC Module Prototype for Large-Scale CMB Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Soria, Mary M.; Lau, Judy M.; Sieth, Matthew M.; VanWinkle, Daniel; Tantawi, Sami

    2011-01-01

    HEMT-based receiver arrays with excellent noise and scalability are already starting to be manufactured at 100 GHz, but the advances in technology should make it possible to develop receiver modules with even greater operation frequency up to 200 GHz. A prototype heterodyne amplifier module has been developed for operation from 140 to 170 GHz using monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) low-noise InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifiers. The compact, scalable module is centered on the 150-GHz atmospheric window using components known to operate well at these frequencies. Arrays equipped with hundreds of these modules can be optimized for many different astrophysical measurement techniques, including spectroscopy and interferometry. This module is a heterodyne receiver module that is extremely compact, and makes use of 35-nm InP HEMT technology, and which has been shown to have excellent noise temperatures when cooled cryogenically to 30 K. This reduction in system noise over prior art has been demonstrated in commercial mixers (uncooled) at frequencies of 160-180 GHz. The module is expected to achieve a system noise temperature of 60 K when cooled. An MMIC amplifier module has been designed to demonstrate the feasibility of expanding heterodyne amplifier technology to the 140 to 170-GHz frequency range for astronomical observations. The miniaturization of many standard components and the refinement of RF interconnect technology have cleared the way to mass-production of heterodyne amplifier receivers, making it a feasible technology for many large-population arrays. This work furthers the recent research efforts in compact coherent receiver modules, including the development of the Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) modules centered at 40 and 90 GHz, and the production of heterodyne module prototypes at 90 GHz.

  14. Synoptic conditions during wintertime temperature extremes in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, John J.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.; Seefeldt, Mark W.; Gutowski, William J.; Glisan, Justin M.

    2016-04-01

    The large-scale atmospheric state associated with widespread wintertime warm and cold extremes in southern Alaska was identified using 1989 to 2007 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-I) data. Extremes were defined as days with the coldest and warmest 1% of daily temperatures. Widespread extreme events were identified for days when at least 25 50 km grid cells in the study domain met the extreme temperature criteria. A total of 55 cold and 74 warm extreme days were identified in 19 winters. Composites of the atmospheric state from 5 days before through the day of the extreme events were analyzed to assess the large-scale atmospheric state associated with the extremes. The method of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was used to identify the range of sea level pressure (SLP) patterns present in the ERA-I December-February data, and these SLP patterns were then used to stratify the extreme days by their large-scale atmospheric circulation. Composites for all warm or cold extreme days showed less intense features than those for specific SLP patterns. In all of the composites temperature advection, strongest at 700 hPa, and anomalous longwave radiation were the primary factors that led to the extreme events. The anomalous downwelling longwave radiation was due to either reduced cloud cover, during cold extremes, or to increased cloud cover, during warm extremes. The SOM composites provided additional insight into the temporal evolution of the extreme days and highlighted different portions of southern Alaska most likely to experience temperature extremes for a given SOM SLP pattern.

  15. Amplitude Modulator Chassis

    SciTech Connect

    Erbert, G

    2009-09-01

    The Amplitude Modulator Chassis (AMC) is the final component in the MOR system and connects directly to the PAM input through a 100-meter fiber. The 48 AMCs temporally shape the 48 outputs of the MOR using an arbitrary waveform generator coupled to an amplitude modulator. The amplitude modulation element is a two stage, Lithium Niobate waveguide device, where the intensity of the light passing through the device is a function of the electrical drive applied. The first stage of the modulator is connected to a programmable high performance Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) consisting of 140 impulse generators space 250 ps apart. An arbitrary waveform is generated by independently varying the amplitude of each impulse generator and then summing the impulses together. In addition to the AWG a short pulse generator is also connected to the first stage of the modulator to provide a sub 100-ps pulse used for timing experiments. The second stage of the modulator is connect to a square pulse generator used to further attenuate any pre or post pulse light passing through the first stage of the modulator. The fast rise and fall time of the square pulse generator is also used to produce fast rise and fall times of the AWG by clipping the AWG pulse. For maximum extinction, a pulse bias voltage is applied to each stage of the modulator. A pulse voltage is applied as opposed to a DC voltage to prevent charge buildup on the modulator. Each bias voltage is adjustable to provide a minimum of 50-dB extinction. The AMC is controlled through ICCS to generate the desired temporal pulse shape. This process involves a closed-loop control algorithm, which compares the desired temporal waveform to the produced optical pulse, and iterates the programming of the AWG until the two waveforms agree within an allowable tolerance.

