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Sample records for experimental murine tumors

  1. Tumor vascularity and hematogenous metastasis in experimental murine intraocular melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, H E

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that primary tumor vascularity in a murine model of intraocular melanoma positively correlates with the development and hematogenous spread of metastasis. METHODS: Forty 12-week-old C57BL6 mice were inoculated in either the anterior chamber (AC) or posterior compartment (PC) of 1 eye with 5 x 10(5) cells/microL of Queens tissue culture melanoma cells. The inoculated eye was enucleated at 2 weeks; the mice were sacrificed at 4 weeks postinoculation, and necropsies were performed. The enucleated eyes were examined for histologic and ultrastructural features, including relationship of tumor cells to tumor vascular channels, vascular pattern, and mean vascular density. RESULTS: Melanoma grew and was confined to the eye in 12 of 20 AC eyes and 10 of 20 PC eyes. Histologic and electron microscopic examination showed tumor invasion into vascular channels. Five of 12 AC tumors (42%) and 8 of 10 PC tumors (80%) metastasized. All of the AC tumors, but none of the PC tumors, that distantly metastasized also metastasized to ipsilateral cervical lymph nodes (P = .00535). There was no statistically significant difference of vascular pattern between the melanomas that did and did not metastasize to lungs in the PC group (P = .24), although there was a significant difference in the AC group (P = .02). Tumors with high-grade vascular patterns were more likely to metastasize than tumors with low-grade vascular patterns in the AC group. The mean vascular density positively correlated with the presence and number of metastases in both groups (P = .0000 and P < .001, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference of vascular pattern and mean vascular density for AC versus PC melanoma (P = .97). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of metastasis in this murine intraocular melanoma model positively correlates with primary tumor vascularity. The melanoma metastasizes via invasion of tumor vascular channels. AC melanoma also

  2. Treatment of murine tumors using dual-frequency ultrasound in an experimental in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Barati, Amir H; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Mozdarani, Hossein; Bathaie, S Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2009-05-01

    Acoustic inertia cavitation is the primary mechanism underlying sonochemical reactions and has potential for use in tumor treatment. In in vitro experiments that were performed previously and are thus not included in this paper, we found that the ultrasonically-induced chemical reactions are greatly accelerated when ultrasound is simultaneously applied at frequencies of 1 MHz and 150 kHz.. In this study, the in vivo anti-tumor effect of the simultaneous dual-frequency ultrasound at low level intensity (I(SPTA) <6 W/cm(2)) was investigated in a murine model of breast adenocarcinoma in Balb/c mice. The tumor-bearing mice were divided into five groups: those treated with combined dual-frequency ultrasound in continuous mode (1 MHz(con)+150 kH(zcon)) for 30 and 15 min (C and D), those treated with dual-frequency ultrasound in which the source of 1 MHz was in pulse mode (duty cycle of 80%) and that of 150 kHz was in continuous mode for 30 min (E), and untreated control and sham groups (A and B). The tumor growth parameters evaluated to assess delay include tumor volume, relative tumor volume, and T(5) and T(2), which are the time needed for each tumor to reach 5 and 2 times its initial volume, respectively. The survival period and percent of tumor growth inhibition ratio and were measured at various times after treatment. The results show that treatment with a combined continuous mode of 1 MHz(con)+150 kHz(con) and a pulse mode of 1 MHz(pl,80%)+150 kHz(con) effectively delayed tumor growth and increased the tumor growth inhibitory ratio compared to the sham group. When the tumor volume growth and relative volume of tumors in treated groups C, D and E were examined, an anti-tumor effect was observed in groups E and C. There is a significant difference between groups E and C and the sham group 12 d after treatment for tumor volume growth and 18 d after treatment for relative tumor volume (p < 0.05). The mean survival periods for animals in groups C and E were 16% and 17

  3. Apoptosis in irradiated murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Stephens, L C; Ang, K K; Schultheiss, T E; Milas, L; Meyn, R E

    1991-09-01

    Early radiation responses of transplantable murine ovarian (OCaI) and hepatocellular (HCaI) carcinomas were examined at 6, 24, 48, 96, and 144 h after single photon doses of 25, 35, or 45 Gy. Previous studies using tumor growth delay and tumor radiocurability assays had shown OCaI tumors to be relatively radiosensitive and HCaI tumors to be radioresistant. At 6 h, approximately 20% of nuclei in OCaI tumors showed aberrations characteristic of cell death by apoptosis. This contrasted to an incidence of 3% in HCaI tumors. Mitotic activity was eliminated in OCaI tumors but was only transiently suppressed in HCaI tumors. At 24-96 h, OCaI tumors continued to display apoptosis and progressive necrosis, whereas HCaI tumors responded by exhibiting marked pleomorphism. Factors other than mitotic activity may influence tumor radiosensitivity, and one of these may be susceptibility to induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death), because this was a prominent early radiation response by the radiosensitive OCaI tumors. PMID:1886987

  4. Murine leukemia virus envelope gp70 is a shared biomarker for the high-sensitivity quantification of murine tumor burden

    PubMed Central

    Scrimieri, Francesca; Askew, David; Corn, David J; Eid, Saada; Bobanga, Iuliana D; Bjelac, Jaclyn A; Tsao, Matthew L; Allen, Frederick; Othman, Youmna S; Wang, Shih-Chung G; Huang, Alex Y

    2013-01-01

    The preclinical development of anticancer drugs including immunotherapeutics and targeted agents relies on the ability to detect minimal residual tumor burden as a measure of therapeutic efficacy. Real-time quantitative (qPCR) represents an exquisitely sensitive method to perform such an assessment. However, qPCR-based applications are limited by the availability of a genetic defect associated with each tumor model under investigation. Here, we describe an off-the-shelf qPCR-based approach to detect a broad array of commonly used preclinical murine tumor models. In particular, we report that the mRNA coding for the envelope glycoprotein 70 (gp70) encoded by the endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is universally expressed in 22 murine cancer cell lines of disparate histological origin but is silent in 20 out of 22 normal mouse tissues. Further, we detected the presence of as few as 100 tumor cells in whole lung extracts using qPCR specific for gp70, supporting the notion that this detection approach has a higher sensitivity as compared with traditional tissue histology methods. Although gp70 is expressed in a wide variety of tumor cell lines, it was absent in inflamed tissues, non-transformed cell lines, or pre-cancerous lesions. Having a high-sensitivity biomarker for the detection of a wide range of murine tumor cells that does not require additional genetic manipulations or the knowledge of specific genetic alterations present in a given neoplasm represents a unique experimental tool for investigating metastasis, assessing antitumor therapeutic interventions, and further determining tumor recurrence or minimal residual disease. PMID:24482753

  5. Irradiation Design for an Experimental Murine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Suarez-Campos, J. E.; Celis, M. A.; Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Rubio-Osornio, M. C.; Custodio-Ramirez, V.; Paz, C.

    2010-12-07

    In radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, small animal experimental models are frequently used, since there are still a lot of unsolved questions about the biological and biochemical effects of ionizing radiation. This work presents a method for small-animal brain radiotherapy compatible with a dedicated 6MV Linac. This rodent model is focused on the research of the inflammatory effects produced by ionizing radiation in the brain. In this work comparisons between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo techniques, were used in order to evaluate accuracy of the calculated dose using a commercial planning system. Challenges in this murine model are discussed.

  6. Murine Tumor Models for Oncolytic Rhabdo-Virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Falls, Theresa; Roy, Dominic Guy; Bell, John Cameron; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The preclinical optimization and validation of novel treatments for cancer therapy requires the use of laboratory animals. Although in vitro experiments using tumor cell lines and ex vivo treatment of patient tumor samples provide a remarkable first-line tool for the initial study of tumoricidal potential, tumor-bearing animals remain the primary option to study delivery, efficacy, and safety of therapies in the context of a complete tumor microenvironment and functional immune system. In this review, we will describe the use of murine tumor models for oncolytic virotherapy using vesicular stomatitis virus. We will discuss studies using immunocompetent and immunodeficient models with respect to toxicity and therapeutic treatments, as well as the various techniques and tools available to study cancer therapy with Rhabdoviruses. PMID:27034397

  7. Resveratrol-loaded nanocapsules inhibit murine melanoma tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Carletto, Bruna; Berton, Juliana; Ferreira, Tamara Nascimento; Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Paludo, Katia Sabrina; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Favero, Giovani Marino

    2016-08-01

    In this study, resveratrol-loaded nanocapsules were developed and its antitumor activity tested on a melanoma mice model. These nanocapsules were spherically-shaped and presented suitable size, negative charge and high encapsulation efficiency for their use as a modified-release system of resveratrol. Nanoencapsulation leads to the drug amorphization. Resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles reduced cell viability of murine melanoma cells. There was a decrease in tumor volume, an increase in the necrotic area and inflammatory infiltrate of melanoma when resveratrol-loaded nanocapsules were compared to free resveratrol in treated mice. Nanoencapsulation of resveratrol also prevented metastasis and pulmonary hemorrhage. This modified-release technology containing resveratrol can be used as a feasible approach in order to inhibit murine melanoma tumor growth. PMID:27070053

  8. Disruption of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 5 Exacerbates Murine Experimental Colitis via Regulating T Helper Cell-Mediated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jian; Li, Lixia; Wang, Xiaobing; Pan, Huaqin; Liu, Shi; He, Ruohang; Li, Jin; Zhao, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) is a key mediator of TNF receptor superfamily members and is important in both T helper (Th) cell immunity and the regulation of multiple signaling pathways. To clarify TRAF5's influence on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), we investigated TRAF5 deficiency's effect on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Colitis was induced in TRAF5 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates by administering 3% DSS orally for 7 days. The mice were then sacrificed, and their colons were removed. Our data suggested that KO mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis. TRAF5 deficiency significantly enhanced IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17a mRNA and protein levels in the colons of DSS-fed mice, and the mRNA expression of T-bet and GATA-3 was also markedly elevated. However, ROR-α and ROR-γt mRNA levels did not differ between DSS-induced KO and WT mice. Flow cytometry showed increased frequencies of Th2 and IFN-γ/IL-17a-coproducing CD4+ T cells in the colons of DSS-induced KO mice. Additionally, TRAF5 deficiency significantly enhanced the activation of NF-κB in CD4+ T cells after DSS administration. These results indicated that TRAF5 deficiency significantly aggravated DSS-induced colitis, most likely by regulating Th cell-mediated inflammation. PMID:27110068

  9. Analysis of murine cellular receptors for tumor-killing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsawa, F.; Natori, S.

    1987-01-01

    Receptors for tumor-killing factor (TKF) on the surface of murine cells were analyzed using radioiodinated TKF. Not only sensitive cells but also insensitive cells were found to have specific receptors. Among the sensitive cells, no clear relation was observed between the number of receptors on the cell surface and sensitivity to TKF. Compounds affecting microfilaments (cytochalasin B and D) and microtubules (colchicine and Colcemid) significantly inhibited cytolysis of sensitive cells induced by receptor-bound TKF. It is concluded that internalization of receptor-bound TKF is a prerequisite for triggering cytolysis.

  10. Immunotherapy of murine bladder cancer by irradiated tumor vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Lamm, D.L.; Riggs, D.R.; DeHaven, J.I.; Bryner, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This investigation explored the efficacy of irradiated autologous mouse bladder tumor (Ir-MBT2) as an active specific immunotherapeutic agent and as adjuvant therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) against a subcutaneously transplanted murine bladder tumor. Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in groups receiving BCG (27%, p less than 0.005) or Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.025), compared to control (93%). Survival was significantly improved in groups treated with BCG (100%, p less than 0.005), 10(5) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.01), or 10(7) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (47%, p less than 0.025) compared with control (13%). Surprisingly, Ir-MBT2 consistently reduced the efficacy of BCG alone. Ir-MBT2 alone (10(7)) appeared to enhance tumor growth. Autologous irradiated bladder tumor vaccine, alone or in combination with BCG, displayed no immunotherapeutic advantage. The use of irradiated tumor cell vaccine for bladder cancer therapy may reduce the results achievable with BCG alone.

  11. Efficacy of Posaconazole in Murine Experimental Sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Silva, Fabiola; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    We developed a murine model of systemic sporotrichosis by using three strains of each of the two commonest species causing sporotrichosis, i.e., Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis, in order to evaluate the efficacy of posaconazole (PSC). The drug was administered at a dose of 2.5 or 5 mg/kg of body weight twice a day by gavage, and one group was treated with amphotericin B (AMB) as a control treatment. Posaconazole, especially at 5 mg/kg, showed good efficacy against all the strains tested, regardless of their MICs, as measured by prolonged survival, tissue burden reduction, and histopathology. PMID:22330929

  12. Mieap suppresses murine intestinal tumor via its mitochondrial quality control

    PubMed Central

    Tsuneki, Masayuki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kinjo, Takao; Nakanishi, Ruri; Arakawa, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Mieap, a novel p53-inducible protein, plays a key role in maintaining healthy mitochondria in various pathophysiological states. Here, we show that Mieap deficiency in ApcMin/+ mice is strikingly associated with the malignant progression of murine intestinal tumors. To understand the role that Mieap plays in in vivo tumorigenesis, we generated Mieap heterozygous (ApcMin/+ Mieap+/−) and homozygous (ApcMin/+ Mieap−/−) ApcMin/+ mice. Interestingly, the ApcMin/+ mice with the Mieap+/− and Mieap−/− genetic background revealed remarkable shortening of the lifetime compared to ApcMin/+ mice because of severe anemia. A substantial increase in the number and size of intestinal polyps was associated with Mieap gene deficiency. Histopathologically, intestinal tumors in the Mieap-deficient ApcMin/+ mice clearly demonstrated advanced grades of adenomas and adenocarcinomas. We demonstrated that the significant increase in morphologically unhealthy mitochondria and trace accumulations of reactive oxygen species may be mechanisms underlying the increased malignant progression of the intestinal tumors of Mieap-deficient ApcMin/+ mice. These findings suggest that the Mieap-regulated mitochondrial quality control plays a critical role in preventing mouse intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:26216032

  13. VEGFR-2 Targeted Chemoprevention of Murine Lung Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Karoor, Vijaya; Le, Mysan; Merrick, Daniel; Dempsey, Edward C.; Miller, York E.

    2010-01-01

    No clinically effective chemoprevention for lung cancer has been found. Angiogenesis is an early feature of both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell lung cancer. We investigated the effects of VEGFR-2 inhibition on lung carcinogenesis in a murine model of adenocarcinoma. The VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vandetanib, was administered to FVB/N mice in chow for 7 days at varying doses in order to demonstrate pharmacologic activity by inhibition of VEGF mediated VEFGR-2 and ERK phosphorylation. Plasma levels corroborated adequate dosage. For chemoprevention experiments, mice were injected i.p. with 1 mg/gm urethane, a carcinogen found in tobacco smoke. Chow containing vandetanib, 75 mg/kg/d, or control chow was given to mice, starting 7 days after urethane administration. Sixteen weeks after urethane injection, mice were sacrificed, tumors enumerated and measured. Vandetanib resulted in reductions in tumor multiplicity (6.5 +/− 0.86 vs 1.0 +/− 0.30, p = 0.001) and average tumor volume (0.85 +/− 0.10 mm3 vs. 0.15 +/− 0.09 mm3, p = 0.001), but not incidence (71% vs. 100%, p = ns), compared to control. As vandetanib has other activities besides VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibition, we administered the anti-VEGFR-2 monoclonal antibody, DC101, for weeks 11–15 of a urethane carcinogenesis protocol with an arrest in tumor volume increase, but no change in multiplicity or incidence. Further investigation of the chemopreventive effect of vandetanib and other VEGF signaling inhibitors is needed. PMID:20647338

  14. A drug carrier targeting murine uPAR for photodynamic therapy and tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolei; Zheng, Ke; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhuo; Yuan, Cai; Hu, Ping; Chen, Jincan; Xue, Jinping; Huang, Mingdong

    2015-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an effective therapeutical modality for tumors. In PDT, a photosensitizer was used to capture the light of specific wavelength, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity surrounding the photosensitizer. Modifications of photosensitizers to enhance tumor specificity are common approaches to increase the efficacy and reduce the side effects of PDT. Previously, we developed a human serum albumin (HSA)-based drug carrier fused with the human amino-terminal fragment (hATF), which binds to a tumor surface marker (urokinase receptor, uPAR). However, hATF-HSA binds to murine uPAR much weaker (79-fold) than to human uPAR, and is not optimal for applications on murine tumor models. In this study, we developed a murine version of the drug carrier (mATF-HSA). A photosensitizer (mono-substituted β-carboxy phthalocyanine zinc, CPZ) was loaded into this carrier, giving a rather stable macromolecule (mATF-HSA:CPZ) that was shown to bind to murine uPAR in vitro. In addition, we evaluated both the photodynamic therapy efficacy and tumor retention capability of the macromolecule (at a dose of 0.05mg CPZ/kg mouse body weight) on murine hepatoma-22 (H22) tumor bearing mouse model. mATF-HSA:CPZ showed more accumulation in tumors compared to its human counterpart (hATF-HSA:CPZ) measured by quantitative fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). Besides, mATF-HSA:CPZ exhibited a higher tumor killing efficacy than hATF-HSA:CPZ. Together, the macromolecule mATF-HSA is a promising tumor-specific drug carrier on murine tumor models and is an useful tool to study tumor biology on murine tumor models. PMID:26004218

  15. Investigation of HIFU-induced anti-tumor immunity in a murine tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenlin; Yang, Xiao Yi; Liu, Yunbo; Morse, Michael A.; Lyerly, H. Kim; Clay, Timothy M.; Zhong, Pei

    2006-05-01

    To determine whether HIFU treatment can elicit a systemic, anti-tumor immune response in vivo, MC-38 solid tumors grown subcutaneously at the right hindlimbs of C57BL/6 mice were treated in an experimental HIFU system. Three different treatment strategies that produce thermal, mechanical, or thermal combined with mechanical damage to the tumor tissue were evaluated. To detect anti-tumor immune response, a tumor challenge was performed on the left hindlimbs of the mice one day following the HIFU treatment, and subsequently, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response was evaluated on day 14. All three HIFU treatment strategies were found to cause significant regression of the primary tumor, with the best suppressive effect produced by the thermal HIFU. In contrast, the most significant regression of the challenged tumor with concomitantly elevated CTL response were detected in mice treated by the mechanical HIFU, followed by the thermal combined with mechanical HIFU, but not in mice treated by the thermal HIFU alone. These findings suggest that alternative treatment strategies that promote mechanical lysis of the tumor cells (in contrast to purely thermal ablation) may enhance HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response.

  16. Tumors in murine brains studied by grating-based phase contrast microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Georg; Dominietto, Marco; Kovacs, Zsofia; Schmitz, Rüdiger; Hieber, Simone E.; Thalmann, Peter; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2014-09-01

    Angiogenesis, i.e. the formation of vessels, is one of the key processes during tumor development. The newly formed vessels transport oxygen and nutrients from the healthy tissue to the tumor and gives tumor cells the possibility to replicate. The principle of anti-angiogenic therapy is to block angiogenic process in order to stop tumor growth. The aim of the present study is the investigation of murine glioma vascular architecture at early (7 days), intermediate (10 and 15 days) and late (23 days) stage of growth by means of grating-based phase contrast microtomography. We demonstrate that this technique yields premium contrast between healthy and cancerous parts of murine brain tissues.

  17. STRAIN-DEPENDENT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TRANSPLACENTALLY-INDUCED MURINE LUNG TUMORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    STRAIN-DEPENDENT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TRANSPLACENTALLY-INDUCED MURINE LUNG TUMORS
    M S Miller, J E Moore, M Xu, G B Nelson, S T Dance, N D Kock, J A Ross Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC and USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC

    Previously, our laboratory demonstrated...

  18. Immunogenicity of murine solid tumor models as a defining feature of in vivo behavior and response to immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Melissa G; Karimi, Saman S; Barry-Holson, Keegan; Angell, Trevor E; Murphy, Katherine A; Church, Connor H; Ohlfest, John R; Hu, Peisheng; Epstein, Alan L

    2013-01-01

    Immune profiling has been widely used to probe mechanisms of immune escape in cancer and identify novel targets for therapy. Two emerging uses of immune signatures are to identify likely responders to immunotherapy regimens among individuals with cancer and to understand the variable responses seen among subjects with cancer in immunotherapy trials. Here, the immune profiles of 6 murine solid tumor models (CT26, 4T1, MAD109, RENCA, LLC, and B16) were correlated to tumor regression and survival in response to 2 immunotherapy regimens. Comprehensive profiles for each model were generated using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry techniques, as well as functional studies of suppressor cell populations (regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells), to analyze intratumoral and draining lymphoid tissues. Tumors were stratified as highly or poorly immunogenic, with highly immunogenic tumors showing a significantly greater presence of T-cell costimulatory molecules and immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. An absence of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes and mature dendritic cells was seen across all models. Delayed tumor growth and increased survival with suppressor cell inhibition and tumor-targeted chemokine+/-dendritic cells vaccine immunotherapy were associated with high tumor immunogenicity in these models. Tumor MHC class I expression correlated with the overall tumor immunogenicity level and was a singular marker to predict immunotherapy response with these regimens. By using experimental tumor models as surrogates for human cancers, these studies demonstrate how select features of an immune profile may be utilized to identify patients most likely to respond to immunotherapy regimens. PMID:24145359

  19. Effect of cyclosporine in a murine model of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Banić, Marko; Anić, Branimir; Brkić, Tomislav; Ljubicić, Neven; Plesko, Sanja; Dohoczky, Csaba; Erceg, Damir; Petrovecki, Mladen; Stipancić, Igor; Rotkvić, Ivo

    2002-06-01

    The use of immunosuppressive therapy may be associated with significant toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) in murine model of experimental colitis. Experimental colitis was induced in NMRI mice using an enema of 0.2% solution of dinitrofluorobenzene, combined with skin sensitization. After inducing colitis, experimental groups of animals were treated with CsA (1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intracolonically (i.c.), and control groups were treated with phosphate-buffered saline intraperitoneally or intracolonically, respectively. Colonic inflammatory changes were assessed using a histopathologic score of 0-30, and pooled whole blood samples were processed with monoclonal antibodies for cyclosporine concentration. In addition, two groups of animals with experimental colitis were treated intraperitoneally or intracolonically with 3 mg/kg/day of CsA, and the colons were also taken for immunohistochemistry for CD25. CsA diminished the extent of colitis in groups treated with 3, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally or intracolonically, and in groups treated with 1 and 50 mg/kg intracolonically (P < 0.05). The effect of intracolonic application of CsA was not related to whole blood cyclosporine concentrations. In addition, the effect of CsA at 3 mg/kg, applied intraperitoneally or intracolonically was, in part, expressed in decreasing the numbers of CD25+ cells within colonic mucosa/submucosa (P < 0.05). In conclusions, the results of this study indicate the possibility of intracolonic application of cyclosporine in order to widen the therapeutic window for effective, but possibly toxic drug, such as cyclosporine. PMID:12064814

  20. Multispectral Imaging of T and B Cells in Murine Spleen and Tumor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zipei; Jensen, Shawn M; Messenheimer, David J; Farhad, Mohammed; Neuberger, Michael; Bifulco, Carlo B; Fox, Bernard A

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in multiplex immunohistochemistry techniques allow for quantitative, spatial identification of multiple immune parameters for enhanced diagnostic and prognostic insight. However, applying such techniques to murine fixed tissues, particularly sensitive epitopes, such as CD4, CD8α, and CD19, has been difficult. We compared different fixation protocols and Ag-retrieval techniques and validated the use of multiplex immunohistochemistry for detection of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cell subsets in murine spleen and tumor. This allows for enumeration of these T cell subsets within immune environments, as well as the study of their spatial distribution. PMID:26994219

  1. Multispectral Imaging of T and B Cells in Murine Spleen and Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zipei; Jensen, Shawn M.; Messenheimer, David J.; Farhad, Mohammed; Neuberger, Michael; Bifulco, Carlo B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in multiplex immunohistochemistry techniques allow for quantitative, spatial identification of multiple immune parameters for enhanced diagnostic and prognostic insight. However, applying such techniques to murine fixed tissues, particularly sensitive epitopes, such as CD4, CD8α, and CD19, has been difficult. We compared different fixation protocols and Ag-retrieval techniques and validated the use of multiplex immunohistochemistry for detection of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cell subsets in murine spleen and tumor. This allows for enumeration of these T cell subsets within immune environments, as well as the study of their spatial distribution. PMID:26994219

  2. Dopamine receptor antagonist thioridazine inhibits tumor growth in a murine breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tao; He, Sisi; Shen, Guobo; Ye, Tinghong; Guo, Fuchun; Wang, Yongsheng

    2015-09-01

    Neuropsychological factors have been shown to influence tumor progression and therapeutic response. The present study investigated the effect of the dopamine receptor antagonist thioridazine on murine breast cancer. The anti‑tumor efficacy of thioridazine was assessed using a murine breast cancer model. Cell apoptosis and proliferation were analyzed in vitro using flow cytometry (FCM) and the MTT assay, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to assess Akt, phosphorylated (p)‑Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, p‑STAT3 and p‑p65 in tumor cells following treatment with thioridazine. The Ki67 index and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)‑positive apoptotic cells were assessed in the tumor sections. Thioridazine was found to reduce tumor growth, inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner in vitro. Thioridazine was also found to markedly inhibit tumor proliferation and induce tumor cell apoptosis in vivo as shown by the lower Ki67 index and increase in TUNEL‑positive cells. In addition, thioridazine was observed to inhibit the activation of the canonical nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells pathway and exert anti‑tumor effects by remodeling the tumor stroma, as well as inhibit angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. In conclusion, thioridazine was found to significantly inhibit breast tumor growth and the potential for thioridazine to be used in cancer therapy may be re‑evaluated and investigated in clinical settings. PMID:26095429

  3. Histamine and neuroinflammation: insights from murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Passani, Maria B.; Ballerini, Clara

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, neurodegenerative disease of the CNS whose pathogenesis remains largely unknown, and available therapies are rarely successful in reversing neurological deficits or stopping disease progression. Ongoing studies on MS and the widely used murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are focused on the many components of this complex and heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease in the hope of providing a mechanism-based characterization of MS that will afford successful strategies to limit and repair the neuronal damage. Recently, histamine has been postulated to have a key regulatory role in EAE and MS pathogenesis. Histamine is a mediator of inflammation and immune responses, exerting its many actions through four G protein-coupled receptors (H1,2,3,4R) that signal through distinct intracellular pathways and have different therapeutic potentials as they vary in expression, isoform distribution, signaling properties, and function. Immune cells involved in MS/EAE, including dendritic cells (DCs) and T lymphocytes, express H1R, H2R and H4R, and histamine may have varying and counteracting effects on a particular cell type, depending on the receptor subtypes being activated. Here, we review evidence of the complex and controversial role of histamine in the pathogenesis of MS and EAE and evaluate the therapeutic potential of histaminergic ligands in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:22563309

  4. Dietary linoleate-enhanced metastasis of 4526 murine mammary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of quantitative differences in dietary linoleic acid (18:2) and of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (IM), on the metastasis of line 4526 mammary tumors was investigated. All mice were fed high fat (20%, w/w), semipurified diets that were prepared using different mixtures of coconut (primarily saturated) and safflower (mostly 18:2) oil and thus contained either 1, 2, 4, 8, or 12% 18:2 (w/w). The spontaneous metastasis of 4526 tumor cells from primary sites, was increased 2-4 fold in mice that were fed diets containing higher levels of 18:2 (8 and 12%). Chronic treatment of mice with a relatively low dosage of IM reduced the growth rate of primary 4526 tumors, slightly reduced metastasis in mice fed 1 and 4% 18:2, and completely inhibited the increased metastasis observed in mice fed 12% 18:2. Treatment with a higher dosage of IM reduced metastasis even further compared to controls, but did not decrease growth rate compared to the low dosage of IM. The level of 18:2 in the diet did not appear to affect the incorporation of {sup 3}H-thymidine into tumor cells of metastatic lung nodules. The effect of 18:2 may be through a modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. This modulation, in turn, may affect particular steps in the metastatic cascade such as lodgement and survival of tumor cells.

  5. Changes in Scleral Collagen Organization in Murine Chronic Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pijanka, Jacek K.; Kimball, Elizabeth C.; Pease, Mary E.; Abass, Ahmed; Sorensen, Thomas; Nguyen, Thao D.; Quigley, Harry A.; Boote, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The organization of scleral collagen helps to determine the eye's biomechanical response to intraocular pressure (IOP), and may therefore be important in glaucoma. This study provides a quantitative assessment of changes in scleral collagen fibril organization in bead-induced murine experimental glaucoma. Methods. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to study the effect of bead-induced glaucoma on posterior scleral collagen organization in one eye of 12 CD1 mice, with untreated fellow eyes serving as controls. Three collagen parameters were measured: the local preferred fibril directions, the degree of collagen anisotropy, and the total fibrillar collagen content. Results. The mouse sclera featured a largely circumferential orientation of fibrillar collagen with respect to the optic nerve head canal. Localized alteration to fibril orientations was evident in the inferior peripapillary sclera of bead-treated eyes. Collagen anisotropy was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in bead-treated eyes in the superior peripapillary (Treated: 43 ± 8%; Control: 49 ± 6%) and midposterior (Treated: 39 ± 4%; Control: 43 ± 4%) sclera, and in the peripapillary region overall (Treated: 43 ± 6%; Control: 47 ± 3%). No significant differences in total collagen content were found between groups. Conclusions. Spatial changes in collagen fibril anisotropy occur in the posterior sclera of mice with bead-induced chronic IOP elevation and axonal damage. These results support the idea that dynamic changes in scleral form and structure play a role in the development of experimental glaucoma in mice, and potentially in human glaucoma. PMID:25228540

  6. Tumor-specific immunotherapy of murine bladder cancer with butanol-extracted antigens and ethylchlorformate polymerized tumor protein.

    PubMed

    Rochester, M G; Sarosdy, M F; Pickett, S H; Stogdill, B J; Lamm, D L

    1988-09-01

    Successful treatment of superficial bladder cancer using nonspecific immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been well documented. Investigation of two potential tumor-specific immunotherapeutic agents using a murine transitional-cell carcinoma model (MBT-2) is reported. The survival of mice immunized with tumor proteins obtained by treating tumor cells with either 1-butanol or ethylchlorformate was compared to the survival of animals immunized with BCG. Long-term immunity conferred by each of these agents was also assessed. Significant protection by both agents was noted in all treatment groups compared to controls. Long-term immunity was also found to result from treatment with both investigational agents as well as with BCG. Butanol-extracted antigens and ethylchlorformate polymerized tumor protein may be useful as immunotherapeutic alternatives to BCG. PMID:3411695

  7. Tumor control by human cytomegalovirus in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Coquard, Laurie; Pasquereau, Sébastien; Russo, Laetitia; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Borg, Christophe; Pothier, Pierre; Herbein, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Although viruses can cause cancer, other studies reported the regression of human tumors upon viral infections. We investigated the cytoreductive potential of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in a murine model of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in severe-immunodeficient mice. Infection of HepG2 cells with HCMV resulted in the absence of tumor or in a limited tumor growth following injection of cells subcutaneously. By contrast all mice injected with uninfected HepG2 cells and with HepG2 cells infected with UV-treated HCMV did develop tumors without any significant restriction. Analysis of tumors indicated that in mice injected with HCMV-infected-HepG2 cells, but not in controls, a restricted cellular proliferation was observed parallel to a limited activation of the STAT3-cyclin D1 axis, decreased formation of colonies in soft agar, and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. We conclude that HCMV can provide antitumoral effects in a murine model of HCC which requires replicative virus at some stages that results in limitation of tumor cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis mediated through the intrinsic caspase pathway. PMID:27626063

  8. Tumor control by human cytomegalovirus in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Coquard, Laurie; Pasquereau, Sébastien; Russo, Laetitia; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Borg, Christophe; Pothier, Pierre; Herbein, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Although viruses can cause cancer, other studies reported the regression of human tumors upon viral infections. We investigated the cytoreductive potential of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in a murine model of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in severe-immunodeficient mice. Infection of HepG2 cells with HCMV resulted in the absence of tumor or in a limited tumor growth following injection of cells subcutaneously. By contrast all mice injected with uninfected HepG2 cells and with HepG2 cells infected with UV-treated HCMV did develop tumors without any significant restriction. Analysis of tumors indicated that in mice injected with HCMV-infected-HepG2 cells, but not in controls, a restricted cellular proliferation was observed parallel to a limited activation of the STAT3-cyclin D1 axis, decreased formation of colonies in soft agar, and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. We conclude that HCMV can provide antitumoral effects in a murine model of HCC which requires replicative virus at some stages that results in limitation of tumor cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis mediated through the intrinsic caspase pathway. PMID:27626063

  9. A longitudinal magnetic resonance elastography study of murine brain tumors following radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Clayton, E H; Okamoto, R J; Engelbach, J; Bayly, P V; Garbow, J R

    2016-08-21

    An accurate and noninvasive method for assessing treatment response following radiotherapy is needed for both treatment monitoring and planning. Measurement of solid tumor volume alone is not sufficient for reliable early detection of therapeutic response, since changes in physiological and/or biomechanical properties can precede tumor volume change following therapy. In this study, we use magnetic resonance elastography to evaluate the treatment effect after radiotherapy in a murine brain tumor model. Shear modulus was calculated and compared between the delineated tumor region of interest (ROI) and its contralateral, mirrored counterpart. We also compared the shear modulus from both the irradiated and non-irradiated tumor and mirror ROIs longitudinally, sampling four time points spanning 9-19 d post tumor implant. Results showed that the tumor ROI had a lower shear modulus than that of the mirror ROI, independent of radiation. The shear modulus of the tumor ROI decreased over time for both the treated and untreated groups. By contrast, the shear modulus of the mirror ROI appeared to be relatively constant for the treated group, while an increasing trend was observed for the untreated group. The results provide insights into the tumor properties after radiation treatment and demonstrate the potential of using the mechanical properties of the tumor as a biomarker. In future studies, more closely spaced time points will be employed for detailed analysis of the radiation effect. PMID:27461395

  10. A longitudinal magnetic resonance elastography study of murine brain tumors following radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Clayton, E. H.; Okamoto, R. J.; Engelbach, J.; Bayly, P. V.; Garbow, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    An accurate and noninvasive method for assessing treatment response following radiotherapy is needed for both treatment monitoring and planning. Measurement of solid tumor volume alone is not sufficient for reliable early detection of therapeutic response, since changes in physiological and/or biomechanical properties can precede tumor volume change following therapy. In this study, we use magnetic resonance elastography to evaluate the treatment effect after radiotherapy in a murine brain tumor model. Shear modulus was calculated and compared between the delineated tumor region of interest (ROI) and its contralateral, mirrored counterpart. We also compared the shear modulus from both the irradiated and non-irradiated tumor and mirror ROIs longitudinally, sampling four time points spanning 9–19 d post tumor implant. Results showed that the tumor ROI had a lower shear modulus than that of the mirror ROI, independent of radiation. The shear modulus of the tumor ROI decreased over time for both the treated and untreated groups. By contrast, the shear modulus of the mirror ROI appeared to be relatively constant for the treated group, while an increasing trend was observed for the untreated group. The results provide insights into the tumor properties after radiation treatment and demonstrate the potential of using the mechanical properties of the tumor as a biomarker. In future studies, more closely spaced time points will be employed for detailed analysis of the radiation effect.

  11. Ultrasonic enhancement of gene transfection in murine melanoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Miller, D L; Bao, S; Gies, R A; Thrall, B D

    1999-11-01

    The enhancement of gene transfection by ultrasound (US) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo using the B16 mouse melanoma model. Cultured cells were either exposed in suspensions in vitro or implanted subcutaneously in female C57BL/6 mice for 10-14 days and, subsequently exposed, in vivo. For comparison to results with a luciferase plasmid, a reporter plasmid for green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to evaluate transfection efficiency. US was supplied by a system, similar to a Dornier HM-3 lithotripter, that produced shock waves (SW) of 24.4 MPa peak positive and 5.2 MPa peak negative pressure amplitudes at the focus. The plasmids were mixed with the suspensions to achieve 20 ,microL mL(-1), or were injected intratumorally to provide 0.2 mg DNA per mL of tumor. Acoustic cavitation was promoted by retaining 0.2 mL of air in the 1.2-mL exposure chambers in vitro and by injecting air at 10% of tumor volume in vivo. In vitro, cell counts declined to 5.3% of shams after 800 SW exposure, with 1.4% of the cells expressing GFP after 2 days of culture. In vivo, 2 days after 400 SW exposure, viable-cell recovery from excised tumors was reduced to 4.2% of shams and cell transfection was enhanced by a factor of about 8, reaching 2.5% of cell counts (p < 0.005 in t-test). These results show that strong tumor ablation induced by US shock wave treatment can be coupled with simultaneous enhancement of gene transfection. PMID:10626630

  12. Quantification of Murine Pancreatic Tumors by High Resolution Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Sastra, Stephen A.; Olive, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ultrasonography is a powerful imaging modality that enables non-invasive, real time visualization of abdominal organs and tissues. This technology may be adapted for use in mice through the utilization of higher frequency transducers, allowing for extremely high resolution imaging of the mouse pancreas. This technique is particularly well-suited to pancreas imaging due to the ultrasonographic properties of the normal mouse pancreas, easily accessible imaging planes for the head and tail of the mouse pancreas, and the comparative difficulty in imaging the mouse pancreas with other technologies. A suite of measurements tools is available to characterize the normal and diseased states of tissues. Of particular utility for cancer applications is the ability to use tomography to construct a 3D tumor volume, enabling longitudinal imaging studies to track tumor development, or response to therapies. Here, we describe a detailed method for performing high resolution ultrasound to detect and measure pancreatic lesions in a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic ductal using the VisualSonics Vevo2100 High Resolution Ultrasound System. The method includes preparation of the animal for imaging, 2D and 3D image acquisition, and post-acquisition analysis of tumors volumes. The combined procedure has been utilized extensively by our group and others for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (1–4). PMID:23359158

  13. Dynamic Tumor Growth Patterns in a Novel Murine Model of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Terrah J. Paul; Hadac, Jamie N.; Sievers, Chelsie K.; Leystra, Alyssa A.; Deming, Dustin A.; Zahm, Christopher D.; Albrecht, Dawn M.; Nomura, Alice; Nettekoven, Laura A.; Plesh, Lauren K.; Clipson, Linda; Sullivan, Ruth; Newton, Michael A.; Schelman, William R.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) often arises from adenomatous colonic polyps. Polyps can grow and progress to cancer, but may also remain static in size, regress, or resolve. Predicting which progress and which remain benign is difficult. We developed a novel long-lived murine model of CRC with tumors that can be followed by colonoscopy. Our aim was to assess whether these tumors have similar growth patterns and histologic fates to human colorectal polyps to identify features to aid in risk-stratification of colonic tumors. Long-lived ApcMin/+ mice were treated with dextran sodium sulfate to promote colonic tumorigenesis. Tumor growth patterns were characterized by serial colonoscopy with biopsies obtained for immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling. Tumors grew, remained static, regressed, or resolved over time with different relative frequencies. Newly developed tumors demonstrated higher rates of growth and resolution than more established tumors that tended to remain static in size. Colonic tumors were hyperplastic lesions (3%), adenomas (73%), intramucosal carcinomas (20%), or adenocarcinomas (3%). Interestingly, the level of β-catenin was higher in adenomas that became intratumoral carcinomas as compared to those that failed to progress. In addition, differentially expressed genes between adenomas and intramucosal carcinomas were identified. This novel murine model of intestinal tumorigenesis develops colonic tumors that can be monitored by serial colonoscopy, mirror growth patterns seen in human colorectal polyps, and progress to CRC. Further characterization of cellular and molecular features are needed to determine which features can be used to risk-stratify polyps for progression to CRC and potentially guide prevention strategies. PMID:24196829

  14. Genomic profiling of murine mammary tumors identifies potential personalized drug targets for p53-deficient mammary cancers

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Yash N.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Kanchi, Krishna L.; Herschkowitz, Jason I.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Rosen, Jeffrey M.; Perou, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Targeted therapies against basal-like breast tumors, which are typically ‘triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs)’, remain an important unmet clinical need. Somatic TP53 mutations are the most common genetic event in basal-like breast tumors and TNBC. To identify additional drivers and possible drug targets of this subtype, a comparative study between human and murine tumors was performed by utilizing a murine Trp53-null mammary transplant tumor model. We show that two subsets of murine Trp53-null mammary transplant tumors resemble aspects of the human basal-like subtype. DNA-microarray, whole-genome and exome-based sequencing approaches were used to interrogate the secondary genetic aberrations of these tumors, which were then compared to human basal-like tumors to identify conserved somatic genetic features. DNA copy-number variation produced the largest number of conserved candidate personalized drug targets. These candidates were filtered using a DNA-RNA Pearson correlation cut-off and a requirement that the gene was deemed essential in at least 5% of human breast cancer cell lines from an RNA-mediated interference screen database. Five potential personalized drug target genes, which were spontaneously amplified loci in both murine and human basal-like tumors, were identified: Cul4a, Lamp1, Met, Pnpla6 and Tubgcp3. As a proof of concept, inhibition of Met using crizotinib caused Met-amplified murine tumors to initially undergo complete regression. This study identifies Met as a promising drug target in a subset of murine Trp53-null tumors, thus identifying a potential shared driver with a subset of human basal-like breast cancers. Our results also highlight the importance of comparative genomic studies for discovering personalized drug targets and for providing a preclinical model for further investigations of key tumor signaling pathways. PMID:27149990

  15. Anti-tumor angiogenesis effect of genetic fusion vaccine encoding murine beta-defensin 2 and tumor endothelial marker-8 in a CT-26 murine colorectal carcinoma model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Xie, Ganfeng; Geng, Peiliang; Zheng, Chenhong; Li, Jianjun; Pan, Feng; Ruan, Zhihua; Liang, Houjie

    2015-01-01

    Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) is an endothelial-specific marker that is upregulated during tumor angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated that DNA-based vaccine encoding xenogeneic TEM8 can potentiate anti-angiogenesis immunotherapy of malignancy; nevertheless, it remains to be improved in minimizing immune tolerance. Recently, it has been reported that murine beta-defensin 2 (MBD2) is chemotactic for immature dendritic cells and plays a pivotal role in breaking immune tolerance. Herein, we constructed a genetic fusion vaccine encoding murine TEM8 and MBD2 to investigate whether the novel vaccine preferentially elicits therapeutic antitumor immune responses and suppresses cancerous angiogenesis in mouse models. The anti-angiogenesis effect was determined by microvessel density (MVD) using immunohistochemical staining. The efficacy of the fusion vaccine was primarily assessed by detecting cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity (51Cr-release assay). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay was used to detect TEM8-specific INF-γ production, and the activity of CTL was further verified by a depletion of CD8+ T cells via anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody. Our results showed that the DNA fusion vaccine possessed an enhanced therapeutic antitumor immunity through anti-angiogenesis in BALB/c mice inoculated with CT26 cells, and this effect was generally attributed to stimulation of an antigen specific CD8+ T-cell response against mTEM8. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the fusion vaccine based on mTEM8 and MBD2 induced autoimmunity against endothelial cells, resulting in deceleration of tumor growth, and could be potential therapeutical application in clinic. PMID:26064415

  16. Initial description of a tumor enhancing activity produced by murine splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, W H; Stebler, B; Ershler, W B

    1991-08-30

    We have shown that certain murine tumors grow more slowly and spread less readily in immune deficient animals. We have also demonstrated that immunologic factors explain certain aspects of this difference. In the work presented we demonstrate that a subpopulation of splenocytes produce a factor(s) that enhances tumor cell proliferation in vitro. We also describe an in vitro model to determine the level of tumor stimulatory activity. We found that the tumor cell growth-enhancing activity (TEA) is heat stable but sensitive to trypsin digestion, low pH and beta-mercaptoethanol. TEA production is found to be insensitive to mitogen stimulation such as concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, and phytohemagglutinin. Among the known growth factors and interleukins we have tested (interleukin 1-7, basic FGF, EGF, TGF-beta PDGF, GM-CSF, and MCSF), none appear to account for TEA activity. PMID:1883389

  17. Systemic miRNA-7 delivery inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth in murine xenograft glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Van Beijnum, Judy R.; Cerisoli, Francesco; Scaria, Puthupparampil V.; Verheul, Mark; Van Berkel, Maaike P.; Pieters, Ebel H. E.; Van Haastert, Rick J.; Yousefi, Afrouz; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Storm, Gert; Berezikov, Eugene; Cuppen, Edwin; Woodle, Martin; Schaapveld, Roel Q. J.; Prevost, Gregoire P.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Van Noort, Paula I.; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-angiogenesis is the multi-factorial process of sprouting of endothelial cells (EC) into micro-vessels to provide tumor cells with nutrients and oxygen. To explore miRNAs as therapeutic angiogenesis-inhibitors, we performed a functional screen to identify miRNAs that are able to decrease EC viability. We identified miRNA-7 (miR-7) as a potent negative regulator of angiogenesis. Introduction of miR-7 in EC resulted in strongly reduced cell viability, tube formation, sprouting and migration. Application of miR-7 in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay led to a profound reduction of vascularization, similar to anti-angiogenic drug sunitinib. Local administration of miR-7 in an in vivo murine neuroblastoma tumor model significantly inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. Finally, systemic administration of miR-7 using a novel integrin-targeted biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles that targets both EC and tumor cells, strongly reduced angiogenesis and tumor proliferation in mice with human glioblastoma xenografts. Transcriptome analysis of miR-7 transfected EC in combination with in silico target prediction resulted in the identification of OGT as novel target gene of miR-7. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of miR-7 as novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic miRNA that can be systemically delivered to both EC and tumor cells and offers promise for miR-7 as novel anti-tumor therapeutic. PMID:25149532

  18. Potentiation of radiation-induced regrowth delay in murine tumors by fludarabine.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, V; Hunter, N; Milas, L; Brock, W A; Plunkett, W; Hittelman, W N

    1994-01-15

    Fludarabine (9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluoroadenine-5'-monophosphate), an adenine nucleoside analogue, has previously been shown to inhibit the repair of radiation-induced chromosome damage. Thus fludarabine may have therapeutic utility in combination with photon irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fludarabine could enhance radiation-induced murine tumor regrowth delay and to determine the most effective dose and schedule of the combination. A significant (P < 0.05) absolute regrowth delay enhancement was observed in three murine tumor models (SA-NH, a sarcoma; and MCA-K and MCA-4, mammary carcinomas) when fludarabine (800 mg/kg) was given 1 h prior to 25 Gy gamma-irradiation. While fludarabine enhanced radiation-induced tumor regrowth delay when given between -36 h and +6 h of radiation (SA-NH tumor), the greatest enhancement was observed when fludarabine was given at -24 h prior to irradiation (radiation dose modification factor of 1.82 at -24 h compared to 1.57 at -3 h prior to radiation). The degree of fludarabine enhancement (at -3 or -24 h) was dose dependent at doses above 200 mg/kg. When fludarabine and radiation were administered on a fractionated schedule (fludarabine given 3 h prior to radiation each day for 4 days), the dose modification factor increased to 2.14 (1.63 if the effect of fludarabine alone is subtracted). These results suggest that fludarabine enhances radiation-induced tumor regrowth delay in a more than additive fashion after both single and fractionated treatments, and the degree of enhancement is dependent on the sequence and timing of administration, the fludarabine dose, and the tumor type. Thus, fludarabine may have clinical potential as a radiation enhancer in the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:8275483

  19. Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model

    SciTech Connect

    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamamori, Tohru; Zhao, Songji; Kuge, Yuji; Tamaki, Nagara; Kameya, Hiromi; Nakamura, Hideo; Fujii, Hirotada; Inanami, Osamu

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2}. •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2} in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy.

