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Sample records for experimental em ratas

  1. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of pro rata share. 50... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... compliance with pro rata payments in accordance with the effective date of the PRLP. (2) Determine an...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the...

  3. 31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93... PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.93 Application of pro rata share. An insurer shall apply the PRLP to determine the pro rata share of each insured loss to be paid by the insurer on all insured losses...

  4. 31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93... PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.93 Application of pro rata share. An insurer shall apply the PRLP to determine the pro rata share of each insured loss to be paid by the insurer on all insured losses...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1133 - What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a pro rata share of household....1133 What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses. (a) General. If you pay your pro rata..., we value it under the rule in § 416.1140.) (b) How we determine a pro rata share. Your pro rata...

  6. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability under... estimates that aggregate insured losses may exceed the cap on annual liability for a Program Year,...

  7. 17 CFR 240.14d-8 - Exemption from statutory pro rata requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rata requirements. 240.14d-8 Section 240.14d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... rata requirements. Notwithstanding the pro rata provisions of section 14(d)(6) of the Act, if any... taken up and paid for as nearly as may be pro rata, disregarding fractions, according to the number...

  8. 24 CFR 203.319 - Pro rata payment of premiums and charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premiums and... § 203.319 Pro rata payment of premiums and charges. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the mortgagee has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual MIP or...

  9. 24 CFR 203.268 - Pro rata payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.268 Pro rata payment of periodic MIP. (a) If the insurance contract is terminated... rata MIP shall not be due or payable where the mortgagee notifies the Commissioner that foreclosure...

  10. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance... rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is applicable to...

  11. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the pro rata...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1059(e)-1 - Non-pro rata redemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non-pro rata redemptions. 1.1059(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules § 1.1059(e)-1 Non-pro rata redemptions. (a) In general... under section 1059(e)(1). For example, if a redemption of stock is not pro rata as to all...

  13. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and pro rata rights. 240.16a-9 Section 240.16a-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... acquisition of rights, such as shareholder or pre-emptive rights, pursuant to a pro rata grant to all...

  14. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rata refund. 266.608 Section 266.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated... account. In computing the pro rata portion of the annual mortgage insurance premium, the date...

  15. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium....

  16. 26 CFR 1.355-4 - Non pro rata distributions, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non pro rata distributions, etc. 1.355-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-4 Non pro rata distributions... not (a) the distribution is pro rata with respect to all of the shareholders of the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.355-4 - Non pro rata distributions, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non pro rata distributions, etc. 1.355-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-4 Non pro rata distributions... not (a) the distribution is pro rata with respect to all of the shareholders of the...

  18. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the pro rata...

  19. 24 CFR 203.319 - Pro rata payment of premiums and charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premiums and... § 203.319 Pro rata payment of premiums and charges. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the mortgagee has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual MIP or...

  20. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium....

  1. 25 CFR 273.32 - Pro rata requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata requirement. 273.32 Section 273.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.32 Pro...

  2. 31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93 Section 50.93 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE... from a subsequent act of terrorism....

  3. 25 CFR 273.32 - Pro rata requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata requirement. 273.32 Section 273.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.32 Pro...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1059(e)-1 - Non-pro rata redemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Non-pro rata redemptions. 1.1059(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules § 1.1059(e)-1 Non-pro rata redemptions. (a) In general. Section 1059(d... 1059(e)(1). For example, if a redemption of stock is not pro rata as to all shareholders, any...

  5. Stability analysis, modeling, simulation and experimental testing of an EMS Maglev system with structural flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasoge, Aravind M.

    Vehicle-guideway interaction studies of Magnetically Levitated (Maglev) vehicles indicate that structural flexibility can adversely affect the overall stability and performance of such systems. This is one of the reasons why guideways are generally made very rigid. This in turn leads to increased cost of the overall system since guideway construction forms a significant portion of the overall cost. In this dissertation, the influence of structural flexibility on the stability of Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev systems is studied. It is shown how inherently unstable and flexible structure EMS Maglev systems can achieve guaranteed stability by using collocated actuators and sensors, along with de-centralized Proportional plus Derivative (PD) controllers. These results are valid even in the presence of Track/Guideway flexibility. A detailed dynamic model is developed for the EMS Maglev demonstration system (Test Bogie) currently under research and development at Old Dominion University (ODU). This model incorporates structural dynamics with flexible modes of vibration, non-linear electrodynamics, feedback controllers, discrete time implementation, noise filters and disturbance inputs. This model is validated via real time experimental testing. The model thus validated is used for simulation case studies involving levitation and lateral disturbance, lateral control, and centralized control.

  6. 17 CFR 270.17a-5 - Pro rata distribution neither “sale” nor “purchase.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata distribution neither... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.17a-5 Pro rata distribution neither “sale” nor “purchase.” When a company makes a pro rata distribution in cash or in...

  7. 26 CFR 1.955-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.955-1 Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of... controlled foreign corporation must include in its gross income its pro rata share (as determined...

  8. 26 CFR 1.956-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled...) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.956-1 Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled... required to include in his gross income his pro rata share, as determined in accordance with paragraph...

  9. 17 CFR 270.17a-5 - Pro rata distribution neither “sale” nor “purchase.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata distribution neither... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.17a-5 Pro rata distribution neither “sale” nor “purchase.” When a company makes a pro rata distribution in cash or in...

  10. 26 CFR 1.669(e)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.669(e)-1A Section 1.669(e)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(e)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes...

  11. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  12. 20 CFR 416.1133 - What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses. 416.1133 Section 416.1133 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION....1133 What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses. (a) General. If you pay your pro...

  13. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  14. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Pro... premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated... account. In computing the pro rata portion of the annual mortgage insurance premium, the date...

  15. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance..., the Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the...

  16. 17 CFR 240.14d-8 - Exemption from statutory pro rata requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from statutory pro... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14d § 240.14d-8 Exemption from statutory pro rata requirements. Notwithstanding the pro rata provisions of section 14(d)(6) of the Act, if...

  17. 26 CFR 1.669(e)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.669(e)-1A Section 1.669(e)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(e)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  18. 24 CFR 203.268 - Pro rata payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.268 Pro rata payment of periodic MIP. (a) If the insurance contract is terminated... current annual MIP prorated from the due date of the last annual MIP to the date of termination. (c) A...

  19. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  20. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  1. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  2. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  3. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  4. Electromagnetic (EM) earthquake precursor transmission and detection regarding experimental field and laboratory results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth B., II; Saxton, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Aside from understanding the animal kingdom reacting to a per-earthquake signal, a transmission source is apparent. The focus of this investigation is an electromagnetic emission approach and detection capable of becoming both practical and reliable to other plausible earthquake precursors. To better determine this method, several prototype magnetometers were devised and built with each successive version improving upon the next. Two twin (prototype #2) antennae were deployed to field settings outside the NE Texas town of Timpson, TX back in February, 2013 and very recent laboratory tests using the most refined (prototype #4) experimental antenna for detecting unconfined, granitic block fracturing. Field testing encompassed the small NE Texas town of Timpson, TX, which endured an earthquake phenomenon (May, 2012 - September, 2013). A rare sequence of events was strictly attributed to hydraulic fracturing activity in the immediate area all for hydrocarbon capture; thus, a chance to detect and record man-made earthquake activity. By swiveling two directional antennae at three locations, one mobile, the antennae could 'zero' in on a signal source until its pattern was well established and mapped, accordingly. Three signals were detected, two strong and one moderately strong, each with epicenter implications several kilometers from known seismological sites. Six months later, two M4s and a M2.4 earthquake hit over the 2013 Labor Day weekend. Hydraulic pump pressure increased deep Earth pore pressure, reduced friction, and displaced opposing tectonic stresses causing rock to fracture. This was the last earthquake sequence in the Timpson area, due to personal involvement and area citizens in contact with their state representatives. Well and drilling operations have since moved 40-50 miles SE of Timpson, TX and rare earthquake activity has now occurred there. Laboratory testing was next performed using cored granitic blocks and the latest, improved antenna with an

  5. Experimental Study of the EM Transmission Properties of the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, T.; Friehe, C.; Anderson, K.

    2003-04-01

    The propagation of electro-magnetic signals over the ocean is primarily affected by atmospheric refraction and scattering from the rough ocean surface. Wave-guides (also known as refractive ducts) occurring in the first tens of meters above the sea surface have been modeled extensively, as they influence communications. However, discrepancies between models and measurements have been detected. Here we study experimentally the structure of the atmospheric refractive index and the ocean surface statistics, pertinent to EM signals scattering. The structure and the dynamics the marine atmospheric boundary layer is profoundly affected by the ocean surface waves, which deform the mean wind flow streamlines. In the presence of gradients of the atmospheric humidity and temperature, the deformation of the streamlines displaces the sheared profiles of these quantities and leads to wave-induced fluctuations of the atmospheric refractive index. As a result, radio and optical signals propagating over the ocean encounter a semi-periodic refractive structure, which along with the turbulence can degrade signal's energy. The wave-induced fluctuations of the refractive index are unique to the oceanic environment. Their structure function does not follow the power 2/3 scaling law, valid for turbulent fluctuations, and thus their influence should be studied separately. We analyze data of atmospheric turbulence, humidity, temperature, and sea surface temperature and waves from the Rough Evaporation Duct experiment, conducted in part from the instrument platform FLIP in the open ocean North of Oahu, Hawaii.

  6. 26 CFR 1.955A-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of... Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from investment in... of such controlled foreign corporation must include in his gross income his pro rata share of...

  7. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment authorizing..., may offset: (1) A debtor's pro rata share of USDA payments due any entity in which the...

  8. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment authorizing..., may offset: (1) A debtor's pro rata share of USDA payments due any entity in which the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.955-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.955-1 Shareholder's pro rata share... States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation must include in its gross income its pro...

  10. 26 CFR 1.956-1T - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property (temporary). 1.956-1T... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.956-1T Shareholder's pro rata...

  11. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a class... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The...

  12. Engaging Critically with "Objective" Critical Analysis: A Situated Response to Openshaw and Rata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreotti, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Roger Openshaw and Elizabeth Rata conceptualise Kaupapa Maori as a dominant intellectual orthodoxy in New Zealand, which creates a "culturalist ideological conformity" that limits the university's ability to serve as the critical conscience of society. They argue for the primacy of academic objectivity as the criteria for what counts as "weighty…

  13. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1 to be distributed on the...

  14. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1A to be distributed on the...

  15. 24 CFR 220.806 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance premium. 220.806 Section 220.806 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  16. 24 CFR 220.806 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance premium. 220.806 Section 220.806 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  17. 24 CFR 220.806 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance premium. 220.806 Section 220.806 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  18. 24 CFR 220.806 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance premium. 220.806 Section 220.806 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  19. 24 CFR 220.806 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance premium. 220.806 Section 220.806 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  20. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1A to be distributed on the...

  1. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1 to be distributed on the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1A to be distributed on the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1A to be distributed on the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1 to be distributed on the...

  5. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1 to be distributed on the...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1237 - Pro rata allocation of transition costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Proponent-driven transitions. BRS licensees and lessees, entities that lease EBS spectrum for a commercial... equals the pro rata share; (2) L equals the amount of spectrum used by a BRS licensee or lessee or... agreement with an EBS or BRS licensee; (3) T equals the total amount of spectrum licensed or leased...

  7. 47 CFR 27.1237 - Pro rata allocation of transition costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Proponent-driven transitions. BRS licensees and lessees, entities that lease EBS spectrum for a commercial... equals the pro rata share; (2) L equals the amount of spectrum used by a BRS licensee or lessee or... agreement with an EBS or BRS licensee; (3) T equals the total amount of spectrum licensed or leased...

  8. 47 CFR 27.1237 - Pro rata allocation of transition costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Proponent-driven transitions. BRS licensees and lessees, entities that lease EBS spectrum for a commercial... equals the pro rata share; (2) L equals the amount of spectrum used by a BRS licensee or lessee or... agreement with an EBS or BRS licensee; (3) T equals the total amount of spectrum licensed or leased...

  9. 47 CFR 27.1237 - Pro rata allocation of transition costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Proponent-driven transitions. BRS licensees and lessees, entities that lease EBS spectrum for a commercial... equals the pro rata share; (2) L equals the amount of spectrum used by a BRS licensee or lessee or... agreement with an EBS or BRS licensee; (3) T equals the total amount of spectrum licensed or leased...

  10. 47 CFR 27.1237 - Pro rata allocation of transition costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Proponent-driven transitions. BRS licensees and lessees, entities that lease EBS spectrum for a commercial... equals the pro rata share; (2) L equals the amount of spectrum used by a BRS licensee or lessee or... agreement with an EBS or BRS licensee; (3) T equals the total amount of spectrum licensed or leased...