  16. Glycemic modulation in neuro-oncology: experience and future directions using a modified Atkins diet for high-grade brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Strowd, Roy E.; Cervenka, Mackenzie C.; Henry, Bobbie J.; Kossoff, Eric H.; Hartman, Adam L.; Blakeley, Jaishri O.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary glycemic modulation through high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets, which induce a state of systemic ketosis and alter systemic metabolic signaling, have been incorporated into the clinical management of patients with neurological disease for more than a century. Mounting preclinical evidence supports the antitumor, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects of disrupting glycolytic metabolism through dietary intervention. In recent years, interest in incorporating such novel therapeutic strategies in neuro-oncology has increased. To date, 3 published studies incorporating novel dietary therapies in oncology have been reported, including one phase I study in neuro-oncology, and have set the stage for further study in this field. In this article, we review the biochemical pathways, preclinical data, and early clinical translation of dietary interventions that modulate systemic glycolytic metabolism in the management of primary malignant brain tumors. We introduce the modified Atkins diet (MAD), a novel dietary alternative to the classic ketogenic diet, and discuss the critical issues facing future study. PMID:26649186

  17. Disparate bilingual experiences modulate task-switching advantages: A diffusion-model analysis of the effects of interactional context on switch costs.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Andree; Yang, Hwajin

    2016-05-01

    Drawing on the adaptive control hypothesis (Green & Abutalebi, 2013), we investigated whether bilinguals' disparate interactional contexts modulate task-switching performance. Fifty-eight bilinguals within the single-language context (SLC) and 75 bilinguals within the dual-language context (DLC) were compared in a typical task-switching paradigm. Given that DLC bilinguals switch between languages within the same context, while SLC bilinguals speak only one language in one environment and therefore rarely switch languages, we hypothesized that the two groups' stark difference in their interactional contexts of conversational exchanges would lead to differences in switch costs. As predicted, DLC bilinguals showed smaller switch costs than SLC bilinguals. Our diffusion-model analyses suggest that DLC bilinguals' benefits in switch costs are more likely driven by task-set reconfiguration than by proactive interference. Our findings underscore the modulating role of the interactional context of conversational exchanges in task switching. PMID:26848731

  18. Workshop on Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundell, Carole; Sullivan, Mark

    2012-04-01

    abstract-type="normal">SummaryNever before has there been such a wealth of versatile ground- and space-based facilities with which to detect variable emission across the electromagnetic spectrum and beyond, to non-EM signals such as neutrinos and gravitational waves, to probe the most extreme phenomena in the Universe. The variable sky is already providing a wealth of new and surprising observations of phenomena such as GRBs, SNe and AGN that are pushing current theories beyond the state of the art. Multi-messenger follow-up will soon become de rigeur, and upcoming radio and optical all-sky transient surveys will revolutionise the study of the transient Universe. In addition to the technical and data challenges presented by such surveys, a major new challenge will be the interpretation of the wealth of available data and the identification of the underlying physics of new classes of variable (and potentially exotic) objects. Theoretical predictions will be vital for interpreting these future transient discoveries. The goal of this workshop was to bring together theorists and observers in order to identify unexplored synergies across three main research areas of extreme physics: gamma-ray bursts, supernovæ and, more generically, relativistic jets. It aimed to discuss key outstanding questions in these rapidly moving fields, such as the composition and acceleration of GRB and AGN jets, GRB progenitors and central engines, the origin of the wide range of observed variability time-scales in GRB prompt and after-glow light curves and related cosmological applications, the physics of the newly-discovered ultra-luminous SN-like optical transients-as well as to speculate on what we might hope to discover with future technology. The workshop absorbed two 90-minute sessions, selecting 3 main science topics (Relativistic Jets, GRBs and SNe) which it organised as structured discussions driven by a series of short but provocative questions. The final session featured a panel