  20. Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model.

    PubMed

    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamamori, Tohru; Zhao, Songji; Kuge, Yuji; Tamaki, Nagara; Kameya, Hiromi; Nakamura, Hideo; Fujii, Hirotada; Inanami, Osamu

    2013-08-01

    Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO2 in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10Gy×2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy. PMID:23831468

  1. Stromal CCR6 drives tumor growth in a murine transplantable colon cancer through recruitment of tumor-promoting macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Bisweswar; Shapiro, Mia; Samur, Mehmet K; Pai, Christine; Frank, Natasha Y; Yoon, Charles; Prabhala, Rao H; Munshi, Nikhil C; Gold, Jason S

    2016-08-01

    Interactions between the inflammatory chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 have been implicated in promoting colon cancer; however, the mechanisms behind this effect are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that deficiency of CCR6 is associated with decreased tumor macrophage accumulation in a model of sporadic intestinal tumorigenesis. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of stromal CCR6 expression in a murine syngeneic transplantable colon cancer model. We show that deficiency of host CCR6 is associated with decreased growth of syngeneic CCR6-expressing colon cancers. Colon cancers adoptively transplanted into CCR6-deficient mice have decreased tumor-associated macrophages without alterations in the number of monocytes in blood or bone marrow. CCL20, the unique ligand for CCR6, promotes migration of monocytes in vitro and promotes accumulation of macrophages in vivo. Depletion of tumor-associated macrophages decreases the growth of tumors in the transplantable tumor model. Macrophages infiltrating the colon cancers in this model secrete the inflammatory mediators CCL2, IL-1α, IL-6 and TNFα. Ccl2, Il1α and Il6 are consequently downregulated in tumors from CCR6-deficient mice. CCL2, IL-1α and IL-6 also promote proliferation of colon cancer cells, linking the decreased macrophage migration into tumors mediated by CCL20-CCR6 interactions to the delay in tumor growth in CCR6-deficient hosts. The relevance of these findings in human colon cancer is demonstrated through correlation of CCR6 expression with that of the macrophage marker CD163 as well as that of CCL2, IL1α and TNFα. Our findings support the exploration of targeting the CCL20-CCR6 pathway for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:27622061

  2. Natural history of tumor growth and immune modulation in common spontaneous murine mammary tumor models

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren; Slota, Meredith; Koehnlein, Marlese; Treuting, Piper M.; Dang, Yushe; Stanton, Sasha; Disis, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies in patients with breast cancer suggest the immune microenvironment influences response to therapy. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between growth rates of tumors in common spontaneous mammary tumor models and immune biomarkers evaluated in the tumor and blood. Methods TgMMTV-neu and C3(1)-Tag transgenic mice were followed longitudinally from birth, and MPA-DMBA treated mice from the time of carcinogen administration, for the development of mammary tumors. Tumor infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, FOXP3+ T-regulatory cells, and myeloid derived suppressor cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Serum cytokines were evaluated in subsets of mice. Fine needle aspirates of tumors were collected and RNA isolated to determine levels of immune and proliferation markers. Results Age of tumor onset and kinetics of tumor growth were significantly different among the models. Mammary tumors from TgMMTV-neu contained a lower CD8/CD4 ratio than other models (p<0.05). MPA-DMBA induced tumors contained a higher percentage of FOXP3+ CD4+ T-cells (p<0.01) and MDSC (p<0.001) as compared to the other models. Individuals with significantly slower tumor growth demonstrated higher levels of Type I serum cytokines prior to the development of lesions as compared to those with rapid tumor growth. Moreover, the tumors of animals with more rapid tumor growth demonstrated a significant increase in expression of genes associated with Type II immunity than those with slower progressing tumors. Conclusions These data provide a foundation for the development of in vivo models to explore the relationship between endogenous immunity and response to standard therapies for breast cancer. PMID:25395320

  3. Nanoelectroablation of Murine Tumors Triggers a CD8-Dependent Inhibition of Secondary Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Berridge, Jon Casey; Mallon, Zachary; Kreis, Mark; Athos, Brian; Nuccitelli, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    We have used both a rat orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model and a mouse allograft tumor model to study liver tumor ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). We confirm that nsPEF treatment triggers apoptosis in rat liver tumor cells as indicated by the appearance of cleaved caspase 3 and 9 within two hours after treatment. Furthermore we provide evidence that nsPEF treatment leads to the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) to the cell surface which is considered a damage-associated molecular pattern indicative of immunogenic cell death. We provide direct evidence that nanoelectroablation triggers a CD8-dependent inhibition of secondary tumor growth by comparing the growth rate of secondary orthotopic liver tumors in nsPEF-treated rats with that in nsPEF-treated rats depleted of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. The growth of these secondary tumors was severely inhibited as compared to tumor growth in CD8-depleated rats, with their average size only 3% of the primary tumor size after the same one-week growth period. In contrast, when we depleted CD8+ T-cells the second tumor grew more robustly, reaching 54% of the size of the first tumor. In addition, we demonstrate with immunohistochemistry that CD8+ T-cells are highly enriched in the secondary tumors exhibiting slow growth. We also showed that vaccinating mice with nsPEF-treated isogenic tumor cells stimulates an immune response that inhibits the growth of secondary tumors in a CD8+-dependent manner. We conclude that nanoelectroablation triggers the production of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells resulting in the inhibition of secondary tumor growth. PMID:26231031

  4. Role of curcumin-dependent modulation of tumor microenvironment of a murine T cell lymphoma in altered regulation of tumor cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Vishvakarma, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Anjani; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2011-05-01

    Using a murine model of a T cell lymphoma, in the present study, we report that tumor growth retarding action of curcumin involves modulation of some crucial parameters of tumor microenvironment regulating tumor progression. Curcumin-administration to tumor-bearing host caused an altered pH regulation in tumor cells associated with alteration in expression of cell survival and apoptosis regulatory proteins and genes. Nevertheless, an alteration was also observed in biophysical parameters of tumor microenvironment responsible for modulation of tumor growth pertaining to hypoxia, tumor acidosis, and glucose metabolism. The study thus sheds new light with respect to the antineoplastic action of curcumin against a tumor-bearing host with progressively growing tumor of hematological origin. This will help in optimizing application of the drug and anticancer research and therapy. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  5. Vaccination with Irradiated Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Murine Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Stimulates Potent, Specific, and Long-Lasting Anti-Tumor Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dranoff, Glenn; Jaffee, Elizabeth; Lazenby, Audrey; Golumbek, Paul; Levitsky, Hyam; Brose, Katja; Jackson, Valerie; Hamada, Hirofumi; Pardoll, Drew; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1993-04-01

    To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated potent, long-lasting, and specific anti-tumor immunity, requiring both CD4^+ and CD8^+ cells. Irradiated cells expressing interleukins 4 and 6 also stimulated detectable, but weaker, activity. In contrast to the B16 system, we found that in a number of other tumor models, the levels of anti-tumor immunity reported previously in cytokine gene transfer studies involving live, transduced cells could be achieved through the use of irradiated cells alone. Nevertheless, manipulation of the vaccine or challenge doses made it possible to demonstrate the activity of murine GM-CSF in those systems as well. Overall, our results have important implications for the clinical use of genetically modified tumor cells as therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  6. The Relationship between the Antitumor Effect of the IL-12 Gene Therapy and the Expression of Th1 Cytokines in an HPV16-Positive Murine Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    García Paz, Flor; Madrid Marina, Vicente; Morales Ortega, Ausencio; Santander González, Abimelec; Peralta Zaragoza, Oscar; Burguete García, Ana; Torres Poveda, Kirvis; Moreno, José; Alcocer González, Juan; Hernandez Marquez, Eva; Bermúdez Morales, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of IL-12 expressed in plasmid on the Th1 cytokine profile in an experimental HPV16-positive murine tumor model and the association with the IL-12's antitumor effect. Methods. Mice were injected with BMK-16/myc cells to establish HPV16-positive tumor and then pNGVL3-mIL-12 plasmid; pcDNA3 plasmid or PBS was injected directly into tumor site. The antitumor effect of the treatment was evaluated and the cytokines expression profile in each tumor tissue was analyzed. Results. Treatment with pNGVL3-mIL-12 plasmid had a significant antitumor effect, and a Th2-Th3-type cytokines prolife was detected in the murine tumor model with expression of the cytokines IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-β1. However, after the tumor was treated with three intratumoral injections of plasmid containing IL-12 cDNA, it showed a cytokine profile associated with Th1 with expression of IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ cytokines and reduced expression of IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-β1. Conclusions. The treatment with the IL-12 gene in the experimental HPV16-positive tumor model promoted the activation of the cellular immune response via expression of a Th1-type cytokine profile and was associated with the inhibition of tumor growth. Thus, IL-12 treatment represents a novel approach for gene therapy against cervical cancer. PMID:24808638

  7. Pulsed focused ultrasound exposures enhance locally administered gene therapy in a murine solid tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Ziadloo, Ali; Xie, Jianwu; Frenkel, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy by intratumoral injection is a promising approach for treating solid tumors. However, this approach has limited success due to insufficient distribution of gene vectors used for gene delivery. Previous studies have shown that pulsed-focused ultrasound (pFUS) can enhance both systemic and local delivery of therapeutic agents in solid tumors and other disease models. Here, murine squamous cell carcinoma flank tumors were treated with single intratumoral injection of naked tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plasmid, either with or without a preceding pFUS exposure. The exposures were given at 1 MHz, at a spatial average, temporal peak intensity of 2660 W cm–2, using 50 ms pulses, given at a pulse repetition frequency of 1 Hz. One hundred pulses were given at individual raster points, spaced evenly over the projected surface of the tumor at a distance of 2 mm. Exposures alone had no effect on tumor growth. Significant growth inhibition was observed with injection of TNF-α plasmid, and tumor growth was further inhibited with pFUS. Improved results with pFUS correlated with larger necrotic regions in histological sections and improved distribution and penetration of fluorescent surrogate nanoparticles. Electron microscopy demonstrated enlarged gaps between cells in exposed tissue, and remote acoustic palpation showed decreases in tissue stiffness after pFUS. Combined, these results suggest pFUS effects may be reducing barriers for tissue transport and additionally lowering interstitial fluid pressure to further improve delivery and distribution of injected plasmid for greater therapeutic effects. This suggests that pFUS could potentially be beneficial for improving local gene therapy treatment of human malignancies. PMID:23464051

  8. Development of apoptosis in irradiated murine tumors as a function of time and dose.

    PubMed

    Stephens, L C; Hunter, N R; Ang, K K; Milas, L; Meyn, R E

    1993-07-01

    In a previous paper (Radiat. Res. 127, 308-316, 1991), we reported that a moderately radiosensitive, transplantable murine ovarian carcinoma (OCaI) displayed apoptosis after irradiation whereas a radioresistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCaI) did not. These initial observations have been followed up in this detailed analysis of the development of apoptosis in these two tumors as a function of time and dose. Histological sections of OCaI and HCaI carcinomas were scored at various times between 0.5 and 24 h after single doses of 2.5 or 25 Gy gamma radiation for the incidence of apoptosis. The percentage of nuclei undergoing apoptosis in untreated tumors was 5% in OCaI and 0.6% in HCaI. The peak in the number of apoptotic bodies occurred in the OCaI tumors 3-5 h after either dose. After 2.5 Gy, the peak incidence was about 20% and after 25 Gy it was about 30%. Irrespective of dose, HCaI tumors had an incidence of apoptosis of less than 3%. Based on the results of this time course, 4 h after irradiation was chosen for the determination of the dose response, over doses ranging from 2.5 to 25 Gy. The dose response for the OCaI tumors reached a plateau at 25-30% apoptotic nuclei after doses of about 7.5 Gy and above. Autoradiographic analysis of histological sections from mice injected with [3H]thymidine showed that some apoptotic bodies in the OCaI tumors arose from cycling cells. These results confirm that the apoptotic mode of cell death may represent an important response in some irradiated tumors. PMID:8327664

  9. Anti-tumor immunity generated by photodynamic therapy in a metastatic murine tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a modality for the treatment of cancer involving excitation of photosensitizers with harmless visible light producing reactive oxygen species. The major biological effects of PDT are apoptosis of tumor cells, destruction of the blood supply and activation of the immune system. The objective of this study is to compare in an animal model of metastatic cancer, PDT alone and PDT combined with low-dose cyclophosphamide (CY). Since the tumor we used is highly metastatic, it is necessary to generate anti-tumor immunity using PDT to both cure the primary tumor and prevent death from metastasis. This immunity may be potentiated by low dose CY. In our model we used J774 cells (a Balb/c reticulum cell sarcoma line with the characteristics of macrophages) and the following PDT regimen: benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD, 2mg/kg injected IV followed after 15 min by 150 J/cm2 of 690-nm light). CY (50 mg/kg i.p.) was injected 48 hours before light delivery. BPD-PDT led to complete regression of the primary tumor in more than half the mice but no permanent cures were obtained. BPD-PDT in combination with CY led to 60% permanent cures. CY alone gave no permanent cures but did provide a survival advantage. To probe permanent immunity cured animals were rechallenged with the same tumor cell line and the tumors were rejected in 71% of mice cured with BPD-PDT plus CY. We conclude that BPD-PDT in combination with CY gives best overall results and that this is attributable to immunological response activation in addition to PDT-mediated destruction of the tumor.

  10. Primary polyoma virus-induced murine thymic epithelial tumors. A tumor model of thymus physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Hoot, G. P.; Kettman, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Thymic tumors were induced in C3'/Bittner mice by neonatal inoculation with polyoma virus. The objective of this study was to identify the phenotypes of the cells within the tumors and to attempt to determine the origin of the neoplastic cell population(s). At the ultrastructural level, the neoplastic cells resembled normal thymic epithelium with tonofilaments and desmosomes. Immunoperoxidase staining demonstrated the presence of cytokeratin, Iak, -beta 2-microglobulin, -asialo-GM1, the thymic cortical epithelial marker ER-TR4, and the medullary epithelial marker ER-TR5. Islands of normal cortical thymocytes supported by residual normal cortical epithelium and acid phosphatase-positive cortical macrophages were interspersed in the tumors. Residual islands of normal medullary architecture with nonspecific esterase-positive IDCs were rarely identified in tumors. Most lymphocytes in the tumors were normal immature cortical thymocytes with the phenotype Tdt+, PNA+, Thy 1.2bright, Ly-1dull, H-2Kkdull, ThB+, J11d+, and Lyt-2+L3T4+. Lymphocytes in the tumors were steroid-sensitive like normal thymocytes. The proportions of Lyt-2+L3T4- and Lyt-2-L3T4+ cells were generally larger in the tumors than in normal thymus and reflected the higher frequency of lymphocytes in the tumors capable of proliferating in vitro in response to Con A plus IL-2. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that the neoplasia originates from thymic epithelium that is interspersed with normal, developing thymic lymphocytes. Images Figure 4 p[688]-a Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 p687-a Figure 7 PMID:2552813

  11. SWIFT-MRI imaging and quantitative assessment of IONPs in murine tumors following intra-tumor and systemic delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Russell; Petryk, Alicia A.; Kastner, Elliot J.; Zhang, Jinjin; Ring, Hattie; Garwood, Michael; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2015-03-01

    Although preliminary clinical trials are ongoing, successful the use of iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IONP) for heatbased cancer treatments will depend on advancements in: 1) nanoparticle platforms, 2) delivery of a safe and effective alternating magnetic field (AMF) to the tumor, and 3) development of non-invasive, spatially accurate IONP imaging and quantification technique. This imaging technique must be able to assess tumor and normal tissue anatomy as well as IONP levels and biodistribution. Conventional CT imaging is capable of detecting and quantifying IONPs at tissue levels above 10 mg/gram; unfortunately this level is not clinically achievable in most situations. Conventional MRI is capable of imaging IONPs at tissue levels of 0.05 mg/gm or less, however this level is considered to be below the therapeutic threshold. We present here preliminary in vivo data demonstrating the ability of a novel MRI technique, Sweep Imaging with Fourier Transformation (SWIFT), to accurately image and quantify IONPs in tumor tissue in the therapeutic concentration range (0.1-1.0 mg/gm tissue). This ultra-short, T2 MRI method provides a positive Fe contrast enhancement with a reduced signal to noise ratio. Additional IONP signal enhancement techniques such as inversion recovery spectroscopy and variable flip angle (VFA) are also being studied for potential optimization of SWIFT IONP imaging. Our study demonstrates the use of SWIFT to assess IONP levels and biodistribution, in murine flank tumors, following intra-tumoral and systemic IONP administration. ICP-MS and quantitative histological techniques are used to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of SWIFT-based IONP imaging and quantification.

  12. Berberine inhibits human tongue squamous carcinoma cancer tumor growth in a murine xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yung-Tsuan; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Lai, Kuang-Chi; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2009-09-01

    Our primary studies showed that berberine induced apoptosis in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells in vitro. But there is no report to show berberine inhibited SCC-4 cancer cells in vivo on a murine xenograft animal model. SCC-4 tumor cells were implanted into mice and groups of mice were treated with vehicle, berberine (10mg/kg of body weight) and doxorubicin (4mg/kg of body weight). The tested agents were injected once per four days intraperitoneally (i.p.), with treatment starting 4 weeks prior to cells inoculation. Treatment with 4mg/kg of doxorubicin or with 10mg/kg of berberine resulted in a reduction in tumor incidence. Tumor size in xenograft mice treated with 10mg/kg berberine was significantly smaller than that in the control group. Our findings indicated that berbeirne inhibits tumor growth in a xenograft animal model. Therefore, berberine may represent a tongue cancer preventive agent and can be used in clinic. PMID:19303753

  13. Lovastatin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha exhibit potentiated antitumor effects against Ha-ras-transformed murine tumor via inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feleszko, W; Bałkowiec, E Z; Sieberth, E; Marczak, M; Dabrowska, A; Giermasz, A; Czajka, A; Jakóbisiak, M

    1999-05-17

    Lovastatin, a drug commonly used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, has previously been reported to exert potentiated antitumor activity when combined with either tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cisplatin or doxorubicin in a melanoma model in mice. Since lovastatin interferes with the function of ras oncogene-encoded (Ras) proteins, we have investigated the antitumor activity of lovastatin and TNF-alpha using a Ha-ras-transformed murine tumor model. In in vitro studies, lovastatin inhibited the growth of cells transformed with Ha-ras oncogene (Ras-3T3 and HBL100-ras cells) more effectively than control NIH-3T3 and HBL100-neo cells. In in vivo experiments, the Ras-3T3 tumor demonstrated significantly increased sensitivity to combined treatment with both lovastatin (50 mg/kg) and TNF-alpha (1 microg/day) compared with either agent alone. Combined treatment with both agents also resulted in greater inhibition of blood-vessel formation. Ras-3T3 tumor cells produced increased amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and lovastatin effectively suppressed VEGF production by these cells. Our results suggest that lovastatin increases antitumor activity of TNF-alpha against tumor cells transformed with v-Ha-ras oncogene via inhibition of tumor-induced blood-vessel formation. PMID:10225445

  14. Ureaplasma urealyticum Causes Hyperammonemia in an Experimental Immunocompromised Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Karau, Melissa J.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Block, Darci R.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Cunningham, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperammonemia syndrome is an often fatal complication of lung transplantation which has been recently associated with Ureaplasma infection. It has not been definitely established that Ureaplasma species can cause hyperammonemia. We established a novel immunocompromised murine model of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection and used it to confirm that U. urealyticum can cause hyperammonemia. Male C3H mice were pharmacologically immunosuppressed with mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus and oral prednisone for seven days, and then challenged intratracheally (IT) and/or intraperitoneally (IP) with 107 CFU U. urealyticum over six days, while continuing immunosuppression. Spent U. urealyticum-free U9 broth was used as a negative control, with uninfected immunocompetent mice, uninfected immunosuppressed mice, and infected immunocompetent mice serving as additional controls. Plasma ammonia concentrations were compared using Wilcoxon ranks sum tests. Plasma ammonia concentrations of immunosuppressed mice challenged IT/IP with spent U9 broth (n = 14) (range 155–330 μmol/L) were similar to those of normal mice (n = 5), uninfected immunosuppressed mice (n = 5), and U. urealyticum IT/IP challenged immunocompetent mice (n = 5) [range 99–340 μmol/L, p = 0.60]. However, immunosuppressed mice challenged with U. urealyticum IT/IP (n = 20) or IP (n = 15) had higher plasma ammonia concentrations (range 225–945 μmol/L and 276–687 μmol/L, respectively) than those challenged IT/IP with spent U9 broth (p<0.001). U. urealyticum administered IT/IP or IP causes hyperammonemia in mice pharmacologically immunosuppressed with a regimen similar to that administered to lung transplant recipients. PMID:27537683

  15. Ureaplasma urealyticum Causes Hyperammonemia in an Experimental Immunocompromised Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Karau, Melissa J; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Block, Darci R; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Cunningham, Scott A; Patel, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperammonemia syndrome is an often fatal complication of lung transplantation which has been recently associated with Ureaplasma infection. It has not been definitely established that Ureaplasma species can cause hyperammonemia. We established a novel immunocompromised murine model of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection and used it to confirm that U. urealyticum can cause hyperammonemia. Male C3H mice were pharmacologically immunosuppressed with mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus and oral prednisone for seven days, and then challenged intratracheally (IT) and/or intraperitoneally (IP) with 107 CFU U. urealyticum over six days, while continuing immunosuppression. Spent U. urealyticum-free U9 broth was used as a negative control, with uninfected immunocompetent mice, uninfected immunosuppressed mice, and infected immunocompetent mice serving as additional controls. Plasma ammonia concentrations were compared using Wilcoxon ranks sum tests. Plasma ammonia concentrations of immunosuppressed mice challenged IT/IP with spent U9 broth (n = 14) (range 155-330 μmol/L) were similar to those of normal mice (n = 5), uninfected immunosuppressed mice (n = 5), and U. urealyticum IT/IP challenged immunocompetent mice (n = 5) [range 99-340 μmol/L, p = 0.60]. However, immunosuppressed mice challenged with U. urealyticum IT/IP (n = 20) or IP (n = 15) had higher plasma ammonia concentrations (range 225-945 μmol/L and 276-687 μmol/L, respectively) than those challenged IT/IP with spent U9 broth (p<0.001). U. urealyticum administered IT/IP or IP causes hyperammonemia in mice pharmacologically immunosuppressed with a regimen similar to that administered to lung transplant recipients. PMID:27537683

  16. STRAIN-DEPENDENT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TRANSPLACENTALLY-INDUCED MURINE LUNG TUMORS AND DNA ADDUCTS OF 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strain-dependent susceptibility to transplacentally-induced murine lung tumors and DNA adducts of 3methylcholanthrene G B Nelson, J A Ross, J E Moore, M Xu, N D Kock, M S Miller Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC and USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    It has been de...

  17. In vivo measurement of epidermal thickness changes associated with tumor promotion in murine models

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Samatham, Ravikant; Choudhury, Niloy; Gladish, James C.; Thuillier, Philippe; Jacques, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of tissue morphology in murine models of pathogenesis has traditionally been carried out by excision of affected tissues with subsequent immunohistological examination. Excision-based histology provides a limited two-dimensional presentation of tissue morphology at the cost of halting disease progression at a single time point and sacrifice of the animal. We investigate the use of noninvasive reflectance mode confocal scanning laser microscopy (rCSLM) as an alternative tool to biopsy in documenting epidermal hyperplasia in murine models exposed to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). An automated technique utilizing average axial rCSLM reflectance profiles is used to extract epidermal thickness values from rCSLM data cubes. In comparisons to epidermal thicknesses determined from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections, we find no significant correlation to rCSLM-derived thickness values. This results from method-specific artifacts: physical alterations of tissue during H&E preparation in standard histology and specimen-induced abberations in rCSLM imaging. Despite their disagreement, both histology and rCSLM methods reliably measure statistically significant thickness changes in response to TPA exposure. Our results demonstrate that in vivo rCSLM imaging provides epithelial biologists an accurate noninvasive means to monitor cutaneous pathogenesis. PMID:20799792

  18. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with variably sized polyethylene glycol in murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, Thomas; Wittenborn, Thomas; Rydtoft, Louise Munk; Lokanathan, Arcot R; Hansen, Line; Østergaard, Leif; Kingshott, Peter; Howard, Kenneth A; Besenbacher, Flemming; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Kjems, Jørgen

    2012-04-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have found widespread applications in different areas including cell separation, drug delivery and as contrast agents. Due to water insolubility and stability issues, nanoparticles utilized for biological applications require coatings such as the commonly employed polyethylene glycol (PEG). Despite its frequent use, the influence of PEG coatings on the physicochemical and biological properties of iron nanoparticles has hitherto not been studied in detail. To address this, we studied the effect of 333-20,000 Da PEG coatings that resulted in larger hydrodynamic size, lower surface charge, longer circulation half-life, and lower uptake in macrophage cells when the particles were coated with high molecular weight (M(w)) PEG molecules. By use of magnetic resonance imaging, we show coating-dependent in vivo uptake in murine tumors with an optimal coating M(w) of 10,000 Da. PMID:22395568

  19. Automated segmentation of murine lung tumors in x-ray micro-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swee, Joshua K. Y.; Sheridan, Clare; de Bruin, Elza; Downward, Julian; Lassailly, Francois; Pizarro, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have seen micro-CT emerge as a means of providing imaging analysis in pre-clinical study, with in-vivo micro-CT having been shown to be particularly applicable to the examination of murine lung tumors. Despite this, existing studies have involved substantial human intervention during the image analysis process, with the use of fully-automated aids found to be almost non-existent. We present a new approach to automate the segmentation of murine lung tumors designed specifically for in-vivo micro-CT-based pre-clinical lung cancer studies that addresses the specific requirements of such study, as well as the limitations human-centric segmentation approaches experience when applied to such micro-CT data. Our approach consists of three distinct stages, and begins by utilizing edge enhancing and vessel enhancing non-linear anisotropic diffusion filters to extract anatomy masks (lung/vessel structure) in a pre-processing stage. Initial candidate detection is then performed through ROI reduction utilizing obtained masks and a two-step automated segmentation approach that aims to extract all disconnected objects within the ROI, and consists of Otsu thresholding, mathematical morphology and marker-driven watershed. False positive reduction is finally performed on initial candidates through random-forest-driven classification using the shape, intensity, and spatial features of candidates. We provide validation of our approach using data from an associated lung cancer study, showing favorable results both in terms of detection (sensitivity=86%, specificity=89%) and structural recovery (Dice Similarity=0.88) when compared against manual specialist annotation.

  20. Silencing of Foxp3 delays the growth of murine melanomas and modifies the tumor immunosuppressive environment

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Molina, Moisés A; Miranda-Hernández, Diana F; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Coronado-Cerda, Erika E; Sierra-Rivera, Crystel A; Saavedra-Alonso, Santiago; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression was believed to be specific for T-regulatory cells but has recently been described in non-hematopoietic cells from different tissue origins and in tumor cells from both epithelial and non-epithelial tissues. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of Foxp3 in murine melanoma. The B16F10 cell line Foxp3 silenced with small interference Foxp3 plasmid transfection was established and named B16F10.1. These cells had lower levels of Foxp3 mRNA (quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [0.235-fold]), protein (flow cytometry [0.02%]), CD25+ expression (0.06%), cellular proliferation (trypan blue staining), and interleukin (IL)-2 production (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [72.35 pg/mL]) than those in B16F10 wild-type (WT) cells (P<0.05). Subcutaneous inoculation of the B16F10.1 cell line into C57BL/6 mice delayed the time of visible tumor appearance, increased the time of survival, and affected the weight of tumors, and also decreased the production of IL-10, IL-2, and transforming growth factor beta compared with mice inoculated with the B16F10 WT cell line. The B16F10.1 cells derived from tumors and free of T-cells (isolated by Dynabeads and plastic attachment) expressed relatively lower levels of Foxp3 and CD25+ than B16F10 WT cells (P<0.05) in a time-dependent manner. The population of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of T CD4+ cells (CD4+, CD4+CD25+, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) increased in a time-dependent manner (P<0.05) in tumors derived from B16F10 WT cells and decreased in tumors derived from B16F10.1 cells. Similar data were obtained from spleen cells. These results suggest that, in melanomas, Foxp3 partly induces tumor growth by modifying the immune system at the local and peripheral level, shifting the environment toward an immunosuppressive profile. Therapies incorporating this transcription factor could be strategies for cancer treatment. PMID:26834483

  1. Cloning of the murine counterpart of the tumor-associated antigen H-L6: Epitope mapping of the human and murine L6 antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.P.; Farr, A.G.; Marken, J.S. |

    1995-10-03

    The murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) L6 was raised against human lung carcinoma cells and found to recognize an antigen which is highly expressed on lung, breast, colon, and ovarian carcinomas. Promising results in phase 1 clinical studies with this antibody or its chimerized counterpart suggest the antigen recognized by mAb L6 (H-L6) is an attractive target for monoclonal antibody-based cancer therapy. Further development of L6 as an anti-tumor-targeting agent would benefit from the development of a murine model. However, initial attempts to develop such a model were hampered by our inability to generate antibodies against the murine homologue of the L6 antigen, M-L6. Here we describe the preparation of the mAb 12A8, which was raised against murine thymic epithelial cells, the tissue distribution of the murine antigen recognized by 12A8, the cloning of a cDNA encoding the 12A8 target antigen, and the demonstration that this antigen is M-L6. Using H-L6/M-L6 chimeric proteins, we show that the region of the M-L6 protein recognized by mAb 12A8 corresponds to the region of H-L6 recognized by mAb L6. There are five amino acid differences in the regions of the H-L6 and M-L6 proteins recognized by L6 and 12A8, respectively. We further mapped the protein epitope recognized by L6 by individually exchanging each of these residues in H-L6 with the corresponding residue found in M-L6. Substitution of the single H-L6 residue Leu122 with Ser resulted in the H-L6 mutant HL6-L122S which failed to bind L6. The HL6-L122S mutant also failed to bind 12A8. Substituting residue Ser122 in M-L6 with Leu did not prevent 12A8 binding and did not result in L6 binding. The availability of mAb 12A8 and the finding that it recognizes the same region of M-L6 that is recognized by L6 on H-L6 might allow the development of a murine tumor model in which the L6 antigen can be further evaluated as a therapeutic target. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Modified Gompertz equation for electrotherapy murine tumor growth kinetics: predictions and new hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Electrotherapy effectiveness at different doses has been demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies; however, several aspects that occur in the tumor growth kinetics before and after treatment have not yet been revealed. Mathematical modeling is a useful instrument that can reveal some of these aspects. The aim of this paper is to describe the complete growth kinetics of unperturbed and perturbed tumors through use of the modified Gompertz equation in order to generate useful insight into the mechanisms that underpin this devastating disease. Methods The complete tumor growth kinetics for control and treated groups are obtained by interpolation and extrapolation methods with different time steps, using experimental data of fibrosarcoma Sa-37. In the modified Gompertz equation, a delay time is introduced to describe the tumor's natural history before treatment. Different graphical strategies are used in order to reveal new information in the complete kinetics of this tumor type. Results The first stage of complete tumor growth kinetics is highly non linear. The model, at this stage, shows different aspects that agree with those reported theoretically and experimentally. Tumor reversibility and the proportionality between regions before and after electrotherapy are demonstrated. In tumors that reach partial remission, two antagonistic post-treatment processes are induced, whereas in complete remission, two unknown antitumor mechanisms are induced. Conclusion The modified Gompertz equation is likely to lead to insights within cancer research. Such insights hold promise for increasing our understanding of tumors as self-organizing systems and, the possible existence of phase transitions in tumor growth kinetics, which, in turn, may have significant impacts both on cancer research and on clinical practice. PMID:21029411

  3. Characterization of lymphoid tumors induced by a recombinant murine retrovirus carrying the avian v-myc oncogene. Identification of novel (B-lymphoid) tumors in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Brightman, B K; Chandy, K G; Spencer, R H; Gupta, S; Pattengale, P K; Fan, H

    1988-10-15

    Lymphoid tumors induced by a recombinant murine retrovirus carrying the v-myc oncogene of avian MC29 virus were characterized. The Moloney murine leukemia virus myc oncogene (M-MuLV (myc], carried by an amphotropic MuLV helper, induced tumors in NIH Swiss and NFS/N mice after a relatively long latency (8 to 24 wk). Tumor masses appeared in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. Flow cytometry of the tumor cells indicated that approximately 50% were positive for Thy 1.2. Most of these tumors also expressed one or more other cell surface markers of thymocytes and mature T cells (CD4, CD8). Southern blot hybridization revealed genomic rearrangements for the TCR beta genes. The TCR beta analysis suggested that the M-MuLV(myc)-induced Thy 1.2+ tumors were derived from somewhat less mature cells than tumors induced by M-MuLV, which is a classical non-acute retrovirus lacking an oncogene. The remainder of the M-MuLV(myc)-induced tumors were Thy 1.2-, but they were positive for Ly-5 (B220) and also for MAC-2. The Thy 1.2- tumors were characteristically located in the thymus. However, they were negative for TCR beta gene rearrangements. Some, but not all, of the Thy 1.2- tumors contained rearrangements for Ig genes. Additionally, they typically expressed mRNA specific for B but not for T cells. Thus, these thymic tumors had characteristics of the B cell lineage. Tumor transplantation experiments demonstrated that the Thy 1.2- tumor cells could reestablish in the thymus and spleen of irradiated hosts, and low level expression of the Thy 1 molecule was observed in the thymus but not the spleen on the first passage. After serial passage, one Thy 1- tumor altered its cell surface phenotype to Thy 1low B220-. PMID:2902139

  4. Rat sequences of the Kirsten and Harvey murine sarcoma virus genomes: nature, origin, and expression in rat tumor RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G R; Robbins, K C

    1976-01-01

    Two murine sarcoma viruses, the Kirsten and the Harvey, were isolated by passage of mouse type C leukemia viruses through rats. These sarcoma viruses have genomes containing portions of their parental type C mouse leukemia virus genomes, in stable association with specific rat cellular sequences that we find to be quite likely not those of a rat type C leukemia virus. To determine if these murine sarcoma viruses provide a model relevant to the events occurring in spontaneous tumors, we have hybridized DNA and RNA prepared from rat tumors and normal rat tissues to [3H]DNA prepared from the Kirsten murine sarcoma virus. We have also hybridized these rat tissue nucleic acids to [3H]DNA prepared from a respresentative endogenous rat type C leukemia virus, the WFU (Wistar-Furth). Sarcoma-viral rat cellular sequences and endogenous rat leukemia viral sequences were detected in the DNA of both tumor and normal tissues, with no evidence of either gene amplification or additional sequences being present in tumor DNA. Sarcoma-viral rat cellular sequences and endogenous rat leukemia viral sequences were detected at elevated concentrations in the RNA of many rat tumors and in specific groups of normal tissues. PMID:176419

  5. Quantitation of Murine Stroma and Selective Purification of the Human Tumor Component of Patient-Derived Xenografts for Genomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Valentina E; Allaj, Viola; Gardner, Eric E; Poirier, J T; Rudin, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models are increasingly used for preclinical therapeutic testing of human cancer. A limitation in molecular and genetic characterization of PDX tumors is the presence of integral murine stroma. This is particularly problematic for genomic sequencing of PDX models. Rapid and dependable approaches for quantitating stromal content and purifying the malignant human component of these tumors are needed. We used a recently developed technique exploiting species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicon length (ssPAL) differences to define the fractional composition of murine and human DNA, which was proportional to the fractional composition of cells in a series of lung cancer PDX lines. We compared four methods of human cancer cell isolation: fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), an immunomagnetic mouse cell depletion (MCD) approach, and two distinct EpCAM-based immunomagnetic positive selection methods. We further analyzed DNA extracted from the resulting enriched human cancer cells by targeted sequencing using a clinically validated multi-gene panel. Stromal content varied widely among tumors of similar histology, but appeared stable over multiple serial tumor passages of an individual model. FACS and MCD were superior to either positive selection approach, especially in cases of high stromal content, and consistently allowed high quality human-specific genomic profiling. ssPAL is a dependable approach to quantitation of murine stromal content, and MCD is a simple, efficient, and high yield approach to human cancer cell isolation for genomic analysis of PDX tumors. PMID:27611664

  6. Exercise modulation of the host-tumor interaction in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lee W; Antonelli, Jodi; Masko, Elizabeth M; Broadwater, Gloria; Lascola, Christopher D; Fels, Diane; Dewhirst, Mark W; Dyck, Jason R B; Nagendran, Jeevan; Flores, Catherine T; Betof, Allison S; Nelson, Erik R; Pollak, Michael; Dash, Rajesh C; Young, Martin E; Freedland, Stephen J

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of exercise on cancer progression, metastasis, and underlying mechanisms in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer. C57BL/6 male mice (6-8 wk of age) were orthotopically injected with transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate C-1 cells (5 × 10(5)) and randomly assigned to exercise (n = 28) or a non-intervention control (n = 31) groups. The exercise group was given voluntary access to a wheel 24 h/day for the duration of the study. Four mice per group were serially killed on days 14, 31, and 36; the remaining 38 mice (exercise, n = 18; control, n = 20) were killed on day 53. Before death, MRI was performed to assess tumor blood perfusion. Primary tumor growth rate was comparable between groups, but expression of prometastatic genes was significantly modulated in exercising animals with a shift toward reduced metastasis. Exercise was associated with increased activity of protein kinases within the MEK/MAPK and PI3K/mTOR signaling cascades with subsequent increased intratumoral protein levels of HIF-1α and VEGF. This was associated with improved tumor vascularization. Multiplex ELISAs revealed distinct reductions in plasma concentrations of several angiogenic cytokines in the exercise group, which was associated with increased expression of angiogenic and metabolic genes in the skeletal muscle. Exercise-induced stabilization of HIF-1α and subsequent upregulation of VEGF was associated with "productive" tumor vascularization with a shift toward suppressed metastasis in an orthotopic model of prostate cancer. PMID:22604887

  7. Inhibition of Rho-Associated Kinase 1/2 Attenuates Tumor Growth in Murine Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hinsenkamp, Isabel; Schulz, Sandra; Roscher, Mareike; Suhr, Anne-Maria; Meyer, Björn; Munteanu, Bogdan; Fuchser, Jens; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Ebert, Matthias P A; Wängler, Björn; Hopf, Carsten; Burgermeister, Elke

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a malignant disease with high mortality. Patients are frequently diagnosed in advanced stages where survival prognosis is poor. Thus, there is high medical need to find novel drug targets and treatment strategies. Recently, the comprehensive molecular characterization of GC subtypes revealed mutations in the small GTPase RHOA as a hallmark of diffuse-type GC. RHOA activates RHO-associated protein kinases (ROCK1/2) which regulate cell contractility, migration and growth and thus may play a role in cancer. However, therapeutic benefit of RHO-pathway inhibition in GC has not been shown so far. The ROCK1/2 inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-homopiperazine (HA-1077, fasudil) is approved for cerebrovascular bleeding in patients. We therefore investigated whether fasudil (i.p., 10 mg/kg per day, 4 times per week, 4 weeks) inhibits tumor growth in a preclinical model of GC. Fasudil evoked cell death in human GC cells and reduced the tumor size in the stomach of CEA424-SV40 TAg transgenic mice. Small animal PET/CT confirmed preclinical efficacy. Mass spectrometry imaging identified a translatable biomarker for mouse GC and suggested rapid but incomplete in situ distribution of the drug to gastric tumor tissue. RHOA expression was increased in the neoplastic murine stomach compared with normal non-malignant gastric tissue, and fasudil reduced (auto) phosphorylation of ROCK2 at THR249 in vivo and in human GC cells in vitro. In sum, our data suggest that RHO-pathway inhibition may constitute a novel strategy for treatment of GC and that enhanced distribution of future ROCK inhibitors into tumor tissue may further improve efficacy. PMID:27566106