  11. Electromagnetic Nonlinearity in the Dielectric Medium of Experimental EM Impulse-Momentum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an empirical correlation among electromagnetic (EM) impulse-momentum experiments performed by Brito (1999, 2003, 2004, and 2005), Woodward (2004a, 2004b, 2005, and 2006) and March (2006) is developed. This empirical correlation assumes that the dielectric medium exhibits non-linear magnetoelectric effects arising from the interplay of piezo-magnetism and piezo-electricity (Rado, 1975). The modification to the generally accepted electromagnetic field (volume) momentum equation (Jackson, 1999) is derived from Fiegel's (2004) thesis that inside a magnetoelectric, the momenta of counter-propagating vacuum modes do not eliminate each other, in contrast to the other materials. Whereby, a time independent vacuum mode component can be subtracted from the impulse-momentum to give a constant force. This vacuum mode component is interpreted as the nonlinearity of the dielectric medium with respect to the applied frequency of the input power.

  12. Maximum-likelihood methods in cryo-EM. Part II: application to experimental data

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of computationally feasible approaches to maximum likelihood image processing for cryo-electron microscopy, these methods have proven particularly useful in the classification of structurally heterogeneous single-particle data. A growing number of experimental studies have applied these algorithms to study macromolecular complexes with a wide range of structural variability, including non-stoichiometric complex formation, large conformational changes and combinations of both. This chapter aims to share the practical experience that has been gained from the application of these novel approaches. Current insights on how to prepare the data and how to perform two- or three-dimensional classifications are discussed together with aspects related to high-performance computing. Thereby, this chapter will hopefully be of practical use for those microscopists wanting to apply maximum likelihood methods in their own investigations. PMID:20888966

  13. E/M impedance modeling and experimentation for the piezoelectric wafer active sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamas, Tuncay; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Lin, Bin

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to develop theoretical models to accurately predict the in-plane (longitudinal) and out-of-plane (thickness-wise) modes of the electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) of a piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS). Two main electrical assumptions are applied for both in-plane and thickness mode PWAS-EMIS in one-dimensional simplified analytical models. These assumptions are 1) constant electrical field assumption and 2) constant electrical displacement assumption. The analytical models with two assumptions are compared with one another to understand the prediction accuracy of the models in different vibration modes. Coupled field finite element analysis (CF-FEA) is also conducted with 2D PWAS model under stress-free boundary conditions. The simulations of the simplified analytical models for free PWAS-EMIS under these two assumptions are carried out. The analytical models are validated by corresponding finite element simulations as well as experimental measurements.

  14. 26 CFR 1.956-1T - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property (temporary). 1.956-1T... rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States... with respect to the general credit or other assets of the investing controlled foreign corporation....

  15. 26 CFR 1.956-1T - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property (temporary). 1.956-1T... rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States... with respect to the general credit or other assets of the investing controlled foreign corporation....

  16. 26 CFR 1.956-1T - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property (temporary). 1.956-1T... rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States... with respect to the general credit or other assets of the investing controlled foreign corporation....

  17. 26 CFR 1.956-1T - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property (temporary). 1.956-1T... rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States... with respect to the general credit or other assets of the investing controlled foreign corporation....

  18. RDBMS Based Lexical Resource for Indian Heritage: The Case of Mahābhārata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Diwakar

    The paper describes a lexical resource in the form of a relational database based indexing system for Sanskrit documents - Mahābhārata (MBh) as an example. The system is available online on http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/mb with input and output in Devanāgarī Unicode, using technologies such as RDBMS and Java Servlet. The system works as an interactive and multi-dimensional indexing system with search facility for MBh and has potentials for use as a generic system for all Sanskrit texts of similar structure. Currently, the system allows three types of searching facilities- 'Direct Search', 'Alphabetical Search' and 'Search by Classes'. The input triggers an indexing process by which a temporary index is created for the search string, and then clicking on any indexed word displays the details for that word and also a facility to search that word in some other online lexical resources.

  19. The influence of meteorological factors and biomass burning on surface ozone concentrations at Tanah Rata, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, Ying Ying; Lim, Sze Fook; von Glasow, Roland

    2013-05-01

    The surface ozone concentrations at the Tanah Rata regional Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station, Malaysia (4°28‧N, 101°23‧E, 1545 m above Mean Sea Level (MSL)) from June 2006 to August 2008 were analyzed in this study. Overall the ozone mixing ratios are very low; the seasonal variations show the highest mixing ratios during the Southwest monsoon (average 19.1 ppb) and lowest mixing ratios during the spring intermonsoon (average 14.2 ppb). The diurnal variation of ozone is characterised by an afternoon maximum and night time minimum. The meteorological conditions that favour the formation of high ozone levels at this site are low relative humidity, high temperature and minimum rainfall. The average ozone concentration is lower during precipitation days compared to non-precipitation days. The hourly averaged ozone concentrations show significant correlations with temperature and relative humidity during the Northeast monsoon and spring intermonsoon. The highest concentrations are observed when the wind is blowing from the west. We found an anticorrelation between the atmospheric pressure tide and ozone concentrations. The ozone mixing ratios do not exceed the recommended Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for 1-h and 8-h averages. Five day backward trajectories on two high ozone episodes in 07 August 2006 (40.0 ppb) and 24 February 2008 (45.7 ppb) are computed using the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to investigate the origin of the pollutants and influence of regional transport. The high ozone episode during 07 August 2006 (burning season during southwest monsoon) is mainly attributed to regional transport from biomass burning in Sumatra, whereas favourable meteorological conditions (i.e. low relative humidity, high temperature and solar radiation, zero rainfall) and long range transport from Indo-China have elevated the ozone concentrations during 24 February 2008.

  20. 26 CFR 1.955A-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from investment in foreign base company shipping operations. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.955A-1 Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from investment in foreign...

  1. 26 CFR 1.955A-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from investment in foreign base company shipping operations. 1.955A-1 Section 1.955A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES...

  2. 26 CFR 1.955A-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of... any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1975, from investment in foreign base company shipping..., 1975, and (3) the amount described in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph; or (B) The sum of the...

  3. Experimental Comparison of the High-Speed Imaging Performance of an EM-CCD and sCMOS Camera in a Dynamic Live-Cell Imaging Test Case

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Hope T.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-01-01

    The study of living cells may require advanced imaging techniques to track weak and rapidly changing signals. Fundamental to this need is the recent advancement in camera technology. Two camera types, specifically sCMOS and EM-CCD, promise both high signal-to-noise and high speed (>100 fps), leaving researchers with a critical decision when determining the best technology for their application. In this article, we compare two cameras using a live-cell imaging test case in which small changes in cellular fluorescence must be rapidly detected with high spatial resolution. The EM-CCD maintained an advantage of being able to acquire discernible images with a lower number of photons due to its EM-enhancement. However, if high-resolution images at speeds approaching or exceeding 1000 fps are desired, the flexibility of the full-frame imaging capabilities of sCMOS is superior. PMID:24404178

  4. In plant demonstration of high temperature EM pulser and pulsed EMAT receiver: Final report: Experimental development and testing of ultrasonic system for high temperature applications on hot steel

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, D.M.; Sperline, P.D.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes work performed under the Field Work Proposal on the ''In-Plant Demonstration of a High-Temperature EM Pulser and pulsed EMAT Receiver'' for the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Programs. Cost sharing by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) helped provide both technical guidance and equipment for the plant demonstration. This report covers the time period from January 1988 through September 1988.

  5. Soil-geomorphology interactions and paleoclimatic implications of an ornithogenic soil toposequence on Rata Island, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Fábio Soares; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Abrahão, Walter Antônio Pereira; Clemente, Eliane de Paula; Simas, Felipe Nogueira Bello

    2014-07-01

    The formation of highly phosphatized soils on sites of avian activity is a common feature of oceanic islands. We characterized a toposequence of phosphatic soils on Rata Island, to evaluate the soil genesis based on local topographic variations. For this purpose, four soils ranging from the upper hill down to the lowest landscape position on the island, representing a range of parent materials (basalt and calcareous sands), were analyzed. In the lowest landscape position a shallow Regosol was identified, strongly influenced by birds and marine sprays, developed on “karstified” Pleistocene calcarenites; the three other soils in the upper part of the toposequence are Ornithogenic Cambisols, ranging from a deep Cambisol profile on Basalt lava to intermediate Cambisols on mixed colluvial sediments of the basalt/calcareous. The lowermost Regosol is associated with a rugged landscape with strong calcarenite dissolution and karstification. The soil phosphatization is clearly an inherited process of the Late Quaternary age, when climate conditions were different. Initial weathering took place in the last interglacial period, under wetter conditions during which the Tertiary basalts were strongly weathered, leaving corestones in a saprolitic, oxidized mass. In the late Pleistocene, a gentle surface distributed these weathering products along the pediment slopes as colluvial materials, whereas in the coastal areas aeolian processes formed large sand dunes composed of reworked calcareous sands from marine sources during a time of very low sea level. During this time, widespread bird activity accounted for secondary apatite formation on the surface of calcareous oolites. Finally, the Holocene warming was accompanied by increasing sea level, enhanced tropical weathering, Fe and Al mobility and variscite formation superimposed on degraded Ca-phosphates, forming two phase phosphatic aggregates.

  6. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  7. Experimental Pi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corris, G.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the calculation of pi by means of experimental methods. Polygon circle ratios, Archimedes' method, Buffon's needles, a Monte Carlo method, and prime number approaches are used. Presents three BASIC programs for the calculations. (YP)

  8. emGain: Determination of EM gain of CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the EM gain of the CCD is best done by fitting the histogram of many low-light frames. Typically, the dark+CIC noise of a 30ms frame itself is a sufficient amount of signal to determine accurately the EM gain with about 200 512x512 frames. The IDL code emGain takes as an input a cube of frames and fit the histogram of all the pixels with the EM stage output probability function. The function returns the EM gain of the frames as well as the read-out noise and the mean signal level of the frames.

  9. Experimental philosophy.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious? PMID:21801019

  10. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation. PMID:16501652

  11. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  12. Bioterrorism awareness for EMS.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Richard W

    2004-04-01

    It is important to understand that the issues surrounding bioterrorism and all weapons of mass destruction are complex. In an effort to enhance response to such events, EMS should handle all incidents from the perspective of an all-hazards approach. Prevention, preparation, response and recovery are essential to the safe mitigation of all incidents. Organizations must be prepared. Plan now for a safer tomorrow. Your personnel and communities depend on you. PMID:15131906

  13. Experimental macroevolution.

    PubMed

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-13

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705

  14. Experimental macroevolution†

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705

  15. Experimental tectonophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Handin, J.; Logan, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    Because virtually all tectonophysical processes are marked by the overburden, or occur to slowly for adequate observation in anthropocentric time, or both, they must be studied in carefully controlled laboratory experiments that simulate the natural environment as realistically as is practicable. Extrapolations of laboratory data in space and time are invalid unless the experimental and natural phenomenologies are essentially the same. The size of conventional specimens is of the order of 10 cm, whereas the discontinuities (defects in a continuum) in real rock-masses are often much larger, of the order of 1 m or more. Furthermore, such discontinuities as macrofractures (joints) may well dominate the mechanical and fluid-transport properties in nature. Adequate sampling of rock-mass properties will probably always require in-situ testing, but testing machines much larger than any now available could provide useful data at least at intermediate scale.

  16. Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    2000-01-12

    This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

  17. Experimental Tachyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soli, George

    2008-05-01

    In the physics of potential superluminal information transfer, causality is preserved by the experimental identification of the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) rest frame, as the preferred inertial frame in which potential superluminal information transfer is isotropic [Rembielinski] (http://arxiv.org/PScache/quant-ph/pdf/0010/0010026v2.pdf). Potential superluminal information transfer is engineered by tunneling through two successive barriers [Olkhovsky] (http://arxiv.org/PScache/quant-ph/pdf/0002/0002022v5.pdf). In our experiment we use two meter wavelength photons tunneling through two water-tank barriers, separated by an air-gap length [Soli] (http://www.siderealdilaton.com/). The data presented in this talk demonstrates that if the air-gap length is adjusted for subluminal information transfer, then the democracy of inertial frames is recovered, and no preferred frame is measured. The one-way subluminal tunneling group velocity of light is shown to be isotropic to accuracy below the CMB rest frame velocity. It has already been argued in the literature that Einstein's special relativity with tachyons predicts the existence of antimatter [Recami] (http://arxiv.org/PScache/arxiv/pdf/0709/0709.2453v1.pdf). We conjecture that the dilaton scalar particle is discovered by any sidereal data producible by this instrument.

  18. Experimental evaluation of the twofold electromagnetic enhancement theory of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Itoh, Tamitake; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2009-02-15

    We examined an electromagnetic (EM) theory of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) using single Ag nanoaggregates. The SERRS-EM theory is characterized by twofold EM enhancement induced by the coupling of plasmon resonance with both excitation and emission of Raman scattering plus fluorescence. The total emission cross-section spectra of enhanced Raman scattering and enhanced fluorescence were calculated using the following parameters: the spectrum of enhancement factor induced by plasmon resonance, resonance Raman scattering overlapped with fluorescence, and excitation wavelengths. The calculations well agreed with experimental total emission cross-section spectra, thus providing strong indications that the SERRS-EM theory is quantitatively correct.