  19. VIBRATING PERVAPORATION MODULES: EFFECT OF MODULE DESIGN ON PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A third commercial-scale vibrating pervaporation membrane module was fabricated and evaluated for the separation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous solutions. Experiments with surrogate solutions of four hydrophobic VOCs (1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethy...

  20. Identification of extreme precipitation threat across midlatitude regions based on short-wave circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shih-Yu; Davies, Robert E.; Gillies, Robert R.

    2013-10-01

    most severe thunderstorms, producing extreme precipitation, occur over subtropical and midlatitude regions. Atmospheric conditions conducive to organized, intense thunderstorms commonly involve the coupling of a low-level jet (LLJ) with a synoptic short wave. The midlatitude synoptic activity is frequently modulated by the circumglobal teleconnection (CGT), in which meridional gradients of the jet stream act as a guide for short Rossby waves. Previous research has linked extreme precipitation events with either the CGT or the LLJ but has not linked the two circulation features together. In this study, a circulation-based index was developed by combining (a) the degree of the CGT and LLJ coupling, (b) the extent to which this CGT-LLJ coupling connects to regional precipitation and (c) the spatial correspondence with the CGT (short wave) trending pattern over the recent 32 years (1979-2010). Four modern-era global reanalyses, in conjunction with four gridded precipitation data sets, were utilized to minimize spurious trends. The results are suggestive of a link between the CGT/LLJ trends and several recent extreme precipitation events, including those leading to the 2008 Midwest flood in U.S., the 2011 tornado outbreaks in southeastern U.S., the 2010 Queensland flood in northeastern Australia, and to the opposite side the 2012 central U.S. drought. Moreover, an analysis of three Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models from the historical experiments points to the role of greenhouse gases in forming the CGT trends during the warm season.

  1. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  2. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed. PMID:25361517

  3. Phase modulation in dipolar-coupled A 2 spin systems: effect of maximum state mixing in 1H NMR in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Leif; Schmitz, Christian; Bachert, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Coupling constants of nuclear spin systems can be determined from phase modulation of multiplet resonances. Strongly coupled systems such as citrate in prostatic tissue exhibit a more complex modulation than AX connectivities, because of substantial mixing of quantum states. An extreme limit is the coupling of n isochronous spins (A n system). It is observable only for directly connected spins like the methylene protons of creatine and phosphocreatine which experience residual dipolar coupling in intact muscle tissue in vivo. We will demonstrate that phase modulation of this "pseudo-strong" system is quite simple compared to those of AB systems. Theory predicts that the spin-echo experiment yields conditions as in the case of weak interactions, in particular, the phase modulation depends linearly on the line splitting and the echo time.

  4. Phonon-Pump Extreme-Ultraviolet-Photoemission Probe in Graphene: Anomalous Heating of Dirac Carriers by Lattice Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierz, Isabella; Mitrano, Matteo; Bromberger, Hubertus; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard; Springate, Emma; Link, Stefan; Starke, Ulrich; Sachs, Burkhard; Eckstein, Martin; Wehling, Tim O.; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Lichtenstein, Alexander; Cavalleri, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    We modulate the atomic structure of bilayer graphene by driving its lattice at resonance with the in-plane E1 u lattice vibration at 6.3 μ m . Using time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (tr-ARPES) with extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses, we measure the response of the Dirac electrons near the K point. We observe that lattice modulation causes anomalous carrier dynamics, with the Dirac electrons reaching lower peak temperatures and relaxing at faster rate compared to when the excitation is applied away from the phonon resonance or in monolayer samples. Frozen phonon calculations predict dramatic band structure changes when the E1 u vibration is driven, which we use to explain the anomalous dynamics observed in the experiment.