  8. Antibiotics in neonatal life increase murine susceptibility to experimental psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Zanvit, Peter; Konkel, Joanne E.; Jiao, Xue; Kasagi, Shimpei; Zhang, Dunfang; Wu, Ruiqing; Chia, Cheryl; Ajami, Nadim J.; Smith, Daniel P.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Abbatiello, Brittany; Nakatsukasa, Hiroko; Chen, Qianming; Belkaid, Yasmine; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Chen, WanJun

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease affecting ∼2% of the world's population, but the aetiology remains incompletely understood. Recently, microbiota have been shown to differentially regulate the development of autoimmune diseases, but their influence on psoriasis is incompletely understood. We show here that adult mice treated with antibiotics that target Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria develop ameliorated psoriasiform dermatitis induced by imiquimod, with decreased pro-inflammatory IL-17- and IL-22-producing T cells. Surprisingly, mice treated neonatally with these antibiotics develop exacerbated psoriasis induced by imiquimod or recombinant IL-23 injection when challenged as adults, with increased IL-22-producing γδ+ T cells. 16S rRNA gene compositional analysis reveals that neonatal antibiotic-treatment dysregulates gut and skin microbiota in adults, which is associated with increased susceptibility to experimental psoriasis. This link between neonatal antibiotic-mediated imbalance in microbiota and development of experimental psoriasis provides precedence for further investigation of its specific aetiology as it relates to human psoriasis. PMID:26416167

  9. Experimental Adaptation of Rotaviruses to Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Carlos A.; Guerrero, Rafael A.; Silva, Elver; Acosta, Orlando; Barreto, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    A number of viruses show a naturally extended tropism for tumor cells whereas other viruses have been genetically modified or adapted to infect tumor cells. Oncolytic viruses have become a promising tool for treating some cancers by inducing cell lysis or immune response to tumor cells. In the present work, rotavirus strains TRF-41 (G5) (porcine), RRV (G3) (simian), UK (G6-P5) (bovine), Ym (G11-P9) (porcine), ECwt (murine), Wa (G1-P8), Wi61 (G9) and M69 (G8) (human), and five wild-type human rotavirus isolates were passaged multiple times in different human tumor cell lines and then combined in five different ways before additional multiple passages in tumor cell lines. Cell death caused by the tumor cell-adapted isolates was characterized using Hoechst, propidium iodide, 7-AAD, Annexin V, TUNEL, and anti-poly-(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) and -phospho-histone H2A.X antibodies. Multiple passages of the combined rotaviruses in tumor cell lines led to a successful infection of these cells, suggesting a gain-of-function by the acquisition of greater infectious capacity as compared with that of the parental rotaviruses. The electropherotype profiles suggest that unique tumor cell-adapted isolates were derived from reassortment of parental rotaviruses. Infection produced by such rotavirus isolates induced chromatin modifications compatible with apoptotic cell death. PMID:26828934

  10. Adoptive transfer of murine relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lublin, F D

    1985-02-01

    Relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an autoimmune disorder resembling multiple sclerosis, has been produced by inoculating SJL/J mice with spinal cord or myelin basic protein in appropriate adjuvants. To determine whether initially sensitized lymphocytes or the persistence of antigen depots in the animal were responsible for the relapsing episodes of inflammatory demyelination, adoptive transfer studies were undertaken utilizing lymphocytes from relapsing EAE-immunized donors transferred directly or after in vitro culture. In direct-transfer studies donor lymphocytes produced clinical and pathological signs of relapsing EAE in 3 of 7 recipients of lymph node lymphocytes and 1 of 5 recipients of splenic lymphocytes. In vitro culture of lymphocytes in myelin basic protein or T cell growth factor prior to transfer increased both the incidence of disease and the number of animals having relapses, and allowed transfer with fewer lymphocytes. Because all animals had delayed onset of disease, this study demonstrates that the ability to develop relapsing inflammatory demyelination is transferable with lymphocytes and does not require the presence of antigen. PMID:3977301

  11. Experimental and clinical studies of cytokine gene-modified tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tepper, R I; Mulé, J J

    1994-02-01

    Cytokines are key modulators of host immune and inflammatory responses. The expression of cytokine genes by tumor cells as a result of gene transfer has emerged as a novel strategy to augment in vivo host reactivity to various cancers. This review summarizes the knowledge obtained from experimental systems using this strategy and provides information on the current clinical trials employing this approach. In murine model systems, immunization with tumors expressing certain cytokines [e.g., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-7 (IL-7), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating (GM-CSF)] has demonstrated their ability to promote the generation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by various mechanisms; in some cases, significant regressions of established microscopic tumor deposits result. Non T cell mechanisms of tumor killing, such as granulocytic inflammatory responses, may also be elicited by the localized elaboration of certain cytokines [e.g., IL-4, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)]. The potency of antitumor immune potentiation by cytokines, however, remains to be established by further animal studies and emerging clinical trials. The genetic modification of tumors for the expression of immunostimulatory gene products holds promise as a new approach for active immunotherapy of cancer and for the isolation of effector cell populations for use in adoptive immunotherapy protocols. PMID:8186297

  12. Induction of Anti-Tumor Immune Responses by Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTATATE in a Murine Model of a Human Neuroendocrine Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yin; Pfeifer, Andreas Klaus; Myschetzky, Rebecca; Garbyal, Rajendra Singh; Rasmussen, Palle; Knigge, Ulrich; Bzorek, Michael; Kristensen, Michael Holmsgaard; Kjaer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new mode of internally targeted radiotherapy currently in clinical trials. In PRRT, ionizing radioisotopes conjugated to somatostatin analogues are targeted to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) via somatostatin receptors. Despite promising clinical results, very little is known about the mechanism of tumor control. By using NCI-H727 cells in an in vivo murine xenograft model of human NETs, we showed that 177Lu-DOTATATE PRRT led to increased infiltration of CD86+ antigen presenting cells into tumor tissue. We also found that following treatment with PRRT, there was significantly increased tumor infiltration by CD49b+/FasL+ NK cells potentially capable of tumor killing. Further investigation into the immunomodulatory effects of PRRT will be essential in improving treatment efficacy. PMID:26824927

  13. XFM demonstrates preferential accumulation of a vanadyl-based MRI contrast agent in murine colonic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Bissonnette, Marc; Hart, John; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Contrast agents that specifically enhance cancers on MRI would allow earlier detection. Vanadyl-based chelates (VCs) selectively enhance rodent cancers on MRI, suggesting selective uptake of VCs by cancers. Here we report X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) of VC uptake by murine colon cancer. Colonic tumors in mice treated with azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium were identified by MRI. Then a gadolinium-based contrast agent and a VC were injected I.V.; mice were sacrificed and colons sectioned. VC distribution was sampled at 120 minutes after injection to evaluate the long term accumulation. Gadolinium distribution was sampled at 10 minutes after injection due to its rapid washout. XFM was performed on 72 regions of normal and cancerous colon from 5 normal mice and 4 cancer-bearing mice. XFM showed that all gadolinium was extracellular with similar concentrations in colon cancers and normal colon. In contrast, the average VC concentration was 2-fold higher in cancers vs. normal tissue (p<0.002). Cancers also contained numerous ‘hot spots’ with intracellular VC concentrations 6-fold higher than the concentration in normal colon (p<0.0001). No ‘hot spots’ were detected in normal colon. This is the first direct demonstration that VCs selectively accumulate in cancer cells, and thus may improve cancer detection. PMID:25813904

  14. Demethylation and expression of murine mammary tumor proviruses in mouse thymoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Mermod, J J; Bourgeois, S; Defer, N; Crépin, M

    1983-01-01

    Murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV) expression is analyzed in a T-lymphoid cell line (T1M1) sensitive to the killing effect of glucocorticoids and in two of its variants, one resistant (T1M1r) and one supersensitive (T1M1ss) to glucocorticoid-induced lymphocytolysis. In the T1M1 line, MMTV is expressed and induced approximately 10-fold by short treatment with dexamethasone. Southern blot analyses of restriction enzyme digests of DNA from T1M1 cells reveal three proviruses similar to those of normal C57BL mouse tissue. In the T1M1ss line, which has retained functional glucocorticoid receptors, MMTV mRNA is inducible by glucocorticoids, while induction is reduced in the T1M1r line defective in glucocorticoid receptors. Moreover, the T1M1r line expresses a strikingly elevated basal level of MMTV mRNA in the absence of hormone. No rearrangements or superinfection have occurred in the variants, but all the regions containing 5'-long terminal repeats are demethylated in the T1M1r variant although other sites of the provirus remain methylated. Because this variant was selected by prolonged treatment with dexamethasone, these observations raise the possibility that the continuous transcription of MMTV that occurred during this selection can result in glucocorticoid-induced demethylation of long-terminal-repeat sequences. Images PMID:6296860

  15. Apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in human and murine tumor cells are initiated by isoprenoids.

    PubMed

    Mo, H; Elson, C E

    1999-04-01

    Diverse classes of phytochemicals initiate biological responses that effectively lower cancer risk. One class of phytochemicals, broadly defined as pure and mixed isoprenoids, encompasses an estimated 22,000 individual components. A representative mixed isoprenoid, gamma-tocotrienol, suppresses the growth of murine B16(F10) melanoma cells, and with greater potency, the growth of human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human leukemic (HL-60) cells. beta-Ionone, a pure isoprenoid, suppresses the growth of B16 cells and with greater potency, the growth of MCF-7, HL-60 and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Results obtained with diverse cell lines differing in ras and p53 status showed that the isoprenoid-mediated suppression of growth is independent of mutated ras and p53 functions. beta-Ionone suppressed the growth of human colon fibroblasts (CCD-18Co) but only when present at three-fold the concentration required to suppress the growth of Caco-2 cells. The isoprenoids initiated apoptosis and, concomitantly arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Both suppress 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity. beta-Ionone and lovastatin interfered with the posttranslational processing of lamin B, an activity essential to assembly of daughter nuclei. This interference, we postulate, renders neosynthesized DNA available to the endonuclease activities leading to apoptotic cell death. Lovastatin-imposed mevalonate starvation suppressed the glycosylation and translocation of growth factor receptors to the cell surface. As a consequence, cells were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This rationale may apply to the isoprenoid-mediated G1-phase arrest of tumor cells. The additive and potentially synergistic actions of these isoprenoids in the suppression of tumor cell proliferation and initiation of apoptosis coupled with the mass action of the diverse isoprenoid constituents of plant products may explain, in part, the impact of fruit, vegetable

  16. A murine experimental model for the mechanical behaviour of viable right-ventricular myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Valdez-Jasso, Daniela; Simon, Marc A; Champion, Hunter C; Sacks, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Although right-ventricular function is an important determinant of cardio-pulmonary performance in health and disease, right ventricular myocardium mechanical behaviour has received relatively little attention. We present a novel experimental method for quantifying the mechanical behaviour of transmurally intact, viable right-ventricular myocardium. Seven murine right ventricular free wall (RVFW) specimens were isolated and biaxial mechanical behaviour measured, along with quantification of the local transmural myofibre and collagen fibre architecture. We developed a complementary strain energy function based method to capture the average biomechanical response. Overall, murine RVFW revealed distinct mechanical anisotropy. The preferential alignment of the myofibres and collagen fibres to the apex-to-outflow-tract direction was consistent with this also being the mechanically stiffer axis. We also observed that the myofibre and collagen fibre orientations were remarkably uniform throughout the entire RVFW thickness. Thus, our findings indicate a close correspondence between the tissue microstructure and biomechanical behaviour of the RVFW myocardium, and are a first step towards elucidating the structure–function of non-contracted murine RVFW myocardium in health and disease. PMID:22848044

  17. Murine Dendritic Cells Pulsed with Whole Tumor Lysates Mediate Potent Antitumor Immune Responses in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, R. C.; Shimizu, K.; Mule, J. J.

    1998-08-01

    The highly efficient nature of dendritic cells (DC) as antigen-presenting cells raises the possibility of uncovering in tumor-bearing hosts very low levels of T cell reactivity to poorly immunogenic tumors that are virtually undetectable by other means. Here, we demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo capacities of murine bone marrow-derived, cytokine-driven DC to elicit potent and specific anti-tumor responses when pulsed with whole tumor lysates. Stimulation of naive spleen-derived T cells by tumor lysate-pulsed DC generated tumor-specific proliferative cytokine release and cytolytic reactivities in vitro. In addition, in two separate strains of mice with histologically distinct tumors, s.c. injections of DC pulsed with whole tumor lysates effectively primed these animals to reject subsequent lethal challenges with viable parental tumor cells and, important to note, also mediated significant reductions in the number of metastases established in the lungs. Tumor rejection depended on host-derived CD8+ T cells and, to a lesser extent, CD4+ T cells. Spleens from mice that had rejected their tumors contained specific precursor cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The use of whole tumor lysates as a source of tumor-associated antigen(s) for pulsing of DC circumvents several limitations encountered with other methods as well as provides certain distinct advantages, which are discussed. These data serve as rationale for our recent initiation of a phase I clinical trial of immunization with autologous tumor lysate-pulsed DC in adult and pediatric cancer patients.

  18. Effective Treatment of Established GL261 Murine Gliomas through Picornavirus Vaccination-Enhanced Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Renner, Danielle N; Jin, Fang; Litterman, Adam J; Balgeman, Alexis J; Hanson, Lisa M; Gamez, Jeffrey D; Chae, Michael; Carlson, Brett L; Sarkaria, Jann N; Parney, Ian F; Ohlfest, John R; Pirko, Istvan; Pavelko, Kevin D; Johnson, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is among the most invasive and lethal of cancers, frequently infiltrating surrounding healthy tissue and giving rise to rapid recurrence. It is therefore critical to establish experimental model systems and develop therapeutic approaches that enhance anti-tumor immunity. In the current study, we have employed a newly developed murine glioma model to assess the efficacy of a novel picornavirus vaccination approach for the treatment of established tumors. The GL261-Quad system is a variation of the GL261 syngeneic glioma that has been engineered to expresses model T cell epitopes including OVA257-264. MRI revealed that both GL261 and GL261-Quad tumors display characteristic features of human gliomas such as heterogeneous gadolinium leakage and larger T2 weighted volumes. Analysis of brain-infiltrating immune cells demonstrated that GL261-Quad gliomas generate detectable CD8+ T cell responses toward the tumor-specific Kb:OVA257-264 antigen. Enhancing this response via a single intracranial or peripheral vaccination with picornavirus expressing the OVA257-264 antigen increased anti-tumor CD8+ T cells infiltrating the brain, attenuated progression of established tumors, and extended survival of treated mice. Importantly, the efficacy of the picornavirus vaccination is dependent on functional cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells, as the beneficial response was completely abrogated in mice lacking perforin expression. Therefore, we have developed a novel system for evaluating mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity in vivo, incorporating the GL261-Quad model, 3D volumetric MRI, and picornavirus vaccination to enhance tumor-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses and track their effectiveness at eradicating established gliomas in vivo. PMID:25933216

  19. PD-1 Blockade and OX40 Triggering Synergistically Protects against Tumor Growth in a Murine Model of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xin; Cheng, Dali; Xia, Zhijun; Luan, Meng; Zhang, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    The co-inhibitory receptor Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) curtails immune responses and prevent autoimmunity, however, tumors exploit this pathway to escape from immune destruction. The co-stimulatory receptor OX40 is upregulated on T cells following activation and increases their clonal expansion, survival and cytokine production when engaged. Although antagonistic anti-PD-1 or agonistic anti-OX40 antibodies can promote the rejection of several murine tumors, some poorly immunogenic tumors were refractory to this treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects and mechanisms of combinatorial PD-1 blockade and OX40 triggering in a murine ID8 ovarian cancer model. Although individual anti-PD-1 or OX40 mAb treatment was ineffective in tumor protection against 10-day established ID8 tumor, combined anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment markedly inhibited tumor outgrowth with 60% of mice tumor free 90 days after tumor inoculation. Tumor protection was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity and required CD4+ cells and CD8+ T cells. The anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment increased CD4+ and CD8+ cells and decreased immunosuppressive CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC), giving rise to significantly higher ratios of both effector CD4+ and CD8+ cells to Treg and MDSC in peritoneal cavity; Quantitative RT-PCR data further demonstrated the induction of a local immunostimulatory milieu by anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment. The splenic CD8+ T cells from combined mAb treated mice produced high levels of IFN-γ upon tumor antigen stimulation and exhibited antigen-specific cytolytic activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study testing the antitumor effects of combined anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb in a murine ovarian cancer model, and our results provide a rationale for clinical trials evaluating ovarian cancer immunotherapy using this combination of mAb. PMID:24586709

  20. Ultrasound Targeted Apoptosis Imaging in Monitoring Early Tumor Response of Trastuzumab in a Murine Tumor Xenograft Model of Her-2–Positive Breast Cancer11

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xi; Li, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Gao, Xiujun; Luo, Yi; Gao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to monitor the trastuzumab therapy response of murine tumor xenograft model with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2)–positive breast cancer using ultrasound targeted apoptosis imaging. METHODS: We prepared targeted apoptosis ultrasound probes by nanobubble (NB) binding with Annexin V. In vitro, we investigated the binding rate of NB–Annexin V with breast cancer apoptotic cells after the trastuzumab treatment. In vivo, tumor-bearing mice underwent ultrasound targeted imaging over 7 days. After imaging was completed, the tumors were excised to determine Her-2 and caspase-3 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The correlation between parameters of imaging and histologic results was then analyzed. RESULTS: For seeking the ability of targeted NB binding with apoptotic tumor cells (Her-2 positive), we found that binding rate in the treatment group was higher than that of the control group in vitro (P = .001). There were no differences of tumor sizes in all groups over the treatment process in vivo (P = .98). However, when using ultrasound imaging to visualize tumors by targeted NB in vivo, we observed that the mean and peak intensities from NBs gradually increased in the treatment group after trastuzumab therapy (P = .001). Furthermore, these two parameters were significantly associated with caspase-3 expression of tumor excised samples (P = .0001). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound targeted apoptosis imaging can be a non-invasive technique to evaluate the early breast tumor response to trastuzumab therapy. PMID:24685547

  1. Expression of the Wilms' tumor gene WT1 in the murine urogenital system.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J; Schalling, M; Buckler, A J; Rogers, A; Haber, D A; Housman, D

    1991-08-01

    The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is a recessive oncogene that encodes a putative transcription factor implicated in nephrogenesis during kidney development. In this report we analyze expression of WT1 in the murine urogenital system. WT1 is expressed in non-germ-cell components of the testis and ovaries in both young and adult mice. In situ mRNA hybridization studies demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the granulosa and epithelial cells of ovaries, the Sertoli cells of the testis, and in the uterine wall. In addition to the 3.1-kb WT1 transcript detected by Northern blotting of RNA from kidney, uterus, and gonads, there is an approximately 2.5-kb WT1-related mRNA species in testis. The levels of WT1 mRNA in the gonads are among the highest observed, surpassing amounts detected in the embryonic kidney. During development, these levels are differentially regulated, depending on the sexual differentiation of the gonad. Expression of WT1 mRNA in the female reproductive system does not fluctuate significantly from days 4 to 40 postpartum. In contrast, WT1 mRNA levels in the tesis increase steadily after birth, reaching their highest expression levels at day 8 postpartum and decreasing slightly as the animal matures. Expression of WT1 in the gonads is detectable as early as 12.5 days postcoitum (p.c.). As an initial step toward exploring the tissue-specific expression of WT1, DNA elements upstream of WT1 were cloned and sequenced. Three putative transcription initiation sites, utilized in testis, ovaries, and uterus, were mapped by S1 nuclease protection assays. The sequences surrounding these sites have a high G + C content, and typical upstream CCAAT and TATAA boxes are not present. These studies allowed us to identify the translation initiation site for WT1 protein synthesis. We have also used an epitope-tagging protocol to demonstrate that WT1 is a nuclear protein, consistent with its role as a transcription factor. Our results demonstrate regulation of WT1 expression

  2. CD24 Is Not Required for Tumor Initiation and Growth in Murine Breast and Prostate Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Natascha; Neeb, Antje; Uhle, Tanja; Dimmler, Arno; Rothley, Melanie; Allgayer, Heike; Fodde, Riccardo; Sleeman, Jonathan Paul; Thiele, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    CD24 is a small, heavily glycosylated, GPI-linked membrane protein, whose expression has been associated with the tumorigenesis and progression of several types of cancer. Here, we studied the expression of CD24 in tumors of MMTV-PyMT, Apc1572/T+ and TRAMP genetic mouse models that spontaneously develop mammary or prostate carcinoma, respectively. We found that CD24 is expressed during tumor development in all three models. In MMTV-PyMT and Apc1572T/+ breast tumors, CD24 was strongly but heterogeneously expressed during early tumorigenesis, but decreased in more advanced stages, and accordingly was increased in poorly differentiated lesions compared with well differentiated lesions. In prostate tumors developing in TRAMP mice, CD24 expression was strong within hyperplastic lesions in comparison with non-hyperplastic regions, and heterogeneous CD24 expression was maintained in advanced prostate carcinomas. To investigate whether CD24 plays a functional role in tumorigenesis in these models, we crossed CD24 deficient mice with MMTV-PyMT, Apc1572T/+ and TRAMP mice, and assessed the influence of CD24 deficiency on tumor onset and tumor burden. We found that mice negative or positive for CD24 did not significantly differ in terms of tumor initiation and burden in the genetic tumor models tested, with the exception of Apc1572T/+ mice, in which lack of CD24 reduced the mammary tumor burden slightly but significantly. Together, our data suggest that while CD24 is distinctively expressed during the early development of murine mammary and prostate tumors, it is not essential for the formation of tumors developing in MMTV-PyMT, Apc1572T/+ and TRAMP mice. PMID:26978528

  3. CD24 Is Not Required for Tumor Initiation and Growth in Murine Breast and Prostate Cancer Models.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Natascha; Neeb, Antje; Uhle, Tanja; Dimmler, Arno; Rothley, Melanie; Allgayer, Heike; Fodde, Riccardo; Sleeman, Jonathan Paul; Thiele, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    CD24 is a small, heavily glycosylated, GPI-linked membrane protein, whose expression has been associated with the tumorigenesis and progression of several types of cancer. Here, we studied the expression of CD24 in tumors of MMTV-PyMT, Apc1572/T+ and TRAMP genetic mouse models that spontaneously develop mammary or prostate carcinoma, respectively. We found that CD24 is expressed during tumor development in all three models. In MMTV-PyMT and Apc1572T/+ breast tumors, CD24 was strongly but heterogeneously expressed during early tumorigenesis, but decreased in more advanced stages, and accordingly was increased in poorly differentiated lesions compared with well differentiated lesions. In prostate tumors developing in TRAMP mice, CD24 expression was strong within hyperplastic lesions in comparison with non-hyperplastic regions, and heterogeneous CD24 expression was maintained in advanced prostate carcinomas. To investigate whether CD24 plays a functional role in tumorigenesis in these models, we crossed CD24 deficient mice with MMTV-PyMT, Apc1572T/+ and TRAMP mice, and assessed the influence of CD24 deficiency on tumor onset and tumor burden. We found that mice negative or positive for CD24 did not significantly differ in terms of tumor initiation and burden in the genetic tumor models tested, with the exception of Apc1572T/+ mice, in which lack of CD24 reduced the mammary tumor burden slightly but significantly. Together, our data suggest that while CD24 is distinctively expressed during the early development of murine mammary and prostate tumors, it is not essential for the formation of tumors developing in MMTV-PyMT, Apc1572T/+ and TRAMP mice. PMID:26978528

  4. Tissue oxygenation in a murine SCC VII tumor after X-ray irradiation as determined by EPR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hirotada; Sakata, Koh-ichi; Katsumata, Yoshihiro; Sato, Rikiya; Kinouchi, Makoto; Someya, Masanori; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Hareyama, Masato; Swartz, Harold M.; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to clarify the dynamics of tumor oxygen (partial pressure of oxygen, pO2) in SCC VII murine tumors in mice after X-ray irradiation. Materials and methods Changes in pO2 in tumors were measured by 1.2-GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy after they were exposed to various doses of irradiation. The pO2 in tumors was followed for up to six days after irradiation at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy. Paramagnetic crystals were used as an oximetry probe and implanted into normal or tumor tissues in mice for prolonged periods. Results The pattern of tumor oxygen after a single dose of radiation with the 5-Gy dose was different from those with other doses (10, 15, and 20 Gy). After 5 Gy, pO2 increased rapidly (P < 0.01, Student’s t test) and then returned to the level observed before irradiation by 12 hours (P < 0.01). In contrast, after 10, 15, or 20 Gy, pO2 increased rapidly by 6 h after irradiation, continued to increase until at least 24 h (P < 0.01), and then gradually decreased. Conclusion In tumors that received 5 Gy, post-irradiation increases in pO2 at 4 h after irradiation were detected by EPR oximetry (P < 0.01) noninvasively. PMID:18077029

  5. Adjuvant Cationic Liposomes Presenting MPL and IL-12 Induce Cell Death, Suppress Tumor Growth, and Alter the Cellular Phenotype of Tumors in a Murine Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) process and present antigens to T lymphocytes, inducing potent immune responses when encountered in association with activating signals, such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Using the 4T1 murine model of breast cancer, cationic liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and interleukin (IL)-12 were administered by intratumoral injection. Combination multivalent presentation of the Toll-like receptor-4 ligand MPL and cytotoxic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trmethylammonium-propane lipids induced cell death, decreased cellular proliferation, and increased serum levels of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The addition of recombinant IL-12 further suppressed tumor growth and increased expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and interferon-γ. IL-12 also increased the percentage of cytolytic T cells, DC, and F4/80+ macrophages in the tumor. While single agent therapy elevated levels of nitric oxide synthase 3-fold above basal levels in the tumor, combination therapy with MPL cationic liposomes and IL-12 stimulated a 7-fold increase, supporting the observed cell cycle arrest (loss of Ki-67 expression) and apoptosis (TUNEL positive). In mice bearing dual tumors, the growth of distal, untreated tumors mirrored that of liposome-treated tumors, supporting the presence of a systemic immune response. PMID:25179345

  6. Experimental chemotherapy of human tumors heterotransplanted in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, B C

    1980-01-01

    Human tumors heterotransplanted in nude mice offer the most realistic model for experimental chemotherapy of human neoplasms. Almost all the known human malignancies have been successfully transplanted in the nudes, although the rate of takes varies considerably between different tumor types. So far, a good correlation has been observed between the results obtained treating with the same drug the same tumor in the patient and in the nude mouse. Our experience in this field is, however, still too limited for the direct extrapolation of chemotherapeutic results obtained in the nudes to human tumors. PMID:6998362

  7. Carbon nanotube based respiratory gated micro-CT imaging of a murine model of lung tumors with optical imaging correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burk, Laurel M.; Lee, Yueh Z.; Heathcote, Samuel; Wang, Ko-han; Kim, William Y.; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2011-03-01

    Current optical imaging techniques can successfully measure tumor load in murine models of lung carcinoma but lack structural detail. We demonstrate that respiratory gated micro-CT imaging of such models gives information about structure and correlates with tumor load measurements by optical methods. Four mice with multifocal, Kras-induced tumors expressing firefly luciferase were imaged against four controls using both optical imaging and respiratory gated micro-CT. CT images of anesthetized animals were acquired with a custom CNT-based system using 30 ms x-ray pulses during peak inspiration; respiration motion was tracked with a pressure sensor beneath each animal's abdomen. Optical imaging based on the Luc+ signal correlating with tumor load was performed on a Xenogen IVIS Kinetix. Micro-CT images were post-processed using Osirix, measuring lung volume with region growing. Diameters of the largest three tumors were measured. Relationships between tumor size, lung volumes, and optical signal were compared. CT images and optical signals were obtained for all animals at two time points. In all lobes of the Kras+ mice in all images, tumors were visible; the smallest to be readily identified measured approximately 300 microns diameter. CT-derived tumor volumes and optical signals related linearly, with r=0.94 for all animals. When derived for only tumor bearing animals, r=0.3. The trend of each individual animal's optical signal tracked correctly based on the CT volumes. Interestingly, lung volumes also correlated positively with optical imaging data and tumor volume burden, suggesting active remodeling.

  8. Hypoxia imaging predicts success of hypoxia-induced cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine gene therapy in a murine lung tumor model.

    PubMed

    Lee, B-F; Lee, C-H; Chiu, N-T; Hsia, C-C; Shen, L-H; Shiau, A-L

    2012-04-01

    Tc-99m-HL91 is a hypoxia imaging biomarker. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of Tc-99m-HL91 imaging for hypoxia-induced cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) gene therapy in a murine lung tumor model. C57BL/6 mice were implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma cells transduced with the hypoxia-inducible promoter-driven CD gene (LL2/CD) or luciferase gene (LL2/Luc) serving as the control. When tumor volumes reached 100 mm(3), pretreatment images were acquired after injection of Tc-99m-HL91. The mice were divided into low and high hypoxic groups based on the tumor-to-non-tumor ratio of Tc-99m-HL91. They were injected daily with 5-FC (500 mg kg(-1)) or the vehicle for 1 week. When tumor volumes reached 1000 mm(3), autoradiography and histological examinations were performed. Treatment with 5-FC delayed tumor growth and enhanced the survival of mice bearing high hypoxic LL2/CD tumors. The therapeutic effect of hypoxia-induced CD/5-FC gene therapy was more pronounced in high hypoxic tumors than in low hypoxic tumors. This study provides the first evidence that Tc-99m-HL91 can serve as an imaging biomarker for predicting the treatment responses of hypoxia-regulated CD/5-FC gene therapy in animal tumor models. Our results suggest that hypoxia imaging using Tc-99m-HL91 has the predictive value for the success of hypoxia-directed treatment regimens. PMID:22281757

  9. Efficacy of Lysophosphatidylcholine in Combination with Antimicrobial Agents against Acinetobacter baumannii in Experimental Murine Peritoneal Sepsis and Pneumonia Models.

    PubMed

    Parra Millán, R; Jiménez Mejías, M E; Sánchez Encinales, V; Ayerbe Algaba, R; Gutiérrez Valencia, A; Pachón Ibáñez, M E; Díaz, C; Pérez Del Palacio, J; López Cortés, L F; Pachón, J; Smani, Y

    2016-08-01

    Immune response stimulation to prevent infection progression may be an adjuvant to antimicrobial treatment. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is an immunomodulator involved in immune cell recruitment and activation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LPC in combination with colistin, tigecycline, or imipenem in experimental murine models of peritoneal sepsis and pneumonia. We used Acinetobacter baumannii strain Ab9, which is susceptible to colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem, and multidrug-resistant strain Ab186, which is susceptible to colistin and resistant to tigecycline and imipenem. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem and the 100% minimal lethal dose (MLD100) were determined for both strains. The therapeutic efficacies of LPC, colistin (60 mg/kg of body weight/day), tigecycline (10 mg/kg/day), and imipenem (180 mg/kg/day), alone or in combination, were assessed against Ab9 and Ab186 at the MLD100 in murine peritoneal sepsis and pneumonia models. The levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the same experimental models after inoculating mice with the MLD of both strains. LPC in combination with colistin, tigecycline, or imipenem markedly enhanced the bacterial clearance of Ab9 and Ab186 from the spleen and lungs and reduced bacteremia and mouse mortality rates (P < 0.05) compared with those for colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem monotherapies. Moreover, at 4 h post-bacterial infection, Ab9 induced higher TNF-α and lower IL-10 levels than those with Ab186 (4 μg/ml versus 3 μg/ml [P < 0.05] and 2 μg/ml versus 3.4 μg/ml [P < 0.05], respectively). LPC treatment combined with colistin, tigecycline, or imipenem modestly reduced the severity of infection by A. baumannii strains with different resistance phenotypes compared to LPC monotherapy in both

  10. STAT3 supports experimental K-RasG12D–induced murine myeloproliferative neoplasms dependent on serine phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Daniel J.; Marié, Isabelle J.; Lobry, Camille; Aifantis, Iannis

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and other myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are genetically heterogeneous but frequently display activating mutations in Ras GTPases and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Altered STAT3 activity is observed in up to 50% of AML correlating with poor prognosis. Activated STAT proteins, classically associated with tyrosine phosphorylation, support tumor development as transcription factors, but alternative STAT functions independent of tyrosine phosphorylation have been documented, including roles for serine-phosphorylated STAT3 in mitochondria supporting transformation by oncogenic Ras. We examined requirements for STAT3 in experimental murine K-Ras–dependent hematopoietic neoplasia. We show that STAT3 is phosphorylated on S727 but not Y705 in diseased animals. Moreover, a mouse with a point mutation abrogating STAT3 S727 phosphorylation displayed delayed onset and decreased disease severity with significantly extended survival. Activated K-Ras required STAT3 for cytokine-independent growth of myeloid progenitors in vitro, and mitochondrially restricted STAT3 and STAT3-Y705F, both transcriptionally inert mutants, supported factor-independent growth. STAT3 was dispensable for growth of normal or K-Ras–mutant myeloid progenitors in response to cytokines. However, abrogation of STAT3-S727 phosphorylation impaired factor-independent malignant growth. These data document that serine-phosphorylated mitochondrial STAT3 supports neoplastic hematopoietic cell growth induced by K-Ras. PMID:25150294

  11. F3-targeted cisplatin-hydrogel nanoparticles as an effective therapeutic that targets both murine and human ovarian tumor endothelial cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Winer, I.; Wang, S.; Lee, Y-E K.; Fan, W.; Gong, Y.; Burgos-Ojeda, D.; Spahlinger, G.; Kopelman, R.; Buckanovich, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that ovarian cancer may be highly responsive to anti-vascular therapeutics. We have developed an anti-vascular tumor therapeutic using the F3 peptide to target cisplatin loaded nanoparticles (F3-Cis-Np) to tumor vessels. We demonstrate that while F3-Cis-Np bind with high specificity to both human ovarian tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells in vitro, they only demonstrate cytotoxic activity against the tumor endothelial cells. In vivo these nanoparticles bind primarily to tumor endothelial cells. Therapeutic studies in both flank and orthotopic intraperitoneal murine ovarian tumor models, as well as human tumor xenograft models, demonstrate rapid tumor regression with treatment. Treatment was associated with significant vascular necrosis consistent with an anti-vascular effect. Furthermore treatment was active in both platinum sensitive and platinum resistant cell lines. Importantly we demonstrate that F3-Cis-Np bind to human tumor endothelial cells in vitro and to human tumor vessels in vivo. Therapy targeting human vasculature in vivo with F3-Cis-Np led to near complete loss of all human tumor vessels in a murine model of human tumor vasculature. Our studies indicate that F3-targeted vascular therapeutics may be an effective treatment modality in human ovarian cancer. PMID:20959470

  12. Isolation and (111)In-Oxine Labeling of Murine NK Cells for Assessment of Cell Trafficking in Orthotopic Lung Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Gaurav; Nayak, Tapan; Gerdes, Christian; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Signore, Alberto; de Vries, Erik F J

    2016-04-01

    A noninvasive in vivo imaging method for NK cell trafficking is essential to gain further understanding of the pathogenesis of NK cell mediated immune response to the novel cancer treatment strategies, and to discover the homing sites and physiological distribution of NK cells. Although human NK cells can be labeled for in vivo imaging, little is known about the murine NK cell labeling and its application in animal models. This study describes the isolation and ex vivo radiolabeling of murine NK cells for the evaluation of cell trafficking in an orthotopic model of human lung cancer in mice. Scid-Tg(FCGR3A)Blt transgenic SCID mice were used to isolate NK cells from mouse splenocytes using the CD49b (DX5) MicroBeads positive selection method. The purity and viability of the isolated NK cells were confirmed by FACS analysis. Different labeling buffers and incubation times were evaluated to optimize (111)In-oxine labeling conditions. Functionality of the radiolabeled NK cell was assessed by (51)Cr-release assay. We evaluated physiological distribution of (111)In-oxine labeled murine NK cells in normal SCID mice and biodistribution in irradiated and nonirradiated SCID mice with orthotopic A549 human lung tumor lesions. Imaging findings were confirmed by histology. Results showed that incubation with 0.011 MBq of (111)In-oxine per million murine NK cells in PBS (pH 7.4) for 20 min is the best condition that provides optimum labeling efficiency without affecting cell viability and functionality. Physiological distribution in normal SCID mice demonstrated NK cells homing mainly in the spleen, while (111)In released from NK cells was excreted via kidneys into urine. Biodistribution studies demonstrated a higher lung uptake in orthotopic lung tumor-bearing mice than control mice. In irradiated mice, lung tumor uptake of radiolabeled murine NK cells decreased between 24 h and 72 h postinjection (p.i.), which was accompanied by tumor regression, while in nonirradiated mice

  13. Induction of protection in murine experimental models against Trichinella spiralis: an up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pierres, G; Vaquero-Vera, A; Fonseca-Liñán, R; Bermúdez-Cruz, R M; Argüello-García, R

    2015-09-01

    The parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis, an aetiological agent of the disease known as trichinellosis, infects wild and domestic animals through contaminated pig meat, which is the major source for Trichinella transmission. Prevention of this disease by interrupting parasite transmission includes vaccine development for livestock; however, major challenges to this strategy are the complexity of the T. spiralis life cycle, diversity of stage-specific antigens, immune-evasion strategies and the modulatory effect of host responses. Different approaches have been taken to induce protective immune responses by T. spiralis immunogens. These include the use of whole extracts or excretory-secretory antigens, as well as recombinant proteins or synthesized epitopes, using murine experimental models for trichinellosis. Here these schemes are reviewed and discussed, and new proposals envisioned to block the zoonotic transmission of this parasite. PMID:25761655

  14. Carcinogenic alterations in murine liver, lung, and uterine tumors induced by in utero exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Lumniczky, K; Antal, S; Unger, E; Wunderlich, L; Hidvégi, E J; Sáfrány, G

    1998-02-01

    The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl raised the question of prenatal sensitivity to ionizing radiation-induced cancer. In this study, mice were exposed to single doses of gamma-radiation (0.2-2.0 Gy) at different embryonic stages. The tumor incidence increased with dose from 15% in control mice to 35% in mice irradiated with 2.0 Gy on 18 d of prenatal life. Various oncogenic events were investigated in lymphoid, liver, lung, and uterine tumors. We observed threefold to fivefold increases in myc expression in 25% of the lymphomas, and the expression of Ha-ras and p53 genes decreased in 40% and 60% of the lung tumors by twofold to fivefold. Point mutations were tissue specific: Ha-ras codon 61 mutations were found in about 40% of the liver adenocarcinomas, Ki-ras codon 12 mutations in about 17% of lung tumors, and p53 mutations in about 15% of the lymphomas. Amplification and rearrangement of the p53, myc, and Ha-, Ki- and N-ras genes were not detected. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 4 at the multiple tumor suppressor 1 and 2 genes was observed in all types of malignancies. Allelic losses on chromosome 11 at the p53 locus were found in lymphoid, liver, and lung tumors, but they were absent from uterine tumors. Multiple oncogenic changes were often detected. The frequency of carcinogenic alterations was similar in spontaneous and radiation-induced lymphoid, liver, and uterine tumors. In radiation-induced lung adenocarcinomas, however, the incidences of many oncogenic changes were different from those found in their spontaneous counterparts. This suggests that different oncogenic pathways are activated during spontaneous and in utero gamma-radiation-induced murine lung carcinogenesis. PMID:9496910

  15. Multiple Delivery of siRNA against Endoglin into Murine Mammary Adenocarcinoma Prevents Angiogenesis and Delays Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Dolinsek, Tanja; Markelc, Bostjan; Sersa, Gregor; Coer, Andrej; Stimac, Monika; Lavrencak, Jaka; Brozic, Andreja; Kranjc, Simona; Cemazar, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Endoglin is a transforming growth factor-β (TGF- β) co-receptor that participates in the activation of a signaling pathway that mediates endothelial cell proliferation and migration in angiogenic tumor vasculature. Therefore, silencing of endoglin expression is an attractive approach for antiangiogenic therapy of tumors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules against endoglin in vitro and in vivo. Therapeutic potential in vitro was assessed in human and murine endothelial cells (HMEC-1, 2H11) by determining endoglin expression level, cell proliferation and tube formation. In vivo, the therapeutic potential of siRNA molecules was evaluated in TS/A mammary adenocarcinoma growing in BALB/c mice. Results of our study showed that siRNA molecules against endoglin have a good antiangiogenic therapeutic potential in vitro, as expression of endoglin mRNA and protein levels in mouse and human microvascular endothelial cells after lipofection were efficiently reduced, which resulted in the inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation. In vivo, silencing of endoglin with triple electrotransfer of siRNA molecules into TS/A mammary adenocarcinoma also significantly reduced the mRNA levels, number of tumor blood vessels and the growth of tumors. The obtained results demonstrate that silencing of endoglin is a promising antiangiogenic therapy of tumors that could not be used as single treatment, but as an adjunct to the established cytotoxic treatment approaches. PMID:23593103

  16. G-CSF and Neutrophils Are Nonredundant Mediators of Murine Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Gabrielle L; Cornish, Ann L; Murphy, Jane; Pang, Ee Shan; Lim, Lyndell L; Campbell, Ian K; Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Chen, Xiangting; McMenamin, Paul G; Maraskovsky, Eugene; McKenzie, Brent S; Wicks, Ian P

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a regulator of neutrophil production, function, and survival. Herein, we investigated the role of G-CSF in a murine model of human uveitis-experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis was dramatically reduced in G-CSF-deficient mice and in anti-G-CSF monoclonal antibody-treated, wild-type (WT) mice. Flow cytometric analysis of the ocular infiltrate in WT mice with experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis showed a mixed population, comprising neutrophils, macrophages, and T cells. The eyes of G-CSF-deficient and anti-G-CSF monoclonal antibody-treated WT mice had minimal neutrophil infiltrate, but no change in other myeloid-derived inflammatory cells. Antigen-specific T-cell responses were maintained, but the differentiation of pathogenic type 17 helper T cells in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis was reduced with G-CSF deficiency. We show that G-CSF controls the ocular neutrophil infiltrate by modulating the expression of C-X-C chemokine receptors 2 and 4 on peripheral blood neutrophils, as well as actin polymerization and migration. These data reveal an integral role for G-CSF-driven neutrophil responses in ocular autoimmunity, operating within and outside of the bone marrow, and also identify G-CSF as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of human uveoretinitis. PMID:26718978

  17. Effect of intratumoral heterogeneity in oxygenation status on FMISO PET, autoradiography, and electrode PO {sub 2} measurements in murine tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Michael . E-mail: michael@pet.auh.dk; Horsman, Michael R.; Cumming, Paul; Munk, Ole Lajord; Keiding, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To explore conflicting results obtained when tumor hypoxia is assessed with Eppendorf electrode PO {sub 2} measurements and with positron emission tomography (PET) by use of [{sup 18}F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO). Methods and Materials: We compared the 2 methods in conjunction with 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET, dual-tracer ex vivo autoradiography (FMISO and 2-deoxy-D-[1-{sup 14}C]glucose (2DG)), and histology in 2 murine tumor models, the C3H mammary carcinoma and the SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma. Results: 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET showed tumor-to-reference tissue ratios of 3.5 in both tumor models after 2 hours. C3H mammary carcinoma reached an FMISO PET ratio of 11 after 3.5 hours. Autoradiography showed large confluent areas of FMISO and 2DG uptake. Median PO {sub 2} was 7 mm Hg and necrotic fraction was 10% to 30%. SCCVII squamous-cell carcinoma reached an FMISO PET tumor-to-reference tissue ratio of 2 after 2.5 hours. Autoradiography showed homogeneous 2DG uptake and scattered foci of high FMISO uptake. Median PO {sub 2} was 1 mm Hg and necrotic fraction was below 5%. Conclusions: Ex vivo dual-tracer autoradiography documented the ability of in vivo FMISO PET to distinguish between confluent areas of either viable tissue or necrosis. Electrode PO {sub 2} measurements could not be ascribed to specific areas in the tumors. Less uptake of FMISO in SCCVII squamous-cell carcinoma than in C3H mammary carcinoma could be caused by scattered foci versus confluent areas of viable hypoxic tissue in the 2 tumors, respectively.