  19. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  20. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  1. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  2. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  3. Experimental evidence of electromagnetic pollution of ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Denis

    The Earth’s ionosphere responds to external perturbations originated mainly in the Sun, which is the primary driver of the space weather (SW). But solar activity influences on the ionosphere and the Earth's atmosphere (i.e., the energy transfer in the direction of the Sun-magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere-surface of the Earth), though important, is not a unique factor affecting its state - there is also a significant impact of the powerful natural and anthropogenic processes, which occur on the Earth’s surface and propagating in opposite direction along the Earth’s surface-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere chain. Numerous experimental data confirm that the powerful sources and consumers of electrical energy (radio transmitters, power plants, power lines and industrial objects) cause different ionospheric phenomena, for example, changes of the electromagnetic (EM) field and plasma in the ionosphere, and affect on the state of the Earth atmosphere. Anthropogenic EM effects in the ionosphere are already observed by the scientific satellites and the consequences of their impact on the ionosphere are not currently known. Therefore, it is very important and urgent task to conduct the statistically significant research of the ionospheric parameters variations due to the influence of the powerful man-made factors, primarily owing to substantial increase of the EM energy production. Naturally, the satellite monitoring of the ionosphere and magnetosphere in the frequency range from tens of hertz to tens of MHz with wide ground support offers the best opportunity to observe the EM energy release, both in the global and local scales. Parasitic EM radiation from the power supply lines, when entering the ionosphere-magnetosphere system, might have an impact on the electron population in the radiation belt. Its interaction with trapped particles will change their energy and pitch angles; as a result particle precipitations might occur. Observations of EM emission by

  4. Is EMS communicating with the FCC?

    PubMed

    Johnson, M S; VanCott, C; Glass, C; Anderson, P B

    1989-07-01

    Radio communication problems in EMS run the spectrum from annoying to deadly. Dedicated radio frequencies for EMS, much like those exclusive to police and fire departments, are long overdue. PMID:10293680

  5. Experimental Summary and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Bosted

    2005-02-01

    A brief experimental overview of the workshop is given, with emphasis on polarized targets from the experimental equipment perspective, and kinematic coverage, precision, and newly investigated channels from the experimental results perspective.

  6. Alveolar Echinococcosis: Characterization of Diagnostic Antigen Em18 and Serological Evaluation of Recombinant Em18

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira

    2002-01-01

    The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:12149326

  7. Exploring conformational modes of macromolecular assemblies by multi-particle cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Spahn, Christian M.T.; Penczek, Pawel A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique aimed at structure determination of large macromolecular complexes in their unconstrained, physiological conditions. The power of the method has been demonstrated in selected studies where for highly symmetric molecules the resolution attained permitted backbone tracing. However, most molecular complexes appear to exhibit intrinsic conformational variability necessary to perform their functions. Therefore, it is now increasingly recognized that sample heterogeneity constitutes a major methodological challenge for cryo-EM. To overcome it dedicated experimental and particularly computational multi-particle approaches have been developed. Their applications point to the future of cryo-EM as an experimental method uniquely suited to visualize the conformational modes of large macromolecular complexes and machines. PMID:19767196

  8. Analysis of the electrochemistry of hemes with Ems spanning 800 mV

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Gunner, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The free energy of heme reduction in different proteins is found to vary over more than 18 kcal/mol. It is a challenge to determine how proteins manage to achieve this enormous range of Ems with a single type of redox cofactor. Proteins containing 141 unique hemes of a-, b-, and c-type, with bis-His, His-Met, and aquo-His ligation were calculated using Multi-Conformation Continuum Electrostatics (MCCE). The experimental Ems range over 800 mV from −350 mV in cytochrome c3 to 450 mV in cytochrome c peroxidase (vs. SHE). The quantitative analysis of the factors that modulate heme electrochemistry includes the interactions of the heme with its ligands, the solvent, the protein backbone, and sidechains. MCCE calculated Ems are in good agreement with measured values. Using no free parameters the slope of the line comparing calculated and experimental Ems is 0.73 (R2 = 0.90), showing the method accounts for 73% of the observed Em range. Adding a +160 mV correction to the His-Met c-type hemes yields a slope of 0.97 (R2 = 0.93). With the correction 65% of the hemes have an absolute error smaller than 60 mV and 92% are within 120 mV. The overview of heme proteins with known structures and Ems shows both the lowest and highest potential hemes are c-type, whereas the b-type hemes are found in the middle Em range. In solution, bis-His ligation lowers the Em by ≈205 mV relative to hemes with His-Met ligands. The bis-His, aquo-His, and His-Met ligated b-type hemes all cluster about Ems which are ≈200 mV more positive in protein than in water. In contrast, the low potential bis-His c-type hemes are shifted little from in solution, whereas the high potential His-Met c-type hemes are raised by ≈300 mV from solution. The analysis shows that no single type of interaction can be identified as the most important in setting heme electrochemistry in proteins. For example, the loss of solvation (reaction field) energy, which raises the Em, has been suggested to be a major factor in

  9. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  10. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Edward B.

    With an emphasis on the problems of control of extraneous variables and threats to internal and external validity, the arrangement or design of experiments is discussed. The purpose of experimentation in an educational institution, and the principles governing true experimentation (randomization, replication, and control) are presented, as are…

  11. Immune protection of microneme 7 (EmMIC7) against Eimeria maxima challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P < .05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation response compared with the controls (P < .05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC7 and rEmMIC7 displayed significantly high levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, IL-10, IL-17, tumour growth factor-β and IL-4 (P < .05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant antigen and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. The anti-coccidial index (ACI) of the pVAX1-MIC7 group was 167.84, higher than that of the recombinant MIC7 protein group, 167.10. Our data suggested that immunization with EmMIC7 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima. PMID:26181095

  12. Definition of "experimental procedures".

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    This Practice Committee Opinion provides a revised definition of "experimental procedures." This version replaces the document "Definition of Experimental" that was published most recently in November 2008. PMID:19836733

  13. Microexperiencia Educativa (Microeducational Experimentation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton Meis, Roberto

    1970-01-01

    Experimentation for educational reform in Argentina is limited to specifically designated schools which are to be in a permanent state of experimentation. This article presents the official statements designating the experimental schools and includes remarks covering administration, evaluation, and supervision. (VM)

  14. Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburini, Fabrizio; Mari, Elettra; Thidé, Bo; Barbieri, Cesare; Romanato, Filippo

    2011-11-01

    The experimental evidence that radio techniques can be used for synthesizing and analyzing non-integer electromagnetic (EM) orbital angular momentum (OAM) of radiation is presented. The technique used amounts to sample, in space and time, the EM field vectors and digitally processing the data to calculate the vortex structure, the spatial phase distribution, and the OAM spectrum of the radiation. The experimental verification that OAM-carrying beams can be readily generated and exploited by using radio techniques paves the way to an entirely new paradigm of radar and radio communication protocols.

  15. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  16. Evaluation model calculations with the water reactor analysis package (WRAP-EM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, M.V.; Beranek, F.

    1982-01-01

    The Water Reactor Analysis Package-Evaluation Model (WRAP-EM) is a modular system of computer codes designed to provide the safety analyst with the capability of performing complete loss-of-coolant calculations for both pressurized- and boiling-water reactor systems. The system provides a licensing-type calculation capability and thus contains most of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission-Approved EM options, as described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix K. All phases of an accident (blowdown, refill, and reflood) are modeled. The WRAP consists of modified versions of five preexisting codes (RELAP4/MOD5, GAPCON, FRAP, MOXY, and NORCOOL), the necessary interfaces to permit automatic transition from one code to the next during the transient calculations, plus a host of user-convenience features to aid the analyst faced with a multitude of EM calculations. The WRAP has been verified against both calculated and experimental results.

  17. Experimentation in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Selby, R. W.; Hutchens, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Experimentation in software engineering supports the advancement of the field through an iterative learning process. In this paper, a framework for analyzing most of the experimental work performed in software engineering over the past several years is presented. A variety of experiments in the framework is described and their contribution to the software engineering discipline is discussed. Some useful recommendations for the application of the experimental process in software engineering are included.

  18. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  19. View of Spacelab engineering Model (EM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    View of Spacelab engineering Model (EM) as it is being brought in the O and C bldg at Kenndey Space Center (27464); view of the EM as it is being offloaded from the C-54 aircraft. Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 108-KSC-80-OC-666 (27465); model taken out to launch pad (27466).

  20. EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

  1. Prevention and Immunotherapy of Secondary Murine Alveolar Echinococcosis Employing Recombinant EmP29 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Hemphill, Andrew; Huber, Cristina Olivia; Spiliotis, Markus; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. An increasing understanding of immunological events that account for the metacestode survival in human and murine AE infection prompted us to undertake explorative experiments tackling the potential of novel preventive and/or immunotherapeutic measures. In this study, the immunoprotective and immunotherapeutic ability of recombinant EmP29 antigen (rEmP29) was assessed in mice that were intraperitoneally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes. For vaccination, three intraperitoneal injections with 20μg rEmP29 emulsified in saponin adjuvants were applied over 6 weeks. 2 weeks after the last boost, mice were infected, and at 90 days post-infection, rEmP29-vaccinated mice exhibited a median parasite weight that was reduced by 75% and 59% when compared to NaCl- or saponin–treated control mice, respectively. For immunotherapeutical application, the rEmP29 (20μg) vaccine was administered to experimentally infected mice, starting at 1 month post-infection, three times with 2 weeks intervals. Mice undergoing rEmP29 immunotherapy exhibited a median parasite load that was reduced by 53% and 49% when compared to NaCl- and saponin–treated control mice, respectively. Upon analysis of spleen cells, both, vaccination and treatment with rEmP29, resulted in low ratios of Th2/Th1 (IL-4/IFN-γ) cytokine mRNA and low levels of mRNA coding for IL-10 and IL-2. These results suggest that reduction of the immunosuppressive environment takes place in vaccinated as well as immunotreated mice, and a shift towards a Th1 type of immune response may be responsible for the observed increased restriction of parasite growth. The present study provides the first evidence that active immunotherapy may present a sustainable route for the control of AE. PMID:26053794

  2. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  3. Association of Disomic Chromosome Loss with Ems-Induced Conversion in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Experimental tests with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a previously proposed model suggesting a causal relationship between disomic chromosome loss (n + 1 → n) and centromere-adjacent mitotic gene conversion were performed. Disomic haploid cells heteroallelic at two loci on the left arm of chromosome III were exposed to ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) under nonlethal conditions; EMS-induced prototrophic gene convertants were selected and tested for coincident chromosome loss. The principal results are: (1) The frequency of chromosome loss among EMS-induced gene convertants selected to arise near the centromere is markedly enhanced over basal levels and remains constant, independent of EMS exposure. There is little such enhancement among EMS-induced convertants selected to arise far from the centromere. (2) Chromosome loss is almost completely associated with induced conversion of the centromere-proximal allele at the centromere-adjacent heteroallelic locus. This result is identical to (and confirms) results found previously for spontaneous loss-associated conversion. (3) The conversion polarity at the centromere-adjacent locus among unselected (nonloss-associated) induced or spontaneous mitotic convertants is identical to that among meiotic convertants and markedly favors the contromere-distal allele. These findings are wholly consistent with, and strengthen, the hypothesis that structural involvement of centromeric regions in nearby recombinational events may interfere with proper segregational function and lead to mitotic chromosome loss. PMID:7021313

  4. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  5. 7. VIEW WEST, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST WELL HOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST WELL HOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST BUNKHOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST GARAGE, AND FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST RESIDENCE. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  6. The Experimental Hydrology Wiki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Theresa; van Meerveld, Ilja; Graeff, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The "Experimental Hydrology Wiki" is a forum for hydrologists to learn about, recommend, question and discuss new and established, basic and advanced methods and equipment for hydrological research. As a database of "lessons learned" it does not only contain short descriptions of specific experimental equipment but also information on encountered errors and problems and recommendations on how to deal with them. This makes valuable personal field experience accessible to a wider audience. The Wiki allows experimentalists to share and find solutions for common problems and thus helps us in not making the same mistakes others have made before us. At the same time modellers can use this platform to find information on sources of error and uncertainty in the data they use for model validation and calibration. The general idea and layout of the Experimental Hydrology Wiki is presented here along with an invitation to all experimental hydrologists to contribute their knowledge and experiences! http://www.experimental- hydrology.net/

  7. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic generator experimental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, E. S.

    1972-01-01

    The results for an experimental study of a one wavelength MHD induction generator operating on a liquid flow are presented. First the design philosophy and the experimental generator design are summarized, including a description of the flow loop and instrumentation. Next a Fourier series method of treating the fact that the magnetic flux density produced by the stator is not a pure traveling sinusoid is described and some results summarized. This approach appears to be of interest after revisions are made, but the initial results are not accurate. Finally, some of the experimental data is summarized for various methods of excitation.