  5. Phonon-pump extreme-ultraviolet-photoemission probe in graphene: anomalous heating of Dirac carriers by lattice deformation.

    PubMed

    Gierz, Isabella; Mitrano, Matteo; Bromberger, Hubertus; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard; Springate, Emma; Link, Stefan; Starke, Ulrich; Sachs, Burkhard; Eckstein, Martin; Wehling, Tim O; Katsnelson, Mikhail I; Lichtenstein, Alexander; Cavalleri, Andrea

    2015-03-27

    We modulate the atomic structure of bilayer graphene by driving its lattice at resonance with the in-plane E_{1u} lattice vibration at 6.3  μm. Using time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (tr-ARPES) with extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses, we measure the response of the Dirac electrons near the K point. We observe that lattice modulation causes anomalous carrier dynamics, with the Dirac electrons reaching lower peak temperatures and relaxing at faster rate compared to when the excitation is applied away from the phonon resonance or in monolayer samples. Frozen phonon calculations predict dramatic band structure changes when the E_{1u} vibration is driven, which we use to explain the anomalous dynamics observed in the experiment. PMID:25860758

  6. Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lu-Le; Zhao, Yao; Qian, Lie-Jia; Chen, Min; Weng, Su-Ming; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Mori, W. B.; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Optical modulators can have high modulation speed and broad bandwidth, while being compact. However, these optical modulators usually work for low-intensity light beams. Here we present an ultrafast, plasma-based optical modulator, which can directly modulate high-power lasers with intensity up to 1016 W cm-2 to produce an extremely broad spectrum with a fractional bandwidth over 100%, extending to the mid-infrared regime in the low-frequency side. This concept relies on two co-propagating laser pulses in a sub-millimetre-scale underdense plasma, where a drive laser pulse first excites an electron plasma wave in its wake while a following carrier laser pulse is modulated by the plasma wave. The laser and plasma parameters suitable for the modulator to work are based on numerical simulations.

  7. Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lu-Le; Zhao, Yao; Qian, Lie-Jia; Chen, Min; Weng, Su-Ming; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Mori, W. B.; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Optical modulators can have high modulation speed and broad bandwidth, while being compact. However, these optical modulators usually work for low-intensity light beams. Here we present an ultrafast, plasma-based optical modulator, which can directly modulate high-power lasers with intensity up to 1016 W cm−2 to produce an extremely broad spectrum with a fractional bandwidth over 100%, extending to the mid-infrared regime in the low-frequency side. This concept relies on two co-propagating laser pulses in a sub-millimetre-scale underdense plasma, where a drive laser pulse first excites an electron plasma wave in its wake while a following carrier laser pulse is modulated by the plasma wave. The laser and plasma parameters suitable for the modulator to work are based on numerical simulations. PMID:27283369

  8. Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu-Le; Zhao, Yao; Qian, Lie-Jia; Chen, Min; Weng, Su-Ming; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, D A; Mori, W B; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Optical modulators can have high modulation speed and broad bandwidth, while being compact. However, these optical modulators usually work for low-intensity light beams. Here we present an ultrafast, plasma-based optical modulator, which can directly modulate high-power lasers with intensity up to 10(16) W cm(-2) to produce an extremely broad spectrum with a fractional bandwidth over 100%, extending to the mid-infrared regime in the low-frequency side. This concept relies on two co-propagating laser pulses in a sub-millimetre-scale underdense plasma, where a drive laser pulse first excites an electron plasma wave in its wake while a following carrier laser pulse is modulated by the plasma wave. The laser and plasma parameters suitable for the modulator to work are based on numerical simulations. PMID:27283369

  9. Understanding water extremes with caution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlík, Milan; Stehlíková, Silvia; Torres, Sebastián

    2016-06-01

    We discuss a sensitive topic, how to scientifically estimate extremes in water quality managements. Such extremes are incorporating establishment of thresholds or levels of certain chemicals in the drinking water. In particular, we address the water fluoridation and quality of drinking water in Chile. Statistical approaches demonstrating the necessary background of water manager will be given in a survey exposition to establish link between statistics of extremes and practice.