  18. Expression level and DNA methylation status of Glutathione-S-transferase genes in normal murine prostate and TRAMP tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mavis, Cory K.; Kinney, Shannon R. Morey; Foster, Barbara A.; Karpf, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Glutathione-S-transferase (Gst) genes are down-regulated in human prostate cancer, and GSTP1 silencing is mediated by promoter DNA hypermethylation in this malignancy. We examined Gst gene expression and Gst promoter DNA methylation in normal murine prostates and Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) tumors. METHODS Primary and metastatic tumors were obtained from TRAMP mice, and normal prostates were obtained from strain-matched WT mice (n=15/group). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to measure GstA4, GstK1, GstM1, GstO1, and GstP1 mRNA expression, and Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining was used to measure GstM1 and GstP1 protein expression. MassARRAY Quantitative Methylation Analysis was used to measure DNA methylation of the 5’ CpG islands of GstA4, GstK1, GstM1, GstO1, and GstP1. TRAMP-C2 cells were treated with the epigenetic remodeling drugs decitabine and trichostatin A (TSA) alone and in combination, and Gst gene expression was measured. RESULTS Of the genes analyzed, GstM1 and GstP1 were expressed at highest levels in normal prostate. All five Gst genes showed greatly reduced expression in primary tumors compared to normal prostate, but not in tumor metastases. Gst promoter methylation was unchanged in TRAMP tumors compared to normal prostate. Combined decitabine + TSA treatment significantly enhanced the expression of 4/5 Gst genes in TRAMP-C2 cells. CONCLUSIONS Gst genes are extensively downregulated in primary but not metastatic TRAMP tumors. Promoter DNA hypermethylation does not appear to drive Gst gene repression in TRAMP primary tumors; however, pharmacological studies using TRAMP cells suggest the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in Gst gene repression. PMID:19444856

  19. Mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit murine syngeneic anti-tumor immune responses by attenuating inflammation and reorganizing the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Modiano, Jaime F; Lindborg, Beth A; McElmurry, Ron T; Lewellen, Mitzi; Forster, Colleen L; Zamora, Edward A; Schaack, Jerome; Bellgrau, Donald; O'Brien, Timothy D; Tolar, Jakub

    2015-11-01

    The potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to inhibit anti-tumor immunity is becoming increasingly well recognized, but the precise steps affected by these cells during the development of an anti-tumor immune response remain incompletely understood. Here, we examined how MSCs affect the steps required to mount an effective anti-tumor immune response following administration of adenovirus Fas ligand (Ad-FasL) in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LL3) model. Administration of bone marrow-derived MSCs with LL3 cells accelerated tumor growth significantly. MSCs inhibited the inflammation induced by Ad-FasL in the primary tumors, precluding their rejection; MSCs also reduced the consequent expansion of tumor-specific T cells in the treated hosts. When immune T cells were transferred to adoptive recipients, MSCs impaired, but did not completely abrogate the ability of these T cells to promote elimination of secondary tumors. This impairment was associated with a modest reduction in tumor-infiltrating T cells, with a significant reduction in tumor-infiltrating macrophages, and with a reorganization of the stromal environment. Our data indicate that MSCs in the tumor environment reduce the efficacy of immunotherapy by creating a functional and anatomic barrier that impairs inflammation, T cell priming and expansion, and T cell function-including recruitment of effector cells. PMID:26250807

  20. Alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase enhances Neisseria gonorrhoeae survival during experimental murine genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Jerse, Ann E

    2006-07-01

    The addition of host-derived sialic acid to Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide is hypothesized to be an important mechanism by which gonococci evade host innate defenses. This hypothesis is based primarily on in vitro assays of complement-mediated and phagocytic killing. Here we report that a nonpolar alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase (lst) mutant of N. gonorrhoeae was significantly attenuated in its capacity to colonize the lower genital tract of 17-beta estradiol-treated female BALB/c mice during competitive infection with the wild-type strain. Genetic complementation of the lst mutation restored recovery of the mutant to wild-type levels. Studies with B10.D2-HC(o)H2(d)H(2)-T18c/OSN (C5-deficient) mice showed that attenuation of the lst mutant was not due to increased sensitivity to complement-mediated bacteriolysis, a result that is consistent with recently reported host restrictions in the complement cascade. However, Lst-deficient gonococci were killed more rapidly than sialylated wild-type gonococci following intraperitoneal injection into normal mice, which is consistent with sialylation conferring protection against killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). As reported for human PMNs, sialylated gonococci were more resistant to killing by murine PMNs, and sialylation led to reduced association with and induction of a weaker respiratory burst in PMNs from estradiol-treated mice. In summary, these studies suggest sialylation confers a survival advantage to N. gonorrhoeae in mice by increasing resistance to PMN killing. This report is the first direct demonstration that alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase contributes to N. gonorrhoeae pathogenesis in an in vivo model. This study also validates the use of experimental murine infection to study certain aspects of gonococcal pathogenesis. PMID:16790783

  1. Enhancement of the pro-apoptotic properties of Newcastle disease virus promotes tumor remission in syngeneic murine cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado-Castano, Sara; Ayllon, Juan; Mansour, Mena; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Jordan, Stefan; Tripathi, Shashank; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Villar, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is considered a promising agent for cancer therapy due to its oncolytic properties. These include preferential replication in transformed cells, induction of innate and adaptive immune responses within tumors and cytopathic effects in infected tumor cells due to the activation of apoptosis. In order to enhance the latter and thus possibly enhance the overall oncolytic activity of NDV, we generated a recombinant NDV encoding the human TNF receptor Fas (rNDV-B1/Fas). rNDV-B1/Fas replicates to similar titers as its wild type (rNDV-B1) counterpart, however overexpression of Fas in infected cells leads to higher levels of cytotoxicity correlated with faster and increased apoptosis responses in which both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways are activated earlier. Furthermore, in vivo studies in syngeneic murine melanoma model show an enhancement of the oncolytic properties of rNDV-B1/Fas, with major improvements in survival and tumor remission. Altogether, our data suggest that up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic function of NDV is a viable approach to enhance its anti-tumor properties, and adds to the currently known, rationally-based strategies to design optimized therapeutic viral vectors for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25761895

  2. Regulation of CD1d expression by murine tumor cells: escape from immunosurveillance or alternate target molecules?

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Tim; Walter, Wolfgang; Reichert, Torsten E; Maeurer, Markus J

    2002-03-20

    alpha beta+ TCR T cells recognize peptide fragments displayed by MHC-class I or -class II molecules. Recently, additional mechanisms of antigen recognition by T cells have been identified, including CD1-mediated presentation of nonpeptide antigens. Only a limited number of CD1 antigens is retained in the mouse, i.e., the group II CD1 antigens, which are split into CD1D1 and CD1d2. Several T cell subsets have been shown to interact with murine CD1 antigens, including NK cells or "natural T cells" with the invariant V alpha 14 J alpha 281 TCR chain. Even if TAP defects may prevent classical endogenous antigen presentation in tumor cell lines, antigen presentation via CD1 is still functional. Therefore, CD1-mediated recognition of transformed cells by NK cells or "natural T cells" may represent an alternative way for immune surveillance. CD1 cell surface expression in murine tumor cell lines of different histology, including the B cell lymphoma A20, macrophage cell lines J774 and P388D1, mastocytoma P815, thymoma EL-4, melanoma B16, colon adenocarcinoma MC-38 and renal carcinoma Renca is regulated by Th1- (IFN-gamma), Th2- (IL-4, IL-10 and vIL-10) or GM-CSF (Th1/Th2) cytokines, depending on the tumor histology. In order to distinguish between CD1D1 and CD1d2 molecules, we examined differential expression of these CD1 isoforms by ratio RT-PCR: A20, EL-4, P815 and MC-38 cells exclusively express CD1D1 transcripts but not CD1D2 mRNA independent of cytokine treatment. Decreased CD1d expression leads to reduced immune recognition of CD1d+ tumor cells by freshly isolated NK1.1(+) effector cells as defined by cytolysis and IFN-gamma release. Thus, modulation of CD1 expression on tumor cells by cytokines may be advantageous to drive cellular anti-tumor antigen directed immune responses directed against TAP-independent, non-classical MHC restricting molecules. PMID:11920590

  3. Xenogeneic human p53 DNA vaccination by electroporation breaks immune tolerance to control murine tumors expressing mouse p53.

    PubMed

    Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Trieu, Janson; Lee, Sung Yong; He, Liangmei; Tsai, Ya-Chea; Wu, T-C; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The pivotal role of p53 as a tumor suppressor protein is illustrated by the fact that this protein is found mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. In most cases, mutations in p53 greatly increase the otherwise short half-life of this protein in normal tissue and cause it to accumulate in the cytoplasm of tumors. The overexpression of mutated p53 in tumor cells makes p53 a potentially desirable target for the development of cancer immunotherapy. However, p53 protein represents an endogenous tumor-associated antigen (TAA). Immunization against a self-antigen is challenging because an antigen-specific immune response likely generates only low affinity antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cells. This represents a bottleneck of tumor immunotherapy when targeting endogenous TAAs expressed by tumors. The objective of the current study is to develop a safe cancer immunotherapy using a naked DNA vaccine. The vaccine employs a xenogeneic p53 gene to break immune tolerance resulting in a potent therapeutic antitumor effect against tumors expressing mutated p53. Our study assessed the therapeutic antitumor effect after immunization with DNA encoding human p53 (hp53) or mouse p53 (mp53). Mice immunized with xenogeneic full length hp53 DNA plasmid intramuscularly followed by electroporation were protected against challenge with murine colon cancer MC38 while those immunized with mp53 DNA were not. In a therapeutic model, established MC38 tumors were also well controlled by treatment with hp53 DNA therapy in tumor bearing mice compared to mp53 DNA. Mice vaccinated with hp53 DNA plasmid also exhibited an increase in mp53-specific CD8(+) T-cell precursors compared to vaccination with mp53 DNA. Antibody depletion experiments also demonstrated that CD8(+) T-cells play crucial roles in the antitumor effects. This study showed intramuscular vaccination with xenogeneic p53 DNA vaccine followed by electroporation is capable of inducing potent antitumor effects against tumors expressing mutated

  4. CIGB-247: a VEGF-based therapeutic vaccine that reduces experimental and spontaneous lung metastasis of C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mouse tumors.

    PubMed

    Bequet-Romero, Mónica; Morera, Yanelys; Ayala-Ávila, Marta; Ancizar, Julio; Soria, Yordanka; Blanco, Aracelys; Suárez-Alba, Jesús; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2012-02-27

    CIGB-247 is a novel cancer therapeutic vaccine that uses a mutated form of human VEGF as antigen. Being metastatic disease the most dramatic factor of tumor biology affecting patient survival and cure, preclinical evaluation of the impact of CIGB-247 vaccination on experimental metastasis mouse models is highly relevant, and constitutes the focus of this work. CIGB-247 was administered in a weekly schedule known to effectively reduce primary tumor growth. The vaccine was tested in experimental and spontaneous metastasis models of colon (CT26), lung (3LL-D122) and breast (F3II) carcinomas growing in C57Bl/6 or BALB/c mice. Primary tumor growth parameters, metastatic counts, and/or animal survival were recorded. Histology and specific humoral and cellular responses to the vaccine were evaluated. As compared to control groups, CIGB-247 vaccination significantly reduced the number and size of metastatic tumor foci in lungs after intravenous inoculation of CT26 and 3LL-D122 tumor cells. Spontaneous lung dissemination from 3LL-D122 and F3II breast tumor cells implanted in the footpad, or subcutaneously, was also reduced by immunization with CIGB-247. The vaccine elicited in both mouse strains antibodies specific for human and murine VEGF that effectively blocked the interaction of VEGF with VEGF receptor 2. Differing from other experimental reports that describe the use of VEGF for active tumor immunotherapy, CIGB-247 elicited a specific cellular response, measured both by a DTH increment and the induction of spleen cells cytotoxic to syngeneic tumor cells producing murine VEGF. In summary our results reinforce the potential of CIGB-247 vaccination to reduce both tumor growth and the number and size of tumor metastasis in lungs, the latter both after direct inoculations of cells in the blood stream, or as part of primary tumor progression in immunocompetent mice. PMID:22240345

  5. Photodynamic therapy stimulates anti-tumor immunity in a murine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Wu, Mei X.; Kung, Andrew L.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2007-02-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death among modern peoples largely due to metastatic disease. The ideal cancer treatment should target both the primary tumor and the metastases with the minimal toxicity. This is best accomplished by educating the body's immune system to recognize the tumor as foreign so that after the primary tumor is destroyed, distant metastases will also be eradicated. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the IV administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the primary tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, priming of the immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA), and induction of heat-shock proteins. The induction of specific CD8+ T lymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy. We here report on PDT of mice bearing tumors that either do or do not express an established TAA. We utilized a BALB/c colon adenocarcinoma cell line termed CT26.CL25 retrovirally transduced to stably express β-galactosidase ( β-gal, a bacterial protein), and its non-β-gal expressing wild-type counterpart termed CT26 WT, as well as the control cell line consisting of CT26 transduced with the empty retroviral vector termed CT26-neo. All cells expressed class I MHC restriction element H-2Ld syngenic to BALB/c mice. Vascular PDT with a regimen of 1mg/kg BPD injected IV, and 120 J/cm2 of 690-nm laser light after 15 minutes successfully cured 100% of CT26.CL25 tumors but 0% of CT26-neo tumors and 0% of CT26 WT tumors. After 90 days tumor free interval the CT26.CL25 cured mice were rechallenged with CT26.CL25 tumor cells and 96% rejected the rechallenge while the CT26.CL25 cured mice did not reject a CT26 WT tumor cell challenge. Experiments with mice bearing two CT26.CL25 tumors (one

  6. Silibinin inhibits accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor growth of murine breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Forghani, Parvin; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad R; Waller, Edmund K

    2014-04-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC)s increase in blood and accumulate in the tumor microenvironment of tumor-bearing animals, contributing to immune suppression in cancer. Silibinin, a natural flavonoid from the seeds of milk thistle, has been developed as an anti-inflammatory agent and supportive care agent to reduce the toxicity of cancer chemotherapy. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effect of silibinin on MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and antitumor activity of silibinin in a mouse model of breast cancer. 4T1 luciferase-transfected mammary carcinoma cells were injected into in the mammary fat pad female BALB/c mice, and female CB17-Prkdc Scid/J mice. Silibinin treatment started on day 4 or day 14 after tumor inoculation continued every other day. Tumor growth was monitored by bioluminescent imaging (BLI) measuring total photon flux. Flow cytometry measured total leukocytes, CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) MDSC, and T cells in the blood and tumors of tumor-bearing mice. The effects of silibinin on 4T1 cell viability in vitro were measured by BLI. Treatment with silibinin increased overall survival in mice harboring tumors derived from the 4T1-luciferase breast cancer cell line, and reduced tumor volumes and numbers of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) MDSCs in the blood and tumor, and increased the content of T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Silibinin failed to inhibit tumor growth in immunocompromised severe combined immunodeficiency mice, supporting the hypothesis that anticancer effect of silibinin is immune-mediated. The antitumor activity of silibinin requires an intact host immune system and is associated with decreased accumulation of blood and tumor-associated MDSCs. PMID:24574320

  7. Pomalidomide Shows Significant Therapeutic Activity against CNS Lymphoma with a Major Impact on the Tumor Microenvironment in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A.; Moghaddam, Mehran F.; Copland, John A.; Tun, Han W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS

  8. Experimental Reactivation of Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection in a Modified Cornell-Like Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Hong Min; Kwon, Kee Woong; Cho, Sang-Nae; Shin, Sung Jae; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The latency and reactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been well studied. However, there have been few studies of the latency and reactivation of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), the most common etiological non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species next to M. tuberculosis in humans worldwide. We hypothesized that latent MAC infections can be reactivated following immunosuppression after combination chemotherapy with clarithromycin and rifampicin under experimental conditions. To this end, we employed a modified Cornell-like murine model of tuberculosis and investigated six strains consisting of two type strains and four clinical isolates of M. avium and M. intracellulare. After aerosol infection of each MAC strain, five to six mice per group were euthanized at 2, 4, 10, 18, 28 and 35 weeks post-infection, and lungs were sampled to analyze bacterial burden and histopathology. One strain of each species maintained a culture-negative state for 10 weeks after completion of 6 weeks of chemotherapy, but was reactivated after 5 weeks of immunosuppression in the lungs with dexamethasone (three out of six mice in M. avium infection) or sulfasalazine (four out of six mice in both M. avium and M. intracellulare infection). The four remaining MAC strains exhibited decreased bacterial loads in response to chemotherapy; however, they remained at detectable levels and underwent regrowth after immunosuppression. In addition, the exacerbated lung pathology demonstrated a correlation with bacterial burden after reactivation. In conclusion, our results suggest the possibility of MAC reactivation in an experimental mouse model, and experimentally demonstrate that a compromised immune status can induce reactivation and/or regrowth of MAC infection. PMID:26406237

  9. Monitoring PDT effects in murine tumors by spectroscopic and imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaprasad, Subbaraya; Rzepka, Elzbieta; Pi, Jiaxiong; Joshi, Shantaram S.; Dobhal, Mahabeer; Missert, Joseph; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2004-04-01

    The changes in the tumor that occur following photodynamic therapy (PDT) were studied using a small animal MR imager operating at 7Tesla. The animal model used in these studies was mice bearing radiation induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumor on the foot dorsum. The mice were injected with 10μM/kg of one of the photosensitizers: (1) Photofrin, (2) Non-fluorinated porphyrin photosensitizer (DOD-1), (3) Fluorinated porphyrin photosensitizer (DOD-2) and, (4) Fluorinated chlorin photosensitizer (DOD-6). Laser light at 630 or 650 nm (150 mW/cm2, 270 joules/cm2) was delivered to the tumor at 2-24 hours of photosensitizer administration. The MR spectroscopic and imaging examination of the tumors involved both the 1H and 31P nuclei. The tumor bioenergetics was measured by 31P spectroscopy. The water proton relaxivity and diffusion measurements were used to obtain local changes in different regions of the tumor. Changes in 31P MR spectra were observed following PDT using Photofrin and fluorinated chlorin sensitizer (DOD-6). However, no significant changes were observed when the fluorinated porphyrin and its nonfluorinated analog were used. The PDT induced changes in tumor volumes showed significant tumor regression with Photofrin, fluorinated porphyrin and chlorin sensitizers. No tumor regression was observed with the non labeled porphyrin sensitizer and the growth profile followed the general pattern of unperturbed tumors. Serial noninvasive measurements of tumor response to PDT are measurable by both MRI and MRS. The MR derived parameters that are characteristic of the tumor status before and after the therapy are discussed here.

  10. Toll-Like Receptor 9-Mediated Inflammation Triggers Alveolar Bone Loss in Experimental Murine Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul D; Xia-Juan, Xia; Crump, Katie E; Abe, Toshiharu; Hajishengallis, George; Sahingur, Sinem E

    2015-07-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a local inflammatory disease induced by a dysbiotic microbiota and leading to destruction of the tooth-supporting structures. Microbial nucleic acids are abundantly present in the periodontium, derived through release after phagocytic uptake of microbes and/or from biofilm-associated extracellular DNA. Binding of microbial DNA to its cognate receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), can trigger inflammation. In this study, we utilized TLR9 knockout (TLR9(-/-)) mice and wild-type (WT) controls in a murine model of Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontitis and report the first in vivo evidence that TLR9 signaling mediates the induction of periodontal bone loss. P. gingivalis-infected WT mice exhibited significantly increased bone loss compared to that in sham-infected WT mice or P. gingivalis-infected TLR9(-/-) mice, which were resistant to bone loss. Consistent with this, the expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and receptor-activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) were significantly elevated in the gingival tissues of the infected WT mice but not in infected TLR9(-/-) mice compared to their levels in controls. Ex vivo studies using splenocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages revealed significantly diminished cytokine production in TLR9(-/-) cells relative to the cytokine production in WT cells in response to P. gingivalis, thereby implicating TLR9 in inflammatory responses to this organism. Intriguingly, compared to the cytokine production in WT cells, TLR9(-/-) cells exhibited significantly decreased proinflammatory cytokine production upon challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (TLR4 agonist) or Pam3Cys (TLR2 agonist), suggesting possible cross talk between TLR9, TLR4, and TLR2. Collectively, our results provide the first proof-of-concept evidence implicating TLR9-triggered inflammation in periodontal disease pathogenesis, thereby identifying a new potential therapeutic target

  11. Toll-Like Receptor 9-Mediated Inflammation Triggers Alveolar Bone Loss in Experimental Murine Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul D.; Xia-Juan, Xia; Crump, Katie E.; Abe, Toshiharu; Hajishengallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a local inflammatory disease induced by a dysbiotic microbiota and leading to destruction of the tooth-supporting structures. Microbial nucleic acids are abundantly present in the periodontium, derived through release after phagocytic uptake of microbes and/or from biofilm-associated extracellular DNA. Binding of microbial DNA to its cognate receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), can trigger inflammation. In this study, we utilized TLR9 knockout (TLR9−/−) mice and wild-type (WT) controls in a murine model of Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontitis and report the first in vivo evidence that TLR9 signaling mediates the induction of periodontal bone loss. P. gingivalis-infected WT mice exhibited significantly increased bone loss compared to that in sham-infected WT mice or P. gingivalis-infected TLR9−/− mice, which were resistant to bone loss. Consistent with this, the expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and receptor-activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) were significantly elevated in the gingival tissues of the infected WT mice but not in infected TLR9−/− mice compared to their levels in controls. Ex vivo studies using splenocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages revealed significantly diminished cytokine production in TLR9−/− cells relative to the cytokine production in WT cells in response to P. gingivalis, thereby implicating TLR9 in inflammatory responses to this organism. Intriguingly, compared to the cytokine production in WT cells, TLR9−/− cells exhibited significantly decreased proinflammatory cytokine production upon challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (TLR4 agonist) or Pam3Cys (TLR2 agonist), suggesting possible cross talk between TLR9, TLR4, and TLR2. Collectively, our results provide the first proof-of-concept evidence implicating TLR9-triggered inflammation in periodontal disease pathogenesis, thereby identifying a new potential

  12. Purification of Immune Cell Populations from Freshly Isolated Murine Tumors and Organs by Consecutive Magnetic Cell Sorting and Multi-parameter Flow Cytometry-Based Sorting.

    PubMed

    Salvagno, Camilla; de Visser, Karin E

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that tumors evolve together with nonmalignant cells, such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. These cells constantly entangle and interact with each other creating the tumor microenvironment. Immune cells can exert both tumor-promoting and tumor-protective functions. Detailed phenotypic and functional characterization of intra-tumoral immune cell subsets has become increasingly important in the field of cancer biology and cancer immunology. In this chapter, we describe a method for isolation of viable and pure immune cell subsets from freshly isolated murine solid tumors and organs. First, we describe a protocol for the generation of single-cell suspensions from tumors and organs using mechanical and enzymatic strategies. In addition, we describe how immune cell subsets can be purified by consecutive magnetic cell sorting and multi-parameter flow cytometry-based cell sorting. PMID:27581019

  13. Treatment of murine tumors using acoustic droplet vaporization-enhanced high intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meili; Jiang, Lixing; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Zhang, Aili; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Xu, Lisa X.

    2013-09-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be applied focally and noninvasively to thermally ablate solid tumors. Long treatment times are typically required for large tumors, which can expose patients to certain risks while potentially decreasing the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a promising modality that can enhance the efficacy of tumor treatment using HIFU. In this study, the therapeutic effects of combined HIFU and ADV was evaluated in mice bearing subcutaneously-implanted 4T1 tumors. Histological examination showed that the combination of HIFU and ADV generated a mean necrotic area in the tumor that was 2.9-fold larger than with HIFU alone. A significant enhancement of necrosis was found in the periphery of the tumor, where the blood supply was abundant. Seven days after treatment, the tumors treated with combined HIFU and ADV were 30-fold smaller in volume than tumors treated with HIFU alone. The study demonstrates the potential advantage of combining HIFU and ADV in tumor treatment.

  14. Local induction of a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like cytotoxic factor in murine tissues with tumorous and nontumorous inflammation after systemic administration of antitumor polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Yamazaki, M; Abe, S

    1988-07-01

    Local induction of a cytotoxic factor (CF), which was reported by us to be a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like molecule, in murine tumor tissues by i.v. administration of antitumor polysaccharides was studied. The CF was measured by cytolysis assay against L929 fibroblasts in vitro. The antitumor polysaccharides mannoglucan polyalcohol (MGA), lentinan, carboxymethyl-(1----3)-beta-D-linear glucan DP540 (CM-TAK) and yeast mannan induced the CF in MH134 hepatoma tissues inoculated intradermally, with MGA inducing the highest level of the CF. MGA induced the CF in MM46 mammary carcinoma, Ehrlich carcinoma, and MH134 hepatoma, the growth of which were all inhibited by MGA, but not in Lewis lung carcinoma and EL-4 lymphoma, which are therapeutically resistant to MGA. MGA induced the CF in solid MH134 hepatoma tissues inoculated subcutaneously or intramuscularly as well as intradermally, but not in ascitic fluids with intraperitoneal MH134 hepatoma on which MGA is ineffective. These findings suggest that CF induction is correlated with the antitumor activity of polysaccharides. CF induction in tumor tissues was detectable 6 h after i.d. inoculation of MH134 hepatoma. Even in nontumorous inflammatory skin tissues produced by injection of TAK, the CF was induced by MGA. Thus, the early inflammatory reaction with accumulation of host cells and MGA treatment act cooperatively in local induction of the CF. PMID:3183925

  15. Experimental infection of Phlebotomus perniciosus by bioluminescent Leishmania infantum using murine model and artificial feeder

    PubMed Central

    Cannet, Arnaud; Akhoundi, Mohammad; Michel, Gregory; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is transmitted by sandflies and caused by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In the present study, we carried out a screening on the experimental infection of Phlebotomus pernioucus by bioluminescent Leishmania infantum using murine model and artificial feeder. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based method to determine individually the number of Leishmania promastigotes fed by infected flies. Among 1840 new emerged female sand flies, 428 were fed on the infected mice. After their death, they were analysed individually by RT-PCR. Our results demonstrated just a single Leishmania positive female at sixth day post meal. A total of 1070 female sand flies were exposed in contact with artificial feeder containing the human blood with two different quantities of Leishmania parasites: 2.106/mL and 1.107/mL. A blood meal including 1.107/mL LUC-promastigotes was proposed to 270 females and 75 (28%) flies were engorged. Among them, 44 (59%) were positive by RT-PCR analysis, with a relative average of 50551 Leishmania parasites. In case of blood feeding of females with 2.106/mL promastigotes, 57 out of 800 (7%) females succeed to feed from artificial feeder which 22 (39%) were positive with a relative average of 6487 parasites. PMID:27439032

  16. Fumigaclavine C ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine experimental colitis via NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenjie; Hu, Shasha; Elgehama, Ahmed; Shao, Fenli; Ren, Ren; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Xinlei; Tan, Renxiang; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Jiao, Ruihua

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of Fumigaclavine C, a fungal metabolite, on murine experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and its possible mechanism were examined in vivo and vitro. Oral administration of Fumigaclavine C dose-dependently attenuated the loss of body weight and shortening of colon length induced by DSS. The disease activity index, histopathologic scores of musco was also significantly reduced by Fumigaclavine C treatment. Protein and mRNA levels of DSS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in colon, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17A, were markedly suppressed by Fumigaclavine C. At the same time, decreased activation of caspase-1 in peritoneal macrophages was detected in Fumigaclavine C -treated mice which suggested that the NLRP3 inflammasome activation was suppressed. Furthermore, in the LPS plus ATP cell model, we found that Fumigaclavine C dose-dependent inhibited IL-1β release and caspase-1 activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate the ability of Fumigaclavine C to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and give some evidence for its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26320672

  17. The combined effect of electroporation and borocaptate in boron neutron capture therapy for murine solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Ono, K; Kinashi, Y; Suzuki, M; Takagaki, M; Masunaga, S I

    2000-08-01

    10 B-Enriched borocaptate (BSH) was administered intraperitoneally to SCCVII tumor-bearing C3H / He mice. Electroporation (EP) was conducted by using a tweezers-type electrode. The (10) B contents in tumors were measured by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry. The colony formation assay was applied to investigate the antitumor effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and thereby to estimate the intratumor localization of BSH. The (10) B concentrations in tumors decreased with time following BSH administration, falling to 5.4(0. 1) ppm at 3 h, whereas EP treatment (3 repetitions) 15 min after BSH injection delayed the clearance of BSH from tumors, and the (10) B level remained at 19.4(0.9) ppm at 3 h. The effect of BNCT increased with the (10) B concentration in tumors, and the combination with EP showed a remarkably large cell killing effect even at 3 h after BSH injection. The effect of BNCT, i.e., slope coefficient of the cell survival curve of tumors, without EP was proportional to tumor (10) B level (r = 0.982), and that of BSH-BNCT combined with EP lay close to the same correlation line. However, tumors subjected to EP after BSH injection did not show high radiosensitivity when irradiated after conversion to a single cell suspension by enzymatic digestion. This indicates that the increase of the BNCT effect by EP was a consequence of enclosure of BSH in the interstitial space of tumor tissue and not within tumor cells. This is different from a previous in vitro study. The combination of EP and BNCT may be clinically useful, if a procedure to limit EP to the tumor region becomes available or if an alternative similar method is employed. PMID:10965028

  18. Hyaluronidase and collagenase increase the transfection efficiency of gene electrotransfer in various murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Cemazar, Maja; Golzio, Muriel; Sersa, Gregor; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Coer, Andrej; Vidic, Suzana; Teissie, Justin

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications of electroporation/electropulsation in biomedicine is gene electrotransfer, the wider use of which is hindered by low transfection efficiency in vivo compared with viral vectors. The aim of our study was to determine whether modulation of the extracellular matrix in solid tumors, using collagenase and hyaluronidase, could increase the transfection efficiency of gene electrotransfer in histologically different solid subcutaneous tumors in mice. Tumors were treated with enzymes before electrotransfer of plasmid DNA encoding either green fluorescent protein or luciferase. Transfection efficiency was determined 3, 9, and 15 days posttransfection. We demonstrated that pretreatment of tumors with a combination of enzymes significantly increased the transfection efficiency of electrotransfer in tumors with a high extracellular matrix area (LPB fibrosarcoma). In tumors with a smaller extracellular matrix area and less organized collagen lattice, the increase was not so pronounced (SA-1 fibrosarcoma and EAT carcinoma), whereas in B16 melanoma, in which only traces of collagen are present, pretreatment of tumors with hyaluronidase alone was more efficient than pretreatment with both enzymes. In conclusion, our results suggest that modification of the extracellular matrix could improve distribution of plasmid DNA in solid subcutaneous tumors, demonstrated by an increase in transfection efficiency, and thus have important clinical implications for electrogene therapy. PMID:21797718

  19. Interstitial hyperthermia of experimental brain tumor using implant heating system.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Tanaka, T; Kida, Y; Matsui, M; Ikeda, T

    1989-07-01

    New experimental system of induction hyperthermia for brain tumor using ferromagnetic implant with low Curie point has been developed. The metal implant is cylindrical needle and made of Fe-Pt alloy with low Curie point suitable for hyperthermia (50-60 degrees C). Induction coil and generator which produce maximum power of 200W and variable frequency of 100-500kHz, yielding magnetic power of 16.7Oe, have been developed. Interstitial hyperthermia was made on rat brain tumor model (T9 gliosarcoma) by this system. Significant effects of single hyperthermia (45 degrees C for 30 minutes) were observed by the extension of life span and morphological changes of the tumor. PMID:2778493

  20. Val-BoroPro Accelerates T Cell Priming via Modulation of Dendritic Cell Trafficking Resulting in Complete Regression of Established Murine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Larabee, Shannon; Krauss, Aviva; Davis, Jessica P. E.; Cui, Yongzhi; Kim, Su Young; Guimond, Martin; Bachovchin, William; Fry, Terry J.

    2013-01-01

    Although tumors naturally prime adaptive immune responses, tolerance may limit the capacity to control progression and can compromise effectiveness of immune-based therapies for cancer. Post-proline cleaving enzymes (PPCE) modulate protein function through N-terminal dipeptide cleavage and inhibition of these enzymes has been shown to have anti-tumor activity. We investigated the mechanism by which Val-boroPro, a boronic dipeptide that inhibits post-proline cleaving enzymes, mediates tumor regression and tested whether this agent could serve as a novel immune adjuvant to dendritic cell vaccines in two different murine syngeneic murine tumors. In mice challenged with MB49, which expresses the HY antigen complex, T cell responses primed by the tumor with and without Val-boroPro were measured using interferon gamma ELISPOT. Antibody depletion and gene-deficient mice were used to establish the immune cell subsets required for tumor regression. We demonstrate that Val-boroPro mediates tumor eradication by accelerating the expansion of tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, T cells primed by tumor during Val-boroPro treatment demonstrate increased capacity to reject tumors following adoptive transfer without further treatment of the recipient. Val-boroPro -mediated tumor regression requires dendritic cells and is associated with enhanced trafficking of dendritic cells to tumor draining lymph nodes. Finally, dendritic cell vaccination combined with Val-boroPro treatment results in complete regression of established tumors. Our findings demonstrate that Val-boroPro has antitumor activity and a novel mechanism of action that involves more robust DC trafficking with earlier priming of T cells. Finally, we show that Val-boroPro has potent adjuvant properties resulting in an effective therapeutic vaccine. PMID:23554941

  1. Val-boroPro accelerates T cell priming via modulation of dendritic cell trafficking resulting in complete regression of established murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Meghaan P; Duncan, Brynn; Larabee, Shannon; Krauss, Aviva; Davis, Jessica P E; Cui, Yongzhi; Kim, Su Young; Guimond, Martin; Bachovchin, William; Fry, Terry J

    2013-01-01

    Although tumors naturally prime adaptive immune responses, tolerance may limit the capacity to control progression and can compromise effectiveness of immune-based therapies for cancer. Post-proline cleaving enzymes (PPCE) modulate protein function through N-terminal dipeptide cleavage and inhibition of these enzymes has been shown to have anti-tumor activity. We investigated the mechanism by which Val-boroPro, a boronic dipeptide that inhibits post-proline cleaving enzymes, mediates tumor regression and tested whether this agent could serve as a novel immune adjuvant to dendritic cell vaccines in two different murine syngeneic murine tumors. In mice challenged with MB49, which expresses the HY antigen complex, T cell responses primed by the tumor with and without Val-boroPro were measured using interferon gamma ELISPOT. Antibody depletion and gene-deficient mice were used to establish the immune cell subsets required for tumor regression. We demonstrate that Val-boroPro mediates tumor eradication by accelerating the expansion of tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, T cells primed by tumor during Val-boroPro treatment demonstrate increased capacity to reject tumors following adoptive transfer without further treatment of the recipient. Val-boroPro -mediated tumor regression requires dendritic cells and is associated with enhanced trafficking of dendritic cells to tumor draining lymph nodes. Finally, dendritic cell vaccination combined with Val-boroPro treatment results in complete regression of established tumors. Our findings demonstrate that Val-boroPro has antitumor activity and a novel mechanism of action that involves more robust DC trafficking with earlier priming of T cells. Finally, we show that Val-boroPro has potent adjuvant properties resulting in an effective therapeutic vaccine. PMID:23554941

  2. Antitumor effect of murine dendritic and tumor cells transduced with IL-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Wojas-Turek, Justyna; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elżbieta; Rossowska, Joanna; Piasecki, Egbert; Duś, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin (IL-) 2 acts on a number of types of immune cells promoting their effector functions. To replace systemic administration of recombinant form of this cytokine, various genetically modified cells have been used indifferent preclinical models for tumor growth inhibition. In this study, dendritic or tumor cells transduced with retroviral vector carrying IL-2 gene (JAWS II/IL-2, X63/IL-2, MC38/IL-2 cells) alone or combined with tumor antigen-stimulated dendritic cells (JAWS II/TAg) were exploited to treat colon carcinoma MC38-bearing mice. After the peritumoral injection of vaccine cells, the tumor growth delay and the increase in the number of tumor infiltrating CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes were noted. A considerable increase in CD4⁺ cell influx into tumor tissue was observed when JAWS II/IL-2 cells or JAWS II/TAg with syngeneic MC38/IL-2 cells were applied. The increase in intensity of CD8⁺ cell infiltration was associated with immune reaction triggered by the same combination of applied cells or JAWS II/TAg with allogeneic X63/IL-2 cells. The effect observed in vivo was accompanied by MC38/0 cell specific cytotoxic activity of spleen cells in vitro. Thus, the application of vaccines, including IL-2-secreting cells of various origins, was able to induce different antitumor responses polarized by exogenous IL-2 and the encountered tumor antigen. PMID:23042272

  3. Triterpenoids Amplify Anti-Tumoral Effects of Mistletoe Extracts on Murine B16.F10 Melanoma In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Strüh, Christian M.; Jäger, Sebastian; Kersten, Astrid; Schempp, Christoph M.; Scheffler, Armin; Martin, Stefan F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Mistletoe extracts are often used in complementary cancer therapy although the efficacy of that therapy is controversially discussed. Approved mistletoe extracts contain mainly water soluble compounds of the mistletoe plant, i.e. mistletoe lectins. However, mistletoe also contains water-insoluble triterpenoids (mainly oleanolic acid) that have anti-tumorigenic effects. To overcome their loss in watery extracts we have solubilized mistletoe triterpenoids with cyclodextrins, thus making them available for in vivo cancer experiments. Experimental design B16.F10 subcutaneous melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice were treated with new mistletoe extracts containing both water soluble compounds and solubilized triterpenoids. Tumor growth and survival was monitored. In addition, histological examinations of the tumor material and tumor surrounding tissue were performed. Results Addition of solubilized triterpenoids increased the anti-tumor effects of the mistletoe extracts, resulting in reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival of the mice. Histological examination of the treated tumors showed mainly tumor necrosis and some apoptotic cells with active caspase-3 and TUNEL staining. A significant decrease of CD31-positive tumor blood vessels was observed after treatment with solubilized triterpenoids and different mistletoe extracts. Conclusion We conclude that the addition of solubilized mistletoe triterpenoids to conventional mistletoe extracts improves the efficacy of mistletoe treatment and may represent a novel treatment option for malignant melanoma. PMID:23614029

  4. Different processing of LH/hCG receptors in cultured rat luteal cells and murine Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kellokumpu, S.

    1987-02-01

    The metabolic fate of LH/hCG receptors after exposure to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was examined in cultured rat luteal cells and murine Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1). Kinetic studies performed after pulse-labelling of the cells with (/sup 125/I)hCG indicated that the bound hormone was lost much more rapidly from the tumor cells than from the luteal cells. The tumor cells were also found to internalize and degrade the hormone more effectively than the luteal cells. Chemical cross-linking and analyses by SDS-PAGE of this material revealed that both cell types also released, in addition to intact hCG, two previously characterized receptor fragment-(/sup 125/I)hCG complexes (M/sub r/ 96,000 and 74,000) into the medium, although their amount was negligible in MLTC-1 cells. Possibly due to rapid discharge of the ligand from its receptor, no similar complexes could be detected inside the MLTC-1 cells, suggesting that they were released directly from the cell surface. However, the M/sub r/ 74,000 complex was observed inside MLTC-1 cells if chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent, was present during the incubations. This suggests that the internalized receptor also becomes degraded, at least when complexed to hCG. The results thus provide evidence that there exist two different mechanisms for proteolytic processing of LH/hCG receptors in these target cells. In tumor cells, the degradation seems to occur almost exclusively intracellularly, whereas in luteal cells a substantial portion of the receptors is also degraded at the cell surface.

  5. Combining BRAF inhibitor and anti PD-L1 antibody dramatically improves tumor regression and anti tumor immunity in an immunocompetent murine model of anaplastic thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Borre, Pierre Vanden; Zurakowski, David; Kim, Yon Seon; Dennett, Kate Virginia; Amin, Salma; Freeman, Gordon James; Parangi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of programmed cell death-1 and its ligand is widely studied in cancer. Monoclonal antibodies blocking these molecules have had great success but little is known about them in thyroid cancer. We investigated the role of PD-L1 in thyroid cancer with respect to BRAF mutation and MAP kinase pathway activity and the effect of anti PD-L1 antibody therapy on tumor regression and intra-tumoral immune response alone or in combination with BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi). BRAFV600E cells showed significantly higher baseline expression of PD-L1 at mRNA and protein levels compared to BRAFWT cells. MEK inhibitor treatment resulted in a decrease of PD-L1 expression across all cell lines. BRAFi treatment decreased PD-L1 expression in BRAFV600E cells, but paradoxically increased its expression in BRAFWT cells. BRAFV600E mutated patients samples had a higher level of PD-L1 mRNA compared to BRAFWT (p=0.015). Immunocompetent mice (B6129SF1/J) implanted with syngeneic 3747 BRAFV600E/WT P53−/− murine tumor cells were randomized to control, PLX4720, anti PD-L1 antibody and their combination. In this model of aggressive thyroid cancer, control tumor volume reached 782.3±174.6mm3 at two weeks. The combination dramatically reduced tumor volume to 147.3±60.8, compared to PLX4720 (439.3±188.4 mm3, P=0.023) or PD-L1 antibody (716.7±62.1, P<0.001) alone. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed intense CD8+ CTL infiltration and cytotoxicity and favorable CD8+:Treg ratio compared to each individual treatment. Our results show anti PD-L1 treatment potentiates the effect of BRAFi on tumor regression and intensifies anti tumor immune response in an immunocompetent model of ATC. Clinical trials of this therapeutic combination may be of benefit in patients with ATC. PMID:26943572

  6. Murine AIDS Protects Mice Against Experimental Cerebral Malaria: Down-Regulation by Interleukin 10 a T-Helper Type 1 CD4^+ Cell-Mediated Pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckwalanga, Michel; Marussig, Myriam; Dias Tavares, Marisa; Bouanga, Jean Claude; Hulier, Elisabeth; Henriette Pavlovitch, Jana; Minoprio, Paola; Portnoi, Denis; Renia, Laurent; Mazier, Dominique

    1994-08-01

    The retrovirus LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus induces murine AIDS in C57BL/6 mice that has many similarities with human AIDS; Plasmodium berghei ANKA causes experimental cerebral malaria in the same strain of mice. The outcome of malaria infection was studied in mice concurrently infected with the two pathogens. The retrovirus significantly reduced the gravity of the neurological manifestations associated with Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection. The protection against experimental cerebral malaria induced by murine AIDS increased with duration of viral infection and, hence, with the severity of the immunodeficiency. Interleukin 10, principally from splenic T cells, was shown to play a crucial role in this protection.