  9. Experimental Semiotics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:21369364

  10. A Training Tool and Methodology to Allow Concurrent Multidisciplinary Experimental Projects in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseda, F. J.; Martija, I.; Martija, I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Electrical Machine and Power Electronic Training Tool (EM&PE[subscript TT]), a methodology for using it, and associated experimental educational activities. The training tool is implemented by recreating a whole power electronics system, divided into modular blocks. This process is similar to that applied when…

  11. Denoising and covariance estimation of single particle cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Bhamre, Tejal; Zhang, Teng; Singer, Amit

    2016-07-01

    The problem of image restoration in cryo-EM entails correcting for the effects of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) and noise. Popular methods for image restoration include 'phase flipping', which corrects only for the Fourier phases but not amplitudes, and Wiener filtering, which requires the spectral signal to noise ratio. We propose a new image restoration method which we call 'Covariance Wiener Filtering' (CWF). In CWF, the covariance matrix of the projection images is used within the classical Wiener filtering framework for solving the image restoration deconvolution problem. Our estimation procedure for the covariance matrix is new and successfully corrects for the CTF. We demonstrate the efficacy of CWF by applying it to restore both simulated and experimental cryo-EM images. Results with experimental datasets demonstrate that CWF provides a good way to evaluate the particle images and to see what the dataset contains even without 2D classification and averaging. PMID:27129418

  12. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  13. Nuclear test experimental science

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  14. Unified Data Resource for CryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    3D cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction methods are uniquely able to reveal structures of many important macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. EMDataBank.org, a joint effort of the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe), the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB), and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI), is a “one-stop shop” resource for global deposition and retrieval of cryoEM map, model and associated metadata. The resource unifies public access to the two major EM Structural Data archives: EM Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB), and facilitates use of EM structural data of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes by the wider scientific community. PMID:20888470

  15. Many factors complicate EM susceptibility tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, R. J.

    1982-09-01

    Procedures and apparatus currently employed for assaying the EM susceptibility of communication, navigation, and EW equipment are described. Susceptibility is examined in either conducted susceptibility tests, where signals are introduced into the input port of the device under test, or in radiated modes, where the entire device is exposed to an EM field to test for component and system failure. Noting that military standards require up to 10 times the EM resistance as commercial standards, the use of shielded enclosures in both commercial and military testing facilities is explored. RF-tight enclosures are filled with a homogeneous EM field produced by, optimally, broadband generators which emit signals which are amplified to desired levels. Sweep functions permit testing under broadband conditions. Attention is given to radiator selection and antenna choice to produce satisfactory test conditions at all frequencies.

  16. EMS in Taiwan: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wen-Chu; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Wang, Hui-Chih; Yang, Chi-Wei; Shih, Fuh-Yuan; Hsiung, Kuang-Hua; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan is a small island country located in East Asia. From around 1995 modern concepts of the EMS were imported and supported by legislation. Considerable progress has since been made towards the construction of an effective pre-hospital care system. This article introduces the current status of the EMS in Taiwan, including the systems, response configurations, funding, personnel, medical directorship, and outcome research. The features and problems of in-hospital emergency care are also discussed. Key areas for further development in the country vary depending on regional differences in available resource and population density. An analysis of the strength, weakness, opportunity, and threats of the evolving EMS in Taiwan could be an example for other countries where the EMS is undergoing a similar process of development and optimisation. PMID:19059690

  17. Experimental scattershot boson sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bentivegna, Marco; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Flamini, Fulvio; Viggianiello, Niko; Latmiral, Ludovico; Mataloni, Paolo; Brod, Daniel J.; Galvão, Ernesto F.; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Boson sampling is a computational task strongly believed to be hard for classical computers, but efficiently solvable by orchestrated bosonic interference in a specialized quantum computer. Current experimental schemes, however, are still insufficient for a convincing demonstration of the advantage of quantum over classical computation. A new variation of this task, scattershot boson sampling, leads to an exponential increase in speed of the quantum device, using a larger number of photon sources based on parametric down-conversion. This is achieved by having multiple heralded single photons being sent, shot by shot, into different random input ports of the interferometer. We report the first scattershot boson sampling experiments, where six different photon-pair sources are coupled to integrated photonic circuits. We use recently proposed statistical tools to analyze our experimental data, providing strong evidence that our photonic quantum simulator works as expected. This approach represents an important leap toward a convincing experimental demonstration of the quantum computational supremacy. PMID:26601164

  18. Experimental probes of axions

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Aaron S.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Experimental searches for axions or axion-like particles rely on semiclassical phenomena resulting from the postulated coupling of the axion to two photons. Sensitive probes of the extremely small coupling constant can be made by exploiting familiar, coherent electromagnetic laboratory techniques, including resonant enhancement of transitions using microwave and optical cavities, Bragg scattering, and coherent photon-axion oscillations. The axion beam may either be astrophysical in origin as in the case of dark matter axion searches and solar axion searches, or created in the laboratory from laser interactions with magnetic fields. This note is meant to be a sampling of recent experimental results.

  19. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  20. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  1. EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.D.

    1994-10-01

    An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

  2. Compositions of HIMU, EM1, and EM2 from global trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements in ocean island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Matthew G.; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2008-11-01

    Sr and Pb isotopes exhibit global trends with the concentrations of major elements (SiO 2, TiO 2, FeO, Al 2O 3 and K 2O) and major elements ratios (CaO/Al 2O 3 and K 2O/TiO 2) in the shield-stage lavas from 18 oceanic hotspots (including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos, Cook-Australs, St. Helena, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Canary, Madeira, Comoros, Azores, Samoa, Society, Marquesas, Mascarene, Kerguelen, Pitcairn, and Selvagen). Based on the relationships between major elements and isotopes in ocean island basalts (OIBs), we find that the lavas derived from the mantle end members, HIMU (or high 'μ' = 238U/ 204Pb), EM1 (enriched mantle 1), EM2 (enriched mantle 2), and DMM (depleted MORB [mid-ocean ridge basalt] mantle) exhibit distinct major element characteristics: When compared to oceanic hotspots globally, the hotspots with a HIMU (radiogenic Pb-isotopes and low 87Sr/ 86Sr) component, such as St. Helena and Cook-Australs, exhibit high CaO/Al 2O 3, FeO T, and TiO 2 and low SiO 2 and Al 2O 3. EM1 (enriched mantle 1; intermediate 87Sr/ 86Sr and low 206Pb/ 204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Pitcairn and Kerguelen) and EM2 (enriched mantle 2; high 87Sr/ 86Sr and intermediate 206Pb/ 204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Samoa and Societies) exhibit higher K 2O concentrations and K 2O/TiO 2 weight ratios than HIMU lavas. EM1 lavas exhibit the lowest CaO/Al 2O 3 in the OIB dataset, and this sets EM1 apart from EM2. A plot of CaO/Al 2O 3 vs K 2O/TiO 2 perfectly resolves the four mantle end member lavas. Melting processes (pressure, temperature and degree of melting) fail to provide an explanation for the full spectrum of major element concentrations in OIBs. Such processes also fail to explain the correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotopes. Instead, a long, time integrated history of various parent-daughter elements appears to be coupled to major element and/or volatile heterogeneity in the mantle source. End member lava compositions are compared with experimental partial

  3. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  4. Communicating Uncertain Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alexander L.; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments examined when laypeople attribute unexpected experimental outcomes to error, in foresight and in hindsight, along with their judgments of whether the data should be published. Participants read vignettes describing hypothetical experiments, along with the result of the initial observation, considered as either a possibility…

  5. Experimental fluvial geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Schumm, S.A.; Mosley, M.P.; Weaver, W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors bring together the results of several years of experimental work in drainage basin evolution, hydrology, river-channel morphology, and sedimentology. These investigations are related to real-world applications, particularly geological exploration and mapping. This text shows how awareness of natural phenomena can improve management of the natural environment, such as the control of rivers and eroding gullies.

  6. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  7. Teaching experimental design.

    PubMed

    Fry, Derek J

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of poor design and published concerns over study quality stimulated the development of courses on experimental design intended to improve matters. This article describes some of the thinking behind these courses and how the topics can be presented in a variety of formats. The premises are that education in experimental design should be undertaken with an awareness of educational principles, of how adults learn, and of the particular topics in the subject that need emphasis. For those using laboratory animals, it should include ethical considerations, particularly severity issues, and accommodate learners not confident with mathematics. Basic principles, explanation of fully randomized, randomized block, and factorial designs, and discussion of how to size an experiment form the minimum set of topics. A problem-solving approach can help develop the skills of deciding what are correct experimental units and suitable controls in different experimental scenarios, identifying when an experiment has not been properly randomized or blinded, and selecting the most efficient design for particular experimental situations. Content, pace, and presentation should suit the audience and time available, and variety both within a presentation and in ways of interacting with those being taught is likely to be effective. Details are given of a three-day course based on these ideas, which has been rated informative, educational, and enjoyable, and can form a postgraduate module. It has oral presentations reinforced by group exercises and discussions based on realistic problems, and computer exercises which include some analysis. Other case studies consider a half-day format and a module for animal technicians. PMID:25541547

  8. De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

    A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

  9. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  10. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion. PMID:25862639

  11. Development of thiamine deficiencies and early mortality syndrome in lake trout by feeding experimental and feral fish diets containing thiaminase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Brown, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory investigation on the consequences of feeding predatory saimonids either experimental diets low in thiamine or diets containing alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. In experiment 1, adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were fed experimental diets containing bacterial thiaminase. In experiment 2, adult lake trout were fed natural prey species, alewives, and bloaters Coregonus hoyi. The diets consisted of four combinations of alewives and bloaters from Lake Michigan (100% alewives, 65% alewives-35% bloaters, 35% alewives-65% bloaters, and 100% bloaters), alewives from Cayuga Lake, a casein bacterial thiaminase, and a commercial trout diet. We assessed the effects of each diet on egg thiamine concentration and incidence of an embryonic early mortality syndrome (EMS). In experiment 1, incidence of EMS ranged from 0% to 100%. Significant relationships were found between the incidence of EMS and thiamine. In experiment 2, adult lake trout fed 100% alewives from either Lake Michigan or Cayuga Lake or fish fed the casein bacterial thiaminase diet produced eggs with low thiamine and swim-up fry with EMS. At either 35% or 65% alewives in the diet, egg thiamine was significantly lowered. The number of females that produced offspring that died from EMS were low but demonstrated the negative potential if feral lake trout foraged on either 35% or 65% alewives. Depleted egg thiamine and the onset of EMS required diets containing thiaminase for a minimum of 2 years in lake trout initially fully thiamine replete. We conclude that EMS can be caused by extensive feeding on 100% alewives and dietary levels of 35% or greater may prove detrimental to sustainable reproduction of salmonids in the Great Lakes. The data are consistent with that observed in feral lake trout, and it is concluded that EMS is the result of a thiamine deficiency. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  12. Blois V: Experimental summary

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    The author gives a summary talk of the best experimental data given at the Vth Blois Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering. He addresses the following eight areas in his talk: total and elastic cross sections; single diffractive excitation; electron-proton scattering; di-jets and rapidity gaps; areas of future study; spins and asymmetries; high-transverse momentum and masses at the Tevatron; and disoriented chiral condensates and cosmic radiation.

  13. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Walter, Chris [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

    2010-01-08

    In this talk, I will review how a set of experiments in the last decade has given us our current understanding of neutrino properties.  I will show how experiments in the last year or two have clarified this picture, and will discuss how new experiments about to start will address remaining questions.  I will particularly emphasize the relationship between various experimental techniques.

  14. Structural femtochemistry: experimental methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, J C; Zewail, A H

    1991-01-01

    The experimental methodology for structural femtochemistry of reactions is considered. With the extension of femtosecond transition-state spectroscopy to the diffraction regime, it is possible to obtain in a general way the trajectories of chemical reactions (change of internuclear separations with time) on the femtosecond time scale. This method, considered here for simple alkali halide dissociation, promises many applications to more complex reactions and to conformational changes. Alignment on the time scale of the experiments is also discussed. Images PMID:11607189

  15. MSFC Skylab experimenter's reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The methods and techniques for experiment development and integration that evolved during the Skylab Program are described to facilitate transferring this experience to experimenters in future manned space programs. Management responsibilities and the sequential process of experiment evolution from initial concept through definition, development, integration, operation and postflight analysis are outlined in the main text and amplified, as appropriate, in appendixes. Emphasis is placed on specific lessons learned on Skylab that are worthy of consideration by future programs.

  16. SAA drift: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, O. R.; Romashova, V. V.; Petrov, A. N.

    According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth’s magnetic field connected with magnetic moment changing. These variations affect on the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations approved the existence of the SAA westward drift rate (0.1 1.0 deg/year) and northward drift rate (approximately 0.1 deg/year). In this work, we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) onboard different Earth’s artificial satellites (1972 2003). The fluxes of protons with energy >50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy >500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1 1.0 MeV in the SAA region have been analyzed. The mentioned above experimental data were obtained onboard the orbital stations Salut-6 (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the similar experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact that the SAA drifts westward. Moreover the analysis of fluxes of electrons with energy about hundreds keV (Cosmos-484 (1972) and Active (Interkosmos-24, 1991) satellites) verified not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.