  10. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  11. Extreme Rainfall Events Over Southern Africa: Assessment of a Climate Model to Reproduce Daily Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2007-12-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall extremes is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of a state-of-the-art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of SST anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model's domain size are firstly presented. Then simulations of current climate from the model, operating in both regional and global mode, are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Thirdly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall extremes will be assessed, again by a comparison with extremes from the MIRA dataset. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are briefly presented, suggesting associations between rainfall extremes and both local and remote SST anomalies.

  12. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  13. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  14. The Microscope: I--Structure. Health Occupations Education Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the structure of the microscope is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to the module topic, a list of resources needed, and two learning experiences. Each learning experience contains…

  15. Health Occupations Module. Communication in Health Occupations--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on communication in health occupations is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic and one learning experience. The learning experience contains six activities (e.g., read…

  16. Experimental limits of the extreme ultraviolet background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulf-Mathies, C.; Grewing, M.; Kraemer, G.; Schulz-Luepertz, E.; Kimble, R.; Bixler, J.; Bowyer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Photometric observations of the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background with two photometers having bandpasses of 750-940 A and 1040-1080 A are reported. The payload, which was flown aboard an ARIES sounding rocket in June 1982, is described, including the electron detectors, filters, and calibration. The operation of the probe during the experiment, including its motions, are described. The primary experiment involved spectroscopic observation of the hot white dwarf HZ43. The photometer count rate is shown and the measurements of the diffuse background are compared with theoretical predictions. Despite the lower limits obtained using a narrowband detector, the measurements are not sensitive enough to draw any relevant astrophysical conclusions.

  17. Locoregional recurrences after post-operative volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) in oral cavity cancers in a resource constrained setting: experience and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Patil, V M; Babu, S; Muttath, G; Thiagarajan, S K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The conformal nature of dose distribution produced by volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) increases the risk of geographic miss. Data regarding patterns of failure after VMAT in oral cavity cancers in resource-constrained settings are scarce. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the patterns of failure in patients receiving adjuvant VMAT intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oral cavity cancer in Malabar Cancer Center, Kerala, India. Methods: Data of patients with oral cavity cancer receiving adjuvant VMAT IMRT between April 2012 and March 2014 were collected. Recurrent volumes were delineated on the treatment planning images and classified as defined by Dawson et al (Dawson LA, Anzai Y, Marsh L, Martel MK, Paulino A, Ship JA, et al. Patterns of local-regional recurrence following parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 46: 1117–26). Results: 75 patients with a median follow-up of 24 months were analysed. 41 (55%) patients had oral tongue cancers and 52 (69%) of the patients had Stage IVA cancers. The 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival and overall survival were 88.9%, 82.1% and 80.5%, respectively. With a median time to failure of 6.5 months, five infield and three outfield failures were identified. Conclusion: A relatively low rate of outfield failure and lack of marginal failure attests to the efficacy of VMAT in such patients. Modifications to our existing target delineation policy have been proposed. Advances in knowledge: The use of standardized target delineation methods allows safe use of VMAT IMRT even in resource-constrained settings. PMID:25645107

  18. Assessment of crop growth and soil water modules in SWAT2000 using extensive field experiment data in an irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; He, Chansheng; Sophocleous, Marios; Yin, Zhifang; Hongrui, Ren; Ouyang, Zhu