  7. Microdistribution of MC1R-targeted polyplexes in murine melanoma tumor tissue

    PubMed Central

    Durymanov, Mikhail O; Slastnikova, Tatiana A; Kuzmich, Alexey I; Khramtsov, Yuri V; Ulasov, Alexey V; Rosenkranz, Andrey A1; Egorov, Sergey Y; Sverdlov, Eugene D; Sobolev, Alexander S

    2013-01-01

    Targeted sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) gene transfer can be considered as a promising approach for diagnostics of specific types of cancer. For this purpose we used targeted polyplexes based on PEI–PEG–MC1SP block-copolymer containing MC1SP-peptide, a ligand specific for melanocortin receptor-1 (MC1R) overexpressed on melanoma cells. Targeted polyplexes demonstrated enhanced NIS gene transfer compared to non-targeted (lacking MC1SP) ones in vitro. Using dorsal skinfold chamber and intravital microscopy we evaluated accumulation and microdistribution of quantum dot-labeled polyplexes in tumor and normal subcutaneous tissues up to 4 hours after intravenous injection. Polyplexes demonstrated significantly higher total accumulation in tumor tissue in comparison with subcutaneous ones (control). Targeted and non-targeted polyplexes extravasated and penetrated into the tumor tissue up to 20 μm from the vessel walls. In contrast, in normal subcutaneous tissue polyplexes penetrated less than 5 μm from the vessel walls with the level of extravasated polyplexes 400-fold less than in tumor. Accumulated polyplexes in tumor tissue caused NIS gene expression. Subsequent 123I- intravenous injection resulted in 6.8 ± 1.1 and 4.5 ± 0.8 % ID/g (p < 0.001) iodide accumulation in tumors in the case of targeted and non-targeted polyplexes, respectively, as was shown using SPECT/CT. PMID:24075405

  8. A Multimodal Imaging Approach for Longitudinal Evaluation of Bladder Tumor Development in an Orthotopic Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Scheepbouwer, Chantal; Meyer, Sandra; Burggraaf, Maroeska J; Jose, Jithin; Molthoff, Carla F M

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy amongst men in Western industrialized countries with an initial response rate of 70% for the non-muscle invasive type, and improving therapy efficacy is highly needed. For this, an appropriate, reliable animal model is essential to gain insight into mechanisms of tumor growth for use in response monitoring of (new) agents. Several animal models have been described in previous studies, but so far success has been hampered due to the absence of imaging methods to follow tumor growth non-invasively over time. Recent developments of multimodal imaging methods for use in animal research have substantially strengthened these options of in vivo visualization of tumor growth. In the present study, a multimodal imaging approach was addressed to investigate bladder tumor proliferation longitudinally. The complementary abilities of Bioluminescence, High Resolution Ultrasound and Photo-acoustic Imaging permit a better understanding of bladder tumor development. Hybrid imaging modalities allow the integration of individual strengths to enable sensitive and improved quantification and understanding of tumor biology, and ultimately, can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics. PMID:27533303

  9. A Multimodal Imaging Approach for Longitudinal Evaluation of Bladder Tumor Development in an Orthotopic Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sandra; Burggraaf, Maroeska J.; Jose, Jithin; Molthoff, Carla F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy amongst men in Western industrialized countries with an initial response rate of 70% for the non-muscle invasive type, and improving therapy efficacy is highly needed. For this, an appropriate, reliable animal model is essential to gain insight into mechanisms of tumor growth for use in response monitoring of (new) agents. Several animal models have been described in previous studies, but so far success has been hampered due to the absence of imaging methods to follow tumor growth non-invasively over time. Recent developments of multimodal imaging methods for use in animal research have substantially strengthened these options of in vivo visualization of tumor growth. In the present study, a multimodal imaging approach was addressed to investigate bladder tumor proliferation longitudinally. The complementary abilities of Bioluminescence, High Resolution Ultrasound and Photo-acoustic Imaging permit a better understanding of bladder tumor development. Hybrid imaging modalities allow the integration of individual strengths to enable sensitive and improved quantification and understanding of tumor biology, and ultimately, can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics. PMID:27533303

  10. Anti-EphA2 antibodies decrease EphA2 protein levels in murine CT26 colorectal and human MDA-231 breast tumors but do not inhibit tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Kiewlich, David; Zhang, Jianhuan; Gross, Cynthia; Xia, Wei; Larsen, Brent; Cobb, Ronald R; Biroc, Sandra; Gu, Jian-Ming; Sato, Takashi; Light, David R; Heitner, Tara; Willuda, Joerg; Vogel, David; Monteclaro, Felipe; Citkowicz, Andrzej; Roffler, Steve R; Zajchowski, Deborah A

    2006-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase has been shown to be over-expressed in cancer and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that activates and down-modulates EphA2 was reported to inhibit the growth of human breast and lung tumor xenografts in nude mice. Reduction of EphA2 levels by treatment with anti-EphA2 siRNA also inhibited tumor growth, suggesting that the anti-tumor effects of these agents are mediated by decreasing the levels of EphA2. As these studies employed human tumor xenograft models in nude mice with reagents whose cross reactivity with murine EphA2 is unknown, we generated a mAb (Ab20) that preferentially binds, activates, and induces the degradation of murine EphA2. Treatment of established murine CT26 colorectal tumors with Ab20 reduced EphA2 protein levels to approximately 12% of control tumor levels, yet had no effect on tumor growth. CT26 tumor cell colonization of the lung was also not affected by Ab20 administration despite having barely detectable levels of EphA2. We also generated and tested a potent agonistic mAb against human EphA2 (1G9-H7). No inhibition of humanMDA-231 breast tumor xenograft growth was observed despite evidence for >85% reduction of EphA2 protein levels in the tumors. These results suggest that molecular characteristics of the tumors in addition to EphA2 over-expression may be important for predicting responsiveness to EphA2-directed therapies. PMID:16533422

  11. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Scott W; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G; Miller, Daniel M; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  12. Macrophage Activation Associated with Chronic Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection Results in More Severe Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G.; Miller, Daniel M.; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P.; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  13. Cellular basis of the genetic susceptibility of murine experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, T.A.; Greiner, D.L.; Goldschneider, I.

    1986-03-01

    Murine experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an induced autoimmune disease that resembles human multiple sclerosis. The authors have investigated the cellular basis of the genetic predisposition and resistance of inbred strains of mice to EAE using an adoptive transfer system between two H-2 compatible, Thy 1 antigen disparate strains of mice. Genetically EAE susceptible SJL/J strain mice (H-2/sup s/, Thy 1.2) and resistant B10.S Thy 1.1 (H-2/sub s/, Thy 1.1) strain mice were lethally irradiated (700R) and reconstituted with 5-10 x 10/sup 6/ bone marrow cells from either SJL/J or congenic B10.S (Thy 1.1 or Thy 1.2) donors. After 30-45 days, more than 95% of the thymocytes and 75% of the peripheral T cells in the chimeras were of donor origin. These lymphohemopoietic chimeras were then sensitized in their hind footpads with porcine myelin basic protein in complete Freund's adjuvant containing M. tuberculosis H/sub 37/RA, followed at 24 and 72 hours by i.v. injection of B. pertussis. Clinical signs of EAE developed in unirradiated SJL/J, but not B10.S, controls, and in irradiated B10.S and SJL/J recipients of SJL/J, but not B10.S, bone marrow. These results indicate that bone marrow cells can transfer the predisposition to EAE from genetically susceptible to genetically resistant mouse strains. The cellular component in the bone marrow that is responsible for the transfer of the genetic susceptibility to EAE is under investigation.

  14. Antiinflammatory Effect of Phytosterols in Experimental Murine Colitis Model: Prevention, Induction, Remission Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25268769

  15. Keratinocyte growth factor enhances DNA plasmid tumor vaccine responses after murine allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jenq, Robert R.; King, Christopher G.; Volk, Christine; Suh, David; Smith, Odette M.; Rao, Uttam K.; Yim, Nury L.; Holland, Amanda M.; Lu, Sydney X.; Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Goldberg, Gabrielle L.; Diab, Adi; Alpdogan, Onder; Penack, Olaf; Na, Il-Kang; Kappel, Lucy W.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Houghton, Alan N.; Perales, Miguel-Angel

    2009-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), which is given exogenously to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) recipients, supports thymic epithelial cells and increases thymic output of naive T cells. Here, we demonstrate that this improved T-cell reconstitution leads to enhanced responses to DNA plasmid tumor vaccination. Tumor-bearing mice treated with KGF and DNA vaccination have improved long-term survival and decreased tumor burden after allo-BMT. When assayed before vaccination, KGF-treated allo-BMT recipients have increased numbers of peripheral T cells, including CD8+ T cells with vaccine-recognition potential. In response to vaccination, KGF-treated allo-BMT recipients, compared with control subjects, generate increased numbers of tumor-specific CD8+ cells, as well as increased numbers of CD8+ cells producing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We also found unanticipated benefits to antitumor immunity with the administration of KGF. KGF-treated allo-BMT recipients have an improved ratio of T effector cells to regulatory T cells, a larger fraction of effector cells that display a central memory phenotype, and effector cells that are derived from a broader T-cell–receptor repertoire. In conclusion, our data suggest that KGF can function as a potent vaccine adjuvant after allo-BMT through its effects on posttransplantation T-cell reconstitution. PMID:19011222

  16. Antitumor immunity induced by hybrid murine tumor cells: requirements for optimal immunization

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, C.S.; O'Donnell, R.W.; Horan, P.K.; Budd, H.S.; Spennacchio, J.L.; Chuang, C.; Henshaw, E.C.

    1982-09-01

    Hybrid tumor cells have been evaluated for their ability to induce specific antitumor immunity in inbred female C3H/He mice challenged with the syngeneic BA tumor. Hybrid cells were produced by fusion of BA cells with a BALB/c renal adenocarcinoma, which is hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase-deficient and grows well in culture. Corynebacterium parvum was evaluated as an adjuvant for BA and hybrid cells. The BA tumor was shown to be poorly immunogenic, and four weekly injections of BA cells alone or C. parvum alone did not confer significant immunity. When BA cells and C. parvum were mixed, survival time was prolonged and most mice remained tumor-free. Hybrid cell lines derived from the BA tumor were produced in culture in unlimited quantities and were successfully used as immunogens. The addition of C. parvum to hybrids gave a significant incremental increase in survival when compared to the survival resulting from immunization by hybrids without adjuvant. When hybrids without adjuvant were used, several weekly injections were required for effective immunization. Irradiated and unirradiated hybrids were compared, and it was found that irradiation did not diminish hybrid immunogenicity. The potential problems and advantages of this concept of therapy are discussed.

  17. CFTR is a tumor suppressor gene in murine and human intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Than, B L N; Linnekamp, J F; Starr, T K; Largaespada, D A; Rod, A; Zhang, Y; Bruner, V; Abrahante, J; Schumann, A; Luczak, T; Niemczyk, A; O'Sullivan, M G; Medema, J P; Fijneman, R J A; Meijer, G A; Van den Broek, E; Hodges, C A; Scott, P M; Vermeulen, L; Cormier, R T

    2016-08-11

    CFTR, the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene, encodes for the CFTR protein that plays an essential role in anion regulation and tissue homeostasis of various epithelia. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract CFTR promotes chloride and bicarbonate secretion, playing an essential role in ion and acid-base homeostasis. Cftr has been identified as a candidate driver gene for colorectal cancer (CRC) in several Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based forward genetic screens in mice. Further, recent epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that CF patients are at high risk for developing tumors in the colon. To investigate the effects of CFTR dysregulation on GI cancer, we generated Apc(Min) mice that carried an intestinal-specific knockout of Cftr. Our results indicate that Cftr is a tumor suppressor gene in the intestinal tract as Cftr mutant mice developed significantly more tumors in the colon and the entire small intestine. In Apc(+/+) mice aged to ~1 year, Cftr deficiency alone caused the development of intestinal tumors in >60% of mice. Colon organoid formation was significantly increased in organoids created from Cftr mutant mice compared with wild-type controls, suggesting a potential role of Cftr in regulating the intestinal stem cell compartment. Microarray data from the Cftr-deficient colon and the small intestine identified dysregulated genes that belong to groups of immune response, ion channel, intestinal stem cell and other growth signaling regulators. These associated clusters of genes were confirmed by pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We also conducted RNA Seq analysis of tumors from Apc(+/+) Cftr knockout mice and identified sets of genes dysregulated in tumors including altered Wnt β-catenin target genes. Finally we analyzed expression of CFTR in early stage human CRC patients stratified by risk of recurrence and found that loss of expression of CFTR was significantly associated with poor disease

  18. CFTR is a tumor suppressor gene in murine and human intestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Than, BLN; Linnekamp, JF; Starr, TK; Largaespada, DA; Rod, A; Zhang, Y; Bruner, V; Abrahante, J; Schumann, A; Luczak, T; Niemczyk, A; O’Sullivan, MG; Medema, JP; Fijneman, RJA; Meijer, GA; Van den Broek, E; Hodges, CA; Scott, PM; Vermeulen, L; Cormier, RT

    2016-01-01

    CFTR, the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene, encodes for the CFTR protein that plays an essential role in anion regulation and tissue homeostasis of various epithelia. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract CFTR promotes chloride and bicarbonate secretion, playing an essential role in ion and acid–base homeostasis. Cftr has been identified as a candidate driver gene for colorectal cancer (CRC) in several Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based forward genetic screens in mice. Further, recent epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that CF patients are at high risk for developing tumors in the colon. To investigate the effects of CFTR dysregulation on GI cancer, we generated ApcMin mice that carried an intestinal-specific knockout of Cftr. Our results indicate that Cftr is a tumor suppressor gene in the intestinal tract as Cftr mutant mice developed significantly more tumors in the colon and the entire small intestine. In Apc+/+ mice aged to ~ 1 year, Cftr deficiency alone caused the development of intestinal tumors in >60% of mice. Colon organoid formation was significantly increased in organoids created from Cftr mutant mice compared with wild-type controls, suggesting a potential role of Cftr in regulating the intestinal stem cell compartment. Microarray data from the Cftr-deficient colon and the small intestine identified dysregulated genes that belong to groups of immune response, ion channel, intestinal stem cell and other growth signaling regulators. These associated clusters of genes were confirmed by pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We also conducted RNA Seq analysis of tumors from Apc+/+ Cftr knockout mice and identified sets of genes dysregulated in tumors including altered Wnt β-catenin target genes. Finally we analyzed expression of CFTR in early stage human CRC patients stratified by risk of recurrence and found that loss of expression of CFTR was significantly associated with poor disease

  19. Studies of variation in inherent sensitivities to radiation, 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate in a series of human and murine tumor cell lines in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, A.S.; Whelan, R.D.H.; Hill, B.T.

    1984-01-01

    Clinical studies have reported reduced response rates to subsequent chemotherapy in certain tumors recurring after radiotherapy. These authors have investigated whether there are any correlations between radiation and drug responses in vitro using a range of murine and human tumor cell lines. They have compared sensitivities to X-irradiation and to 24 hr exposures to two widely used antitumor drugs, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil. The 4 murine lines selected showed a range of radiation responses with Do values of 0.48-0.76 Gy. Methotrexate sensitivities also exhibited an 800-fold difference which appeared to correlate inversely with radiation response. Sensitivity to 5-FU was less variable in these cells and was unrelated to radiation response. In contrast, in the human lines tested, no correlations were observed between drug sensitivities and radiation response. The six lines tested showed a range of radiation responses with Do values of 0.66-1.59 Gy. Methotrexate sensitivities ranged only over a 150-fold concentration but, contrasting with data from the murine cells, no correlation with radiation response was apparent. Similarly, no correlations between response to 5-fluorouracil and radiation or 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate were noted, which is inconsistent with results using murine cells.

  20. CTLA-4 blockade enhances the therapeutic effect of an attenuated poxvirus vaccine targeting p53 in an established murine tumor model.

    PubMed

    Espenschied, Jonathan; Lamont, Jeffrey; Longmate, Jeff; Pendas, Solange; Wang, Zhongde; Diamond, Don J; Ellenhorn, Joshua D I

    2003-03-15

    p53 is overexpressed by half of all cancers, and is an attractive target for a vaccine approach to immunotherapy. p53 overexpression is frequently the result of point mutations, which leaves the majority of the protein in its wild-type form. Therefore, the majority of p53 sequence is wild type, making it a self-protein for which tolerance plays a role in limiting immune responses. To overcome tolerance to p53, we have expressed wild-type murine p53 in the nonpathogenic attenuated poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing wild-type murine p53 (rMVAp53)). Mice immunized with rMVAp53 vaccine developed vigorous p53-specific CTL responses. rMVAp53 vaccine was evaluated for its ability to inhibit the outgrowth of the syngeneic murine sarcoma Meth A, which overexpresses mutant p53. Mice were inoculated with a lethal dose (5 x 10(5) cells injected s.c.) of Meth A tumor cells and vaccinated by i.p. injection 3 days later with 5 x 10(7) PFU of rMVAp53. The majority of mice remained tumor free and resistant to rechallenge with Meth A tumor cells. We wished to determine whether rMVAp53 immunization could effect the rejection of an established, palpable Meth A tumor. In subsequent experiments, mice were injected with 10(6) Meth A tumor cells, and treated 6 days later with anti-CTLA-4 Ab (9H10) and rMVAp53. The majority of treated mice had complete tumor regression along with lasting tumor immunity. In vivo Ab depletion confirmed that the antitumor effect was primarily CD8 and to a lesser extent CD4 dependent. These experiments demonstrate the potential of a novel cell-free vaccine targeting p53 in malignancy. PMID:12626601

  1. Modulation of Murine Breast Tumor Vascularity, Hypoxia, and Chemotherapeutic Response by Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Betof, Allison S.; Lascola, Christopher D.; Weitzel, Douglas; Landon, Chelsea; Scarbrough, Peter M.; Devi, Gayathri R.; Palmer, Gregory; Jones, Lee W.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to improve postischemia perfusion of normal tissues; we investigated whether these effects extend to solid tumors. Estrogen receptor–negative (ER-, 4T1) and ER+ (E0771) tumor cells were implanted orthotopically into syngeneic mice (BALB/c, N = 11–12 per group) randomly assigned to exercise or sedentary control. Tumor growth, perfusion, hypoxia, and components of the angiogenic and apoptotic cascades were assessed by MRI, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and analyzed with one-way and repeated measures analysis of variance and linear regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. Exercise statistically significantly reduced tumor growth and was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in apoptosis (sedentary vs exercise: 1544 cells/mm2, 95% CI = 1223 to 1865 vs 2168 cells/mm2, 95% CI = 1620 to 2717; P = .048), increased microvessel density (P = .004), vessel maturity (P = .006) and perfusion, and reduced intratumoral hypoxia (P = .012), compared with sedentary controls. We also tested whether exercise could improve chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide) efficacy. Exercise plus chemotherapy prolonged growth delay compared with chemotherapy alone (P < .001) in the orthotopic 4T1 model (n = 17 per group). Exercise is a potential novel adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25780062

  2. Novel allelic mutations in murine Serca2 induce differential development of squamous cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Toki, Hideaki; Minowa, Osamu; Inoue, Maki; Motegi, Hiromi; Karashima, Yuko; Ikeda, Ami; Kaneda, Hideki; Sakuraba, Yoshiyuki; Saiki, Yuriko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Gondo, Yoichi; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Noda, Tetsuo

    2016-08-01

    Dominant mutations in the Serca2 gene, which encodes sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase, predispose mice to gastrointestinal epithelial carcinoma [1-4] and humans to Darier disease (DD) [14-17]. In this study, we generated mice harboring N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced allelic mutations in Serca2: three missense mutations and one nonsense mutation. Mice harboring these Serca2 mutations developed tumors that were categorized as either early onset squamous cell tumors (SCT), with development similar to null-type knockout mice [2,4] (aggressive form; M682, M814), or late onset tumors (mild form; M1049, M1162). Molecular analysis showed no aberration in Serca2 mRNA or protein expression levels in normal esophageal cells of any of the four mutant heterozygotes. There was no loss of heterozygosity at the Serca2 locus in the squamous cell carcinomas in any of the four lines. The effect of each mutation on Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was predicted using atomic-structure models and accumulated mutated protein studies, suggesting that putative complete loss of Serca2 enzymatic activity may lead to early tumor onset, whereas mutations in which Serca2 retains residual enzymatic activity result in late onset. We propose that impaired Serca2 gene product activity has a long-term effect on squamous cell carcinogenesis from onset to the final carcinoma stage through an as-yet unrecognized but common regulatory pathway. PMID:27131742

  3. Trichosanthin enhances anti-tumor immune response in a murine Lewis lung cancer model by boosting the interaction between TSLC1 and CRTAM.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuchan; Xiong, Shudao; Zheng, Yijie; Luo, Feifei; Jiang, Pei; Chu, Yiwei

    2011-07-01

    Trichosanthin (TCS), extracted from the Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowi, has shown promise for the inhibition of tumor growth. However, its immunomodulatory effect on tumor-host interaction remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the effect of TCS on murine anti-tumor immune response in the 3LL Lewis lung carcinoma tumor model and explored the possible molecular pathways involved. In addition to inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in the 3LL tumor, TCS retarded tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival more significantly in C57BL/6 immunocompetent mice than in nude mice. This reflected the fact that the host immune system was involved in tumor eradication. Using FACS analysis, we found that TCS increased the percentage of effector T cells, particularly Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from tumor-bearing mice. TCS also promoted the vigorous proliferation of antigen-specific effector T cells, markedly increased Th1 cytokine secretion and elicited more memory T cells in tumor-bearing mice, consequently enhancing the anti-tumor response and inducing immune protection. Furthermore, we found that TCS upregulated the expression of tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) in 3LL tumor cells and the expression of its ligand, class I-restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM), in effector T cells. Blocking TSLC1 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly eliminated the effects of TCS on the proliferation and cytokine secretion of effector T cells, suggesting that TCS enhances anti-tumor immune response at least partially by boosting the interaction between TSLC1 and CRTAM. Collectively, our data demonstrate that TCS not only affects tumor cells directly, but also enhances anti-tumor immunity via the interaction between TSLC1 and CRTAM. These findings may lead to the development of a novel approach for tumor regression. PMID:21572449

  4. Influence of WR 2721 on the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy of murine tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, J.J.; Johnson, R.K.

    1982-03-01

    The effect of WR2721 on the response of tumors to radiation, antineoplastic alkylating drugs, and DNA binding agents was evaluated and compared to the degree of normal tissue protection provided by WR 2721 against these agents. WR 2721 administered to mice bearing P388 leukemia or Lewis lung carcinoma was found to reduce the radiosensitivity of the leukemia and lung tumor by dose modifying factors of 1.4 and 1.3, respectively. WR 2721 protected bone marow, intestine, and skin from radiation by factors of 1.9. 1.4 and 1.8. WR 2721 protected mice from the lethality of cyclophosphamide by a factor of only 1.2 whereas protection from melphalan toxicity was more dramatic with a dose modifying factor of 1.6. In chemotherapy studies of established M5076 ovarian tumor, the combination of WR 2721 plus cyclophosphamide was equivalent in activity to cyclophosphamide alone. WR 2721 did not modify the antitumor activity of melphalan in early Lewis lung carcinoma did not decrease the antileukemic effects of this agent by a factor of 2.6 indicating tumor protection greater than host protection in the leukemia. The antitumor activity of the DNA binding agents etoposide (VP16-213) and mitoxantrone against systemic P388 leukemia was not diminished by WR 2721, while a substantial increase in host toxicity was noted for the combinations. The protective effects of WR 2721 against radiation and drug damage were, therefore, not entirely selective for normal tissues. In some cases the degree of tumor protection can be similar to, or greater than, normal tissue protection.

  5. Granulocytosis-inducing tumor inhibits the production of B lymphocytes in murine bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Fueloep, G.; Lee, M.Y.; Rosse, C.

    1985-12-01

    Mice bearing a transplantable CE mammary carcinoma have been shown to have greatly augmented rates of neutrophil production coupled with a marked diminution of bone marrow lymphocytes. The objective the present study was to test whether the loss of lymphocytes, and especially of B cells, from the bone marrow and spleen of tumor-bearing animals was due to a reduced rate of cell production and if so, at what level this response was regulated. A modified /sup 3/H-TdR pulse and chase analysis was used to assess the rates of production of small lymphocytes and B cells at weekly intervals after CE tumor transplantation. Although pre-B cells appeared in the peripheral marrow (caudal vertebrae, metatarsal bones) and spleen of tumor-bearing mice, these cells could not compensate for the continued decrease in the numbers of more mature B cells. During the second and third weeks of tumor growth, a steady state appears to have been reached in B cell production, which was at a level approximately 10 times below that of normal. Because pre-B cells are normally maintained by a less mature precursor population (2), the initial disappearance of c..mu../sup +/s..mu../sup -/ cells suggests that the CE mammary carcinoma exerts its modulatory influence on primary B cell production by inhibiting or eliminating the cells that eventually feed into the pre-B compartment. The nature of the regulatory factors apparently secreted by the tumor and the more precise identity of the target cells are under investigation.

  6. Mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance of murine tumors to 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, B; Cooney, D A; Jayaram, H N; Carrico, C K; Glazer, R I; Macdonald, J; Schein, P S

    1980-05-01

    The biochemical basis for the resistance of murine leukemia P388 to 5-fluorouracil (FUra) was systematically investigated by examining the transport and metabolism of FUra, or its anabolites, as well as the inhibition of enzymes and processes known to be affected by the drug. Of these parameters, only three were found to be altered significantly in the resistant line: (a) the enzyme required for the phosphorylation of uridine 5'-monophosphate to uridine 5'-diphosphate was present at a significantly lower specific activity in the resistant line than in its sensitive counterpart; (b) the rates of generation and persistance of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate were significantly lower and shorter in the variant; and (c) there was a 1.6- and 3-fold decrease in the incorporation of FUra into polyadenylic acid-containing RNA and polyadenylic acid-lacking RNA, respectively, in resistant versus sensitive cells. Taken together, these findings suggest a dual mechanism for resistance to FUra in these leukemic cells, namely, a depressed capacity to generate di- and triphosphates of the riboside and deoxyriboside of the drug leading to lower pools of the proximate antimetabolite, fluorouridine 5'-triphosphate, and accelerated excretion of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate, so that thymidylate synthetase is perturbed in a less than lethal way. PMID:6245793

  7. IFN-gamma reduces specific binding of tumor necrosis factor on murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Drapier, J.C.; Wietzerbin, J. )

    1991-02-15

    Because IFN-gamma is the main cytokine activating macrophages and TNF cooperates in this activation, we assessed TNF binding capacity during the course of murine macrophage activation by IFN-gamma. TNF binding to elicited macrophages increased with time, was maximal by 8 h of culture, and required de novo protein synthesis. {sup 125}I-TNF bound to about 40,000 sites/cell with a Kd of 1 x 10(-9) M. Cross-linking experiments performed with a bifunctional cross-linking agent revealed a specific band with a m.w. of 94,000. Preincubation of macrophages with IFN-gamma prevented the binding of TNF to receptors. This effect was dose-dependent and maximal at 100 U/ml. IFN-gamma also reduced specific TNF binding to preexisting receptors (50% inhibition in 3 h), but IFN-gamma did not change the internalization rate of TNF. These studies showed that the number of TNF receptors increased on macrophages vs maturation in culture and was negatively controlled by IFN-gamma.

  8. Active treatment of murine tumors with a highly attenuated vaccinia virus expressing the tumor associated antigen 5T4 (TroVax) is CD4+ T cell dependent and antibody mediated.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Richard; Ryan, Matthew G; Myers, Kevin A; Redchenko, Irina; Kingsman, Susan M; Carroll, Miles W

    2006-09-01

    5T4 is a tumor associated antigen that is expressed on the surface of a wide spectrum of human adenocarcinomas. The highly attenuated virus, modified vaccinia Ankara, has been engineered to express human 5T4 (h5T4). In a pre-clinical murine model, the recombinant virus (TroVax) induces protection against challenge with CT26-h5T4 (a syngeneic tumor line expressing h5T4). Anti-tumor activity is long lived, with protection still evident 6 months after the final vaccination. In a therapeutic setting, injection of mice with TroVax results in a reduction in tumor burden of >90%. Depletion of CD8+ T cells has no effect upon therapy in the active treatment model, whereas depletion of CD4+ T cells completely abrogates anti-tumor activity. In a prophylactic setting, depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after the induction of a h5T4 immune response has no deleterious effect on protection following challenge with CT26-h5T4. In light of these studies, the role of antibodies in protection against tumor challenge was investigated. 5T4 specific polyclonal serum decreased tumor burden by approximately 70%. Thus, we conclude that CD4+ T cells are essential for the induction of a protective immune response and that antibodies are the likely effector moiety in this xenogeneic murine tumor model. PMID:16311730

  9. CD133+ tumor initiating cells (TIC) in a syngenic murine model of pancreatic cancer respond to Minnelide

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sulagna; Nomura, Alice; Sangwan, Veena; Chugh, Rohit; Dudeja, Vikas; Vickers, Selwyn M; Saluja, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fourth leading cause for cancer-related mortality with a survival rate of less than 5%. Late diagnosis and lack of effective chemotherapeutic regimen contribute to these grim survival statistics. Relapse of any tumor is largely attributed to the presence of tumor-initiating cells (TIC) or cancer stem cells (CSC). These cells are considered as hurdles to cancer therapy as no known chemotherapeutic compound is reported to target them. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a TIC-targeted therapy for pancreatic cancer. Experimental design We isolated CD133+ cells from a spontaneous PDAC mouse model and studied both surface expression, molecular markers of pancreatic TICs. We also studied tumor initiation properties by implanting low numbers of CD133+ cells in immune competent mice. Effect of Minnelide, a drug currently under Phase I clinical trial, was studied on the tumors derived from the CD133+ cells. Results Our study showed for the first time that CD133+ population demonstrated all the molecular markers for pancreatic TIC. These cells initiated tumors in immunocompetent mouse models and showed increased expression of pro-survival and pro-invasive proteins compared to the CD133− non-TIC population. Our study further showed that Minnelide, was very efficient in downregulating both CD133− and CD133+ population in the tumors, resulting in a 60% decrease in tumor volume compared to the untreated ones. Conclusion As Minnelide is currently under Phase I clinical trial, its evaluation in reducing tumor burden by decreasing TIC as well as non-TIC population suggests its potential as an effective therapy. PMID:24634377

  10. Loss of STAT3 in murine NK cells enhances NK cell-dependent tumor surveillance.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Dagmar; Putz, Eva M; Straka, Elisabeth; Kudweis, Petra; Biaggio, Mario; Poli, Valeria; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias; Sexl, Veronika

    2014-10-01

    The members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors modulate the development and function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance is particularly important in the body's defense against hematological malignancies such as leukemia. STAT3 inhibitors are currently being developed, although their potential effects on NK cells are not clear. We have investigated the function of STAT3 in NK cells with Stat3(Δ/Δ)Ncr1-iCreTg mice, whose NK cells lack STAT3. In the absence of STAT3, NK cells develop normally and in normal numbers, but display alterations in the kinetics of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. We report that STAT3 directly binds the IFN-γ promoter. In various in vivo models of hematological diseases, loss of STAT3 in NK cells enhances tumor surveillance. The reduced tumor burden is paralleled by increased expression of the activating receptor DNAM-1 and the lytic enzymes perforin and granzyme B. Our findings imply that STAT3 inhibitors will stimulate the cytolytic activity of NK cells against leukemia, thereby providing an additional therapeutic benefit. PMID:25185262

  11. Assessment and In Vivo Scoring of Murine Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Colin J.; Herrmann, Philipp; Carvalho, Livia S.; Liyanage, Sidath E.; Bainbridge, James W. B.; Ali, Robin R.; Dick, Andrew D.; Luhmann, Ulrich F. O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in clinical imaging and grading our understanding of retinal immune responses and their morphological correlates in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), has been hindered by the requirement for post-mortem histology. To date, monitoring changes occurring during EAU disease progression and evaluating the effect of therapeutic intervention in real time has not been possible. We wanted to establish whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) could detect intraretinal changes during inflammation and to determine its utility as a tool for accurate scoring of EAU. EAU was induced in C57BL/6J mice and animals evaluated after 15, 26, 36 and 60 days. At each time-point, contemporaneous Spectralis-OCT scanning, topical endoscopic fundal imaging (TEFI), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and CD45-immunolabelled histology were performed. OCT features were further characterised on retinal flat-mounts using immunohistochemistry and 3D reconstruction. Optic disc swelling and vitreous opacities detected by OCT corresponded to CD45+ cell infiltration on histology. Vasculitis identified by FFA and OCT matched perivascular myeloid and T-cell infiltrates and could be differentiated from unaffected vessels. Evolution of these changes could be followed over time in the same eye. Retinal folds were visible and found to encapsulate mixed populations of activated myeloid cells, T-cells and microglia. Using these features, an OCT-based EAU scoring system was developed, with significant correlation to validated histological (Pearson r2 = 0.6392, P<0.0001, n = 31 eyes) and TEFI based scoring systems (r2 = 0.6784, P<0.0001). OCT distinguishes the fundamental features of murine EAU in vivo, permits dynamic assessment of intraretinal changes and can be used to score disease severity. As a result, it allows tissue synchronisation with subsequent cellular and functional assessment and greater efficiency of animal usage. By relating OCT signals with

  12. Identification of CKD-516: a potent tubulin polymerization inhibitor with marked antitumor activity against murine and human solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaekwang; Kim, Soo Jin; Choi, Hojin; Kim, Young Hoon; Lim, In Taek; Yang, Hyun-mo; Lee, Chang Sik; Kang, Hee Ryong; Ahn, Soon Kil; Moon, Seung Kee; Kim, Dal-Hyun; Lee, Sungsook; Choi, Nam Song; Lee, Kyung Joo

    2010-09-01

    Tubulin polymerization inhibitors had emerged as one of promising anticancer therapeutics because of their dual mechanism of action, i.e. apoptosis by cell-cycle arrest and VDA, vascular disrupting agent. VDAs are believed to be more efficient, less toxic, and several of them are currently undergoing clinical trials. To identify novel tubulin inhibitors that possess potent cytotoxicity and strong inhibition of tubulin polymerization as well as potent in vivo antitumor efficacy, we have utilized benzophenone scaffold. Complete SAR analysis of newly synthesized analogues that were prepared by incorporation of small heterocycles (C2, C4, and C5 position) into B-ring along with the evaluation of their in vitro cytotoxicity, tubulin polymerization inhibition, and in vivo antitumor activity allowed us to identify 22 (S516). Compound 22 was found to have potent cytotoxicity against several cancer cells including P-gp overexpressing MDR positive cell line (HCT15). It also induced cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase, which is associated with strong inhibition of tubulin polymerization. Its in vivo efficacy was improved by preparing its (l)-valine prodrug, 65 (CKD-516), which together with greatly improved aqueous solubility has shown marked antitumor efficacy against both murine tumors (CT26 and 3LL) and human xenogratfs (HCT116 and HCT15) in mice. PMID:20690624

  13. Aberrant Activation of the RANK Signaling Receptor Induces Murine Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Allison P.; Dougall, William C.; Ittmann, Michael M.; Lydon, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike cancers of related exocrine tissues such as the mammary and prostate gland, diagnosis and treatment of aggressive salivary gland malignancies have not markedly advanced in decades. Effective clinical management of malignant salivary gland cancers is undercut by our limited knowledge concerning the key molecular signals that underpin the etiopathogenesis of this rare and heterogeneous head and neck cancer. Without knowledge of the critical signals that drive salivary gland tumorigenesis, tumor vulnerabilities cannot be exploited that allow for targeted molecular therapies. This knowledge insufficiency is further exacerbated by a paucity of preclinical mouse models (as compared to other cancer fields) with which to both study salivary gland pathobiology and test novel intervention strategies. Using a mouse transgenic approach, we demonstrate that deregulation of the Receptor Activator of NFkB Ligand (RANKL)/RANK signaling axis results in rapid tumor development in all three major salivary glands. In line with its established role in other exocrine gland cancers (i.e., breast cancer), the RANKL/RANK signaling axis elicits an aggressive salivary gland tumor phenotype both at the histologic and molecular level. Despite the ability of this cytokine signaling axis to drive advanced stage disease within a short latency period, early blockade of RANKL/RANK signaling markedly attenuates the development of malignant salivary gland neoplasms. Together, our findings have uncovered a tumorigenic role for RANKL/RANK in the salivary gland and suggest that targeting this pathway may represent a novel therapeutic intervention approach in the prevention and/or treatment of this understudied head and neck cancer. PMID:26061636

  14. Selective boron delivery to murine tumors by lipophilic species incorporated in the membranes of unilamellar liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Feakes, D.A.; Shelly, K.; Hawthorne, M.F.

    1995-02-28

    The nido-carborane species K[nido-7-CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}-7,8-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}] has been synthesized for use as an addend for the bilayer membrane of liposomes. Small unilamellar vesicles, composed of distearoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, 1:1, and incorporating K[nido-7-CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}-7,8-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}] in the bilayer, have been investigated in vivo. The time-course biodistribution of boron delivered by these liposomes was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analyses after the injection of liposomal suspensions in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinomas. At the low injected doses normally used ({approx}5-10 mg of boron per kg of body weight), peak tumor boron concentrations of {approx}35 {mu}g of boron per g of tissue and tumor/blood boron ratios of {approx}8 were achieved. These values are sufficiently high for the successful application of boron neutron capture therapy. The bilayer-embedded boron compound may provide the sole boron source or, alternatively, a concentrated aqueous solution of a hydrophilic boron compound may also be encapsulated within the liposomes to provide a dose enhancement. Thus, the incorporation of both K[nido-7-CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}-7,8-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}] and the hydrophilic species, Na{sub 3}[1-(2{prime}-B{sub 10}H{sub 9})-2-NH{sub 3}B{sub 10}H{sub 8}], within the same liposomes demonstrated significantly enhanced biodistribution characteristics, exemplified by maximum tumor boron concentrations of {approx} 50 {mu}g of boron per g of tissue and tumor/blood boron ratios of {approx} 6. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Evaluation of Tumor-associated Stroma and Its Relationship with Tumor Hypoxia Using Dynamic Contrast-enhanced CT and (18)F Misonidazole PET in Murine Tumor Models.

    PubMed

    Koyasu, Sho; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Harada, Hiroshi; Nakamoto, Yuji; Nobashi, Tomomi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kohei; Koizumi, Koji; Hamaji, Masatsugu; Togashi, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To determine the relationship between the fractional interstitial volume (Fis), as calculated at dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) computed tomography (CT), and tumor-associated stroma and to analyze its spatial relationship with tumor hypoxia in several xenograft tumor models. Materials and Methods All animal experiments were approved by the animal research committee. Mice with three different xenograft tumors (U251, CFPAC-1, and BxPC-3; n = 6, n = 8, and n = 6, respectively) underwent DCE CT then hypoxia imaging with fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) within 24 hours. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed in harvested tumors to detect hypoxia markers and to quantify microvascular and stromal density. Two DCE CT parameters (amount of interstitial space associated with the amount of stroma [Fis] and flow velocity [Fv]) were identified and quantitatively validated by using immunohistochemistry. FMISO uptake within the tumor was also assessed in relation to DCE CT parameters. Imaging and immunohistochemical parameters were assessed by using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test with Bonferroni correction, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Almost no α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were found in the U251 xenograft, while abundant stroma was found in the entire BxPC-3 xenograft and in the periphery of the CFPAC-1 xenograft. Quantitative analysis showed a significant correlation (R = 0.83, P < .0001) between Fis and stromal density. FMISO uptake had a negative correlation with Fis (R = -0.58, P < .0001) and Fv (R = -0.53, P < .0001). Conclusion DCE CT can be used to quantify parameters associated with tumor-associated stroma. Tumor hypoxia was Complementarily localized in tumor-associated stroma in these models. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26393963

  16. Efficient expression of bioactive murine IL12 as a self-processing P2A polypeptide driven by inflammation-regulated promoters in tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, C; Pérez-Chacón, G; Garaulet, G; Mallorquín, Z; Zapata, J M; Rodríguez, A

    2015-11-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL12) is a heterodimeric proinflammatory cytokine that has shown promise as an anticancer agent. However, despite encouraging results in animal models, clinical trials involving IL12 have been unsuccessful due to toxic side effects associated with its systemic administration, prompting investigation into new delivery methods to confine IL12 expression to the tumor environment. In this study we used the self-cleaving property of the 2A peptide to express both codon-optimized murine IL12 subunits (muIL12opt) as a self-processing polypeptide (muIL12opt-P2A). We cloned muIL12opt-P2A driven by different inflammation-induced lentiviral expression systems to transduce murine tumor cell lines commonly employed in syngeneic tumor models. We confirmed the inducibility of these systems in vitro and in vivo and demonstrated the successful expression of both IL12 subunits and the release of bioactive IL12 upon proinflammatory stimulation in vitro. Therefore, IL12 release driven by these inflammation-regulated expression systems might be useful not only to address the impact of IL12 expression in the tumor environment but also to achieve a local IL12 release controlled by the inflammation state of the tumor, thus avoiding toxic side effects associated with systemic administration. PMID:26450626

  17. Paricalcitol, a Vitamin D Receptor Activator, Inhibits Tumor Formation in a Murine Model of Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sunil K.; Sharan, Chakradhari; Al-Hendy, Omar

    2014-01-01

    We examined the antitumor and therapeutic potentials of paricalcitol, an analog of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with lower calcemic activity, against uterine fibroids using in vitro and in vivo evaluations in appropriate uterine fibroid cells and animal models. We found that paricalcitol has potential to reduce the proliferation of the immortalized human uterine fibroid cells. For the in vivo study, we generated subcutaneous tumors by injecting the Eker rat-derived uterine leiomyoma cell line (ELT-3) rat uterine fibroid-derived cell line in athymic nude mice supplemented with estrogen pellets. These mice were administered with vehicle versus paricalcitol (300 ng/kg/d) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (500 ng/kg/d) for 4 consecutive weeks, and the data were analyzed. We found that while both paricalcitol and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 significantly reduced fibroid tumor size, the shrinkage was slightly higher in the paricalcitol-treated group. Together, our results suggest that paricalcitol may be a potential candidate for effective, safe, and noninvasive medical treatment option for uterine fibroids. PMID:24925855

  18. Comparison of hyperbaric xoygen and misonidazole in fractionated irradiation of murine tumors. [/sup 137/Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, H.D.; Maimonis, P.; Michaels, H.B.; Sedlacek, R.

    1981-08-01

    The enhancement ratios for hyperbaric oxygen (O/sub 2/3ATA) and for misonidazole (0.3 mg/g body wt) for fractionated irradiation (5 or 10 equal doses) of two spontaneous tumors and of normal skin of the C3H mouse have been determined. Acute skin reactions were scored for mice irradiated 18 days after plucking hair from the leg. Enhancement ratios for the TCD/sub 50/ values were virtually the same for O/sub 2/3ATA and misonidazole, 1.45 to 1.55. For acute skin reaction the enhancement ratio was higher for O/sub 2/3ATA, i.e., 1.94 vs 1.54 for misonidazole.