  17. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  18. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  19. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  20. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  1. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  2. A Graph Theory Method For Determination Of Cryo-EM Image Focuses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen; Guo, Fei; Liu, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of micrograph focuses is essential for averaging multiple images to reach high-resolution 3-D reconstructions in electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Current methods use iterative fitting of focus-dependent simulated power spectra to the power spectra of experimental images, with the fitting performed independently for different images. Here we have developed a novel graph theory based method in which the rotational average focus and individual angular sector focuses of all images are determined simultaneously in closed form using the least square solution of overdetermined linear equations. The new method was shown to be fast, accurate, and robust in tests with large datasets of experimental low dose cryo-EM images. Its integration with three classic power spectra fitting methods also allows cross validation of the results by these vastly different methods. The new integrated focus determination method will improve reliability of automated focus determination for large-scale data processing that is increasingly common in the cryo-EM field. PMID:22842112

  3. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. PMID:27572725

  4. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication

  5. Electrodeless Experimental Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Brainerd, Jerome J.; Reisz, Al

    2009-03-16

    An electrodeless experimental electric thruster has been built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The plasma is formed by Electron-Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) absorption of RF waves (microwaves). The RF source operates in the 1 to 2 kW range. The plasma is overdense and is confined radially by an applied axial dc magnetic field. The field is shaped by a strong magnetic mirror on the upstream end and a magnetic nozzle on the downstream end. Argon is used as the propellant. The velocity profile in the exhaust plume has been measured with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). An unusual bimodal velocity profile has been measured.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  7. Electric propulsion: Experimental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.; Friedly, V. J.; Keefer, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes experimental electric propulsion research which was carried out at the University of Tennessee Space Institute with support from the Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. Specifically, a multiplexed laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for obtaining vector velocities, Doppler temperatures, and relative number densities in the exhaust plumes from electric propulsion devices is described, and results are presented that were obtained on a low power argon arcjet. Also, preliminary Langmuir probe measurements on an ion source are described, and an update on the vacuum facility is presented.

  8. Electric Propulsion: Experimental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.; Friedly, V. J.; Keefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes experimental electric propulsion research which was carried out at the University of Tennessee Space Institute with support from the Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. Specifically, a multiplexed LIF technique for obtaining vector velocities, Doppler temperatures, and relative number densities in the exhaust plumes form electric propulsion devices is described, and results are presented that were obtained on a low power argon arcjet. Also, preliminary Langmuir probe measurements on an ion source are described, and an update on the vacuum facility is presented.

  9. Experimental turbine VT-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitek, Pavel; Milčák, Petr; Noga, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    The experimental air turbine VT400 is located in hall laboratories of the Department of Power System Engineering. It is a single-stage air turbine located in the suction of the compressor. It is able to solve various problems concerning the construction solution of turbine stages. The content of the article will deal mainly with the description of measurements on this turbine. The up-to-now research on this test rig will be briefly mentioned, too, as well as the description of the ongoing reconstruction.

  10. The mean field theory in EM procedures for blind Markov random field image restoration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J

    1993-01-01

    A Markov random field (MRF) model-based EM (expectation-maximization) procedure for simultaneously estimating the degradation model and restoring the image is described. The MRF is a coupled one which provides continuity (inside regions of smooth gray tones) and discontinuity (at region boundaries) constraints for the restoration problem which is, in general, ill posed. The computational difficulty associated with the EM procedure for MRFs is resolved by using the mean field theory from statistical mechanics. An orthonormal blur decomposition is used to reduce the chances of undesirable locally optimal estimates. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world images show that this approach provides good blur estimates and restored images. The restored images are comparable to those obtained by a Wiener filter in mean-square error, but are most visually pleasing. PMID:18296192

  11. Experimental myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Joison, Julio; Gilmour, David P.; Molokhia, Farouk A.; Pegg, C. A. S.; Hood, William B.

    1971-01-01

    The hemodynamic effects of tachycardia induced by atrial pacing were investigated in left ventricular failure of acute and healing experimental myocardial infarction in 20 intact, conscious dogs. Myocardial infarction was produced by gradual inflation of a balloon cuff device implanted around the left anterior descending coronary artery 10-15 days prior to the study. 1 hr after acute myocardial infarction, atrial pacing at a rate of 180 beats/min decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 19 to 8 mm Hg and left atrial pressure from 17 to 12 mm Hg, without change in cardiac output. In the healing phase of myocardial infarction 1 wk later, atrial pacing decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 17 to 9 mm Hg and increased the cardiac output by 37%. This was accompanied by evidence of peripheral vasodilation. In two dogs with healing anterior wall myocardial infarction, left ventricular failure was enhanced by partial occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery. Both the dogs developed pulmonary edema. Pacing improved left ventricular performance and relieved pulmonary edema in both animals. In six animals propranolol was given after acute infarction, and left ventricular function deteriorated further. However the pacing-induced augmentation of cardiac function was unaltered and, hence, is not mediated by sympathetics. The results show that the spontaneous heart rate in left ventricular failure of experimental canine myocardial infarction may be less than optimal and that maximal cardiac function may be achieved at higher heart rates. Images PMID:4395910

  12. Experimental immunogenic rubeosis iridis.

    PubMed

    Shabo, A L; Maxwell, D S; Shintaku, P; Kreiger, A E; Straatsma, B R

    1977-04-01

    We have developed a primate model of rubeosis iridis in monkeys systemically sensitized to crystalline beef insulin. After intravitreal insulin injection, the dose-related immunogenic inflammation includes cells, flare, fibrin, and blood in the anterior chamber. With more severe inflammation, posterior synechiae, iris bombé, and cataracts occur. Of particular importance, new blood vessels develop within the stroma and on the anterior surface of the iris. Following injection of small amounts of insulin, the anterior surface vessels may regress over time, and the iris regains its normal appearance and coloration. However, the new stromal vessels persist and are cuffed by inflammatory cells including plasma cells. After injection of large amounts of insulin, more extensive structural alterations develop as noted above in conjunction with persistent iris anterior surface and stromal neovascularization. The relationship of rubeosis iridis to clinical inflammatory syndromes and to previous laboratory studies is discussed. Stromal neovascularization was a consistent finding in this experimental model even when anterior surface vessels regressed. On the basis of these experimental data and a review of publications describing human pathology, we believe that a broadening of the classic definition of rubeosis iridis is waranted to include a recognition of the stromal component of the clinical and pathologic findings. PMID:403154

  13. Experimental melioidosis in hens.

    PubMed

    Vesselinova, A; Najdenski, H; Nikolova, S; Kussovski, V

    1996-08-01

    Experimental intramuscular infection of hens with Pseudomonas pseudomallei, strain 2796 (1 x 10(9) CFU from a 24-h culture) was reproduced. Clinical, paraclinical and pathomorphological findings were followed from 1 to 30 days after challenge. Haemagglutinin titre, bacterial dissemination in the viscera, number of leucocytes, alveolar (aMa) and peritoneal (pMa) macrophages and their phagocytic activity in vitro were studied. During the course of infection a leucocytosis as well as an increased haemagglutinin titre (1:256) were established. The number of bacteria per gram tissue in the spleen and liver was highest at 1 day post-infection (p.i.). Melioidose bacteria from egg yolk were isolated at 15 and 30 days p.i. Leucocyte and pMa phagocytic activity was maximal at 3 days p.i. unlike the activity of aMa which increased gradually until the end of the study. Inflammatory-necrotic changes were found in the viscera and brain at 3 and 15 days p.i. The investigation of experimental melioidosis infection in hens showed that they are susceptible to P. pseudomallei and this disease takes a generalized subacute course. PMID:8794700

  14. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries. PMID:12017891

  15. Experimentation in machine discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Simon, Herbert A.

    1990-01-01

    KEKADA, a system that is capable of carrying out a complex series of experiments on problems from the history of science, is described. The system incorporates a set of experimentation strategies that were extracted from the traces of the scientists' behavior. It focuses on surprises to constrain its search, and uses its strategies to generate hypotheses and to carry out experiments. Some strategies are domain independent, whereas others incorporate knowledge of a specific domain. The domain independent strategies include magnification, determining scope, divide and conquer, factor analysis, and relating different anomalous phenomena. KEKADA represents an experiment as a set of independent and dependent entities, with apparatus variables and a goal. It represents a theory either as a sequence of processes or as abstract hypotheses. KEKADA's response is described to a particular problem in biochemistry. On this and other problems, the system is capable of carrying out a complex series of experiments to refine domain theories. Analysis of the system and its behavior on a number of different problems has established its generality, but it has also revealed the reasons why the system would not be a good experimental scientist.

  16. Do earthquakes generate EM signals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Christina; Onacha, Stephen; Malin, Peter; Shalev, Eylon; Lucas, Alan

    2010-05-01

    study areas, large swarms of earthquakes were located very close to the electromagnetic coils. This abstract focuses on the data from the Wairakei area. Preliminary data analysis has been carried out by band pass filtering and removing of the harmonics of the 50 Hz power line frequency. The initial results clearly show that electromagnetic signals accompany the seismic P and S waves (coseismic signal). Further data analysis involves the extraction of the seismoelectric signal generated at the onset of the earthquake and at interfaces from the coseismic signal and other ‘noise' sources. This processing step exhibits a major challenge in seismoelectric data processing. Unlike in other studies we measured the EM field and the seismic field at one location. Therefore the seismoelectric wave travelling at the speed of light cannot be determined as easily in the arrival times as when an array of coils is used. This makes the determination of the origin time much more difficult. Hence other processing techniques need to be explored.

  17. Experimental Quantum Coin Tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terriza, G.; Vaziri, A.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present the first implementation of a quantum coin-tossing protocol. This protocol belongs to a class of “two-party” cryptographic problems, where the communication partners distrust each other. As with a number of such two-party protocols, the best implementation of the quantum coin tossing requires qutrits, resulting in a higher security than using qubits. In this way, we have also performed the first complete quantum communication protocol with qutrits. In our experiment the two partners succeeded to remotely toss a row of coins using photons entangled in the orbital angular momentum. We also show the experimental bounds of a possible cheater and the ways of detecting him.

  18. Experimental Quantum Error Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xian-Min; Yi, Zhen-Huan; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Fei; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Faithful transmission of quantum information is a crucial ingredient in quantum communication networks. To overcome the unavoidable decoherence in a noisy channel, to date, many efforts have been made to transmit one state by consuming large numbers of time-synchronized ancilla states. However, such huge demands of quantum resources are hard to meet with current technology and this restricts practical applications. Here we experimentally demonstrate quantum error detection, an economical approach to reliably protecting a qubit against bit-flip errors. Arbitrary unknown polarization states of single photons and entangled photons are converted into time bins deterministically via a modified Franson interferometer. Noise arising in both 10 m and 0.8 km fiber, which induces associated errors on the reference frame of time bins, is filtered when photons are detected. The demonstrated resource efficiency and state independence make this protocol a promising candidate for implementing a real-world quantum communication network. PMID:22953047

  19. Planetary impact experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Schultz, Peter H.; Hoerz, Friedrich

    1987-01-01

    An understanding of impact processes in low- and microgravity environments would be advanced significantly by the construction and use of an impact facility on the Space Station. It is proposed that initial studies begin as soon as possible in ground-based impact laboratories, on the NASA KC-135 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft, and in existing drop towers. The resulting experience and information base could then be applied toward an experiment package designed for use on Shuttle orbiters to support pilot studies in orbital environments. These experiments, as well as the first efforts made on the IOC Space Station, should involve the impact of various free-floating targets; such studies would yield a substantial scientific return while providing valuable experience and engineering information for use in refining the design of the dedicated Space Station Impact Facility. The dedicated facility should be designed to support impact experimentation, including but not limited to cratering, asteroid and ring-particle dynamics, and accretional processes.

  20. Experimental evolution gone wild.

    PubMed

    Scheinin, M; Riebesell, U; Rynearson, T A; Lohbeck, K T; Collins, S

    2015-05-01

    Because of their large population sizes and rapid cell division rates, marine microbes have, or can generate, ample variation to fuel evolution over a few weeks or months, and subsequently have the potential to evolve in response to global change. Here we measure evolution in the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi evolved in a natural plankton community in CO2-enriched mesocosms deployed in situ. Mesocosm enclosures are typically used to study how the species composition and biogeochemistry of marine communities respond to environmental shifts, but have not been used for experimental evolution to date. Using this approach, we detect a large evolutionary response to CO2 enrichment in a focal marine diatom, where population growth rate increased by 1.3-fold in high CO2-evolved lineages. This study opens an exciting new possibility of carrying out in situ evolution experiments to understand how marine microbial communities evolve in response to environmental change. PMID:25833241

  1. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  2. Characterization of experimental dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peffley, Nicholas L.; Goumilevski, Alexei G.; Cawthrone, A. B.; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2000-07-01

    Laboratory models of geophysical magnetic field production require new experi-mental characterization methods. Self-generating liquid metal magnetic dynamos are explored using two new experiments. Kinematic dynamo studies lead us to charac-terize the magnetic field dynamics in terms of eigenvalues and eigenfrequencies of the induction equation. Observing the decay of magnetic field pulses indicates the real part of the leading eigenvalue of the induction equation, while a chirp magnetic field diagnoses the imaginary part of the eigenvalue. Finally, a single-frequency applied magnetic field characterizes the structure of the velocity field. These measurements provide a new means to characterize and measure the approach to self-generation. We present data from numerical simulations and laboratory experiments using these techniques.