    2008-04-01

    SummarySWAT, a physically-based, hydrological model simulates crop growth, soil water and groundwater movement, and transport of sediment and nutrients at both the process and watershed scales. While the different versions of SWAT have been widely used throughout the world for agricultural and water resources applications, little has been done to test the performance, variability, and transferability of the parameters in the crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in an integrated way with multiple sets of field experimental data at the process scale. Using an multiple years of field experimental data of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) in the irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin, this paper assesses the performance of the plant-soil-groundwater modules and the variability and transferability of SWAT2000. Comparison of the simulated results by SWAT to the observations showed that SWAT performed quite unsatisfactorily in LAI predictions during the senescence stage, in yield predictions, and in soil-water estimation under dry soil-profile conditions. The unsatisfactory performance in LAI prediction might be attributed to over-simplified senescence modeling; in yield prediction to the improper computation of the harvest index; and in soil water under dry conditions to the exclusion of groundwater evaporation from the soil water balance in SWAT. In this paper, improvements in crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in SWAT were implemented. The saturated soil profile was coupled to the oscillating groundwater table. A variable evaporation coefficient taking into account soil water deficit index, groundwater depth, and crop root depth was used to replace the fixed coefficient in computing groundwater evaporation. The soil water balance included the groundwater evaporation. The modifications improved simulations of crop evapotranspiration and biomass as well as soil water dynamics under dry soil-profile conditions. The evaluation shows that

  19. Assessment of crop growth and soil water modules in SWAT2000 using extensive field experiment data in an irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; He, C.; Sophocleous, M.; Yin, Z.; Hongrui, R.; Ouyang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    SWAT, a physically-based, hydrological model simulates crop growth, soil water and groundwater movement, and transport of sediment and nutrients at both the process and watershed scales. While the different versions of SWAT have been widely used throughout the world for agricultural and water resources applications, little has been done to test the performance, variability, and transferability of the parameters in the crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in an integrated way with multiple sets of field experimental data at the process scale. Using an multiple years of field experimental data of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin, this paper assesses the performance of the plant-soil-groundwater modules and the variability and transferability of SWAT2000. Comparison of the simulated results by SWAT to the observations showed that SWAT performed quite unsatisfactorily in LAI predictions during the senescence stage, in yield predictions, and in soil-water estimation under dry soil-profile conditions. The unsatisfactory performance in LAI prediction might be attributed to over-simplified senescence modeling; in yield prediction to the improper computation of the harvest index; and in soil water under dry conditions to the exclusion of groundwater evaporation from the soil water balance in SWAT. In this paper, improvements in crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in SWAT were implemented. The saturated soil profile was coupled to the oscillating groundwater table. A variable evaporation coefficient taking into account soil water deficit index, groundwater depth, and crop root depth was used to replace the fixed coefficient in computing groundwater evaporation. The soil water balance included the groundwater evaporation. The modifications improved simulations of crop evapotranspiration and biomass as well as soil water dynamics under dry soil-profile conditions. The evaluation shows that the

  20. Extreme horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    A review is presented on the properties, origin and evolutionary links of hot subluminous stars which are generally believed to be extreme Horizontal Branch stars or closely related objects. They exist both in the disk and halo populations (globular clusters) of the Galaxy. Amongst the field stars a large fraction of sdBs are found to reside in close binaries. The companions are predominantly white dwarfs, but also low mass main sequence stars are quite common. Systems with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions may qualify as Supernova Ia progenitors. Recently evidence has been found that the masses of some unseen companions might exceed the Chandrasekhar mass, hence they must be neutron stars or black holes. Even a planet has recently been detected orbiting the pulsating sdB star V391 Peg. Quite to the opposite,in globular clusters, only very few sdB binaries amongst are found indicating that the dominant sdB formation processes is different in a dense environment. Binary population synthesis models identify three formation channels, (i) stable Roche lobe overflow, (ii) one or two common envelope ejection phases and (iii) the merger of two helium white dwarfs. The latter channel may explain the properties of the He-enriched subluminous O stars, the hotter sisters of the sdB stars, because their binary fraction is lower than that of the sdBs by a factor of ten or more. The rivaling ''late hot flasher'' scenario is also discussed. Pulsating subluminous B (sdB) stars play an important role for asteroseismology as this technique has already led to mass determinations for a handful of stars. A unique hyper-velocity sdO star moving so fast that it is unbound to the Galaxy has probably been ejected by the super-massive black hole in the Galactic centre.