  19. The pharmacokinetics of Zr-89 labeled liposomes over extended periods in a murine tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jai Woong; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Tam, Sarah; Qin, Shengping; Ingham, Elizabeth S.; Meares, Claude F.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2014-01-01

    89Zr (t1/2 = 78.4 h), a positron-emitting metal, has been exploited for PET studies of antibodies because of its relatively long decay time and facile labeling procedures. Here, we used 89Zr to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of long-circulating liposomes over 168 hours (1 week). We first developed a liposomal-labeling method using p-isothiocyanatobenzyldesferrioxamine (df-Bz-NCS) and df-PEG1k-DSPE. Df-Bz-NCS was conjugated to 1 mol% amino- and amino-PEG2k-DSPE, where the 1 mol% df-PEG1k-DSPE was incorporated when the liposomes were formulated. Incubation of 89Zr with df, df-PEG1k, and df-PEG2k liposomes for one hour resulted in greater than 68% decay-corrected yield. The loss of the 89Zr label from liposomes after incubation in 50% human serum for 48 hours ranged from ~1 to 3% across the three formulations. Tail vein administration of the three liposomal formulations in NDL tumor-bearing mice showed that the 89Zr label at the end of the PEG2k brush was retained in the tumor, liver, spleen and whole body for a longer time interval than 89Zr labels located under the PEG2k brush. The blood clearance rate of all three liposomal formulations was similar. Overall, the results indicate that the location of the 89Zr label altered the clearance rate of intracellularly-trapped radioactivity and that df-PEG1k-DSPE provides a stable chelation site for liposomal or lipid-based particle studies over extended periods of time. PMID:25451215

  20. The pharmacokinetics of Zr-89 labeled liposomes over extended periods in a murine tumor model.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jai Woong; Mahakian, Lisa M; Tam, Sarah; Qin, Shengping; Ingham, Elizabeth S; Meares, Claude F; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2015-02-01

    (89)Zr (t1/2=78.4h), a positron-emitting metal, has been exploited for PET studies of antibodies because of its relatively long decay time and facile labeling procedures. Here, we used (89)Zr to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of long-circulating liposomes over 168h (1week). We first developed a liposomal-labeling method using p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (df-Bz-NCS) and df-PEG1k-DSPE. Df-Bz-NCS was conjugated to 1mol% amino- and amino-PEG2k-DSPE, where the 1mol% df-PEG1k-DSPE was incorporated when the liposomes were formulated. Incubation of (89)Zr with df, df-PEG1k, and df-PEG2k liposomes for one hour resulted in greater than 68% decay-corrected yield. The loss of the (89)Zr label from liposomes after incubation in 50% human serum for 48h ranged from ~1 to 3% across the three formulations. Tail vein administration of the three liposomal formulations in NDL tumor-bearing mice showed that the (89)Zr label at the end of the PEG2k brush was retained in the tumor, liver, spleen and whole body for a longer time interval than (89)Zr labels located under the PEG2k brush. The blood clearance rate of all three liposomal formulations was similar. Overall, the results indicate that the location of the (89)Zr label altered the clearance rate of intracellularly-trapped radioactivity and that df-PEG1k-DSPE provides a stable chelation site for liposomal or lipid-based particle studies over extended periods of time. PMID:25451215

  1. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters support the in vitro proliferation of murine pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, J L; Hogans, B B; Stuart, R K

    1989-01-01

    The effect of tumor-promoting phorbol esters on the in vitro proliferation of mouse pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) was examined using a short-term in vitro culture system and an 11-d spleen colony assay. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, 10(-7) M), but not the inert compound phorbol, supported the in vitro survival of day 11 CFU-S for 72 h in a manner similar to IL 3. PMA also enhanced the effect of IL 3 on the in vitro survival of day 11 CFU-S and as little as 1 h of exposure to PMA was sufficient for this purpose. The effect of PMA on CFU-S survival in vitro was not mediated by prostaglandins, did not require an established adherent cell population, and was observed at a concentration of 10(-9) M. PMA alone did not enhance the in vitro survival of day 11 CFU-S at very low concentrations of FCS but was still able to potentiate the effect of IL 3 on these cells. PMA also enhanced the in vitro survival of day 11 CFU-S from mice treated with 5-fluorouracil or from marrow cells exposed to merocyanine 540 and light. The interaction of PMA with day 11 CFU-S was not inhibited by a neutralizing antiserum to IL 3 but was inhibited by the protein kinase inhibitor H-7. Together, the data indicate that tumor-promoting phorbol esters interact with pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. Like IL 3, their effect appears to be permissive and involves stem cells with marrow repopulating ability. PMID:2463264

  2. Blood Clot Formation Does Not Affect Metastasis Formation or Tumor Growth in a Murine Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rossnagl, Stephanie; von Au, Anja; Vasel, Matthaeus; Cecchini, arco G.; Nakchbandi, Inaam A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is associated with increased fracture risk, due either to metastasis or associated osteoporosis. After a fracture, blood clots form. Because proteins of the coagulation cascade and activated platelets promote cancer development, a fracture in patients with cancer often raises the question whether it is a pathologic fracture or whether the fracture itself might promote the formation of metastatic lesions. We therefore examined whether blood clot formation results in increased metastasis in a murine model of experimental breast cancer metastasis. For this purpose, a clot was surgically induced in the bone marrow of the left tibia of immundeficient mice. Either one minute prior to or five minutes after clot induction, human cancer cells were introduced in the circulation by intracardiac injection. The number of cancer cells that homed to the intervention site was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry. Metastasis formation and longitudinal growth were evaluated by bioluminescence imaging. The number of cancer cells that homed to the intervention site after 24 hours was similar to the number of cells in the opposite tibia that did not undergo clot induction. This effect was confirmed using two more cancer cell lines. Furthermore, no difference in the number of macroscopic lesions or their growth could be detected. In the control group 72% developed a lesion in the left tibia. In the experimental groups with clot formation 79% and 65% developed lesions in the left tibia (p = ns when comparing each experimental group with the controls). Survival was similar too. In summary, the growth factors accumulating in a clot/hematoma are neither enough to promote cancer cell homing nor support growth in an experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis. This suggests that blood clot formation, as occurs in traumatic fractures, surgical interventions, and bruises, does not increase the risk of metastasis formation. PMID:24740307

  3. Dendritic cells pulsed with tumor cells killed by high hydrostatic pressure induce strong immune responses and display therapeutic effects both in murine TC-1 and TRAMP-C2 tumors when combined with docetaxel chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    MIKYŠKOVÁ, ROMANA; ŠTĚPÁNEK, IVAN; INDROVÁ, MARIE; BIEBLOVÁ, JANA; ŠÍMOVÁ, JANA; TRUXOVÁ, IVA; MOSEROVÁ, IRENA; FUČÍKOVÁ, JITKA; BARTŮŇKOVÁ, JIŘINA; ŠPÍŠEK, RADEK; REINIŠ, MILAN

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been shown to induce immunogenic cell death of cancer cells, facilitating their uptake by dendritic cells (DC) and subsequent presentation of tumor antigens. In the present study, we demonstrated immunogenicity of the HHP-treated tumor cells in mice. HHP was able to induce immunogenic cell death of both TC-1 and TRAMP-C2 tumor cells, representing murine models for human papilloma virus-associated tumors and prostate cancer, respectively. HHP-treated cells induced stronger immune responses in mice immunized with these tumor cells, documented by higher spleen cell cytotoxicity and increased IFNγ production as compared to irradiated tumor cells, accompanied by suppression of tumor growth in vivo in the case of TC-1 tumors, but not TRAMP-C2 tumors. Furthermore, HHP-treated cells were used for DC-based vaccine antigen pulsing. DC co-cultured with HHP-treated tumor cells and matured by a TLR 9 agonist exhibited higher cell surface expression of maturation markers and production of IL-12 and other cytokines, as compared to the DC pulsed with irradiated tumor cells. Immunization with DC cell-based vaccines pulsed with HHP-treated tumor cells induced high immune responses, detected by increased spleen cell cytotoxicity and elevated IFNγ production. The DC-based vaccine pulsed with HHP-treated tumor cells combined with docetaxel chemotherapy significantly inhibited growth of both TC-1 and TRAMP-C2 tumors. Our results indicate that DC-based vaccines pulsed with HHP-inactivated tumor cells can be a suitable tool for chemoimmunotherapy, particularly with regard to the findings that poorly immunogenic TRAMP-C2 tumors were susceptible to this treatment modality. PMID:26718011

  4. Dendritic cells pulsed with tumor cells killed by high hydrostatic pressure induce strong immune responses and display therapeutic effects both in murine TC-1 and TRAMP-C2 tumors when combined with docetaxel chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mikyšková, Romana; Štěpánek, Ivan; Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Šímová, Jana; Truxová, Iva; Moserová, Irena; Fučíková, Jitka; Bartůňková, Jiřina; Špíšek, Radek; Reiniš, Milan

    2016-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been shown to induce immunogenic cell death of cancer cells, facilitating their uptake by dendritic cells (DC) and subsequent presentation of tumor antigens. In the present study, we demonstrated immunogenicity of the HHP-treated tumor cells in mice. HHP was able to induce immunogenic cell death of both TC-1 and TRAMP-C2 tumor cells, representing murine models for human papilloma virus-associated tumors and prostate cancer, respectively. HHP-treated cells induced stronger immune responses in mice immunized with these tumor cells, documented by higher spleen cell cytotoxicity and increased IFNγ production as compared to irradiated tumor cells, accompanied by suppression of tumor growth in vivo in the case of TC-1 tumors, but not TRAMP-C2 tumors. Furthermore, HHP-treated cells were used for DC-based vaccine antigen pulsing. DC co-cultured with HHP-treated tumor cells and matured by a TLR 9 agonist exhibited higher cell surface expression of maturation markers and production of IL-12 and other cytokines, as compared to the DC pulsed with irradiated tumor cells. Immunization with DC cell-based vaccines pulsed with HHP-treated tumor cells induced high immune responses, detected by increased spleen cell cytotoxicity and elevated IFNγ production. The DC-based vaccine pulsed with HHP-treated tumor cells combined with docetaxel chemotherapy significantly inhibited growth of both TC-1 and TRAMP-C2 tumors. Our results indicate that DC-based vaccines pulsed with HHP-inactivated tumor cells can be a suitable tool for chemoimmunotherapy, particularly with regard to the findings that poorly immunogenic TRAMP-C2 tumors were susceptible to this treatment modality. PMID:26718011

  5. Fructose Protects Murine Hepatocytes from Tumor Necrosis Factor-induced Apoptosis by Modulating JNK Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Speicher, Tobias; Köhler, Ulrike A.; Choukèr, Alexander; Werner, Sabine; Weiland, Timo; Wendel, Albrecht

    2012-01-01

    Fructose-induced hepatic ATP depletion prevents TNF-induced apoptosis, whereas it contrarily enhances CD95-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. By contrast, transformed liver cells are not protected against TNF due to metabolic alterations, allowing selective tumor targeting. We analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which fructose modulates cytokine-induced apoptosis. A release of adenosine after fructose-induced ATP depletion, followed by a cAMP response, was demonstrated. Likewise, cAMP and adenosine mimicked per se the modulation by fructose of CD95- and TNF-induced apoptosis. The effects of fructose on cytokine-induced apoptosis were sensitive to inhibition of protein kinase A. Fructose prevented the pro-apoptotic, sustained phase of TNF-induced JNK signaling and thereby blocked bid-mediated activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in a PKA-dependent manner. We explain the dichotomal effects of fructose on CD95- and TNF-induced cell death by the selective requirement of JNK signaling for the latter. These findings provide a mechanistic rationale for the protection of hepatocytes from TNF-induced cell death by pharmacological doses of fructose. PMID:22086922

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits albumin gene expression in a murine model of cachexia.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, D A; Buck, M; Feitelberg, S P; Chojkier, M

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for decreased serum albumin levels in patients with cachexia-associated infection, inflammation, and cancer are unknown. Since tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is elevated in cachexia-associated diseases, and chronic administration of TNF alpha induces cachexia in animal models, we assessed the regulation of albumin gene expression by TNF alpha in vivo. In this animal model of cachexia, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the functional gene for human TNF alpha were inoculated into nude mice (TNF alpha mice). TNF alpha mice became cachectic and manifested decreased serum albumin levels, albumin synthesis, and albumin mRNA levels. However, even before the TNF alpha mice lost weight, their albumin mRNA steady-state levels were decreased approximately 90%, and in situ hybridization revealed a low level of albumin gene expression throughout the hepatic lobule. The mRNA levels of several other genes were unchanged. Hepatic nuclei from TNF alpha mice before the onset of weight loss were markedly less active in transcribing the albumin gene than hepatic nuclei from control mice. Therefore, TNF alpha selectively inhibits the genetic expression of albumin in this model before weight loss. Images PMID:2295699

  7. Local delivery of cannabinoid-loaded microparticles inhibits tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Hernán Pérez de la Ossa, Dolores; Lorente, Mar; Gil-Alegre, Maria Esther; Torres, Sofía; García-Taboada, Elena; Aberturas, María Del Rosario; Molpeceres, Jesús; Velasco, Guillermo; Torres-Suárez, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, are currently investigated due to their potential therapeutic application for the management of many different diseases, including cancer. Specifically, Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) - the two major ingredients of marijuana - have been shown to inhibit tumor growth in a number of animal models of cancer, including glioma. Although there are several pharmaceutical preparations that permit the oral administration of THC or its analogue nabilone or the oromucosal delivery of a THC- and CBD-enriched cannabis extract, the systemic administration of cannabinoids has several limitations in part derived from the high lipophilicity exhibited by these compounds. In this work we analyzed CBD- and THC-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone microparticles as an alternative delivery system for long-term cannabinoid administration in a murine xenograft model of glioma. In vitro characterization of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles showed that this method of microencapsulation facilitates a sustained release of the two cannabinoids for several days. Local administration of THC-, CBD- or a mixture (1:1 w:w) of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles every 5 days to mice bearing glioma xenografts reduced tumour growth with the same efficacy than a daily local administration of the equivalent amount of those cannabinoids in solution. Moreover, treatment with cannabinoid-loaded microparticles enhanced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and angiogenesis in these tumours. Our findings support that THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles could be used as an alternative method of cannabinoid delivery in anticancer therapies. PMID:23349970

  8. Combination of gold nanoparticle-conjugated TNF-α and radiation therapy results in a synergistic anti-tumor response in murine carcinoma models

    PubMed Central

    Koonce, Nathan A.; Quick, Matthew C.; Hardee, Matthew E.; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Dent, Judith A.; Paciotti, Giulio F.; Nedosekin, Dmitry; Dings, Ruud P.M.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although remarkable preclinical antitumor effects have been shown for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) alone and in combination with radiation, clinical use is hindered by systemic dose-limiting toxicities. Here, we investigated the physiological and anti-tumor effects of radiotherapy combined with the novel nanomedicine CYT-6091, a 27-nm average diameter polyethylene glycol-TNF coated gold nanoparticle which passed through Phase I trials recently. Methods Physiological and anti-tumor effects of single and fractionated radiation in combination with CYT-6091 were studied in the murine 4T1 breast carcinoma and SCCVII head and neck tumor squamous cell carcinoma models. Results In the 4T1 murine breast tumor model we observed a significant reduction in tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) 24h after CYT-6091 alone and combined with a radiation dose of 12 Gy (p<0.05 vs control), whereas radiation alone (12Gy) had negligible effect on IFP. In the SCCVII head and neck tumor model, the baseline IFP was not markedly elevated and there was little additional change in IFP post single dose radiation or combined therapy (p>0.05 vs control) despite extensive observed vascular damage. The IFP reduction in the 4T1 model was also associated with marked vascular damage and extravasation of red blood cells into the tumor interstitium. A sustained reduction in tumor cell density was observed in the combined therapy group compared to all other groups (p<0.05). Finally, we observed a >2-fold delay in tumor growth when CYT-6091 was combined with a single 20 Gy irradiation- notably irrespective of treatment sequence. Moreover, when hypofractionated radiation (12 Gy × 3) was applied in combination with CYT-6091 treatment, a >5-fold growth delay was observed in the combined treatment group of both tumor models and determined to be synergistic. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that gold-labeled TNF nanoparticles in combination with single or fractionated high-dose radiation

  9. Imaging tumor angiogenesis in breast cancer experimental lung metastasis with positron emission tomography, near-infrared fluorescence, and bioluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Nayak, Tapas R.; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Myklejord, Duane V.; Theuer, Charles P.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a molecular imaging agent that can allow for both positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging of CD105 expression in metastatic breast cancer. TRC105, a chimeric anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody, was labeled with both a NIRF dye (i.e., IRDye 800CW) and 64Cu to yield 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no difference in CD105 binding affinity/specificity between TRC105 and NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Serial bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was carried out to non-invasively monitor the lung tumor burden in BALB/c mice, after intravenous injection of firefly luciferase-transfected 4T1 (i.e., fLuc-4T1) murine breast cancer cells to establish the experimental lung metastasis model. Serial PET imaging revealed that fLuc-4T1 lung tumor uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW was 11.9 ± 1.2, 13.9 ± 3.9, and 13.4 ± 2.1 %ID/g at 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection respectively (n = 3). Biodistribution studies, blocking fLuc-4T1 lung tumor uptake with excess TRC105, control experiments with 64Cu-NOTA-cetuximab-800CW (which served as an isotype-matched control), ex vivo BLI/PET/NIRF imaging, autoradiography, and histology all confirmed CD105 specificity of 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Successful PET/NIRF imaging of tumor angiogenesis (i.e., CD105 expression) in the breast cancer experimental lung metastasis model warrants further investigation and clinical translation of dual-labeled TRC105-based agents, which can potentially enable early detection of small metastases and image-guided surgery for tumor removal. PMID:23471463

  10. Multiorgan chronic inflammatory hepatobiliary pancreatic murine model deficient in tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provoke persistent/chronic multiorgan inflammatory response and to contribute to stones formation followed by fibrosis in hepatobiliary and pancreatic tissues. METHODS: Tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (TNFR1/R2) deficient mice reared in-house were given dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) twice within 10 d by oral gavage delivery. Sham control animals received vehicle treatment and naïve animals remained untreated throughout the study. Animals were monitored daily for symptoms of pain and discomfort. The abdominal and hindpaw hypersensitivity were assessed with von Frey microfilaments. Exploratory behaviors were recorded at the baseline, after initiation of treatment, and before study termination. Histopathological changes were examined postmortem in tissues. Collagen accumulation and fibrosis were confirmed with Sirius Red staining. RESULTS: Animals lost weight after oral administration of DBTC and developed persistent inflammatory abdominal and hindpaw hypersensitivity compared to sham-treated controls (P < 0.0001). These pain related secondary mechanical hypersensitivity responses increased more than 2-fold in DBTC-treated animals. The drastically diminished rearing and grooming rates persisted after DBTC administration throughout the study. Gross as well as micropathology at one month confirmed that animals treated with DBTC developed chronic hepatobiliary injuries evidenced with activation of stellate cells, multifocal necrosis, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, periportal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and prominent biliary ductal dilation. The severity of hepatitis was scored 3.7 ± 0.2 (severe) in DBTC-treated animals vs score 0 (normal) in sham-treated animals. Fibrotic thickening was extensive around portal ducts, in hepatic parenchyma as well as in lobular pancreatic structures and confirmed with Sirius Red histopathology. In addition, pancreatic microarchitecture was presented with distortion of islets, and parenchyma, infiltration of

  11. Oral Administration of Polymyxin B Modulates the Activity of Lipooligosaccharide E. coli B against Lung Metastases in Murine Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Kicielińska, Jagoda; Szczygieł, Agnieszka; Rossowska, Joanna; Anger, Natalia; Kempińska, Katarzyna; Świtalska, Marta; Kaszowska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Boratyński, Janusz; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polymyxin B (PmB) belongs to the group of cyclic peptide antibiotics, which neutralize the activity of LPS by binding to lipid A. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of PmB on the biological activity of lipooligosaccharide (LOS E. coli B,rough form of LPS) in vitro and in experimental metastasis models. Results Cultures of murine macrophage J774A.1 cells and murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DC) stimulated in vitro with LOS and supplemented with PmB demonstrated a decrease in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α) and down-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecule expression. Additionally, PmB suspended in drinking water was given to the C57BL/6 mice seven or five days prior to the intravenous injection of B16 or LLC cells and intraperitoneal application of LOS. This strategy of PmB administration was continued throughout the duration of the experiments (29 or 21 days). In B16 model, statistically significant decrease in the number of metastases in mice treated with PmB and LOS (p<0.01) was found on the 14th day of the experiments, whereas the most intensive changes in surface-antigen expression and ex vivo production of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α by peritoneal cells were observed 7 days earlier. By contrast, antigen expression and ex vivo production of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ by splenocytes remained relatively high and stable. Statistically significant decrease in LLC metastases number was observed after the application of LOS (p<0.01) and in the group of mice preconditioned by PmB and subsequently treated with LOS (LOS + PmB, p<0.01). Conclusions In conclusion, prolonged in vivo application of PmB was not able to neutralize the LOS-induced immune cell activity but its presence in the organism of treated mice was important in modulation of the LOS-mediated response against the development of metastases. PMID:26829479

  12. A cyclopalladated complex interacts with mitochondrial membrane thiol-groups and induces the apoptotic intrinsic pathway in murine and cisplatin-resistant human tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Systemic therapy for cancer metastatic lesions is difficult and generally renders a poor clinical response. Structural analogs of cisplatin, the most widely used synthetic metal complexes, show toxic side-effects and tumor cell resistance. Recently, palladium complexes with increased stability are being investigated to circumvent these limitations, and a biphosphinic cyclopalladated complex {Pd2 [S(-)C2, N-dmpa]2 (μ-dppe)Cl2} named C7a efficiently controls the subcutaneous development of B16F10-Nex2 murine melanoma in syngeneic mice. Presently, we investigated the melanoma cell killing mechanism induced by C7a, and extended preclinical studies. Methods B16F10-Nex2 cells were treated in vitro with C7a in the presence/absence of DTT, and several parameters related to apoptosis induction were evaluated. Preclinical studies were performed, and mice were endovenously inoculated with B16F10-Nex2 cells, intraperitoneally treated with C7a, and lung metastatic nodules were counted. The cytotoxic effects and the respiratory metabolism were also determined in human tumor cell lines treated in vitro with C7a. Results Cyclopalladated complex interacts with thiol groups on the mitochondrial membrane proteins, causes dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induces Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria, colocalizing with a mitochondrial tracker. C7a also induced an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration, mainly from intracellular compartments, and a significant decrease in the ATP levels. Activation of effector caspases, chromatin condensation and DNA degradation, suggested that C7a activates the apoptotic intrinsic pathway in murine melanoma cells. In the preclinical studies, the C7a complex protected against murine metastatic melanoma and induced death in several human tumor cell lineages in vitro, including cisplatin-resistant ones. The mitochondria-dependent cell death was also induced by C7a in human tumor cells. Conclusions The

  13. Experimental murine chronic hepatitis: results following intrahepatic inoculation of human uveitis mycoplasma-like organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L. A.; Wirostko, E.; Wirostko, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    Mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) are non-cultivated intracellular cell-wall deficient pathogenic bacteria with a distinctive ultrastructural appearance. Diagnosis of MLO disease depends on finding the organisms in parasitized cells using a transmission electron microscope. MLO are a well studied cause of transmissible chronic plant disease responsive to antibiotics. MLO have recently been found to cause human chronic uveitis, orbital, and retinal disease with autoimmune features. Ophthalmic leucocytes in these patients display MLO parasitization. Inoculation of human uveitis MLO into mouse eyelids produced chronic uveitis. MLO also disseminated to produce randomly distributed lethal systemic disease including chronic hepatitis. MLO parasitized leucocytes were present in all disease sites. Direct intrahepatic inoculation of human hepatic pathogens is a simple and efficient technique to produce murine hepatitis. This report describes the delayed onset widespread inflammatory liver disease produced by direct intrahepatic inoculation of human chronic uveitis MLO in 12 of 20 mice versus 0 in 40 controls (P < 0.05). The liver disease was accompanied by elevated serum SGOT levels, splenomegaly, and accelerated mortality. All 12 inflamed livers displayed MLO parasitized leucocytes versus 0 of 10 control livers. The resemblance of human chronic active hepatitis, massive hepatic necrosis, and post-necrotic cirrhosis to the MLO induced murine liver disease, the role of molecular biologic techniques in the detection and classification of those bacteria, and in therapy of MLO disease are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8398804

  14. ING-1(heMAb), a Monoclonal Antibody to Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule, Inhibits Tumor Metastases in a Murine Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Harry H.; Scott, Kristen R.; Bautista, Eddie; Ammons, W. Steve

    2003-01-01

    Abstract ING-1(heMAb), a human-engineered monoclonal antibody (MAb) that specifically targets the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM), kills adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of ING-1(heMAb) in a murine model of cancer metastases. Mice received intravenous dosing of 1 mg/kg ING-1(heMAb), twice a week, starting on day 2 or day 5. A negative control group received 1 mg/kg human immunoglobulin G with the same dose frequency starting on day 2. A positive control group received weekly 100 mg/kg 5-flurouracil/leucovorin starting on day 2. ING-1(heMAb)/day 2 treatment significantly reduced both the number of visible tumor nodules in body cavities (P < .01) and the number of metastases on lung surfaces (P < .005). The treatment also resulted in a 91% reduction of micrometastases in lung tissues (P < .0001). Delaying ING-1(heMAb) treatment until day 5 caused 54% reduction in micrometastases (P < .005). Our results indicate that a number of parameters, including treatment starting day, dose level, and dose frequency, are critical in achieving the optimal efficacy of ING-1(heMAb). We conclude that ING-1(heMAb) effectively reduced tumor metastases in a murine cancer model. Immunotherapy with ING-1(heMAb) may be beneficial in treating human metastatic diseases. PMID:14965442

  15. Comparison of iron oxide nanoparticle and microwave hyperthermia alone or combined with cisplatinum in murine breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Petryk, Alicia A.; Stigliano, Robert V.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Gottesman, Rachel E.; Trembly, B. Stuart; Kaufman, Peter A.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-01-01

    determined by the use of the cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM) algorithm. A CEM 60 was selected as the thermal dose for all experimental groups. Results 1) Preliminary mNP hyperthermia/cisplatinum results have shown a tumor growth delay greater than either modality alone at comparable doses. 2) mNP hyperthermia delivered 10 minutes post mNP injection and microwave hyperthermia, with the same thermal dose, demonstrate similar treatment efficacy. PMID:24386533

  16. Fiber-mutant technique can augment gene transduction efficacy and anti-tumor effects against established murine melanoma by cytokine-gene therapy using adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yuka; Okada, Naoki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kanehira, Makiko; Nishino, Naoko; Takahashi, Koichi; Mizuno, Nobuyasu; Hayakawa, Takao; Mayumi, Tadanori

    2002-03-01

    Melanoma cells are relatively resistant to adenovirus vector (Ad)-mediated gene transfer due to the low expression of Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), which acts as a primitive Ad-receptor. Therefore, extremely high doses of Ad are required for effective gene therapy against melanoma. In the present study, we investigated whether fiber-mutant Ad containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence in the fiber knob could promote gene delivery and anti-tumor effects in the murine B16 BL6 tumor model. B16 BL6 cells (in vitro) and tumors (in vivo) infected with RGD fiber-mutant Ad containing a tumor necrosis factor alpha gene (Ad-RGD-TNFalpha) produced more TNFalpha than those infected with conventional Ad-TNFalpha. In addition, Ad-RGD-TNFalpha required about one-tenth the dosage of Ad-TNFalpha for induction of equal therapeutic effects upon intratumoral injection into established B16 BL6 tumors. Furthermore, the combination of both TNFalpha- and interleukin 12-expressing RGD fiber-mutant Ads exhibited more effective tumor regression than the Ad expressing each alone. These results suggested that the fiber-mutant for altering Ad-tropism is a very potent technology for advancing gene therapy for melanoma. PMID:11809531

  17. Stat3 is a candidate epigenetic biomarker of perinatal Bisphenol A exposure associated with murine hepatic tumors with implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Weinhouse, Caren; Bergin, Ingrid L; Harris, Craig; Dolinoy, Dana C

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that has been implicated as a potential carcinogen and epigenotoxicant. We have previously reported dose-dependent incidence of hepatic tumors in 10-month-old isogenic mice perinatally exposed to BPA. Here, we evaluated DNA methylation at 3 candidate genes (Esr1, Il-6st, and Stat3) in liver tissue of BPA-exposed mice euthanized at 2 time points: post-natal day 22 (PND22; n = 147) or 10-months of age (n = 78, including n = 18 with hepatic tumors). Additionally, DNA methylation profiles were analyzed at human homologs of murine candidate genes in human fetal liver samples (n = 50) with known liver tissue BPA levels. Candidate genes were chosen based on reported expression changes in both rodent and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Regions for bisulfite sequencing were chosen by mining whole genome next generation sequencing methylation datasets of both mice and human liver samples with known perinatal BPA exposures. One of 3 candidate genes, Stat3, displayed dose-dependent DNA methylation changes in both 10-month mice with liver tumors as compared to those without liver tumors and 3-week sibling mice from the same exposure study, implicating Stat3 as a potential epigenetic biomarker of both early life BPA exposure and adult disease in mice. DNA methylation profiles within STAT3 varied with liver tissue BPA level in human fetal liver samples as well, suggesting STAT3 may be a translationally relevant candidate biomarker. These data implicate Stat3 as a potential early life biomarker of adult murine liver tumor risk following early BPA exposure with early evidence of relevance to human health. PMID:26542749

  18. An in vivo transmission electron microscopy study of injected dextran-coated iron-oxide nanoparticle location in murine breast adenocarcinoma tumors versus time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, Andrew J.; Ivkov, R.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2009-02-01

    Investigators are just beginning to use hyperthermia generated by alternating magnetic field (AMF) activated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) as a promising avenue for targeted cancer therapy. An important step in understanding cell death mechanisms in nanoparticle AMF treatments is to determine the location of these nanoparticles in relation to cellular organelles. In this paper, we report on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies designed to define the position of 100 nm diameter dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in murine breast adenocarcinoma (MTG-B) and human colon adenocarcinoma tumors propagated in mice. METHODS: Iron oxide nanoparticles (5 mg/g tumor) were injected into intradermal MTG-B flank tumors on female C3H/HEJ mice and into HT-29 flank tumors on female Nu/Nu mice. The IONPs were allowed to incubate for various times. The tumors were then excised and examined using TEM. RESULTS: In the MTG-B tumors, most of the nanoparticles reside in aggregates adjacent to cell plasma membranes prior to three hours post-injection. By four hours post injection, however, most of the nanoparticles have been endocytosed by the cells. At time periods after four hours post injection, few visible extracellular nanoparticles remain and intracellular nanoparticles have densely aggregated within endosomes. In the HT-29 tumor, however, endocytosis of nanoparticles has not progressed to the same extent as in the MTG-B tumors by four hours post injection. CONCLUSIONS: The time at which most of the nanoparticles transition from being extracellular to intracellular in the MTG-B system appears to be between two and four hours. The HT-29 cells, however, display different and delayed uptake pattern. These data show that there are IONP uptake differences between tumor types (cell lines) and that, based on known uptake kinetics, nanoparticle hyperthermia can be employed as an extracellular or intracellular modality. These data will be important in guiding future

  19. Necroptosis is a key pathogenic event in human and experimental murine models of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Marta B; Rodrigues, Pedro M; Carvalho, Tânia; Caridade, Marta; Borralho, Paula; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Castro, Rui E; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocyte cell death, inflammation and oxidative stress constitute key pathogenic mechanisms underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to investigate the role of necroptosis in human and experimental NAFLD and its association with tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and oxidative stress. Serum markers of necrosis, liver receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) were evaluated in control individuals and patients with NAFLD. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) or RIP3-deficient (RIP3(-/-)) mice were fed a high-fat choline-deficient (HFCD) or methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet, with subsequent histological and biochemical analysis of hepatic damage. In primary murine hepatocytes, necroptosis and oxidative stress were also assessed after necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) treatment or RIP3 silencing. We show that circulating markers of necrosis and TNF-α, as well as liver RIP3 and MLKL phosphorylation were increased in NAFLD. Likewise, RIP3 and MLKL protein levels and TNF-α expression were increased in the liver of HFCD and MCD diet-fed mice. Moreover, RIP3 and MLKL sequestration in the insoluble protein fraction of NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) mice liver lysates represented an early event during stetatohepatitis progression. Functional studies in primary murine hepatocytes established the association between TNF-α-induced RIP3 expression, activation of necroptosis and oxidative stress. Strikingly, RIP3 deficiency attenuated MCD diet-induced liver injury, steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress. In conclusion, necroptosis is increased in the liver of NAFLD patients and in experimental models of NASH. Further, TNF-α triggers RIP3-dependent oxidative stress during hepatocyte necroptosis. As such, targeting necroptosis appears to arrest or at least impair NAFLD progression. PMID:26201023

  20. Hydrodynamic properties of the gonadotropin receptor from a murine Leydig tumor cell line are altered by desensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Rebois, R.V.; Bradley, R.M.; Titlow, C.C.

    1987-10-06

    The murine Leydig tumor cell line 1 (MLTC-1) contains gonadotropin receptors (GR) that are coupled to adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (G/sub s/). The binding of human choriogonadotropin (hGC) causes MLTC-1 cells to accumulate cAMP. With time, the ability of MLTC-1 cells to respond to hCG is attenuated by a process called desensitization. The hydrodynamic properties of GR from control and desensitized MLTC-1 cells were studied. Sucrose density gradient sedimentation in H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O and gel filtration chromatography were used to estimate the Stokes radius (a), partial specific volume (v/sub c/), sedimentation coefficient (s/sub 20,w/), and molecular weight (M/sub r/) of the detergent-solubilized hormone-receptor complex (hCG-GR). (/sup 125/I)hCG was bound to MLTC-1 cells under conditions that allow (37/sup 0/C) or prevent (0/sup 0/C) desensitization, and hCG-GR was solubilized in Triton X-100. In the absence of desensitization, control hCG-GR had a M/sub r/ of 213,000, whereas desensitized hCG-GR had a M/sub r/ of 158,000. Deglycosylated hCG (DG-HCG) is an antagonist that binds to GR with high affinity but fails to stimulate adenylate cyclase or cause desensitization. (/sup 125/I)DG-hCG was bound to MLTC-1 cells and DG-hCG-GR solubilized in Triton X-100. The hydrodynamic properties of DG-hCG-GR were the same as that for control hCG-GR. There was no evidence for the association of adenylate cyclase or G/sub s/ with GR in Triton X-100 solubilized preparations. When hCG was cross-linked to GR and solubilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the M/sub r/ was found to be 116,000, which was similar to that determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and less than that of the Triton X-100 solubilized control hCG-GR.

  1. Transcriptional Regulation by the Wilms Tumor Protein, Wt1, Suggests a Role of the Metalloproteinase Adamts16 in Murine Genitourinary Development*

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, Charlotte L. J.; Rudigier, Lucas J.; Scholz, Holger; Kirschner, Karin M.

    2013-01-01

    ADAMTS16 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) is a secreted mammalian metalloproteinase with unknown function. We report here that murine Adamts16 is co-expressed with the Wilms tumor protein, Wt1, in the developing glomeruli of embryonic kidneys. Adamts16 mRNA levels were significantly reduced upon transfection of embryonic murine kidney explants with Wt1 antisense vivo-morpholinos. Antisense knockdown of Adamts16 inhibited branching morphogenesis in kidney organ cultures. Adamts16 was detected by in situ mRNA hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry also in embryonic gonads and in spermatids and granulosa cells of adult testes and ovaries, respectively. Silencing of Wt1 by transfection with antisense vivo-morpholinos significantly increased Adamts16 mRNA in cultured embryonic XY gonads (11.5 and 12.5 days postconception), and reduced Adamts16 transcripts in XX gonads (12.5 and 13.5 days postconception). Three predicted Wt1 consensus motifs could be identified in the promoter and the 5′-untranslated region of the murine Adamts16 gene. Binding of Wt1 protein to these elements was verified by EMSA and ChIP. A firefly luciferase reporter gene under control of the Adamts16 promoter was activated ∼8-fold by transient co-transfection of human granulosa cells with a Wt1 expression construct. Gradual shortening of the 5′-flanking sequence successively reduced and eventually abrogated Adamts16 promoter activation by Wt1. These findings demonstrate that Wt1 differentially regulates the Adamts16 gene in XX and XY embryonic gonads. It is suggested that Adamts16 acts immediately downstream of Wt1 during murine urogenital development. We propose that Adamts16 is involved in branching morphogenesis of the kidneys in mice. PMID:23661704

  2. Hydrodynamic diameters of murine mammary, Rous sarcoma, and feline leukemia RNA tumor viruses: studies by laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy and electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeen, I; Rimai, L; Luftig, R B; Libes, L; Retzel, E; Rich, M; McCormick, J J

    1976-01-01

    We have studied purified preparations of murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV; Prague strain), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) by laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy, ultra-centrifugation, and electron microscopy. The laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy measurements yield the light-scattering intensity, weighted diffusion coefficients. The corresponding average hydrodynamic diameters, as calculated from the diffusion coefficients by the Stokes-Einstein equation for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: 144 +/- 6 nm, 147 +/- 7 nm, and 168 +/- 6 nm. Portions of the purified RSV and MuMTV preparations, from which light-scattering samples were obtained, and portions of the actual FeLV light-scattering samples were examined by negatively stained, catalase crystal-calibrated electron microscopy. The light-scattering intensity weighted averages of the electron micrograph size distributions were calculated by weighing each size by its theoretical relative scattering intensity, as obtained from published tables computed according to the Mie scattering theory. These averages and the experimentally observed hydrodynamic diameters agreed to within +/- 5%, which is the combined experimental error in the electron microscopic and light-scattering techniques. We conclude that the size distributions of singlet particles observed in the electron micrographs are statistically true representations of the sedimentation-purified solution size distributions. The sedimentation coefficients (S20, w) for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: 595 +/- 29S, 689 +/- 35S, and 880 +/- 44S. Virus partial specific volumes were taken as the reciprocals of the buoyant densities, determined in sucrose density gradients. The Svedberg equation was used to calculate particle weights from the measured diffusion and sedimentation coefficients. The particle weights for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: (3.17 +/- 0.32) x 10(8), (4.17 +/- 0

  3. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with fluorescent and MRI reporters for the visualization of murine tumors overexpressing αvβ3 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, He; Arena, Francesca; Gianolio, Eliana; Boffa, Cinzia; di Gregorio, Enza; Stefania, Rachele; Orio, Laura; Baroni, Simona; Aime, Silvio

    2016-03-01

    A novel fluorescein/Gd-DOTAGA containing nanoprobe for the visualization of tumors by optical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is reported herein. It is based on the functionalization of the surface of small mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) (~30 nm) with the arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) moieties, which are known to target αvβ3 integrin receptors overexpressed in several tumor cells. The obtained nanoprobe (Gd-MSNs-RGD) displays good stability, tolerability and high relaxivity (37.6 mM-1 s-1 at 21.5 MHz). After a preliminary evaluation of their cytotoxicity and targeting capability toward U87MG cells by in vitro fluorescence and MR imaging, the nanoprobes were tested in vivo by T1-weighted MR imaging of xenografted murine tumor models. The obtained results demonstrated that the Gd-MSNs-RGD nanoprobes are good reporters both in vitro and in vivo for the MR-visualization of tumor cells overexpressing αvβ3 integrin receptors.A novel fluorescein/Gd-DOTAGA containing nanoprobe for the visualization of tumors by optical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is reported herein. It is based on the functionalization of the surface of small mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) (~30 nm) with the arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) moieties, which are known to target αvβ3 integrin receptors overexpressed in several tumor cells. The obtained nanoprobe (Gd-MSNs-RGD) displays good stability, tolerability and high relaxivity (37.6 mM-1 s-1 at 21.5 MHz). After a preliminary evaluation of their cytotoxicity and targeting capability toward U87MG cells by in vitro fluorescence and MR imaging, the nanoprobes were tested in vivo by T1-weighted MR imaging of xenografted murine tumor models. The obtained results demonstrated that the Gd-MSNs-RGD nanoprobes are good reporters both in vitro and in vivo for the MR-visualization of tumor cells overexpressing αvβ3 integrin receptors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Absorption and emission spectra, energy

  4. Effect of preexisting anti-herpes immunity on the efficacy of herpes simplex viral therapy in a murine intraperitoneal tumor model.