  3. Experimental evolution gone wild

    PubMed Central

    Scheinin, M.; Riebesell, U.; Rynearson, T. A.; Lohbeck, K. T.; Collins, S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of their large population sizes and rapid cell division rates, marine microbes have, or can generate, ample variation to fuel evolution over a few weeks or months, and subsequently have the potential to evolve in response to global change. Here we measure evolution in the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi evolved in a natural plankton community in CO2-enriched mesocosms deployed in situ. Mesocosm enclosures are typically used to study how the species composition and biogeochemistry of marine communities respond to environmental shifts, but have not been used for experimental evolution to date. Using this approach, we detect a large evolutionary response to CO2 enrichment in a focal marine diatom, where population growth rate increased by 1.3-fold in high CO2-evolved lineages. This study opens an exciting new possibility of carrying out in situ evolution experiments to understand how marine microbial communities evolve in response to environmental change. PMID:25833241

  4. Angular distributions of secondary particles in {sup 132}Xe + Em collisions at an energy of 1 GeV per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Basova, E.S.; Petrov, N.V.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tursunov, B.P.

    1995-03-01

    Data on the angular characteristics of charged secondary particles in {sup 132}Xe + Em collisions are presented. The experimental results are compared with the results of calculations made in the Dubna version of the cascade-evaporation model. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Experimenter bias and subliminal perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Paul J.; Rushton, J. Philippe

    1975-01-01

    It has been suggested that subliminal perception phenomena may be in part due to experimenter bias effects. Two studies that obtained positive evidence of subliminal perception were therefore replicated with experimenters tested under blind and not blind conditions. (Editor)

  6. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment

  7. Experimental impact crater morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  8. Estimating loop length from CryoEM images at medium resolutions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background De novo protein modeling approaches utilize 3-dimensional (3D) images derived from electron cryomicroscopy (CryoEM) experiments. The skeleton connecting two secondary structures such as α-helices represent the loop in the 3D image. The accuracy of the skeleton and of the detected secondary structures are critical in De novo modeling. It is important to measure the length along the skeleton accurately since the length can be used as a constraint in modeling the protein. Results We have developed a novel computational geometric approach to derive a simplified curve in order to estimate the loop length along the skeleton. The method was tested using fifty simulated density images of helix-loop-helix segments of atomic structures and eighteen experimentally derived density data from Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB). The test using simulated density maps shows that it is possible to estimate within 0.5Å of the expected length for 48 of the 50 cases. The experiments, involving eighteen experimentally derived CryoEM images, show that twelve cases have error within 2Å. Conclusions The tests using both simulated and experimentally derived images show that it is possible for our proposed method to estimate the loop length along the skeleton if the secondary structure elements, such as α-helices, can be detected accurately, and there is a continuous skeleton linking the α-helices. PMID:24565041

  9. Experimental quantum data locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.

  10. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  11. Experimental Harmonic Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, G. F. C.

    2014-05-01

    1. Elementary theory of harmonic motion; 2. Experimental work in harmonic motion; Experiment 1. Determination of g by a simple pendulum; Experiment 2. Harmonic motion of a body suspended by a spring; Experiment 3. Harmonic motion of a rigid body suspended by a torsion wire; Experiment 4. Study of a system with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 5. Dynamical determination of ratio of couple to twist for a torsion wire; Experiment 6. Comparison of the moments of inertia of two bodies; Experiment 7. Experiment with a pair of inertia bars; Experiment 8. Determination of the moment of inertia of a rigid pendulum; Experiment 9. Experiment on a pendulum with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 10. Determination of g by a rigid pendulum; Experiment 11. Pendulum on a yielding support; Experiment 12. Determination of the radius of curvature of a concave mirror by the oscillations of a sphere rolling in it; Experiment 13. Determination of g by the oscillations of a rod rolling on a cylinder; Experiment 14. Study of a vibrating system with two degrees of freedom; Note 1. On the vibration of a body suspended from a light spring; Note 2. Periodic time of a pendulum vibrating through a finite arc; Note 3. Periodic time for finite motion; Note 4. Periodic times of a pendulum with two degrees of freedom.

  12. Experimental Autoimmune Breast Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kesaraju, Pavani; Jaini, Ritika; Johnson, Justin M.; Altuntas, Cengiz Z.; Gruden, Jessica J.; Sakalar, Cagri; Tuohy, Vincent K.

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is a substantial clinical problem in lactating women that may result in severe pain and abrupt termination of breastfeeding, thereby predisposing infants to long-term health risks. Many cases of mastitis involve no known infectious agent and may fundamentally be due to autoimmune-mediated inflammation of the breast. Herein, we develop a murine model of autoimmune mastitis and provide a detailed characterization of its resulting phenotype of breast failure and lactation insufficiency. To generate breast-specific autoimmunity, we immunized SWXJ mice with recombinant mouse α-lactalbumin, a lactation-dependent, breast-specific differentiation protein critical for production of lactose. Mice immunized with α-lactalbumin showed extensive T-cell–mediated inflammation in lactating normal breast parenchyma but none in nonlactating normal breast parenchyma. This targeted autoimmune attack resulted in breast failure characterized by lactation insufficiency and decreased ability to nurture offspring. Although immunization with α-lactalbumin had no effect on fertility and birth numbers, pups nursed by α-lactalbumin–immunized mice showed significantly disrupted growth often accompanied by kwashiorkor-like nutritional abnormalities, including alopecia, liver toxicity, and runting. This experimental model of autoimmune breast failure has useful applications for prophylactic breast cancer vaccination and for addressing inflammatory complications during breastfeeding. In addition, this model is suited for investigating nutritionally based “failure-to-thrive” issues, particularly regarding the long-term implications of postnatal nutritional deprivation. PMID:22901749

  13. Experimental chloroquine retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, M; Ohkuma, M; Tsukahara, I

    1986-01-01

    Chloroquine retinopathy was produced experimentally in the eye of the albino corydoras (one of the tropical fish) by daily administration of chloroquine (0.1 mg per os). The enucleated eyes were examined from the 14th day to 3 months after the beginning of drug administration under light and electron microscopy. The first change of retina was the appearance of membraneous cytoplasmic body (MCB) in the cytoplasm of ganglion, amacrine, bipolar and horizontal cells. MCB might be degenerated lysosome. They showed lamellar figures or crystalline lattice-like structures. Secondarily, these MCB appeared in the inner segments of photoreceptor cells. The outer segments of rod cells disappeared, and then those of cone cells. Although photoreceptor cells were diminished in number in advanced degeneration, the cells of inner nuclear layer and ganglion cells were maintained in number. The presence of MCB dose not mean death of cells. The retinal pigment epithelial cells contained MCB in its cytoplasm only in severe degenerative cases, and did not show other remarkable changes. MCB also appeared in the cytoplasm of pericytes of retinal vessels. Chloroquine is considered to damage directly photoreceptor cells most severely. PMID:3018650

  14. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J. Sunil

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains. PMID:26783375

  15. De novo protein structure determination from near-atomic resolution cryo-EM maps

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Li, Xueming; Egelman, Edward H.; Basler, Marek; Cheng, Yifan; Baker, David; DiMaio, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We present a de novo model building approach that combines predicted backbone conformations with side-chain density-fit to accurately assign sequence into density maps. We show this method yields accurate models for six experimental maps at 3.3–4.8 Å resolution, and produces a nearly complete model for an unsolved map containing a 660-residue hetero-dimeric protein. This method should enable rapid and reliable protein structure determination from near-atomic resolution cryo-EM maps. PMID:25707029

  16. A Memory-Based Approach to Two-Player Texas Hold'em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Jonathan; Watson, Ian

    A Case-Based Reasoning system, nicknamed SARTRE, that uses a memory-based approach to play two-player, limit Texas Hold'em is introduced. SARTRE records hand histories from strong players and attempts to re-use this information to handle novel situations. SARTRE'S case features and their representations are described, followed by the results obtained when challenging a world-class computerised opponent. Our experimental methodology attempts to address how well SARTRE'S performance can approximate the performance of the expert player, who SARTRE originally derived the experience-base from.

  17. Experimental Deformation of Magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, J. L.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. F. G.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite is an important iron ore mineral and the most prominent Fe-oxide phase in the Earth's crust. The systematic occurrence of magnetite in zones of intense deformation in oceanic core complexes suggests that it may play a role in strain localization in some silicate rocks. We performed a series of high-temperature deformation experiments on synthetic magnetite aggregates and natural single crystals to characterize the rheological behavior of magnetite. As starting material, we used fine-grained magnetite powder that was hot isostatically pressed at 1100°C for several hours, resulting in polycrystalline material with a mean grain size of around 40 μm and containing 3-5% porosity. Samples were deformed to 15-20% axial strain under constant load (approximating constant stress) conditions in a Paterson-type gas apparatus for triaxial deformation at temperatures between 900 and 1100°C and 300 MPa confining pressure. The aggregates exhibit typical power-law creep behavior. At high stresses, samples deformed by dislocation creep exhibit stress exponents close to 3, revealing a transition to near-Newtonian creep with stress exponents around 1.3 at lower stresses. Natural magnetite single crystals deformed at 1 atm pressure and temperatures between 950°C and 1150 °C also exhibit stress exponents close to 3, but with lower flow stresses and a lower apparent activation energy than the aggregates. Such behavior may result from the different oxygen fugacity buffers used. Crystallographic-preferred orientations in all polycrystalline samples are very weak and corroborate numerical models of CPO development, suggesting that texture development in magnetite may be inherently slow compared with lower symmetry phases. Comparison of our results with experimental deformation data for various silicate minerals suggests that magnetite should be weaker than most silicates during ductile creep in dry igneous rocks.

  18. X-38 Experimental Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Merski, N. Ronald; Fitzgerald, Steve M.

    2000-01-01

    The X-38 program seeks to demonstrate an autonomously returned orbital test flight vehicle to support the development of an operational Crew Return Vehicle for the International Space Station. The test flight, anticipated in 2002, is intended to demonstrate the entire mission profile of returning Space Station crew members safely back to earth in the event of medical or mechanical emergency. Integral to the formulation of the X-38 flight data book and the design of the thermal protection system, the aerothermodynamic environment is being defined through a synergistic combination of ground based testing and computational fluid dynamics. This report provides an overview of the hypersonic aerothermodynamic wind tunnel program conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in support of the X-38 development. Global and discrete surface heat transfer force and moment, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on scaled models of the proposed X-38 configuration in different test gases at Mach 6, 10 and 20. The test parametrics include angle of attack from 0 to 50 degs, unit Reynolds numbers from 0.3 x 10 (exp 6) to 16 x 10 (exp 6)/ ft, rudder deflections of 0, 2, and 5 deg. and body flap deflections from 0 to 30 deg. Results from hypersonic aerodynamic screening studies that were conducted as the configuration evolved to the present shape at, presented. Heavy gas simulation tests have indicated that the primary real gas effects on X-38 aerodynamics at trim conditions are expected to favorably influence flap effectiveness. Comparisons of the experimental heating and force and moment data to prediction and the current aerodynamic data book are highlighted. The effects of discrete roughness elements on boundary layer transition were investigated at Mach 6 and the development of a transition correlation for the X-38 vehicle is described. Extrapolation of ground based heating measurements to flight radiation equilibrium wall temperatures at Mach 6 and 10 were

  19. Percutaneous absorption and disposition of Tinopal EMS.

    PubMed

    Black, J G; Moule, R C; Philp, J

    1977-08-01

    A cotton-substantive, anionic, fluorescent whitening agent manufactured by several suppliers under various trade names e.g. Tinopal EMS, has been synthesized in radioactive form. Intubation of detergent or aqueous solution into rats resulted in little absorption from the intestinal tract as evidenced by low radioactivity in the urine and tissues. Most of the dose was excreted rapidly in the faeces. After parenteral administration to rats, the radioactivity was rapidly excreted in the faeces with small amounts remaining in tissues and organs. There was slight evidence of retention of radioactivity in the kidneys. Very small amounts of Tinopal EMS in detergent were absorbed through rat skin, but only when concentrations greater than those normally used by the consumer, together with occlusion of the skin were employed. Small amounts were absorbed throught skin when applied in ethanol. It is concluded that the possibility of systemic toxic effects in man as a result of percutaneous absorption is remote. PMID:929616

  20. Crosshole EM in steel-cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Lee, K.H.; Becker, A.; Spies, B.; Wang, B.