    PubMed

    Lambright, E S; Kang, E H; Force, S; Lanuti, M; Caparrelli, D; Kaiser, L R; Albelda, S M; Molnar-Kimber, K L

    2000-10-01

    HSV-1716, a replicating nonneurovirulent herpes simplex virus type 1, has shown efficacy in treating multiple types of human tumors in immunodeficient mice. Since the majority of the human population has been previously exposed to herpes simplex virus, the efficacy of HSV-based oncolytic therapy was investigated in an immunocompetent animal tumor model. EJ-6-2-Bam-6a, a tumor cell line derived from h-ras-transformed murine fibroblast, exhibit a diffuse growth pattern in the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice and replicate HSV-1716 to titers observed in human tumors. An established intraperitoneal (ip) tumor model of EJ-6-2-Bam-6a in naive and HSV-immunized mice was used to evaluate the efficacy of single or multiple ip administrations of HSV-1716 (4 x 10(6) pfu/treatment) or of carrier cells, which are irradiated, ex vivo virally infected EJ-6-2-Bam-6a cells that can amplify the viral load in situ. All treated groups significantly prolonged survival versus media control with an approximately 40% long-term survival rate (cure) in the multiply treated, HSV-naive animals. Prior immunization of the mice with HSV did not significantly decrease the median survival of the single or multiply treated HSV-1716 or the carrier cell-treated groups. These studies support the development of replication-selective herpes virus mutants for use in localized intraperitoneal malignancies. PMID:11020355

  5. Evaluation of therapeutic potential of nanosilver particles synthesised using aloin in experimental murine mastitis model.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya Kumar, Thota Venkata; Muralidhar, Yegireddy; Prasad, Pagadala Eswara; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Alpha Raj, Mekapogu

    2013-09-01

    Nanobiotechnology is an emerging biological branch of nanotechnology. Application of nanoparticles with specific size and shape in biology has already shown unforeseen and interesting results. A study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of phytogenically derived aloin mediated nanosilver particles (AAgNPs), prepared by reduction of silver nitrate with aloin, in Staphylococcus aureus induced murine mastitis. A total of 40 female mice were divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group I served as lactating control, groups II-V were inoculated with 20 μl of 24 h broth culture of S. aureus containing 4.0 × 105 cfu/quarter under ketamine anaesthesia. After 6 h post inoculation, groups III and IV received 20 μl of aloin nanosilver (AAgNPs) through intramammary and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. Group V received antibiotic cefepime at 1 mg/kg body weight through the intra-peritoneal route. After 18 h post-treatment, serum C reactive protein, weights of mammary glands, mammary gland bacterial load, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content, reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity and histopathology were determined. The compound showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 21.8 ng/ml against S. aureus. Significant reduction (98%) in poly-morpho nuclear cell infiltration was observed with AAgNPs than antibiotic (50%). PMID:24028805

  6. Pathobiology of human RH strain induced experimental toxoplasmosis in murine model.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Vikrant; Tewari, A K; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, R

    2016-09-01

    Of late, toxoplasmosis has gained immense importance as an opportunist parasite in immunocompromised patients. In immunocompromised subjects, the disease is supposed to occur in acute form and causes acute toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, the exact pathogenesis of other vital organs, particularly in acute form of infection, is still a matter of debate. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the pathogenesis of acute form of toxoplasmosis using cryopreserved human RH strain of the parasite in murine models. For this, 100 tachyzoites were given to individual mice and upon the setup of acute form of infection, the mice were euthanized and the organs were processed for histopathology. Histopathology revealed tachyzoites in liver only while severe necrosis due to multiplication of tachyzoites were visible in liver, spleen, lungs and brain. Kidneys and heart appeared more or less normal. Finally, the pathology of disease in these organs is described in detail. The present research has generated some vital information regarding necrotic changes in tissues due to acute toxoplasmosis and will defiantly help the researchers in the better understanding of disease particularly in humans and putting up of suitable treatment regime for human subjects infected with acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:27605794

  7. Gan-Lu-Yin Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Murine WEHI-3 Leukemia Cells and Tumor Growth in BALB/C Allograft Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fon-Chang; Pan, Chun-Hsu; Lai, Ming-Tsung; Chang, Shu-Jen; Chung, Jing-Gung; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the antitumor effect of Gan-Lu-Yin (GLY), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, on leukemia. Ethanolic extract of GLY was applied to evaluate its regulatory mechanisms in proliferation, migration, and differentiation of WEHI-3 leukemic cells as well as antitumor effect on BALB/c mice model. The results showed that GLY markedly reduced cell proliferation and migration with induced differentiation of WEHI-3 cells. The expression level of phosphorylated FAK, Akt, ERK1/2, and Rb was decreased p21 expression while level was increased in WEHI-3 treated with GLY. The results of cell cycle analysis revealed that GLY treatment could markedly induce G1 phase arrest and decrease cell population in S phase. Moreover, experimental results demonstrated that GLY decreased the protein expression and enzyme activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. GLY treatment also reduced WEHI-3 leukemic infiltration in liver and spleen and tumor growth in animal model. Accordingly, GLY demonstrated an inhibitory effect on tumor growth with a regulatory mechanism partially through inhibiting FAK, Akt, and ERK expression in WEHI-3 cells. GLY may provide a promising antileukemic approach in the clinical application. PMID:23573143

  8. Therapeutic effect of hydroxychloroquine on colorectal carcinogenesis in experimental murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junlin; Xie, Jiansheng; Xie, Binbin; Li, Yiran; Jiang, Liming; Sui, Xinbing; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Pan, Hongming; Han, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    Chronic inflammation in the intestine is a strong risk factor for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders and various tumors. However, little is known regarding the effects of HCQ on colitis-associated tumorigenesis. In this study, mice treated with HCQ showed a significant reduction in early-stage colitis following azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) administration, as well as a remarkable inhibition of colonic tumorigenesis and tumor growth at late stages of CAC. Mechanistically, the therapeutic effects of HCQ were attributed to inhibition of inflammatory responses and production of mutagenic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in immune cells and subsequent promotion of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, we found that HCQ inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines and ROS in response to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation in macrophages. Our data presented herein may help guide the clinical use of HCQ as a prevention and treatment strategy for CAC. PMID:27288548

  9. Comparative study of the biological properties of Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in a murine experimental model.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Lissa; Vivas, Angie; Montilla, Marleny; Hernández, Carolina; Flórez, Carolina; Parra, Edgar; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis in Latin America and caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This kinetoplastid displays remarkable genetic variability, allowing its classification into six Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) from TcI to TcVI. T. cruzi I presents the broadest geographical distribution in the continent and has been associated to severe forms of cardiomyopathies. Recently, a particular genotype associated to human infections has been reported and named as TcIDOM (previously named TcIa-b). This genotype shows to be clonal and adapted to the domestic cycle but so far no studies have determined the biological properties of domestic (TcIDOM) and sylvatic TcI strains (previously named TcIc-e). Hence, the aim of this study was to untangle the biological features of these genotypes in murine models. We infected ICR-CD1 mice with five TcI strains (two domestic, two sylvatic and one natural mixture) and determined the course of infection during 91 days (acute and chronic phase of the disease) in terms of parasitemia, tissue tropism, immune response (IgG titers) and tissue invasion by means of histopathology studies. Statistically significant differences were observed in terms of parasitemia curves and prepatent period between domestic (TcIDOM) and sylvatic strains. There were no differences in terms of IgG antibodies response across the mice infected with the five strains. Regarding the histopathology, our results indicate that domestic strains present higher parasitemias and low levels of histopathological damage. In contrast, sylvatic strains showed lower parasitemias and high levels of histopathological damage. These results highlight the sympatric and behavioral differences of domestic and sylvatic TcI strains; the clinical and epidemiological implications are herein discussed. PMID:25461848

  10. Serial Low Doses of Sorafenib Enhance Therapeutic Efficacy of Adoptive T Cell Therapy in a Murine Model by Improving Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ren-Shyan; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Requirements of large numbers of transferred T cells and various immunosuppressive factors and cells in the tumor microenvironment limit the applications of adoptive T cells therapy (ACT) in clinic. Accumulating evidences show that chemotherapeutic drugs could act as immune supportive instead of immunosuppressive agents when proper dosage is used, and combined with immunotherapy often results in better treatment outcomes than monotherapy. Controversial immunomodulation effects of sorafenib, a multi-kinases inhibitor, at high and low doses have been reported in several types of cancer. However, what is the range of the low-dose sorafenib will influence the host immunity and responses of ACT is still ambiguous. Here we used a well-established E.G7/OT-1 murine model to understand the effects of serial low doses of sorafenib on both tumor microenvironment and transferred CD8+ T cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sorafenib lowered the expressions of immunosuppressive factors, and enhanced functions and migrations of transferred CD8+ T cells through inhibition of STAT3 and other immunosuppressive factors. CD8+ T cells were transduced with granzyme B promoter for driving imaging reporters to visualize the activation and distribution of transferred CD8+ T cells prior to adoptive transfer. Better activations of CD8+ T cells and tumor inhibitions were found in the combinational group compared with CD8+ T cells or sorafenib alone groups. Not only immunosuppressive factors but myeloid derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were decreased in sorafenib-treated group, indicating that augmentation of tumor inhibition and function of CD8+ T cells by serial low doses of sorafenib were via reversing the immunosuppressive microenvironment. These results revealed that the tumor inhibitions of sorafenib not only through eradicating tumor cells but modifying tumor microenvironment, which helps outcomes of ACT significantly. PMID:25333973

  11. The role of KLF4 in UVB-induced murine skin tumor development and its correlation with cyclin D1, p53, and p21(Waf1/Cip1) in epithelial tumors of the human skin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Jin; Youn, Sung Hwan; Back, Jung Ho; Park, Saebomi; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Joong; Park, Hye Rim; Kim, Arianna L; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2011-04-01

    The zinc-finger-type transcriptional factor KLF4 is expressed in a variety of tissues including skin. KLF4 can function as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene, depending on the type of tissue in which it is expressed, by modulating the expression of various factors. To understand the role of KLF4 in human skin cancer and also to evaluate the expression of cyclin D1, p53, and p21(Waf1/Cip1) in relation to the expression of KLF4, we evaluated the pattern of KLF4 expression during UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 hairless mice and in human skin cancer. We also determined whether there are correlations between the expression of KLF4, cyclin D1, p53, and p21 and non-melanoma skin tumors. KLF4 expression was found in the basal layer of non-irradiated control murine skin. Chronic UVB irradiation caused a progressive decrease in KLF4 expression, which was substantially decreased in UVB-induced murine skin tumors. In human precancerous lesions, KLF4 expression was maintained in 64.3% of Bowen's disease samples and 90.0% of AK samples. In contrast, KLF4 expression was significantly reduced in human cancer lesions (p = 0.004). A positive correlation was found between the expression of KLF4 and p21(Waf1/Cip1) in AK, whereas there was a negative correlation between the expression of cyclin D1 and p21(Waf1/Cip1) in Bowen's disease. Thus, our results suggest that KLF4 may function as a tumor suppressor in the skin and that the deregulated expression of KLF4 in the context of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and cyclin D1 expression may be involved in skin tumorigenesis. PMID:21132436

  12. Anti-tumor necrosis factor VNAR single domains reduce lethality and regulate underlying inflammatory response in a murine model of endotoxic shock

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In sepsis, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is the key factor triggering respiratory burst, tissue injury and disseminated coagulation. Anti-TNF strategies based on monoclonal antibodies or F(ab’)2 fragments have been used in sepsis with contradictory results. Immunoglobulin new antigen receptors (IgNAR) are a unique subset of antibodies consisting of five constant (CNAR) and one variable domains (VNAR). VNAR domains are the smallest, naturally occurring, antibody-based immune recognition units, having potential use as therapy. Our aim was to explore the impact of an anti-TNF VNAR on survival in an experimental model of endotoxic shock. Also, mRNA expression and serum protein of several inflammatory molecules were measured. Results Endotoxic shock was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in male Balb/c mice. Animals were treated with anti-TNF VNAR domains, F(ab’)2 antibody fragments, or saline solution 15 minutes before, 2 h and 24 h after lethal dose100 (LD100) LPS administration. TNF blockade with either VNAR domains or F(ab’)2 fragments were associated with lower mortality (60% and 75%, respectively) compared to LD100. Challenge with LPS induced significant production of serum TNF and interleukins -10 and -6 at 3 h. After that, significant reduction of IL-6 at 24 h (vs 3 h) was shown only in the VNAR group. Nitrites level also increased in response to LPS. In liver, TNF and IL-10 mRNA expression showed a pro-inflammatory imbalance in response to LPS. Blocking TNF was associated with a shift towards an anti-inflammatory status; however, polarization was more pronounced in animals receiving F(ab’)2 fragments than in those with VNAR therapy. With regard to IL-6, gene expression was increased at 3 h in all groups. TNF blockade was associated with rapid and sustained suppression of IL-6 expression, even more evident in the VNAR group. Finally, expression of inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) increased in response to LPS at 3 h, but this

  13. Prevention and Mitigation of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Murine β-Defensins via Induction of Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Bruhs, Anika; Schwarz, Thomas; Schwarz, Agatha

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide murine β-defensin-14 (mBD14) was found to exert, in addition to its antimicrobial activity, the capacity to induce regulatory T cells as demonstrated in the model of contact hypersensitivity. Because it is induced by ultraviolet radiation, mBD14 may contribute to the antigen-specific immunosuppression by ultraviolet radiation. To prove whether this applies also for other immunologic models and because ultraviolet radiation appears to have beneficial effects on multiple sclerosis, we utilized the model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Injection of mBD14 into mice before immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein caused amelioration of the disease with less central nervous system inflammation and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic T cells. The beneficial effect was due to Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells because it was lost on in vivo depletion of regulatory T cells. mBD14, however, also acts in a therapeutic setting, because injection of mBD14 into mice with clinical features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reduced the clinical score significantly. Human β-defensin-3, the human orthologue of mBD14, induced in vitro regulatory T cell-specific markers in CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, shifting these nonregulatory cells into a regulatory phenotype with suppressive features. Thus, defensins may represent candidates worth being further pursued for the therapy of multiple sclerosis. PMID:26763437

  14. Wedelolactone mitigates UVB induced oxidative stress, inflammation and early tumor promotion events in murine skin: plausible role of NFkB pathway.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farrah; Khan, Bilal Azhar; Sultana, Sarwat

    2016-09-01

    UVB (Ultra-violet B) radiation is one of the major etiological factors in various dermal pathology viz. dermatitis, actinic folliculitis, solar urticaria, psoriasis and cancer among many others. UVB causes toxic manifestation in tissues by inciting inflammatory and tumor promoting events. We have designed this study to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promotion effect of Wedelolactone (WDL) a specific IKK inhibitor. Results indicate significant restoration of anti-oxidative enzymes due to WDL treatments. We also found that WDL was effective in mitigating inflammatory markers consisting of MPO (myeloperoxidase), Mast cells trafficking, Langerhans cells suppression and COX 2 expression up regulation due to UVB exposure. We also deduce that WDL presented a promising intervention in attenuating early tumor promotion events caused by UVB exposure as indicated by the results of ODC (Ornithine Decarboxylase), Thymidine assay, Vimentin and VEGF (Vascular-endothelial growth factor) expression. This study was able to provide substantial cues for the therapeutic ability of Wedelolactone against inflammatory and tumor promoting events in murine skin depicting plausible role of NFkB pathway. PMID:27164422

  15. Combination of poly-gamma-glutamate and cyclophosphamide enhanced antitumor efficacy against tumor growth and metastasis in a murine melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doo-Jin; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Tae-Young; Won, Ji-Na; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-09-28

    Conventional chemotherapeutic regimens often accompany severe side effects and fail to induce complete regression of chemoresistant or relapsing metastatic cancers. The need for establishing more efficacious anticancer strategies led to the development of a combined modality treatment of chemotherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy or radiotherapy. It has been reported that poly-gamma-glutamate (γ-PGA), a natural polymer composed of glutamic acids, increases antitumor activity by activating antigen-presenting cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we investigated the antitumor effect of γ-PGA in combination with cyclophosphamide in a murine melanoma model. Whereas cyclophosphamide alone directly triggered apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro, γ-PGA did not show cytotoxicity in tumor cells. Instead, it activated macrophages, as reflected by the upregulation of surface activation markers and the secretion of proinflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor α. When the antitumor effects were examined in a mouse model, combined treatment with cyclophosphamide and γ-PGA markedly suppressed tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, γ-PGA treatment dramatically increased the NK cell population in lung tissues, coinciding with decreased metastasis and increased survival. These data collectively suggest that γ-PGA can act as an immunotherapeutic agent that exhibits a synergistic antitumor effect in combination with conventional chemotherapy. PMID:23867701

  16. JP-8 jet fuel exposure potentiates tumor development in two experimental model systems.

    PubMed

    Harris, D T; Sakiestewa, D; Titone, D; He, X; Hyde, J; Witten, M

    2007-11-01

    The US Air Force has implemented the widespread use of JP-8 jet fuel in its operations, although a thorough understanding of its potential effects upon exposed personnel is unclear. Previous work has reported that JP-8 exposure is immunosuppressive. Exposure of mice to JP-8 for 1 h/day resulted in immediate secretion of two immunosuppressive agents; namely, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Thus, it was of interest to determine if jet fuel exposure might promote tumor growth and metastasis. The syngeneic B16 tumor model was used for these studies. Animals were injected intravenously with tumor cells, and lung colonies were enumerated. Animals were also examined for metastatic spread of the tumor. Mice were either exposed to 1000 mg/m3 JP-8 (1 h/ day) for 7 days before tumor injection or were exposed to JP-8 at the time of tumor injection. All animals were killed 17 days after tumor injection. In the present study, JP8 exposure potentiated the growth and metastases of B16 tumors in an animal model. Exposure of mice to JP-8 for 1 h/day before tumor induction resulted in an approximately 8.7-fold increase in tumors, whereas those mice exposed to JP8 at the time of tumor induction had a 5.6-fold increase in tumor numbers. Thus, low concentration JP-8 jet fuel exposures have significant immune suppressive effects on the immune system that can result in increased tumor formation and metastases. We have now extended the observations to an experimental subcutaneous tumor model. JP8 exposure at the time of tumor induction in this model did not affect the growth of the tumor. However, JP8-exposed, tumor-bearing animals died at an accelerated rate as compared with air-exposed, tumor-bearing mice. PMID:18717520

  17. The 55-kD tumor necrosis factor receptor and CD95 independently signal murine hepatocyte apoptosis and subsequent liver failure.

    PubMed Central

    Leist, M.; Gantner, F.; Künstle, G.; Bohlinger, I.; Tiegs, G.; Bluethmann, H.; Wendel, A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of either the 55-kD tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R1) or CD95 (Fas/Apo-1) causes apoptosis of cells and liver failure in mice, and has been associated with human liver disorders. The aim of this study was first to clarify the association between CD95 activation, hepatocyte apoptosis, and fulminant liver failure. Next, we investigated whether TNF-R1 and CD95 operate independently of each other in the induction of hepatocyte apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using both mice and primary liver cell cultures deficient in either TNF-R1 or functional CD95, the induction of apoptosis and hepatocyte death following activation of TNF-R1 or CD95 were studied in vitro and in various in vivo models of acute liver failure. RESULTS: In vivo or in vitro stimulation of CD95 caused apoptosis of wild-type (wt) murine hepatocytes which had not been sensitized by blocking transcription. Time course studies showed that DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation preceded, respectively, membrane lysis in vitro and necrosis in vivo. Similar results were obtained after CD95 activation in hepatocytes or livers lacking TNF-R1. Conversely, hepatocytotoxicity due to endogenous or exogenous TNF was not affected in animals or liver cell cultures lacking the expression of functional CD95. CONCLUSIONS: TNF-R1 and CD95 are independent and differentially regulated triggers of murine apoptotic liver failure. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 9 PMID:8900539

  18. Utility of the Microculture Method in Non-Invasive Samples Obtained from an Experimental Murine Model with Asymptomatic Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M.; Bagirova, Malahat; Cakir-Koc, Rabia; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga Nehir; Canim-Ates, Sezen; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Yesilkir-Baydar, Serap

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) decreases because of the low number of parasites and antibody amounts in asymptomatic healthy donors who are not suitable for invasive sample acquisition procedures. Therefore, new studies are urgently needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic approaches in non-invasive samples. In this study, the sensitivity of the microculture method (MCM) was compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) methods in an experimental murine model with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. Results showed that the percent of positive samples in ELISA, IFAT, and peripheral blood (PB) -PCR tests were 17.64%, 8.82%, and 5.88%, respectively, whereas 100% positive results were obtained with MCM and MCM-PCR methods. Thus, this study, for the first time, showed that MCM is more sensitive, specific, and economic than other methods, and the sensitivity of PCR that was performed to samples obtained from MCM was higher than sensitivity of the PCR method sampled by PB. PMID:22764296

  19. Utility of the microculture method in non-invasive samples obtained from an experimental murine model with asymptomatic leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Malahat; Cakir-Koc, Rabia; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga Nehir; Canim-Ates, Sezen; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Yesilkir-Baydar, Serap

    2012-07-01

    The sensitivity of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) decreases because of the low number of parasites and antibody amounts in asymptomatic healthy donors who are not suitable for invasive sample acquisition procedures. Therefore, new studies are urgently needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic approaches in non-invasive samples. In this study, the sensitivity of the microculture method (MCM) was compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) methods in an experimental murine model with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. Results showed that the percent of positive samples in ELISA, IFAT, and peripheral blood (PB) -PCR tests were 17.64%, 8.82%, and 5.88%, respectively, whereas 100% positive results were obtained with MCM and MCM-PCR methods. Thus, this study, for the first time, showed that MCM is more sensitive, specific, and economic than other methods, and the sensitivity of PCR that was performed to samples obtained from MCM was higher than sensitivity of the PCR method sampled by PB. PMID:22764296

  20. A method for histopathological study of the multifocal nature of spinal cord lesions in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Boyden, Alexander W.; Leidinger, Mariah R.; Lambertz, Allyn M.; Ofori-Amanfo, Georgina; Naumann, Paul W.; Goeken, J. Adam; Karandikar, Nitin J.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established mouse model for multiple sclerosis and is characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells and demyelination within the central nervous system along with the clinical symptoms of paralysis. EAE is a multifocal and random disease, which sometimes makes histopathologic analysis of lesions difficult as it may not be possible to predict where lesions will occur, especially when evaluating cross sections of spinal cord. Consequently, lesions may be easily missed due to limited sampling in traditional approaches. To evaluate the entire length of the spinal cord while maintaining anatomic integrity, we have developed a method to section the cord within the decalcified spinal column, which allows for the study of the multifocal nature of this disease and also minimizes handling artifact. HE and Luxol fast blue staining of these spinal cord sections revealed a paucity of lesions in some areas, while others showed marked inflammation and demyelination. The percentage of spinal cord affected by EAE was evaluated at four separate areas of longitudinally sectioned cord and it varied greatly within each animal. Immunohistochemical staining of in situ spinal cords which had undergone decalcification was successful for key immuno-markers used in EAE research including CD3 for T cells, B220 for B cells and F4/80 for murine macrophages. This method will allow investigators to look at the entire spinal cord on a single slide and evaluate the spinal cord with and without classic EAE lesions. PMID:26855861

  1. Imaging tumor angiogenesis in breast cancer experimental lung metastasis with positron emission tomography, near-infrared fluorescence, and bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Nayak, Tapas R; Valdovinos, Hector F; Myklejord, Duane V; Theuer, Charles P; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a molecular imaging agent that can allow for both positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging of CD105 expression in metastatic breast cancer. TRC105, a chimeric anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody, was labeled with both a NIRF dye (i.e., IRDye 800CW) and (64)Cu to yield (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no difference in CD105 binding affinity/specificity between TRC105 and NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Serial bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was carried out to non-invasively monitor the lung tumor burden in BALB/c mice, after intravenous injection of firefly luciferase-transfected 4T1 (i.e., fLuc-4T1) murine breast cancer cells to establish the experimental lung metastasis model. Serial PET imaging revealed that fLuc-4T1 lung tumor uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW was 11.9 ± 1.2, 13.9 ± 3.9, and 13.4 ± 2.1 %ID/g at 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection respectively (n = 3). Biodistribution studies, blocking fLuc-4T1 lung tumor uptake with excess TRC105, control experiments with (64)Cu-NOTA-cetuximab-800CW (which served as an isotype-matched control), ex vivo BLI/PET/NIRF imaging, autoradiography, and histology all confirmed CD105 specificity of (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Successful PET/NIRF imaging of tumor angiogenesis (i.e., CD105 expression) in the breast cancer experimental lung metastasis model warrants further investigation and clinical translation of dual-labeled TRC105-based agents, which can potentially enable early detection of small metastases and image-guided surgery for tumor removal. PMID:23471463

  2. Infrared Spectra of Human Breast Tumor Tissue and Experimental Animal Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Belkov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Pekhnyo, V. I.; Kozachkova, A. N.; Tsarik, H. V.; Kutsenko, I. P.; Sharykina, N. I.; Butra, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    We have used Fourier transform IR spectroscopy methods to conduct comparative studies of human breast tumors and sarcoma 180 tumor grafted into mice. The IR spectral parameters used to identify tumor tissue in mice with the sarcoma 180 strain proved to be identical to the parameters for human breast tissue in cancer. In the presence of a malignant tumor in humans, the most intense C=O vibrational bands in the protein molecules are observed in the interval 1710-1680 cm-1. For a benign tumor, in the IR spectra of breast tissue the intense bands are located in the interval 1670-1650 cm-1. We spectroscopically monitored the diagnosis and the chemotherapy process using the model of sarcoma 180 in mice. As the therapeutic drugs, we used synthesized coordination compounds based on palladium complexes with diphosphonic acid derivatives. We demonstrate the promising potential of palladium complexes with zoledronic acid as an effective cytostatic. In therapy using a palladium complex with zoledronic acid, the effect of tumor growth inhibition is accompanied by a change in its spectral characteristics. The parameters of the IR spectra for tumor tissue after treatment are close to those of the IR spectra for healthy tissue.

  3. Test of recurrence after experimental radiation therapy of chemically induced autochthonous tumors in mosaic mice.

    PubMed

    Tanooka, H; Tanaka, K

    1985-08-01

    True recurrence was distinguished from induction of new second tumors after experimental radiation therapy using monoclonal tumors produced in the mosaic cell background of mice. The mice were C3H/He females heterozygous at the X-chromosome-linked locus of phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and consisted of two types (A and B) of somatic cells by inactivation of one of X-chromosomes. Sarcomas and carcinomas with a single PGK phenotype were produced by subcutaneous injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) into the groin of the mice, and locally and singly irradiated with 4-6.5 Krad of X rays generated by a 6 Mev linear accelerator, when they were 8-10 mm in diameter. Of 69 mice irradiated, 17 were available for comparison of the PGK and histological types of primary and recurrent tumors. Of these, 10 recurrent tumors with A-type PGK and 3 with B-type PGK exhibited the same PGK type as that of primary tumors, while one was distinguishable histologically. Only one recurrent tumor was of the opposite PGK and a different histological type from the primary tumor. Considering the probability of new tumor formation among A----A recurrent tumors, it was calculated that 79% (11/14) of the tumors that reappeared in the irradiated area were actually true recurrent tumors. Autochthonous tumors may be important in testing therapeutic methods. PMID:4019279

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, α particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by γH2AX

  5. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, α particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by γH2AX

  6. Effects of letrozole on breast cancer micro-metastatic tumor growth in bone and lung in mice inoculated with murine 4T1 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendan; Belosay, Aashvini; Yang, Xujuan; Hartman, James A; Song, Huaxin; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T; Churchwell, Mona I; Doerge, Daniel R; Helferich, William G

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer in women worldwide. Metastasis occurs in stage IV BC with bone and lung being common metastatic sites. Here we evaluate the effects of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on BC micro-metastatic tumor growth in bone and lung metastasis in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) mice with murine estrogen receptor negative (ER-) BC cells inoculated in tibia. Forty-eight BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups: OVX, OVX + Letrozole, Intact, and Intact + Letrozole, and injected with 4T1 cells intra-tibially. Letrozole was subcutaneously injected daily for 23 days at a dose of 1.75 µg/g body weight. Tumor progression was monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Following necropsy, inoculated tibiae were scanned via µCT and bone response to tumor was scored from 0 (no ectopic mineralization/osteolysis) to 5 (extensive ectopic mineralization/osteolysis). OVX mice had higher tibial pathology scores indicative of more extensive bone destruction than intact mice, irrespective of letrozole treatment. Letrozole decreased serum estradiol levels and reduced lung surface tumor numbers in intact animals. Furthermore, mice receiving letrozole had significantly fewer tumor colonies and fewer proliferative cells in the lung than OVX and intact controls based on H&E and Ki-67 staining, respectively. In conclusion, BC-inoculated OVX animals had higher tibia pathology scores than BC-inoculated intact animals and letrozole reduced BC metastases to lungs. These findings suggest that, by lowering systemic estrogen level and/or by interacting with the host organ, the aromatase inhibitor letrozole has the potential to reduce ER- BC metastasis to lung. PMID:27209469

  7. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of the death-associated protein kinase gene is early and frequent in murine lung tumors induced by cigarette smoke and tobacco carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Pulling, Leah C; Vuillemenot, Brian R; Hutt, Julie A; Devereux, Theodora R; Belinsky, Steven A

    2004-06-01

    Loss of expression of the death-associated protein (DAP)-kinase gene by aberrant promoter methylation may play an important role in cancer development and progression. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the commonality for inactivation of the DAP-kinase gene in adenocarcinomas induced in mice by chronic exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke, the tobacco carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and vinyl carbamate, and the occupational carcinogen methylene chloride. The timing for inactivation was also determined in alveolar hyperplasias that arise in lung cancer induced in the A/J mouse by NNK. The DAP-kinase gene was not expressed in three of five NNK-induced lung tumor-derived cell lines or in a spontaneously arising lung tumor-derived cell line. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored expression; dense methylation throughout the DAP-kinase CpG island detected by bisulfite sequencing supported methylation as the inactivating event in these cell lines. Methylation-specific PCR detected inactivation of the DAP-kinase gene in 43% of tumors associated with cigarette smoke, a frequency similar to those reported in human non-small cell lung cancer. In addition, DAP-kinase methylation was detected in 52%, 60%, and 50% of tumors associated with NNK, vinyl carbamate, and methylene chloride, respectively. Methylation was observed at similar prevalence in both NNK-induced hyperplasias and adenocarcinomas (46% versus 52%), suggesting that inactivation of this gene is one pathway for tumor development in the mouse lung. Bisulfite sequencing of both premalignant and malignant lesions revealed dense methylation, substantiating that this gene is functionally inactivated at the earliest histological stages of adenocarcinoma development. This study is the first to use a murine model of cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer and demonstrate commonality for inactivation by promoter hypermethylation of a gene implicated in the development

  8. Pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound increases penetration and therapeutic efficacy of monoclonal antibodies in murine xenograft tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shutao; Shin, In Soo; Hancock, Hilary; Jang, Beom-su; Kim, Hyung-sub; Lee, Sang Myung; Zderic, Vesna; Frenkel, Victor; Pastan, Ira; Paik, Chang H.; Dreher, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    The success of radioimmunotherapy for solid tumors remains elusive due to poor biodistribution and insufficient tumor accumulation, in part, due to the unique tumor microenvironment resulting in heterogeneous tumor antibody distribution. Pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pulsed-HIFU) has previously been shown to increase the accumulation of 111In labeled B3 antibody (recognizes Lewisy antigen). The objective of this study was to investigate the tumor penetration and therapeutic efficacy of pulsed-HIFU exposures combined with 90Y labeled B3 mAb in an A431 solid tumor model. The ability of pulsed-HIFU (1 MHz, spatial averaged temporal peak intensity = 2685 Wcm−2; pulse repetition frequency = 1 Hz; duty cycle = 5%) to improve the tumor penetration and therapeutic efficacy of 90Y labeled B3 mAb (90Y-B3) was evaluated in Ley-positive A431 tumors. Antibody penetration from the tumor surface and blood vessel surface was evaluated with fluorescently labeled B3, epi-fluorescent microscopy, and custom image analysis. Tumor size was monitored to determine treatment efficacy, indicated by survival, following various treatments with pulsed-HIFU and/or 90Y-B3. The pulsed-HIFU exposures did not affect the vascular parameters including microvascular density, vascular size, and vascular architecture; although 1.6-fold more antibody was delivered to the solid tumors when combined with pulsed-HIFU. The distribution and penetration of the antibodies were significantly improved (p-value < 0.05) when combined with pulsed-HIFU, only in the tumor periphery. Pretreatment with pulsed-HIFU significantly improved (p-value < 0.05) survival over control treatments. PMID:22732476

  9. Vaccinia virus Transmission through Experimentally Contaminated Milk Using a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Fraiha, Ana Luiza Soares; Costa, Aristóteles Gomes; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Fiúza, Aparecida Tatiane Lino; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2015-01-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects dairy cattle and humans. Previous studies have detected the presence of viable virus particles in bovine milk samples naturally and experimentally contaminated with VACV. However, it is not known whether milk contaminated with VACV could be a route of viral transmission. However, anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies were detected in humans from BV endemic areas, whom had no contact with affected cows, which suggest that other VACV transmission routes are possible, such as consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Therefore, it is important to study the possibility of VACV transmission by contaminated milk. This study aimed to examine VACV transmission, pathogenesis and shedding in mice orally inoculated with experimentally contaminated milk. Thirty mice were orally inoculated with milk containing 107 PFU/ml of VACV, and ten mice were orally inoculated with uncontaminated milk. Clinical examinations were performed for 30 consecutive days, and fecal samples and oral swabs (OSs) were collected every other day. Mice were euthanized on predetermined days, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Nested-PCR, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), viral isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods were performed on the collected samples. No clinical changes were observed in the animals. Viral DNA was detected in feces, blood, OSs and tissues, at least in one of the times tested. The lungs displayed moderate to severe interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, and only the heart, tonsils, tongue, and stomach did not show immunostaining at the IHC analysis. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the 20th and 30th days post infection in 50% of infected mice. The results revealed that VACV contaminated milk could be a route of viral transmission in mice experimentally infected, showing systemic distribution and shedding through feces and oral mucosa, albeit

  10. Antitumor activity of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract in human and murine tumor models in vitro and in a colon-26 tumor-bearing mouse model in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Narayanan K; Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Yamori, Yukio; Mori, Mari; Mori, Hideki; Nakamura, Kazuki; Miller, George; Manne, Upender; Tiwari, Amit K; Narayanan, Bhagavathi

    2015-01-01

    Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract (MSE) and its active ingredient gnetin C (GC), a resveratrol dimer, have been shown to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of MSE and GC using human and murine tumor cell culture models in vitro. The antitumor activity of GC was compared with trans-resveratrol (tRV), a stilbenoid polyphenol. Our results show that MSE and GC at clinically achievable concentrations significantly inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic, prostate, breast, and colon cancer cell types (P < 0.05), without affecting normal cells. Interestingly, GC exerts enhanced antitumor activity than that of tRV (P < 0.05). MSE and GC significantly induced apoptosis in all the cancer cells, indicating MSE and GC inhibit tumor cell growth by inducing apoptosis (P < 0.001). Our findings provide evidence that MSE might induce apoptosis in cancer cells via caspase-3/7-dependent and -independent mechanisms. However, GC might trigger both early and late stage apoptosis in cancer cells, at least in part by activating caspase 3/7-dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the antitumor efficacy of MSE observed in vitro was also validated in a widely used colon-26 tumor-bearing mouse model. Oral administration of MSE at 50 and 100 mg/kg per day significantly inhibited tumor growth, intratumoral angiogenesis, and liver metastases in BALB/c mice bearing colon-26 tumors (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that MSE and GC have potent antitumor activity. Most importantly, we provide the first evidence that MSE inhibits tumor growth, intratumoral angiogenesis, and liver metastasis in a colon-26 tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26408414

  11. The Effects of Pulsed Radiation Therapy on Tumor Oxygenation in 2 Murine Models of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wobb, Jessica; Krueger, Sarah A.; Kane, Jonathan L.; Galoforo, Sandra; Grills, Inga S.; Wilson, George D.; Marples, Brian

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of low-dose pulsed radiation therapy (PRT) in 2 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenografts and to investigate the mechanism of action of PRT compared with standard radiation therapy (SRT). Methods and Materials: Subcutaneous radiosensitive UT-SCC-14 and radioresistant UT-SCC-15 xenografts were established in athymic NIH III HO female mice. Tumors were irradiated with 2 Gy/day by continuous standard delivery (SRT: 2 Gy) or discontinuous low-dose pulsed delivery (PRT: 0.2 Gy × 10 with 3-min pulse interval) to total doses of 20 Gy (UT14) or 40 Gy (UT15) using a clinical 5-day on/2-day off schedule. Treatment response was assessed by changes in tumor volume, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) (tumor metabolism), and {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) (hypoxia) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging before, at midpoint, and after treatment. Tumor hypoxia using pimonidazole staining and vascular density (CD34 staining) were assessed by quantitative histopathology. Results: UT15 and UT14 tumors responded similarly in terms of growth delay to either SRT or PRT. When compared with UT14 tumors, UT15 tumors demonstrated significantly lower uptake of FDG at all time points after irradiation. UT14 tumors demonstrated higher levels of tumor hypoxia after SRT when compared with PRT as measured by {sup 18}F-FMISO PET. By contrast, no differences were seen in {sup 18}F-FMISO PET imaging between SRT and PRT for UT15 tumors. Histologic analysis of pimonidazole staining mimicked the {sup 18}F-FMISO PET imaging data, showing an increase in hypoxia in SRT-treated UT14 tumors but not PRT-treated tumors. Conclusions: Differences in {sup 18}F-FMISO uptake for UT14 tumors after radiation therapy between PRT and SRT were measurable despite the similar tumor growth delay responses. In UT15 tumors, both SRT and PRT were equally effective at reducing tumor hypoxia to a significant level as measured by {sup 18}F-FMISO and pimonidazole.

  12. Role of CD8^+ T Cells in Murine Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Sheng-Le; Pernis, Benvenuto

    1992-05-01

    The course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, is affected by immunoregulatory T lymphocytes. When animals are immunized with encephalitogenic peptide of myelin basic protein and recover from the first episode of EAE, they become resistant to a second induction of this disease. Animals depleted of CD8^+ T cells by antibody-mediated clearance were used to examine the role of CD8^+ T cells in EAE. These cells were found to be major participants in the resistance to a second induction of EAE but were not essential for spontaneous recovery from the first episode of the disease.

  13. Intra-adrenal murine TH-MYCN neuroblastoma tumors grow more aggressive and exhibit a distinct tumor microenvironment relative to their subcutaneous equivalents.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Michiel; Brok, Ingrid C; Reijnen, Daphne; van Hout-Kuijer, Maaike A; Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; Den Brok, Martijn H; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Adema, Gosse J

    2015-05-01

    In around half of the patients with neuroblastoma (NBL), the primary tumor is located in one of the adrenal glands. We have previously reported on a transplantable TH-MYCN model of subcutaneous (SC) growing NBL in C57Bl/6 mice for immunological studies. In this report, we describe an orthotopic TH-MYCN transplantable model where the tumor cells were injected intra-adrenally (IA) by microsurgery. Strikingly, 9464D cells grew out much faster in IA tumors compared to the subcutis. Tumors were infiltrated by equal numbers of lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Within the myeloid cell population, however, tumor-infiltrating macrophages were more abundant in IA tumors compared to SC tumors and expressed lower levels of MHC class II, indicative of a more immunosuppressive phenotype. Using 9464D cells stably expressing firefly luciferase, enhanced IA tumor growth could be confirmed using bioluminescence. Collectively, these data show that the orthotopic IA localization of TH-MYCN cells impacts the NBL tumor microenvironment, resulting in a more stringent NBL model to study novel immunotherapeutic approaches for NBL. PMID:25687736

  14. Effect of the drug Lonidamine on Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro and on experimental tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rotin, D.; Tannock, I.F.

    1984-09-01

    Hypoxic cells in solid tumors are known to be resistant to radiation, and may also be resistant to some anti-cancer drugs. Biochemical properties of hypoxic cells, such as their dependence on anaerobic glycolysis leading to production of lactate and low pH might have potential for inhibition by drugs with selective activity against hypoxic cells. Such drugs might improve the Therapeutic Index when used with radiation or some conventional anti-cancer drugs. Lonidamine, an inhibitor of mitochondrially-bound hexokinase and lactate transport, was cytotoxic to CHO cells at low pH, but had no effect at physiological pH under aerobic or hypoxic conditions. Lonidamine has also been tested for in vivo effects against three murine tumors: the KHT fibrosarcoma, 16/C mammary carcinoma and the Lewis Lung Tumor. The drug was tested either alone, or with radiation or Adriamycin to kill aerobic cells, and/or with glucose and insulin to lower intra-tumor pH. No major therapeutic effects have been demonstrated.

  15. Molecular Profile of Tumor-Specific CD8+ T Cell Hypofunction in a Transplantable Murine Cancer Model.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Katherine A; Leach, Sonia M; Moore, Brandon L; Bruno, Tullia C; Buhrman, Jonathan D; Slansky, Jill E

    2016-08-15

    Mechanisms of self-tolerance often result in CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) with a hypofunctional phenotype incapable of tumor clearance. Using a transplantable colon carcinoma model, we found that CD8(+) T cells became tolerized in <24 h in an established tumor environment. To define the collective impact of pathways suppressing TIL function, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells from the tumor and periphery. Notably, gene expression induced during TIL hypofunction more closely resembled self-tolerance than viral exhaustion. Differential gene expression was refined to identify a core set of genes that defined hypofunctional TIL; these data comprise the first molecular profile of tumor-specific TIL that are naturally responding and represent a polyclonal repertoire. The molecular profile of TIL was further dissected to determine the extent of overlap and distinction between pathways that collectively restrict T cell functions. As suggested by the molecular profile of TIL, protein expression of inhibitory receptor LAG-3 was differentially regulated throughout prolonged late-G1/early-S phase of the cell cycle. Our data may accelerate efficient identification of combination therapies to boost anti-tumor function of TIL specifically against tumor cells. PMID:27371726

  16. Tumor Microenvironment Remodeling by 4-Methylumbelliferone Boosts the Antitumor Effect of Combined Immunotherapy in Murine Colorectal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Malvicini, Mariana; Fiore, Esteban; Ghiaccio, Valentina; Piccioni, Flavia; Rizzo, Miguel; Olmedo Bonadeo, Lucila; García, Mariana; Rodríguez, Marcelo; Bayo, Juan; Peixoto, Estanislao; Atorrasagasti, Catalina; Alaniz, Laura; Aquino, Jorge; Matar, Pablo; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2015-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a low dose of cyclophosphamide (Cy) combined with gene therapy of interleukin-12 (AdIL-12) has a synergistic, although limited, antitumoral effect in mice with colorectal carcinoma. The main mechanism involved in the efficacy of Cy+AdIL-12 was the induction of a specific immune response mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Our current aims were to evaluate the effects of 4-methylumbelliferone (4Mu), a selective inhibitor of hyaluronan (HA) synthesis, on tumor microenvironment (TME) and to investigate how 4Mu affects the therapeutic efficacy of Cy+AdIL-12. The results showed that 4Mu significantly reduced the amount of tumoral HA leading to a significant decrease in tumor interstitial pressure (TIP). As a consequence, tumor perfusion was improved allowing an increased adenoviral transgene expression. In addition, treatment with 4Mu boosted the number of cytotoxic T lymphocytes that reach the tumor after adoptive transfer resulting in a potent inhibition of tumor growth. Importantly, we observed complete tumor regression in 75% of mice when 4Mu was administrated in combination with Cy+AdIL-12. The triple combination 4Mu+Cy+AdIL-12 also induced a shift toward antiangiogenic factors production in tumor milieu. Our results showed that TME remodeling is an interesting strategy to increase the efficacy of anticancer immunotherapies based on gene and/or cell therapy. PMID:26105158

  17. STRAIN-SPECIFIC SENSITIVITY TO INDUCTION OF MURINE LUNG TUMORS FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously demonstrated that different strains of fetal mice were more sensitive to lung tumor induction by 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) than were adults. Offspring from either a D2 x B6D2F1 backcross or from parental Balb/c mice exhibited a similar high incidence of lung tumors ...

  18. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is effective in a murine model of experimental Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Al-Mathal, Ebtisam M; Alsalem, Afaf M

    2012-07-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, a major health issue for neonatal calves, is caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, which is highly resistant to drug treatments. To date, many anti-parasitic drugs have been tested, but only a few have been shown to be partially effective in treating cryptosporidiosis. Previous studies have indicated that pomegranate (Punica granatum) possesses anti-plasmodium, anti-cestode, and anti-nematode activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. granatum peel on suckling mice infected with experimental C. parvum. At 4days of age, 72 neonatal albino mice were randomly divided into five groups: G1: healthy controls, G2: infected/untreated controls, G3: uninfected/distilled water-treated, G4: uninfected/P. granatum peel-treated, and G5: infected/P. granatum peel-treated. Mice were experimentally-infected by oral administration of 1×10(3)C. parvum oocysts per animal. On day 7 post-inoculation (pi), treated mice received an aqueous suspension of P. granatum peel orally (3g/kg body weight). The presence of diarrhea, oocyst shedding, and weight gain/loss, and the histopathology of ileal sections were examined. Infected mice treated with the P. granatum peel suspension showed improvement in all parameters examined. Additionally, these mice did not exhibit any clinical symptoms and no deaths occurred. Oocyst shedding was very significantly reduced in the P. granatum-treated mice by day 14 pi (P<.05), and was completely eliminated by day 28 pi. The mean weight gain of the P. granatum-treated mice was significantly higher than that of the infected/untreated controls throughout the study (P<.01). Histopathological analysis of ileal sections further supported the clinical and parasitological findings. The histological architecture of villi from the P. granatum-treated mice on day 14 pi showed visible improvement in comparison with the infected/untreated controls, including renewed brush borders, reduced numbers of C. parvum

  19. Cellular and molecular aspects of the pathomechanism and therapy of murine experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tabira, T

    1989-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Its immune mechanism is well understood at the cellular and molecular levels, which is herein reviewed. Susceptibility to EAE is under the control of the genes partially inside and partially outside the H-2 complex. There are two myelin constituents known to be encephalitogenic, myelin basic protein and proteolipid apoprotein. EAE is mediated by effector T cells sensitized to the encephalitogen. Effector T cells bear surface phenotypes of Lyt1+2-, L3T4+, and they are activated by the encephalitogen/self Ia complex or certain alloantigens and acquire encephalitogenic activity. By unknown homing mechanisms, the effector T cells invade the CNS and induce the target phase phenomena, which include Ia-antigen expression in the local tissue, activation of procoagulant activity, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, and excretion of lymphokines which induce inflammation and demyelination, resulting in functional alteration. Possibility of specific immune therapy is postulated as a model for human autoimmune disease. PMID:2484301

  20. Experimental Demyelination and Remyelination of Murine Spinal Cord by Focal Injection of Lysolecithin

    PubMed Central

    Keough, Michael B.; Jensen, Samuel K.; Yong, V. Wee

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by plaque formation containing lost oligodendrocytes, myelin, axons, and neurons. Remyelination is an endogenous repair mechanism whereby new myelin is produced subsequent to proliferation, recruitment, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes, and is necessary to protect axons from further damage. Currently, all therapeutics for the treatment of multiple sclerosis target the aberrant immune component of the disease, which reduce inflammatory relapses but do not prevent progression to irreversible neurological decline. It is therefore imperative that remyelination-promoting strategies be developed which may delay disease progression and perhaps reverse neurological symptoms. Several animal models of demyelination exist, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and curprizone; however, there are limitations in their use for studying remyelination. A more robust approach is the focal injection of toxins into the central nervous system, including the detergent lysolecithin into the spinal cord white matter of rodents. In this protocol, we demonstrate that the surgical procedure involved in injecting lysolecithin into the ventral white matter of mice is fast, cost-effective, and requires no additional materials than those commercially available. This procedure is important not only for studying the normal events involved in the remyelination process, but also as a pre-clinical tool for screening candidate remyelination-promoting therapeutics. PMID:25867716

  1. The role of fludarabine-induced apoptosis and cell cycle synchronization in enhanced murine tumor radiation response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, V; Van, N T; Stephens, L C; Brock, W A; Milas, L; Plunkett, W; Hittelman, W N

    1994-12-01

    We have previously reported that fludarabine, an adenine nucleoside analogue, significantly enhances radiation-induced tumor regrowth delay and local cure in several mouse tumors. Although fludarabine potentiated tumor regrowth delay at various times from -36 h to +6 h in a SA-NH mouse sarcoma model, the greatest enhancement was observed when fludarabine was administered 24 h before irradiation. The purpose of this study was to understand the basis for in vivo enhancement of radiation efficacy by fludarabine. To examine the effect of fludarabine on DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression, tumor-bearing mice were given fludarabine by an i.p. route and then bromodeoxyuridine at various times up to 36 h, followed 0.5 h later by tumor harvest. Two-parameter flow cytometry analysis of the tumor cells using an anti-bromodeoxyuridine antibody demonstrated that an 800-mg/kg fludarabine dose stops DNA synthesis within 3 h with recovery starting at 12 h. By 24 h after fludarabine treatment, a synchronized wave of cycling tumor cells appeared in G2-M phase. The degree of DNA synthesis shutdown and the timing of the reinitiation of DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression were all fludarabine dose dependent. Interestingly, DNA synthesis reinitiated only at the G1-S boundary; cells in the S phase at the time of fludarabine administration appeared to disappear from the tumor population. To confirm these observations more directly, we pretreated tumor-bearing mice i.p. with chlorodeoxyuridine to mark the cells in the S phase, gave them fludarabine 0.5 h later, and then gave them iododeoxyuridine 0.5 h before tumor harvest. Flow cytometry analysis using antibodies specific for chlorodeoxyuridine- and iododeoxyuridined-labeled cells confirmed that cells in the S phase at the time of fludarabine administration never reinitiated DNA synthesis and disappeared from the tumor population. Immunohistological analysis of tumor sections obtained after fludarabine administration

  2. Studies on the mechanisms responsible for inhibition of experimental metastasis of B16-F10 murine melanoma by pentoxifylline.

    PubMed

    Gude, R P; Binda, M M; Presas, H L; Klein-Szanto, A J; Bonfil, R D

    1999-01-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative widely used as a hemorheological agent in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, was studied to unveil the mechanisms responsible for its inhibitory action on B16-F10 experimental metastasis. In vitro pretreatment of B16-F10 cells with noncytotoxic concentrations of PTX significantly inhibited their adhesion to reconstituted basement membrane Matrigel(R) and type IV collagen as well as the relative activity of secreted 92 kD metalloproteinase. However, PTX pretreatment of B16-F10 cells did not affect their in vitro invasiveness. Heterotypic organ adhesion assays carried out with B16-F10 cells and suspended organ tissues demonstrated that pretreatment with noncytotoxic concentrations of PTX of both, tumor cells or lung tissue, brought about a dose-dependent inhibition of melanoma cell adhesion to lung. Immunohistochemical studies using antibodies against CD31 adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) revealed that B16-F10 cells adhere to lung endothelial cells. Our results suggest that PTX may exert its inhibitory effect on tumor lodgment, and as a consequence of that on experimental metastases, through an inhibitory action on cell adhesion molecules. PMID:10087444

  3. Gene Electrotransfer of Plasmid with Tissue Specific Promoter Encoding shRNA against Endoglin Exerts Antitumor Efficacy against Murine TS/A Tumors by Vascular Targeted Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stimac, Monika; Dolinsek, Tanja; Lampreht, Ursa; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Vascular targeted therapies, targeting specific endothelial cell markers, are promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. One of the targets is endoglin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) co-receptor, which mediates proliferation, differentiation and migration of endothelial cells forming neovasculature. However, its specific, safe and long-lasting targeting remains the challenge. Therefore, in our study we evaluated the transfection efficacy, vascular targeted effects and therapeutic potential of the plasmid silencing endoglin with the tissue specific promoter, specific for endothelial cells marker endothelin-1 (ET) (TS plasmid), in comparison to the plasmid with constitutive promoter (CON plasmid), in vitro and in vivo. Tissue specificity of TS plasmid was demonstrated in vitro on several cell lines, and its antiangiogenic efficacy was demonstrated by reducing tube formation of 2H11 endothelial cells. In vivo, on a murine mammary TS/A tumor model, we demonstrated good antitumor effect of gene electrotransfer (GET) of either of both plasmids in treatment of smaller tumors still in avascular phase of growth, as well as on bigger tumors, already well vascularized. In support to the observations on predominantly vascular targeted effects of endoglin, histological analysis has demonstrated an increase in necrosis and a decrease in the number of blood vessels in therapeutic groups. A significant antitumor effect was observed in tumors in avascular and vascular phase of growth, possibly due to both, the antiangiogenic and the vascular disrupting effect. Furthermore, the study indicates on the potential use of TS plasmid in cancer gene therapy since the same efficacy as of CON plasmid was determined. PMID:25909447

  4. Estimating biologically relevant parameters under uncertainty for experimental within-host murine West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soumya; Guedj, Jeremie; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Moses, Melanie; Perelson, Alan S

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging pathogen that has decimated bird populations and caused severe outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans. Currently, little is known about the within-host viral kinetics of WNV during infection. We developed mathematical models to describe viral replication, spread and host immune response in wild-type and immunocompromised mice. Our approach fits a target cell-limited model to viremia data from immunocompromised knockout mice and an adaptive immune response model to data from wild-type mice. Using this approach, we first estimate parameters governing viral production and viral spread in the host using simple models without immune responses. We then use these parameters in a more complex immune response model to characterize the dynamics of the humoral immune response. Despite substantial uncertainty in input parameters, our analysis generates relatively precise estimates of important viral characteristics that are composed of nonlinear combinations of model parameters: we estimate the mean within-host basic reproductive number,R0, to be 2.3 (95% of values in the range 1.7-2.9); the mean infectious virion burst size to be 2.9 plaque-forming units (95% of values in the range 1.7-4.7); and the average number of cells infected per infectious virion to be between 0.3 and 0.99. Our analysis gives mechanistic insights into the dynamics of WNV infection and produces estimates of viral characteristics that are difficult to measure experimentally. These models are a first step towards a quantitative understanding of the timing and effectiveness of the humoral immune response in reducing host viremia and consequently the epidemic spread of WNV. PMID:27075003

  5. Efficacy of Lychnopholide Polymeric Nanocapsules after Oral and Intravenous Administration in Murine Experimental Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Carlos Geraldo Campos; Branquinho, Renata Tupinambá; Oliveira, Maykon Tavares; Milagre, Matheus Marques; Saúde-Guimarães, Dênia Antunes; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado; Lana, Marta de

    2016-09-01

    The etiological treatment of Chagas disease remains neglected. The compounds available show several limitations, mainly during the chronic phase. Lychnopholide encapsulated in polymeric nanocapsules (LYC-NC) was efficacious in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and treated by intravenous administration during the acute phase (AP). As the oral route is preferred for treatment of chronic infections, such as Chagas disease, this study evaluated the use of oral LYC-NC in the AP and also compared it with LYC-NC administered to mice by the oral and intravenous routes during the chronic phase (CP). The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by fresh blood examination, hemoculture, PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cure rates in the AP and CP were 62.5% and 55.6%, respectively, upon oral administration of LYC-poly(d,l-lactide)-polyethylene glycol nanocapsules (LYC-PLA-PEG-NC) and 57.0% and 30.0%, respectively, with LYC-poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules (LYC-PCL-NC). These cure rates were significantly higher than that of free LYC, which did not cure any animals. LYC-NC formulations administered orally during the AP showed cure rates similar to that of benznidazole, but only LYC-NC cured mice in the CP. Similar results were achieved with intravenous treatment during the CP. The higher cure rates obtained with LYC loaded in PLA-PEG-NC may be due to the smaller particle size of these NC and the presence of PEG, which influence tissue diffusion and the controlled release of LYC. Furthermore, PLA-PEG-NC may improve the stability of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. This work is the first report of cure of experimental Chagas disease via oral administration during the CP. These findings represent a new and important perspective for oral treatment of Chagas disease. PMID:27324760

  6. Macrophage Phenotype in the Ocular Surface of Experimental Murine Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    You, In-Cheon; Coursey, Terry G; Bian, Fang; Barbosa, Flavia L; de Paiva, Cintia S; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the phenotype of macrophages in the cornea and conjunctiva of C57BL/6 mice with induced experimental dry eye. C57BL/6 mice exposed to desiccating stress (DS) were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 days and C57BL/6 mice maintained in non-stressed environment were used as controls. Whole eyes and adnexa were excised for histology or used for gene expression analysis. Location and phenotype of macrophages infiltrating the cornea and conjunctiva was evaluated by immunofluorescence analysis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction evaluated macrophage markers and T cell-related and inflammatory cytokine expression in cornea and conjunctiva. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that macrophages reside in the conjunctiva of control and dry eye mice and their number did not change with DS. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the level of M1 macrophage marker, iNOS, increased prominently in the conjunctiva at DS 10 days. In contrast, there was a non-significant decrease of the M2 marker Arg1 with DS. The levels of inflammatory cytokine, IL-12a mRNA transcript in the conjunctiva increased significantly at DS1 and decreased at DS5, while levels of IL-18 were significantly increased at DS 10. Macrophages reside in the ocular surface tissues of C57BL/6 mice. Although the number of macrophages in the conjunctiva does not change, evidence of inflammatory M1 activation after desiccating stress was observed. Better understanding of phagocyte diversity and activation in dry eye disease provide a basis for the development of phagocyte-targeted therapeutic strategies. PMID:25772203

  7. Systemic delivery of chTNT-3/CpG immunoconjugates for immunotherapy in murine solid tumor models.

    PubMed

    Jang, Julie K; Khawli, Leslie A; Canter, David C; Hu, Peisheng; Zhu, Tian H; Wu, Brian W; Angell, Trevor E; Li, Zhongjun; Epstein, Alan L

    2016-05-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) potently activate the immune system by mimicking microbial DNA. Conjugation of CpG to chTNT-3, an antibody targeting the necrotic centers of tumors, enabled CpG to accumulate in tumors after systemic delivery, where it can activate the immune system in the presence of tumor antigens. CpG chemically conjugated to chTNT-3 (chTNT-3/CpG) were compared to free CpG in their ability to stimulate the immune system in vitro and reduce tumor burden in vivo. In subcutaneous Colon 26 adenocarcinoma and B16-F10 melanoma models in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, respectively, chTNT-3/CpG, free CpG, or several different control constructs were administered systemically. Intraperitoneal injections of chTNT-3/CpG delayed tumor growth and improved survival and were comparable to intratumorally administered CpG. Compared to saline-treated mice, chTNT-3/CpG-treated mice had smaller average tumor volumes by as much as 72% in Colon 26-bearing mice and 79% in B16-bearing mice. Systemically delivered free CpG and CpG conjugated to an isotype control antibody did not reduce tumor burden or improve survival. In this study, chTNT-3/CpG retained immunostimulatory activity of the CpG moiety and enabled delivery to tumors. Because systemically administered CpG rapidly clear the body and do not accumulate into tumors, chTNT-3/CpG provide a solution to the limitations observed in preclinical and clinical trials. PMID:26960932

  8. The antioxidant response induced by Lonicera caerulaea berry extracts in animals bearing experimental solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Gruia, Maria Iuliana; Oprea, Eliza; Gruia, Ion; Negoita, Valentina; Farcasanu, Ileana Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    Lonicera caerulea is a species of bush native to the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Far East) whose berries have been extensively studied due to their potential high antioxidant activity. The aim of our work was to investigate the in vivo effects of the antioxidant action of Lonicera caerulea berry extracts on the dynamics of experimentally-induced tumors. Our data showed that aqueous Lonicera caerulaea extracts reduced the tumor volume when administered continuously during the tumor growth and development stages, but augmented the tumor growth when the administration of extracts started three weeks before tumor grafting. Prolonged administration of Lonicera caerulaea berry extracts induced the antioxidant defense mechanism in the tumor tissues, while surprisingly amplifying the peripheral oxidative stress. PMID:18560338

  9. Regional measurements of /sup 14/Cmisonidazole distribution and blood flow in subcutaneous RT-9 experimental tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Blasberg, R.; Horowitz, M.; Strong, J.; Molnar, P.; Patlak, C.; Owens, E.; Fenstermacher, J.

    1985-04-01

    Regional (/sup 14/C)misonidazole-derived radioactivity (MISO*) was measured by quantitative autoradiography in s.c. RT-9 experimental tumors 0.5, 2, and 4 h after an i.v. bolus (25 mg) and constant infusion (10 mg/h) in rats. Misonidazole (MISO) concentration in plasma, tumor, and other tissues was also measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The distribution of MISO* in the tumors always resulted in a characteristic pattern with high peripheral and low central values. The high-activity regions in the tumor rim achieved tissue: plasma MISO* activity ratios of 0.97 and 2.2 by 0.5 and 4 h, respectively; for central tumor regions, this ratio was 0.20 and 0.32 for the same periods, respectively. The limited distribution of MISO* to central tumor regions could be correlated to low values of blood flow (measured with (/sup 131/I)iodoantipyrine) and to diffusion from peripheral tumor regions. Low blood flow in the central regions of these tumors will significantly limit the distribution of MISO and other drugs to viable-appearing cells in these areas and could account in part for the failures of chemotherapy in certain solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic modeling indicates that 1 to 9 h may be necessary for MISO concentrations in some tumor regions to reach 50% of that in plasma.

  10. Molecular changes in bone marrow, tumor and serum after conductive ablation of murine 4T1 breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Przybyla, Beata D; Shafirstein, Gal; Vishal, Sagar J; Dennis, Richard A; Griffin, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Thermal ablation of solid tumors using conductive interstitial thermal therapy (CITT) produces coagulative necrosis in the center of ablation. Local changes in homeostasis for surviving tumor and systemic changes in circulation and distant organs must be understood and monitored in order to prevent tumor re-growth and metastasis. The purpose of this study was to use a mouse carcinoma model to evaluate molecular changes in the bone marrow and surviving tumor after CITT treatment by quantification of transcripts associated with cancer progression and hyperthermia, serum cytokines, stress proteins and the marrow/tumor cross-talk regulator stromal-derived factor 1. Analysis of 27 genes and 22 proteins with quantitative PCR, ELISA, immunoblotting and multiplex antibody assays revealed that the gene and protein expression in tissue and serum was significantly different between ablated and control mice. The transcripts of four genes (Cxcl12, Sele, Fgf2, Lifr) were significantly higher in the bone marrow of treated mice. Tumors surviving ablation showed significantly lower levels of the Lifr and Sele transcripts. Similarly, the majority of transcripts measured in tumors decreased with treatment. Surviving tumors also contained lower levels of SDF-1α and HIF-1α proteins whereas HSP27 and HSP70 were higher. Of 16 serum chemokines, IFNγ and GM-CSF levels were lower with treatment. These results indicate that CITT ablation causes molecular changes which may slow cancer cell proliferation. However, inhibition of HSP27 may be necessary to control aggressiveness of surviving cancer stem cells. The changes in bone marrow are suggestive of possible increased recruitment of circulatory cancer cells. Therefore, the possibility of heightened bone metastasis after thermal ablation needs to be further investigated and inhibition strategies developed, if warranted. PMID:24270800

  11. Trastuzumab improves tumor perfusion and vascular delivery of cytotoxic therapy in a murine model of HER2+ breast cancer: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Sorace, Anna G; Quarles, C Chad; Whisenant, Jennifer G; Hanker, Ariella B; McIntyre, J Oliver; Sanchez, Violeta M; Yankeelov, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    To employ in vivo imaging and histological techniques to identify and quantify vascular changes early in the course of treatment with trastuzumab in a murine model of HER2+ breast cancer. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was used to quantitatively characterize vessel perfusion/permeability (via the parameter K (trans) ) and the extravascular extracellular volume fraction (v e ) in the BT474 mouse model of HER2+ breast cancer (N = 20) at baseline, day one, and day four following trastuzumab treatment (10 mg/kg). Additional cohorts of mice were used to quantify proliferation (Ki67), microvessel density (CD31), pericyte coverage (α-SMA) by immunohistochemistry (N = 44), and to quantify human VEGF-A expression (N = 29) throughout the course of therapy. Longitudinal assessment of combination doxorubicin ± trastuzumab (N = 42) tested the hypothesis that prior treatment with trastuzumab will increase the efficacy of subsequent doxorubicin therapy. Compared to control tumors, trastuzumab-treated tumors exhibited a significant increase in K (trans) (P = 0.035) on day four, indicating increased perfusion and/or vessel permeability and a simultaneous significant increase in v e (P = 0.01), indicating increased cell death. Immunohistochemical and ELISA analyses revealed that by day four the trastuzumab-treated tumors had a significant increase in vessel maturation index (i.e., the ratio of α-SMA to CD31 staining) compared to controls (P < 0.001) and a significant decrease in VEGF-A (P = 0.03). Additionally, trastuzumab dosing prior to doxorubicin improved the overall effectiveness of the therapies (P < 0.001). This study identifies and validates improved perfusion characteristics following trastuzumab therapy, resulting in an improvement in trastuzumab-doxorubicin combination therapy in a murine model of HER2+ breast cancer. This data suggests properties of vessel maturation. In particular, the use of DCE-MRI, a clinically

  12. Integration of the BALB/c ecotropic provirus into the colony-stimulating factor-1 growth factor locus in a myc retrovirus-induced murine monocyte tumor.

    PubMed

    Baumbach, W R; Colston, E M; Cole, M D

    1988-09-01

    The development of tumors is thought to be a multistage process that requires an unknown number of genetic or epigenetic changes in a single cell. We previously described a murine monocyte tumor which was induced by a helper-free c-myc retrovirus and which also contained a DNA rearrangement at the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) locus. The CSF-1 gene rearrangement gave rise to high levels of growth factor production and autocrine growth, implicating this secondary event in tumorigenesis. This CSF-1 gene rearrangement was found to be the result of integration of the BALB/c ecotropic retrovirus. Restriction enzyme mapping and DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the novel provirus is identical to the BALB/c endogenous ecotropic provirus, indicating that infection was probably not due to the creation of a recombinant virus in vivo. The proviral integration site was mapped 3 kilobases 5' of the CSF-1 promoter and in an opposite transcriptional orientation, indicating that activation of CSF-1 expression was the result of the presence of the retroviral enhancer element. PMID:3261346

  13. The triterpenoid CDDO-Me delays murine acute graft-versus-host disease with the preservation of graft-versus-tumor effects after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghui; Sun, Kai; Redelman, Doug; Welniak, Lisbeth A.; Murphy, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and tumor relapse represent the two major obstacles impeding the efficacy of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in cancer. We have previously shown that the synthetic triterpenoid CDDO can inhibit murine early acute GVHD but anti-tumor effects were not assessed. In the current study, we found that a new derivative of CDDO, CDDO-Me, had an increased ability to inhibit allogeneic T cell responses and induce cell death of alloreactive T cells in vitro. Administration of CDDO-Me to mice following allogeneic BMT resulted in significant and increased protection from acute lethal GVHD compared to CDDO. This correlated with reduced TNF-α production, reduced donor T cell proliferation and decreased adhesion molecule (α4β7 integrin) expression on the donor T cells. CDDO-Me was also superior to CDDO in inhibiting leukemia growth in vitro. When CDDO-Me was administered following an allogeneic BMT to leukemia-bearing mice, significant increases in survival were observed. These findings suggest that CDDO-Me is superior to CDDO in delaying acute GVHD while preserving or possibly even augmenting GVT effects. PMID:20338256

  14. Fluence Rate Differences in Photodynamic Therapy Efficacy and Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor after Treatment of the Tumor-Involved Murine Thoracic Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Craig E.; Carter, Shirron L.; Czupryna, Julie; Wang, Le; Putt, Mary E.; Busch, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the thoracic cavity can be performed in conjunction with surgery to treat cancers of the lung and its pleura. However, illumination of the cavity results in tissue exposure to a broad range of fluence rates. In a murine model of intrathoracic PDT, we studied the efficacy of 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH; Photochlor®)-mediated PDT in reducing the burden of non-small cell lung cancer for treatments performed at different incident fluence rates (75 versus 150 mW/cm). To better understand a role for growth factor signaling in disease progression after intrathoracic PDT, the expression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was evaluated in areas of post-treatment proliferation. The low fluence rate of 75 mW/cm produced the largest reductions in tumor burden. Bioluminescent imaging and histological staining for cell proliferation (anti-Ki-67) identified areas of disease progression at both fluence rates after PDT. However, increased EGFR activation in proliferative areas was detected only after treatment at the higher fluence rate of 150 mW/cm. These data suggest that fluence rate may affect the activation of survival factors, such as EGFR, and weaker activation at lower fluence rate could contribute to a smaller tumor burden after PDT at 75 mW/cm. PMID:26784170

  15. A multi-antigen vaccine in combination with an immunotoxin targeting tumor-associated fibroblast for treating murine melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jinxu; Hu, Biliang; Li, Si; Zhang, Chupei; Liu, Yarong; Wang, Pin

    2016-01-01

    A therapeutically effective cancer vaccine must generate potent antitumor immune responses and be able to overcome tolerance mechanisms mediated by the progressing tumor itself. Previous studies showed that glycoprotein 100 (gp100), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) are promising immunogens for melanoma immunotherapy. In this study, we administered these three melanoma-associated antigens via lentiviral vectors (termed LV-3Ag) and found that this multi-antigen vaccine strategy markedly increased functional T-cell infiltration into tumors and generated protective and therapeutic antitumor immunity. We also engineered a novel immunotoxin, αFAP-PE38, capable of targeting fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-expressing fibroblasts within the tumor stroma. When combined with αFAP-PE38, LV-3Ag exhibited greatly enhanced antitumor effects on tumor growth in an established B16 melanoma model. The mechanism of action underlying this combination treatment likely modulates the immune suppressive tumor microenvironment and, consequently, activates cytotoxic CD8+ T cells capable of specifically recognizing and destroying tumor cells. Taken together, these results provide a strong rationale for combining an immunotoxin with cancer vaccines for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. PMID:27119119

  16. In vivo relaxation time measurements on a murine tumor model--prolongation of T1 after photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y H; Hawk, R M; Ramaprasad, S

    1995-01-01

    RIF tumors implanted on mice feet were investigated for changes in relaxation times (T1 and T2) after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photodynamic therapy was performed using Photofrin II as the photosensitizer and laser light at 630 nm. A home-built proton solenoid coil in the balanced configuration was used to accommodate the tumors, and the relaxation times were measured before, immediately after, and up to several hours after therapy. Several control experiments were performed untreated tumors, tumors treated with Photofrin II alone, or tumors treated with laser light alone. Significant increases in T1s of water protons were observed after PDT treatment. In all experiments, 31P spectra were recorded before and after the therapy to study the tumor status and to confirm the onset of PDT. These studies show significant prolongation of T1s after the PDT treatment. The spin-spin relaxation measurements, on the other hand, did not show such prolongation in T2 values after PDT treatment. PMID:7739367

  17. Targeting of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) in experimental immunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ravikumar, T.S.; Galbo, L.; Marini, C.; Kaplan, P.; Valmont, I.; Cunningham, J.N. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    We have previously shown the superiority of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) to function as effective immunogens when administered with bilayer membrane vesicles called liposomes. The ability of liposomes to target TAA to host antigen-presenting cells is analyzed here. 1-Butanol extracted TAA from two syngeneic rat colon cancer tumors (WB 2054 and W 1756) was radioiodinated (/sup 131/I-TAA). Free /sup 131/I and /sup 131/I-TAA (2.8 X 10(7) cpm and 75 micrograms TAA per rat) were used as tracers, with or without incorporation into liposomes (composition: sphingomyelin, cholesterol, dicetyl phosphate at 70:24:6 molar ratio). Six groups of male rats (BN X WF for WB2054 and Wistar/Furth for W1756, n = 18 each group) were injected iv with either free tracers or the tracers incorporated into liposomes. Whole blood clearance curve was biphasic (half-life alpha = 5 min; half life beta = 12 hr), suggesting a two-compartmental model of distribution. Seven animals from each group were sacrificed at set times (15 min to 48 hr), organs harvested and cpm/g of tissue estimated. Liposome /sup 131/I and liposome /sup 131/I-TAA were targeted to and retained preferentially in liver and spleen. Four animals from each group were imaged serially using a gamma camera. Matched pair analysis of regions showed persistently higher activity in liver-spleen area when liposomes were used (P less than 0.001). The uptake of radiolabeled antigens by plastic adherent mononuclear cells in liver and spleen was significantly higher when presented with liposomes (macrophage uptake index: liver = 1.65 vs 0.55; spleen = 5.85 vs 1.15; with and without liposomes, respectively).

  18. Characterization of the MDSC proteome associated with metastatic murine mammary tumors using label-free mass spectrometry and shotgun proteomics.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Angela M; McDonald, W Hayes; Shyr, Yu; Yang, Li; Lin, P Charles

    2011-01-01

    Expansion of Gr-1+/CD11b+ myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is governed by the presence of increasingly metastatic, malignant primary tumors. Metastasis, not the primary tumor, is often the cause of mortality. This study sought to fully characterize the MDSC proteome in response to metastatic and non-metastatic mammary tumors using label-free mass spectrometry shotgun proteomics in a mouse model with tumor cell lines, 67NR and 4T1, derived from the same tumor. 67NR cells form only primary mammary tumors, whereas 4T1 cells readily metastasize to the lungs, lymph nodes, and blood. Overall analysis identified a total of 2825 protein groups with a 0.78% false discovery rate. Of the 2814 true identifications, 43 proteins were exclusive to the 67NR group, 153 were exclusive to the 4T1 group, and 2618 were shared. Among the shared cohort, 26 proteins were increased and 31 were decreased in the metastatic 4T1 cohort compared to non-metastatic 67NR controls after filtering. MDSCs selectively express proteins involved in the γ-glutamyl transferase, glutathione synthase pathways, CREB transcription factor signaling, and other pathways involved in platelet aggregation, as well as lipid and amino acid metabolism, in response to highly metastatic 4T1 tumors. Cell cycle regulation dominated protein pathways and ontological groups of the 67NR non-metastatic group. Not only does this study provide a starting point to identify potential biomarkers of metastasis expressed by MDSCs; it identifies critical pathways that are unique to non-metastatic and metastatic conditions. Therapeutic interventions aimed at these pathways in MDSC may offer a new route to control malignancy and metastasis. PMID:21853032

  19. Antitumor activity of photodynamic therapy, adoptive immunotherapy, and chemotherapy in experimental tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canti, Gianfranco L.; Calastretti, Angela; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola; Valentini, Gianluca; Reddi, Elena; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2004-07-01

    Since Photodynamic therapy(PDT) is able to increase the antitumor immunity, in our laboratory we examine the antitumor effect of combination of PDT,with photoactivated Aluminium disulfonated Phthalocianine(ALS2Pc),adoptive immunotherapy, with immune lymphocytes, and chemotherapy on aggressive murine tumor. Mice bearing L1210 tumor were treated at day +4 with PDT ( 5mg/Kg of AlS2Pc and 100mW/cm2 x 10" of exposure of laser light 24hrs. later),at day +6 with Adriamycin(ADR 2mg/Kg) and at day + 7 with immune lymphocytes(IL),collected from L1210 bearing mice pretreated with PDT(2x107 cells).The results show that the combination ADR + PDT + IL demonstrates a significant synergistic antitumor effect while the chemotherapy treatment with low dose of the drug and the adotive immunotherapy treatment are slightly effective. The same positive results were obtained with the combination of PDT,Cisplatin(CDDP 2mg/Kg) and IL,while the CDDP treatment alone and the Il treatment alone are slightly effective. In conclusion these results suggest that it is possible to completely cure animals bearing advanced tumors, with a combined therapy, PDT + adoptive immunotherapy + low dose chemotherapy.

  20. Silica-induced apoptosis in murine macrophage: involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Gozal, Evelyne; Ortiz, Luis A; Zou, Xiaoyan; Burow, Matthew E; Lasky, Joseph A; Friedman, Mitchell

    2002-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play a critical role in silica-induced lung fibrosis. Silica exposure induces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, and apoptotic mechanisms have been implicated in silica-induced pathogenesis. To characterize potential relationships between these signaling events, we studied their induction in two murine macrophage cell lines. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was more sensitive, and the IC-21 macrophage cell line more tolerant to silica exposure (0.2 or 1 mg/ml for 6 h) as evidenced by significantly higher apoptotic responses in RAW 264.7 (P < 0.05). RAW 264.7 macrophages exhibited enhanced TNF-alpha production and NF-kappaB activation in response to silica, whereas IC-21 macrophages did not produce TNF-alpha in response to silica and did not induce NF-kappaB nuclear binding. Inhibition of NF-kappaB in RAW 264.7 cells with BAY11-7082 significantly increased apoptosis while inhibiting TNF-alpha release. In addition, TNF-alpha and NF-kappaB activation, but not apoptosis, were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in both cell lines, and NF-kappaB inhibition reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. These data suggest that TNF-alpha induction is dependent on NF-kappaB activation in both cell lines. However, silica can induce apoptosis in murine macrophages, independently of TNF-alpha stimulation, as in IC-21 macrophages. Furthermore, NF-kappaB activation in macrophages may play dual roles, both pro- and antiapoptotic during silica injury. PMID:12091251

  1. Metallofullerene-based Nanoplatform for Brain Tumor Brachytherapy and Longitudinal Imaging in a Murine Orthotopic Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Michael D.; Wilson, John D.; Fuller, Christine E.; Zhang, Jianyuan; Dorn, Harry C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate in an orthotopic xenograft brain tumor model that a functionalized metallofullerene (f-Gd3N@C80) can enable longitudinal tumor imaging and, when radiolabeled with lutetium 177 (177Lu) and tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid (DOTA) (177Lu-DOTA-f-Gd3N@C80), provide an anchor to deliver effective brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: All experiments involving the use of mice were carried out in accordance with protocols approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Human glioblastoma U87MG cells were implanted by using stereotactic procedures into the brains of 37 female athymic nude-Foxn1nu mice and allowed to develop into a tumor for 8 days. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in five mice. Biodistribution studies were performed in 12 mice at four time points over 7 days to evaluate gadolinium content. Survival studies involved 20 mice that received infusion of a nanoplatform by means of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) 8 days after tumor implantation. Mice in survival studies were divided into two groups: one comprised untreated mice that received f-Gd3N@C80 alone and the other comprised mice treated with brachytherapy that received 1.11 MBq of 177Lu-DOTA-f-Gd3N@C80. Survival data were evaluated by using Kaplan-Meier statistical methods. Results: MR imaging showed extended tumor retention (25.6% ± 1.2 of the infused dose at 52 days, confirmed with biodistribution studies) of the f-Gd3N@C80 nanoplatform, which enabled longitudinal imaging. Successful coupling of 177Lu to the f-Gd3N@C80 surface was achieved by using a bifunctional macrocyclic chelator. The extended tumor retention allowed for effective brachytherapy, as indicated by extended survival time (>2.5 times that of the untreated group) and histologic signs of radiation-induced tumor damage. Conclusion: The authors have developed a multimodal nanoplatform and have demonstrated longitudinal tumor imaging, prolonged intratumoral probe

  2. Late administration of murine CTLA-4 blockade prolongs CD8-mediated anti-tumor effects following stimulatory cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sckisel, Gail D.; Mirsoian, Annie; Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Tietze, Julia K.; Chen, Mingyi; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated that immunostimulatory therapies such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-CD40 (αCD40) can be combined to deliver synergistic anti-tumor effects. While this strategy has shown success, efficacy varies depending on a number of factors including tumor type and severe toxicities can be seen. We sought to determine whether blockade of negative regulators such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) could simultaneously prolong CD8+ T cell responses and augment T cell anti-tumor effects. We devised a regimen in which anti-CTLA-4 was administered late so as to delay contraction and minimize toxicities. This late administration both enhanced and prolonged CD8 T cell activation without the need for additional IL-2. The quality of the T cell response was improved with increased frequency of effector/effector memory phenotype cells along with improved lytic ability and bystander expansion. This enhanced CD8 response translated to improved anti-tumor responses both at the primary and metastatic sites. Importantly, toxicities were not exacerbated with combination. This study provides a platform for rational design of immunotherapy combinations to maximize anti-tumor immunity while minimizing toxicities. PMID:26423422

  3. The inhibition of Akt-Pdpk1 interaction efficiently suppresses the growth of murine primary liver tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Mäemets-Allas, Kristina; Belitškin, Denis; Jaks, Viljar

    2016-05-20

    The lack of primary liver tumor cells has hampered testing of potential chemotherapeutic agents in vitro. To overcome this issue we developed a primary mouse liver tumor cell line K07074. The K07074 cells were immortal, exhibited a biliary phenotype, formed colonies in soft agar and displayed an increase in Hedgehog, Notch and Akt signaling. To study the effect of single and combined inhibition of the liver tumor-related pathways on the growth of K07074 cells we treated these with small-molecule antitumor agents. While the inhibition of Akt and Notch pathways strongly inhibited the growth of K07074 cells the inhibition of Wnt and Hedgehog pathways was less efficient in cell growth suppression. Interestingly, the inhibition of Akt pathway at the level of Akt-Pdpk1 interaction was sufficient to suppress the growth of tumor cells and no significant additive effect could be detected when co-treated with the inhibitors of Wnt, Hedgehog or Notch pathways. Only when suboptimal doses of Akt-Pdpk1 interaction inhibitor NSC156529 were used an additive effect with Notch inhibition was seen. We conclude that the Akt pathway inhibitor NSC156529 is potentially useful as single treatment for liver tumors with hyperactivated Akt signaling. PMID:27103434

  4. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Aaron E.; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  5. A conserved domain in exon 2 coding for the human and murine ARF tumor suppressor protein is required for autophagy induction

    PubMed Central

    Budina-Kolomets, Anna; Hontz, Robert D; Pimkina, Julia; Murphy, Maureen E

    2013-01-01

    The ARF tumor suppressor, encoded by the CDKN2A gene, has a well-defined role regulating TP53 stability; this activity maps to exon 1β of CDKN2A. In contrast, little is known about the function(s) of exon 2 of ARF, which contains the majority of mutations in human cancer. In addition to controlling TP53 stability, ARF also has a role in the induction of autophagy. However, whether the principal molecule involved is full-length ARF, or a small molecular weight variant called smARF, has been controversial. Additionally, whether tumor-derived mutations in exon 2 of CDKN2A affect ARF’s autophagy function is unknown. Finally, whereas it is known that silencing or inhibiting TP53 induces autophagy, the contribution of ARF to this induction is unknown. In this report we used multiple autophagy assays to map a region located in the highly conserved 5′ end of exon 2 of CDKN2A that is necessary for autophagy induction by both human and murine ARF. We showed that mutations in exon 2 of CDKN2A that affect the coding potential of ARF, but not p16INK4a, all impair the ability of ARF to induce autophagy. We showed that whereas full-length ARF can induce autophagy, our combined data suggest that smARF instead induces mitophagy (selective autophagy of mitochondria), thus potentially resolving some confusion regarding the role of these variants. Finally, we showed that silencing Tp53 induces autophagy in an ARF-dependent manner. Our data indicated that a conserved domain in ARF mediates autophagy, and for the first time they implicate autophagy in ARF’s tumor suppressor function. PMID:23939042

  6. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Daniel L; O'Neil, Richard T; Foster, Aaron E; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  7. CD38-Expressing Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Promote Tumor Growth in a Murine Model of Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Karakasheva, Tatiana A; Waldron, Todd J; Eruslanov, Evgeniy; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; O'Brien, Shaun; Hicks, Philip D; Basu, Devraj; Singhal, Sunil; Malavasi, Fabio; Rustgi, Anil K

    2015-10-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are an immunosuppressive population of immature myeloid cells found in advanced-stage cancer patients and mouse tumor models. Production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase, as well as other suppressive mechanisms, allows MDSCs to suppress T-cell-mediated tumor clearance and foster tumor progression. Using an unbiased global gene expression approach in conditional p120-catenin knockout mice (L2-cre;p120ctn(f/f)), a model of oral-esophageal cancer, we have identified CD38 as playing a vital role in MDSC biology, previously unknown. CD38 belongs to the ADP-ribosyl cyclase family and possesses both ectoenzyme and receptor functions. It has been described to function in lymphoid and early myeloid cell differentiation, cell activation, and neutrophil chemotaxis. We find that CD38 expression in MDSCs is evident in other mouse tumor models of esophageal carcinogenesis, and CD38(high) MDSCs are more immature than MDSCs lacking CD38 expression, suggesting a potential role for CD38 in the maturation halt found in MDSC populations. CD38(high) MDSCs also possess a greater capacity to suppress activated T cells, and promote tumor growth to a greater degree than CD38(low) MDSCs, likely as a result of increased iNOS production. In addition, we have identified novel tumor-derived factors, specifically IL6, IGFBP3, and CXCL16, which induce CD38 expression by MDSCs ex vivo. Finally, we have detected an expansion of CD38(+) MDSCs in peripheral blood of advanced-stage cancer patients and validated targeting CD38 in vivo as a novel approach to cancer therapy. PMID:26294209

  8. Effect of polychromatic visible light on proliferation of tumor cells under conditions in vitro and in vivo—after implantation to experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazev, N. A.; Samoilova, K. A.; Filatova, N. A.; Galaktionova, A. A.

    2009-06-01

    The question of the character of effect of visible and near infrared (IR) radiation of Sun and artificial sources on growth of malignant tumors remains open due to controversy and a relatively small amount of available data, which restricts use of this most important environmental and the efficient physiotherapeutic factors at various human pathological states and first of all at the rehabilitation of oncological patients after radical methods of cancer treatment (surgical removal of tumor, intensive medication and radiation therapy), when immunomodulatory antiinflamatory, wound-healing and analgesic properties of visible and near IR light can be drawn. In the present work, using polychromatic visible light, close to this dominant component of the terrestrial solar radiation (380-750 nm, 40 mW/cm2) we irradiated tumor cells of the murine hepatoma (MH-22a line) under conditions in vitro (the monolayer of cells in Petri dishes) and in vivo (after subcutaneous implantation of these cells to mice of the C3HA line). A high resistance of the MH-22a cells to polychromatic visible radiation has been established under conditions in vitro: irradiation at dose 24 J/cm2 did not inhibit their proliferation whereas a dose of 9.6 J/cm2, stimulated statistically significantly proliferation of the cells (by 24-40%). However, stimulation of the tumor cell proliferation, did not develop under conditions in vivo, when mice were irradiated (9.6 J/cm2)—daily for 5 days before the implantation of tumor cells and for 5 days after implantation (in the latter case there was a probability of transcutaneous irradiation of tumor cells). By implanting to the animals of tumor cells at various concentrations (from 2ṡ105 to 25ṡ103 cells per mouse), we did not revealed at any of 10 terms of observations for 41-45 days both an increase of incidence of the tumor development and acceleration of tumor growth as well as a decrease of the animals survival as compared with group of non

  9. Expression of the tumor suppressor gene, p53, during the development of murine malignant mesotheliomas induced by asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Cora, E.; Kane, A. )

    1991-03-15

    Malignant mesotheliomas are rare tumors arising from the pleural or peritoneal lining after exposure to asbestos fibers. As a model system for human occupational exposure, C57B1/6 mice received weekly intraperitoneal injections of 200 {mu}g of crocidolite asbestos fibers. Tumors developed in 30-40% of mice after 30-60 weeks. Discrete morphologic stages in the development of malignant mesotheliomas have been identified: reactive mesothelial cells after 1-6 wks., dysplastic cells after 12-22 wks., neoplastic cells after 30-40 wks., and metastasizing cells after 40-50 wks. Cell lines have been established corresponding to each of these morphologic stages and probed for altered expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Using Northern blot analysis, four cell lines derived from neoplastic and invasive tumors showed absent or reduced expression of p53 mRNA in contrast to nontumorigenic cell lines derived from reactive mesothelial cells. Southern blot analysis revealed no rearrangement of the p53 gene after digestion with the restriction enzyme BamHI. It is hypothesized that point mutations in the p53 gene are correlated with neoplastic progression in this model system.

  10. MUC1 and survivin combination tumor gene vaccine generates specific immune responses and anti-tumor effects in a murine melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihong; Liu, Chenlu; Zhang, Fangfang; Geng, Fei; Xia, Qiu; Lu, Zhenzhen; Xu, Ping; Xie, Yu; Wu, Hui; Yu, Bin; Wu, Jiaxin; Yu, Xianghui; Kong, Wei

    2016-05-23

    MUC1 and survivin are ideal tumor antigens. Although many cancer vaccines targeting survivin or MUC1 have entered clinical trials, no vaccine combining MUC1 and survivin have been reported. Due to tumor heterogeneity, vaccines containing a combination of antigens may have improved efficacy and coverage of a broader spectrum of cancer targets. Here, cellular responses and anti-tumor activities induced by a combination of DNA vaccine targeting MUC1 and survivin (MS) were evaluated. Results showed that CTL activity and inhibition of tumor growth were obviously enhanced in mice immunized with the combined vaccine in a protection assay. However, in order to enhance the therapeutic effect in the treatment assay, a recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vaccine expressing MUC1 and survivin (Ad-MS) was used as a booster following the DNA vaccine prime. Meanwhile, IL-2 promoting T cell proliferation was used as an immunoadjuvant for the DNA vaccine. Results showed that the CTL activity response to the DNA vaccine was enhanced nearly 200% when boosted by the rAd vaccine and was further enhanced by nearly 60% when combined with the IL-2 adjuvant. Therefore, DNA prime combined with rAd boost and IL-2 (MS/IL2/Ad-MS) adjuvant was considered as the best strategy and further evaluated. Multiple cytokines promoting cellular immune responses were shown to be greatly enhanced in mice immunized with MS/IL2/Ad-MS. Moreover, in the treatment assay, the tumor inhibition rate of MS/IL2/Ad-MS reached up to 50.1%, which may be attributed to the enhancement of immune responses and reduction of immunosuppressive factors in tumor-bearing mice. These results suggested that immunization with the combination vaccine targeting MUC1 and survivin using a DNA prime-rAd boost strategy along with IL-2 adjuvant may be an effective method for breaking through immune tolerance to tumors expressing these antigens with potential therapeutic benefits in melanoma cancer. PMID:27113167