    1996-07-01

    The application of crosshole EM methods through steel well-casing was investigated in theoretical, laboratory and field studies. A numerical code was developed that calculates the attenuation and phase delay of an EM dipole signal propagated through a steel well casing lodged in a homogeneous medium. The code was validated with a scale model and used for sensitivity studies of casing and formation properties. Finally, field measurements were made in an oil field undergoing waterflooding. Our most important findings are that (1) crosshole surveys are feasible using a well pair with one metallic and one non-metallic casing. (2) The casing effect seems be localized within the pipe section that includes the sensor. (3) The effects of the casing can be corrected using simple means and (4) crosshole field data that are sensitive to both formation and casing were acquired in a working environment.

  1. Particle migration analysis in iterative classification of cryo-EM single-particle data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Shen, Bingxin; Frank, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Recently developed classification methods have enabled resolving multiple biological structures from cryo-EM data collected on heterogeneous biological samples. However, there remains the problem of how to base the decisions in the classification on the statistics of the cryo-EM data, to reduce the subjectivity in the process. Here, we propose a quantitative analysis to determine the iteration of convergence and the number of distinguishable classes, based on the statistics of the single particles in an iterative classification scheme. We start the classification with more number of classes than anticipated based on prior knowledge, and then combine the classes that yield similar reconstructions. The classes yielding similar reconstructions can be identified from the migrating particles (jumpers) during consecutive iterations after the iteration of convergence. We therefore termed the method “jumper analysis”, and applied it to the output of RELION 3D classification of a benchmark experimental dataset. This work is a step forward toward fully automated single-particle reconstruction and classification of cryo-EM data. PMID:25449317

  2. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  3. Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephen H.; Arthur, Annette O.

    2012-01-01

    Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS) utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems. PMID:22203905

  4. Experimental nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in (sup 86)Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone (sup 84)Sr and with (sup 84)Zr. The K=14 (t(sub 1/2) = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in (sup 176)W was found to have a 13 percent branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for (sup 14)O+(alpha) and (sup 17)F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the (sup 19)F ((sup 3)He,t) (sup 19)Ne(alpha) (sup 15)O and (sup 19)F ((sup 3)He,t) (sup 19)Ne(p) (sup 18)F reactions in order to determine the rates of the (sup 18)F(p,(alpha)) (sup 15)O and (sup 18)F(p,(gamma)) (sup 19)Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of (beta)n(alpha) coincidences from the (sup 15)N(d,p) (sup 16)N((beta)- (nu)) (sup 16)O((alpha)) (sup 12)C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the (sup 12)C((alpha),(gamma)) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e(sup +) triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  5. [Experimental nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in {sup 86}Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone {sup 84}Sr and with {sup 84}Zr. The K=14 (t {sub {1/2}} = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in {sup 176}W was found to have a 13% branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for {sup 14}O+{alpha} and {sup 17}F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne({alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne(p){sup 18}F reactions in order to determine the rates of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of {beta}n{alpha} coincidences from the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N({beta}{sup {minus}}{nu}){sup 16}O({alpha}){sup 12}C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e{sup +} triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  6. Test beam performance of CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.; CDF Upgrade Group

    1998-01-01

    CDF Plug Upgrade(tile-fiber) EM Calorimeter performed resolution of 15%/{radical}E{circle_plus}0.7% with non-linearity less than 1% in a energy range of 5-180 GeV at Fermilab Test Beam. Transverse uniformity of inside-tower-response of the EM Calorimeter was 2.2% with 56 GeV positron, which was reduced to 1.0% with response map correction. We observed 300 photo electron/GeV in the EM Calorimeter. Ratios of EM Calorimeter response to positron beam to that to {sup 137}Cs Source was stable within 1% in the period of 8 months.

  7. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  8. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Munley, John T.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the experimental setup of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR thermosyphon prototype cooling system. A nitrogen thermosyphon prototype of such a system has been built and tested at PNNL. This document presents the experimental setup of the prototype that successfully demonstrated the heat transfer performance of the system.

  9. Big Sisters: An Experimental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidl, Fredrick W.

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the effects of participation in a Big Sisters' Program. The first part consisted of interviews (N=20) with pairs of Big Sisters-Little Sisters. The second part evaluated program effectiveness experimentally. Findings indicated positive relationships between pairs, and improved behavior of experimental girls versus controls. (RC)

  10. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-04-30

    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  11. Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

  12. Experimental Laboratory Research in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Stanley R.

    In spite of the potential which experimental research methods affords counselors in the development of effective counseling services, such methods are seldom used. After briefly reviewing the arguments against experimental research and their underlying beliefs, the author sets out: (1) to explore the implications of using the laboratory to conduct…

  13. MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION, EXPERIMENTAL VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS AN EXPERIMENTAL VERSION OF A PROGRAMED TEXT ON MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION. PART I CONTAINS 24 FRAMES DEALING WITH PRECISION AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ENCOUNTERED IN VARIOUS MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS. PART II BEGINS WITH A BRIEF SECTION ON EXPERIMENTAL DATA, COVERING SUCH POINTS AS (1) ESTABLISHING THE ZERO POINT, (2)…

  14. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  15. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., 1997, X incorporates as a calendar year corporation, issues 100 shares of common stock to each of A and... 50 shares of X stock to C. Thus, in 1997, A owned 50 percent of the outstanding shares of X on each day of X's 1997 taxable year, B owned 50 percent on each day from January 6, 1997, to July 24,...

  16. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....92 Section 50.92 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK... appropriate, based upon the circumstances of the act of terrorism under consideration. (d) As appropriate... estimates based on an initial act of terrorism or subsequent act of terrorism within a Program Year...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... years in the case of a termination of a shareholder's entire interest in the corporation. See § 1.460-4... general. If a shareholder's entire interest in an S corporation is terminated during the S corporation's..., the first of which ends at the close of the day on which the shareholder's entire interest in the...

  18. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  19. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Secretary in making a decision on the requested natural disaster determination. (4) The Secretary will... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans...

  20. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Secretary in making a decision on the requested natural disaster determination. (4) The Secretary will... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans...

  1. Stochastic EM-based TFBS motif discovery with MITSU

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Alastair M.; Ward, Bruce; Aitken, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The Expectation–Maximization (EM) algorithm has been successfully applied to the problem of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) motif discovery and underlies the most widely used motif discovery algorithms. In the wider field of probabilistic modelling, the stochastic EM (sEM) algorithm has been used to overcome some of the limitations of the EM algorithm; however, the application of sEM to motif discovery has not been fully explored. Results: We present MITSU (Motif discovery by ITerative Sampling and Updating), a novel algorithm for motif discovery, which combines sEM with an improved approximation to the likelihood function, which is unconstrained with regard to the distribution of motif occurrences within the input dataset. The algorithm is evaluated quantitatively on realistic synthetic data and several collections of characterized prokaryotic TFBS motifs and shown to outperform EM and an alternative sEM-based algorithm, particularly in terms of site-level positive predictive value. Availability and implementation: Java executable available for download at http://www.sourceforge.net/p/mitsu-motif/, supported on Linux/OS X. Contact: a.m.kilpatrick@sms.ed.ac.uk PMID:24931999

  2. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  3. Click-EM for imaging metabolically tagged nonprotein biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Ngo, John T; Adams, Stephen R; Deerinck, Thomas J; Boassa, Daniela; Rodriguez-Rivera, Frances; Palida, Sakina F; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Ellisman, Mark H; Tsien, Roger Y

    2016-06-01

    EM has long been the main technique for imaging cell structures with nanometer resolution but has lagged behind light microscopy in the crucial ability to make specific molecules stand out. Here we introduce click-EM, a labeling technique for correlative light microscopy and EM imaging of nonprotein biomolecules. In this approach, metabolic labeling substrates containing bioorthogonal functional groups are provided to cells for incorporation into biopolymers by endogenous biosynthetic machinery. The unique chemical functionality of these analogs is exploited for selective attachment of singlet oxygen-generating fluorescent dyes via bioorthogonal 'click chemistry' ligations. Illumination of dye-labeled structures generates singlet oxygen to locally catalyze the polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product that is readily imaged by EM. We describe the application of click-EM in imaging metabolically tagged DNA, RNA and lipids in cultured cells and neurons and highlight its use in tracking peptidoglycan synthesis in the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:27110681

  4. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on the Attenuation of Electromagnetic Waves in Unmagnetized Plasmas Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Min; Xu, Haojun; Wei, Xiaolong; Liang, Hua; Song, Huimin; Sun, Quan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2015-10-01

    The attenuation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in unmagnetized plasma generated by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) actuator has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A numerical study is conducted to investigate the propagation of EM waves in multilayer plasma structures which cover a square flat plate. Experimentally, an ICP actuator with dimensions of 20 cm×20 cm×4 cm is designed to produce a steady plasma slab. The attenuation of EM waves in the plasma generated by the ICP actuator is measured by a reflectivity arch test method at incident waves of 2.3 GHz and 10.1 GHz, respectively. A contrastive analysis of calculated and measured results of these incident wave frequencies is presented, which suggests that the experiment accords well with our theory. As expected, the plasma slab generated by the ICP actuator can effectively attenuate the EM waves, which may have great potential application prospects in aircraft stealth. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51276197, 11472306 and 11402301)

  5. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  6. The Orthogonally Partitioned EM Algorithm: Extending the EM Algorithm for Algorithmic Stability and Bias Correction Due to Imperfect Data.

    PubMed

    Regier, Michael D; Moodie, Erica E M

    2016-05-01

    We propose an extension of the EM algorithm that exploits the common assumption of unique parameterization, corrects for biases due to missing data and measurement error, converges for the specified model when standard implementation of the EM algorithm has a low probability of convergence, and reduces a potentially complex algorithm into a sequence of smaller, simpler, self-contained EM algorithms. We use the theory surrounding the EM algorithm to derive the theoretical results of our proposal, showing that an optimal solution over the parameter space is obtained. A simulation study is used to explore the finite sample properties of the proposed extension when there is missing data and measurement error. We observe that partitioning the EM algorithm into simpler steps may provide better bias reduction in the estimation of model parameters. The ability to breakdown a complicated problem in to a series of simpler, more accessible problems will permit a broader implementation of the EM algorithm, permit the use of software packages that now implement and/or automate the EM algorithm, and make the EM algorithm more accessible to a wider and more general audience. PMID:27227718

  7. An Experimental Text-Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Joan

    1976-01-01

    An experimental text-commentary of selected passages from Sophocles'"Antigone" is described. The commentary is intended for students seeking more than a conventional translation who do not know enough Greek to use a standard commentary. (RM)

  8. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  9. The Beginnings of Experimental Petrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1971-01-01

    An account of Van't Hoff's change from theoretical chemistry to petrology provides data on the European intellectual climate of the early 1900's and shows how his work laid the foundation for experimental petrology of hard rocks." (AL)

  10. Electron counting and beam-induced motion correction enable near atomic resolution single particle cryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueming; Mooney, Paul; Zheng, Shawn; Booth, Chris; Braunfeld, Michael B.; Gubbens, Sander; Agard, David A.; Cheng, Yifan

    2013-01-01

    In recent work with large high symmetry viruses, single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) has reached the milestone of determining near atomic resolution structures by allowing direct fitting of atomic models into experimental density maps. However, achieving this goal with smaller particles of lower symmetry remains extraordinarily challenging. Using a newly developed single electron counting detector, we confirm that electron beam induced motion significantly degrades resolution and, importantly, show how the combination of rapid readout and nearly noiseless electron counting allow image blurring to be corrected to subpixel accuracy. Thus, intrinsic image information can be restored to high resolution (Thon rings visible to ~3 Å). Using this approach we determined a 3.3 Å resolution structure of a ~700 kDa protein with D7 symmetry showing clear side chain density. Our method greatly enhances image quality and data acquisition efficiency - key bottlenecks in applying near atomic resolution cryoEM to a broad range of protein samples. PMID:23644547

  11. Damage to the Optic Chiasm in Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein–Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sheryl L; Palmer, Vanessa L; Whittaker, Heather; Smith, Blair Cardigan; Kim, Annie; Schellenberg, Angela E; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Buist, Richard; Del Bigio, Marc R; Martin, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Optic chiasm lesions in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)–experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice were characterized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and validated using electron microscopy (EM). MR images were collected from 3 days after induction to remission, approximately 20 days after induction. Hematoxylin and eosin, solochrome cyanin–stained sections, and EM images were obtained from the optic chiasms of some mice approximately 4 days after disease onset when their scores were thought to be the highest. T2-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient map hyperintensities corresponded to abnormalities in the optic chiasms of EAE mice. Mixed inflammation was concentrated at the lateral surface. Degeneration of oligodendrocytes, myelin, and early axonal damage were also apparent. A marked increase in chiasm thickness was observed. T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI can detect abnormalities in the optic chiasms of MOG-EAE mice. MRI is an important method in the study of this model toward understanding optic neuritis. PMID:25520558

  12. Damage to the optic chiasm in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sheryl L; Palmer, Vanessa L; Whittaker, Heather; Smith, Blair Cardigan; Kim, Annie; Schellenberg, Angela E; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Buist, Richard; Del Bigio, Marc R; Martin, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Optic chiasm lesions in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice were characterized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and validated using electron microscopy (EM). MR images were collected from 3 days after induction to remission, approximately 20 days after induction. Hematoxylin and eosin, solochrome cyanin-stained sections, and EM images were obtained from the optic chiasms of some mice approximately 4 days after disease onset when their scores were thought to be the highest. T2-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient map hyperintensities corresponded to abnormalities in the optic chiasms of EAE mice. Mixed inflammation was concentrated at the lateral surface. Degeneration of oligodendrocytes, myelin, and early axonal damage were also apparent. A marked increase in chiasm thickness was observed. T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI can detect abnormalities in the optic chiasms of MOG-EAE mice. MRI is an important method in the study of this model toward understanding optic neuritis. PMID:25520558

  13. The experimental status of |Vub|

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Eunil

    2009-12-01

    In this presentation, we review the current experimental status in the measurements of |Vcb| from semileptonic B??? decays to DX ℓv???. Over 10 years of impressive progress in both theoretical and experimental approaches, now less than 2% precision is achieved. In order to further improve these measurements to test standard model, one expects to have better understanding of theoretical uncertainties and to have much more data from future higher luminosity B-factories and LHCb experiment.

  14. Experimental studies of electrokinetic conversions in fluid-saturated borehole models

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z.; Haartsen, M.W.; Toksoez, M.N.

    1999-10-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies show that there are electromagnetic (EM) fields generated by seismic waves with two kinds of conversion mechanisms in a fluid-saturated, porous medium. Within a homogeneous formation, the seismic wave generates a seismoelectric field that exists only in the area disturbed by the seismic wave and whose apparent velocity is that of the seismic wave. At an interface between differing formation properties, the generated seismoelectric wave is a propagating EM wave that can be detected everywhere, An electrode, used as a receiver on the ground surface, can detect the propagating EM wave generated at an interface, but cannot detect the seismoelectric field generated in a homogeneous formation. When the electrode is in a borehole and close to a porous formation, it can detect both the EM waves and the seismoelectric field. In this paper, electrokinetic measurements are performed with borehole models made of natural rocks or artificial materials. Experimental results show that the Stoneley wave and other acoustic modes, excited by a monopole source in the borehole models, generate seismoelectric fields in fluid-saturated formations. The electric components of the seismoelectric fields can be detected by an electrode in the borehole or on the borehole wall. The amplitude and frequency of the seismoelectric fields are related not only to the seismic wave, but also to formation properties such as permeability, conductivity, etc. Comparison between the waveforms of the seismoelectric signals and acoustic logging waves suggests that seismoelectric well logging may explore the different properties of the formation. Electroseismic measurements are also performed with these borehole models. The electric pulse through the electrode in the borehole or on the borehole wall induces Stoneley waves in fluid-saturated models that can be received by a monopole transducer in the same borehole. These measurement methods (seismoelectric logging or

  15. Experimental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gütlich, Philipp; Bill, Eckhard; Trautwein, Alfred X.

    In this chapter, we present the principles of conventional Mössbauer spectrometers with radioactive isotopes as the light source; Mössbauer experiments with synchrotron radiation are discussed in Chap. 9 including technical principles. Since complete spectrometers, suitable for virtually all the common isotopes, have been commercially available for many years, we refrain from presenting technical details like electronic circuits. We are concerned here with the functional components of a spectrometer, their interaction and synchronization, the different operation modes and proper tuning of the instrument. We discuss the properties of radioactive γ-sources to understand the requirements of an efficient γ-counting system, and finally we deal with sample preparation and the optimization of Mössbauer absorbers. For further reading on spectrometers and their technical details, we refer to the review articles [1-3].

  16. Experimental data in support of continuous microwave effect on emulsion polymerization of styrene.

    PubMed

    Ergan, Başak Temur; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut; Özcan, Seval

    2015-09-01

    This article contains original experimental data, figures and methods to the study of Microwave-assisted emulsion polymerization of styrene under the frame of "Enhanced Microwave Synthesis" (EMS), has been examined to investigate the advantages of Microwave (MW) power use in emulsion polymerization (Ergan et al., Eur. Polym. J. 69, 2015, 374-384). For comparative purpose, MW and conventional heating (CH) method experiments were conducted under similar conditions. By externally cooling the reaction vessel with 1,4-dioxane, constant and continuous MW power was successfully applied at isothermal condition during the polymerization. Here we give the MW power calibration data of MW-experimental system, the complete set of the experimental polymerization data and the analysis data obtained from different polymer characterization test devices (GPC, DSC and Viscometer). PMID:26306319

  17. Evaluation of Fracture Azimuth by EM Wave and Elastic Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Wang, Q.; Liu, C.; Lu, Q.; Zeng, Z.; Liang, W.; Yu, Y.; Ren, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Fracture system plays an important role in the development of underground energy, for example enhanced geothermal system (EGS), oil shale and shale gas, etc. Therefore, it becomes more and more important to detect and evaluate the fracture system. Geophysical prospecting is an useful method to evaluate the characteristics of the subsurface fractures. Currently, micro-seismology, multi-wave seismic exploration, and electromagnetic (EM) survey are reported to be used for the purpose. We are studying a method using both elastic wave and EM wave to detect and evaluate the fracture azimuth in laboratory. First, we build a 3D horizontal transverse isotropy (HTI) model, shown in the figure 1, by dry parallel fractures system, which was constructed by plexiglass plates and papers. Then, we used the ultrasonic system to obtain reflected S-wave data. Depending on the shear wave splitting, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the algorithm of Pearson correlation coefficient. In addition, we used the full Polarimetric ultra wide band electromagnetic (FP-UWB-EM) wave System, shown in the figure 2, to obtain full polarimetric reflected EM-wave data. Depending on the rotation of the EM wave polarimetry, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the the ration between maximum amplitude of co-polarimetric EM wave and maximum amplitude of cross-polarimetric EM wave. Finally, we used both EM-wave data and S-wave data to evaluate the fracture azimuth by the method of cross plot and statistical mathematics. To sum up, we found that FP-UWB-EM wave can be used to evaluated the fracture azimuth and is more accurate than ultrasound wave. Also joint evaluation using both data could improve the precision.

  18. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  19. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability. PMID:25710091

  20. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1997-12-01

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

  1. Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A.

    1998-07-01

    In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

  2. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts. PMID:27572726

  3. Experimental verification of dynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yae, K. Harold; Hwang, Howyoung; Chern, Su-Tai

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics model here is a backhoe, which is a four degree of freedom manipulator from the dynamics standpoint. Two types of experiment are chosen that can also be simulated by a multibody dynamics simulation program. In the experiment, recorded were the configuration and force histories; that is, velocity and position, and force output and differential pressure change from the hydraulic cylinder, in the time domain. When the experimental force history is used as driving force in the simulation model, the forward dynamics simulation produces a corresponding configuration history. Then, the experimental configuration history is used in the inverse dynamics analysis to generate a corresponding force history. Therefore, two sets of configuration and force histories--one set from experiment, and the other from the simulation that is driven forward and backward with the experimental data--are compared in the time domain. More comparisons are made in regard to the effects of initial conditions, friction, and viscous damping.

  4. Experimental Models for Neurotrauma Research.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Johan; Risling, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    Physical trauma in the central nervous system (CNS) is usually the result of a number of forces in different directions and dimensions. A large number of experimental models have been developed to improve the possibilities to understand the outcome of CNS trauma. In this chapter, we will describe the need for a variety of experimental models for research on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Models can serve different needs, such as: to test new treatments for injuries, to reveal thresholds for injuries, to provide a better understanding of injury mechanisms, or to test tools and methods for translation between experiments and clinical data. In this chapter, we will discuss on the validation of models and translation between experimental and clinical studies. PMID:27604724

  5. Experimental Approach to Teaching Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Catalina

    2015-11-01

    For the last 15 years we have promoted experimental work even in the theoretical courses. Fluids appear in the Physics curriculum of the National University of Mexico in two courses: Collective Phenomena in their sophomore year and Continuum Mechanics in their senior year. In both, students are asked for a final project. Surprisingly, at least 85% choose an experimental subject even though this means working extra hours every week. Some of the experiments were shown in this congress two years ago. This time we present some new results and the methodology we use in the classroom. I acknowledge support from the Physics Department, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  6. Experimental observation of heat transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2014-05-01

    In this Letter, we experimentally observed heat diffusion transparency with the heat diffusion device we fabricated, which can measure time-dependent temperature. Utilizing the effective medium theory, we fabricated an isotropic spherical shell with an isotropic spherical core, as well as a multilayer isotropic spherical shell with an isotropic spherical core as neutral inclusions. We measured the temperatures and temperature gradients outside the neutral inclusions with the self-made heat diffusion device and analyzed the heat transparent conditions. The experimental results show that the temperature gradients are parallel and equal outside the neutral inclusion, and the iso-temperature lines are also parallel outside the neutral inclusion.

  7. Eimeria maxima microneme protein 2 delivered as DNA vaccine and recombinant protein induces immunity against experimental homogenous challenge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    E. maxima is one of the seven species of Eimeria that infects chicken. Until now, only a few antigenic genes of E. maxima have been reported. In the present study, the immune protective effects against E. maxima challenge of recombinant protein and DNA vaccine encoding EmMIC2 were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. The experimental group of chickens was immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC2 or 200 μg rEmMIC2 protein while the control group of chickens was injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile PBS. The results showed that the anti-EmMIC2 antibody titers of both rEmMIC2 protein and pVAX1-MIC2 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P<0.05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation compared with the controls (P<0.05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC2 and rEmMIC2 protein displayed significantly high levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β and IL-4 (P<0.05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant protein and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss, increase oocyst, decrease ratio and provide ACIs of more than 165. All the above results suggested that immunization with EmMIC2 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima. PMID:26072304

  8. Experimental determination of the partition coefficient for Ba in <em>Neogloboquadrina dutertreiem> suggests calcification occurs in a Ba-enriched microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehrenbacher, J. S.; Russell, A. D.; Davis, C. V.; Spero, H. J.; Chu, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Ba/Ca ratio in several spinose planktic foraminifer species varies as a function of the Ba/Ca concentration of seawater and is not affected by other parameters such as the seawater salinity, temperature and pH (Honisch et al., 2011). Since seawater Ba concentration is linearly related to Ba in nearshore environments, Ba/Ca ratios in spinose species shows promise as an indicator of past changes in monsoon strength and river runoff (e. g. Weldeab et al. 2007). In contrast, the non-spinose foraminifers often have intrashell variability in Ba/Ca, with Ba/Ca ratios much higher than expected for the range of Ba concentrations observed in the ocean. Furthermore, the Ba/Ca ratio can vary by over a factor of 10 within a single specimen. This suggests either 1) the partition coefficient for Ba in non-spinose species differs from that determined for spinose species, or 2) non-spinose species calcify in a micro-environment that is enriched in Ba. We conducted experiments on live specimens to determine the partition coefficient for Ba in the non-spinose foraminifer N. dutertrei. Specimens were collected via plankton net from the Southern California Bight and cultured at the Wrigley Marine Science Center, Santa Catalina Island during the summer of 2013-2015. We use isotopically labeled seawater (87Sr) to identify discrete portions of calcite that grew in culture. We use laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for trace element analyses and to identify ocean grown vs. culture grown calcite. We show that the partition coefficient is similar to the spinose species: N. dutertrei incorporates Ba as a function of seawater chemistry. We conclude from these observations that N. dutertrei forms its calcite from fluids enriched in Ba, and hypothesize that this process occurs via attachment to organic-rich particles such as marine snow.

  9. An experimenter and his methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonovich, S. R.

    1990-12-01

    A review of experimental works by Ernst Mach has been given. The works reffer to optics and acoustics. The author is representing Ernst Mach as a physicist rather than a phylosopher, which contradicts the point of view obviously accepted in Soviet history of sciences and philosophy.

  10. Experimental medicine 1000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the state of experimentation in the field of medicine during the Medieval Islamic era. With few exceptions, most of the contemporary sources on history of medicine propagate the idea that the roots of experimental medicine in its modern form, including clinical trials and drug-potency studies, first started during the European Renaissance in the 16th to the 18th centuries. This study is part of an ongoing multidisciplinary primary-source investigation of the original Arabic works of 11 Islamic medical scholars who lived and practiced between the 9th and the 13th centuries. The study critically evaluated and documented their contributions to the development of the scientific method and experimental medicine during that medieval Islamic era in several areas including critical appraisal of previous knowledge, clinical observations and case reports, clinical therapeutic trials, drug potency trials, experimentation on animals, dissection and dissection experiments as well as postmortem examinations. In each of the above-mentioned areas, significant contributions were made during the Medieval Islamic era from as early as the ninth century AD. PMID:21747591